Science.gov

Sample records for gas transmission lines

  1. Gas insulated transmission line having tapered particle trapping ring

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, insulating supports and an insulating gas. A particle-trapping ring is secured to each insulating support, and it is comprised of a central portion and two tapered end portions. The ends of the particle trapping ring have a smaller diameter than the central portion of the ring, so as to enable the use of the particle trapping ring in a curved transmission line.

  2. Corrugated outer sheath gas-insulated transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Kemeny, George A.; Cookson, Alan H.

    1981-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes two transmission line sections each of which are formed of a corrugated outer housing enclosing an inner high-voltage conductor disposed therein, with insulating support means supporting the inner conductor within the outer housing and an insulating gas providing electrical insulation therebetween. The outer housings in each section have smooth end sections at the longitudinal ends thereof which are joined together by joining means which provide for a sealing fixed joint.

  3. High voltage gas insulated transmission line with continuous particle trapping

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.; Dale, Steinar J.

    1983-01-01

    This invention provides a novel high voltage gas insulated transmission line utilizing insulating supports spaced at intervals with snap-in means for supporting a continuous trapping apparatus and said trapping apparatus having perforations and cutouts to facilitate trapping of contaminating particles and system flexibility.

  4. Gas insulated transmission line with insulators having field controlling recesses

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.; Pederson, Bjorn O.

    1984-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line having a novel insulator for supporting an inner conductor concentrically within an outer sheath. The insulator has a recess contiguous with the periphery of one of the outer and inner conductors. The recess is disposed to a depth equal to an optimum gap for the dielectric insulating fluid used for the high voltage insulation or alternately disposed to a large depth so as to reduce the field at the critical conductor/insulator interface.

  5. Gas insulated transmission line having low inductance intercalated sheath

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1978-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line including an outer sheath, an inner conductor disposed within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas between the inner conductor and the outer sheath. The outer sheath comprises an insulating tube having first and second ends, and having interior and exterior surfaces. A first electrically conducting foil is secured to the interior surface of the insulating tube, is spirally wound from one tube end to the second tube end, and has a plurality of overlapping turns. A second electrically conducting foil is secured to the exterior surface of the insulating tube, and is spirally wound in the opposite direction from the first electrically conducting foil. By winding the foils in opposite directions, the inductances within the intercalated sheath will cancel each other out.

  6. INSTRUMENTATION FOR SURVEYING ACOUSTIC SIGNALS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-09-01

    In the U.S. natural gas is distributed through more than one million miles of high-pressure transmission pipelines. If all leaks and infringements could be detected quickly, it would enhance safety and U.S. energy security. Only low frequency acoustic waves appear to be detectable over distances up to 60 km where pipeline shut-off valves provide access to the inside of the pipeline. This paper describes a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) developed to record and identify acoustic signals characteristic of: leaks, pump noise, valve and flow metering noise, third party infringement, manual pipeline water and gas blow-off, etc. This PAMP consists of a stainless steel 1/2 inch NPT plumbing tree rated for use on 1000 psi pipelines. Its instrumentation is designed to measure acoustic waves over the entire frequency range from zero to 16,000 Hz by means of four instruments: (1) microphone, (2) 3-inch water full range differential pressure transducer with 0.1% of range sensitivity, (3) a novel 3 inch to 100 inch water range amplifier, using an accumulator with needle valve and (4) a line-pressure transducer. The weight of the PAMP complete with all accessories is 36 pounds. This includes a remote control battery/switch box assembly on a 25-foot extension chord, a laptop data acquisition computer on a field table and a sun shield.

  7. Particle trap with dielectric barrier for use in gas insulated transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Dale, S.J.

    1982-06-15

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping electrode is disposed within the outer sheath, and the electrode has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the apertured electrode. 7 figs.

  8. Particle trap with dielectric barrier for use in gas insulated transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Dale, Steinar J.

    1982-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping electrode is disposed within the outer sheath, and the electrode has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the apertured electrode.

  9. Hybrid particle traps and conditioning procedure for gas insulated transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Dale, Steinar J.; Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner condor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping ring is disposed within the outer sheath, and the trapping ring has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the trapping ring along an arc. A support sheet having an adhesive coating thereon is secured to the trapping ring and disposed on the outer sheath within the low field region formed between the trapping ring and the outer sheath. A conditioning method used to condition the transmission line prior to activation in service comprises applying an AC voltage to the inner conductor in a plurality of voltage-time steps, with the voltage-time steps increasing in voltage magnitude while decreasing in time duration.

  10. Vertically aligned gas-insulated transmission line having particle traps at the inner conductor

    DOEpatents

    Dale, Steinar J.

    1984-01-01

    Gas insulated electrical apparatus having first and second conductors separated by an insulating support within an insulating gas environment, and particle traps disposed along the surface of the high potential conductor for trapping and inactivating foreign particles which may be present within the insulating gas medium. Several embodiments of the invention were developed which are particularly suited for vertically aligned gas insulated transmission lines. The particle traps are grooves or cavities formed into the walls of the tubular inner conductor, without extending into the hollow portion of the conductor. In other embodiments, the traps are appendages or insert flanges extending from the inner conductor, with the insulator supports contacting the appendages instead of the inner conductor.

  11. Particle trap to sheath contact for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, William H.; Cookson, Alan H.; Yoon, Kue H.

    1984-04-10

    A particle trap to outer elongated conductor or sheath contact for gas-insulated transmission lines. The particle trap to outer sheath contact of the invention is applicable to gas-insulated transmission lines having either corrugated or non-corrugated outer sheaths. The contact of the invention includes an electrical contact disposed on a lever arm which in turn is rotatably disposed on the particle trap and biased in a direction to maintain contact between the electrical contact and the outer sheath.

  12. Flexible gas insulated transmission line having regions of reduced electric field

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.; Fischer, William H.; Yoon, Kue H.; Meyer, Jeffry R.

    1983-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line having radially flexible field control means for reducing the electric field along the periphery of the inner conductor at predetermined locations wherein the support insulators are located. The radially flexible field control means of the invention includes several structural variations of the inner conductor, wherein careful controlling of the length to depth of surface depressions produces regions of reduced electric field. Several embodiments of the invention dispose a flexible connector at the predetermined location along the inner conductor where the surface depressions that control the reduced electric field are located.

  13. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using electric field stress shields

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, A.H.; Dale, S.J.; Bolin, P.C.

    1982-12-28

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements and the stress shields may also be utilized in connection with a plug and socket arrangement for providing electrical connection between main conductor sections. 10 figs.

  14. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using electric field stress shields

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.; Dale, Steinar J.; Bolin, Philip C.

    1982-12-28

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements and the stress shields may also be utilized in connection with a plug and socket arrangement for providing electrical connection between main conductor sections.

  15. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using sandwiched discs for intermittent flexing joints

    DOEpatents

    Kommineni, Prasad R.

    1983-02-15

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by the use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements are formed by sandwiching together, by fusing, a pair of thin hollow discs which are fixedly secured to both the main conductor sections and the conductor hub section.

  16. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using sandwiched discs for intermittent flexing joints

    DOEpatents

    Kommineni, P.R.

    1983-02-15

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by the use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements are formed by sandwiching together, by fusing, a pair of thin hollow discs which are fixedly secured to both the main conductor sections and the conductor hub section. 4 figs.

  17. Conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, William H.; Yoon, Kue H.

    1984-04-10

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed perpendicular to the direction of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly.

  18. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  19. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using protection tube in conductor plug-in joint

    DOEpatents

    Kommineni, Prasad R.

    1983-01-25

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. A plug and socket arrangement is utilized for joining adjacent sections of the inner conductor, and a protection tube is utilized inside the hollow plug to maintain proper alignment of the joint when the transmission line is bent.

  2. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using protection tube in conductor plug-in joint

    DOEpatents

    Kommineni, P.R.

    1983-01-25

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. A plug and socket arrangement is utilized for joining adjacent sections of the inner conductor, and a protection tube is utilized inside the hollow plug to maintain proper alignment of the joint when the transmission line is bent. 3 figs.

  3. Particle trap to sheath non-binding contact for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, William H.

    1984-04-24

    A non-binding particle trap to outer sheath contact for use in gas insulated transmission lines having a corrugated outer conductor. The non-binding feature of the contact according to the teachings of the invention is accomplished by having a lever arm rotatably attached to a particle trap by a pivot support axis disposed parallel to the direction of travel of the inner conductor/insulator/particle trap assembly.

  4. Research and Production of Heavy Pipeline Plate for Submarine Gas Transmission Lines at Shougang Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaopo; Zha, Chunhe; Li, Jiading; Ding, Wenhua

    Strong gas demand pushes the development of submarine gas transmission projects. The production of submarine pipelines demands heavy thickness, high strength, lower temperature toughness, and sour service crack resistance. This paper reports on the experience with the production of linepipe up to 31.8mm in wall thickness grade X70 intended for offshore applications in China. The alloy/processing design along with production parameters are introduced. The achieved mechanical properties in both plate and pipe are reported. Even with this X70 strength level and heavy wall thickness the low temperature fracture toughness achieved was excellent. Drop weight tear testing (DWTT) achieved an average of 94% shear at -15 °C. Evaluation of the heavy gauge X70 sour service performance was performed according to specifications of NACE TM 0284 and DNV-OS-F101 in low pH ( 3) solution A. The results demonstrated that the production had extremely high resistance to HIC and SSCC failure in the testing.

  5. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  6. Automatic transmission line monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, W. E.; Richards, L. O.

    1971-01-01

    Monitor improves complex network reliability in computer data links and command transmission lines. System evaluates circuit performance against preselected criteria, identifies and stores data indicating out-of-tolerance conditions, conducts closed loop testing, and provides for operation under command of digital computer that determines restoration priorities.

  7. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  8. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  9. Drill string transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  10. Non-binding conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, William H.

    1984-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a non-binding transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement and for moving without binding along corrugations of any slope less than vertical. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed parallel to the motion of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly.

  11. Non-binding conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.H.

    1984-04-24

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a non-binding transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement and for moving without binding along corrugations of any slope less than vertical. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed parallel to the motion of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly. 7 figs.

  12. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  13. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  14. Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...14. ABSTRACT A parallel plate nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed. Periodic loading of nonlinear dielectric slabs provides the...846-9101 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line David M. French, Brad W. Hoff

  15. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  16. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... Project (Project) which would include the abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company...

  17. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak...

  18. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak...

  19. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak...

  20. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak...

  1. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.745 Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any emergency...

  2. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  3. Power transmission line monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Seppa, T.O.

    1993-08-17

    A method for monitoring the sag of an overhead power transmission line comprising the steps of: measuring the tension of the power line; producing an electrical signal representative of the tension measurement; processing said electrical signal in accordance with a predetermined tension-sag relationship to produce a second signal which is a function of sag of the power line; transmitting said second electrical signal to a distant location in a predetermined transmission mode; receiving the second signal at the distant location whereby current in the power line is adjusted in accordance with the received second signal.

  4. Load-resistant coaxial transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    A transmission line for downhole tools that make up all or part of a tool string for drilling and production of oil, gas, and geothermal wells that can withstand the dynamic gravitational forces and other accelerations associated with downhole excavations. The transmission line has a metal tube, or outer conductor, that houses a coaxial wire inner conductor. A non-metallic dielectric material is interposed between the inner and outer conductors. The outer and inner conductors and the dielectric are sufficiently compressed together so that independent motion between them is abated. Compression of the components of the transmission line may be achieved by drawing the transmission through one or more dies in order to draw down the outer conductor onto the dielectric, or by expanding the inner conductor against the dielectric using a mandrel or hydraulic pressure. Non-metallic bead segments may be used in aid of the compression necessary to resist the dynamic forces and accelerations of drilling.

  5. Transmission lines emulating moving media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vehmas, J.; Hrabar, S.; Tretyakov, S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we show how the electromagnetic phenomena in moving magnetodielectric media can be emulated using artificial composite structures at rest. In particular, we introduce nonreciprocal periodically loaded transmission lines, which support waves obeying the same rules as plane electromagnetic waves in moving media. Because the actual physical structure is at rest, in these transmission lines there are no fundamental limitations on the velocity values, which may take values larger than the speed of light or even complex values (considering complex amplitudes in the time-harmonic regime). An example circuit of a unit cell of a ‘moving’ transmission line is presented and analyzed both numerically and experimentally. The special case of a composite right-/left- handed host line is also studied numerically. Besides the fundamental interest, the study is relevant for potential applications in realizing engineered materials for various transformations of electromagnetic fields.

  6. 49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Patrolling. 192.705 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.705 Transmission... adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for indications of leaks, construction activity, and...

  7. 49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Patrolling. 192.705 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.705 Transmission... adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for indications of leaks, construction activity, and...

  8. 49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Patrolling. 192.705 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.705 Transmission... adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for indications of leaks, construction activity, and...

  9. 49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Patrolling. 192.705 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.705 Transmission... adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for indications of leaks, construction activity, and...

  10. 49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Patrolling. 192.705 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.705 Transmission... adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for indications of leaks, construction activity, and...

  11. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... line valves must have a blowdown valve with enough capacity to allow the transmission line to be blown down as rapidly as practicable. Each blowdown discharge must be located so the gas can be blown to...

  12. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... line valves must have a blowdown valve with enough capacity to allow the transmission line to be blown down as rapidly as practicable. Each blowdown discharge must be located so the gas can be blown to...

  13. Atlas Transmission Line Breakdown Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    The Atlas facility will use 24 radially converging, vertically oriented and tapered, oil insulated, triplate transmission lines between the Marx ...taper from a height of 1.75 m at the Marx end to 0.32 m at the output end. The aluminum conductors, held together by 20 insulating spacers, are

  14. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1985-08-15

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  15. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  16. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  17. 75 FR 51030 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application August 12, 2010. Take notice that on August 5, 2010, Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe, Suite... Transmission, L.P. (Texas Eastern), approximately 2 miles of 16-inch pipeline on Columbia's Line 1528...

  18. Coaxial tube array space transmission line characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, Colleen A.; Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    The coaxial tube array tether/transmission line used to connect an SP-100 nuclear power system to the space station was characterized over the range of reactor-to-platform separation distances of 1 to 10 km. Characterization was done with respect to array performance, physical dimensions and masses. Using a fixed design procedure, a family of designs was generated for the same power level (300 kWe), power loss (1.5 percent), and meteoroid survival probability (99.5 percent over 10 yr). To differentiate between vacuum insulated and gas insulated lines, two different maximum values of the E field were considered: 20 kV/cm (appropriate to vacuum insulation) and 50 kV/cm (compressed SF6). Core conductor, tube, bumper, standoff, spacer and bumper support dimensions, and masses were also calculated. The results of the characterization show mainly how transmission line size and mass scale with reactor-to-platform separation distance.

  19. Transmission line including support means with barriers

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an elongated outer sheath, a plurality of inner conductors disposed within and extending along the outer sheath, and an insulating gas which electrically insulates the inner conductors from the outer sheath. A support insulator insulatably supports the inner conductors within the outer sheath, with the support insulator comprising a main body portion including a plurality of legs extending to the outer sheath, and barrier portions which extend between the legs. The barrier portions have openings therein adjacent the main body portion through which the inner conductors extend.

  20. 49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall thickness less than that required for...

  1. 49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall thickness less than that required for...

  2. 49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall thickness less than that required for the...

  3. 49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall thickness less than that required for the...

  4. 49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall thickness less than that required for the...

  5. Gas transmission through microporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turel, Tacibaht

    2008-10-01

    An ideal protective clothing material should be a good barrier against harmful gases or vapor while allowing moisture vapor and air passage through the material. In the study and design of barrier materials, one of the critical issues is to balance these requirements, which may sometimes be mutually exclusive. Therefore it is critical to understand the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the attack mechanisms as well as the barrier materials and the transport phenomena in such systems. In this study, air and gas transmission through barrier systems consisting of porous membranes was investigated experimentally and a molecular-level probabilistic model was constructed to evaluate the effect of various parameters on the gas flow. The effect of membrane parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, thickness as well as gas parameters such as molecule diameters were examined at single layer as well as multiple layers. To understand the gas behavior for harmful chemicals and to ensure safety during experimental studies, mimics of such gases were obtained which were comparable to the actual gases in shape, molecular weight and other chemical properties. Air, ammonia and several mimic gases of harmful chemical agents were studied. Beta-pinene was used as a mimic of sarin and prenol was used as a mimic of nitrogen mustard. Gas transmission experiments were conducted on polyester, nylon and polypropylene membranes each of which had different porosity and pore size distributions. Experiments were done at different pressure values and a comparison was made between permeability testing machines based on volumetric and manometric principles as to their ability to accommodate high permeability membranes. Physical and chemical adsorption of such gases on porous membranes was also investigated after the addition of active elements on the membrane surfaces which can interact with the gas molecules. An experimental setup was developed to measure concentration changes

  6. Gas line construction in frigid Canadian winter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Construction of a 128-mile, 42-in. gas transmission line through Precambrian rock formations in the Canadian shield proved difficult for contractors on TransCanada Pipeline's expansion program. Multiple construction problems included severe cold weather (-40/sup 0/F), a right-of-way sited midway between two live natural gas lines, and a system installed in eight different loops stretching almost 500 miles from one and to the other.

  7. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  8. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, Larry D.; Ballard, William P.; Clark, M. Collins; Marder, Barry M.

    1988-01-01

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  9. Fractional Transmission Line with Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Aguilar, José Francisco; Dumitru, Baleanu

    2014-11-01

    In this manuscript, the fractional transmission line with losses is presented. The order of the Caputo derivative is considered as 0 < β ≤ 1 and 0 < γ ≤ 1 for the fractional equation in space and time domain, respectively. Two cases are solved, with fractional spatial and fractional temporal derivatives, and also numerical simulations were carried out, where there are taken both derivatives in simultaneous form. Two parameters σx and σt are introduced and a physical relation between these parameters is reported. Solutions in space and time are given in terms of the Mittag-Leffler functions. The classic cases are recovered when β and γ are equal to 1.

  10. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  11. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  12. Coding for Single-Line Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madison, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    Digital transmission code combines data and clock signals into single waveform. MADCODE needs four standard integrated circuits in generator and converter plus five small discrete components. MADCODE allows simple coding and decoding for transmission of digital signals over single line.

  13. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  14. RF Transmission Lines on Silicon Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    A review of RF transmission lines on silicon substrates is presented. Through measurements and calculated results, it is shown that attenuation is dominated by conductor loss if silicon substrates with a resistivity greater than 2500 Ohm-cm are used. Si passivation layers affect the transmission line attenuation; however, measured results demonstrate that passivation layers do not necessarily increase attenuation. If standard, low resistivity Si wafers must be used, alternative transmission lines such as thin film microstrip and Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) on thick polyimide layers must be used. Measured results presented here show that low loss per unit length is achievable with these transmission lines.

  15. Detonator comprising a nonlinear transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-12-30

    Detonators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the detonator includes a nonlinear transmission line that has a variable capacitance. Capacitance of the nonlinear transmission line is a function of voltage on the nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear transmission line receives a voltage pulse from a voltage source and compresses the voltage pulse to generate a trigger signal. Compressing the voltage pulse includes increasing amplitude of the voltage pulse and decreasing length of the voltage pulse in time. An igniter receives the trigger signal and detonates an explosive responsive to receipt of the trigger signal.

  16. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941, the...

  17. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941, the...

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Transmission Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Transmission Lines by Frank Crowne ARL -TR-5062 January 2010...longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL -TR-5062 January 2010 Modeling...and Simulation of Nonlinear Transmission Lines Frank Crowne Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL

  19. Investigation of a stripline transmission line structure for gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave sources

    SciTech Connect

    Reale, D. V. Parson, J. M.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J.

    2016-03-15

    A stripline gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed out of yttrium iron garnet ferrite and tested at charge voltages of 35 kV–55 kV with bias fields ranging from 10 kA/m to 20 kA/m. Typically, high power gyromagnetic NLTLs are constructed in a coaxial geometry. While this approach has many advantages, including a uniform transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode, simple interconnection between components, and the ability to use oil or pressurized gas as an insulator, the coaxial implementation suffers from complexity of construction, especially when using a solid insulator. By moving to a simpler transmission line geometry, NLTLs can be constructed more easily and arrayed on a single substrate. This work represents a first step in exploring the suitability of various transmission line structures, such as microstrips and coplanar waveguides. The resulting high power microwave (HPM) source operates in ultra high frequency (UHF) band with an average bandwidth of 40.1% and peak rf power from 2 MW to 12.7 MW.

  20. Investigation of a stripline transmission line structure for gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave sources.

    PubMed

    Reale, D V; Parson, J M; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2016-03-01

    A stripline gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed out of yttrium iron garnet ferrite and tested at charge voltages of 35 kV-55 kV with bias fields ranging from 10 kA/m to 20 kA/m. Typically, high power gyromagnetic NLTLs are constructed in a coaxial geometry. While this approach has many advantages, including a uniform transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode, simple interconnection between components, and the ability to use oil or pressurized gas as an insulator, the coaxial implementation suffers from complexity of construction, especially when using a solid insulator. By moving to a simpler transmission line geometry, NLTLs can be constructed more easily and arrayed on a single substrate. This work represents a first step in exploring the suitability of various transmission line structures, such as microstrips and coplanar waveguides. The resulting high power microwave (HPM) source operates in ultra high frequency (UHF) band with an average bandwidth of 40.1% and peak rf power from 2 MW to 12.7 MW.

  1. Investigation of a stripline transmission line structure for gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reale, D. V.; Parson, J. M.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J.

    2016-03-01

    A stripline gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed out of yttrium iron garnet ferrite and tested at charge voltages of 35 kV-55 kV with bias fields ranging from 10 kA/m to 20 kA/m. Typically, high power gyromagnetic NLTLs are constructed in a coaxial geometry. While this approach has many advantages, including a uniform transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode, simple interconnection between components, and the ability to use oil or pressurized gas as an insulator, the coaxial implementation suffers from complexity of construction, especially when using a solid insulator. By moving to a simpler transmission line geometry, NLTLs can be constructed more easily and arrayed on a single substrate. This work represents a first step in exploring the suitability of various transmission line structures, such as microstrips and coplanar waveguides. The resulting high power microwave (HPM) source operates in ultra high frequency (UHF) band with an average bandwidth of 40.1% and peak rf power from 2 MW to 12.7 MW.

  2. Single transmission line data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

  3. Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  4. Electrostatic Unbalances of Transmission Lines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    RD-A±68 742 ELECTROSTATIC UMBALANCES OF TEMNISSION LINES(U) AIR 1V2 FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHNT-PATTERSON AFD OH J NOUIKOWSKI AUG 85 AFIT/CI/ NR -BS...CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADORESS 12. REPORT DATE AFIT/ NR 1985 WPAFB OH 45433 - 6583 1i. NUMBER OF PAGES ___102 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS...return it to: AF IT/ NR Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433 RESEARCH TITLE: Electrostatic Unbalances oJCTransmission Lines *AUTHOR: Jioseph Nowikowski

  5. 77 FR 55207 - Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 16, 2012, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC (FGT... to resolve direct conflicts with the Florida Department of Transportation's construction of a...

  6. Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishac, M.F.; White, H.B.

    1995-01-01

    Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

  7. Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishac, M.F.; White, H.B.

    1994-12-31

    Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

  8. Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P Gentle

    2012-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

  9. Conceptual design for transmission line inspection robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalal, M. F. Abdul; Sahari, K. S. Mohamed; Anuar, A.; Mohd Arshad, A. D.; Idris, M. S.

    2013-06-01

    Power transmission line is used for power distribution purposes due to their cost effective measure compared to underlying cable. However, prolonged exposure to natural weather may cause fatigue stress to the lines as well as induce material failure. Therefore, periodical line inspection is considered uttermost important as a preventive measure to avoid power outage. However, transmission line inspection has always been a high risk and expensive work. Hazardous works that may harm operator as well as routine that requires precise handling can be performed by robots. Various types of robots have been designed and developed for line inspection but only perform well on a straight and continuous line. As these robots encounter an obstacle during the inspection, then the real problem in terms of robot stability and smooth operation arises. In this paper, conceptual design and evaluation for transmission line inspection robot is presented. The inspection robot mobile robot must be able to bypass or avoid obstacles as it travels along the power transmission line.

  10. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2017-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  11. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2016-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  12. Low-noise cryogenic transmission line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, D.

    1987-01-01

    New low-noise cryogenic input transmission lines have been developed for the Deep Space Network (DSN) at 1.668 GHz for cryogenically cooled Field Effect Transistors (FET) and High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) amplifiers. These amplifiers exhibit very low noise temperatures of 5 K to 15 K, making the requirements for a low-noise input transmission line critical. Noise contribution to the total amplifier system from the low-noise line is less than 0.5 K for both the 1.668-GHz and 2.25-GHz FET systems. The 1.668-GHz input line was installed in six FET systems which were implemented in the DSN for the Venus Balloon Experiment. The 2.25-GHz input line has been implemented in three FET systems for the DSN 34-m HEF antennas, and the design is currently being considered for use at higher frequencies.

  13. Transmission Characteristics Simulation on Power Line Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitayama, Masashi; Nakabayashi, Miyuki; Abe, Junichi; Tanabe, Shinji

    In Power Line Communication (PLC) systems, medium and low voltage power distribution lines are used as a communication network. However, since no consideration is given to signal transmission characteristics in the high frequency used for PLC systems, reflections caused by impedance mismatches deteriorate transmission characteristics. If channel characteristics of power lines can be estimated by simulation, it will be efficient for the design and the operation of PLC networks. This paper proposes a method to estimate transmission characteristics of a channel model between a transmitter and a receiver installed on a distribution network. Propagation characteristics of PLC signals at each distribution facility is described using two port networks. A channel model is automatically generated from the combination of component models along the topology of distribution network and the locations of a transmitter and a receiver. The proposed method was validated using measurement data of a test distribution network and was proved to be effective.

  14. Robust hyperchaotic synchronization via analog transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoudi, S.; Tanougast, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel experimental chaotic synchronization technique via analog transmission is discussed. We demonstrate through Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation design the robust synchronization of two embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generators interconnected with an analog transmission line. The basic idea of this work consists in combining a numerical generation of chaos and transmitting it with an analog signal. The numerical chaos allows to overcome the callback parameter mismatch problem and the analog transmission offers robust data security. As application, this technique can be applied to all families of chaotic systems including time-delayed chaotic systems.

  15. Flux cloning in Josephson transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Gulevich, D R; Kusmartsev, F V

    2006-07-07

    We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The "baby" vortex arises at the moment when a "mother" vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect.

  16. EC Transmission Line Risk Identification and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to assist in evaluating and planning for the cost, schedule, and technical project risks associated with the delivery and operation of the EC (Electron cyclotron) transmission line system. In general, the major risks that are anticipated to be encountered during the project delivery phase associated with the implementation of the Procurement Arrangement for the EC transmission line system are associated with: (1) Undefined or changing requirements (e.g., functional or regulatory requirements) (2) Underperformance of prototype, first unit, or production components during testing (3) Unavailability of qualified vendors for critical components Technical risks associated with the design and operation of the system are also identified.

  17. Flux Cloning in Josephson Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gulevich, D.R.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2006-07-07

    We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The 'baby' vortex arises at the moment when a 'mother' vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect.

  18. 76 FR 5796 - Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation; Notice of Application January 26, 2011. Take notice that on January 14, 2011, Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation (GTN), 717 Texas..., Manager, Project Determinations & Regulatory Administration, Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation,...

  19. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations...

  20. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations...

  1. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations...

  2. Stabilizing Fiber-Optic Transmission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G. F.; Lau, K. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Voltage-controlled optical phase shifter is key. Optical phase shifter stabilizes propagation delay of fiber-optic transmission line by compensating for temperature and pressure effects. Applicable to phased array antenna systems and very-long-baseline interferometer distribution systems.

  3. 60 GHz Tapered Transmission Line Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-15

    DARPA TEAM program (contract no. DAAB07-02-1- L428 ), Motorola, and the UC-Micro program. 60 GHz Tapered Transmission Line Resonators by...0403427, wafer fabrication donation by STMicroelectronics, DARPA TEAM program (con- tract no. DAAB07-02-1- L428 ), Motorola, and the UC-Micro program. 1

  4. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not exceeding 15 months, but at least once each calendar year. However, in the case of a transmission line...

  5. Transmission line environmental assessment guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.; Pentecost, E.; Muzzarelli, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1939, U.S. utility companies have been required to obtain a Presidential Permit to construct electric transmission lines that cross a U.S. border and connect with a foreign utility. The purpose of this document is to provide Presidential Permit applicants with two types of guidance: (1) on the type of environmental and project descriptive information needed to assess the potential impacts of the proposed and alternative actions and (2) on compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. The main three chapters present information on the purpose and content of this document (Chapter 1); legislative, regulatory, and consultation requirements for transmission line interconnect projects (Chapter 2); and identification of basic transmission system design parameters and environmental data requirements for analysis of potential impacts of the proposed action (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 also includes information on possible techniques or measures to mitigate impacts. Appendix A presents an overview of NEPA requirements and DOE`s implementing procedures. Appendix B summarizes information on legislation that may be applicable to transmission line projects proposed in Presidential Permit applications.

  6. 75 FR 26224 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Wood County, Ohio, and extends from Columbia's Line D-100 to Waterville Gas & Oil Company's (Waterville... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization May 4, 2010. Take notice that on April 22, 2010, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151...

  7. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract... substation and transmission line construction (including minor modifications or improvements), exclusive...

  8. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract... substation and transmission line construction (including minor modifications or improvements), exclusive...

  9. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract... substation and transmission line construction (including minor modifications or improvements), exclusive...

  10. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract... substation and transmission line construction (including minor modifications or improvements), exclusive...

  11. Transmission line analysis of noncylindrical birdcage resonators.

    PubMed

    Vullo, T; Pascone, R; Mancuso, R; Zipagan, R; Cahill, P T

    1994-01-01

    Transmission line theory, validated for the standard cylindrical birdcage coil, has been employed for the analysis of a rectangular birdcage resonator which is useful for MR imaging of the hand. Due to lack of cylindrical symmetry in the rectangular coil, RF field uniformity was evaluated and found to be critically dependent upon the choice of column from which the coil was linearly driven. Effective L1 and L2 inductance elements were determined using known formulas for self and mutual inductance contributions, and compensation of the different inductance elements of the hand coil was performed to produce cylindrically symmetric birdcage current patterns. RF field mapping using the Biot-Savart law demonstrated a rectangular coil sensitivity 22% greater than a comparable cylindrical version. MR hand and wrist images were acquired using the rectangular birdcage coil. In addition, transmission line analysis was extended to other noncylindrical birdcage geometries.

  12. Application of composite insulators to transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, E.A.; Brown, R.L.; Karady, G.; Nicholls, J.L.; Orbeck, T.; Pargamin, L.

    1983-05-01

    The paper provides guidelines for the application of composite insulators to transmission lines. These guidelines are based on utility field experiences, results of research laboratory tests and manufacturers' recommendations. Discussed are interchangeability with porcelain and glass insulators, application in contaminated environments, material ageing, insulator icing, the use of grease, resistance to vandalism, temperature extremes, and the need for grading rings. Clarification is provided on the mechanical rating of composite insulators because there is not yet general agreement by various industry groups.

  13. ULTRA HIGH POWER TRANSMISSION LINE TECHNIQUES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The ultra-high power transmission line techniques including both failure mechanisms and component design are discussed. Failures resulting from...a waveguide. In view of the many advantages of the low loss mode in circular waveguide for ultra-high power levels, a mode transducer and a two...percent of the peak power of a standard rectangular wave guide. Water cooling is provided for high average power operation. Analysis of mode sup pression

  14. Application of lightning arrester on transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, K.

    1990-05-01

    A lightning arrester on transmission lines is expected to reduce lightning incidents; however, the problems of the application guide to be established such as the method of application, the treating capacity for lightning energy, and the coordination to an arc horn remain as they are. The method of application for a lightning arrester on transmission lines and its effect are examined from the viewpoint of the generating incident on transmission lines by lightning and the operating viewpoint of a lightning arrester for a 77kV system. The double circuit setup of an arrester is the best method to reduce the lightning incidents and the single circuit setup can reduce the incident rate by 40 percent preventing the flashover of the circuit on which the arrester is not set up. For installing an arrester on a short section, the flashover point can transfer to the next steel tower where the arrester is not set up, only when lightning strikes the last steel tower. Inflowing current into an arrester from a direct lightning strike is considerably large and the energy at that time becomes large but this energy can be reduced by the operation of the arrester set up on another steel tower.

  15. Gas storage and transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Creed, M.R.; Gilmour, R.B.

    1982-02-16

    According to this scheme, associated gas that has been liquefied on an offshore platform or barge and transported under pressure (to reduce cooling requirements) could be received by a land terminal for storage under atmospheric pressure and subsequent vaporization. The pressurized LNG, having a temperature above its ambient-pressure bubble point, passes from the carrier through a heat exchanger where it cools to its ambient-pressure liquefaction temperature; it then flows through a pressure-reduction valve before entering the storage tank. Meanwhile, LNG from the storage tank is pumped up to pipeline pressure and passed through a second heat exchanger for warming before entering the baseload vaporizer. A nitrogen refrigerant circuit acts as the heat-exchange medium between the two exchangers.

  16. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... of Application March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company... other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental...

  17. Dispersion-free radial transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA

    2011-04-12

    A dispersion-free radial transmission line ("DFRTL") preferably for linear accelerators, having two plane conductors each with a central hole, and an electromagnetically permeable material ("EPM") between the two conductors and surrounding a channel connecting the two holes. At least one of the material parameters of relative magnetic permeability, relative dielectric permittivity, and axial width of the EPM is varied as a function of radius, so that the characteristic impedance of the DFRTL is held substantially constant, and pulse transmission therethrough is substantially dispersion-free. Preferably, the EPM is divided into concentric radial sections, with the varied material parameters held constant in each respective section but stepwise varied between sections as a step function of the radius. The radial widths of the concentric sections are selected so that pulse traversal time across each section is the same, and the varied material parameters of the concentric sections are selected to minimize traversal error.

  18. View facing north, Structure 162 in foreground, as Transmission Line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing north, Structure 16-2 in foreground, as Transmission Line turns at intersection of Powerline Road and US 87 - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  19. View facing south, near Structure 515, of Transmission Line rising ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing south, near Structure 51-5, of Transmission Line rising out of Marias River Valley - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  20. 3. DETAIL, LIGHTNING ARRESTER ON SAR TRANSMISSION LINE. EEC print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL, LIGHTNING ARRESTER ON SAR TRANSMISSION LINE. EEC print no. S-C-01-00478, no date. Photographer unknown. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Transmission Lines, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Transmission line icing measurement on photogrammetry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Ma, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lijin; Du, Hao; Luo, Hong; Mao, Xianyin; Tang, Min; Liu, Yawen

    2015-12-01

    Icing thickness parameter is the basic data for power sector to make decision for icing accident prevention. In this paper, a transmission line icing measurement method is proposed. It used the photogrammetry method to realize icing parameters measurement through the integration of high resolution camera, laser range finder and inertial measurement unit. Compared with traditional icing measurement method, this method is flexible and is the effective supplement of the fixed icing detection terminal. And its high accuracy measurement guarantees the reliability of the icing thickness parameters.

  2. Multi-transmission-line-beam interactive system

    SciTech Connect

    Figotin, Alexander; Reyes, Guillermo

    2013-11-15

    We construct here a Lagrangian field formulation for a system consisting of an electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure modeled by a possibly non-uniform multiple transmission line (MTL). In the case of a single line we recover the linear model of a traveling wave tube due to J. R. Pierce. Since a properly chosen MTL can approximate a real waveguide structure with any desired accuracy, the proposed model can be used in particular for design optimization. Furthermore, the Lagrangian formulation provides: (i) a clear identification of the mathematical source of amplification, (ii) exact expressions for the conserved energy and its flux distributions obtained from the Noether theorem. In the case of uniform MTLs we carry out an exhaustive analysis of eigenmodes and find sharp conditions on the parameters of the system to provide for amplifying regimes.

  3. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines

    PubMed Central

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2014-01-01

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry and in emerging technologies involving, e.g., microelectromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension, we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line. PMID:25002503

  4. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2015-03-01

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, namely, the van der Waals (vdW) and Casimir interactions. Here we show that these fundamental interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum photon-modes. We consider two dipoles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line and find analytically that the interaction scales non-trivially with the inter-dipolar distance, resulting in a strong and long-range interaction. This may have profound implications on the non-additivity of vdW and Casimir interactions in many-particle systems, and opens the door for Casimir Physics in 1d. We discuss the possibilities of measuring this effect, e.g. in a coplanar waveguide line. In January 2015, my affiliation is supposed to change to ``Department of Physics, Harvard University.''

  5. SMILE transmission line adder for RADLAC II

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Shope, S.L.; Frost, C.A.; Turman, B.N.; Ramirez, J.J.; Prestwich, K.R.; Pankuch, P.J.

    1991-12-31

    SMILE is a coaxial Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line voltage adder. It replaces the original beam line of the RADLAC II accelerator by a 12.5 m long cathode electrode. The anode electrode remains practically the same, consisting of the original eight insulating stacks or feeds which are connected with equal diameter stainless steel cylinders. The beam is produced at the end of the accelerator and is free of all the possible instabilities associated with accelerating gaps and magnetic vacuum transport. Annular beams with {beta}{perpendicular} {le} 0.1 and radius r{sub b} {le} 1 cm were routinely obtained and extracted from a small magnetically-immersed foilless electron diode. Results of the experimental evaluation are presented and compared with design parameters and numerical simulation predictions. 4 refs.

  6. SMILE transmission line adder for RADLAC II

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Shope, S.L.; Frost, C.A.; Turman, B.N.; Ramirez, J.J.; Prestwich, K.R. ); Pankuch, P.J. . Special Projects)

    1991-01-01

    SMILE is a coaxial Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line voltage adder. It replaces the original beam line of the RADLAC II accelerator by a 12.5 m long cathode electrode. The anode electrode remains practically the same, consisting of the original eight insulating stacks or feeds which are connected with equal diameter stainless steel cylinders. The beam is produced at the end of the accelerator and is free of all the possible instabilities associated with accelerating gaps and magnetic vacuum transport. Annular beams with {beta}{perpendicular} {le} 0.1 and radius r{sub b} {le} 1 cm were routinely obtained and extracted from a small magnetically-immersed foilless electron diode. Results of the experimental evaluation are presented and compared with design parameters and numerical simulation predictions. 4 refs.

  7. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission line valves. 192.179 Section 192.179... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.179 Transmission line valves. (a) Each transmission line, other than offshore segments, must have sectionalizing...

  8. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  9. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  10. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745 Section 192.745 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any...

  11. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  12. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745 Section 192.745 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any...

  13. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  14. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission line valves. 192.179 Section 192.179... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.179 Transmission line valves. (a) Each transmission line, other than offshore segments, must have sectionalizing...

  15. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745 Section 192.745 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any...

  16. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745 Section 192.745 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any...

  17. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644... Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus... power transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  18. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644... Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus... power transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  19. Microstrip transmission line tapers on ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Albuquerque, M.R.; dAssuncao, A.G.; Lima, F.

    1997-04-01

    The spectral domain approach is employed to perform a theoretical investigation of tapered microstrip lines on magnetized ferrite substrates. A linear variation of the conducting strip width along the direction of propagation is considered. The analysis takes into account the effects of the applied dc magnetic bias field in the transmission characteristics of these structures. The properties of the taper are determined by a model based on a segmentation of the considered line into uniform microstrip line subsections. Normalized phase constants and characteristic impedances are obtained by using the Hertz vector potentials method and Galerkin numerical technique. Numerical results are presented to show the taper input parameters as a function of the load impedance, geometrical dimensions, operating frequency, and ferrite parameters, considering the orientation and magnitude changes of the biasing magnetic-field {bold H}{sub 0}. The results agree fairly well with those available in the literature for tapered microstrip lines on isotropic dielectric substrates. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. A radial transmission line material measurement apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, L.K.; Moyer, R.D.; Koontz, T.E.; Morris, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radial transmission line material measurement sample apparatus (sample holder, offset short standards, measurement software, and instrumentation) is described which has been proposed, analyzed, designed, constructed, and tested. The purpose of the apparatus is to obtain accurate surface impedance measurements of lossy, possibly anisotropic, samples at low and intermediate frequencies (vhf and low uhf). The samples typically take the form of sections of the material coatings on conducting objects. Such measurements thus provide the key input data for predictive numerical scattering codes. Prediction of the sample surface impedance from the coaxial input impedance measurement is carried out by two techniques. The first is an analytical model for the coaxial-to-radial transmission line junction. The second is an empirical determination of the bilinear transformation model of the junction by the measurement of three full standards. The standards take the form of three offset shorts (and an additional lossy Salisbury load), which have also been constructed. The accuracy achievable with the device appears to be near one percent.

  1. Modeling Transmission Line Networks Using Quantum Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Trystan; Antonsen, Thomas

    Quantum graphs--one dimensional edges, connecting nodes, that support propagating Schrödinger wavefunctions--have been studied extensively as tractable models of wave chaotic behavior (Smilansky and Gnutzmann 2006, Berkolaiko and Kuchment 2013). Here we consider the electrical analog, in which the graph represents an electrical network where the edges are transmission lines (Hul et. al. 2004) and the nodes contain either discrete circuit elements or intricate circuit elements best represented by arbitrary scattering matrices. Including these extra degrees of freedom at the nodes leads to phenomena that do not arise in simpler graph models. We investigate the properties of eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions on these graphs, and relate these to the statistical description of voltages on the transmission lines when driving the network externally. The study of electromagnetic compatibility, the effect of external radiation on complicated systems with numerous interconnected cables, motivates our research into this extension of the graph model. Work supported by the Office of Naval Research (N0014130474) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  2. Method for bonding a transmission line to a downhole tool

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2007-11-06

    An apparatus for bonding a transmission line to the central bore of a downhole tool includes a pre-formed interface for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. The pre-formed interface includes a first surface that substantially conforms to the outside contour of a transmission line and a second surface that substantially conforms to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. In another aspect of the invention, a method for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool includes positioning a transmission line near the inside wall of a downhole tool and placing a mold near the transmission line and the inside wall. The method further includes injecting a bonding material into the mold and curing the bonding material such that the bonding material bonds the transmission line to the inside wall.

  3. Electrical characteristics of sea-water-return transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholson, N.; Swenson, R.; Alexander, C.

    1982-08-01

    An experiment was conducted at sea to determine characteristics of three single copper conductor transmission lines. All three transmission lines incorporated seawater as an electrical return path and graphite shielding of various constructions in an attempt to achieve desirable characteristics of coaxial transmission lines. The transmission lines were 20,000 feet long, 0.1 inches in diameter, and used braided Kevlar at a strength member. The primary problem addresses was measuring low frequency (<20kHz) attenuation and phase shift of the transmission lines as a function of configuration in the water column and as a function of graphite shield construction. Results show that transmission line electrical characteristics as much better when the line is fully payed out as opposed to part of the line being coiled.

  4. Transmission line matrix model for ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocan, Razvan; Ida, Nathan; Driscoll, Diana

    2002-06-01

    A transmission-line matrix (TLM) model was developed to simulate the ultrasound propagation in the multi-layer structures. The spatial resolution of the proposed model is better than tenth wavelength. The numerical modeling is carried-out for frequencies that are usually used in ultrasound imagery (3.5 - 25MHz). The acoustic impedance profile of multi-layer structures considered are similar to those found in nondestructive evaluation and in medical imaging. The structures modeled are: brazed joints, stomach and colon walls. Structures with artificial flaws are also modeled. A comparison between real images and numerical generated ones is provided for each considered structure. Both frequency and time domain responses are obtained from the structures under investigation. Both single and array transducer techniques are modeled and their performances are evaluated for the proposed structures. Different shapes for the incident pulse are considered in numerically generated images.

  5. A tunable magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yu-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Yu; He, Liang; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Zhang, Jian-De

    2015-03-01

    A tunable magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is put forward and simulated. When the MILO is driven by a 430 kV, 40.6 kA electron beam, high-power microwave is generated with a peak output power of 3.0 GW and frequency of 1.51 GHz, and the relevant power conversion efficiency is 17.2%. The 3-dB tunable frequency range (the relative output power is above half of the peak output power) is 2.25-0.825 GHz when the outer radius of the slow-wave structure (SWS) vanes ranges from 77 mm to 155 mm, and the 3-dB tuning bandwidth is 92%, which is sufficient for the aim of large-scale tuning and high power output. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11075210) and the Special Financial Grant from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 201104761).

  6. Complex magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Yuwei; Zhong Huihuang; Shu Ting; Li Zhiqiang

    2008-08-15

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is a crossed-field device designed specifically to generate microwave power at the gigawatt level, which is a major hotspot in the field of high-power microwaves (HPM) research at present. It is one of the major thrust for MILO development to improve the power conversion efficiency. In order to improve the power conversion efficiency of MILO, a complex MILO is presented and investigated theoretically and numerically, which comprises the MILO-1 and MILO-2. The MILO-2 is used as the load of the MILO-1. The theoretical analyses show that the maximum power conversion efficiency of the complex MILO has an increase of about 50% over the conventional load-limited MILO. The complex MILO is optimized with KARAT code (V. P. Tarakanov, Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., 1992), and the simulation results agree with the theoretical results.

  7. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver

    SciTech Connect

    French, David M.; Hoff, Brad W.; Tang Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Shiffler, Don; Allen-Flowers, Jordan

    2012-12-15

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique.

  8. Africa planned gas lines will meet future demand

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The burgeoning European market for natural gas is expected to create major gas line construction. The potential for North Africa looks particularly promising in 1991. Italy's ENI has proposed a 6,000-km (3,728-mi) gas network in North Africa to connect gas-rich Libya and Algeria with Morocco and Mauritania, making large volumes available to the European market. According to the proposal, a gas line would run from the Sirte Basin in Libya west to Mauritania. Extending the line eastward through Egypt and on to the Arabian Peninsula would provide export access. In this paper initial studies are examine reserve projections for the next 20 years, then based on results, a transmission/distribution network will be designed, including an offshore gathering system.

  9. Nanostructure Sensing and Transmission of Gas Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A system for receiving, analyzing and communicating results of sensing chemical and/or physical parameter values, using wireless transmission of the data. Presence or absence of one or more of a group of selected chemicals in a gas or vapor is determined, using suitably functionalized carbon nanostructures that are exposed to the gas. One or more physical parameter values, such as temperature, vapor pressure, relative humidity and distance from a reference location, are also sensed for the gas, using nanostructures and/or microstructures. All parameter values are transmitted wirelessly to a data processing site or to a control site, using an interleaving pattern for data received from different sensor groups, using I.E.E.E. 802.11 or 802.15 protocol, for example. Methods for estimating chemical concentration are discussed.

  10. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... Rulemaking (ANPRM) titled: ``Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines'' seeking comments on the need for changes to the regulations covering gas transmission pipelines. PHMSA has received requests to extend the...

  11. 75 FR 6371 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application February 2, 2010. Take notice that on January 20, 2010, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe, Suite 2500..., Fredric J. George, Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston,...

  12. 78 FR 69845 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 1, 2013, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 1700 MacCorkle Avenue SE., Charleston, West... Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston, West Virginia 25325-1273 or at (304) 357-2359...

  13. 75 FR 57012 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application September 9, 2010. Take notice that on August 26, 2010, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 1700 MacCorkle Avenue... Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston, West Virginia 25325-1273;...

  14. 77 FR 66825 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 22, 2012, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC. (Columbia) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory... application should be directed to Michael Walker, Manager, FERC Certificates, Columbia Gas Transmission,...

  15. 76 FR 36526 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 20, 2011, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), filed an application pursuant to section 7(c..., Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston, West Virginia 25325-1273; telephone...

  16. 78 FR 76603 - Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 26, 2013, Enable Gas Transmission, LLC (Enable) 1111 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed... Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 21734 Shreveport, LA 71151 at (318) 429- 3708. Specifically,...

  17. 77 FR 48132 - Gas Transmission Northwest, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gas Transmission Northwest, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 31, 2012, Gas Transmission Northwest, LLC (GTN), filed in Docket No. CP12-494-000, an application... directed to Mr. Richard Parke, Manager, Certificates, Gas Transmission Northwest, LLC, 717 Texas...

  18. 78 FR 33399 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 10, 2013, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC. (Columbia) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory..., Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston, West Virginia, 25325-1273,...

  19. 76 FR 28967 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 11, 2011, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe, Suite 2500, Houston, Texas..., Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation, PO Box 1273, Charleston, West Virginia 25325 at (304) 357- 2359...

  20. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract...

  1. 49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192.709 Section 192.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each operator shall maintain the following records for transmission...

  2. 49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192.709 Section 192.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each operator shall maintain the following records for transmission...

  3. 49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192.709 Section 192.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each operator shall maintain the following records for transmission...

  4. 49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192.709 Section 192.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each operator shall maintain the following records for transmission...

  5. 78 FR 58303 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... sections 157.205 and 157.216(b) of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended, requesting authorization to abandon five underperforming natural gas storage wells, the associated well lines... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under...

  6. U. S. transmission lines moving to comply with 636

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that interstate gas pipelines continue taking steps to comply with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Order 636. Implementation of the order, as currently written, would mean increased administrative chores for U.S. transmission lines. In the latest announcements: Algonquin Gas Transmission Co. (AGT), Boston, became the second interstate pipeline company to submit an Order 636 compliance filing. Implementation of the filing, expected Nov. 1, would unbundle AGT's sales and storage services at upstream system receipt points. The filing outlines new services, operating conditions, and rates AGT plans to offer customers under 636. FERC approved anew services settlement pending since March 1991, enabling Northern Natural Gas Co., Omaha, to take a step toward unbundling system services and enhancing equal access for all suppliers. FERC approved the settlement with minor changes for a interim period while Northern finishes its 636 restructuring proposal. The company will accept the modified settlement as an interim step but ask FERC to reconsider some of the changes.

  7. Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241-mile transmission corridor extending between the Big Creek Hydroelectric System in the Sierra National Forest in Fresno County and the Eagle Rock Substation in Los Angeles, California, Visalia, Tulare County, CA

  8. 75 FR 61461 - Texas Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application September 28, 2010. Take notice that on September 22, 2010, Texas Gas Transmission, LLC (Texas Gas), 3800 Frederica Street... Act and Part 157 of the Commission's Regulations. Specifically, Texas Gas requests authorization to...

  9. 78 FR 26340 - Texas Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 15, 2013, Texas Gas Transmission, LLC (Texas Gas), 9 Greenway Plaza, Suite 2800, Houston, Texas 77046... Apache Corporation. Texas Gas also request authorization that the facilities, upon abandonment, will be...

  10. 78 FR 36178 - Texas Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice Of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice Of Application Take notice that on May 29, 2013, Texas Gas Transmission, LLC (Texas Gas), 9 Greenway Plaza, Suite 2800, Houston, Texas 77046... application for authorization to abandon certain mainline facilities. Texas Gas requests authority to abandon...

  11. Radio frequency communication system utilizing radiating transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Struven, Warren C.

    1984-01-01

    A radio communication system for use in tunnels, mines, buildings or other shielded locations in which a pair of radiating transmission lines (30), (31) extend through such location in spaced coextensive relation to each other. Each transmission line (30), (31) has at least one unidirectional amplifier (32), (33) interposed therein with the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (32) of one transmission line (30) being opposite to the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (33) of the other transmission line (31). Each of the amplifiers (32), (33) has a gain which is less than the coupling loss between the transmission lines (30), (31). Two or more mobile transceivers (35) in the location served by the system are coupled to the transmission lines (30), (31) by electromagnetic wave propagation in space in order to communicate directly with each other at a given radio frequency within the frequency range of the system.

  12. Experiments of a monolithic radial transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, C.; Wang, X.; Zou, X.; Lehr, J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of a monolithic radial transmission line (MRTL) that may be used in pulsed power generators and microwave devices. The MRTL with a hyperbolic impedance profile is 508 mm in radius, corresponding to a one-way transit time of 15 ns for the electromagnetic wave. In the experiments, up to twenty identical voltage pulses, 10 ns in FWHM and 2 ns in rise-time, were fed into the MRTL through 20 input BNC connectors that are uniformly distributed along the outer circumference of the MRTL. It was found that the amplitude of the voltage from the output BNC connector located in the center of the MRTL is nearly proportional to the total number of the input branches. The effect of the failure modes on the output voltage was investigated. For the MRTL driven by 20 input branches, while the open-circuit or short-circuit even in one input branch considerably decreases the amplitude of the output voltage, the jitter shorter than 2 ns in 3 input branches makes no obvious effect on the output voltage.

  13. Experiments of a monolithic radial transmission line.

    PubMed

    Mao, C; Wang, X; Zou, X; Lehr, J

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of a monolithic radial transmission line (MRTL) that may be used in pulsed power generators and microwave devices. The MRTL with a hyperbolic impedance profile is 508 mm in radius, corresponding to a one-way transit time of 15 ns for the electromagnetic wave. In the experiments, up to twenty identical voltage pulses, 10 ns in FWHM and 2 ns in rise-time, were fed into the MRTL through 20 input BNC connectors that are uniformly distributed along the outer circumference of the MRTL. It was found that the amplitude of the voltage from the output BNC connector located in the center of the MRTL is nearly proportional to the total number of the input branches. The effect of the failure modes on the output voltage was investigated. For the MRTL driven by 20 input branches, while the open-circuit or short-circuit even in one input branch considerably decreases the amplitude of the output voltage, the jitter shorter than 2 ns in 3 input branches makes no obvious effect on the output voltage.

  14. Flux Noise in a Superconducting Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasko, F. T.

    2017-08-01

    We study a superconducting transmission line (TL) formed by distributed L C oscillators and excited by external magnetic fluxes which are aroused from random magnetization (A ) placed in substrate or (B ) distributed at interfaces of a two-wire TL. The low-frequency dynamics of a random magnetic field is described based on the diffusion Langevin equation with a short-range source caused by (a ) a random amplitude or (b ) the gradient of magnetization. For a TL modeled as a two-port network with open and shorted ends, the effective magnetic flux at the open end has nonlocal dependency on noise distribution along the TL. The flux-flux correlation function is evaluated and analyzed for the regimes (A a ), (A b ), (B a ), and (B b ). Essential frequency dispersion takes place around the inverse diffusion time of random flux along the TL. Typically, noise effect increases with size faster than the area of the TL. The flux-flux correlator can be verified both via the population relaxation rate of the qubit, which is formed by the Josephson junction shunted by the TL with flux noises, and via random voltage at the open end of the TL.

  15. View of transmission line tower on LABPL 2 southwest of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of transmission line tower on LABPL 2 southwest of Boulder City Substation, view southwest - Hoover Dam, Los Angeles Bureau of Power & Light Lines 1-3, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  16. Wind adaptive modeling of transmission lines using minimum description length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaw, Yoonseok; Sohn, Gunho

    2017-03-01

    The transmission lines are moving objects, which positions are dynamically affected by wind-induced conductor motion while they are acquired by airborne laser scanners. This wind effect results in a noisy distribution of laser points, which often hinders accurate representation of transmission lines and thus, leads to various types of modeling errors. This paper presents a new method for complete 3D transmission line model reconstruction in the framework of inner and across span analysis. The highlighted fact is that the proposed method is capable of indirectly estimating noise scales, which corrupts the quality of laser observations affected by different wind speeds through a linear regression analysis. In the inner span analysis, individual transmission line models of each span are evaluated based on the Minimum Description Length theory and erroneous transmission line segments are subsequently replaced by precise transmission line models with wind-adaptive noise scale estimated. In the subsequent step of across span analysis, detecting the precise start and end positions of the transmission line models, known as the Point of Attachment, is the key issue for correcting partial modeling errors, as well as refining transmission line models. Finally, the geometric and topological completion of transmission line models are achieved over the entire network. A performance evaluation was conducted over 138.5 km long corridor data. In a modest wind condition, the results demonstrates that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of non-wind-adaptive initial models on an average of 48% success rate to produce complete transmission line models in the range between 85% and 99.5% with the positional accuracy of 9.55 cm transmission line models and 28 cm Point of Attachment in the root-mean-square error.

  17. 78 FR 25068 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 5, 2013, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe, Suite 2500, Houston, Texas... 12.6 miles of 8-inch diameter looping pipeline connected to its existing transmission system...

  18. Siberia-Europe gas line nears completion

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, V.

    1983-08-01

    The Soviets export gas pipeline will be commissioned in the fourth quarter of 1983. This is the world's biggest gas pipeline, about 2,800 miles long and valued at $10 billion. Work proceeds well ahead of schedule over the major part of the gas line which is to connect the Urengoi deposits in Siberia with the city of Uzhgorod on the Soviet Union's western border. Part of the gas to be carried by the Siberia-Western Europe line will help meet the Soviet Union's domestic needs.

  19. Inductive gas line for pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Alger, Terry W.

    1985-01-01

    A gas laser having a metal inlet gas feed line assembly shaped as a coil, to function as an electrical inductance and therefore high impedance to pulses of electric current applied to electrodes at opposite ends of a discharge tube of a laser, for example. This eliminates a discharge path for the laser through the inlet gas feed line. A ferrite core extends through the coil to increase the inductance of the coil and provide better electric isolation. By elimination of any discharge breakdown through the gas supply, efficiency is increased and a significantly longer operating lifetime of the laser is provided.

  20. Inductive gas line for pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Benett, W.J.; Alger, T.W.

    1982-09-29

    A gas laser having a metal inlet gas feed line assembly shaped as a coil, to function as an electrical inductance and therefore high impedance to pulses of electric current applied to electrodes at opposite ends of a discharge tube of a laser, for example. This eliminates a discharge path for the laser through the inlet gas feed line. A ferrite core extends through the coil to increase the inductance of the coil and provide better electric isolation. By elimination of any discharge breakdown through the gas supply, efficiency is increased and a significantly longer operating lifetime of the laser is provided.

  1. 75 FR 33289 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application June 4, 2010. Take notice that on May 28, 2010, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia) 5151 San Felipe, Suite 2500... section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act, as amended, for a certificate of public convenience and necessity...

  2. 77 FR 3764 - Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on January 6, 2012, Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC... under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), for authorization to increase the current certificated maximum...

  3. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.431 Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of...

  4. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.431 Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of...

  5. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.431 Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of...

  6. Nonlinearity of superconducting transmission line and microstrip resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Vendik, O.G.; Vendik, I.B.; Samoilova, T.B.

    1997-02-01

    The simplest model of nonlinear response of a superconducting thin film is used for modeling the nonlinear phenomena in a superconducting transmission line and a microstrip resonator. The specified characteristic power of the transmission line is suggested to use as a fitting parameter for numerical description of the microstrip line nonlinearity at microwaves. Quantitative agreement of simulated and experimental data has been obtained for the incident power dependent transmission coefficient of a microstrip line section and a high quality microstrip resonator. Numerical results have also been obtained for the power of the third harmonic radiated from the nonlinear resonator.

  7. Electrical Characteristics of Sea-Water-Return Transmission Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    NOROW Reprl 52 Electrical Characteristics of Sea-Water-Return Transmission Lines N. Gholson R. Swenson C. Alexander Ocean Technology Division Ocean...1] Gholson , N. H., Measuring Transmis- 26. Cable #4 has been excluded thus far sion Line Transfer Functions Using a because of its length being 10...Return Final Transmission Lines 6. PERFORMING ORG, REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(@) N. Gholson R. Swenson C. Alexander 9

  8. Propagation of microwaves in gradient transmission lines: exactly solvable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsburg, A. B.; Silin, N. V.

    2015-08-01

    Propagation of microwaves along the transmission line with smoothly continuously distributed capacitance and inductance (gradient transmission line) is considered in the framework of an exactly solvable model. The appearance of strong heterogeneity-induced plasma-like dispersion in gradient transmission line determined by the sizes and shapes of these distributions, is visualized by means of this model. Owing to this dispersion the energy transport in the line discussed can be ensured by both travelling and evanescent microwave modes, characterized by the real and imaginary wave numbers, respectively. The reflectance spectra for microwaves, incident on this heterogeneous transition section located between two homogeneous sections of transmission line are presented, the antireflection properties of this section are demonstrated. The interference of evanescent and anti-evanescent microwave modes is shown to provide the effective weakly attenuated energy transfer in the tunneling regime. The analogy between this microwave system and gradient nano-optical photonic barrier in revealed.

  9. BERTHA: A versatile transmission line and circuit code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinshelwood, D. D.

    1983-11-01

    An improved version of the NRL transmission line code of W. H. Lupton is presented. The capabilities of the original program were extended to allow magnetically insulated transmission lines, plasma opening switches, imploding plasma loads and discrete element electrical networks, for example, to be modeled. BERTHA is used to simulate any system that is represented by a configuration of transmission line elements. The electrical behavior of the system is calculated by repeatedly summing the reflected and transmitted waves at the ends of each element. This program is versatile, easy to use and easily implemented on desktop microcomputers.

  10. High speed electrical transmission line design and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Buytaert, J.; Eklund, L.; de Acedo, L. F. S.; Longstaff, I.; Naik, S.; Sullivan, S.; Wraight, K.

    2017-02-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments have unique requirements for data communication. High data speeds, combined with extreme restrictions on materials allowed, leads to custom transmission lines. This paper will present transmission line design theory, simulation and testing methods. Transmission line designs options like flexes and rigid PCBs as well as cables will be studied. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software packages simulate energy dissipation and quality of transmitted signals. The characterisation techniques of time-domain reflectometry and frequency-domain measurements are discussed and compared. Bit-error-rate testing is presented and its limitations for design discussed. Methods to improve quality, like three different types of equalization are described.

  11. Single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Keech, Jr., Thomas W.

    1980-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensor circuits each monitors a specific process variable and each transmits measurement values over a single transmission line to a master interrogating station when addressed by said master interrogating station. Typically, as many as 330 remote stations may be parallel connected to the transmission line which may exceed 7,000 feet. The interrogation rate is typically 330 stations/second. The master interrogating station samples each station according to a shared, charging transmit-receive cycle. All remote station address signals, all data signals from the remote stations/sensors and all power for all of the remote station/sensors are transmitted via a single continuous terminated coaxial cable. A means is provided for periodically and remotely calibrating all remote sensors for zero and span. A provision is available to remotely disconnect any selected sensor station from the main transmission line.

  12. 117. Maricopa Dam Water System, Electric Transmission Lines, Catwalk, Derrick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Maricopa Dam Water System, Electric Transmission Lines, Catwalk, Derrick at Elev. +65. October 15, 1934. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 29. VIEW OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION LINES ON NORTH BRIDGE SUPPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION LINES ON NORTH BRIDGE SUPPORT, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524, NEAR SOUTH NORWALK SWITCH TOWER - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  14. 10. TRANSMISSION LINES BETWEEN DIABLO AND GORGE; CONSTRUCTION DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. TRANSMISSION LINES BETWEEN DIABLO AND GORGE; CONSTRUCTION DETAIL OF TOWER STRUCTURE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  15. Electrical and Biological Effects of Transmission Lines: A Review.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jack M.

    1989-06-01

    This review describes the electrical properties of a-c and d-c transmission lines and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and people. Methods used by BPA to mitigate undesirable effects are also discussed. Although much of the information in this review pertains to high-voltage transmission lines, information on distribution lines and electrical appliances is included. The electrical properties discussed are electric and magnetic fields and corona: first for alternating-current (a-c) lines, then for direct current (d-c).

  16. Multimode circuit quantum electrodynamics with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Egger, D J; Wilhelm, F K

    2013-10-18

    Quantum transmission lines are central to superconducting and hybrid quantum computing. In this work we show how coupling them to a left-handed transmission line allows circuit QED to reach a new regime: multimode ultrastrong coupling. Out of the many potential applications of this novel device, we discuss the preparation of multipartite entangled states and the simulation of the spin-boson model where a quantum phase transition is reached up to finite size effects.

  17. A Proposal for a High Voltage Transmission Line Directional Coupler

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Robert; Li, Zhi

    2016-05-01

    Directional couplers are devices generally used in high frequency transmission lines and waveguides that respond to forward and reverse traveling waves separately. Hence they can be used to either measure standing wave ratio in the steady state or to determine the direction of a propagating transient wave. Here, a design is proposed for a directional coupler to be used on multimode high voltage transmission lines. Its performance is analyzed and several suggestions are made for improving its design.

  18. Atlas Transmission Line/Transition Design and Fabrication Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    completed for this new generation pulsed-power machine consisting of an azimuthal array of 24, 240-kV Marx modules and transmission lines supplying current...to the center transition section. The cable header interface to the Marx module provides a mechanism to remove the Marx module for maintenance... Marx in the event of a pre-fire condition. The aluminum tri-plate is a low-inductance transmission line that carries radial current flow from the Marx

  19. ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF MAIN MAGNET TRANSMISSION LINE EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; MARNERIS, I.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-06-25

    A main magnet chain forms a pair of transmission lines. Pulse-reflection-caused voltage and current differentiation throughout the magnet chain can have adverse effect on main magnet field quality. This effect is associated with magnet system configuration, coupling efficiency, and parasitic parameters. A better understanding of this phenomenon will help us in new design and existing system upgrade. In this paper, we exam the transmission line effect due to different input functions as well as configuration, coupling, and other parameters.

  20. High aspect ratio transmission line circuits micromachined in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Shane Truman

    The performance of complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) fabricated on silicon has improved dramatically. The scaling down of silicon transistors has increased the maximum frequency of transistors to the point where silicon MMICs have become a viable alternative to compound semiconductor MMICs in certain applications. A fundamental problem still exists in silicon MMICs however in that transmission lines fabricated on silicon can suffer from high loss due to the finite conductivity of the silicon substrate. A novel approach for creating low-loss transmission lines on silicon is presented in this work. Low-loss transmission lines are created on low resistivity silicon by using a micromachining method that combines silicon deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), thermal oxidation, electroplating, and planarization. Two types of high aspect ratio transmission lines are created with this method including high aspect ratio coplanar waveguide (hicoplanar) and semi-rectangular coaxial (semicoaxial). Transmission lines with impedances ranging from 20--80 O have been fabricated with minimum measured loss lower than 1 dB/cm at 67 GHz. Low-loss dielectrics are created for the high aspect ratio transmission lines using the mesa merging method. The mesa merging method works by creating silicon mesa arrays using DRIE and then converting and merging the mesa arrays into a solid oxide dielectric using thermal oxidation. The transmission lines are designed so that the fields penetrate the low-loss oxide dielectric and are isolated from the lossy silicon substrate. The mesa merging method has successfully created large volume oxide with depth up to 65 microm and width up to 240 microm in short oxidation times. Other advantages of the high aspect ratio transmission lines are demonstrated including low-loss over a wide impedance range, high isolation, and high coupling for coupled-line circuits. Transmission line models have been

  1. Effect of asphaltene deposition on the internal corrosion in transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, J.L.; Viloria, A.; Palacios T, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    Crude oil from Norte de Monagas field, in Venezuela, contains large amounts of asphaltenes, some of them are very unstable with tendency to precipitate. Because liquid is carried over from the separation process in the flow stations, asphaltenes are also present in the gas gathering and transmission lines, precipitating on inner wall of pipelines. The gas gathering and transmission lines contain gas with high partial pressures of CO{sub 2}, some H{sub 2}S and are water saturated; therefore inhibitors are used to control the internal corrosion. There is uncertainty on how inhibitors perform in the presence of asphaltene deposition. To protect the pipelines from external corrosion, cathodic protection is used. Since asphaltenes have polar properties, there exists an uncertainty on whether it enhances asphaltene precipitation and deposition. The purpose of this paper to describe the causes that enhance asphaltene deposition on gas and some of the preliminary result from an ongoing research project carried out by Intevep and Corpoven.

  2. Impedance matching with an adjustable segmented transmission line.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chunqi; Brey, William W

    2009-07-01

    A capability for impedance matching between the RF probe and the spectrometer is a standard requirement for NMR. Both lumped element and branched transmission line methods are widely used for this purpose. Here, we propose to use the segmented transmission line structure which is well known in wireless communications. It relies upon reflections between transmission lines of different characteristic impedances that are serially connected to match the impedance of a coil or resonator to the characteristic impedance of the NMR spectrometer. In our implementation, two quarter wave length dielectric slugs are placed within a coaxial transmission line. Adjustment of the positions of the slugs allows the variable tuning and matching needed for NMR probes, eliminating the need for variable capacitors and inductors. As a demonstration of the usefulness of this approach, we have incorporated a variable segmented transmission line into a home-built Variable Angle Spinning probe. Finally, we discuss the range of possible application for segmented transmission line networks in NMR probe design.

  3. A Generalized Lossy Transmission-Line Model for Tunable Graphene-Based Transmission Lines with Attenuation Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yongle; Qu, Meijun; Liu, Yuanan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the frequency shift phenomenon by inserting graphene, a generalized lossy transmission-line model and the related electrical parameter-extraction theory are proposed in this paper. Three kinds of graphene-based transmission lines with attenuation phenomenon including microstrip line, double-side parallel strip line, and uniplanar coplanar waveguide are analyzed under the common conditions where different chemical potentials are loaded on graphene. The values of attenuation constant and phase constant, and the real and imaginary parts of the characteristic impedance of transmission lines are extracted to analyze in details. When the attenuation constant and the reactance part of the characteristic impedance are approximately equal to zero, this kind of transmission line has low or zero insertion loss. On the contrary, the transmission line is under the radiation mode with obvious insertion loss. The phase constant changes linearly under the transmission mode and can be varied with changing of chemical potentials which attributes to the property of frequency tunability. Furthermore, a bandwidth reconfigurable uniplanar coplanar waveguide power divider is simulated to demonstrate that this theory can be applied to the design of three-port devices. In summary, this work provides a strong potential approach and design theory to help design other kinds of terahertz and mid-infrared reconfigurable devices. PMID:27553759

  4. A Generalized Lossy Transmission-Line Model for Tunable Graphene-Based Transmission Lines with Attenuation Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongle; Qu, Meijun; Liu, Yuanan

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the frequency shift phenomenon by inserting graphene, a generalized lossy transmission-line model and the related electrical parameter-extraction theory are proposed in this paper. Three kinds of graphene-based transmission lines with attenuation phenomenon including microstrip line, double-side parallel strip line, and uniplanar coplanar waveguide are analyzed under the common conditions where different chemical potentials are loaded on graphene. The values of attenuation constant and phase constant, and the real and imaginary parts of the characteristic impedance of transmission lines are extracted to analyze in details. When the attenuation constant and the reactance part of the characteristic impedance are approximately equal to zero, this kind of transmission line has low or zero insertion loss. On the contrary, the transmission line is under the radiation mode with obvious insertion loss. The phase constant changes linearly under the transmission mode and can be varied with changing of chemical potentials which attributes to the property of frequency tunability. Furthermore, a bandwidth reconfigurable uniplanar coplanar waveguide power divider is simulated to demonstrate that this theory can be applied to the design of three-port devices. In summary, this work provides a strong potential approach and design theory to help design other kinds of terahertz and mid-infrared reconfigurable devices.

  5. A Generalized Lossy Transmission-Line Model for Tunable Graphene-Based Transmission Lines with Attenuation Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongle; Qu, Meijun; Liu, Yuanan

    2016-08-24

    To investigate the frequency shift phenomenon by inserting graphene, a generalized lossy transmission-line model and the related electrical parameter-extraction theory are proposed in this paper. Three kinds of graphene-based transmission lines with attenuation phenomenon including microstrip line, double-side parallel strip line, and uniplanar coplanar waveguide are analyzed under the common conditions where different chemical potentials are loaded on graphene. The values of attenuation constant and phase constant, and the real and imaginary parts of the characteristic impedance of transmission lines are extracted to analyze in details. When the attenuation constant and the reactance part of the characteristic impedance are approximately equal to zero, this kind of transmission line has low or zero insertion loss. On the contrary, the transmission line is under the radiation mode with obvious insertion loss. The phase constant changes linearly under the transmission mode and can be varied with changing of chemical potentials which attributes to the property of frequency tunability. Furthermore, a bandwidth reconfigurable uniplanar coplanar waveguide power divider is simulated to demonstrate that this theory can be applied to the design of three-port devices. In summary, this work provides a strong potential approach and design theory to help design other kinds of terahertz and mid-infrared reconfigurable devices.

  6. Gas Research Institute's research and development program on in-line inspection of natural gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Harvey H.; Bubenik, Tom A.; Nestleroth, J. Bruce

    1995-05-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been supporting a comprehensive research and development program on in-line inspection techniques for natural gas transmission pipelines. This program contains assessments of state-of-the-art nondestructive evaluation methods, improvements in current approaches, and developments of advanced inspection technologies. The elements of the GRI Nondestructive Evaluation Program range from laboratory evaluations of the capabilities of inspection technologies to large-scale measurements in simulated pipeline settings. Each level of research stresses a quantification of both the limits of detection and the accuracy of characterization of pipeline imperfections that are found by in- line inspection tools. The overall goal of GRI's Nondestructive Evaluation Program is to develop and improve technologies that will help gas pipeline companies maintain the physical integrity of their transmission systems, prevent pipeline shutdowns, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper summarizes the results of the GRI program to date in relationship to their direct application to in-line inspection of gas transmission pipelines. The program consists of three main elements: facilities development, research on current inspection technologies, and research on future inspection technologies. The facilities development is centered around the Pipeline Simulation Facility; the research on current inspection technologies is aimed at improving magnetic flux leakage analyses; and the research on future inspection technologies is centered on stress-corrosion crack detection and characterization.

  7. Engineering the electrical characteristics of resonant type metamaterial transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, F.; Bonache, J.; Gil, M.; Sisó, G.

    2008-04-01

    This paper is focused on the control of the electrical characteristics of resonant type metamaterial transmission lines, that is, transmission lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs). The key parameters of metamaterial transmission lines for microwave and millimetre wave circuit design are the characteristic impedance and the phase constant (rather than the effective magnetic permeability or dielectric permittivity). Thanks to the presence of reactive elements loading the host line, metamaterial transmission lines exhibit a major design flexibility that can be useful for circuit design purposes. Specifically, we can tailor the dispersion diagram and the characteristic impedance to some extent. By virtue of this, it is possible the design of microwave and millimetre wave components with superior performance in terms of bandwidth, or the design of multi-band components, both of interest in modern wireless communication systems. Thanks to the small electrical size of the unit cell of such lines, the resulting metamaterial-based components are also very small and fully compatible with planar technology (that is, no lumped elements are used). Different examples are provided to illustrate the possibilities of resonant type metamaterial transmission lines. This includes hybrid couplers, power dividers and phase shifters, among others. The paper includes also the theoretical foundations of the approach.

  8. Transmission line component testing for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulding, Richard; Bell, G. L.; Deibele, C. E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Barbier, C. N.; Cambell, I. H.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Kung, C.

    2014-10-01

    High power RF testing is underway to evaluate transmission line components for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System. The transmission line has a characteristic impedance Z0 = 50 Ω and a nominal outer diameter of 305 mm. It is specified to carry up to 6 MW at VSWR = 1.5 for 3600 s pulses, with transient voltages up to 40 kV. The transmission line is actively cooled, with turbulent gas flow (N2) used to transfer heat from the inner to outer conductor, which is water cooled. High voltage and high current testing of components has been performed using resonant lines generating steady state voltages of 35 kV and transient voltages up to 60 kV. A resonant ring, which has operated with circulating power of 6 MW for 1 hr pulses, is being used to test high power, low VSWR operation. Components tested to date include gas barriers, straight sections of various lengths, and 90 degree elbows. Designs tested include gas barriers fabricated from quartz and aluminum nitride, and transmission lines with quartz and alumina inner conductor supports. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Cooling apparatus for a gas transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, P.A.

    1987-07-21

    An improved cooling apparatus is described for a gas transmission system, including: input means for receiving a medium to be cooled; output means for transmitting the medium after it is cooled; and, cooling means intercoupling the input means and the output means including radiator means having an input end and an output end, the input end connected to the input means and the output end connected to the output means; the cooling means including, in addition, fan means positioned to cooperate with the radiator means for producing a flow of cooling air across the radiator means; the fan means including a rotatable fan having a desired direction of rotation, a drive-motor for driving the fan in the desired direction and belt means intercoupling the drive-motor and the rotatable fan for rotation of the fan; the belt means includes a belt having, alternatively, a taut state and a slack state. Adjustable belt-tensioning means including a frame and being mechanically coupled to the belt for tensioning the belt between the taut state and the slack state, the adjustable belt-tensioning means including a sheave in rotating contact with the belt. A shaft having first and second ends, carrying the sheave at the first end and positioned in the frame substantially parallel to the plane of the belt and spaced from the belt an adjustable distance corresponding to the condition desired for the belt between the taut state and the slack state; a sprag-clutch having a first race fixedly connected to the frame and a unidirectionally rotatable second race coupled to the second end of the shaft. The second race having a direction of rotation relative to the first race which corresponds to the desired direction of rotation of the fan.

  10. New static relay for transmission line protection

    SciTech Connect

    Andrichak, J.G.; Massey, W.A.; Patterson, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    A new static ac voltage relay is described which meets the requirements of critical applications. This Static Line Voltage (SLV) relay consists of three independently adjustable detectors, each of which can be operated in the undervoltage or overvoltage mode. Each detector has a dropout to pickup ratio of 99 percent, and a high degree of immunity to harmonics (less than 3 percent variation in operating point with a voltage waveform containing 50 percent third harmonic). The outputs of the individual detectors are user programmable in the type SLV relay to provide AND, OR, or other logical combinations of output contact wiring to the external control circuits. 2 refs.

  11. Stand-off transmission lines and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-05-21

    Standoff transmission lines in an integrated circuit structure are formed by etching away or removing the portion of the dielectric layer separating the microstrip metal lines and the ground plane from the regions that are not under the lines. The microstrip lines can be fabricated by a subtractive process of etching a metal layer, an additive process of direct laser writing fine lines followed by plating up the lines or a subtractive/additive process in which a trench is etched over a nucleation layer and the wire is electrolytically deposited. Microstrip lines supported on freestanding posts of dielectric material surrounded by air gaps are produced. The average dielectric constant between the lines and ground plane is reduced, resulting in higher characteristic impedance, less crosstalk between lines, increased signal propagation velocities, and reduced wafer stress. 16 figures.

  12. Stand-off transmission lines and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    Standoff transmission lines in an integrated circuit structure are formed by etching away or removing the portion of the dielectric layer separating the microstrip metal lines and the ground plane from the regions that are not under the lines. The microstrip lines can be fabricated by a subtractive process of etching a metal layer, an additive process of direct laser writing fine lines followed by plating up the lines or a subtractive/additive process in which a trench is etched over a nucleation layer and the wire is electrolytically deposited. Microstrip lines supported on freestanding posts of dielectric material surrounded by air gaps are produced. The average dielectric constant between the lines and ground plane is reduced, resulting in higher characteristic impedance, less crosstalk between lines, increased signal propagation velocities, and reduced wafer stress.

  13. Hazard analysis for magnetic induction from electric transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The potential hazard of magnetic induction from electric transmission lines was investigated. A literature search was accomplished, measurements were made and compared with the theories found in the literature and a new approach was developed for estimating the hazardous potential of magnetically induced voltage in fences which could be grasped by barefoot children under wet conditions. Conditions under which representative transmission lines could induce such voltage were explored. For example, a standard three-phase horizontal 500 KV transmission line carrying 1000 A was estimated to induce 10.5 V in a 900 M fence 30 M from the center of the line. It was also found that third harmonic currents can magnetically induce significant voltages compared to those induced by 60 HZ currents umder some circumstances.

  14. Electric transmission line flashover prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarh, Felix

    Near industrial, agricultural, or coastal areas, contamination is a frequent cause of insulator flashover, most cases of which result in lengthy service interruptions. Utilities spend significant amounts of money on insulator washing and cleaning before the restoration of the service. Laboratory studies and industrial experience have shown that both contamination and wetting of insulator surfaces, which initiate the flow of leakage current, are required for insulator flashover. The leakage current leading to flashover has distinctive stages of development. Flashover is preceded by dry-band arcing and extension of the arc to bridge the insulator. This combination significantly modifies both the magnitude and shape of the leakage current. A condition-based monitoring (CBM) system that monitors the easily measurable insulator leakage current as a means of assessing pollution severity and would possibly predict an approaching flashover could prove beneficial to utilities. The overall aim of this project is the development of a system that monitors pollution build-up through the signature changes in the leakage current and alerts an operator when there is a danger of flashover. The operator can, in turn, order maintenance personnel to wash the insulators. This will safeguard against unforeseen flashovers, since the system is constantly being monitored and diagnosed. Additionally, the washing cycles of insulators will be optimized, saving money and eventually rendering the power transmission system more reliable.

  15. Research on safety protection for live working on ±800kV DC transmission line with AC and DC multi-circuit transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yan; Xiang, Tao; Li, Mu

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, in order to save line corridors and reduce the scope of demolition, some new transmission modes for high voltage AC and DC power transmission line are proposed. According to the characteristics of the parallel transmission line, this paper studies the distribution characteristics of the electric field intensity of multi circuit parallel transmission lines and the single circuit transmission line. Comparing and analysing the simulation results of the electric field strength, the safety measures for live working of ±800kV DC transmission line with multi circuit parallel transmission lines is put forward. That is the electric field protective equipment and measures used in the live line work of the ±800kV UHDC single circuit line can meet the requirements of the live operation of the ±800kV UHDC multi-circuit transmission line.

  16. Transmission line matrix modelling of thermal injuries to skin.

    PubMed

    Aliouat Bellia, S; Saidane, A; Hamou, A; Benzohra, M; Saiter, J M

    2008-08-01

    A numerical model based on the transmission line matrix method is presented for the quantitative prediction of skin burn resulting from exposure of a specific region of human skin surface to a high temperature heat source. Transient temperatures were numerically estimated by Pennes' bioheat equation, and the damage function denoting the extent of burn was calculated using the Arrhenius assumptions for protein damage rate. A two-dimensional transmission line matrix model was used to predict the effects of exposure time and structure thicknesses on the transient temperature distribution and damage extent. Compared with other numerical sources the transmission line matrix results revealed good agreement, suggesting that this method may be an effective tool for the thermal diagnostic of burns.

  17. Design of tunable microwave transmission lines using metamaterial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensafieddine, D.; Djerfaf, F.; Chouireb, F.; Vincent, D.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, frequency tunable transmission lines are designed using metasurface split ring resonator unit cell. We prove that the tuning principle in metasurface transmission lines is based on the variation of the resonance frequency of the permeability. The frequency-tuning arises by changing the values of two gaps in the inner and outer rings of unit cell ( g1 and g2). The branches of a disconnected gaps type conductor of each unit cell can be joined by switches (PIN diodes, MEMs, etc.). According to switch states ON or OFF, the unit cell has four different commutable behaviors which are 00, 01, 11, and 10. The results show that the resonance frequency of our metasurface transmission line is strongly shifted by about 2.5 GHz between the cases (01) and (11).

  18. Residential proximity to high voltage transmission lines and depressive symptomatology

    SciTech Connect

    McMahan, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    A number of epidemiological studies indicate an association between depression and proximity to high voltage transmission lines. These studies have been criticized, however, for using surrogate measures of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and unstandardized measures of depression. In an effort to overcome these limitations, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale was administered to 152 women living either adjacent to a transmission line or one block away. Results indicate that homes adjacent to the transmission lines have an average EMF level of 4.86 milligauss at their front door and those one block away have an average of 0.68 milligauss. There was no significant difference in CES-D scores between the groups, controlling for demographic variables. There appeared to be an increase in other health effects, including cancer and miscarriages, but these findings were preliminary and need further investigation.

  19. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-10-31

    The extensive network of high-pressure natural gas transmission pipelines covering the United States provides an important infrastructure for our energy independence. Early detection of pipeline leaks and infringements by construction equipment, resulting in corrosion fractures, presents an important aspect of our national security policy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCVG) is and has been funding research on various applicable techniques. The WVU research team has focused on monitoring pipeline background acoustic signals generated and transmitted by gas flowing through the gas inside the pipeline. In case of a pipeline infringement, any mechanical impact on the pipe wall, or escape of high-pressure gas, generates acoustic signals traveling both up and down stream through the gas. Sudden changes in flow noise are detectable with a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP), developed under this contract. It incorporates a pressure compensating microphone and a signal- recording device. Direct access to the gas inside the line is obtained by mounting such a PAMP, with a 1/2 inch NPT connection, to a pipeline pressure port found near most shut-off valves. An FFT of the recorded signal subtracted by that of the background noise recorded one-second earlier appears to sufficiently isolate the infringement signal to allow source interpretation. Using cell phones for data downloading might allow a network of such 1000-psi rated PAMP's to acoustically monitor a pipeline system and be trained by neural network software to positively identify and locate any pipeline infringement.

  20. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-12-01

    The extensive network of high-pressure natural gas transmission pipelines covering the United States provides an important infrastructure for our energy independence. Early detection of pipeline leaks and infringements by construction equipment, resulting in corrosion fractures, presents an important aspect of our national security policy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCVG) is and has been funding research on various applicable techniques. The WVU research team has focused on monitoring pipeline background acoustic signals generated and transmitted by gas flowing through the gas inside the pipeline. In case of a pipeline infringement, any mechanical impact on the pipe wall, or escape of high-pressure gas, generates acoustic signals traveling both up and down stream through the gas. Sudden changes in flow noise are detectable with a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP), developed under this contract. It incorporates a pressure compensating microphone and a signal- recording device. Direct access to the gas inside the line is obtained by mounting such a PAMP, with a 1/2 inch NPT connection, to a pipeline pressure port found near most shut-off valves. An FFT of the recorded signal subtracted by that of the background noise recorded one-second earlier appears to sufficiently isolate the infringement signal to allow source interpretation. Using cell phones for data downloading might allow a network of such 1000-psi rated PAMP's to acoustically monitor a pipeline system and be trained by neural network software to positively identify and locate any pipeline infringement.

  1. Quasi-Optical Transmission Line for 94-GHz Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Raul M.; Veruttipong, Watt

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-optical transmission line (QOTL) has been developed as a low-loss transmission line for a spaceborne cloudobserving radar instrument that operates at a nominal frequency of 94 GHz. This QOTL could also readily be redesigned for use in terrestrial millimeter-wave radar systems and millimeter-wave imaging systems. In the absence of this or another lowloss transmission line, it would be necessary to use a waveguide transmission line in the original radar application. Unfortunately, transmission losses increase and power-handling capacities of waveguides generally decrease with frequency, such that at 94 GHz, the limitation on transmitting power and the combined transmission and reception losses (greater than 5 dB) in a waveguide transmission line previously considered for the original application would be unacceptable. The QOTL functions as a very-lowloss, three-port circulator. The QOTL includes a shaped input mirror that can be rotated to accept 94-GHz transmitter power from either of two high-power amplifiers. Inside the QOTL, the transmitter power takes the form of a linearly polarized beam radiated from a feed horn. This beam propagates through a system of mirrors, each of which refocuses the beam to minimize diffraction losses. A magnetically biased ferrite disc is placed at one of the foci to utilize the Faraday effect to rotate the polarization of the beam by 45 degrees. The beam is then transmitted via an antenna system. The radar return (scatter from clouds, and/or reflections from other objects) is collected by the same antenna and propagates through the Faraday rotator in the reverse of the direction of propagation of the transmitted beam. In the Faraday rotator, the polarization of the received signal is rotated a further 45 degrees, so that upon emerging from the Faraday rotator, the received beam is polarized at 90 with respect to the transmitted beam. The transmitted and received signals are then separated by a wire-grid polarizer.

  2. Reconfigurable Wave Velocity Transmission Lines for Phased Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Host, Nick; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Phased array antennas showcase many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex, heavy and most importantly costly. This presentation paper presents a concept which overcomes these detrimental attributes by eliminating all of the phase array backend (including phase shifters). Instead, a wave velocity reconfigurable transmission line is used in a series fed array arrangement to allow phase shifting with one small (100mil) mechanical motion. Different configurations of the reconfigurable wave velocity transmission line are discussed and simulated and experimental results are presented.

  3. Gates to Gregg High Voltage Transmission Line Study. [California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergis, V.; Maw, K.; Newland, W.; Sinnott, D.; Thornbury, G.; Easterwood, P.; Bonderud, J.

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of LANDSAT data in the planning of transmission line routes was assessed. LANDSAT digital data and image processing techniques, specifically a multi-date supervised classification aproach, were used to develop a land cover map for an agricultural area near Fresno, California. Twenty-six land cover classes were identified, of which twenty classes were agricultural crops. High classification accuracies (greater than 80%) were attained for several classes, including cotton, grain, and vineyards. The primary products generated were 1:24,000, 1:100,000 and 1:250,000 scale maps of the classification and acreage summaries for all land cover classes within four alternate transmission line routes.

  4. Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator

    DOEpatents

    Stemler, Gary E.; Scott, Donald N.

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage transmission line suspension insulator (18 or 22) which monitors its own dielectric integrity. A dielectric rod (10) has one larger diameter end fitting attachable to a transmission line and another larger diameter end fitting attachable to a support tower. The rod is enclosed in a dielectric tube (14) which is hermetically sealed to the rod's end fittings such that a liquidtight space (20) is formed between the rod and the tube. A pressurized dielectric liquid is placed within that space. A discoloring dye placed within this space is used to detect the loss of the pressurized liquid.

  5. Conductor design for the VLHC transmission line magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, G.W.; Kashikhin, V.; McAshan, M.; Mazur, P.O.; Piekarz, H.; Volk, J.T.; Walker, R.

    1999-03-01

    The transmission line magnet [1] is under development for the Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) at Fermilab with the expectation that it’s cost will be several times less (per Tesla-meter) than conventional superconducting magnets. It is a dual-aperture warm-iron superferric magnet built around an 80kA superconducting transmission line. The superconductor consists of 8 Rutherford (SSC Outer) cables in an Invar pipe jacket. The conductor design requirements and development program is described. A 100kA conductor test facility based on inductive coupling is described.

  6. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.179 Transmission... be equipped with valves or other components to shut off the flow of gas to an offshore platform in an...

  7. 78 FR 38309 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida... Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124; on behalf of itself, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C., and Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, (collectively, Applicants...

  8. TEM transmission line coil with double nuclear capability.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Matthew G; Kurpad, Krishna N; Holmes, James H; Fain, Sean B

    2007-10-01

    MR imaging and spectroscopy requires RF fields of high homogeneity. Quadrature volume coils meeting this requirement include the birdcage coil and the TEM resonator. We describe here a quadrature volume coil designed around a modified coaxial transmission line in which multiple inner conductors are arrayed on a circular perimeter and surrounded by a common shield. Current antinodes are established at appropriate points on the inner conductors by series transmission line stubs, either open circuit or short circuit, which terminate the line. Quadrature phasing is generated by a novel circuit constructed from a pair of high-performance current baluns and a commercial quadrature hybrid. The coil is a "pure" TEM coil as it is simply a resonant transmission line. There is no mode structure to consider. The construction of a prototype quadrature four-element coil is described and preliminary test results from this coil in a 4.7T horizontal bore magnet are reported. A related double nuclear coil design for (3)He and (1)H in which two linear transmission line coils are arrayed on a circular perimeter and simultaneously tuned and matched to their respective frequencies is also described. Preliminary tests from this coil in a 1.5T clinical scanner are reported.

  9. Study of the cavity-magnon-polariton transmission line shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, Michael; Bai, LiHui; Match, Christophe; Sirker, Jesko; Hu, CanMing

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally and theoretically investigate the microwave transmission line shape of the cavity-magnon-polariton (CMP) created by inserting a low damping magnetic insulator into a high quality 3D microwave cavity. While fixed field measurements are found to have the expected Lorentzian characteristic, at fixed frequencies the field swept line shape is in general asymmetric. Such fixed frequency measurements demonstrate that microwave transmission can be used to access magnetic characteristics of the CMP, such as the field line width Δ H. By developing an effective oscillator model of the microwave transmission we show that these line shape features are general characteristics of harmonic coupling. At the same time, at the classical level the underlying physical mechanism of the CMP is electrodynamic phase correlation and a second model based on this principle also accurately reproduces the experimental line shape features. In order to understand the microscopic origin of the effective coupled oscillator model and to allow for future studies of CMP phenomena to extend into the quantum regime, we develop a third, microscopic description, based on a Green's function formalism. Using this method we calculate the transmission spectra and find good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. 77 FR 50098 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Environmental Assessment for the Planned Line MB Loop Extension Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues On August 1, 2012, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia) filed its intent to modify the... important environmental issues. By this notice, the Commission requests public comments on the scope of the...

  11. Research on Safety Protection for Live Working on 1000kV AC Transmission Line with AC and DC Multi-circuit Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yan; Li, Mu; Xiang, Tao

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, in order to save line corridors and reduce the scope of demolition, some new transmission modes for high voltage AC and DC power transmission line are proposed. According to the characteristics of the parallel transmission line, this paper studies the distribution characteristics of the electric field intensity of multi circuit parallel transmission lines and the single circuit transmission line. Comparing and analysing the simulation results of the electric field strength, the safety measures for live working of 1000kV AC transmission line with multi circuit parallel transmission lines is put forward. That is the electric field protective equipment and measures used in the live line work of the 1000kV UHV AC single circuit line can meet the requirements of the live operation of the 1000kV UHV AC double circuit line.

  12. Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, A.H.

    1984-04-26

    A particle trap is provided for gas insulated transmission lines having a central high voltage conductor supported within an outer coaxial conductive sheath by a dielectric support member. A cavity between the inner conductor and outer sheath is filled with a dielectric insulating gas. A cone-like particle deflector, mounted to the inner conductor, deflects moving particles away from the support member, to radially outer portions of the cavity. A conductive shield is disposed adjacent the outer sheath to form a field-free region in radially outer portions of the cavity, between the shield and the sheath. Particles traveling along the cavity are deflected by the cone-like deflector into the field-free region where they are held immobile. In a vertical embodiment, particles enter the field-free region through an upper end of a gap formed between shield and sheath members. In a horizontal embodiment, the deflector cone has a base which is terminated radially internally of the shield. Apertures in the shield located adjacent the deflector allow passage of deflected particles into the field-free region. The dielectric support member is thereby protected from contaminating particles that may otherwise come to rest thereon.

  13. Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1985-01-01

    A particle trap is provided for gas insulated transmission lines having a central high voltage conductor supported within an outer coaxial conductive sheath by a dielectric support member. A cavity between the inner conductor and outer sheath is filled with a dielectric insulating gas. A cone-like particle deflector, mounted to the inner conductor, deflects moving particles away from the support member, to radially outer portions of the cavity. A conductive shield is disposed adjacent the outer sheath to form a field-free region in radially outer portions of the cavity, between the shield and the sheath. Particles traveling along the cavity are deflected by the cone-like deflector into the field-free region where they are held immobile. In a vertical embodiment, particles enter the field-free region through an upper end of a gap formed between shield and sheath members. In a horizontal embodiment, the deflector cone has a base which is terminated radially internally of the shield. Apertures in the shield located adjacent the deflector allow passage of deflected particles into the field-free region. The dielectric support member is thereby protected from contaminating particles that may otherwise come to rest thereon.

  14. HIGH FREQUENCY POWER TRANSMISSION LINE FOR CYCLOTRONS AND THE LIKE

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, W.J.

    1954-04-20

    High-frequency power transmission systems, particularly a stacked capacitance alternating power current transmission line wherein maximum utilization of the effective conductios skin of the line conductors is achieved while enabling a low impedance to be obtained are reported. The transmission line consists of a number of flat metal strips with interleaved dielectric strips. The metal dielectric strips are coiled spirally with the axis of the spiral extending along the length of the strips, and the alternating metal strips at the output end have outwardly extending aligned lugs which are directly strapped together and connected to the respective terminals on the load. At the input end of the transmission line, similarly, the alternate metal strips are directly strapped together and connected to an altereating current source. With the arrangement described each metal strip conducts on both sides, so that the metal strips are designed to have a thickness corresponding to twice the depth of the "skin effect" conducting lamina of each conductor at the source frequency.

  15. Computer-aided Instructional System for Transmission Line Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Erwin A.; Roth, Charles H., Jr.

    A computer-aided instructional system has been developed which utilizes dynamic computer-controlled graphic displays and which requires student interaction with a computer simulation in an instructional mode. A numerical scheme has been developed for digital simulation of a uniform, distortionless transmission line with resistive terminations and…

  16. Transmission Lines: An Overview of Electrical Properties and Environmental Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Biological Studies Task Team.

    1982-03-01

    A brief overview is provided of environmental and biological effects of high-voltage power transmission lines. Paragraph length descriptions of electric fields, induced voltage and currents, biological effects, magnetic fields, corona, radio and television interference, and ozone are given. 13 figs.

  17. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND..., Aug. 19, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 192-54, 51 FR 41635, Nov. 18, 1986]...

  18. Microstrip-Transmission-Line Shock-Front Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiweke, Robert J.; Smith, William C.

    1993-01-01

    Microstrip-transmission-line sensor measures velocities of low-overpressure shock fronts and offers dynamic range needed for measurements both far from and near explosions. Fabricated easily, relatively inexpensive, and repaired in field. In addition, basic geometry modified easily, as needed.

  19. 34. DETAIL OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION LINES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAIL OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION LINES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS ON TOP OF BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524, NEAR SOUTHWALK SWITCH TOWER - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  20. Airplane Ice Detector Based on a Microwave Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Phong; Arndt, G. Dickey; Carl, James R.

    2004-01-01

    An electronic instrument that could detect the potentially dangerous buildup of ice on an airplane wing is undergoing development. The instrument is based on a microwave transmission line configured as a capacitance probe: at selected spots, the transmission-line conductors are partly exposed to allow any ice and/or liquid water present at those spots to act as predominantly capacitive electrical loads on the transmission line. These loads change the input impedance of the transmission line, as measured at a suitable excitation frequency. Thus, it should be possible to infer the presence of ice and/or liquid water from measurements of the input impedance and/or electrical parameters related to the input impedance. The sensory transmission line is of the microstrip type and thus thin enough to be placed on an airplane wing without unduly disturbing airflow in flight. The sensory spots are small areas from which the upper layer of the microstrip has been removed to allow any liquid water or ice on the surface to reach the transmission line. The sensory spots are spaced at nominal open-circuit points, which are at intervals of a half wavelength (in the transmission line, not in air) at the excitation frequency. The excitation frequency used in the experiments has been 1 GHz, for which a half wavelength in the transmission line is .4 in. (.10 cm). The figure depicts a laboratory prototype of the instrument. The impedance-related quantities chosen for use in this version of the instrument are the magnitude and phase of the scattering parameter S11 as manifested in the in-phase (I ) and quadrature (Q) outputs of the phase detector. By careful layout of the transmission line (including the half-wavelength sensor spacing), one can ensure that the amplitude and phase of the input to the phase detector keep shifting in the same direction as ice forms on one or more of the sensor areas. Although only one transmission-line sensor strip is used in the laboratory version, in a

  1. Applications of Multiconductor Transmission Line Theory to the Prediction of Cable Coupling. Volume I. Multiconductor Transmission Line Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    many diverse areas of application. Multiconductor transmission lines have been investigated in early power system studies and continue to receive...attention in this area with regard to the transient behavior of power lines under fault and lightning induced conditions [1-13]. Modern emphasis on...has the interest in predicting transients induced on cables by external electromagnetic field sources such as high power radars or an electromag

  2. Cooperative effects for Qubits in a Transmission Line: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalumière, K.; Blais, A.; Sanders, B. C.; van Loo, A. F.; Fedorov, A.; Wallraff, A.

    2012-02-01

    Strong extinction of the transmitted power in a 1D transmission line coupled to an artificial atom has recently been achieved [1]. In contrast to the 3D case, large extinctions are made possible by the strong light-matter coupling occurring because of reduced dimensionality. Motivated by this, here we consider the situation where multiple artificial atoms (ie transmon qubits) are coupled to the 1D line. Following the work of Lehmberg for the 3D case [2], we obtain a master equation describing the dynamics of an arbitrary number of qubits coupled to the line. This master equation reveals interaction between the qubits mediated by the line. Using the input-output formalism, the model is compared to experimental results for multiple qubits coupled to the 1D line. [1] O. Astafiev et al., Science 327, 840 (2010) [2] R. H. Lehmberg. Phys. Rev. A 2, 883 (1970).

  3. Wireless Sensor Network for Electric Transmission Line Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Alphenaar, Bruce

    2009-06-30

    Generally, federal agencies tasked to oversee power grid reliability are dependent on data from grid infrastructure owners and operators in order to obtain a basic level of situational awareness. Since there are many owners and operators involved in the day-to-day functioning of the power grid, the task of accessing, aggregating and analyzing grid information from these sources is not a trivial one. Seemingly basic tasks such as synchronizing data timestamps between many different data providers and sources can be difficult as evidenced during the post-event analysis of the August 2003 blackout. In this project we investigate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of deploying a network of wireless power line monitoring devices as a method of independently monitoring key parts of the power grid as a complement to the data which is currently available to federal agencies from grid system operators. Such a network is modeled on proprietary power line monitoring technologies and networks invented, developed and deployed by Genscape, a Louisville, Kentucky based real-time energy information provider. Genscape measures transmission line power flow using measurements of electromagnetic fields under overhead high voltage transmission power lines in the United States and Europe. Opportunities for optimization of the commercial power line monitoring technology were investigated in this project to enable lower power consumption, lower cost and improvements to measurement methodologies. These optimizations were performed in order to better enable the use of wireless transmission line monitors in large network deployments (perhaps covering several thousand power lines) for federal situational awareness needs. Power consumption and cost reduction were addressed by developing a power line monitor using a low power, low cost wireless telemetry platform known as the ''Mote''. Motes were first developed as smart sensor nodes in wireless mesh networking applications. On such a platform

  4. Harmonic resonance on parallel high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Harries, J.R.; Randall, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has received complaints of telephone interference over a wide area of northwestern Washington State for several years. However, until 1995 investigations had proved inconclusive as either the source of the harmonics or the operating conditions changed whenever investigators arrived. The 2,100 Hz interference had been noticed at several optically isolated telephone exchanges. The area of complaint corresponded to electric service areas near the transmission line corridors of the BPA Custer-Monroe 500-kV lines. High 2,100 Hz field strength was measured near the 500-kV lines and also under lower voltage lines served from stations along the transmission line corridor. Tests and studies made with the Alternative Transients Program version of the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were able to define the phenomena and isolate the source. Harmonic resonance has been observed, measured and modeled on parallel 500-kV lines that are about one wavelength at 2,100 Hz, the 35th harmonic. A seemingly small harmonic injection at one location on the system causes significant problems some distance away such as telephone interference.

  5. Near-field thermoacoustic imaging with transmission line pulsers.

    PubMed

    Omar, Murad; Kellnberger, Stephan; Sergiadis, George; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-07-01

    Near-field radiofrequency thermoacoustic (NRT) tomography has been recently introduced for imaging electromagnetic (EM) properties of tissues using ultrawideband, high-energy impulses, which induce thermoacoustic responses. Operation in the near-field allows for more effective energy coupling into tissue, compared to using radiating sources, which in turn enables the use of shorter excitation pulses and leads to higher image resolution. This work aimed at investigating transmission lines as a method to generate excitation pulses to improve the NRT resolution over previous implementations without compromising the energy coupled into tissue. The authors implemented a number of custom-made transmission lines to overcome the challenges of the broadband nature of the impulse excitation required in NRT. The authors further constructed phantoms and investigated the performance of the lines in regard to the pulse duration, energy coupling and the resulting resolution, and image quality achieved. Finally, the authors employed mice in order to investigate the performance of the approach in tissue imaging. The authors found that the use of transmission lines resulted in the generation of RF impulses in the range of tens of nanoseconds and shorter. This performance resulted to resolution improvements over previous thermoacoustic imaging implementations, reaching 45 μm resolution, while retaining several tens to hundreds of milli-Joules of energy per pulse. This performance further allowed the visualization and clear differentiation of different mouse structures such as the heart, lung, or spinal cord. The use of transmission lines significantly improved the NRT performance leading to high thermoacoustic tomography imaging quality by coupling adequate amounts of energy within short times at a relatively low cost.

  6. Near-field thermoacoustic imaging with transmission line pulsers.

    PubMed

    Omar, Murad; Kellnberger, Stephan; Sergiadis, George; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-07-01

    Near-field radiofrequency thermoacoustic (NRT) tomography has been recently introduced for imaging electromagnetic (EM) properties of tissues using ultrawideband, high-energy impulses, which induce thermoacoustic responses. Operation in the near-field allows for more effective energy coupling into tissue, compared to using radiating sources, which in turn enables the use of shorter excitation pulses and leads to higher image resolution. This work aimed at investigating transmission lines as a method to generate excitation pulses to improve the NRT resolution over previous implementations without compromising the energy coupled into tissue. The authors implemented a number of custom-made transmission lines to overcome the challenges of the broadband nature of the impulse excitation required in NRT. The authors further constructed phantoms and investigated the performance of the lines in regard to the pulse duration, energy coupling and the resulting resolution, and image quality achieved. Finally, the authors employed mice in order to investigate the performance of the approach in tissue imaging. The authors found that the use of transmission lines resulted in the generation of RF impulses in the range of tens of nanoseconds and shorter. This performance resulted to resolution improvements over previous thermoacoustic imaging implementations, reaching 45 μm resolution, while retaining several tens to hundreds of milli-Joules of energy per pulse. This performance further allowed the visualization and clear differentiation of different mouse structures such as the heart, lung, or spinal cord. The use of transmission lines significantly improved the NRT performance leading to high thermoacoustic tomography imaging quality by coupling adequate amounts of energy within short times at a relatively low cost. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. HOT GAS LINES IN T TAURI STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Ardila, David R.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Gregory, Scott G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Ingleby, Laura; Bergin, Edwin; Bethell, Thomas; Calvet, Nuria; France, Kevin; Brown, Alexander; Edwards, Suzan; Johns-Krull, Christopher; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Yang, Hao; Valenti, Jeff A.; Abgrall, Herve; Alexander, Richard D.; Brown, Joanna M.; Espaillat, Catherine; Hussain, Gaitee; and others

    2013-07-01

    For Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), the resonance doublets of N V, Si IV, and C IV, as well as the He II 1640 A line, trace hot gas flows and act as diagnostics of the accretion process. In this paper we assemble a large high-resolution, high-sensitivity data set of these lines in CTTSs and Weak T Tauri Stars (WTTSs). The sample comprises 35 stars: 1 Herbig Ae star, 28 CTTSs, and 6 WTTSs. We find that the C IV, Si IV, and N V lines in CTTSs all have similar shapes. We decompose the C IV and He II lines into broad and narrow Gaussian components (BC and NC). The most common (50%) C IV line morphology in CTTSs is that of a low-velocity NC together with a redshifted BC. For CTTSs, a strong BC is the result of the accretion process. The contribution fraction of the NC to the C IV line flux in CTTSs increases with accretion rate, from {approx}20% to up to {approx}80%. The velocity centroids of the BCs and NCs are such that V{sub BC} {approx}> 4 V{sub NC}, consistent with the predictions of the accretion shock model, in at most 12 out of 22 CTTSs. We do not find evidence of the post-shock becoming buried in the stellar photosphere due to the pressure of the accretion flow. The He II CTTSs lines are generally symmetric and narrow, with FWHM and redshifts comparable to those of WTTSs. They are less redshifted than the CTTSs C IV lines, by {approx}10 km s{sup -1}. The amount of flux in the BC of the He II line is small compared to that of the C IV line, and we show that this is consistent with models of the pre-shock column emission. Overall, the observations are consistent with the presence of multiple accretion columns with different densities or with accretion models that predict a slow-moving, low-density region in the periphery of the accretion column. For HN Tau A and RW Aur A, most of the C IV line is blueshifted suggesting that the C IV emission is produced by shocks within outflow jets. In our sample, the Herbig Ae star DX Cha is the only object for which we find a

  8. An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

  9. An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

  10. 7 CFR 1726.76 - Substation and transmission line materials and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substation and transmission line materials and... Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.76 Substation and transmission line materials and equipment. (a... $500,000 and for all materials. (b) Standards and specifications. Substation and transmission line...

  11. Perfect Thermal Emission by Nanoscale Transmission Line Resonators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoan; Gong, Wei; Yu, Bowen; Li, Pengfei; Shen, Sheng

    2017-02-08

    Thermal radiation with a narrow-band emission spectrum is of great importance in a variety of applications such as infrared sensing, thermophotovoltaics, radiation cooling, and thermal circuits. Although resonant nanophotonic structures such as metamaterials and nanocavities have been demonstrated to achieve the narrow-band thermal emission, maximizing their radiation power toward perfect emission still remains challenging. Here, based on the recently developed quasi-normal mode theory, we prove that thermal emission from a nanoscale transmission line resonator can always be maximized by tuning the waveguiding loss of the resonator or bending the structure. By use of nanoscale transmission line resonators as basic building blocks, we experimentally demonstrate a new type of macroscopic perfect and tunable thermal emitters. Our experimental demonstration in conjunction with the general theoretical framework from the quasi-normal mode theory lays the foundation for designing tunable narrow-band thermal emitters with applications in thermal infrared light sources, thermal management, and infrared sensing and imaging.

  12. Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.

  13. Reconfigurable Wave Velocity Transmission Lines for Phased Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Host, Nicholas Keith; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discussed a novel phased array with an emphasis to simplify the array feed. Specifically, we will demonstrate a simple, low cost feeding approach by mechanically controlling the substrate thickness. The array feed lines are constructed from parallel plate transmission lines whose thickness are adjusted to control their effective dielectric constant (Epsilon_eff). As a result the phase delay/excitation at each array element will be adjusted per desired beam direction. The proposed antenna elements will be overlapping dipoles operating over a 2:1 bandwidth in the Ku-Band spectrum. Preliminary simulation and experimental demonstration of such an array will be presented.

  14. Flow impedance in a uniform magnetically insulated transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendel, C. W.; Seidel, D. B.

    1999-12-01

    In two recent publications [C. W. Mendel, Jr. and S. E. Rosenthal, Phys. of Plasmas 2, 1332 (1995), C. W. Mendel, Jr. and S. E. Rosenthal, Phys. of Plasmas 3, 4207 (1996)] relativistic electron flow in cylindrical magnetically insulated transmission lines was analyzed and modeled under the assumption of negligible electron pressure. The model allows power flow in these lines to be accurately calculated under most conditions. The model was developed for coaxial right circular cylindrical electrodes. It is shown here that the model applies equally well to arbitrary cylindrical systems, i.e., systems consisting of electrodes of arbitrary cross section.

  15. Transmission Line for 258 GHz Gyrotron DNP Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdashov, Alexandr A.; Belousov, Vladimir I.; Chirkov, Alexey V.; Denisov, Gregory G.; Korchagin, Vyacheslav V.; Kornishin, Sergey Yu.; Tai, Evgeny M.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design and test results of the transmission line for liquid-state (LS) and solid-state (SS) DNP spectrometers with the second-harmonic 258.6 GHz gyrotron at the Institute of the Biophysical Chemistry Center of Goethe University (Frankfurt). The 13-meter line includes a mode converter, HE11 waveguides, 4 mitre bends, a variable polarizer-attenuator, directional couplers, a water-flow calorimeter and a mechanical switch. A microwave power of about 15 W was obtained in the pure HE11 mode at the spectrometer inputs.

  16. HTS DC Transmission Line for Megalopolis Grid Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, S.; Sytnikov, V.; Bemert, S.; Ivanov, Yu; Krivetskiy, I.; Romashov, M.; Shakaryan, Yu; Keilin, V.; Shikov, A.; Patrikeev, V.; Lobyntsev, V.; Shcherbakov, V.

    2014-05-01

    Using of HTS AC and DC cables in electric power grids allows increasing of the transferred power, losses diminishing, decreasing of exclusion zone areas, the enhancement of the environmental conditions and fire/explosion safety of electric power systems. However, the use of DC superconducting cable lines together with converters brings additional advantages as reduction of losses in cables and suitable lowering of refrigerating plant capacity, as well as the realization of the function of short-circuit currents limitation by means of the appropriate setting of converter equipment. Russian Federal Grid Company and its R&D Center started the construction of the DC HTS power transmission line which includes the cable itself, cryogenic equipment, AC/DC converters, terminals and cable coupling boxes. This line will connect two substations in Saint-Petersburg - 330 kV "Centralnaya" and 220 kV "RP-9". The length of this HTS transmission line will be about 2500 meters. Nowadays are developed all the elements of the line and technologies of the cable manufacturing. Two HTS cable samples, each 30 m length, have been made. This paper describes the results of cables tests.

  17. Power transmission line operating modes calculation with controllable phase shifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Remizevich, T. V.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The article contains the analysis of the influence of the phase shifter (PS) on the energy processes in the power transmission line in terms of the two-unit model of the electric network. The approach to synthesis of the models regulated by the phase shifter providing for both calculation of the steady operation modes of the electric networks with the phase shifters and research of the electromagnetic processes and designing of the device itself is offered.

  18. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bodies of water. (2) Mains in Class 3 or Class 4 locations where a damage prevention program is in effect... be written legibly on a background of sharply contrasting color on each line marker: (1) The word “Warning,” “Caution,” or “Danger” followed by the words “Gas (or name of gas transported) Pipeline” all of...

  19. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... bodies of water. (2) Mains in Class 3 or Class 4 locations where a damage prevention program is in effect... be written legibly on a background of sharply contrasting color on each line marker: (1) The word “Warning,” “Caution,” or “Danger” followed by the words “Gas (or name of gas transported) Pipeline” all...

  20. Fiber optic transmission line stabilization apparatus and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G. F., Jr.; Lau, K. Y. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A reference signal of RF frequency modulates a 0.85 micrometer wavelength optical transmitter. The output of which passes through a first optical filter and a voltage-controller phase shifter. The output of the phase shifter is provided to the fiber optic transmission line. At the receiving end of the transmission line, the signal is demodulated and used to modulate a 1.06 micrometer optical transmitter. The signal from the transmitter is provided to the fiber optic transmission line and passes through the voltage-controlled phase shifter to a phase error detector. The phase of the modulation of the 1.06 micrometer wavelength signal is compared to the phase of the reference signal by the phase error detector. A phase control signal related to the phase difference is provided to the voltage controlled phase shifter which alters the phase of both optical signals until a predetermined phase relationship between modulation on the 1.06 micrometer signal and the reference signal is obtained.

  1. Mitigation of bird collisions with transmission lines: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulaurier, D.L.

    1981-09-11

    In this study removal of overhead groundwires was evaluated as a technique for mitigating bird collisions with transmission lines. Groundwires were removed by BPA from a 500 kV double circuit line at Bybee Lake in Portland, Oregon. Earlier studies at these sites had documented small but measurable collision rates (i.e., No. collisions/No. flights) attributed primarily to collisions with groundwires. Observations of bird flights and searches for dead birds in the vicinity of the lines constituted the primary methods of data collection during pre- and post-removal studies. Field work was conducted from October 1980 through March 1981. A total of seven dead birds and eight feather spots were found after groundwire removal. Species found were green-winged teal, pintail, greater scaup, American wigeon, glaucous-winged gull, starling, red-winged blackbird and song sparrow. No collisions with transmission lines were observed. During pre-removal studies at these two sites, a total of 53 dead birds and 22 feather spots were found over two years of study. It was necessary to document flight intensity (No. flights/day) during pre- and post-removal studies, in order to determine if the number of dead birds found changed because of groundwire removal or simply because of changes in flight intensity. 41 refs., 18 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. 77 FR 74659 - Algonquin Gas Transmission; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Algonquin Gas Transmission; Notice of Technical Conference Take... a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (EDT) in a room to be designated at the offices of the Federal Energy...

  3. Development of Live-working Robot for Power Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yu; Liu, Xiaqing; Ren, Chengxian; Li, Jinliang; Li, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Dream-I, the first reconfigurable live-working robot for power transmission lines successfully developed in China, has the functions of autonomous walking on lines and accurately positioning. This paper firstly described operation task and object of the robot; then designed a general platform, an insulator replacement end and a drainage plate bolt fastening end of the robot, presented a control system of the robot, and performed simulation analysis on operation plan of the robot; and finally completed electrical field withstand voltage tests in a high voltage hall as well as online test and trial on actual lines. Experimental results show that by replacing ends of manipulators, the robot can fulfill operation tasks of live replacement of suspension insulators and live drainage plate bolt fastening.

  4. Pulse sharpening effects of thin film ferroelectric transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleezer, Robert J.

    Advances in material science have resulted in the development of electrically nonlinear high dielectric thin film ferroelectrics, which have led to new opportunities for the creation of novel devices. This dissertation investigated one such device: a low voltage nonlinear transmission line (NLTL). A finite element simulation of ferroelectric transmission lines showed that NLTLs are capable of creating shockwaves. Additionally, if the losses are kept sufficiently low, it was shown that voltage gain should be possible. Furthermore, a method of accounting for material dispersion was developed. Results from simulations including material dispersion showed that temporal solitons might be possible from a continuous ferroelectric based nonlinear transmission line. Fabrication of a thin film ferroelectric NLTL required the growth of a ferroelectric material on a conductive substrate. Barium titanate (BTO), which has been gaining popularity due to its high dielectric constant, strong nonlinearity, and lack of lead, was grown. Molecular beam epitaxy and sol-gel growth were both explored and sol-gel was chosen as the growth method for the final device, in part due to its ability to grow BTO thin films on highly conductive nickel substrates. Samples approximately 330 nm thick were grown by this method. Oxygen vacancies in the as grown BTO films were filled by annealing in low pressure oxygen environments. X-ray diffraction measurements were used to determine an O2 pressure for oxidation that was slightly less than the pressure at which NiO forms to ensure maximum filling of the vacancies in the BTO. Grown samples were successfully shown to have ferroelectric properties. A lumped element transmission line was fabricated using discrete capacitors and inductors with a sample as described above. Test capacitors were fabricated and used to determine the dielectric constant of the BTO thin film. This was used to select capacitor pad sizes and inductor values to create a 50 Ohm line

  5. Radiofrequency transmission line for bioluminescent Vibrio sp. irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassisi, V.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Velardi, L.

    2012-07-01

    We present the study and the analyses of a transmission line for radiofrequency (RF) irradiation of bacteria belonging to Vibrio harveyi-related strain PS1, a bioluminescent bacterium living in symbiosis with many marine organisms. The bioluminescence represents a new biologic indicator which is useful for studying the behaviour of living samples in the presence of RF waves due to the modern communication systems. A suitable transmission line, used as an irradiating cell and tested up to the maximum frequency used by the global system for mobile communications and universal mobile telecommunications system transmissions, was characterized. In this experiment, the RF voltage applied to the transmission line was 1 V. Due to short dimensions of the line and the applied high frequencies, standing waves were produced in addition to progressing waves and the electric field strength varies particularly along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic field map was not strongly linked to the electric one due to the presence of standing waves and of the outgoing irradiation. RF fields were measured by two homemade suitable probes able to diagnostic fields of high frequency. The field measurements were performed without any specimens inside the line. Being our sample made of living matter, the real field was modified and its value was estimated by a simulation code. The bioluminescence experiments were performed only at 900 MHz for two different measured electric fields, 53 and 140 V/m. The light emission was measured right from the beginning and after 7 and 25 h. Under RF irradiation, we found that the bioluminescence activity decreased. Compared with the control sample, the diminution was 6.8% and 44% after 7 and 25 h of irradiation, respectively, both with the low or high field. No changes of the survival factor for all the samples were observed. Besides, to understand the emission processes, we operated the deconvolution of the spectra by two Gaussian curves. The Gaussian

  6. Resonance Line Formation in Moving Gas Flows with High Porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulman, S. G.

    2017-06-01

    The formation of resonance lines in gas flows generated by interactions of circumstellar gas with a star's magnetosphere is examined. An effective method is proposed for calculating these lines when the magnetospheric wind is highly porous. The resonance sodium lines observed in the spectrum of UX Ori type star RZ Psc are modelled as an example. It is shown that the narrow absorptions observed in the short wavelength wings of these lines can be formed by scattering of the star's radiation in two gas jets that are semitransparent at the line frequencies when they cross the line of sight.

  7. Coupling mid-infrared light from a photonic crystal waveguide to metallic transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea E-mail: r.hillenbrand@nanogune.eu; Garcia-Adeva, Angel; Zubia, Joseba

    2014-01-06

    We propose and theoretically study a hybrid structure consisting of a photonic crystal waveguide (PhC-wg) and a two-wire metallic transmission line (TL), engineered for efficient transfer of mid-infrared (mid-IR) light between them. An efficiency of 32% is obtained for the coupling from the transverse magnetic (TM) photonic mode to the symmetric mode of the TL, with a predicted intensity enhancement factor of 53 at the transmission line surface. The strong coupling is explained by the small phase velocity mismatch and sufficient spatial overlapping between the modes. This hybrid structure could find applications in highly integrated mid-IR photonic-plasmonic devices for biological and gas sensing, among others.

  8. Nonlinear high voltage transmission line for transversely excited CO{sub 2} lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ishi, Akira; Yasuoka, Koichi; Tamagawa, Tohru

    1995-12-31

    A high voltage Pulse with the risetime less than a few hundreds nanoseconds and the amplitude of several tens kilovolts is required to establish stable glow discharge excitation in high power pulsed gas lasers. To make the high voltage pulse fast, we have developed a nonlinear high voltage transmission line for transversely excited CO{sub 2} lasers. Fig.1 shows the electrical circuit of switching unit, pulse sharpening unit with nonlinear high voltage transmission line and discharge electrodes for TE-CO{sub 2} laser. The nonlinear high voltage transmission line is a 15-step LC ladder circuit that consists of linear inductors (L=6 {mu}H) and nonlinear BaTiO{sub 3} capacitors. Fig.2 shows a capacitance dependence on applied voltages. If an LC ladder circuit is constructed using a capacitor with the characteristics, the transmission velocity is fast at the high-voltage section and is slow at the low-voltage section. High voltage pulse with slow risetime is expected to be sharpen. The voltage and the current waveforms of the discharge measured at the point {open_quotes}c{close_quotes}. The risetime of 1{mu}s of the input voltage pulse was compressed to less than 200 ns at the output terminal of the LC ladder circuit and the outout pulse was applied to the discharge gap of the laser.

  9. Design and fabrication of the high-power RF transmission line into the PEFP linac tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The 100-MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) has been developed and will be installed at the Gyeong-ju site. For the linac, a total of 11 sets of RF systems are required, and the waveguide layout was fixed to install high-power RF (HPRF) systems. One of the important interfaces with the building construction is the high-power radio-frequency (HPRF) transmission line embedded in the tunnel, which is used to transmit 1-MW RF power to each cavity in the tunnel. The waveguide section penetrating into the linac tunnel was designed with a bending structure for radiation shielding, and the dependence of its voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) on the chamfer length of the bending was calculated. The HPRF transmission line was fabricated into a piece of waveguide to prevent moisture and any foreign debris inside the 2.5-m thick concrete block. Air leakage was checked with a pressure of 0.25 psig of nitrogen gas, and a maximum VSWR of 1.196 was obtained by measuring the vector reflection coefficients with the quarter-wave transmission section. In this paper, the design and the fabrication of the HPRF transmission line into the PEFP linac tunnel are presented.

  10. Transmission Line Properties of Nickel-Bodied Proportional Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jennifer

    2008-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of neutral current and charged current neutrino scattering events allowed the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) to demonstrate definitively neutrino oscillation. The three phases of the SNO detector are distinguished by different techniques of detecting the neutrons produced by neutral current neutrino scattering. In the final phase, nickel-bodied proportional counters filled with ^3He were used as neutral current detectors (NCDs) by observing the charged particles produced by neutron capture on ^3He. If we can understand the electrical transmission properties of the NCDs, we can use the different pulse shapes produced by neutron captures compared to those of alphas to distinguish these events and gain more sensitivity to the neutral current events. We found that because of the ferromagnetism of the nickel, standard calculations provided for proportional counters are not accurate enough. To obtain a better calculation, we directly measured the electrical properties of the transmission line as a function of frequency. This is a presentation of our results.

  11. View facing northeast (60°) of Structure 259, other transmission lines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing northeast (60°) of Structure 25-9, other transmission lines and small farmstead visible in background - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  12. View facing north (30°) of Transmission Line entering Teton River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing north (30°) of Transmission Line entering Teton River Valley, near Structure 40-7 - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  13. View facing south (210°) of Transmission Line going over hill, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing south (210°) of Transmission Line going over hill, Structure 46-12 in foreground, near Collins School - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  14. Transmission Line Analysis of Dielectric-Loaded Ferrite Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1994-02-03

    The RHIC injection kicker is constructed as a C-shaped ferrite kicker in which the ferrite blocks are spaced apart and the interstice is filled with high-permittivity ceramic. Due to this ferrite-dielectric composite structure, the kicker behaves like a transmission line rather than a lumped inductor. The electric properties of the kicker, nota bene characteristic impedance and propagation velocity, have been analyzed by Forsyth and his colleagues, Claus and Zhang, as a low pass filter with lumped L and C elements.

  15. Modeling of planar quasi-TEM superconducting transmission lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antsos, Dimitrios; Chew, Wilbert; Riley, A. L.; Hunt, Brian D.; Foote, Marc C.; Bajuk, Louis J.; Rascoe, Daniel L.; Cooley, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    An application of the phenomenological loss equivalence method (Lee and Itoh, 1989) in modeling the microwave behavior of planar quasi-TEM superconducting transmission lines is presented. For validation of the model, data are used from measurements of a YBCO superconducting thin-film coplanar-waveguide lowpass filter on a lanthanum aluminate substrate. Measured and modeled S-parameters of an existing superconducting coplanar waveguide lowpass filter agree to within 0.3 dB in magnitude and 0.5 radians in phase. Extracted values for penetration depth and real part of the conductivity of the superconducting film are within 10 percent of other researchers' findings.

  16. Field quality measurements of a 2-Tesla transmission line magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Velev, G.V.; Foster, W.; Kashikhin, V.; Mazur, P.; Oleck, A.; Piekarz, H.; Schlabach, P.; Sylvester, C.; Wake, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    A prototype 2-Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet for future hadron colliders was designed, built and tested at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, combined-function gradient-dipole magnet has a vertical pole aperture of 20 mm. To measure the magnetic field quality in such a small magnet aperture, a specialized rotating coil of 15.2 mm diameter, 0.69 m long was fabricated. Using this probe, a program of magnetic field quality measurements was successfully performed. Results of the measurements are presented and discussed.

  17. Walking Posture Control of Transmission Line Single Arm Inspection Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yu; Liu, Xiaqing; Li, Jinliang; Ou, Yuexiong

    2017-07-01

    To control the walking posture according to transmission line single arm inspection robot, the robot is divided into normal walking and climbing walking two state, and gives the definition, then based on the state space method of state variable feedback and PD control method is used to control the two states, two kinds of control method of simulation by using Matlab, in the end, the two control methods proposed is validated in the actual circuit structures. The results show that, the proposed control method is rapid and effective, and can meet the needs of practical application.

  18. MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR SOME RADIO-FREQUENCY TRANSMISSION-LINE TRANSFORMERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MATRICES(MATHEMATICS), *PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, *RADIOFREQUENCY, *TRANSFORMERS, *TRANSMISSION LINES, BROADBAND, DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE, FERRITES, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS.

  19. LineCast: line-based distributed coding and transmission for broadcasting satellite images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel coding and transmission scheme, called LineCast, for broadcasting satellite images to a large number of receivers. The proposed LineCast matches perfectly with the line scanning cameras that are widely adopted in orbit satellites to capture high-resolution images. On the sender side, each captured line is immediately compressed by a transform-domain scalar modulo quantization. Without syndrome coding, the transmission power is directly allocated to quantized coefficients by scaling the coefficients according to their distributions. Finally, the scaled coefficients are transmitted over a dense constellation. This line-based distributed scheme features low delay, low memory cost, and low complexity. On the receiver side, our proposed line-based prediction is used to generate side information from previously decoded lines, which fully utilizes the correlation among lines. The quantized coefficients are decoded by the linear least square estimator from the received data. The image line is then reconstructed by the scalar modulo dequantization using the generated side information. Since there is neither syndrome coding nor channel coding, the proposed LineCast can make a large number of receivers reach the qualities matching their channel conditions. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed LineCast can achieve Shannon's optimum performance by using a high-dimensional modulo-lattice quantization. Experiments on satellite images demonstrate that it achieves up to 1.9-dB gain over the state-of-the-art 2D broadcasting scheme and a gain of more than 5 dB over JPEG 2000 with forward error correction.

  20. Dispersion in Nb microstrip transmission lines at submillimeter wave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, H. H. S.; Mcgrath, W. R.; Bumble, B.; Leduc, H. G.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured the effects of dispersion on the resonant mode frequencies of open-ended Nb-SiO(x)-Nb microstrip transmission lines over a frequency range from 50 to 800 GHz. Submicron Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions were used as both voltage-controlled oscillators and detectors to sample the high order modes of the resonators. The resonator modes are equally spaced up to about 550 GHz where the mode spacing start to decrease gradually to a minimum above the gap frequency of about 700 GHz and then increases. Results are in good agreement with the expected theoretical behavior based on the Mattis-Bardeen conductivity of the superconductor line.

  1. Dispersion in Nb microstrip transmission lines at submillimeter wave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, H. H. S.; Mcgrath, W. R.; Bumble, B.; Leduc, H. G.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured the effects of dispersion on the resonant mode frequencies of open-ended Nb-SiO(x)-Nb microstrip transmission lines over a frequency range from 50 to 800 GHz. Submicron Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions were used as both voltage-controlled oscillators and detectors to sample the high order modes of the resonators. The resonator modes are equally spaced up to about 550 GHz where the mode spacing start to decrease gradually to a minimum above the gap frequency of about 700 GHz and then increases. Results are in good agreement with the expected theoretical behavior based on the Mattis-Bardeen conductivity of the superconductor line.

  2. Ferroelectric tunable balanced right- and left-handed transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marteau, Aurélien; Velu, Gabriel; Houzet, Gregory; Burgnies, Ludovic; Lheurette, Eric; Carru, Jean Claude; Lippens, Didier

    2009-01-01

    The tuning of the dispersion characteristics of a balanced composite right- and left-handed transmission lines is demonstrated at centimeter and millimeter wavelengths. To this aim, coplanar waveguides, periodically loaded by interdigitated capacitances and stublike inductances, were fabricated onto a Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 ferroelectric thin film. The scattering parameter measurements show that the lines are left handed from 8 to 18 GHz and right handed above. The results are interpreted by the retrieval of the effective permittivity and permeability, which exhibit Drude-like dispersion characteristics with a magnetic plasma frequency, which can be tuned via the voltage-controlled permittivity variation in the BST thin film.

  3. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.73 Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts or...

  4. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.73 Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts...

  5. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.73 Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts...

  6. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.73 Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts...

  7. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.73 Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts...

  8. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be bound...

  9. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be bound...

  10. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be bound...

  11. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be bound...

  12. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be bound...

  13. Propagation of quasi-static modes in anisotropic transmission lines: application to MIC lines

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, R.; Horno, M.

    1985-10-01

    In this paper, we analyze the field propagation in a general N-conductor transmission line embedded in an inhomogeneous and anisotropic medium, through the series expansion of the field in powers of frequency. The quasi-static approach is deducted as a zero-order approach upon the field and a first-order approach for the propagation constant. It is shown that it is even possible to decompose the field into a sum of propagating modes with a scalar propagation factor. The special case of transmission lines in nonmagnetic media is explicitly considered. A method to find out the mode characteristics of any open planar MIC line with anisotropic dielectric substrates is developed and applied to some MIC structures of interest, specifically broadside edgecoupled microstrips with inverted and noninverted substrates.

  14. Estimating Magnetic Fields of Homes Near Transmission Lines in the California Power Line Study

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Ximena P.; Kavet, Robert; Crespi, Catherine M.; Hooper, Chris; Silva, J. Michael; Kheifets, Leeka

    2015-01-01

    The California Power Line Study is a case-control study investigating the relation between residences near transmission lines and risk of childhood leukemia. It includes 5788 childhood leukemia cases and 5788 matched primary controls born between 1986 and 2007. We describe the methodology for estimating magnetic fields at study residences as well as for characterizing sources of uncertainty in these estimates. Birth residences of study subjects were geocoded and their distances to transmission lines were ascertained. 302 residences were deemed sufficiently close to transmission lines to have non-zero magnetic fields attributable to the lines. These residences were visited and detailed data, describing the physical configuration and dimensions of the lines contributing to the magnetic field at the residence, were collected. Phasing, loading, and directional load flow data for years of birth and diagnosis for each subject as well as for the day of site visit were obtained from utilities when available; when yearly average load for a particular year was not available, extrapolated values based on expert knowledge and prediction models were obtained. These data were used to estimate the magnetic fields at the center, closest and farthest point of each residence. We found good correlation between calculated fields and spot measurements of fields taken on site during visits. Our modeling strategies yielded similar calculated field estimates, and they were in high agreement with utility extrapolations. Phasing was known for over 90% of the lines. Important sources of uncertainty included a lack of information on the precise location of residences located within apartment buildings or other complexes. Our findings suggest that we were able to achieve high specificity in exposure assessment, which is essential for examining the association between distance to or magnetic fields from power lines and childhood leukemia risk. PMID:26005950

  15. Estimating magnetic fields of homes near transmission lines in the California Power Line Study.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Ximena P; Kavet, Robert; Crespi, Catherine M; Hooper, Chris; Silva, J Michael; Kheifets, Leeka

    2015-07-01

    The California Power Line Study is a case-control study investigating the relation between residences near transmission lines and risk of childhood leukemia. It includes 5788 childhood leukemia cases and 5788 matched primary controls born between 1986 and 2007. We describe the methodology for estimating magnetic fields at study residences as well as for characterizing sources of uncertainty in these estimates. Birth residences of study subjects were geocoded and their distances to transmission lines were ascertained. 302 residences were deemed sufficiently close to transmission lines to have non-zero magnetic fields attributable to the lines. These residences were visited and detailed data, describing the physical configuration and dimensions of the lines contributing to the magnetic field at the residence, were collected. Phasing, loading, and directional load flow data for years of birth and diagnosis for each subject as well as for the day of site visit were obtained from utilities when available; when yearly average load for a particular year was not available, extrapolated values based on expert knowledge and prediction models were obtained. These data were used to estimate the magnetic fields at the center, closest and farthest point of each residence. We found good correlation between calculated fields and spot measurements of fields taken on site during visits. Our modeling strategies yielded similar calculated field estimates, and they were in high agreement with utility extrapolations. Phasing was known for over 90% of the lines. Important sources of uncertainty included a lack of information on the precise location of residences located within apartment buildings or other complexes. Our findings suggest that we were able to achieve high specificity in exposure assessment, which is essential for examining the association between distance to or magnetic fields from power lines and childhood leukemia risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 75 FR 3486 - Susquehanna to Roseland 500kV Transmission Line, Environmental Impact Statement, Delaware Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... Pennsylvania Power and Light Electric Utilities (PPL) and Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE&G), and... single 230 kV power line and towers currently on the right-of-way would be removed and replaced with... the grid at the direction of the Regional Transmission Operator, PJM Interconnection (PJM)....

  17. Extragalactic Jets as Electrical Circuits and Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, Philipp

    2014-10-01

    I describe the first attempt to measure a current in an extended radio galaxy jet: ~1018A at ~50 kpc from the elliptical galaxy's ultra-compact nucleus. This class of jet is known to transport its magnetic energy ``intact'', up to supragalactic scales. I discuss plasma parameters for 3C303 and recent attempts to measure its jet axial current. I discuss analogies with both electrical circuits, - and transmission lines. Power is delivered into a ``load'', whose impedance, Z, is close to that of free space, and the jet power flow I2 Z is ~1035 erg s-1 - broadly consistent with astronomically measured total power outputs, luminosities and lifetimes of AGN-powered radio lobes.The current and power levels are also consistent with SMBH accretion disk model predictions by Stirling Colgate, H. Li, V. Pariev, J. Finn, and others, beginning with Lovelace 1976 (Nature). A further analogy with transmission lines shows how the supragalactic power flows can be disrupted by a complex impedance in the ``circuit.'' Reactive components in space, i.e. a complex Z, can disrupt, reflect or deflect the power flow. This could explain the wide variety of magneto-plasma configurations seen in these systems. Funded by NSERC Discovery Grant A5713.

  18. Single-wire radio frequency transmission lines in biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnoff, Jordan S.; Reynolds, Matthew S.

    2015-05-01

    We present an approach for implanting radio frequency transmission lines in biological tissue, using a single insulated wire surrounded by tissue as a variant of the Goubau single-wire transmission line (SWTL) in air. We extend the Goubau SWTL model to include SWTLs surrounded by lossy dielectrics such as tissue by assuming a propagating mode component in the tissue. We show that a thin wire of radius 63.5 μ m , coated with biocompatible fluorinated ethylene propylene dielectric, exhibits a measured loss of only 1 dB/cm at a frequency of 915 MHz. The model fit to the measured insertion loss is within ±0.3 dB/cm across the 100 MHz to 3 GHz band. This SWTL presents excellent impedance matching to 50 Ω as evidenced by a measured median return loss better than 10 dB across the 100 MHz to 3 GHz range. This approach represents an alternative to near-field magnetic coupling for implanted systems where tissue displacement by a single, thin wire can be tolerated.

  19. Gas flow with straight transition line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovsiannikov, L V

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the limiting case of a gas flow when the constant pressure in the surrounding medium is exactly equal to the critical pressure for the given initial state of the gas.

  20. Risk Analysis using Corrosion Rate Parameter on Gas Transmission Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikirono, B.; Kim, S. J.; Haryadi, G. D.; Huda, A.

    2017-05-01

    In the oil and gas industry, the pipeline is a major component in the transmission and distribution process of oil and gas. Oil and gas distribution process sometimes performed past the pipeline across the various types of environmental conditions. Therefore, in the transmission and distribution process of oil and gas, a pipeline should operate safely so that it does not harm the surrounding environment. Corrosion is still a major cause of failure in some components of the equipment in a production facility. In pipeline systems, corrosion can cause failures in the wall and damage to the pipeline. Therefore it takes care and periodic inspections or checks on the pipeline system. Every production facility in an industry has a level of risk for damage which is a result of the opportunities and consequences of damage caused. The purpose of this research is to analyze the level of risk of 20-inch Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline using Risk-based inspection semi-quantitative based on API 581 associated with the likelihood of failure and the consequences of the failure of a component of the equipment. Then the result is used to determine the next inspection plans. Nine pipeline components were observed, such as a straight pipes inlet, connection tee, and straight pipes outlet. The risk assessment level of the nine pipeline’s components is presented in a risk matrix. The risk level of components is examined at medium risk levels. The failure mechanism that is used in this research is the mechanism of thinning. Based on the results of corrosion rate calculation, remaining pipeline components age can be obtained, so the remaining lifetime of pipeline components are known. The calculation of remaining lifetime obtained and the results vary for each component. Next step is planning the inspection of pipeline components by NDT external methods.

  1. Smaller-loss planar SPP transmission line than conventional microstrip in microwave frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Jun Feng; Tang, Wenxuan; Fan, Yifeng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line is a basic component in all passive devices, integrated circuits, and systems. Microstrip is the most popular transmission line in the microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies, and has been widely used in current electronic devices, circuits, and systems. One of the important issues to be solved in such applications is the relatively large transmission loss of microstrip. Here, we propose a method to reduce the loss of microwave transmission line based on the designable wavenumber of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Using this characteristic, we analyze and experimentally demonstrate the low-loss feature of the SPP transmission line through the perturbation method and S-parameter measurements, respectively. Both simulation and experimental results show that the SPP transmission line has much smaller transmission loss than traditional microstrip with the same size in the microwave frequencies. Hence, the spoof SPP transmission line may make a big step forward in the low-loss circuits and systems. PMID:26983911

  2. Smaller-loss planar SPP transmission line than conventional microstrip in microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Jun Feng; Tang, Wenxuan; Fan, Yifeng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-03-17

    Transmission line is a basic component in all passive devices, integrated circuits, and systems. Microstrip is the most popular transmission line in the microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies, and has been widely used in current electronic devices, circuits, and systems. One of the important issues to be solved in such applications is the relatively large transmission loss of microstrip. Here, we propose a method to reduce the loss of microwave transmission line based on the designable wavenumber of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Using this characteristic, we analyze and experimentally demonstrate the low-loss feature of the SPP transmission line through the perturbation method and S-parameter measurements, respectively. Both simulation and experimental results show that the SPP transmission line has much smaller transmission loss than traditional microstrip with the same size in the microwave frequencies. Hence, the spoof SPP transmission line may make a big step forward in the low-loss circuits and systems.

  3. Smaller-loss planar SPP transmission line than conventional microstrip in microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Jun Feng; Tang, Wenxuan; Fan, Yifeng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-03-01

    Transmission line is a basic component in all passive devices, integrated circuits, and systems. Microstrip is the most popular transmission line in the microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies, and has been widely used in current electronic devices, circuits, and systems. One of the important issues to be solved in such applications is the relatively large transmission loss of microstrip. Here, we propose a method to reduce the loss of microwave transmission line based on the designable wavenumber of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Using this characteristic, we analyze and experimentally demonstrate the low-loss feature of the SPP transmission line through the perturbation method and S-parameter measurements, respectively. Both simulation and experimental results show that the SPP transmission line has much smaller transmission loss than traditional microstrip with the same size in the microwave frequencies. Hence, the spoof SPP transmission line may make a big step forward in the low-loss circuits and systems.

  4. Wild Horse 69-kV transmission line environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Hill County Electric Cooperative Inc. (Hill County) proposes to construct and operate a 69-kV transmission line from its North Gildford Substation in Montana north to the Canadian border. A vicinity project area map is enclosed as a figure. TransCanada Power Corporation (TCP), a Canadian power-marketing company, will own and construct the connecting 69-kV line from the international border to Express Pipeline`s pump station at Wild Horse, Alberta. This Environmental Assessment is prepared for the Department of Energy (DOE) as lead federal agency to comply with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as part of DOE`s review and approval process of the applications filed by Hill County for a DOE Presidential Permit and License to Export Electricity to a foreign country. The purpose of the proposed line is to supply electric energy to a crude oil pump station in Canada, owned by Express Pipeline Ltd. (Express). The pipeline would transport Canadian-produced oil from Hardisty, Alberta, Canada, to Caster, Wyoming. The Express Pipeline is scheduled to be constructed in 1996--97 and will supply crude oil to refineries in Wyoming and the midwest.

  5. Extended optical-emission-line gas in powerful radio galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a search for extended optical-emission-line gas in 43 powerful radio galaxies are presented. Spatially extended optical-emission-line gas is common in these galaxies. The extent and luminosity of the emission-line gas in powerful radio galaxies is an order of magnitude greater than in normal elliptical galaxies of similar optical magnitudes. The total emission-line luminosity is roughly half of the radio luminosity, and the radio luminosity correlates with the narrow-line luminosity over four decades. The near-nuclear emission-line gas is often distributed in a smooth, roughly elliptical feature, centered on and symmetric about the nucleus. The distribution of axial ratios found in these small emission-line nebulae (ELN) is inconsistent with them being disks seen from different orientations. The minor axes of the small regions of emission-line gas show only a weak tendency to align with the position angle of the extended radio source and the major axis of the stellar isophotes. The very extended emission line gas (d{sub neb} > 10 kpc) is filamentary and is found preferentially within the regions occupied by the radio source. The small (d{sub radio} < 100 kpc) radio sources with very extended ELN show evidence of interacting with their gas-rich environments; the large (d{sub radio} > 100 kpc) radio sources with very extended ELN show no signs that they have been disturbed by their surrounding media. Lower limits to the density of the emission line gas at distances of 10 kpc from the galaxy nucleus are {approximately}0.1 cm{sup {minus}3} and upper limits to the total mass in emission line gas are {approximately}10{sup 9} M {circle dot}. The optical nuclear continuum is strongly correlated with the narrow emission line luminosity and is sufficient to photoionize the ELN.

  6. A study of electric power transmission lines for use on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Lloyd B.; Gaustad, Krista L.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical models have been developed to study the operating characteristics of electrical transmission lines for use on the lunar surface. Important design considerations for a transmission line operating on the lunar surface are mass, temperature, and efficiency. Transmission line parameters which impact these considerations include voltage, power loss, and waveform. The electrical and thermal models developed are used to calculate transmission line mass, size, and temperature as a function of voltage, geometry, waveform, location, and efficiency. The analyses include ac and dc for above and below ground operation. Geometries studied include a vacuum-insulated, two-wire transmission line and a solid-dielectric insulated, coaxial transmission line. A brief discussion of design considerations and the models developed is followed by results for parameter studies for both dc and ac transmission lines.

  7. A study of electric power transmission lines for use on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Lloyd B.; Gaustad, Krista L.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical models have been developed to study the operating characteristics of electrical transmission lines for use on the lunar surface. Important design considerations for a transmission line operating on the lunar surface are mass, temperature, and efficiency. Transmission line parameters which impact these considerations include voltage, power loss, and waveform. The electrical and thermal models developed are used to calculate transmission line mass, size, and temperature as a function of voltage, geometry, waveform, location, and efficiency. The analyses include ac and dc for above and below ground operation. Geometries studied include a vacuum-insulated, two-wire transmission line and a solid-dielectric insulated, coaxial transmission line. A brief discussion of design considerations and the models developed is followed by results for parameter studies for both dc and ac transmission lines.

  8. Material selection of a ferrimagnetic loaded coaxial delay line for phasing gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J M; Reale, D V; Cravey, W H; Garcia, R S; Barnett, D H; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2015-08-01

    Implementing nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) technology in the design of a high power microwave source has the benefits of producing a comparatively small and lightweight solid-state system where the emission frequency is easily tuned. Usually, smaller in physical size, single NLTLs may produce significantly less power than its vacuum based counterparts. However, combining individual NLTL outputs electrically or in free-space is an attractive solution to achieve greater output power. This paper discusses a method for aligning a four element NLTL antenna array with coaxial geometry using easily adjustable temporal delay lines. These delay lines, sometimes referred to as pulse shock lines or pulse sharpening lines, are placed serially in front of the main NLTL line. The propagation velocity in each delay line is set by the voltage amplitude of an incident pulse as well as the magnetic field bias. Each is adjustable although for the system described in this paper, the voltage is held constant while the bias is changed through applying an external DC magnetic field of varying magnitude. Three different ferrimagnetic materials are placed in the temporal delay line to evaluate which yields the greatest range of electrical delay with the least amount of variability from consecutive shots.

  9. On-line gas chromatographic analysis of airborne particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hering, Susanne V; Goldstein, Allen H

    2012-01-03

    A method and apparatus for the in-situ, chemical analysis of an aerosol. The method may include the steps of: collecting an aerosol; thermally desorbing the aerosol into a carrier gas to provide desorbed aerosol material; transporting the desorbed aerosol material onto the head of a gas chromatography column; analyzing the aerosol material using a gas chromatograph, and quantizing the aerosol material as it evolves from the gas chromatography column. The apparatus includes a collection and thermal desorption cell, a gas chromatograph including a gas chromatography column, heated transport lines coupling the cell and the column; and a quantization detector for aerosol material evolving from the gas chromatography column.

  10. Fuzzy logic based on-line fault detection and classification in transmission line.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Shuma; Sinha, Nidul; Dorendrajit, Thingam

    2016-01-01

    This study presents fuzzy logic based online fault detection and classification of transmission line using Programmable Automation and Control technology based National Instrument Compact Reconfigurable i/o (CRIO) devices. The LabVIEW software combined with CRIO can perform real time data acquisition of transmission line. When fault occurs in the system current waveforms are distorted due to transients and their pattern changes according to the type of fault in the system. The three phase alternating current, zero sequence and positive sequence current data generated by LabVIEW through CRIO-9067 are processed directly for relaying. The result shows that proposed technique is capable of right tripping action and classification of type of fault at high speed therefore can be employed in practical application.

  11. Gas-sampling accuracy unaffected by in-line separator

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, V.C.

    1997-01-13

    How sampling accuracy is affected by the use of an in-line separator during the sampling of unprocessed natural gas has been studied at Chevron`s Sand Hills gas plant, in Crane, Texas. In experiments on three pipelines, the in-line separator caused no statistically significant condensation of unprocessed gas. Entrained NGL in the pipeline was observed, however, and gas liquid collected in the separator. The in-line separator is used to remove any liquid entrainment in the sample gas stream to protect the gas chromatograph system. There is a concern, however, that thermodynamic conditions in the in-line separator cause the heavy, gaseous-phase hydrocarbon components to condense. The paper discusses measurement accuracy, test locations, sampling and analysis systems, sampling methods, and operation.

  12. A computer code to calculate line by line atmospheric transmission spectra on a microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safren, H. G.

    1987-01-01

    A computer program is described which calculates line by line atmospheric transmission spectra on a microcomputer. Radiance calculations are not included. The program is written in FORTRAN and could be modified to run on a microcomputer other than the one on which it was implemented, except that the plotting routine would have to be replaced. The program is based on the 1978 Air Force Geophysics Laboratory LASER routine, and uses absorption line data from the 1982 update of the AFGL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation; segments of needed line data are taken from the tape, preprocessed into the form used by the program and stored on floppy disks. The program calculates transmission spectra over a variety of paths and spanning an arbitrarily chosen wavelength or frequency range; the path may be chosen to be horizontal, vertical or slanted at any zenith angle, and may extend between any two altitudes between 0 and 15 km. Aerosol effects are included, presently based on the 1976 Shettle and Fenn models, plus some molecular continuum effects and Rayleigh scattering.

  13. 77 FR 48149 - Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 24, 2012 Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C. (Columbia), P.O. Box 1273... directed to Fredric J. George, Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C., P.O. Box 1273,...

  14. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    John L Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-04-01

    The West Virginia University natural gas transmission line leak detection research is only considering using readily available 1/2 inch pipeline access ports for the detection of leak generated signals. The main problem with leak signals is the low signal to noise ratio. One of the acoustic signals associated with gas escaping through a leak is only temporary and is in the form of a rarefaction wave originating when the leak is formed. Due to pipeline friction, over distance such a step function transitions to a ramp function. The ability to identify a leak by pipeline monitoring and signal processing depends a great deal on the quality and signal to noise ratio of the characteristics of the detectors used. Combinations of sensing devices are being used for the WVU sensor package and are contained in a removable sensor housing. The four sensors currently installed are a 1/2 inch 3 Hz-40 Khz microphone, an audible range moving coil sensor, a piezo-electric pressure transducer, and the WVU designed floating 3 inch diameter diaphragm to detect flow transient induced pressure ramp type signals. The WVU diaphragm sensor, which is currently under development, uses the same diaphragm principle as a high quality capacitance type microphone, but utilizes aerodynamic signal amplification. This type of amplification only amplifies the ramp-signal itself, not the random pipeline noise.

  15. 11. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF GAS PRODUCER.' From George R. Cooper (Wilputte Corporation). 'Operating Overview of a Producer Gas Plant (12 Machines) at Kingsport, Tennessee.' Presented at the Fifth Annual International Conference on Coal Gasification, Liquefaction and Conversion to Electricity. University of Pittsburgh, August 2, 1978. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  16. Management of localized energy in discrete nonlinear transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Yasui, S.; Kimura, M.; Hikihara, T.; Sievers, A. J.

    2007-11-01

    The manipulation of locked intrinsic localized modes/discrete breathers is studied experimentally in nonlinear electric transmission line arrays. Introducing a static lattice impurity in the form of a capacitor, resistor or inductor has been used both to seed or destroy and attract or repel these localized excitations. In a nonlinear di-element array counter propagating short electrical pulses traveling in the acoustic branch are used to generate a stationary intrinsic localized mode in the optic branch at any particular lattice site. By changing the pulse polarity the same localized excitation can be eliminated demonstrating that the dynamical impurity associated with the propagating electrical pulse in the acoustic branch can trigger optical localized mode behavior.

  17. Monolithic high voltage nonlinear transmission line fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, G.A.

    1994-10-04

    A process for fabricating sequential inductors and varistor diodes of a monolithic, high voltage, nonlinear, transmission line in GaAs is disclosed. An epitaxially grown laminate is produced by applying a low doped active n-type GaAs layer to an n-plus type GaAs substrate. A heavily doped p-type GaAs layer is applied to the active n-type layer and a heavily doped n-type GaAs layer is applied to the p-type layer. Ohmic contacts are applied to the heavily doped n-type layer where diodes are desired. Multiple layers are then either etched away or Oxygen ion implanted to isolate individual varistor diodes. An insulator is applied between the diodes and a conductive/inductive layer is thereafter applied on top of the insulator layer to complete the process. 6 figs.

  18. Monolithic high voltage nonlinear transmission line fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Gregory A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for fabricating sequential inductors and varactor diodes of a monolithic, high voltage, nonlinear, transmission line in GaAs is disclosed. An epitaxially grown laminate is produced by applying a low doped active n-type GaAs layer to an n-plus type GaAs substrate. A heavily doped p-type GaAs layer is applied to the active n-type layer and a heavily doped n-type GaAs layer is applied to the p-type layer. Ohmic contacts are applied to the heavily doped n-type layer where diodes are desired. Multiple layers are then either etched away or Oxygen ion implanted to isolate individual varactor diodes. An insulator is applied between the diodes and a conductive/inductive layer is thereafter applied on top of the insulator layer to complete the process.

  19. Acoustic solitons in waveguides with Helmholtz resonators: transmission line approach.

    PubMed

    Achilleos, V; Richoux, O; Theocharis, G; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2015-02-01

    We report experimental results and study theoretically soliton formation and propagation in an air-filled acoustic waveguide side loaded with Helmholtz resonators. We propose a theoretical modeling of the system, which relies on a transmission-line approach, leading to a nonlinear dynamical lattice model. The latter allows for an analytical description of the various soliton solutions for the pressure, which are found by means of dynamical systems and multiscale expansion techniques. These solutions include Boussinesq-like and Korteweg-de Vries pulse-shaped solitons that are observed in the experiment, as well as nonlinear Schrödinger envelope solitons, that are predicted theoretically. The analytical predictions are in excellent agreement with direct numerical simulations and in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  20. Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Transmission-Line Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavallaee, Amir Ali

    Terahertz quantum-cascade (QC) lasers operating at 0.6 - 5 THz (λ ˜ 60 - 500 µm) are poised to become the dominant solid-state sources of continuous-wave (cw) far-infrared radiation enabling applications in terahertz spectroscopy, imaging, and sensing. QC-lasers are the longest wavelength semiconductor laser sources in which terahertz gain is obtained from electronic intersubband radiative transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure quantum wells. Since their invention in 2001, rapid development has enabled demonstration of cw powers greater than 100 mW. However, challenges still remain in the areas of operating temperature, laser efficiency and power, and beam quality to name a few. The highest-temperature operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (200 K pulsed, 117 K cw) depends on the use of a low-loss "metal-metal" waveguide where the active gain material is sandwiched between two metal cladding layers; a technique similar, in concept, to microstrip transmission line technology at microwave frequencies. Due to the subwavelength transverse dimensions of the metal-metal waveguide, however, obtaining a directive beam pattern and efficient out-coupling of THz power is non-trivial. This thesis reports the demonstration of a one-dimensional waveguide for terahertz quantum-cascade lasers that acts as a leaky-wave antenna and tailors laser radiation in one dimension to a directional beam. This scheme adapts microwave transmission-line metamaterial concepts to a planar structure realized in terahertz metal-metal waveguide technology and is fundamentally different from distributed feedback/photonic crystal structures that work based on Bragg scattering of propagating modes. The leaky-wave metamaterial antenna operates based on a propagating mode with an effective phase index smaller than unity such that it radiates in the surface direction via a leaky-wave mechanism. Surface emission (˜ 40° from broadside) with a single directive beam (FWHM ˜ 15°) at 2.74 THz

  1. Transmission line corona losses under hoar frost conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lahti, K.; Nousiainen, K.; Lahtinen, M.

    1997-04-01

    Transmission line corona losses under hoar frost conditions were studied in the climate room of the high voltage laboratory of Tampere University of Technology. The measurements were performed using a coaxial measurement arrangement with different bundle and conductor types. The effects of conductor and bundle type, temperature, applied voltage and hoar frost thickness on corona losses were investigated. A two-conductor bundle had corona losses about 2.5--5 times higher than a three-conductor bundle. Relatively thin hoar frosts were used in the tests. Even the thinnest hoar frost resulted in remarkable corona losses and the losses were very sensitive to changes in the hoar frost thickness. The ambient temperature had a strong influence on the measured losses.

  2. Evaluation of Fibre Lifetime in Optical Ground Wire Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunvalds, R.; Ciekurs, A.; Porins, J.; Supe, A.

    2017-06-01

    In the research, measurements of polarisation mode dispersion of two OPGWs (optical ground wire transmission lines), in total four fibres, have been carried out, and the expected lifetime of the infrastructure has been assessed on the basis of these measurements. The cables under consideration were installed in 1995 and 2011, respectively. Measurements have shown that polarisation mode dispersion values for cable installed in 1995 are four times higher than that for cable installed in 2011, which could mainly be explained by technological differences in fibre production and lower fibre polarisation mode dispersion requirements in 1995 due to lack of high-speed (over 10 Gbit/s) optical transmission systems. The calculation methodology of non-refusal work and refusal probabilities, using the measured polarisation mode dispersion parameters, is proposed in the paper. Based on reliability calculations, the expected lifetime is then predicted, showing that all measured fibres most likely will be operational within minimum theoretical service life of 25 years accepted by the industry.

  3. Research on cost control and management in high voltage transmission line construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobin

    2017-05-01

    Enterprises. The cost control is of vital importance to the construction enterprises. It is the key to the profitability of the transmission line project, which is related to the survival and development of the electric power construction enterprises. Due to the long construction line, complex and changeable construction terrain as well as large construction costs of transmission line, it is difficult for us to take accurate and effective cost control on the project implementation of entire transmission line. Therefore, the cost control of transmission line project is a complicated and arduous task. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to study the cost control scheme of transmission line project by a more scientific and efficient way. Based on the characteristics of the construction project of the transmission line project, this paper analyzes the construction cost structure of the transmission line project and the current cost control problem of the transmission line project, and demonstrates the necessity and feasibility of studying the cost control scheme of the transmission line project more accurately. In this way, the dynamic cycle cost control process including plan, implementation, feedback, correction, modification and re-implement is achieved to realize the accurate and effective cost control of entire electric power transmission line project.

  4. 76 FR 21338 - Reopening of Scoping Period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Reopening of Scoping Period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement... (DOE) is reopening the public scoping period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project... environmental impacts from its proposal to grant a Presidential Permit to Northern Pass Transmission, LLC,...

  5. 49 CFR 192.711 - Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: General requirements for... Maintenance § 192.711 Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures. (a) Temporary repairs..., imperfection, or damage that impairs its serviceability is found in a segment of steel transmission...

  6. 49 CFR 192.711 - Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: General requirements for... Maintenance § 192.711 Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures. (a) Temporary repairs..., imperfection, or damage that impairs its serviceability is found in a segment of steel transmission...

  7. 77 FR 42302 - Texas Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 2, 2012 Texas Gas Transmission, LLC (Texas Gas), 3800 Frederica Street... this application should be directed to Kathy D. Fort, Manager of Certificates and Tariffs, Texas Gas...

  8. 78 FR 44111 - Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 1, 2013, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC (Florida Gas), 1300 Main... Electronic Flow Measurement, all located in Palm Beach County, Florida. Florida Gas' prior notice request is...

  9. 77 FR 48150 - Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... sections 157.205 and 157.210 of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended, to... Energy Regulatory Commission Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 25, Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation (Carolina Gas), 601 Old Taylor...

  10. Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay and Transmission System (POLARATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuracko, K.

    2004-07-15

    POLARATS (Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay And Transmission System) is being developed by YAHSGS LLC (YAHSGS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide remote, unattended monitoring of environmental parameters under harsh environmental conditions. In particular, instrumental design and engineering is oriented towards protection of human health in the Arctic, and with the additional goal of advancing Arctic education and research. POLARATS will obtain and transmit environmental data from hardened monitoring devices deployed in locations important to understanding atmospheric and aquatic pollutant migration as it is biomagnified in Arctic food chains. An Internet- and personal computer (PC)-based educational module will provide real time sensor data, on-line educational content, and will be integrated with workbooks and textbooks for use in middle and high school science programs. The educational elements of POLARATS include an Internet-based educational module that will instruct students in the use of the data and how those data fit into changing Arctic environments and food chains. POLARATS will: (1) Enable students, members of the community, and scientific researchers to monitor local environmental conditions in real time over the Internet; and (2) Provide additional educational benefits through integration with middle- and high-school science curricula. Information will be relayed from POLARATS devices to classrooms and libraries along with custom-designed POLARATS teaching materials that will be integrated into existing curricula to enhance the educational benefits realized from the information obtained.

  11. LOSS ESTIMATE FOR ITER ECH TRANSMISSION LINE INCLUDING MULTIMODE PROPAGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Michael; Bigelow, Tim S; Caughman, John B; Rasmussen, David A

    2010-01-01

    The ITER electron cyclotron heating (ECH) transmission lines (TLs) are 63.5-mm-diam corrugated waveguides that will each carry 1 MW of power at 170 GHz. The TL is defined here as the corrugated wave guide system connecting the gyrotron mirror optics unit (MO U) to the entrance of the ECH launcher and includes miter bends and other corrugated wave guide components. The losses on the ITER TL have been calculated for four possible cases corresponding to having HE(11) mode purity at the input of the TL of 100, 97, 90, and 80%. The losses due to coupling, ohmic, and mode conversion loss are evaluated in detail using a numerical code and analytical approaches. Estimates of the calorimetric loss on the line show that the output power is reduced by about 5, +/- 1% because of ohmic loss in each of the four cases. Estimates of the mode conversion loss show that the fraction of output power in the HE(11) mode is similar to 3% smaller than the fraction of input power in the HE(11) mode. High output mode purity therefore can be achieved only with significantly higher input mode purity. Combining both ohmic and mode conversion loss, the efficiency of the TL from the gyrotron MOU to the ECH launcher can be roughly estimated in theory as 92% times the fraction of input power in the HE(11) mode.

  12. Vacuum transmission lines for pulse sharpening and diagnostics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Di Capua, M.S.; Goerz, D.A.; Freytag, E.K.

    1987-06-01

    We investigated the propagation of MV electrical pulses along coaxial transmission lines (TL) in vacuum with network simulations and experiments. One goal was to establish how well a 3 m-long TL would sharpen the output pulse of a relativistic electron beam accelerator. Sharpening occurs as the cathode of the TL emits electrons and the current flow forces the TL into magnetic cut-off. The other goal was to determine how well field emission must be suppressed in a TL to avoid distortion of a propagating pulse. Simulations predict a four-fold risetime improvement (8 ns to 2 ns) through magnetic insulation in a TL with an electrical length (10 ns) comparable to the risetime of the input pulse. In the laboratory we have shown a five-fold improvement (15 to 3 ns) with a velvet covered 3-m line and a 7.5 fold improvement (2 ns) when a vacuum flashover switch was incorporated between the first third and the last two thirds of the TL. Simple arguments and TL simulations suggest that even a small fraction (1 or 2%) of Child-Langmuir (CL) space charge limited emission will distort a propagating voltage pulse. This result is of particular importance when the TL is part of a voltage diagnostic system.

  13. Electric Power High-Voltage Transmission Lines: Design Options, Cost, and Electric and Magnetic Field Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, J. B.; Pentecost, E. D.; Roman, R. D.; Traczyk, P. A.

    1994-11-01

    The aim of this report is to provide background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist preparers and reviewers of the section on alternatives in environmental documents. This report will give the reviewing individual a better appreciation of the factors affecting EMF strengths near high-voltage transmission lines and the approaches that might be used to reduce EMF impacts on humans and other biological species in the vicinity of high-voltage overhead or underground alternating-current (ac) or direct-current (dc) transmission lines.

  14. Structural health monitoring of compression connectors for overhead transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John; Swindeman, Joseph P; Ren, Fei; Chan, John

    2017-01-01

    Two-stage aluminum conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR) compression connectors are extensively used in US overhead transmission lines. The connectors are made by crimping a steel sleeve onto a steel core and an aluminum sleeve over aluminum conductive strands. The connectors are designed to operate at temperatures up to 125 C, but their performance is increasingly degrading because of overloading of lines. Currently, electric utilities conduct routine line inspections using thermal and electrical measurements. However, information about the structural integrity of connectors cannot be obtained. In this work, structural health monitoring (SHM) of compression connectors was studied using electromechanical impedance (EMI) analysis. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-5A was identified as a smart material for SHM. A flexible high-temperature bonding layer was used to address challenges in PZT integration due to a significant difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of PZT and the aluminum substrate. The steel joint on the steel core was investigated because it is responsible for the ultimate tensile strength of the connector. Tensile testing was used to create structural damage to the joint, or steel core pullout, and thermal cycling introduced additional structural perturbations. EMI measurements were conducted between the tests. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) of EMI was identified as a damage index. The use of steel joints has been shown to enable SHM under simulated conditions. The EMI signature is sensitive to variations in structural conditions. RMSD can be correlated to the structural health of a connector and has potential for use in the SHM and structural integrity evaluation.

  15. Structural health monitoring of compression connectors for overhead transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John; Swindeman, Joseph P.; Ren, Fei; Chan, John

    2017-04-01

    Two-stage aluminum conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR) compression connectors are extensively used in US overhead transmission lines. The connectors are made by crimping a steel sleeve onto a steel core and an aluminum sleeve over electrical conducting aluminum strands. The connectors are designed to operate at temperatures up to 125°C, but their performance is increasingly degrading because of overloading of lines. Currently, electric utilities conduct routine line inspections using thermal and electrical measurements, but these methods do not provide information about the structural integrity of connectors. In this work, structural health monitoring (SHM) of compression connectors was studied using electromechanical impedance (EMI) analysis. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-5A was identified as a smart material for SHM. A flexible high-temperature bonding layer was used to address challenges in PZT integration due to a significant difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of PZT and the aluminum substrate. The steel joint on the steel core was investigated because it is responsible for the ultimate tensile strength of the connector. Tensile testing was used to induce structural damage to the joint, or steel core pullout, and thermal cycling introduced additional structural perturbations. EMI measurements were conducted between the tests. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) of EMI was identified as a damage index. The use of steel joints has been shown to enable SHM under simulated conditions. The EMI signature is sensitive to variations in structural conditions. RMSD can be correlated to the structural health of a connector and has potential for use in the SHM and structural integrity evaluation.

  16. An Insight on Right of Way and its Cost for Power Transmission Cable and Conventional Overhead Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, P.; Pachori, A.; Khandelwal, T.

    2013-12-01

    This paper provides the complete information related to Right of Way (RoW) for the construction of new power transmission line (TL) in terms of present cost for overhead transmission line and underground XLPE transmission cable. The former part of the paper describes the general procedure and rules for acquisition of land for RoW by transmission asset owner (TAO) while in the later part the cost associated to acquire RoW and its impact on the cost of adjacent land have been detailed. It also discusses the actual dismantling cost including the cost of waste metal what TAO get after completion of lifecycle of TL due to increase in metal prices. In this paper cost of RoW after completion of lifecycle of TL is also highlighted. This paper compares the cost of RoW for overhead transmission line and underground XLPE transmission cable for construction of new TL. Also for old transmission infrastructure cost of RoW for change from overhead transmission line to underground XLPE transmission cable is detailed by application of replacement model.

  17. 78 FR 41393 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC: Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC: Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Line 1570 Project Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting The staff...

  18. Africa; Expanding market creates more gas lines

    SciTech Connect

    Quarles, W.R.; Thiede, K.; Parent, L.

    1990-11-01

    The authors report on pipeline development activities in Africa. They discuss how a growing European market for gas has increased potential pipeline construction in Africa, especially for Algeria, Egypt, and Libya.

  19. Transmission line resonance technique for eccentric core optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgantzos, E.; Boucouvalas, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    In several cases optical fibers in telecommunications have cores of non circular geometry. Fibre optic deformations appear in optical fibres for many reasons. Optical fibre core ellipticity for example where the fibre optic core is not perfectly circular due to fibre optic manufacturing tolerances, is measured and often is a problem. Optical fibre core eccentricity, where the fibre core is not on the axis of the fibre, but it is offset by a small length. This is another issue and very important for ensuring performance low loss splices and connector losses. Both of ellipticity and eccentricity are specified in accordance to international standards for fibre optic manufacturing telecommunications grade fibres. The present paper studies ellipticity and core eccentricity specifically and presents a new method for analysing their effect. We present an extension of the transmission line technique as a means of studying such fibers and deriving necessary parameters. Conformal mapping on the other hand is a simple mathematical tool by which we can generate sets of orthogonal two-dimensional coordinate systems. Shortly a conformal map of Cartesian two-dimensional space is defined by any analytical function W(z) where z, w, are: z = x + jy, W = θ + j φ The function deriving by the conformal mapping transformation h(θ ,φ )=| ∂w/∂z | = 1/|∂z/∂w|, can be used in order to define ∇A → and ∇×A → where A → is the magnetic or electric field in the derived orthogonal coordinate system. Useful conformal maps for fiber optics applications should have the property that the equation θ(x, y) = constant, is forming closed curves in a Cartesian two-dimensional space (x,y). If θ(x, y) = constant represents a set of co-eccentric circles, we obtain the normal case of conventional fibers with circular cores. If θ(x, y) = constant represents a set of eclipses, we are have the formation of elliptic core optical fibers. If θ(x, y) = constant represents a set of

  20. Effects of high-voltage transmission lines on honeybees

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.; Bindokas, V.P.; Gauger, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    When shielded and exposed colonies were placed at incremental distances at a right angle from a 760-kV transmission line different thresholds for biologic effects were obtained. Hive exposures were controlled (E-field: 7, 5.5, 4.1, 1.8, and 0.65 to 0.85 kV/m) by variable height current collectors; shielded hives under the line behave normally. Exposure to 7 kV/m can produce the following sequence of events: (1) increased motor activity and transient hive temperature increase; (2) abnormal propolization; (3) retarded hive weight gain; (4) excess queen cell production with queen loss; (5) reduction of sealed brood area; and (6) poor winter survival. No biological effects were detected below 4.1 kV/m, thus the ''biological effects corridor'' is limited to approximately 23 m beyond a ground projection of each outer phase wire. Hive architecture enhances E-fields and creates shock hazards for bees. Intra-hive E-fields (15 to 100+ kV/m) were measured with a displacement current sensor and fiber optic telemetry link. Step-potential-induced currents up to 0.5 uA were measured with a bee model in hives at 7 kV/m. To investigate further the role of shock versus electric field exposure the study was continued to develop hive entrance extensions (porches), which produce controlled bee exposure to E-field or shock, and to test the feasibility of using these porches in such a study. Biological effects (e.g., abnormal propolization, retarded hive weight, queen loss) found in colonies with total-hive exposure were produced by entrance-only exposure of adult bees. We now have an exposure system in which E-field and shock can be separately controlled to reproduce the biological effects. 10 refs.

  1. 65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR THE HOT BLAST STOVES OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. On-line ultrasonic gas entrainment monitor

    DOEpatents

    Day, Clifford K.; Pedersen, Herbert N.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus employing ultrasonic energy for detecting and measuring the quantity of gas bubbles present in liquids being transported through pipes. An ultrasonic transducer is positioned along the longitudinal axis of a fluid duct, oriented to transmit acoustic energy radially of the duct around the circumference of the enclosure walls. The back-reflected energy is received centrally of the duct and interpreted as a measure of gas entrainment. One specific embodiment employs a conical reflector to direct the transmitted acoustic energy radially of the duct and redirect the reflected energy back to the transducer for reception. A modified embodiment employs a cylindrical ultrasonic transducer for this purpose.

  3. The Gas Flow from the Gas Attenuator to the Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D.D.

    2010-12-03

    The gas leak from the gas attenuator to the main beam line of the Linac Coherent Light Source has been evaluated, with the effect of the Knudsen molecular beam included. It has been found that the gas leak from the gas attenuator of the present design, with nitrogen as a working gas, does not exceed 10{sup -5} torr x l/s even at the highest pressure in the main attenuation cell (20 torr).

  4. Hybrid Transmission Line for ECRH in the Helically Symmetric Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radder, J. W.; Likin, K. M.; Anderson, F. S. B.; Anderson, D. T.

    2008-04-01

    The HSX oversized, mode-converting ECRH transmission line has been upgraded to a hybrid system to increase launched microwave power and reduce electrical arcing. Filtering of high-order, spurious modes ensures efficient coupling to a Gaussian beam for optimal electron heating. A Vlasov mode converter and two phase-correcting ellipsoidal mirrors convert the TE02 gyrotron output mode to a symmetric, linearly polarized, microwave beam. A swappable twist reflector plate rotates beam polarization for 2nd-harmonic X-mode or fundamental O-mode ECRH. Long distances are traversed by coupling the beam to a dual-mode (TE11 + TM11), smooth, circular cross-section waveguide. This system has been successfully tested without arcing for 50 ms pulses and over 100 kW of launched power. Analysis of the microwave beam for 50 kW, 2 ms microwave pulses reveals agreement with predicted beam shapes at two beam locations. The new system has also demonstrated increased plasma stored energy for ECRH plasmas with equal launched power.

  5. Transmission lines with very lossy conductors and seawater return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G. E.

    1982-10-01

    There are potential benefits in undersea cable technology by the use of copper-coated non-conductors (Kevlar) or poor conductors (graphite) with conventional or sea-water outer conductor. Kevlar is a very strong non-conductive fiber even in small sizes and it can be fabricated as a bundle of many copper-coated strands. Non-metallic conductors are being developed for a wide range of uses. For example, graphite materials are being used to provide strong flexible golf clubs and spark plug wires that cause minimal interference with radio reception. There is extensive research and development in these materials such as development of light-weight strong materials for airplanes. The particular application of interest in the research reported here is the cables used as undersea data links for transmitting signals from hydrophones under water to sonobuoy radio transmitters at the surface of the ocean. Non-metallic conducting materials have recently shown impressive capabilities and prospective future gains from the viewpoint of such ocean applications including high strength, low specific gravity and relatively low resistance. This report is intended to provide the technical development of such data transmission lines in order to provide the basis for design of such cables. The technical basis for the design of undersea cables is provided in considerable detail. The electromagnetic theory, algorithm development, and properties of materials are described. Optimal designs are considered.

  6. Requirements for self-magnetically insulated transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    VanDevender, J. Pace; Pointon, Timothy D.; Seidel, David B.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Jennings, Christopher; Oliver, Bryan V.; Schneider, Larry X.

    2015-03-01

    Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) connect pulsed-power drivers with a load. Although the technology was originally developed in the 1970s and is widely used today in super power generators, failure of the technology is the principal limitation on the power that can be delivered to an experiment. We address issues that are often overlooked, rejected after inadequate simulations, or covered by overly conservative assumptions: (i) electron retrapping in coupling MITLs to loads, (ii) the applicability of collisionless versus collisional electron flow, (iii) power transport efficiency as a function of the geometry at the beginning of the MITL, (iv) gap closure and when gap closure can be neglected, and (v) the role of negative ions in causing anode plasmas and enhancing current losses. We suggest a practical set of conservative design requirements for self-magnetically insulated electron flow based on the results discussed in this paper and on previously published results. The requirements are not necessarily severe constraints in all MITL applications; however, each of the 18 suggested requirements should be examined in the design of a MITL and in the investigation of excessive losses.

  7. Electron flow stability in magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, D. V.; Genoni, T. C.; Clark, R. E.; Welch, D. R.; Stygar, W. A.

    2011-03-01

    We evaluate the stability of electron current flow in high-power magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). A detailed model of electron flow in cross-field gaps yields a dispersion relation for electromagnetic (EM) transverse magnetic waves [R. C. Davidson et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 2332 (1984)] which is solved numerically to obtain growth rates for unstable modes in various sheath profiles. These results are compared with two-dimensional (2D) EM particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of electron flow in high-power MITLs. We find that the macroscopic properties (charge and current densities and self-fields) of the equilibrium profiles observed in the simulations are well represented by the laminar-flow model of Davidson et al. Idealized simulations of sheared flow in electron sheaths yield growth rates for both long (diocotron) and short (magnetron) wavelength instabilities that are in good agreement with the dispersion analysis. We conclude that electron sheaths that evolve self-consistently from space-charged-limited emission of electrons from the cathode in well-resolved 2D EM PIC simulations form stable profiles.

  8. A dielectric-filled magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yu-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Zhang, Jian-De

    2015-03-01

    A dielectric-filled magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (DFMILO) is presented in this paper, which introduces a low-loss dielectric to fill its resonant cavities and thus improves its technical performances. The fundamental mode frequency of the DFMILO is derived and its dispersion curve is analyzed. In simulation, high-power microwave is generated from the DFMILO with peak power of 3.1 GW, frequency of 1.467 GHz, and peak power conversion efficiency of 14.0% when the voltage is 455 kV and the current is 48.7 kA. However, the peak power conversion efficiency of the relevant unfilled MILO is only 8.5%. The comparative result shows that the filled dielectric helps to enhance the power conversion efficiency of the DFMILO. In addition, the filled dielectric contributes to decrease the MILO's dominant frequency, which means that if the dominant frequency is same, the volume of the DFMILO (especially the low-frequency DFMILO) is more compact than that of the relevant unfilled MILO.

  9. Electron Flow Stability in Magnetically Insulated Vacuum Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, D. V.; Genoni, T. C.; Clark, R. E.; Welch, D. R.; Stygar, W. A.

    2010-11-01

    We evaluate the stability of electron current flow in high power magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). A detailed model of electron flow in cross-field gaps yields a dispersion relation for electromagnetic TM waves [1] which is solved numerically to obtain growth rates for unstable modes in various density profiles. These results are compared with 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of electron flow in high power MITLs. We find that the macroscopic properties (charge and current density, self-fields) of the equilibrium profiles observed in the simulations are well represented by the laminar flow model of [1]. Idealized simulations of sheared flow in electron sheaths show that unstable, sharp-cutoff radial density profiles rapidly evolve into stable flows with a more gradual density gradient. Growth rates for both long (diocotron) and short (magnetron) wavelength instabilities observed in the simulations agree well with the dispersion analysis. We conclude that electron sheaths in high power 2D MITL flows form stable profiles and that sheath expansion is not caused by flow instability. Subsequently, we investigate the impact of electrode plasma formation and evolution on sheath stability and gap closure using PIC simulations. We compare MITL simulations with experimental measurements. [1] R. C. Davidson, et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 2332 (1984).

  10. Electron flow stability in magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, D. V.; Genoni, T. C.; Clark, R. E.; Welch, D. R.; Stygar, W. A.

    2011-03-15

    We evaluate the stability of electron current flow in high-power magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). A detailed model of electron flow in cross-field gaps yields a dispersion relation for electromagnetic (EM) transverse magnetic waves [R. C. Davidson et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 2332 (1984)] which is solved numerically to obtain growth rates for unstable modes in various sheath profiles. These results are compared with two-dimensional (2D) EM particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of electron flow in high-power MITLs. We find that the macroscopic properties (charge and current densities and self-fields) of the equilibrium profiles observed in the simulations are well represented by the laminar-flow model of Davidson et al. Idealized simulations of sheared flow in electron sheaths yield growth rates for both long (diocotron) and short (magnetron) wavelength instabilities that are in good agreement with the dispersion analysis. We conclude that electron sheaths that evolve self-consistently from space-charged-limited emission of electrons from the cathode in well-resolved 2D EM PIC simulations form stable profiles.

  11. Precision electron flow measurements in a disk transmission line.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Waylon T.; Pelock, Michael D.; Martin, Jeremy Paul; Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Savage, Mark Edward; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.; Pointon, Timothy David

    2008-01-01

    An analytic model for electron flow in a system driving a fixed inductive load is described and evaluated with particle in cell simulations. The simple model allows determining the impedance profile for a magnetically insulated transmission line given the minimum gap desired, and the lumped inductance inside the transition to the minimum gap. The model allows specifying the relative electron flow along the power flow direction, including cases where the fractional electron flow decreases in the power flow direction. The electrons are able to return to the cathode because they gain energy from the temporally rising magnetic field. The simulations were done with small cell size to reduce numerical heating. An experiment to compare electron flow to the simulations was done. The measured electron flow is {approx}33% of the value from the simulations. The discrepancy is assumed to be due to a reversed electric field at the cathode because of the inductive load and falling electron drift velocity in the power flow direction. The simulations constrain the cathode electric field to zero, which gives the highest possible electron flow.

  12. Electron flow stability in magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines.

    SciTech Connect

    Genoni, Thomas C.; Stygar, William A.; Welch, Dale Robert; Clark, R. E.; Rose, David V.

    2010-11-01

    We evaluate the stability of electron current flow in high-power magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). A detailed model of electron flow in cross-field gaps yields a dispersion relation for electromagnetic (EM) transverse magnetic waves [R. C. Davidson et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 2332 (1984)] which is solved numerically to obtain growth rates for unstable modes in various sheath profiles. These results are compared with two-dimensional (2D) EM particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of electron flow in high-power MITLs. We find that the macroscopic properties (charge and current densities and self-fields) of the equilibrium profiles observed in the simulations are well represented by the laminar-flow model of Davidson et al. Idealized simulations of sheared flow in electron sheaths yield growth rates for both long (diocotron) and short (magnetron) wavelength instabilities that are in good agreement with the dispersion analysis. We conclude that electron sheaths that evolve self-consistently from space-charged-limited emission of electrons from the cathode in well-resolved 2D EM PIC simulations form stable profiles.

  13. An improved X-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Jin-Chuan; Fan, Yu-Wei; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Shu, Ting

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an improved X-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) design that addresses several deficiencies found in previous experiments. In the new structure, an improved design of the launch point region is introduced, which improves the electric field uniformity on the cathode surface in order to suppress cathode flare formation. In addition, a new design for the load region is presented where the end of the cathode consists of four polymer velvet rings, a mesh is adopted as the anode of the load, and a metal barrel is employed as the beam dump. These improvements reduce energy deposition in the beam dump to less than 30 J/g, which probably suppresses plasma formation in the load region. Typical simulation results of the improved MILO show that when the applied voltage is 690 kV and beam current is 48 kA, high power microwave with an average power of 3.5 GW and a frequency of 9.26 GHz is generated. Furthermore, new meshes are specially studied for long pulse operation of this improved X-band MILO. Correlative experiments are being carried out in our laboratory.

  14. Estuarine Habitat Assessment for Construction of a Submarine Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamouda, Amr Z.; Abdel-Salam, Khaled M.

    2010-07-01

    The present paper describes a submarine survey using the acoustic discrimination system QTC VIEW (Series V) as an exploratory tool to adjust final route alignment of a new pipeline. By using acoustic sound survey as an exploratory tool described in this paper to adjust final route alignment of a new pipeline to minimize the environmental impact caused and ultimately to avoid any mitigation measures. The transmission pipeline extended from the shore line of Abu-Qir Bay, on the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt, out to 70 nautical miles at sea (60 m water depth). Four main surface sediment types were defined in the study area, namely fine sand, silty sand, silt and clay. Results of the acoustic classification revealed four acoustic classes. The first acoustic class corresponded to fine sand, absence of shell debris and very poor habitats characteristics. The second acoustic class is predominant in the study area and corresponds to the region occupied by silt. It is also characterized by intermediate diversity of macrobenthic invertebrate community which is mainly characterized by polychaeta. The third acoustic class is characterized by silt to silty clay. It is characterized by a high diversity of macrobenthic invertebrate community which is mainly polychaeta with an intermediate diversity of gastropoda and bivalvia. The final acoustic class is characterized by clay and high occurrence of shell debris of gastropoda, bivalvia and polychaeta.

  15. Radial transmission line analysis of multi-layer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.

    2011-03-28

    The analysis of multi-layer beam tubes is a standard problem and involves axially propagating waves. This treatment is ill suited to a short multi-layer structure such as the present example of a ferrite covered ceramic break in the beam tube at the ERL photo-cathode electron gun. This paper demonstrates that such structure can better be treated by radial wave propagation. The theoretical method is presented and numerical results are compared with measured network analyser data and Microwave Studio generated simulations. The results confirm the concept of radial transmission lines as a valid analytical method. An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is being constructed at this laboratory for the purpose of research towards an envisioned Electron Ion Collider. One of the pertinent topics is damping of Higher Order Modes (HOM). In this ERL, the damping is provided by ferrite absorbers in the beam tube. A modified version thereof, a ceramic break surrounded by ferrite, is planed for the superconducting electron gun. The damper here is located at room temperature just outside of the gun. If used in a cavity chain, the ceramic break is in the vacuum tube at helium temperature whereas the ferrite is moved into the cryostat insulating vacuum allowing higher temperatures. The general properties of the ferrite HOM dampers have been published but are more detailed in this paper.

  16. Requirements for self-magnetically insulated transmission lines

    DOE PAGES

    VanDevender, J. Pace; Pointon, Timothy D.; Seidel, David B.; ...

    2015-03-01

    Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) connect pulsed-power drivers with a load. Although the technology was originally developed in the 1970s and is widely used today in super power generators, failure of the technology is the principal limitation on the power that can be delivered to an experiment. We address issues that are often overlooked, rejected after inadequate simulations, or covered by overly conservative assumptions: (i) electron retrapping in coupling MITLs to loads, (ii) the applicability of collisionless versus collisional electron flow, (iii) power transport efficiency as a function of the geometry at the beginning of the MITL, (iv) gap closuremore » and when gap closure can be neglected, and (v) the role of negative ions in causing anode plasmas and enhancing current losses. We suggest a practical set of conservative design requirements for self-magnetically insulated electron flow based on the results discussed in this paper and on previously published results. The requirements are not necessarily severe constraints in all MITL applications; however, each of the 18 suggested requirements should be examined in the design of a MITL and in the investigation of excessive losses.« less

  17. Research on electric field distribution of UHVDC transmission lines and body surface during live working

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chilong; Zou, Dehua; Li, Jinliang; Zhang, Zhanlong; Mei, Daojun

    2017-09-01

    Electric field distortion emerges around personnel working on live Ultra High Voltage Direct Current UHVDC transmission lines, especially when they move from ground-potential to equipotential positions. Unreliable protection threatens the safety of both workers and transmission lines. The current study investigates the electric field distribution of body surface during live working under transmission lines. To provide safety advice, live working person and tower models were established. The body surface field was calculated in different positions under ±800 kV transmission lines, and the distribution of the electric field was summarized.

  18. Application of A Line Ampacity Model and Its Use in Transmission Lines Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Sedláček, Jan; Vostracký, Zdenek

    2014-08-01

    A conductor thermal model related to CIGRE and IEEE solutions was developed and compared with measurements. Two pylons of a single line were equipped with weather monitoring stations and conductor temperature sensors based on Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) principle. Also a fiber optic distributed temperature sensing system was installed to provide additional data. Over 2.5 million data points were evaluated. Developed model deviation for more than 99 % of values proved to be ±1 °C for SAW sensor and ±3.5 °C for the fiber optic measurement. Several ampacity determination methods were described from a transmission grid operator's point of view. Their features were compared in order to show at which planning period they could be useful. A new method for dynamic line rating determination was proposed. Although it reduces maximum ampacity gain, its advantage lies in minimizing measurement systems while retaining relatively stable value and low risk of temperature limit exceeding.

  19. Dependence of NMR noise line shapes on tuning, matching, and transmission line properties

    PubMed Central

    Bendet-Taicher, Eli; Müller, Norbert; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    The tuning and matching conditions of rf circuits, as well as the properties of the transmission lines connecting these to the preamplifier, have direct consequences for NMR probe sensitivity and as for the optimum delivery of rf power to the sample. In addition, tuning/matching conditions influence radiation damping effects, which manifest themselves as fast signal flip-back and line broadening effects, and can lead to concentration-dependent frequency shifts. Previous studies have also shown that the appearance of spin-noise and absorbed circuit noise signals heavily depended on tuning settings. Consequently, all these phenomena are linked together. The mutual connections and interdependences of these effects are highlighted and reviewed here. PMID:25505374

  20. [A line-by-line trace gas absorption model and its application in NDIR gas detection technology].

    PubMed

    Fang, Jing; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Tian-shu

    2008-06-01

    An accurate line-by-line integral trace gas absorption model is presented in the present article. It is for mid-infrared band and can be used in the study on and application to detecting trace gas (or pollution gas). First of all, two algorithms of trace gas radioactive properties, line-by-line integral method and band model method, were introduced. The merits and demerits of each were compared. Several recent developed line-by-line integral calculation models were also introduced. Secondly, the basic principle of line-by-line integral trace gas absorption calculation model was described in detail. The absorption coefficient is a function of temperature, frequency (wave number), pressure, gas volume mixing ratio and constants associated with all contributing line transitions. The average monochromatic absorption coefficient at a given frequency of a given gas species can be written as the product of the number density of the molecular species to which the spectral line belongs, the line intensity and a line shape factor. Efficient calculation of the line shape factor may be required for different atmospheric conditions. In the lower atmosphere, the shape of spectral lines is dominated by pressure broadening and can be represented most simply by the Lorentz line shape factor. At high altitudes, the shape of spectral lines is governed by Doppler broadening At intermediate altitudes, they can be modeled using the Voigt line shape factor, a convolution of the Lorentz and Doppler line shape factors. Finally, in the section of experiment, the results calculated by model were compared with that measured by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. As an instance, the model was applied to the detectors design of NDIR (non-dispersive infrared) technology and the relationship between signal intensity of detectors and concentration of CO2/CO was simulated by model. Available concentration range of detector was given by calculating the results of the model. It is based on

  1. 10. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC, GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC, GAS PRODUCER PROCESS, BUILDING 10A.' Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Holston Defense Corporation. August 29, 1974. Delineator: G. A. Horne. Drawing # SK-1942. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  2. Vortex line in the unitary Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Madeira, Lucas; Vitiello, Silvio A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Schmidt, Kevin E.

    2016-04-06

    Here, we report diffusion Monte Carlo results for the ground state of unpolarized spin-1/2 fermions in a cylindrical container and properties of the system with a vortex-line excitation. The density profile of the system with a vortex line presents a nonzero density at the core. We also calculate the ground-state energy per particle, the superfluid pairing gap, and the excitation energy per particle. Finally, these simulations can be extended to calculate the properties of vortex excitations in other strongly interacting systems such as superfluid neutron matter using realistic nuclear Hamiltonians.

  3. Economic analysis of transmission line engineering based on industrial engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixuan

    2017-05-01

    The modern industrial engineering is applied to the technical analysis and cost analysis of power transmission and transformation engineering. It can effectively reduce the cost of investment. First, the power transmission project is economically analyzed. Based on the feasibility study of power transmission and transformation project investment, the proposal on the company system cost management is put forward through the economic analysis of the effect of the system. The cost management system is optimized. Then, through the cost analysis of power transmission and transformation project, the new situation caused by the cost of construction is found. It is of guiding significance to further improve the cost management of power transmission and transformation project. Finally, according to the present situation of current power transmission project cost management, concrete measures to reduce the cost of power transmission project are given from the two aspects of system optimization and technology optimization.

  4. 78 FR 44586 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Proposed Cross Valley Transmission Line Habitat Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Habitat Conservation Plan, Tulare County, California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; receipt of permit application, draft environmental assessment, proposed habitat... prepared the draft Cross Valley Transmission Line Habitat Conservation Plan (Cross Valley Line HCP) (HCP...

  5. View of transmission line tower on LABPL2 northwest of Boulder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of transmission line tower on LABPL2 northwest of Boulder City Substation, view northwest - Hoover Dam, Los Angeles Bureau of Power & Light Lines 1-3, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  6. ``Multifractals in Transmission of Off-line & On-line E-Voting Systems''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, Wh-

    An e-voting systems is a voting system in which the election data is recorded, stored & processed primarily as digital information. Those are 2 type of e-voting systems: off-line & on-line systems[Alaguvel & Gnanavel, 2013]. ``Using transfer matrix method & multifractal theory, we studied the transmission properties of 1D generalized Fibonacci structures GF(m.n) in which m & n different intervals are integer according to a substitution rule[Yuannong Zhang, et.al,:Multifractal properties of 1D quasi-period Photonic Crystal''. ``Transmission spectra of 1D fractal multilayer structures are found to exhibit self-similar properties'' says Zhukovsky & Lavrinenko in ``Spectral self-similarity in fractal 1D photonic structures'',Photonics & Nanostructures, 2005 whereas Jacob Trevino, et.al studies `structural properties, photonic density of state & bandedge modes of Vogel spiral arrays of dielectric cylinders in air'. Acknowledgment to HE. Mr. AUGUST PARENGKUAN if accepts 1995-2005 Invoicing & Fulfillments to ``KOMPAS'' cq the Prodi of Physics ITB.

  7. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA`s modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes.

  8. 75 FR 27999 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... gas supplies can be redirected from Dunn Junction Compressor Station to the Dunn Compressor Station... Energy Regulatory Commission CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Application May 12, 2010. Take notice that on May 11, 2010, CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company (CEGT), 1111...

  9. 78 FR 53742 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On August 14, 2013, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under section 7 of the Natural Gas Act and Sections 157.205...

  10. 77 FR 24191 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as amended, to abandon and remove the Tate Island compressor station in... Energy Regulatory Commission CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 4, 2012, CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC (CEGT), 1111 Louisiana...

  11. Copper Gas Diffusers For Purging Line-Focus Laser Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonteyne, Steve L.; Hosking, Timothy J.; Shelley, D. Mark

    1996-01-01

    Modified flow diffusers built for inert-gas purging of welds made with 5-kW CO(2) lasers operating with line-focus optics in conduction mode instead of with point-focus optics in customary keyhole mode. Diffusers made of copper components brazed together, robust enough to withstand strong reflections of line-focused laser energy.

  12. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    SciTech Connect

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular working

  13. 60-Hertz electric-field exposures in transmission line towers.

    PubMed

    Bracken, T; Senior, Russell; Dudman, Joseph

    2005-09-01

    This article reports on an investigation of 60-Hz electric-field exposures of line workers in 230- to 765-kV transmission line towers. The exposures were based on computations of the unperturbed electric field along climbing routes and at work positions on the towers and on insulated ladders suspended in towers. Computed exposures were expressed in terms of the unperturbed electric field averaged over the body as stipulated by guidelines. For the realistic on-tower positions, the worker's posture, the uniformity of the field, and the field orientation differed from the guideline exposure scenario of standing erect in a vertical uniform field. These differences suggest the need for care in comparing electric-field exposures in towers with guideline limits. The unperturbed nonuniform fields at discrete points near steel and aluminum lattice structures were computed using Monte Carlo methods that model surface and spatial electric fields on and near standard geometrical elements. To estimate a whole-body average, fields were computed at 10 discrete points positioned on segments of an articulated stick-figure model of the human body. The whole-body average field was computed from fields at all the points weighted by the fraction of body volume that the corresponding segment represented. We estimated the average unperturbed electric field, the space potential at the torso, and the induced short-circuit current for 19 climbing and work positions in six towers. The maximum average electric-field exposure during climbing ranged from 10 kV/m for a 230-kV tower to 31 kV/m for a 765-kV tower. Exposures at on-tower work positions were lower than the estimated maximum exposures during climbing. For 500- and 765-kV towers, computed exposures while climbing and at some on-tower positions exceeded the limit of 20 kV/m given in the recently adopted IEEE Standard C95.6 2002. For lower voltage towers, exposures did not exceed 20 kV/m.

  14. Recent progress of the improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu-Wei; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Shu, Ting; Zhang, Jian-De; Liu, Jin-Liang; Yang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Jun; Yuan, Cheng-Wei; Luo, Ling

    2008-03-01

    The improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is a gigawatt-class L-band high power microwave tube driven by a 550 kV, 57 kA, 50 ns electron beam. It has allowed us to generate 2.4 GW pulse of 22 ns duration. The recent progress of the improved MILO is presented in this paper. First, a field shaper cathode is introduced into the improved MILO to avoid the cathode flares in the triple point region. The experimental results show that the cathode flares are avoided, so the lifetime of the velvet cathode is longer than that of the taper cathode. Furthermore, the shot-to-shot reproducibility is better than that of the taper cathode. Second, In order to prolong the pulse duration and increase the radiated microwave power, a self-built 600 kV, 10 Omega, 80 ns pulser: SPARK-03 is employed to drive the improved MILO. Simulation and experimental investigation are performed. In simulation, when the improved MILO is driven by a 600 kV, 57 kA electron beam, high-power microwave is generated with output power of 4.15 GW, frequency of 1.76 GHz, and relevant power conversion efficiency of 12.0%. In experiments, when the diode voltage is 550 kV and current is 54 kA, the measured results are that the radiated microwave power is above 3.1 GW, the pulse duration is above 40 ns, the microwave frequency is about 1.755 GHz, and the power conversion efficiency is about 10.4%.

  15. Extragalactic circuits, transmission lines, and CR particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, Philipp P.; Lovelace, Richard V. E.

    2015-08-01

    A non-negligible fraction of a Supermassive Black Hole's (SMBH) rest mass energy gets transported into extragalactic space by a remarkable process in jets which are incompletely understood. What are the physical processes which transport this energy? It is likely that the energy flows electromagnetically, rather than via a particle beam flux. The deduced electromagnetic fields may produce particles of energy as high as ˜ 1020 eV. The energetics of SMBH accretion disk models and the electromagnetic energy transfer imply that a SMBH should generate a 1018 - 1019 Ampères current close to the black hole and its accretion disk. We describe the so far best observation-based estimate of the magnitude of the current flow along the axis of the jet extending from the nucleus of the active galaxy in 3C303. The current is measured to be I ˜ 1018 Ampères at ˜ 40 kpc away from the AGN. This indicates that organised current flow remains intact over multi-kpc distances. The electric current I transports electromagnetic power into free space, P = I2Z, where Z ˜ 30 Ohms is related to the impedance of free space, and this points to the existence of cosmic electric circuit. The associated electric potential drop, V = IZ, is of the order of that required to generate Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). We also explore further implications, including disruption/deflection of the power flow and also why such measurements, exemplified by those on 3C303, are currently very difficult to make and to unambiguously interpret. This naturally leads to the topic of how such measurements can be extended and improved in the future. We describe the analogy of electromagnetically dominated jets with transmission lines. High powered jets in vacuo can be understood by approximate analogy with a waveguide. The importance of inductance, impedance, and other laboratory electrical concepts are discussed in this context.

  16. Transmission line analogy for relativistic Poynting-flux jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Kronberg, P. P.

    2013-04-01

    Radio emission, polarization and Faraday rotation maps of the radio jet of the galaxy 3C 303 have shown that one knot of this jet carries a galactic-scale electric current and that it is magnetically dominated. We develop the theory of magnetically dominated or Poynting-flux jets by making an analogy of a Poynting jet with a transmission line or waveguide carrying a net current and having a potential drop across it (from the jet's axis to its radius) and a definite impedance which we derive. The electromagnetic energy flow in the jet is the jet impedance times the square of the jet current. The observed current in 3C 303 can be used to calculate the electromagnetic energy flow in this magnetically dominated jet. Time dependent but not necessarily small perturbations of a Poynting-flux jet are described by the `telegrapher's equations'. These predict the propagation speed of disturbances and the effective wave impedance for forward and backward propagating wave components. A localized disturbance of a Poynting jet gives rise to localized dissipation in the jet which may explain the enhanced synchrotron radiation in the knots of the 3C 303 jet, and also in the apparently stationary knot HST-1 in the jet near the nucleus of the nearby galaxy M87. For a relativistic Poynting jet on parsec scales, the reflected voltage wave from an inductive termination or load can lead to a backward propagating wave which breaks down the magnetic insulation of the jet giving |{boldsymbol E}| /|{boldsymbol B}|ge 1. At the threshold for breakdown, |{boldsymbol E}|/|{boldsymbol B}|=1, positive and negative particles are directly accelerated in the {boldsymbol E} × {boldsymbol B} direction which is approximately along the jet axis. Acceleration can occur up to Lorentz factors ˜107. This particle acceleration mechanism is distinct from that in shock waves and that in magnetic field reconnection.

  17. Seismic response of a regulator in Memphis gas transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C.H.; Hwang, H.H.M.; He, Q.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a study of the seismic performance of an above-ground regulator in the Memphis gas transmission system. The objective is to assess the integrity of the regulator in the event of a major earthquake. A finite element model of the regulator is established using the ABAQUS program. Two types of gap elements are used to model the contact conditions among components of the structure. In the analysis, static responses caused by the weight of the regulator and the operating pressure are first calculated. The results then serve as the initial conditions of seismic responses analysis to determine the stresses in pipes and bolts. Results of the finite element calculations indicate that although the supports of the regulatory may involve separation and slipping movements, the regulator remains functional in the event of a severe earthquake.

  18. Electrical transmission lines in Montana: Mitigation of impacts to soil and biological sources

    SciTech Connect

    McCollough, S.A.; Ring, T.W.

    1990-12-31

    In Montana, the routing and construction of large electrical transmission lines are regulated by the Montana Major Facility Siting Act. Under this act, impacts to resources are minimized through avoidance by routing, where possible, and by mitigating remaining impacts. Land disturbed by the construction of transmission lines considered in this paper ranges from 1681 acres for a 500-kV line across 156 miles of mountainous terrain to 11 acres for a 100-kV line across 27 miles of nearly level terrain. Line access accounts for most of the disturbance, especially when graded roads are built in mountainous terrain. Land disturbed by transmission line construction is susceptible to soil erosion and weed infestation. These problems are addressed through revegetation, erosion control, and herbicide application. Transmission lines can displace wildlife from critical habitats by disruptive construction activities or by improving human access to previously secure range. Wildlife impacts can be reduced by restricting construction periods and gating roads.

  19. Note: Fast double pulse system using transmission line characteristic of the pulse forming line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Deb, P.; Sharma, Archana; Shyam, A.

    2012-11-01

    A fast double pulse system is designed and developed using the transmission line characteristic of the pulse forming line to generate two flat top rectangular pulses with extremely short interpulse repetition interval. The helical pulse forming line (HPFL) is used to generate longer duration rectangular pulses in smaller length. The HPFL inner conductor is made up of 13 turns of SS-304 strip, 39.5 mm wide and 0.5 mm thick wounded on the 168 mm delrin cylinder. The impedance of the HPFL is 22 Ω. The 2 turns at the input side of the HPFL are wounded with ethylene propylene rubber tape on the strip. The HPFL is charged to 180 kV in 4 μs and discharges into a matched load through a spark switch. It generates two flat top rectangular pulses of 90 kV, 100 ns duration with the 30 ns interval between the pulses. The system can be used as fast double pulse source for repetitive pulsed power loads.

  20. Note: fast double pulse system using transmission line characteristic of the pulse forming line.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Deb, P; Sharma, Archana; Shyam, A

    2012-11-01

    A fast double pulse system is designed and developed using the transmission line characteristic of the pulse forming line to generate two flat top rectangular pulses with extremely short interpulse repetition interval. The helical pulse forming line (HPFL) is used to generate longer duration rectangular pulses in smaller length. The HPFL inner conductor is made up of 13 turns of SS-304 strip, 39.5 mm wide and 0.5 mm thick wounded on the 168 mm delrin cylinder. The impedance of the HPFL is 22 Ω. The 2 turns at the input side of the HPFL are wounded with ethylene propylene rubber tape on the strip. The HPFL is charged to 180 kV in 4 μs and discharges into a matched load through a spark switch. It generates two flat top rectangular pulses of 90 kV, 100 ns duration with the 30 ns interval between the pulses. The system can be used as fast double pulse source for repetitive pulsed power loads.

  1. New 48-inch line gives Wales more gas supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    A new 11-mile, 48-in pipeline will not only supply an even flow of gas from the British Gas national grid to towns in the Wales Gas district but also serve as a daily storage facility by means of nightime linepacking at 700 psi. The largest diameter gas line to be constructed in the UK, the pipeline is confined to a 165-ft wide corridor leading through wet and dry moorland, farms, reclaimed colliery tips, and bogs. Construction engineers took care to protect archeological features along the route and to restore the land to its original condition.

  2. 76 FR 34969 - Extension of Scoping Period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Extension of Scoping Period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement... (DOE) is reopening the public scoping period for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project... being provided by Northern Pass, DOE is reopening the scoping period. DOE will determine the close...

  3. 78 FR 57372 - Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement: Announcement of Change in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement: Announcement of Change in Public... amended Notice of Intent (NOI) to modify the scope of the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project... previously announced this change in public meeting location on both the Northern Pass EIS Web site at...

  4. Maximum power transfer in A.C. transmission lines limited by voltage stability

    SciTech Connect

    Raviprakasha, M.S.; Ramar, K.

    1995-12-31

    Closed form expressions for maximum power transfer limited by voltage stability and the corresponding voltage in AC transmission lines for constant power and constant impedance type loads are derived. The transmission line is represented by its n-equivalent model. It is shown that the maximum power transfer point is independent of the type of load.

  5. View facing east (70°) of Transmission Line crossing Marias River, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing east (70°) of Transmission Line crossing Marias River, near Structure 47-9, grain elevators in town of Loma visible in background - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  6. Context view of RyantoRainbow 100kv Transmission Line showing copper wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view of Ryan-to-Rainbow 100kv Transmission Line showing copper wire conductors leaving roof of Ryan Powerhouse. View to east - Ryan Hydroelectric Facility, Ryan-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of Missouri River, northeast of Great Falls, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  7. Some Little-Known Facts about Transmission Lines and Some New Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta Roy, Suhash C.

    2010-01-01

    The study of transmission lines forms an integral part of any curriculum in electrical engineering. This paper presents some little-known but interesting facts about transmission lines, which are generally not found in textbooks, along with some new facts, which arose as extensions of these little-known ones. The facts highlighted in this paper…

  8. 49 CFR 192.711 - Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures. 192.711 Section 192.711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Maintenance § 192.711 Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures. (a) Temporary repairs...

  9. 49 CFR 192.711 - Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures. 192.711 Section 192.711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Maintenance § 192.711 Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures. (a) Temporary repairs...

  10. Improvements to a transmission-line model of a main-ring cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    A transmission-line model has been used in the design of a ferrite-tuned prototype rf cavity for a hadron-facility main ring. The computer codes SUPERFISH and MAFIA were used to refine and validate the transmission line model representations for the accelerating gap, the coaxial tee, and the ferrite tuner assembly. 5 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. A calibration technique for measuring the complex permittivity of materials with planar transmission lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A simple two-standard calibration procedure for determining the permittivity of a material from the propagation constant measured with planar transmission lines is presented. The suitability of this procedure is demonstrated by using a coplanar waveguide transmission-line sensor to measure the permi...

  12. 49 CFR 192.713 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of imperfections and damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of imperfections and damages. 192.713 Section 192.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Maintenance § 192.713 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of imperfections and damages. (a)...

  13. 49 CFR 192.715 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. 192.715 Section 192.715 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.715 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. Each weld that is unacceptable...

  14. 49 CFR 192.713 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of imperfections and damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of imperfections and damages. 192.713 Section 192.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Maintenance § 192.713 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of imperfections and damages. (a)...

  15. 49 CFR 192.715 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. 192.715 Section 192.715 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.715 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. Each weld that is unacceptable...

  16. 49 CFR 192.715 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. 192.715 Section 192.715 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.715 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. Each weld that is unacceptable...

  17. 49 CFR 192.715 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. 192.715 Section 192.715 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.715 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. Each weld that is unacceptable...

  18. 49 CFR 192.715 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. 192.715 Section 192.715 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.715 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. Each weld that is unacceptable...

  19. 78 FR 76140 - Extension of Public Comment Period for the Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Line...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Extension of Public Comment Period for the Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Line Project Draft... Hudson Power Express Transmission Line Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0447). The... permit to the Applicant, Champlain Hudson Power Express, Inc. (CHPEI), to construct, operate,...

  20. Some Little-Known Facts about Transmission Lines and Some New Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta Roy, Suhash C.

    2010-01-01

    The study of transmission lines forms an integral part of any curriculum in electrical engineering. This paper presents some little-known but interesting facts about transmission lines, which are generally not found in textbooks, along with some new facts, which arose as extensions of these little-known ones. The facts highlighted in this paper…

  1. A study of electric transmission lines for use on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaustad, Krista L.; Gordon, Lloyd B.; Weber, Jennifer R.

    1994-01-01

    The sources for electrical power on a lunar base are said to include solar/chemical, nuclear (static conversion), and nuclear (dynamic conversion). The transmission of power via transmission lines is more practical than power beaming or superconducting because of its low cost and reliable, proven technology. Transmission lines must have minimum mass, maximum efficiency, and the ability to operate reliably in the lunar environment. The transmission line design includes conductor material, insulator material, conductor geometry, conductor configuration, line location, waveform, phase selection, and frequency. This presentation oulines the design. Liquid and gaseous dielectrics are undesirable for long term use in the lunar vacuum due to a high probability of loss. Thus, insulation for high voltage transmission line will most likely be solid dielectric or vacuum insulation.

  2. 78 FR 16497 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2013, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia Gas), 5151 San Felipe, Suite 2500, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in Docket No. CP13-81-000, a prior notice request...

  3. Millimeter-Gap Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line Power Flow Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Stoltzfus, Brian S.; Fowler, William E.; LeChien, Keith R.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Moore, James K.; Mulville, Thomas D.; Savage, Mark E.; Stygar, William A.; McKenney, John L.; Jones, Peter A.; MacRunnels, Diego J.; Long, Finis W.; Porter, John L.

    2014-09-01

    An experiment platform has been designed to study vacuum power flow in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). The platform was driven by the 400-GW Mykonos-V accelerator. The experiments conducted quantify the current loss in a millimeter-gap MITL with respect to vacuum conditions in the MITL for two different gap distances, 1.0 and 1.3 mm. The current loss for each gap was measured for three different vacuum pump down times. As a ride along experiment, multiple shots were conducted with each set of hardware to determine if there was a conditioning effect to increase current delivery on subsequent shots. The experiment results revealed large differences in performance for the 1.0 and 1.3 mm gaps. The 1.0 mm gap resulted in current loss of 40%-60% of peak current. The 1.3 mm gap resulted in current losses of less than 5% of peak current. Classical MITL models that neglect plasma expansion predict that there should be zero current loss, after magnetic insulation is established, for both of these gaps. The experiments result s indicate that the vacuum pressure or pump down time did not have a significant effect on the measured current loss at vacuum pressures between 1e-4 and 1e-5 Torr. Additionally, there was not repeatable evidence of a conditioning effect that reduced current loss for subsequent full-energy shots on a given set of hardware. It should be noted that the experiments conducted likely did not have large loss contributions due to ion emission from the anode due to the relatively small current densi-ties (25-40 kA/cm) in the MITL that limited the anode temperature rise due to ohmic heating. The results and conclusions from these experiments may have limited applicability to MITLs of high current density (>400 kA/cm) used in the convolute and load region of the Z which experience temperature increases of >400° C and generate ion emission from anode surfaces.

  4. TWO-CONDUCTOR LOW-PASS TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    be incorporated into a practical line design. This may be accomplished through the use of lauric acid to solidify the line. (Author)...periodically load the line. Ferrite-filled dielectrics were investi gated. Experimental evidence indicates that little additional benefit is derived from

  5. Transmission line model for the near-instantaneous transmission of the ionospheric electric field and currents to the equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    The simultaneous onset of the preliminary impulse (PI) of the geomagnetic sudden commencement at high latitude and dayside dip equator is explained by means of the TM0 mode waves propagating at the speed of light in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide (EIW) [Kikuchi et al., 1978]. A couple of issues remain to be addressed in the EIW model: (1) How is the TM0 mode wave excited by the field-aligned currents (FACs) in the polar region? (2) How are the quasi-steady ionospheric currents achieved by the TM0 mode waves? (3) How simultaneous or delayed are the onset and peak of the equatorial PI with respect to the high-latitude PI? To address these issues, we examine the TEM (TM0) mode wave propagation in the finite-length transmission lines replacing the pair of FACs (magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) transmission line) and the Earth-ionosphere waveguide (ionosphere-ground (IG) transmission line). The issue (1) is addressed by showing that a fraction of the TEM mode wave is transmitted from the MI to IG transmission lines through the polar ionosphere. To address the issues (2) and (3), we examine the properties of the finite-length IG transmission line with finite ionospheric conductivity. It is shown that the ionospheric currents start to grow instantaneously and continue to grow gradually with time constants of 1-10 s depending on the ionospheric conductivity. The MIG transmission line enables us to explain the instantaneous onset and delayed peak time of the equatorial PI and quick electric field response of the low-latitude ionosphere and inner magnetosphere.

  6. FIR line profiles as probes of warm gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the shapes, velocities, and intensities of FIR lines all help to probe the dynamics, physical associations, and excitation conditions of warm gas in molecular clouds. With this in mind, we have observed the J=9-8, 12-11,14-13, and 16-15 lines of (12)CO and the 158 micron line of C II in a number of positions in 4 selected clouds. The data were obtained with a laser heterodyne spectrometer aboard NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Line measurements at 0.6 km/s resolution allow us to resolve the profiles completely, and thereby to distinguish between UV-and shock-heating mechanisms for the high-excitation gas. For CO, the high-J linewidths lie in the range of 4-20 km/s (FWHM), similar to those observed for low-J (J less than 4) transitions in these sources. This correspondence suggests that the hotter gas (T = 200-600 K) is dynamically linked to the quiescent gas component, perhaps by association with the UV-heated peripheries of the numerous cloud clumps. Much of the C II emission is thought to emanate from these cloud peripheries, but the line profiles generally do not match those seen in CO. None of the observed sources show any evidence in high-J (12)CO emission for shock-excitation (i.e., linewidths greater than 30 km/s).

  7. Molecule formation in quasar broad-line cloud gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T.; Lepp, S.; Giovannoni, P.

    1987-01-01

    Models for the broad-line emitting clouds of quasars typically assume that the clouds have column densities of at most 10 to the 23rd/sq cm. The consequences of relaxing this assumption are examined, and it is shown that: (1) at slightly larger column densities the gas may cool to about 1000 K as a result of molecule formation; (2) in much of the molecule-forming region the temperature may have either of two values, about 1000 K or 6000-8000 K; (3) the strengths of most observable optical lines, including C II semiforbidden 2326-A lines and Fe II lines, are unaffected by such large column densities; and (4) lines from low-ionization species such as Na I are readily formed at large column densities. Observations of such lines provide evidence for large cloud column densities.

  8. Sensor, method and system of monitoring transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Syracuse, Steven J.; Clark, Roy; Halverson, Peter G.; Tesche, Frederick M.; Barlow, Charles V.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus, method, and system for measuring the magnetic field produced by phase conductors in multi-phase power lines. The magnetic field measurements are used to determine the current load on the conductors. The magnetic fields are sensed by coils placed sufficiently proximate the lines to measure the voltage induced in the coils by the field without touching the lines. The x and y components of the magnetic fields are used to calculate the conductor sag, and then the sag data, along with the field strength data, can be used to calculate the current load on the line and the phase of the current. The sag calculations of this invention are independent of line voltage and line current measurements. The system applies a computerized fitter routine to measured and sampled voltages on the coils to accurately determine the values of parameters associated with the overhead phase conductors.

  9. Propagation of Degenerate Band-Edge Modes Using Dual Nonidentical Coupled Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuboraj, A. Muhammed; Sertel, B. Kubilay; Volakis, C. John L.

    2017-06-01

    Degenerate band-edge (DBE) modes are known for their exceptionally high field intensity at the nearly flat dispersion-diagram profile. Because of the latter property, resonances supported by these modes are associated with a very strong field at the band edge. DBE modes and similar resonances of this class have been typically realized by introducing anisotropic dielectric slabs in volumetric photonic crystals. By contrast, in this paper, we present an analytic model of DBE modes using a simple set of nonidentical coupled transmission lines. The unequal phase velocities of the supported waves supported by these transmission lines lead to mode degeneracy, that in turn provide quartic solutions of dispersion (ω -β ) relations. The DBE mode appears as one these quartic solutions. As such, the proposed model generalizes the concept of DBE modes using the construct of nonidentical coupled transmission lines. In this paper, we also propose a propagation medium using a dual pair of nonidentical transmission lines. The medium is referred to as a "butterfly" structure and is composed of four coupled transmission lines. These four coupled transmission lines generate the TM01-like degenerate band-edge mode. This is done by coupling the TE modes supported on each pair of the transmission lines. Mode purity at the resonance frequency and the intense field profile on the axis are properties that can be exploited for high-power microwave sources.

  10. The Effect Analysis of Strain Rate on Power Transmission Tower-Line System under Seismic Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenming

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system. PMID:25105157

  11. The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Wang, Wenming; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system.

  12. 77 FR 35366 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...-pole structures and associated structural components and conductors, establishing better access to the line, improving access roads, developing staging areas for storage of materials, removing vegetation...

  13. Research on UAV Intelligent Obstacle Avoidance Technology During Inspection of Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chuanhu; Zhang, Fei; Yin, Chaoyuan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Liang; Li, Zongyu; Wang, Wanguo

    Autonomous obstacle avoidance of unmanned aerial vehicle (hereinafter referred to as UAV) in electric power line inspection process has important significance for operation safety and economy for UAV intelligent inspection system of transmission line as main content of UAV intelligent inspection system on transmission line. In the paper, principles of UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology of transmission line are introduced. UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology based on particle swarm global optimization algorithm is proposed after common obstacle avoidance technologies are studied. Stimulation comparison is implemented with traditional UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology which adopts artificial potential field method. Results show that UAV inspection strategy of particle swarm optimization algorithm, adopted in the paper, is prominently better than UAV inspection strategy of artificial potential field method in the aspects of obstacle avoidance effect and the ability of returning to preset inspection track after passing through the obstacle. An effective method is provided for UAV inspection obstacle avoidance of transmission line.

  14. Transmission expansion with smart switching under demand uncertainty and line failures

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Kathryn M.; Chen, Richard Li-Yang; Cohn, Amy E. M.

    2016-06-07

    One of the major challenges in deciding where to build new transmission lines is that there is uncertainty regarding future loads, renewal generation output and equipment failures. We propose a robust optimization model whose transmission expansion solutions ensure that demand can be met over a wide range of conditions. Specifically, we require feasible operation for all loads and renewable generation levels within given ranges, and for all single transmission line failures. Furthermore, we consider transmission switching as an allowable recovery action. This relatively inexpensive method of redirecting power flows improves resiliency, but introduces computational challenges. Lastly, we present a novel algorithm to solve this model. Computational results are discussed.

  15. Transmission expansion with smart switching under demand uncertainty and line failures

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Kathryn M.; Chen, Richard Li-Yang; Cohn, Amy E. M.

    2016-06-07

    One of the major challenges in deciding where to build new transmission lines is that there is uncertainty regarding future loads, renewal generation output and equipment failures. We propose a robust optimization model whose transmission expansion solutions ensure that demand can be met over a wide range of conditions. Specifically, we require feasible operation for all loads and renewable generation levels within given ranges, and for all single transmission line failures. Furthermore, we consider transmission switching as an allowable recovery action. This relatively inexpensive method of redirecting power flows improves resiliency, but introduces computational challenges. Lastly, we present a novel algorithm to solve this model. Computational results are discussed.

  16. A planar transmission-line sensor for measuring microwave permittivity of liquid and semisolid biological materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An accurate technique for determining the permittivity of biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line is presented. The technique utilizes closed-form approximations that relate the material permittivity to the line propagation constant. A thru-reflect-line calibration procedure i...

  17. 78 FR 62015 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on September 25, 2013, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe...

  18. 78 FR 26772 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 24, 2013, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe...

  19. 78 FR 2394 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on December 19, 2012, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe...

  20. 78 FR 20315 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe, Suite 2500...

  1. 77 FR 26544 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 18, 2012 Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe...

  2. 77 FR 36532 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 1, 2012, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe...

  3. 76 FR 66053 - High Point Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission High Point Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 13, 2011, High Point Gas Transmission, LLC (High Point), 6800 West Loop South, Suite 120, Houston... High Point's application. Specifically, High Point seeks: (1) A certificate of public convenience...

  4. 77 FR 66600 - High Point Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission High Point Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments On October 26, 2012, High Point Gas Transmission, LLC (High Point) filed a response to the Commission... participants in the captioned proceedings may file comments to High Point's Data Response on or before 5:00...

  5. 77 FR 58827 - High Point Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission High Point Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments On September 13, 2012, High Point Gas Transmission, LLC (High Point) filed a response to the... participants in the captioned proceedings may file comments to High Point's Data Response on or before 5...

  6. 76 FR 20653 - Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 24, 2011, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC (FGT), 5444 Westheimer Road, Houston... County, Florida (known as The Cape Canaveral Project). Specifically, FGT proposes to construct and...

  7. 75 FR 70728 - Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application November 10, 2010. Take notice that on October 28, 2010, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC (FGT), 5444... which are located in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The total estimated cost for the proposed Miami...

  8. 76 FR 51970 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Technical Conference On July 28, 2011, the Commission accepted and suspended the tariff records that Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia) filed to update its Transportation...

  9. 78 FR 76827 - Midwestern Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Midwestern Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On December 4, 2013, Midwestern Gas Transmission Company (Midwestern) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ...

  10. 77 FR 53883 - Algonquin Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Algonquin Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments On August 22, 2012, Algonquin Gas Transmission, LLC (Algonquin) filed a response to the Commission's...

  11. 49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.709... (including pipe-to-pipe connections) must be retained for as long as the pipe remains in service. (b)...

  12. Plasmonic transmission lines: from micro to nano scale with lambda/4 impedance matching.

    PubMed

    Ginzburg, Pavel; Orenstein, Meir

    2007-05-28

    The downscaling of conventional RF transmission lines methodologies to subwavelength plasmonic circuits is discussed and demonstrated for a lambda/4 transformer impedance matching. The nano-size transformer, matching between 0.5mum and 50nm wide plasmonic transmission lines, enhances the coupling efficiency by more than 285% compared to the direct ("end fire") coupling - i.e. harvesting more than 86% of total incident power. The influence of the transverse resonances induced by the metal claddings of the input transmission line on the light harvesting is discussed as well.

  13. The development of a portable, automatic, microwave transmission line test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente, Val; Karuschkat, Glenn; Simone, Frederick

    Existing test sets for flightline testing of microwave transmission lines are complex, semiportable systems requiring the piece-part testing of waveguides, antennas, and transmission line components in the aircraft. Moreover, these systems are not fully automated and require a large degree of manual intervention. Therefore, advances in test-set miniaturization and automatic control techniques can now be utilized to develop a fully portable, automatic test set for the flightline functional and diagnostic fault isolation testing of RF avionics and microwave transmission lines. A description is given of the proposed capabilities of such a tester, and the benefits expected to be derived from its use.

  14. Numerical Study of Transmission Loss Through a Slow Gas Layer Adjacent to a Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Beck, Benjamin S.; Slagle, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic numerical investigation of the sound transmission loss through a multilayer system consisting of a bagged gas and lightweight panel. The goal of the study is to better understand the effect of the gas on transmission loss and determine whether a gas with a slow speed of sound is beneficial for noise control applications. As part of the study, the density and speed of sound of the gas are varied independently to assess the impact of each on transmission loss. Results show that near grazing incidence the plane wave transmission loss through the multilayer system is more sensitive to the speed of sound than the density of the gas. In addition, it was found that a slow wave speed in the bagged gas provides more low-frequency transmission loss benefit than a fast wave speed. At low angles of incidence, close to the plate normal, the benefit is due to the reduction of the characteristic impedance of the gas. At high angles of incidence, the benefit is attributed to the fact that the incident waves at the air/gas interface are bent towards the surface normal. Since transmission loss is angle dependent, refraction in the slow gas layer results in a significant improvement in the transmission loss at high angles of incidence.

  15. Recent advances in the mitigation of AC voltages occurring in pipelines located close to electric transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Southey, R.D.; Dawalibi, F.P. ); Vukonich, W. )

    1994-04-01

    In joint-use corridors where both pipelines and AC electric transmission lines are present, a portion of the energy contained in the electromagnetic field surrounding the electric transmission lines is captured by each pipeline, resulting in induced AC voltages which vary in magnitude throughout the length of each pipeline. During a fault on any of the transmission lines, energization of the earth by supporting structures near the fault can result in large voltages appearing locally between the earth and the steel wall of any nearby pipeline. Some form of mitigation is usually required to reduce these voltages to acceptable levels for the protection of personnel and of the pipeline itself. This paper presents a new mitigation design approach which not only reduces AC voltages effectively and economically, but also provides cathodic protection for the protected pipeline. Performance of this new mitigation method is illustrated with results from computer simulations, which show how important it is to have an accurate electrical model of the soil structure in any interference study. Results from large-scale mitigation design studies performed for ANR Pipeline Company and other gas transmission companies are presented.

  16. Atmospheric and ionospheric phenomena related to anomalous VHF-band radio wave transmissions beyond the line of sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, T.; Kakinami, Y.; Moriya, T.

    2013-12-01

    We have monitored anomalous VHF-band radio wave transmissions received beyond the line of sight prior to earthquakes since 2003 in Hokkaido, northern Japan, to determine the relationship between anomalous transmission of VHF-band radio waves and impending earthquakes. Anomalous VHF-band radio waves were recorded before some medium and large earthquakes of magnitude 4 or higher. Radio waves transmitted from a specific FM radio station are considered to have been scattered in the atmosphere, allowing the radio waves to be received by an observation station beyond the line of sight of the transmitter. One hypothesis to explain the pre-earthquake anomalous radio transmissions is that radon gas emanates from the surface as a result of increasing fluid pressure during the preparation process of an earthquake. The radon release increases the density of small ions and the atmospheric conductivity and decreases the atmospheric electric field in the lower atmosphere. To confirm the process, we monitored the atmospheric electric field at the VHF radio wave monitoring site. Variations in the atmospheric electric field accompanied by anomalous radio wave transmissions were observed at times. Additionally, larger anomalous transmission may be caused by the sporadic E layer of the ionosphere in the early summer season. The sporadic E anomalies overlap anomalies associated with earthquakes and can be distinguished as a distinct feature.

  17. A planar transmission-line sensor for measuring the microwave permittivity of liquid and semisolid biological materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A planar transmission-line configuration for rapid, nondestructive, wideband permittivity measurements of liquid and semisolid materials at microwave frequencies is described. The transmission-line propagation constant of the proposed configuration is determined with the multiline technique from sca...

  18. Hayden-Blue River 345-kV transmission line project, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc., Colorado-Ute Electric Association, Inc., Platte River Power Authority, and Western Area Power Administration propose to construct and operate approximately 90 miles of 345-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between Hayden and the Blue River Valley in Colorado. The project would involve expansion of existing substation facilities at Hayden and construction of two new substations. The line would be operated at 230 kV initially. Estimated cost of the project is $37.8 million. The new line and substation facilities would provide a backup transmission path, satisfy the long-term needs in meeting the energy requirements, improve system reliability, improve system stability for the Craig and Hayden generating stations, and leave the existing 115-kV and 138-kV lines in operation to provide additional transmission capacity that would function as backup transmission during an outage on another line. Minute amounts of lands would be displaced. Construction activities would disturb critical ranges for elk and mule deer, elk calving areas, and the mating and nesting areas of greater sandhill cranes, great blue herons, sage grouse, golden eagles, and prairie falcons. Management of timberland would damage natural vegetation. The line would traverse 3.1 miles of flood-prone area, and as many as three transmission towers would lie within the floodplain of the Colorado River. The visual quality of land crossed by the line would be degraded somewhat.

  19. High precision ultrasonic guided wave technique for inspection of power transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jun; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Wang, Enrong; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Due to the merits of high inspection speed and long detecting distance, Ultrasonic Guided Wave(UGW) method has been commonly applied to the on-line maintenance of power transmission line. However, the guided wave propagation in this structure is very complicated, leading to the unfavorable defect localization accuracy. Aiming at this situation, a high precision UGW technique for inspection of local surface defect in power transmission line is proposed. The technique is realized by adopting a novel segmental piezoelectric ring transducer and transducer mounting scheme, combining with the comprehensive characterization of wave propagation and circumferential defect positioning with multiple piezoelectric elements. Firstly, the propagation path of guided waves in the multi-wires of transmission line under the proposed technique condition is investigated experimentally. Next, the wave velocities are calculated by dispersion curves and experiment test respectively, and from comparing of the two results, the guided wave mode propagated in transmission line is confirmed to be F(1,1) mode. Finally, the axial and circumferential positioning of local defective wires in transmission line are both achieved, by using multiple piezoelectric elements to surround the stands and send elastic waves into every single wire. The proposed research can play a role of guiding the development of highly effective UGW method and detecting system for multi-wire transmission line.

  20. Investigation of a Photoconductively Switched, Radial Transmission Line Accelerator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    that is due to insulator surface flashover in a vacuum. The radial line conductors can be oriented vertically and the structural supports and...possible voltage or electric field pulse to the acceleration gap. Presently, flashover of the vacuum side of the insulator separating the power system...supported by material surfaces . The photoconductively switched radial line accelerator power system is comparable to the -wake field- accelerator

  1. The 100 kA current leads for a superconducting transmission line magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yuenian; Foster, William; Kim, Seog-Whan; Mazur, Peter; Oleck, Andrew; Piekarz, Henryk; Rabehl, Roger; Wake, Masayoshi; /Fermilab /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    A pair of current leads to power a transmission line magnet cooled at liquid helium temperature has been designed and developed at Fermilab. The leads designed to carry 100 kA dc current. Each lead consists of a warm end, heat exchange section and a cold end. The warm end is a half moon plate and cylinder brazed together. The heat exchange section is made of 202 copper rods arranged in a staggered pattern. Each rod is 6.35 mm in diameter and 1650 mm in length. The rods were soft-soldered into 12.7 mm deep holes at both warm and cold ends. The helium gas flow, guided by anodized aluminum baffles along the lead length, allows for a relatively high heat transfer coefficient between the current carrying rods and cooling helium gas. As a result the current leads were successfully tested with a ramping current of up to 104 kA. The current lead design, assembly work and the test results are presented.

  2. Light transmissive electrically conductive oxide electrode formed in the presence of a stabilizing gas

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Nang T.; Gilbert, James R.

    1992-08-04

    A light transmissive, electrically conductive oxide is doped with a stabilizing gas such as H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. The oxide is formed by sputtering a light transmissive, electrically conductive oxide precursor onto a substrate at a temperature from 20.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. Sputtering occurs in a gaseous mixture including a sputtering gas and the stabilizing gas.

  3. Performance analysis of radiation cooled dc transmission lines for high power space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    As space power levels increase to meet mission objectives and also as the transmission distance between power source and load increases, the mass, volume, power loss, and operating voltage and temperature become important system design considerations. This analysis develops the dependence of the specific mass and percent power loss on the power and voltage levels, transmission distance, operating temperature and conductor material properties. Only radiation cooling is considered since the transmission line is assumed to operate in a space environment. The results show that the limiting conditions for achieving low specific mass, percent power loss, and volume for a space-type dc transmission line are the permissible transmission voltage and operating temperature. Other means to achieve low specific mass include the judicious choice of conductor materials. The results of this analysis should be immediately applicable to power system trade-off studies including comparisons with ac transmission systems.

  4. Performance analysis of radiation cooled dc transmission lines for high power space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    As space power levels increase to meet mission objectives and also as the transmission distance between power source and load increases, the mass, volume, power loss, and operating voltage and temperature become important system design considerations. This analysis develops the dependence of the specific mass and percent power loss on hte power and voltage levels, transmission distance, operating temperature and conductor material properties. Only radiation cooling is considered since the transmission line is assumed to operate in a space environment. The results show that the limiting conditions for achieving low specific mass, percent power loss, and volume for a space-type dc transmission line are the permissible transmission voltage and operating temperature. Other means to achieve low specific mass include the judicious choice of conductor materials. The results of this analysis should be immediately applicable to power system trade-off studies including comparisons with ac transmission systems.

  5. 49 CFR 192.717 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... encirclement welded split sleeve of appropriate design, unless the transmission line is joined by mechanical... method that reliable engineering tests and analyses show can permanently restore the serviceability of...

  6. 49 CFR 192.717 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... encirclement welded split sleeve of appropriate design, unless the transmission line is joined by mechanical... method that reliable engineering tests and analyses show can permanently restore the serviceability of...

  7. Radio and television interference caused by corona discharges from high-voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmadi, M.

    1996-11-01

    Increase in power utility loads in industrialized countries, as well as developing countries, demands a higher level of transmission line voltage. Radio interference (RI) problems have been determined to be a limiting factor in selecting the size of transmission line conductors. Transmission line noise is primarily caused by corona discharges in the immediate vicinity of the conductor. It has been observed that discharges occur during both half-cycles of the applied voltage, but positive corona is usually predominant at AM radio frequencies range with practical high-voltage and extra high-voltage transmission lines. The corona radio noise effect is highly dependent upon the presence of particles on the surface of the conductor and the increase of the electrical gradient beyond the breakdown value of the air. Therefore, corona radio noise varies significantly with the weather and atmospheric conditions and generally increases by 10 to 30 dB in foul weather.

  8. Radio and television interference caused by corona discharges from high-voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmadi, M.

    1995-10-01

    Increase in power utility loads in industrialized countries, as well as developing countries, demands a higher level of transmission line voltage. Radio interference (RI) problems have been determined to be a limiting factor in selecting the size of transmission line conductors. Transmission line noise is primarily caused by corona discharges in the immediate vicinity of the conductor. It has been observed that discharges occur during both half-cycles of the applied voltage, but positive corona is usually predominant at AM radio frequencies range with practical high-voltage and extra high-voltage transmission lines. The corona radio noise effect is highly dependent upon the presence of particles on the surface of the conductor and the increase of the electrical gradient beyond the breakdown value of the air. Therefore, corona radio noise varies significantly with the weather and atmospheric conditions and generally increases by 10 to 30 dB in foul weather.

  9. PennsylvaniaNew Jersey Interconnection Bushkill to Roseland Transmission Line, From Roseland ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pennsylvania-New Jersey Interconnection Bushkill to Roseland Transmission Line, From Roseland Borough, Essex County, through Morris County and Sussex County to Hardwick Township, Warren County, Roseland, Essex County, NJ

  10. MIDOT: A novel probe for monitoring high-current flat transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, K.; Novac, B. M.; Graneau, N.; Senior, P.; Smith, I. R.; Sinclair, M.

    2016-12-01

    A novel inductive probe, termed MIDOT, was developed for monitoring high-current flat transmission lines. While being inexpensive the probe does not require calibration, is resistant to both shock waves and temperature variations, and it is easy to manufacture and mount. It generates strong output signals that are relatively easy to interpret and has a detection region limited to a pre-defined part of the transmission line. The theoretical background related to the MIDOT probes, together with their practical implementation in both preliminary experimentation and high-current tests, is also presented in the paper. The novel probe can be used to benchmark existing 2D numerical codes used in calculating the current distribution inside the conductors of a transmission line but can also easily detect an early movement of a transmission line component. The probe can also find other applications, such as locating the position of a pulsed current flowing through a thin wire.

  11. Coyote Pumping Plant 115-kV transmission line project, Santa Clara County, California: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Environmental impacts expected from the design and siting of transmission lines and the associated pumping plant station are addressed with alternative routes and actions considered, in compliance with environmental laws. (PSB)

  12. Long Term Field Test of Polymer Insulator on 77kV Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Nobuya; Kuroyagi, Toshiyuki; Niihara, Sadao

    As an anti-Vandalism measure, polymer insulator which is light and shows good performance in contamination withstand voltage is already adopted to many new power transmission lines mainly in U.S.A. However, it is said that aging deterioration is promoted by ultraviolet rays, ozone, leakage current and partial discharge because polymer insulator is made of organic materials. It is important that we seize the characteristics of aging deterioration to maintain power transmission lines. As polymer insulator for power transmission lines is more expensive than ceramic one, it is scarely used in Japan, and there is no data in the field. In this study, we installed polymer insulator to 77kV power transmission line and carried out field test for nine years from 1997 to 2006 and investigated electrical and mechanical characteristics of them.

  13. A distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer for high voltage nanosecond pulse generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Li, Longjie; He, Jiaxin; Li, Chenjie; Wang, Yifeng; Su, Can

    2017-09-01

    A transmission line transformer has potential advantages for nanosecond pulse generation including excellent frequency response and no leakage inductance. The wave propagation process in a secondary mode line is indispensable due to an obvious inside transient electromagnetic transition in this scenario. The equivalent model of the transmission line transformer is crucial for predicting the output waveform and evaluating the effects of magnetic cores on output performance. However, traditional lumped parameter models are not sufficient for nanosecond pulse generation due to the natural neglect of wave propagations in secondary mode lines based on a lumped parameter assumption. In this paper, a distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer was established to investigate wave propagation in the secondary mode line and its influential factors through theoretical analysis and experimental verification. The wave propagation discontinuity in the secondary mode line induced by magnetic cores is emphasized. Characteristics of the magnetic core under a nanosecond pulse were obtained by experiments. Distribution and formation of the secondary mode current were determined for revealing essential wave propagation processes in secondary mode lines. The output waveform and efficiency were found to be affected dramatically by wave propagation discontinuity in secondary mode lines induced by magnetic cores. The proposed distributed parameter model was proved more suitable for nanosecond pulse generation in aspects of secondary mode current, output efficiency, and output waveform. In depth, comprehension of underlying mechanisms and a broader view of the working principle of the transmission line transformer for nanosecond pulse generation can be obtained through this research.

  14. Multisection transmission line scatter function theory for measurements of soil dielectric properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vector network analyzers measure both reflection (S11) and transmission (S21) functions, but S21 has not been used to estimate soil dielectric permittivity independently. The objectives of this study were to: (1) derive the mathematical model for S21 of a multisection transmission line, and (2) tes...

  15. Optimized Minimal Inductance Transmission Line Configuration for Z-Pinch Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O

    2003-10-16

    Successful dynamic Z-pinch experiments generally require good current delivery to the target load. Power flow losses through highly inductive transmission line configurations reduce the current available to the load. In this Brief Report, a variational calculus technique is used to determine the transmission line configuration that produces the least possible inductance and therefore the best possible current delivery for Z-pinch experiments.

  16. A Proposal for a High-Voltage Transmission Line Directional Coupler

    DOE PAGES

    Olsen, R. G.; Li, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    Directional couplers are devices generally used in high frequency transmission lines and waveguides that respond to forward and reverse traveling waves separately. Hence they can be used to either measure standing wave ratio in the steady state or to determine the direction of a propagating transient wave. Here, a design is proposed for a directional coupler to be used on multimode high voltage transmission lines. Its performance is analyzed and several suggestions are made for improving its design.

  17. First structure on MoronytoRainbow 100kV Transmission Line below Morony Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First structure on Morony-to-Rainbow 100kV Transmission Line below Morony Dam and Power House. Three-pole H-frame structure with historic porcelain suspension insulators, jumper supports insulators, overhead ground wires, and pole stubs. View to east-northeast - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Morony-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of the Missouri River, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  18. Frequency Selective Properties of Coaxial Transmission Lines Loaded with Combined Artificial Inclusions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The properties of a modified coaxial transmission line by periodic inclusions will be discussed. The introduction of split ring resonators, conductor stubs, air gaps, and combination of these gives rise to new frequency selective properties, such as stopband or passband behavior, observable in planar as well as volumetric metamaterial structures. These results envisage new potential applications and implementation of devices in coaxial transmission line technology. PMID:24587748

  19. Analysis of optimum diameter of orbit of transmission line source in positron emission tomograph

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, S.; Amano, M.; Hirose, Y.; Muira, S.; Kanno, I.

    1989-02-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is one of the most important factors to achieve quantitative measurements in positron emission tomography (PET). A transmission scan is most commonly used technique for the attenuation correction in PET. A difficulty in transmission scan is relatively long period to obtain a data with good signal-to-noise ratio. Insufficient signal-to-noise ratio of the transmission data limits that of emission data. Several approaches were reported to improve the transmission data. Those were (1) optimizing of detector threshold, (2) processing delayed coincidence sinogram before subtraction, filtering of transmission sinogram before performing attenuation correction, and (3) rejection of random and scatter coincidence by using rotating line source and information of its position. In some of these methods, additional calculation time or processing hardware is needed. The authors have estimated a relationship between ring diameter of a transmission line source and signal to noise ratio of the transmission dat. This paper aimes to analyze optimum diameter of the orbit of transmission line source in concerning to signal to noise ratio in transmission data.

  20. Transmission line galloping image monitoring system based on digital signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hai Peng; Ma, Zhan Feng

    2011-06-01

    An embedded image monitoring system based on TMS320DM642 Digital Signal Processor (DSP) is proposed for the transmission line monitoring. The system can detect galloping, ice or snow covering, and other abnormal status of the transmission line in a real time mode. The image detection algorithms are compared using the controlled experiment under the complex weather environment, thereby, a set of image processing algorithms is proposed for transmission lines image monitoring. The DSP/BOIS multi-threaded programming techniques are used to realize the algorithm in the DSPs' embedded software. A wireless communication based on General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) module is designed to transmit the detection results and the changed information of the image to the monitoring center, so that the operators can get the real time status of the transmission line. The application of the system will play an important role in the condition-based maintenance of power transmission lines and improve the reliability of power delivery system. Transmission line; Status monitoring; Complex weather factor; Image filtering and sharpening; Image segment; Morphological filtering; Wireless communication; Digital signal processor; Multi-threaded programming.

  1. Analysis and characterization of high- Tc superconducting planar transmission lines for microwave circuit components

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Keonshik.

    1991-01-01

    A loss modeling of high {Tc} superconducting planar transmission lines is presented in this dissertation. Transmission structures such as microstrip lines, coplanar waveguides and conductor backed coplanar waveguides are investigated for implementation of a high-{Tc} superconductor. Also, short pulse propagation in the superconducting coplanar stripline is characterized. The motivation for this work is to provide an analytical basis for the effective application of a high {Tc} superconductor to planar transmission lines for microwave components. First, a loss characterization of the various high {Tc} superconducting microstrip line structures is presented in which either the strip or the ground plane is a high {Tc} superconductor. In the analysis, the internal impedances in the strip and the ground plane are separately calculated, and the total internal impedance is obtained by the superposition of the internal impedances. Next, the characteristic of a superconducting coplanar waveguide is investigated and compared with a superconducting microstrip line.

  2. Millikelvin thermal and electrical performance of lossy transmission line filters

    SciTech Connect

    Slichter, Daniel; Naaman, Ofer; Siddiqi, Irfan

    2009-03-11

    We report on the scattering parameters and Johnson noise emission of low-pass stripline filters employing a magnetically loaded silicone dielectric down to 25 mK. The transmission characteristic of a device with f-3dB=1.3 GHz remains essentially unchanged upon cooling. Another device with f-edB=0.4 GHz, measured in its stopband, exhibits a steady state noise power emission consistent with a temperature difference of a few mK relative to a well-anchored cryogenic microwave attenuator at temperatures down to 25 mK, thus presenting a matched thermal load.

  3. Interstate power plants 8-inch HDPE gas feeder line

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Interstate Power Co.'s newly laid 8-in. high density polyethylene gas feeder line on the banks of the Mississippi River from Savanna to Thomson, IL., has an expected minimum 100-year lifetime. Serving a rapidly growing industrial and residential area, the 9.5-mile distribution line is initially operating as a 60-psi system, although it is ultimately designed for 82-psi service obtained by using Plexco PE 3406/3408 pipe with a 0.639-in.-thick wall and weighing 7 lb/ft. The Thomson line is the first time Interstate has planted 8-in. pipe using a Vermeer T600C ladder trencher. Lower material and labor costs make the plastic line only 65% of the installed cost of a comparable steel pipeline.

  4. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  9. Fresnel equations and transmission line analogues for diffraction gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Kaushik, S.

    1995-08-01

    A simple and intuitive formalism is presented to describe diffraction in multi-layered periodic structures. We use the well known results from scalar analysis (wave propagation in homogeneous layered media) and show that they can be generalized rather readily to vector problems such as diffraction analysis. Specifically, we derive: (1) generalized Fresnel equations appropriate for reflection and transmission from an infinitely thick grating, (2) a generalized Airy formula for thin-film to describe reflection and transmission of light through a lamellar grating and (3) a matrix propagation method akin to that used for multi-layer thin film analysis. The results developed here complement the recent work on R-matrix and S-matrix propagation algorithms that have been used in connection with modal and differential grating theories. These algorithms have proven to be numerically stable for calculating diffraction efficiencies from deep groove gratings. The formalism developed here expands upon the earlier literature by providing important details that are hitherto unavailable.

  10. Tracing inflows and outflows with absorption lines in circumgalactic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Amanda Brady; Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Katz, Neal; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Thompson, Robert; Weinberg, David H.

    2014-10-01

    We examine how H I and metal absorption lines within low-redshift galaxy haloes trace the dynamical state of circumgalactic gas, using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations that include a well-vetted heuristic model for galactic outflows. We categorize inflowing, outflowing, and ambient gas based on its history and fate as tracked in our simulation. Following our earlier work, showing that the ionization level of absorbers was a primary factor in determining the physical conditions of absorbing gas, we show here that it is also a governing factor for its dynamical state. Low-ionization metal absorbers (e.g. Mg II) tend to arise in gas that will fall on to galaxies within several Gyr, while high-ionization metal absorbers (e.g. O VI) generally trace material that was deposited by outflows many Gyr ago. Inflowing gas is dominated by enriched material that was previously ejected in an outflow; hence, accretion at low redshifts is typically substantially enriched. Recycling wind material is preferentially found closer to galaxies, and is more dominant in lower mass haloes since high-mass haloes have more hot gas that is able to support itself against infall. Low-mass haloes also tend to re-eject more of their accreted material, owing to our outflow prescription that employs higher mass loading factors for lower mass galaxies. Typical H I absorbers trace unenriched ambient material that is not participating in the baryon cycle, but stronger H I absorbers arise in cool, enriched inflowing gas. Instantaneous radial velocity measures of absorbers are generally poor at distinguishing between inflowing and outflowing gas, except in the case of very recent outflows. These results suggest that probing halo gas using a range of absorbers can provide detailed information about the amount and physical conditions of material that is participating in the baryon cycle.

  11. Transmission line printed using silver nanoparticle ink on FR-4 and polyimide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Sung-min; Lee, Yeonsu; Kang, Hye-lim; Shin, Kwon-Yong; Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Jung-Mu

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, nano-silver ink-jet printed transmission lines were fabricated to investigate RF performance on both flame retardant (FR-4) and polyimide (PI) as rigid and flexible substrates. The transmission lines were printed by using the ink-jet printer with velocity of 3.5 mm/s and were sintered in a convection oven with 250 °C. The RF performance of transmission lines was simulated and measured at low frequencies. The transmission loss is measured to be 0.22 dB@1 GHz and 0.32 dB@1 GHz, respectively, for the FR-4 and PI substrates, respectively. The return loss has over 16 dB for FR-4 substrate and over 12 dB for PI substrate. The RF performance of transmission line was investigated and discussed in regard to an influence by two substrates. The measured RF performance of fabricated transmission lines results in the possibility that flexible device is explored in low frequencies application.

  12. Research on the technology and economic calculation model of power transmission line considering environmental benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yiqun; Sun, Chenjun; Zeng, Ming

    2017-01-01

    As an important part of the modern energy supply system, power grid has a very important influence on the regional energy system, especially in the context of large-scale development of new energy sources, cross transmission line planning is the key to optimize the energy supply system. First of all, this paper starts from the typical regional energy problem analysis, proposes the thought of relying on cross transmission to solve the problems of energy supply; Secondly, this paper analyzes the external environment and the effect of cross transmission, establishes the technical and economic model of transmission planning based on cost effectiveness; Finally, according to the example of China's energy system in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei region, to carry out technical and economic analysis of transmission line technology, and give the relevant recommendations.

  13. 76 FR 26183 - Safety Zone; Repair of High Voltage Transmission Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... to Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... transmission lines to Logan Airport. This safety zone is required to provide for the safety of life on... Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, Massachusetts, in the Federal Register...

  14. Corona and field effects experience on an operating utility six-phase transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.R.; Oppel, L.J.; Richeda, R.J.

    1998-10-01

    A three-year operating period of a six-phase power transmission line to an operating utility has given experimental verification to available methods for calculation of electric and magnetic fields, radio noise, and audible noise from six-phase overhead lines. Successful completion of the operational measurement program has provided further encouragement to the future application of high phase order.

  15. Measuring the complex permittivity of poultry meat with a planar transmission-line sensor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A planar transmission-line sensor is used to measure the complex permittivity of chicken breast meat over the frequency range 0.5 – 5 GHz. Results for the permittivity of nine samples of chicken breast meat are compared to results obtained with a commercially available open-ended coaxial-line probe....

  16. The Impact of Diffuse Ionized Gas on Emission-line Ratios and Gas Metallicity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) is prevalent in star-forming galaxies. Using a sample of galaxies observed by MaNGA, we demonstrate how DIG in star-forming galaxies impact the measurements of emission line ratios, hence the gas-phase metallicity measurements and the interpretation of diagnostic diagrams. We demonstrate that emission line surface brightness (SB) is a reasonably good proxy to separate HII regions from regions dominated by diffuse ionized gas. For spatially-adjacent regions or regions at the same radius, many line ratios change systematically with emission line surface brightness, reflecting a gradual increase of dominance by DIG towards low SB. DIG could significantly bias the measurement of gas metallicity and metallicity gradient. Because DIG tend to have a higher temperature than HII regions, at fixed metallicity DIG displays lower [NII]/[OII] ratios. DIG also show lower [OIII]/[OII] ratios than HII regions, due to extended partially-ionized regions that enhance all low-ionization lines ([NII], [SII], [OII], [OI]). The contamination by DIG is responsible for a substantial portion of the scatter in metallicity measurements. At different surface brightness, line ratios and line ratio gradients can differ systematically. As DIG fraction could change with radius, it can affect the metallicity gradient measurements in systematic ways. The three commonly used strong-line metallicity indicators, R23, [NII]/[OII], O3N2, are all affected in different ways. To make robust metallicity gradient measurements, one has to properly isolate HII regions and correct for DIG contamination. In line ratio diagnostic diagrams, contamination by DIG moves HII regions towards composite or LINER-like regions.

  17. Political efficacy and familiarity as predictors of attitudes towards electric transmission lines in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Joe, Jeffrey C.; Hendrickson, Kelsie; Wong, Maria; Kane, Stephanie L.; Solan, David; Carlisle, Juliet E.; Koehler, David; Ames, Daniel P.; Beazer, Robert

    2016-05-18

    Public opposition to the construction (i.e., siting) of new high voltage overhead transmission lines is not a new or isolated phenomenon. Past research has posited a variety of reasons, applied general theories, and has provided empirical evidence to explain public opposition. The existing literature, while clarifying many elements of the issue, does not yet fully explain the complexities underlying this public opposition phenomenon. As a result, the current study demonstrated how two overlooked factors, people’s sense of political efficacy and their familiarity (i.e., prior exposure) with transmission lines, explained attitudes of support and opposition to siting new power lines.

  18. Political efficacy and familiarity as predictors of attitudes towards electric transmission lines in the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Joe, Jeffrey C.; Hendrickson, Kelsie; Wong, Maria; ...

    2016-05-18

    Public opposition to the construction (i.e., siting) of new high voltage overhead transmission lines is not a new or isolated phenomenon. Past research has posited a variety of reasons, applied general theories, and has provided empirical evidence to explain public opposition. The existing literature, while clarifying many elements of the issue, does not yet fully explain the complexities underlying this public opposition phenomenon. As a result, the current study demonstrated how two overlooked factors, people’s sense of political efficacy and their familiarity (i.e., prior exposure) with transmission lines, explained attitudes of support and opposition to siting new power lines.

  19. Hydrotest measurement system for gas lines gets field trials

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, A.H. )

    1989-08-07

    Texas Gas Transmission Co., Owensboro, Ky., has developed a tool for recording and documenting the performance of hydrostatic testing. Texas Gas conducted field tests during the summer of 1988 and has continued those tests this year. The hydrostatic-test measurement system (HTMS) is designed to be more compact and easier to use than existing systems. With a Tandy 200 portable lap-top computer, software developed in-house, and other company-fabricated interface hardware, the portable data-acquisition system will measure and record field hydrostatic-test data. After the test, the computer will generate a stress-strain plot (pressure-vs.-gallon count) with a graphics plotter and print the test data.

  20. Transmission in flow ducts with peripherally varying linings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astley, R. J.; Walkington, N. J.; Eversman, W.

    1980-01-01

    A finite element Galerkin formulation is used for the calculation of acoustical modes in uniform ducts with arbitrary geometry, mean flow and lining configuration. Hermitian 'non-conforming' sub-parametric elements are used and the dimensionality of the resulting eigenmatrix is reduced by the use of a condensation scheme based on the compatible eigenvectors in the case with no mean flow. Results are presented for simple circular and rectangular configurations for which exact comparison results are readily calculable. Computer graphics routines required to interpret modal data are described and sample results shown.

  1. Transmission line for millimeter-wave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komar, G. I.; Shestopalov, V. P.

    The advantages of the miniature wideband slotted mirror line (SML) for millimeter-wave integrated circuits is described. It is shown that the SML has the same order of losses in the mm-range as the stripline in the cm-range. In addition, the SML makes possible the planar design of a wide range of functional components and units, and provides for the complex miniaturization of closed antenna-feed systems in the mm-range, which makes it possible to avoid the use of several types of sections in a single circuit. Forms of cross sections of the SML are presented.

  2. Transmission line design for a power distribution system at 20 kHz for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelby, L. W.; Mathes, J. B.; Shawver, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A low inductance, low characteristic impedance transmission line was designed for a 20 kHz power distribution system. Several different conductor configurations were considered: strip lines, interdigitated metal ribbons, and standard insulated wires in multiwire configurations (circular and rectangular cylindrical arrangements). The final design was a rectangular arrangement of multiple wires of the same gauge with alternating polarities from wire to wire. This offered the lowest inductance per unit length (on the order of several nanohenries/meter) and the lowest characteristic impedance (on the order of one Ohm). Standard multipin connectors with gold-plated elements were recommended with this transmission line, the junction boxes to be internally connected with flat metal ribbons for low inductance, and the line to be constructed in sections of suitable length. Computer programs for the calculation of inductance of multiwire lines and of capacitances of strip lines were developed.

  3. 75 FR 19963 - Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Florida Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... proceeding must file a motion to intervene pursuant to Rule 214 of the Commission's Rules of Practice and... appropriate date range. For assistance, please contact FERC Online Support at FercOnlineSupport@ferc.gov or...

  4. Fiber Optic Picosecond Laser Pulse Transmission Line for Hydrogen Ion Beam Profile Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun; Huang, Chunning; Aleksandrov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    We present a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line for non-intrusive longitudinal profile measurement of the hydrogen ion (H-) beam at the front-end of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator. The 80.5 MHz, 2.5 ps, multi-killowatt optical pulses are delivered to the accelerator beam line through a large mode area polarization maintaining optical fiber to ensure a high measurement stability. The transmission efficiency, output laser beam quality, pulse jitter and pulse width broadening over a 100-ft fiber line are experimentally investigated. A successful measurement of the H- beam microbunch (~130 ps) profile is obtained. Our experiment is the first demonstration of particle beam profile diagnostics using fiber optic laser pulse transmission line.

  5. Flashover vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, V.J.; Liu, T.K.; Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper estimates the vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to flashover from the electromagnetic pulse generated by a nuclear detonation 400 kilometers above the earth. The analysis consists of first determining the cumulative probability of induced-voltage on three-phase lines, including shield and neutral conductors, for four operating voltages and then comparing these stresses to estimates of line insulation strength. 11 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Low-frequency sound transmission through a gas-solid interface.

    PubMed

    Godin, Oleg A

    2011-02-01

    Sound transmission through gas-solid interfaces is usually very weak because of the large contrast in wave impedances at the interface. Here, it is shown that diffraction effects can lead to a dramatic increase in the transparency of gas-solid interfaces at low frequencies, resulting in the bulk of energy emitted by compact sources within a solid being radiated into a gas. The anomalous transparency is made possible by power fluxes in evanescent body waves and by excitation of interface waves. Sound transmission into gas is found to be highly sensitive to absorption of elastic waves within a solid.

  7. Assessment of Fecundity and Germ Line Transmission in Two Transgenic Pig Lines Produced by Sleeping Beauty Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Cleve, Nicole; Niemann, Heiner; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we described a simplified injection method for producing transgenic pigs using a non-autonomous Sleeping Beauty transposon system. The founder animals showed ubiquitous expression of the Venus fluorophore in almost all cell types. To assess, whether expression of the reporter fluorophore affects animal welfare or fecundity, we analyzed reproductive parameters of two founder boars, germ line transmission, and organ and cell specific transgene expression in animals of the F1 and F2 generation. Molecular analysis of ejaculated sperm cells suggested three monomeric integrations of the Venus transposon in both founders. To test germ line transmission of the three monomeric transposon integrations, wild-type sows were artificially inseminated. The offspring were nursed to sexual maturity and hemizygous lines were established. A clear segregation of the monomeric transposons following the Mendelian rules was observed in the F1 and F2 offspring. Apparently, almost all somatic cells, as well as oocytes and spermatozoa, expressed the Venus fluorophore at cell-type specific levels. No detrimental effects of Venus expression on animal health or fecundity were found. Importantly, all hemizygous lines expressed the fluorophore in comparable levels, and no case of transgene silencing or variegated expression was found after germ line transmission, suggesting that the insertions occurred at transcriptionally permissive loci. The results show that Sleeping Beauty transposase-catalyzed transposition is a promising approach for stable genetic modification of the pig genome. PMID:24705079

  8. Assessment of fecundity and germ line transmission in two transgenic pig lines produced by sleeping beauty transposition.

    PubMed

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Cleve, Nicole; Niemann, Heiner; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A

    2012-10-12

    Recently, we described a simplified injection method for producing transgenic pigs using a non-autonomous Sleeping Beauty transposon system. The founder animals showed ubiquitous expression of the Venus fluorophore in almost all cell types. To assess, whether expression of the reporter fluorophore affects animal welfare or fecundity, we analyzed reproductive parameters of two founder boars, germ line transmission, and organ and cell specific transgene expression in animals of the F1 and F2 generation. Molecular analysis of ejaculated sperm cells suggested three monomeric integrations of the Venus transposon in both founders. To test germ line transmission of the three monomeric transposon integrations, wild-type sows were artificially inseminated. The offspring were nursed to sexual maturity and hemizygous lines were established. A clear segregation of the monomeric transposons following the Mendelian rules was observed in the F1 and F2 offspring. Apparently, almost all somatic cells, as well as oocytes and spermatozoa, expressed the Venus fluorophore at cell-type specific levels. No detrimental effects of Venus expression on animal health or fecundity were found. Importantly, all hemizygous lines expressed the fluorophore in comparable levels, and no case of transgene silencing or variegated expression was found after germ line transmission, suggesting that the insertions occurred at transcriptionally permissive loci. The results show that Sleeping Beauty transposase-catalyzed transposition is a promising approach for stable genetic modification of the pig genome.

  9. 75 FR 33298 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Authorization June 4, 2010. Take notice that on May 20, 2010 Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe, Suite 2500, Houston, TX 77056, filed in the above Docket, a prior notice request pursuant to...

  10. 76 FR 10344 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Michelle Willis, Manager, Regulatory and Compliance, CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC, PO... Procedure (18 CFR 385.214 or 385.211) and the Regulations under the NGA (18 CFR 157.10). A person...

  11. Line array transmission sources for SPECT attenuation correction: design and reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawman, E. G.; Rempel, T. D.; Vija, A. H.; Engdahl, J. C.

    2005-04-01

    Correction for non-uniform attenuation in SPECT generally requires measurements of radiation transmittance through the patient and reconstruction of the data to form an attenuation image, or mu-map. For nuclear cardiac studies it useful if the emission and transmission data for each projection view can be acquired simultaneously using non-overlapping energy windows. This simplifies the registration of the emission and transmission data. Large area transmission sources are desirable to avoid data truncation; however, 2D-planar liquid sources are cumbersome and extended solid area sources of Gd-153 or Am-247 are impractical. Co-57 sheet sources present spectral overlap problems for imaging of Tc-99m tracers. With Gd-153 line arrays, one can achieve the benefits of 2D-planar sources, low truncation and simultaneous emission/transmission measurements, using lightweight static mechanical attachments to the SPECT camera system. A new method is proposed to determine optimal positions for the lines of the transmission array based on maximizing the entropy of the transmitted flux through the patient. Transmission reconstruction using parallel beam filtered back-projection yields attenuation maps with poor spatial resolution and significant aliasing effects. The degradations of image quality become worse as the angular separations of the lines as seen by the detector increase. To improve the reconstruction of line array transmission data a maximum likelihood modified gradient algorithm was derived. The algorithm takes into account emission-to-transmission down scatter as well as the overlapping of radiation patterns of the individual lines. Ordered subset versions of algorithms are explored. Image quality is assessed with simulations based on an attenuation map derived from CT.

  12. Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park.

  13. Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B.; Austin, M. E.; Ellis, R. F.

    2013-10-15

    Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

  14. Component tests for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Transmission Line and Matching System - Status and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulding, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Deibele, C. E.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Campbell, I. H.; Gray, S. L.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Sanabria, R. M.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Kung, C.

    2015-11-01

    New Z0 = 50 Ω gas-cooled component designs for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System have been successfully tested at high RF power levels. They include two types featuring spoke-ring assembly (SRA) inner conductor supports: 20° elbows, and variable length assembly bellows, both achieving RF voltages > 35 kV peak, and currents ~ 760 A peak during quasi-steady state operation. The SRA utilizes mechanically preloaded fused quartz spokes, increasing lateral load handling capability. Components with SRA supports have been seismically tested, with no variation in low power electrical performance detected after testing. A 3 MW four-port switch has also been successfully tested at high RF power, and tests of a 6 MW hybrid power splitter are planned in the near future. Latest results will be presented. Plans for arc localization tests in a 60 m SRA transmission line run, and RF tests of Z0 = 50 Ω and Z0 = 20 Ω matching components with water-cooled inner conductors will also be discussed. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Printed circuit-mounted surge suppressor matched to characteristic impedance of high frequency transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, A.O.

    1994-01-11

    A surge suppressor for a high frequency transmission line contains a microstrip architecture comprising a dielectric sheet on a first side of which a signal conductor stripe layer is formed and on a second side of which a ground plane conductor layer is formed. The strip layer is disposed along a generally central linear region of the first surface, so as to facilitate direct connection to the center conductor of a pair of end connectors, such as type F coaxial connectors. The ground plane conductor layer is attached to the shield layer of the coaxial connectors. A gas discharge tube is coupled between a first location of the stripe layer and the ground plane layer. The discharge device may be mounted on the first side of the microstrip structure and is connected to the ground plane layer on the opposite surface by way of a plated through hole. The ground plane layer has an aperture of a prescribed area in mutual alignment with the stripe layer so as to effectively remove the distributed capacitance between the stripe layer and the ground plane along a defined length of the stripe. This decrease in the distributed microstrip capacitance coupled with the fact that the removal of ground plane metal leaves the overlying section of the center conductor as a length of inductance compensate for the alteration of the characteristic impedance by the connection of the discharge device between the stripe conductor layer and the ground plane layer. 8 figs.

  16. 75 FR 1051 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ...] Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Filing December 31, 2009. Take notice that on November 12, 2009, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC (Transco), tendered for filing an application for an...

  17. Dynamic Responses and Vibration Control of the Transmission Tower-Line System: A State-of-the-Art Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Guo, Wei-hua; Li, Peng-yun; Xie, Wen-ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an overview on the dynamic analysis and control of the transmission tower-line system in the past forty years. The challenges and future developing trends in the dynamic analysis and mitigation of the transmission tower-line system under dynamic excitations are also put forward. It also reviews the analytical models and approaches of the transmission tower, transmission lines, and transmission tower-line systems, respectively, which contain the theoretical model, finite element (FE) model and the equivalent model; shows the advances in wind responses of the transmission tower-line system, which contains the dynamic effects under common wind loading, tornado, downburst, and typhoon; and discusses the dynamic responses under earthquake and ice loads, respectively. The vibration control of the transmission tower-line system is also reviewed, which includes the magnetorheological dampers, friction dampers, tuned mass dampers, and pounding tuned mass dampers. PMID:25105161

  18. Dynamic responses and vibration control of the transmission tower-line system: a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Guo, Wei-hua; Li, Peng-yun; Xie, Wen-ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an overview on the dynamic analysis and control of the transmission tower-line system in the past forty years. The challenges and future developing trends in the dynamic analysis and mitigation of the transmission tower-line system under dynamic excitations are also put forward. It also reviews the analytical models and approaches of the transmission tower, transmission lines, and transmission tower-line systems, respectively, which contain the theoretical model, finite element (FE) model and the equivalent model; shows the advances in wind responses of the transmission tower-line system, which contains the dynamic effects under common wind loading, tornado, downburst, and typhoon; and discusses the dynamic responses under earthquake and ice loads, respectively. The vibration control of the transmission tower-line system is also reviewed, which includes the magnetorheological dampers, friction dampers, tuned mass dampers, and pounding tuned mass dampers.

  19. 75 FR 75170 - Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.: Bemidji to Grand Rapids 230 kV Transmission Line Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... Rural Utilities Service Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.: Bemidji to Grand Rapids 230 kV Transmission... to Grand Rapids 230 kV Transmission Line Project (Project) in Beltrami, Hubbard, Itasca, and Cass... construct the 230 kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Wilton Substation near Bemidji, Minnesota...

  20. Stillbirth and residential proximity to extremely low frequency power transmission lines: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Park, Alison L; Yacouba, Soumana; Goneau, Marc; Zayed, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    The relationship between electromagnetic field exposure and stillbirth has not been evaluated. We assessed associations between residential proximity to extremely low frequency power transmission lines and stillbirth across gestational age. Data included singleton live births (N=514,826) and stillbirths (N=2033) for 1998-2007 in metropolitan areas of Québec, Canada. Using power transmission line maps, the distances between lines and residential six-digit postal codes (<25, 25-49.9, 50-74.9, 75-99.9, ≥ 100 m) were calculated. Generalised estimating equations were used to compute ORs and 95% CIs for distance and stillbirth, accounting for individual and area characteristics. Early preterm (< 28 weeks), late preterm (28-36 weeks) and term (≥ 37 weeks) stillbirths were examined relative to fetuses-at-risk. There was no association between distance and preterm stillbirth. The odds of term stillbirth for <25 m were greater compared to ≥ 100 m (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.14 to 4.45), but no dose-response pattern was apparent. A graded dose-response trend between distance to lines and odds of stillbirth was not found, but the likelihood of term stillbirth was elevated for residences within 25 m of power transmission lines. Residential proximity to transmission lines is unlikely to be associated with stillbirth, but more research is needed to rule out a possible link.