Science.gov

Sample records for gaseous wastes

  1. Gaseous emissions from waste combustion.

    PubMed

    Werther, Joachim

    2007-06-18

    An overview is given on methods and technologies for limiting the gaseous emissions from waste combustion. With the guideline 2000/76/EC recent European legislation has set stringent limits not only for the mono-combustion of waste in specialized incineration plants but also for co-combustion in coal-fired power plants. With increased awareness of environmental issues and stepwise decrease of emission limits and inclusion of more and more substances into the network of regulations a multitude of emission abatement methods and technologies have been developed over the last decades. The result is the state-of-the-art waste incinerator with a number of specialized process steps for the individual components in the flue gas. The present work highlights some new developments which can be summarized under the common goal of reducing the costs of flue gas treatment by applying systems which combine the treatment of several noxious substances in one reactor or by taking new, simpler routes instead of the previously used complicated ones or - in the case of flue gas desulphurisation - by reducing the amount of limestone consumption. Cost reduction is also the driving force for new processes of conditioning of nonhomogenous waste before combustion. Pyrolysis or gasification is used for chemical conditioning whereas physical conditioning means comminution, classification and sorting processes. Conditioning yields a fuel which can be used in power plants either as a co-fuel or a mono-fuel and which will burn there under much better controlled conditions and therefore with less emissions than the nonhomogeneous waste in a conventional waste incinerator. Also for cost reasons, co-combustion of wastes in coal-fired power stations is strongly pressing into the market. Recent investigations reveal that the co-firing of waste can also have beneficial effects on the operating behavior of the boiler and on the gaseous emissions. PMID:17339077

  2. Nuclear waste disposal utilizing a gaseous core reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paternoster, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a gaseous core nuclear reactor designed to produce power to also reduce the national inventories of long-lived reactor waste products through nuclear transmutation was examined. Neutron-induced transmutation of radioactive wastes is shown to be an effective means of shortening the apparent half life.

  3. Radioactivity in gaseous waste discharged from the separations facilities during fourth quarter of 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Sliger, G. J.

    1980-02-22

    This document is issued quarterly for the purpose of summarizing the radioactive gaseous wastes that are discharged from the facilities of the Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell). Data on alpha and beta emissions during 1979 are presented where relevant to the gaseous effluent. Emission data are not included on gaseous wastes produced within the 200 areas by other Hanford contractors.

  4. Production of gaseous fuel by pyrolysis of municipal solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, T. H.; Ringer, H. N.; Bridges, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant tests were conducted on a simulated solid waste which was a mixture of shredded newspaper, wood waste, polyethylene plastics, crushed glass, steel turnings, and water. Tests were conducted at 1400 F in a lead-bath pyrolyser. Cold feed was deaerated by compression and was dropped onto a moving hearth of molten lead before being transported to a sealed storage container. About 80 percent of the feed's organic content was converted to gaseous products which contain over 90 percent of the potential waste energy; 12 percent was converted to water; and 8 percent remained as partially pyrolyzed char and tars. Nearly half of the carbon in the feed is converted to benzene, toluene and medium-quality fuel gas, a potential credit of over $25 per ton of solid waste. The system was shown to require minimal preprocessing and less sorting then other methods.

  5. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department Annual Operating Report, CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the waste management operations section of the liquid and gaseous waste operations department at ORNL for 1993. The process waste, liquid low-level waste, gaseous waste systems activities are reported, as well as the low-level waste solidification project. Upgrade activities is the various waste processing and treatment systems are summarized. A maintenance activity overview is provided, and program management, training, and other miscellaneous activities are covered.

  6. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses work at the Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department of ORNL. An operating summary, upgrade activities and maintenance activities are presented for the Process Waste Treatment Plant, Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, and Runoff Treatment Facility.

  7. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report CY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1997-03-01

    This annual report summarizes operating activities dealing with the process waste system, the liquid low-level waste system, and the gaseous waste system. It also describes upgrade activities dealing with the process and liquid low-level waste systems, the cathodic protection system, a stack ventilation system, and configuration control. Maintenance activities are described dealing with nonradiological wastewater treatment plant, process waste treatment plant and collection system, liquid low-level waste system, and gaseous waste system. Miscellaneous activities include training, audits/reviews/tours, and environmental restoration support.

  8. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents details about the operation of the liquid and gaseous waste department of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the calendar year 1994. Topics discussed include; process waste system, upgrade activities, low-level liquid radioactive waste solidification project, maintenance activities, and other activities such as training, audits, and tours.

  9. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the operating activities, upgrade activities, maintenance, and other activities regarding liquid and gaseous low level radioactive waste management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Miscellaneous activities include training, audits, tours, and environmental restoration support.

  10. Oak Ridge National Lebroatory Liquid&Gaseous Waste Treatment System Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2003-09-09

    Excellence in Laboratory operations is one of the three key goals of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Agenda. That goal will be met through comprehensive upgrades of facilities and operational approaches over the next few years. Many of ORNL's physical facilities, including the liquid and gaseous waste collection and treatment systems, are quite old, and are reaching the end of their safe operating life. The condition of research facilities and supporting infrastructure, including the waste handling facilities, is a key environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concern. The existing infrastructure will add considerably to the overhead costs of research due to increased maintenance and operating costs as these facilities continue to age. The Liquid Gaseous Waste Treatment System (LGWTS) Reengineering Project is a UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-B) Operations Improvement Program (OIP) project that was undertaken to develop a plan for upgrading the ORNL liquid and gaseous waste systems to support ORNL's research mission.

  11. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  12. Radioactivity in gaseous waste discharged from the separations facilities during 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.C.; Sliger, G.J.

    1981-02-06

    This document is issued quarterly for the purpose of summarizing the radioactive gaseous waste that are discharged from the facilities of the Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell). Data on the alpha and beta emissions for the year 1980 are presented where relevant to the gaseous effluent. Emission data are not included on gaseous wastes produced within the 200 Areas by other Hanford contractors. The volume and activity estimates of the gaseous effluents are detailed on a month-to-month basis for each site, the average activity, maximum activity, and the average concentration discharged from each stack are also presented for each site. Also listed in this report is a summary table which contains a listing of the activity for the current year, from startup, and decayed from startup.

  13. Identification of a Hanford Waste Site for Initial Deployment of the In Situ Gaseous Reduction Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Edward C.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Faurote, James M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Olsen, Khris B.; Schalla, Ronald

    2000-11-28

    In Situ Gaseous Reduction is a technology currently being developed by DOE for the remediation of soil waste sites contaminated with hexavalent chromium. This document presents the results of recent characterization activities undertaken at several of the soil waste sites at Hanford that contain siginficant levels of hexavalent chromium contamination. The objective of this study is to select a site for initial deployment of the technology at the Hanford Site.

  14. Gaseous emissions from management of solid waste: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Guillermo; Moral, Raúl; Aguilera, Eduardo; Del Prado, Agustín

    2015-03-01

    The establishment of sustainable soil waste management practices implies minimizing their environmental losses associated with climate change (greenhouse gases: GHGs) and ecosystems acidification (ammonia: NH3 ). Although a number of management strategies for solid waste management have been investigated to quantify nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) losses in relation to varied environmental and operational conditions, their overall effect is still uncertain. In this context, we have analyzed the current scientific information through a systematic review. We quantified the response of GHG emissions, NH3 emissions, and total N losses to different solid waste management strategies (conventional solid storage, turned composting, forced aerated composting, covering, compaction, addition/substitution of bulking agents and the use of additives). Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 50 research articles involving 304 observations. Our results indicated that improving the structure of the pile (waste or manure heap) via addition or substitution of certain bulking agents significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ) emissions by 53% and 71%, respectively. Turned composting systems, unlike forced aerated composted systems, showed potential for reducing GHGs (N2 O: 50% and CH4 : 71%). Bulking agents and both composting systems involved a certain degree of pollution swapping as they significantly promoted NH3 emissions by 35%, 54%, and 121% for bulking agents, turned and forced aerated composting, respectively. Strategies based on the restriction of O2 supply, such as covering or compaction, did not show significant effects on reducing GHGs but substantially decreased NH3 emissions by 61% and 54% for covering and compaction, respectively. The use of specific additives significantly reduced NH3 losses by 69%. Our meta-analysis suggested that there is enough evidence to refine future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies from solid waste

  15. Gaseous emissions from management of solid waste: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Guillermo; Moral, Raúl; Aguilera, Eduardo; Del Prado, Agustín

    2015-03-01

    The establishment of sustainable soil waste management practices implies minimizing their environmental losses associated with climate change (greenhouse gases: GHGs) and ecosystems acidification (ammonia: NH3 ). Although a number of management strategies for solid waste management have been investigated to quantify nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) losses in relation to varied environmental and operational conditions, their overall effect is still uncertain. In this context, we have analyzed the current scientific information through a systematic review. We quantified the response of GHG emissions, NH3 emissions, and total N losses to different solid waste management strategies (conventional solid storage, turned composting, forced aerated composting, covering, compaction, addition/substitution of bulking agents and the use of additives). Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 50 research articles involving 304 observations. Our results indicated that improving the structure of the pile (waste or manure heap) via addition or substitution of certain bulking agents significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ) emissions by 53% and 71%, respectively. Turned composting systems, unlike forced aerated composted systems, showed potential for reducing GHGs (N2 O: 50% and CH4 : 71%). Bulking agents and both composting systems involved a certain degree of pollution swapping as they significantly promoted NH3 emissions by 35%, 54%, and 121% for bulking agents, turned and forced aerated composting, respectively. Strategies based on the restriction of O2 supply, such as covering or compaction, did not show significant effects on reducing GHGs but substantially decreased NH3 emissions by 61% and 54% for covering and compaction, respectively. The use of specific additives significantly reduced NH3 losses by 69%. Our meta-analysis suggested that there is enough evidence to refine future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies from solid waste

  16. Gaseous emissions from management of solid waste: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Guillermo; Moral, Raúl; Aguilera, Eduardo; del Prado, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of sustainable soil waste management practices implies minimizing their environmental losses associated with climate change (greenhouse gases: GHGs) and ecosystems acidification (ammonia: NH3). Although a number of management strategies for solid waste management have been investigated to quantify nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) losses in relation to varied environmental and operational conditions, their overall effect is still uncertain. In this context, we have analyzed the current scientific information through a systematic review. We quantified the response of GHG emissions, NH3 emissions, and total N losses to different solid waste management strategies (conventional solid storage, turned composting, forced aerated composting, covering, compaction, addition/substitution of bulking agents and the use of additives). Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 50 research articles involving 304 observations. Our results indicated that improving the structure of the pile (waste or manure heap) via addition or substitution of certain bulking agents significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions by 53% and 71%, respectively. Turned composting systems, unlike forced aerated composted systems, showed potential for reducing GHGs (N2O: 50% and CH4: 71%). Bulking agents and both composting systems involved a certain degree of pollution swapping as they significantly promoted NH3 emissions by 35%, 54%, and 121% for bulking agents, turned and forced aerated composting, respectively. Strategies based on the restriction of O2 supply, such as covering or compaction, did not show significant effects on reducing GHGs but substantially decreased NH3 emissions by 61% and 54% for covering and compaction, respectively. The use of specific additives significantly reduced NH3 losses by 69%. Our meta-analysis suggested that there is enough evidence to refine future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies from solid waste

  17. Application of gaseous core reactors for transmutation of nuclear waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnitzler, B. G.; Paternoster, R. R.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    An acceptable management scheme for high-level radioactive waste is vital to the nuclear industry. The hazard potential of the trans-uranic actinides and of key fission products is high due to their nuclear activity and/or chemical toxicity. Of particular concern are the very long-lived nuclides whose hazard potential remains high for hundreds of thousands of years. Neutron induced transmutation offers a promising technique for the treatment of problem wastes. Transmutation is unique as a waste management scheme in that it offers the potential for "destruction" of the hazardous nuclides by conversion to non-hazardous or more manageable nuclides. The transmutation potential of a thermal spectrum uranium hexafluoride fueled cavity reactor was examined. Initial studies focused on a heavy water moderated cavity reactor fueled with 5% enriched U-235-F6 and operating with an average thermal flux of 6 times 10 to the 14th power neutrons/sq cm-sec. The isotopes considered for transmutation were I-129, Am-241, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, and Cm-246.

  18. Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

    1995-06-01

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

  19. Effect of bulking agents on maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guo Xue; Yang, Qing Yuan; Luo, Wen Hai

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of bulking agents on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Three different bulking agents (cornstalks, sawdust, and spent mushroom substrate) were used to compost kitchen waste under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for a 28-d period. A control treatment was also studied using kitchen waste without a bulking agent. During the experiment, maturity indexes such as temperature, pH value, C/N ratio, and germination index were determined, and continuous measurements of leachate and gaseous emissions (CH₄, N₂O, and NH₃) were taken. The results showed that all of the composts with bulking agents reached the required maturity standard, and the addition of spent mushroom substrate gave the highest maturity (C/N ratio decreased from 23 to 16 and germination index increased from 53% to 111%). The bulking agents also reduced leachate production and CH₄ and N₂O emissions, but had little impact on NH3 emissions. Composting with sawdust as a bulking agent was found to emit less total greenhouse gas (33 kg CO₂-eqt(-1) dry matter) than the other treatments. PMID:24001663

  20. Gaseous release of carbon-14: Why the high level waste regulations should be changed

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1991-04-01

    The high-level nuclear waste regulations pertaining to gaseous release of carbon-14 from a repository should be changed to allow greater release, for several reasons. Some of them are as follows. First, the total amount of carbon-14 that would be placed in a repository is small compared to that produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays. Second, the dose that would result to an individual from total release of repository carbon-14 would be very small compared to that from natural radiation sources and would be well below the ``Below Regulatory Concern`` criterion. Third, the limits on gaseous carbon-14 release from a repository have been set unreasonably low compared to the limits set for carbon-14 release from other fuel cycle facilities. Fourth, the additional cost for waste packages to attempt to meet the regulations for carbon-14 release would likely be of the order of a billion dollars or more, too high to be justified by the small reduction in dose that might result. 32 refs.

  1. Heat-pipe effect on the transport of gaseous radionuclides released from a nuclear waste container

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, W.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1990-11-01

    When an unsaturated porous medium is subjected to a temperature gradient and the temperature is sufficiently high, vadose water is heated and vaporizes. Vapor flows under its pressure gradient towards colder regions where it condenses. Vaporization and condensation produce a liquid saturation gradient, creating a capillary pressure gradient inside the porous medium. Condensate flows towards the hot end under the influence of a capillary pressure gradient. This is a heat pipe in an unsaturated porous medium. We study analytically the transport of gaseous species released from a spent-fuel waste package, as affected by a time-dependent heat pipe in an unsaturated rock. For parameter values typical of a potential repository in partially saturated fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, we found that a heat pipe develops shortly after waste is buried, and the heat-pipe`s spatial extent is time-dependent. Water vapor movements produced by the heat pipe can significantly affect the migration of gaseous radionuclides. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  3. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH4, N2O, and NH3 were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH4 emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH3 emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N2O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively. PMID:25481697

  4. Gaseous emissions from the combustion of a waste mixture containing a high concentration of N{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Changqing Yang Yongping; Zhang Junjiao; Lu Xuefeng

    2009-01-15

    This paper is focused on reducing the emissions from the combustion of a waste mixture containing a high concentration of N{sub 2}O. A rate model and an equilibrium model were used to predict gaseous emissions from the combustion of the mixture. The influences of temperature and methane were considered, and the experimental research was carried out in a tabular reactor and a pilot combustion furnace. The results showed that for the waste mixture, the combustion temperature should be in the range of 950-1100 deg. C and the gas residence time should be 2 s or higher to reduce emissions.

  5. Modification and expansion of X-7725A Waste Accountability Facility for storage of polychlorinated biphenyl wastes at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) must manage wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in accordance with Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requirements and as prescribed in a Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) between DOE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). PCB-containing wastes are currently stored in the PORTS process buildings where they are generated. DOE proposes to modify and expand the Waste Accountability facility (X-7725A) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio, to provide a central storage location for these wastes. The proposed action is needed to eliminate the fire and safety hazards presented by the wastes. In this EA, DOE considers four alternatives: (1) no action, which requires storing wastes in limited storage areas in existing facilities; (2) modifying and expanding the X-7725A waste accountability facility; (3) constructing a new PCB waste storage building; and (4) shipping PCB wastes to the K-25 TSCA incinerator. If no action is taken, PCB-contaminated would continue to be stored in Bldgs X-326, X-330, and X-333. As TSCA cleanup activities continue, the quantity of stored waste would increase, which would subsequently cause congestion in the three process buildings and increase fire and safety hazards. The preferred alternative is to modify and expand Bldg. X-7725A to store wastes generated by TSCA compliance activities. Construction, which could begin as early as April 1996, would last approximately five to seven months, with a total peak work force of 70.

  6. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effect of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on composting gas emissions was studied. • The reduction mechanisms of composting gas were clarified in this study. • No negative effect was caused on maturity with phosphogypsum and superphosphate. • CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} emission was decreased with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. • GHG decreased by 17.4% and 7.3% with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3} were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH{sub 4} emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH{sub 3} emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N{sub 2}O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively.

  7. Microbial removal of alkanes from dilute gaseous waste streams: kinetics and mass transfer considerations.

    PubMed

    Barton, J W; Klasson, K T; Koran, L J; Davison, B H

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of dilute gaseous hydrocarbon waste streams remains a current need for many industries, particularly as increasingly stringent environmental regulations and oversight force emission reduction. Biofiltration systems hold promise for providing low-cost alternatives to more traditional, energy-intensive treatment methods such as incineration and adsorption. Elucidation of engineering principles governing the behavior of such systems, including mass transfer limitations, will broaden their applicability. Our processes exploit a microbial consortium to treat a mixture of 0.5% n-pentane and 0.5% isobutane in air. Since hydrocarbon gases are sparingly soluble in water, good mixing and high surface area between the gas and liquid phases are essential for biodegradation to be effective. One liquid-continuous columnar bioreactor was operated for more than 30 months with continued degradation of n-pentane and isobutane as sole carbon and energy sources. The maximum degradation rate observed in this gas-recycle system was 2 g of volatile organic compounds (VOC)/(m3.h). A trickle-bed bioreactor was operated continuously for over 24 months to provide a higher surface area (using a structured packing) with increased rates. Degradation rates consistently achieved were approximately 50 g of VOC/(m3.h) via single pass in this gas-continuous columnar system. Effective mass transfer coefficients comparable to literature values were also measured for this reactor; these values were substantially higher than those found in the gas-recycle reactor. Control of biomass levels was implemented by limiting the level of available nitrogen in the recirculating aqueous media, enabling long-term stability of reactor performance. PMID:9413140

  8. A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The anticipated depletion of our resources of natural gas and petroleum in a few decades has caused a search for renewable sources of fuel. Among the possibilities is the chemical conversion of waste and grown organic matter into gaseous or liquid fuels. The overall feasibility of such a system is considered from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. Although there are a number of difficult problems to overcome, this preliminary study indicates that this option could provide between 4 and 10 percent of the U.S. energy needs. Estimated costs of fuels derived from grown organic material are appreciably higher than today's market price for fossil fuel. The cost of fuel derived from waste organics is competitive with fossil fuel prices. Economic and social reasons will prohibit the allocation of good food producing land to fuel crop production.

  9. Development of measures to improve technologies of energy recovery from gaseous wastes of oil shale processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugov, A. N.; Ots, A.; Siirde, A.; Sidorkin, V. T.; Ryabov, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Prospects of the use of oil shale are associated with its thermal processing for the production of liquid fuel, shale oil. Gaseous by-products, such as low-calorie generator gas with a calorific value up to 4.3MJ/m3 or semicoke gas with a calorific value up to 56.57 MJ/m3, are generated depending on the oil shale processing method. The main methods of energy recovery from these gases are either their cofiring with oil shale in power boilers or firing only under gaseous conditions in reconstructed or specially designed for this fuel boilers. The possible use of gaseous products of oil shale processing in gas-turbine or gas-piston units is also considered. Experiments on the cofiring of oil shale gas and its gaseous processing products have been carried out on boilers BKZ-75-39FSl in Kohtla-Järve and on the boiler TP-101 of the Estonian power plant. The test results have shown that, in the case of cofiring, the concentration of sulfur oxides in exhaust gases does not exceed the level of existing values in the case of oil shale firing. The low-temperature corrosion rate does not change as compared to the firing of only oil shale, and, therefore, operation conditions of boiler back-end surfaces do not worsen. When implementing measures to reduce the generation of NO x , especially of flue gas recirculation, it has been possible to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides in the whole boiler. The operation experience of the reconstructed boilers BKZ-75-39FSl after their transfer to the firing of only gaseous products of oil shale processing is summarized. Concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur oxides in the combustion products of semicoke and generator gases are measured. Technical solutions that made it possible to minimize the damage to air heater pipes associated with the low-temperature sulfur corrosion are proposed and implemented. The technological measures for burners of new boilers that made it possible to burn gaseous products of oil shale processing with low

  10. Sampling and analysis plan for ORNL filter press cake waste from the Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department

    SciTech Connect

    Bartling, M.H.; Bayne, C.K.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    This document defines the sampling and analytical procedures needed for the initial characterization of the filter press cake waste from the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It is anticipated that revisions to this document will occur as operating experience and sample results suggest appropriate changes be made. Application of this document will be controlled through the ORNL Waste Management and Remedial Action Division. The sampling strategy is designed to ensure that the samples collected present an accurate representation of the waste process stream. Using process knowledge and preliminary radiological activity screens, the filter press cake waste is known to contain radionuclides. Chemical characterization under the premise of this sampling and analysis plan will provide information regarding possible treatments and ultimately, disposal of filter press cake waste at an offsite location. The sampling strategy and analyses requested are based on the K-25 waste acceptance criteria and the Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements [2, NVO-325, Rev. 1]. The sampling strategy will demonstrate that for the filter press cake waste there is (1) an absence of RCRA and PCBs wastes, (2) an absence of transuranic (TRU) wastes, and (3) a quantifiable amount of radionuclide activity.

  11. Incineration of different types of medical wastes: emission factors for gaseous emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Afonso, S. A. V.

    Previous research works showed that to protect public health, the hospital incinerators should be provided with air pollution control devices. As most hospital incinerators do not possess such equipment, efficient methodologies should be developed to evaluate the safety of incineration procedure. Emission factors (EF) can be used for an easy estimation of legal parameters. Nevertheless, the actual knowledge is yet very scarce, mainly because EF previously published do not include enough information about the incinerated waste composition, besides considering many different waste classifications. This paper reports the first EF estimated for CO, SO 2, NO x and HCl, associated to the incineration of medical waste, segregated in different types according to the classification of the Portuguese legislation. The results showed that those EF are strongly influenced by incinerated waste composition, directly affected by incinerated waste type, waste classification, segregation practice and management methodology. The correspondence between different waste classifications was analysed comparing the estimated EF with the sole results previously published for specific waste types, being observed that the correspondence is not always possible. The legal limit for pollutant concentrations could be obeyed for NO x, but concentrations were higher than the limit for CO (11-24 times), SO 2 (2-5 times), and HCl (9-200 times), confirming that air pollution control devices must be used to protect human health. The small heating value of medical wastes with compulsory incineration implied the requirement of a bigger amount of auxiliary fuel for their incineration, which affects the emitted amounts of CO, NO x and SO 2 (28, 20 and practically 100% of the respective values were related with fuel combustion). Nevertheless, the incineration of those wastes lead to the smallest amount of emitted pollutants, the emitted amount of SO 2 and NO x reducing to 93% and the emitted amount of CO

  12. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Project Annual Operating Report CY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    2000-03-01

    A total of 5.77 x 10 7 gallons (gal) of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Complex (PWTC) - Building 3544 ion exchange system during calendar year (CY) 1999. This averaged to 110 gpm throughout the year. An additional 3.94 x 10 6 gal of liquid waste (average of 8 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated using the zeolite treatment system due to periods of high Cesium levels in the influent wastewater. A total of 6.17 x 10 7 gal of liquid waste (average of 118 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated at Building 3544 during the year. During the year, the regeneration of the ion exchange resins resulted in the generation of 8.00 x 10 3 gal of Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) concentrate and 9.00 x 10 2 gal of LLLW supernate. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at Building 3544. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the Process Waste Collection and Transfer System and Figure 2 shows a diagram of the Building 3544 treatment process. Figures 3, 4 5, and 6 s how a comparison of operations at Building 3544 in 1997 with previous years. Figure 7 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1995.

  13. Preliminary assessment of systems for deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from waste or grown organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The overall feasibility of the chemical conversion of waste or grown organic matter to fuel is examined from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. The energy contribution from a system that uses waste and grown organic feedstocks is estimated as 4 to 12 percent of our current energy consumption. Estimates of today's market prices for these fuels are included. Economic and social issues are as important as technology in determining the feasibility of such a proposal. An orderly program of development and demonstration is recommended to provide reliable data for an assessment of the viability of the proposal.

  14. A LABORATORY STUDY TO INVESTIGATE GASEOUS EMISSIONS AND SOLIDS DECOMPOSITION DURING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a materials flow analysis performed for composting municipal solid waste (MSW) and specific biodegradable organic components of MSW. (NOTE: This work is part of an overall U.S. EPA project providing cost, energy, and materials flow information on diffe...

  15. Method and apparatus for treating gaseous effluents from waste treatment systems

    DOEpatents

    Flannery, Philip A.; Kujawa, Stephan T.

    2000-01-01

    Effluents from a waste treatment operation are incinerated and oxidized by passing the gases through an inductively coupled plasmas arc torch. The effluents are transformed into plasma within the torch. At extremely high plasma temperatures, the effluents quickly oxidize. The process results in high temperature oxidation of the gases without addition of any mass flow for introduction of energy.

  16. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10{sup 7} gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10{sup 6} gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10{sup 3} gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10{sup 4} gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10{sup 2} ft{sup 3} of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10{sup 8} gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10{sup 7} gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room.

  17. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10[sup 7] gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10[sup 6] gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system's discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system's discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10[sup 3] gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10[sup 4] gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10[sup 2] ft[sup 3] of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10[sup 8] gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10[sup 7] gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room.

  18. Plant-Derived Oils Reduce Pathogens and Gaseous Emissions from Stored Cattle Waste

    PubMed Central

    Varel, Vincent H.; Miller, Daniel N.

    2001-01-01

    Carvacrol and thymol in combination at 6.7 mM each completely inhibited the production of short-chain volatile fatty acids and lactate from cattle waste in anoxic flasks over 23 days. Fecal coliforms were reduced from 4.6 × 106 to 2.0 × 103 cells per ml 2 days after treatment and were nondetectable within 4 days. Total anaerobic bacteria were reduced from 8.4 × 1010 to 1.5 × 107 cells per ml after 2 days and continued to be suppressed to that level after 14 days. If the concentration of carvacrol or thymol were doubled (13.3 mM), either could be used to obtain the same inhibitory fermentation effect. We conclude that carvacrol or thymol may be useful as an antimicrobial chemical to control pathogens and odor in stored livestock waste. PMID:11229933

  19. Plant-derived oils reduce pathogens and gaseous emissions from stored cattle waste.

    PubMed

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N

    2001-03-01

    Carvacrol and thymol in combination at 6.7 mM each completely inhibited the production of short-chain volatile fatty acids and lactate from cattle waste in anoxic flasks over 23 days. Fecal coliforms were reduced from 4.6 x 10(6) to 2.0 x 10(3) cells per ml 2 days after treatment and were nondetectable within 4 days. Total anaerobic bacteria were reduced from 8.4 x 10(10) to 1.5 x 10(7) cells per ml after 2 days and continued to be suppressed to that level after 14 days. If the concentration of carvacrol or thymol were doubled (13.3 mM), either could be used to obtain the same inhibitory fermentation effect. We conclude that carvacrol or thymol may be useful as an antimicrobial chemical to control pathogens and odor in stored livestock waste. PMID:11229933

  20. Release and transport of gaseous C-14 from a nuclear waste repository in an unsaturated medium

    SciTech Connect

    Light, W.B.; Zwahlen, E.D.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1990-11-01

    The potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain is to be in partially saturated rock. Released radioactive gases such as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} could have a direct pathway to the biosphere. We study the release of {sup 14}C released as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from partly failed nuclear waste containers by analyzing the flow of gas into and out of a container. We analyze the transport of released {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in an unsaturated, fractured, porous medium with gas-phase advection and dispersion. We calculate the inhalation dose to a maximally exposed individual above ground, based on some conservative assumptions about release from containers. For the assumed parameter values, a simple atmospheric diffusion model gives very small doses when compared to background radiation doses. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. An effective technique for the storage of short lived radioactive gaseous waste.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Lutz

    2011-09-01

    An effective technique is described to deal with volatile, short lived radioactive waste generated as a result of the routinely produced positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG). All radioactive gases and aerosols created during the synthesis are collected and stored safely in commercially available TEDLAR gas sampling bags. Once these collected PET by-products decay, the TEDLAR gas bags can be easily emptied and reused. This improved technique is effective, safe, reliable and economical. PMID:21592805

  2. Gaseous emissions in municipal wastes composting: effect of the bulking agent.

    PubMed

    Maulini-Duran, Caterina; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), CH4, N2O and NH3 during composting non-source selected MSW, source selected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) with wood chips as bulking agent (OF_wood) and source selected OFMSW with polyethylene (PE) tube as bulking agent (OF_tube) and the effect of bulking agent on these emissions have been systematically studied. Emission factors are provided (in kg compound Mg(-1) dry matter): OF_tube (CH4: 0.0185±0.004; N2O: 0.0211±0.005; NH3: 0.612±0.269; VOC: 0.688±0.082) and MSW (CH4: 0.0549±0.0171; N2O: 0.032±0.015; NH3: 1.00±0.20; VOC: 1.05±0.18) present lower values than OF_wood (CH4: 1.27±0.09; N2O: 0.021±0.006; NH3: 4.34±2.79; VOC: 0.989±0.249). A detailed composition of VOC is also presented. Terpenes were the main emitted VOC family in all the wastes studied. Higher emissions of alpha and beta pinene were found during OF_wood composting processes.

  3. COMBINED GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY BURIED WASTE IN AN UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Peter T.; Starmer, R. John

    2003-02-27

    The primary objective of the investigation was to confirm the presence and determine the location of a cache of 30 to 60 buried 55-gallon drums that were allegedly dumped along the course of the pre-existing, northsouth diversion ditch (NSDD) adjacent to permitted landfills at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky. The ditch had been rerouted and was being filled and re-graded at the time of the alleged dumping. Historic information and interviews with individuals associated with alleged dumping activities indicated that the drums were dumped prior to the addition of other fill materials. In addition, materials alleged to have been dumped in the ditch, such as buried roofing materials, roof flashing, metal pins, tar substances, fly ash, and concrete rubble complicated data interpretation. Some clean fill materials have been placed over the site and graded. This is an environment that is extremely complicated in terms of past waste dumping activities, construction practices and miscellaneous landfill operations. The combination of site knowledge gained from interviews and research of existing site maps, variable frequency EM data, classical total magnetic field data and optimized GPR lead to success where a simpler less focused approach by other investigators using EM-31 and EM-61 electromagnetic methods and unfocused ground penetrating radar (GPR)did not produce results and defined no real anomalies. A variable frequency electromagnetic conductivity unit was used to collect the EM data at 3,030 Hz, 5,070 Hz, 8,430 Hz, and 14,010 Hz. Both in-phase and quadrature components were recorded at each station point. These results provided depth estimates for targets and some information on the subsurface conditions. A standard magnetometer was used to conduct the magnetic survey that showed the locations and extent of buried metal, the approximate volume of ferrous metal present within a particular area, and allowed estimation of approximate target depths. The GPR

  4. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  5. A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    An estimate is obtained of the yearly supply of organic material for conversion to fuels, the energy potential is evaluated, and the fermentation and pyrolysis conversion processes are discussed. An investigation is conducted of the estimated cost of fuel from organics and the conclusions of an overall evaluation are presented. It is found that climate, land availability and economics of agricultural production and marketing, food demand, fertilizer shortage, and water availability combine to cast doubts on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. Less controversial is the utilization of agricultural, industrial, and domestic waste as a conversion feedstock. The evaluation of a demonstration size system is recommended.

  6. Gaseous Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Maxim

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high-energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photolithography and microprocessing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high-energy physics, MPGD applications have expanded to nuclear physics, photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection, and medical imaging.

  7. Utilization of solid and liquid waste generated during ethanol fermentation process for production of gaseous fuel through anaerobic digestion--a zero waste approach.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhuri; Balasubramanian, Velmurugan

    2015-03-01

    Preliminary investigations were performed in the laboratory using batch reactors at 10% solid concentration for the assessment of the biogas production at thermophilic and mesophilic temperatures using solid residues generated during ethanol fermentation process. One kg of solid residues (left after enzyme extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis) from thermophilic reactors (TR1 and TR2) produced around 131 and 84L of biogas, respectively, whereas biogas production from mesophilic reactors (MR1 and MR2) was 86 and 62L, respectively. After 20 and 35days of retention time, the TS and VS reductions from TR1, TR2 and MR1, MR2 were found to be 39.2% and 35.0%, 67.3% and 61.0%, 21.0% and 18.0%, 34.7% and 27.8%, respectively. Whereas the liquid waste was treated using four laboratory anaerobic hybrid reactors (AHRs) with two different natural and synthetic packing media at 15-3days HRTs. AHRs packed with natural media showed better COD removal efficiency and methane yield.

  8. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: The Implementation of the Authorized Limits Process for Waste Acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1414) for the proposed implementation of the authorized limits process for waste acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. Based on the results of the impact analysis reported in the EA, which is incorporated herein by this reference, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA). Therefore preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  9. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and closure of the solid waste landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the proposed construction, operation, and closure of a Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) that would be designed in accordance with Commonwealth of Kentucky landfill regulations (401 Kentucky Administrative Regulations Chapters 47 and 48 and Kentucky Revised Statutes 224.855). PGDP produces approximately 7,200 cubic yards per year of non-hazardous, non-radioactive solid waste currently being disposed of in a transitional contained (residential) landfill cell (Cell No. 3). New Kentucky landfill regulations mandate that all existing landfills be upgraded to meet the requirements of the new regulations or stop receiving wastes by June 30, 1995. Cell No. 3 must stop receiving wastes at that time and be closed and capped within 180 days after final receipt of wastes. The proposed SWL would occupy 25 acres of a 60-acre site immediately north of the existing PGDP landfill (Cell No. 3). The EA evaluated the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action and reasonable alternative actions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action which will significantly affect the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, it is determined that an environmental impact statement will not be prepared, and DOE is issuing this FONSI.

  10. Solid and Gaseous Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Hyman; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids and methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels. The review covers from October 1986, to September 1988. (MVL)

  11. Newly developed gaseous photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokanai, Fuyuki; Moriya, Toru; Takeyama, Mirei; Sakurai, Hirohisa; Gunji, Shuichi; Sumiyoshi, Takayuki; Ito, Takayuki; Sugiyama, Hirioyuki; Okada, Teruyuki; Ohishi, Noboru; Kishimoto, Syunji

    2014-12-01

    A new micromesh gas (Micromegas) detector has been developed for a gaseous photomultiplier tube (PMT) with a bialkali photocathode. A basic performance test of the Micromegas detector was carried out for a Ne (90%) + CF4 (10%) gas mixture using an X-ray beam. We constructed gaseous PMTs with a bialkali photocathode and Micromegas detectors. The photoelectron collection efficiencies in several gases and the suppression of ion feedback were investigated.

  12. Carbon-14 analysis in solidified product of non-metallic solid waste by a combination of alkaline fusion and gaseous CO2 trapping.

    PubMed

    Ishimori, Ken-ichiro; Kameo, Yutaka; Matsue, Hideaki; Ohki, Yoshiyuki; Nakashima, Mikio; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2011-02-01

    In order to establish a simple and rapid analytical method for (14)C in solidified products made from non-metallic low-level radioactive solid wastes such as concrete, mortar and glass by melting treatment, a radiochemical analysis in combination with alkaline fusion as a sample decomposition method was examined. A simulated solidified product containing (14)C, which was prepared by using nuclear reaction (14)N(n, p)(14)C with thermal neutron irradiation, was analyzed by the present method to compare with a conventional radiochemical analysis using oxidizing combustion. The reproducible and quantitative recovery of (14)C from the simulated solidified product indicates that the present method is more efficient for (14)C analysis in solidified products than the conventional method using oxidizing combustion. PMID:21074999

  13. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: an innovative approach for the characterization of the gaseous emissions from residual MSW bio-drying.

    PubMed

    Ragazzi, M; Rada, E C; Antolini, D

    2011-01-01

    In the sector of residual municipal solid waste management an increasing attention is put towards the role of biological treatments like bio-drying and bio-stabilization in order to decrease the need of landfilling volumes. The literature shows a lack of information concerning the emission factor of pollutants released from these processes. The available data are generally spot characterizations of concentration and air flow-rate that are used together in order to assess the emission factors. This approach caused significant differences among the available data as the release of pollutants is not steady. This paper belongs to a group of six papers concerning a research on material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems, developed by a network of five universities. The contribution of the University of Trento, focuses on the bio-drying process with the following targets: (a) developing an innovative low cost method of sampling/measurement able to take into account the dynamics of release of pollutants; (b) checking the efficiency of a bio-filter; (c) verifying the variability of generation of some pollutants; (d) generating emission factors. The research was developed using a bio-drying pilot plant. As a treatment of the process air, the bio-reactor was coupled with a bio-filter. The emissions were characterized using an original approach based on the adoption of two measurement chambers suitable for hosting passive samplers. The passive samplers allowed the characterization of VOCs, N(2)O, NH(3) and H(2)S. A bio-chemical model, useful for energy and mass balances, supported the interpretation of the presented bio-drying run.

  14. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: An innovative approach for the characterization of the gaseous emissions from residual MSW bio-drying

    SciTech Connect

    Ragazzi, M.; Rada, E.C.; Antolini, D.

    2011-09-15

    In the sector of residual municipal solid waste management an increasing attention is put towards the role of biological treatments like bio-drying and bio-stabilization in order to decrease the need of landfilling volumes. The literature shows a lack of information concerning the emission factor of pollutants released from these processes. The available data are generally spot characterizations of concentration and air flow-rate that are used together in order to assess the emission factors. This approach caused significant differences among the available data as the release of pollutants is not steady. This paper belongs to a group of six papers concerning a research on material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems, developed by a network of five universities. The contribution of the University of Trento, focuses on the bio-drying process with the following targets: (a) developing an innovative low cost method of sampling/measurement able to take into account the dynamics of release of pollutants; (b) checking the efficiency of a bio-filter; (c) verifying the variability of generation of some pollutants; (d) generating emission factors. The research was developed using a bio-drying pilot plant. As a treatment of the process air, the bio-reactor was coupled with a bio-filter. The emissions were characterized using an original approach based on the adoption of two measurement chambers suitable for hosting passive samplers. The passive samplers allowed the characterization of VOCs, N{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S. A bio-chemical model, useful for energy and mass balances, supported the interpretation of the presented bio-drying run.

  15. Gaseous diffusion system

    DOEpatents

    Garrett, George A.; Shacter, John

    1978-01-01

    1. A gaseous diffusion system comprising a plurality of diffusers connected in cascade to form a series of stages, each of said diffusers having a porous partition dividing it into a high pressure chamber and a low pressure chamber, and means for combining a portion of the enriched gas from a succeeding stage with a portion of the enriched gas from the low pressure chamber of each stage and feeding it into one extremity of the high pressure chamber thereof.

  16. GASEOUS DISPOSAL PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, R.F.; Thomasson, F.R.; Hicks, J.H.

    1963-01-22

    A method is described of removing gaseous radioactive Xe and Kr from water containing O. The method consists in stripping the gases from the water stream by means of H flowing countercurrently to the stream. The gases are then heated in a deoxo bed to remove O. The carrier gas is next cooled and passed over a charcoal adsorbent bed maintained at a temperature of about --280 deg F to remove the Xe and Kr. (AEC)

  17. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE FOCUSED FEASIBILITY STUDY AND PROPOSED PLAN FOR DESIGNATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNITS CONTRIBUTING TO THE SOUTHWEST GROUNDWATER PLUME AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.; Amidon, M.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart, L.

    2011-05-31

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently developing a Proposed Plan (PP) for remediation of designated sources of chlorinated solvents that contribute contamination to the Southwest (SW) Groundwater Plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, KY. The principal contaminants in the SW Plume are trichloroethene (TCE) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); these industrial solvents were used and disposed in various facilities and locations at PGDP. In the SW plume area, residual TCE sources are primarily in the fine-grained sediments of the Upper Continental Recharge System (UCRS), a partially saturated zone that delivers contaminants downward into the coarse-grained Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). The RGA serves as the significant lateral groundwater transport pathway for the plume. In the SW Plume area, the four main contributing TCE source units are: (1) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 1 / Oil Landfarm; (2) C-720 Building TCE Northeast Spill Site (SWMU 211A); (3) C-720 Building TCE Southeast Spill Site (SWMU 211B); and (4) C-747 Contaminated Burial Yard (SWMU 4). The PP presents the Preferred Alternatives for remediation of VOCs in the UCRS at the Oil Landfarm and the C-720 Building spill sites. The basis for the PP is documented in a Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) (DOE, 2011) and a Site Investigation Report (SI) (DOE, 2007). The SW plume is currently within the boundaries of PGDP (i.e., does not extend off-site). Nonetheless, reasonable mitigation of the multiple contaminant sources contributing to the SW plume is one of the necessary components identified in the PGDP End State Vision (DOE, 2005). Because of the importance of the proposed actions DOE assembled an Independent Technical Review (ITR) team to provide input and assistance in finalizing the PP.

  18. Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2006-03-06

    The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

  19. Downhole gaseous liquid flow agitator

    SciTech Connect

    Kamilos, N.; Kennedy, D.D.; Lederhos, L.J. Jr.

    1989-03-14

    An apparatus is described for agitating and mixing of a gaseous phase and a liquid phase comprising: a first tube having non-blocking internal threads within the first tube to agitate a liquid phase adhering thereto with a gaseous phase passing therethrough, whereby a uniform gaseous phase and liquid phase mixture is formed; and a second tube connected to an end of the first tube having non-blocking internal threads of opposite handedness.

  20. Tribology in Gaseous Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawae, Yoshinori; Sugimura, Joich

    Hydrogen is expected as a clean and renewable energy carrier for future environment-friendly society. Many machine elements in hydrogen energy systems should be operating within hydrogen gas and tribological behavior, such as friction and wear, of bearings and seals are affected by the hydrogen environment through some interactions between material surfaces and gaseous hydrogen, i.e., physisorption of hydrogen molecules and following chemisorptions of dissociated atoms on metal surfaces, formation of metal hydride and reduction of metal oxide layer by hydrogen atoms diffused into bulk. Therefore, friction and wear characteristics of tribomaterials in the hydrogen environment should be appropriately understood to establish a design guideline for reliable hydrogen utilizing systems. This paper reviews the current knowledge about the effect of hydrogen on friction and wear of materials, and then describes our recent progress of hydrogen research in the tribology field.

  1. Determination of non-gaseous and gaseous mercury fractions in unused fluorescent lamps: a study of different lamp types.

    PubMed

    Figi, Renato; Nagel, Oliver; Schreiner, Claudia; Hagendorfer, Harald

    2015-03-01

    Since incandescent light bulbs have been phased out in the European Union from 2009, the use of fluorescent lamps has drastically increased as a reliable, more energy-efficient and cost-effective alternative. State-of-the-art fluorescent lamps are dependent on mercury/mercury alloys, posing a risk for the consumer and the environment, and appropriate waste management is challenging. Consequently analytical methods to determine possible mercury species (non-gaseous/gaseous) in these lamps are of need. Here, a straightforward and wet-chemistry-based analytical strategy for the determination of gaseous and non-gaseous mercury in commercially available fluorescent lamps is presented. It can be adapted in any analytical laboratory, without or with only minimum modifications of already installed equipment. The analytical figures of merit, as well as application of the method to a series of commercially available fluorescent lamps, are presented. Out of 14 analysed and commercially available lamp types, results from this study indicate that only one contains a slightly higher amount of mercury than set by the legislative force. In all new lamps the amount of gaseous mercury is negligible compared with the non-gaseous fraction (88%-99% of total mercury). PMID:25698790

  2. Determination of non-gaseous and gaseous mercury fractions in unused fluorescent lamps: a study of different lamp types.

    PubMed

    Figi, Renato; Nagel, Oliver; Schreiner, Claudia; Hagendorfer, Harald

    2015-03-01

    Since incandescent light bulbs have been phased out in the European Union from 2009, the use of fluorescent lamps has drastically increased as a reliable, more energy-efficient and cost-effective alternative. State-of-the-art fluorescent lamps are dependent on mercury/mercury alloys, posing a risk for the consumer and the environment, and appropriate waste management is challenging. Consequently analytical methods to determine possible mercury species (non-gaseous/gaseous) in these lamps are of need. Here, a straightforward and wet-chemistry-based analytical strategy for the determination of gaseous and non-gaseous mercury in commercially available fluorescent lamps is presented. It can be adapted in any analytical laboratory, without or with only minimum modifications of already installed equipment. The analytical figures of merit, as well as application of the method to a series of commercially available fluorescent lamps, are presented. Out of 14 analysed and commercially available lamp types, results from this study indicate that only one contains a slightly higher amount of mercury than set by the legislative force. In all new lamps the amount of gaseous mercury is negligible compared with the non-gaseous fraction (88%-99% of total mercury).

  3. Gaseous-fuel engine technology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This publication contains three distinct groups of papers covering gaseous-fuel injection and control, gaseous-fuel engine projects, and gaseous-fuel engine/vehicle applications. Contents include: ultra rapid natural gas port injection; a CNG specific fuel injector using latching solenoid technology; development of an electronically-controlled natural gas-fueled John Deere PowerTech 8.1L engine; adapting a Geo Metro to run on natural gas using fuel-injection technology; behavior of a closed loop controlled air valve type mixer on a natural gas fueled engine under transient operation; and a turbocharged lean-burn 4.3 liter natural gas engine.

  4. Gaseous Emissions from Wastewater Facilities.

    PubMed

    Koh, Sock-Hoon; Shaw, Andrew R

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to gaseous emissions from wastewater facilities is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: odorant emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from WWTPs; gaseous emissions from wastewater collection systems; physiochemical odor/emissions control methods; biological odor/emissions control methods; odor characterization/monitoring; and odor impacts/ risk assessments. PMID:27620089

  5. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental report for 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Counce-Brown, D.

    1991-09-01

    This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site Environmental Report for 1990, is published annually. It reflects the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on the area's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife. In addition, an assessment of the effect of PGDP effluents on the resident human population is made. PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the formation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials.

  6. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, C.M.

    1993-09-01

    This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental Report for 1992, is published annually. It reflects the results of an environmental monitoring program designed to quantify potential increases in the concentration of contaminants and potential doses to the resident human population. The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP`s neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, reduce the generation of waste, and minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials.

  7. Stabilizing a gaseous optical laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauan, A.; Shimoda, K.

    1974-01-01

    Frequency of gaseous optical laser can be stabilized by sinusoidally modulating the geometry of the cavity. Fabry-Perot dielectric mirrors are mounted in two Invar blocks that are connected by four magnetorestrictive bars. Each bar has three coils to sinusoidally modulate system. Ac establishes frequency, and dc the average value; both are supplied to coil from control system.

  8. Photon detectors with gaseous amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1996-08-01

    Gaseous photon detectors, including very large 4{pi}-devices such as those incorporated in SLD and DELPHI, are finally delivering physics after many years of hard work. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photoelectrons. Among detector builders, there is hardly anybody who did not make mistakes in this area, and who does not have a healthy respect for the problems involved. This point is stressed in this paper, and it is suggested that only a very small operating phase space is available for running gaseous photon detectors in a very large system with good efficiency and few problems. In this paper the authors discuss what was done correctly or incorrectly in first generation photon detectors, and what would be their recommendations for second generation detectors. 56 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Gaseous fuel nuclear reactor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Thom, K.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors are described; their distinguishing feature is the use of fissile fuels in a gaseous or plasma state, thereby breaking the barrier of temperature imposed by solid-fuel elements. This property creates a reactor heat source that may be able to heat the propellant of a rocket engine to 10,000 or 20,000 K. At this temperature level, gas-core reactors would provide the breakthrough in propulsion needed to open the entire solar system to manned and unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of fuel recycling makes possible efficiencies of up to 65% and nuclear safety at reduced cost, as well as high-thrust propulsion capabilities with specific impulse up to 5000 sec.

  10. Planar Reflection of Gaseous Detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damazo, Jason Scott

    Pipes containing flammable gaseous mixtures may be subjected to internal detonation. When the detonation normally impinges on a closed end, a reflected shock wave is created to bring the flow back to rest. This study built on the work of Karnesky (2010) and examined deformation of thin-walled stainless steel tubes subjected to internal reflected gaseous detonations. A ripple pattern was observed in the tube wall for certain fill pressures, and a criterion was developed that predicted when the ripple pattern would form. A two-dimensional finite element analysis was performed using Johnson-Cook material properties; the pressure loading created by reflected gaseous detonations was accounted for with a previously developed pressure model. The residual plastic strain between experiments and computations was in good agreement. During the examination of detonation-driven deformation, discrepancies were discovered in our understanding of reflected gaseous detonation behavior. Previous models did not accurately describe the nature of the reflected shock wave, which motivated further experiments in a detonation tube with optical access. Pressure sensors and schlieren images were used to examine reflected shock behavior, and it was determined that the discrepancies were related to the reaction zone thickness extant behind the detonation front. During these experiments reflected shock bifurcation did not appear to occur, but the unfocused visualization system made certainty impossible. This prompted construction of a focused schlieren system that investigated possible shock wave-boundary layer interaction, and heat-flux gauges analyzed the boundary layer behind the detonation front. Using these data with an analytical boundary layer solution, it was determined that the strong thermal boundary layer present behind the detonation front inhibits the development of reflected shock wave bifurcation.

  11. Recent work on gaseous detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettleton, M. A.

    The paper reviews recent progress in the field of gaseous detonations, with sections on shock diffraction and reflection, the transition to detonation, hybrid, spherically-imploding, and galloping and stuttering fronts, their structure, their transmission and quenching by additives, the critical energy for initiation and detonation of more unusual fuels. The final section points out areas where our understanding is still far from being complete and contains some suggestions of ways in which progress might be made.

  12. Natural gas applications in waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Atmospheric pollution originating from the interaction of different gaseous effluents.

    PubMed

    Bartùli, C; Botrè, C; Botrè, F; Pecci, G

    1997-01-01

    During the last few years, several episodes of atmospheric pollution have been reported in a limited area near Guidonia, Rome. The area contains a disposal plant, Inviolata, for the collection of municipal solid waste (MSW) and a famous thermal water resort, the Acque Albule spring, which is a source of water rich in H2S. We conducted a multiparametric study in the areas surrounding the solid waste disposal plant and the Acque Albule spring. The concentration of main gaseous effluent was continuously monitored over a period of 4 months and the data relating to the meteorologic conditions in the area during the last few decades were examined. Our results suggest that most of the atmospheric pollution is due to the interaction of different gaseous effluents. Specifically, the presence of relatively high levels of hydrogen sulfide in the atmosphere, constantly released in large amounts by the Acque Albule springs, and of biogases (mainly hydrocarbons) from the organic matter present in the solid waste continuously unloaded and stored at the disposal plant, lead to mixing and photochemical interactions between these chemical compounds, which in turn are responsible for most of the polluting effects. Such interactions are promoted by the strong solar irradiation in the area that is enhanced by the peculiar local meteorological features that do not allow the pollutants to disperse.

  14. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  15. Waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Dworschak, H.; Mannone, F.; Rocco, P.

    1995-03-01

    The presence of tritium in tritium-burning devices to be built for large scale research on thermonuclear fusion poses many problems especially in terms of occupational and environmental safety. One of these problems derives from the production of tritiated wastes in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. All these wastes need to be adequately processed and conditioned to minimize tritium releases to an acceptably low occupational and environmental level and consequently to protect workers and the public against the risks of unacceptable doses from exposure to tritium. Since all experimental thermonuclear fusion devices of the Tokomak type to be built and operated in the near future as well as all experimental activities undertaken in tritium laboratories like ETHEL will generate tritiated wastes, current strategies and practices to be applied for the routine management of these wastes need to be defined. Adequate background information is provided through an exhaustive literature survey. In this frame alternative tritiated waste management options so far investigated or currently applied to this end in Europe, USA and Canada have been assessed. The relevance of tritium in waste containing gamma-emitters, originated by the neutron activation of structural materials is assessed in relation to potential final disposal options. Particular importance has been attached to the tritium retention efficiency achievable by the various waste immobilization options. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Butanol formation from gaseous substrates.

    PubMed

    Dürre, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Mostly, butanol is formed as a product by saccharolytic anaerobes, employing the so-called ABE fermentation (for acetone-butanol-ethanol). However, this alcohol can also be produced from gaseous substrates such as syn(thesis) gas (major components are carbon monoxide and hydrogen) by autotrophic acetogens. In view of economic considerations, a biotechnological process based on cheap and abundant gases such as CO and CO2 as a carbon source is preferable to more expensive sugar or starch fermentation. In addition, any conflict for use of substrates that can also serve as human nutrition is avoided. Natural formation of butanol has been found with, e.g. Clostridium carboxidivorans, while metabolic engineering for butanol production was successful using, e.g. C. ljungdahlii. Production of butanol from CO2 under photoautotrophic conditions was also possible by recombinant DNA construction of a respective cyanobacterial Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 strain. PMID:26903012

  17. Automated gaseous criteria pollutant audits

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.P.

    1998-12-31

    The Quality Assurance Section (QAS) of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) began performing automated gaseous audits of its ambient air monitoring sites in July 1996. The concept of automated audits evolved from the constant streamlining of the through-the-probe audit process. Continual audit van development and the desire to utilize advanced technology to save time and improve the accuracy of the overall audit process also contributed to the concept. The automated audit process is a computer program which controls an audit van`s ambient gas calibration system, isolated relay and analog to digital cards, and a monitoring station`s data logging system. The program instructs the audit van`s gas calibration system to deliver specified audit concentrations to a monitoring station`s instruments through their collection probe inlet. The monitoring station`s responses to the audit concentrations are obtained by the program polling the station`s datalogger through its RS-232 port. The program calculates relevant audit statistics and stores all data collected during an audit in a relational database. Planning for the development of an automated gaseous audit system began in earnest in 1993, when the CARB purchased computerized ambient air calibration systems which could be remotely controlled by computer through their serial ports. After receiving all the required components of the automated audit system, they were individually tested to confirm their correct operation. Subsequently, a prototype program was developed to perform through-the-probe automated ozone audits. Numerous simulated ozone audits documented the program`s ability to control audit equipment and extract data from a monitoring station`s data logging system. The program was later modified to incorporate the capability to perform audits for carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, methane, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide.

  18. Rockwell Hanford Operations effluents and solid waste burials during CY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    McNair, V.M.; Aldrich, R.C.; Cox, G.R.; Litzinger, M.H.; Meade, G.G.; Sliger, G.J.

    1983-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) activities generate solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes that must be discharged to the environment or stored or disposed of onsite. The quantities of solid, liquid, or gaseous wastes buried or discharged during CY 1982 are tabulated. No liquid or solid wastes are discharged offsite.

  19. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.W. )

    1990-10-01

    This two-part environmental report is published annually. It reflects the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on the area's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife. In addition, an assessment of the effect of PGDP effluents on the resident human population is made. PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the formation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials. 36 refs.

  20. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    DOEpatents

    Hindin, Saul G.; Roberts, George W.

    1980-08-12

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  1. Treatment of organic waste

    DOEpatents

    Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1979-01-01

    An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

  2. Gaseous phase coal surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Okoh, J.M.; Pinion, J.; Thiensatit, S.

    1992-05-07

    In this report, we present an improved, feasible and potentially cost effective method of cleaning and beneficiating ultrafine coal. Increased mechanization of mining methods and the need towards depyritization, and demineralization have led to an increase in the quantity of coal fines generated in recent times. For example, the amount of {minus}100 mesh coal occurring in coal preparation plant feeds now typically varies from 5 to 25% of the total feed. Environmental constraints coupled with the greatly increased cost of coal have made it increasingly important to recover more of these fines. Our method chemically modifies the surface of such coals by a series of gaseous phase treatments employing Friedel-Crafts reactions. By using olefins (ethene, propene and butene) and hydrogen chloride catalyst at elevated temperature, the surface hydrophobicity of coal is enhanced. This increased hydrophobicity is manifest in surface phenomena which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid interphase (zeta potential) and those which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid/gas interphases (contact angle, wettability and floatability).

  3. Combination free-electron and gaseous laser

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, C.A.; Rockwood, S.D.; Stein, W.E.

    1981-06-08

    A multiple laser having one or more gaseous laser stages and one or more free electron stages is described. Each of the free electron laser stages is sequentially pumped by a microwave linear accelerator. Subsequently, the electron beam is directed through a gaseous laser, in the preferred embodiment, and in an alternative embodiment, through a microwave accelerator to lower the energy level of the electron beam to pump one or more gaseous lasers. The combination laser provides high pulse repetition frequencies, on the order of 1 kHz or greater, high power capability, high efficiency, and tunability in the synchronous production of multiple beams of coherent optical radiation.

  4. Combination free electron and gaseous laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Rockwood, Stephen D.; Stein, William E.

    1980-01-01

    A multiple laser having one or more gaseous laser stages and one or more free electron stages. Each of the free electron laser stages is sequentially pumped by a microwave linear accelerator. Subsequently, the electron beam is directed through a gaseous laser, in the preferred embodiment, and in an alternative embodiment, through a microwave accelerator to lower the energy level of the electron beam to pump one or more gaseous lasers. The combination laser provides high pulse repetition frequencies, on the order of 1 kHz or greater, high power capability, high efficiency, and tunability in the synchronous production of multiple beams of coherent optical radiation.

  5. Production of gaseous radiotracers for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Jagadeesan, K C; Anand, S; Chitra, S; Rana, Y S; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Tej; Gujar, H G; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes prerequisite tests, analysis and the procedure for irradiation of gaseous targets and production of gaseous radioisotopes i.e. argon-41 ((41)Ar) and krypton-79 ((79)Kr) in a 100MWTh DHRUVA reactor located at Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai, India. The produced radioisotopes will be used as radiotracers for tracing gas phase in industrial process systems. Various details and prequalification tests required for irradiation of gaseous targets are discussed. The procedure for regular production of (41)Ar and (79)Kr, and assay of their activity were standardized. Theoretically estimated and experimentally produced amounts of activities of the two radioisotopes, irradiated at identical conditions, were compared and found to be in good agreement. Based on the various tests, radiological safety analysis and standardization of the irradiation procedure, necessary approval was obtained from the competent reactor operating and safety authorities for regular production of gaseous radiotracers in DHRUVA reactor. PMID:27518216

  6. Methane Recovery from Gaseous Mixtures Using Carbonaceous Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczek, Bronisław

    2016-06-01

    Methane recovery from gaseous mixtures has both economical and ecological aspect. Methane from different waste gases like mine gases, nitrogenated natural gases and biogases can be treated as local source for production electric and heat energy. Also occurs the problem of atmosphere pollution with methane that shows over 20 times more harmful environmental effect in comparison to carbon dioxide. One of the ways utilisation such gases is enrichment of methane in the PSA technique, which requires appropriate adsorbents. Active carbons and carbon molecular sieve produced by industry and obtained in laboratory scale were examined as adsorbent for methane recuperation. Porous structure of adsorbents was investigated using densimetry measurements and adsorption of argon at 77.5K. On the basis of adsorption data, the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation parameters, micropore volume (Wo) and characteristics of energy adsorption (Eo) as well as area micropores (Smi) and BET area (SBET) were determined. The usability of adsorbents in enrichment of the methane was evaluated in the test, which simulate the basic stages of PSA process: a) adsorbent degassing, b) pressure raise in column by feed gas, c) cocurrent desorption with analysis of out flowing gas. The composition of gas phase was accepted as the criterion of the suitability of adsorbent for methane separation from gaseous mixtures. The relationship between methane recovery from gas mixture and texture parameters of adsorbents was found.

  7. Biodenitrification of gaseous diffusion plant aqueous wastes: fluid bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalchuk, M.

    1982-01-04

    Decontamination and uranium recovery operations at Portsmouth generate raffinates which contain nitrate. Nitrate discharges are now within EPA limits. However, more stringent limits go into effect on October 2, 1982. These limits cannot be met by present operating methods without seriously restricting decontamination and recovery operations. A biodentrification process will therefore be used at Portsmouth to reduce the nitrate concentration to acceptable levels. Pilot plant studies using a fluid bed reactor were carried out at ORNL. Process operating parameters were characterized and design criteria for the full-scale facility which is to be built at Portsmouth were devised. When operations were completed, the pilot plant, equipped with a 20-inch bioreactor, was shipped to Portsmouth. It will be installed during FY-1982, and will be operated until the full-scale facility is built. It will allow GAT to meet EPA limts and will accommodate 9000 liters of raffinate per month. The projected post CIP/CUP raffinate generation rate is 15,000 liters per month. Recovery operations will be limited to some extent until the fullscale biodenitrification facility is built.

  8. Energy and materials flows in the production of liquid and gaseous oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1980-08-01

    Liquid and gaseous oxygen is produced in an energy-intensive air separation processo that also generates nitrogen. More than 65% of the cost of oxygen is attributable to energy costs. Energy use and materials flows are analyzed for various air separation methods. Effective approaches to energy and material conservation in air separation plants include efficient removal of contaminants (carbon dioxide and water), centralization of air products user-industries so that large air separation plants are cost-effective and the energy use in transportation is minimized, and increased production of nitrogen. Air separation plants can produce more than three times more nitrogen than oxygen, but present markets demand, at most, only 1.5 times more. Full utlization of liquid and gaseous nitrogen should be encouraged, so that the wasted separation energy is minimized. There are potential markets for nitrogen in, for example, cryogenic separation of metallic and plastic wastes, cryogenic particle size reduction, and production of ammonia for fertilizer.

  9. Gaseous insulators for high voltage electrical equipment

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; James, David R.; Pace, Marshall O.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1979-01-01

    Gaseous insulators comprise compounds having high attachment cross sections for electrons having energies in the 0-1.3 electron volt range. Multi-component gaseous insulators comprise compounds and mixtures having overall high electron attachment cross sections in the 0-1.3 electron volt range and moderating gases having high cross sections for inelastic interactions with electrons of energies 1-4 electron volts. Suitable electron attachment components include hexafluorobutyne, perfluorobutene-2, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluorocyclohexene, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, hexafluorobutadiene, perfluoroheptene-1 and hexafluoroazomethane. Suitable moderating gases include N.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The gaseous insulating mixture can also contain SF.sub.6, perfluoropropane and perfluorobenzene.

  10. Gaseous insulators for high voltage electrical equipment

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; James, David R.; Pace, Marshall O.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1981-01-01

    Gaseous insulators comprise compounds having high attachment cross sections for electrons having energies in the 0-1.3 electron volt range. Multi-component gaseous insulators comprise compounds and mixtures having overall high electron attachment cross sections in the 0-1.3 electron volt range and moderating gases having high cross sections for inelastic interactions with electrons of energies 1-4 electron volts. Suitable electron attachment components include hexafluorobutyne, perfluorobutene-2, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluorocyclohexene, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, hexafluorobutadiene, perfluoroheptene-1 and hexafluoroazomethane. Suitable moderating gases include N.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The gaseous insulating mixture can also contain SF.sub.6, perfluoropropane and perfluorobenzene.

  11. Gaseous fuel reactors for power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. S.; Rodgers, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors have significant advantages as energy sources for closed-cycle power systems. The advantages arise from the removal of temperature limits associated with conventional reactor fuel elements, the wide variety of methods of extracting energy from fissioning gases, and inherent low fissile and fission product in-core inventory due to continuous fuel reprocessing. Example power cycles and their general performance characteristics are discussed. Efficiencies of gaseous fuel reactor systems are shown to be high with resulting minimal environmental effects. A technical overview of the NASA-funded research program in gaseous fuel reactors is described and results of recent tests of uranium hexafluoride (UF6)-fueled critical assemblies are presented.

  12. Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of high strength steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, R. P.; Wei, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of temperature, hydrogen pressure, stress intensity, and yield strength on the kinetics of gaseous hydrogen assisted crack propagation in 18Ni maraging steels were investigated experimentally. It was found that crack growth rate as a function of stress intensity was characterized by an apparent threshold for crack growth, a stage where the growth rate increased sharply, and a stage where the growth rate was unchanged over a significant range of stress intensity. Cracking proceeded on load application with little or no detectable incubation period. Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility increased with increasing yield strength.

  13. The depletion of interstellar gaseous iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, B. D.; Bohlin, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    The Copernicus UV telescope was used to measure equivalent widths of interstellar Fe II resonance lines toward 55 early-type stars; the measurements permit the determination of Fe II column densities. The depletion of interstellar gaseous iron was obtained by combining these measurements with the results from a previous atomic and molecular hydrogen survey program; the derived depletions refer mostly to matter in H I regions. As an example, the nearly normal gaseous iron abundance in the distant high-latitude intermediate-velocity cloud toward HD 93521 is consistent with the idea that these clouds are produced by galactic supernova explosions.

  14. Nuclear system that burns its own wastes shows promise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atchison, K.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fission energy system, capable of eliminating a significant amount of its radioactive wastes by burning them, is described. A theoretical investigation of this system conducted by computer analysis, is based on use of gaseous fuel nuclear reactors. Gaseous core reactors using a uranium plasma fuel are studied along with development for space propulsion.

  15. THE LIQUID AND GASEOUS FUEL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the national liquid and gaseous fuel distribution system. he study leading to the report was performed as part of an effort to better understand emissions of volatile organic compounds from the fuel distribution system. he primary, secondary, and tertiary seg...

  16. Methods and systems for deacidizing gaseous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Liang

    2010-05-18

    An improved process for deacidizing a gaseous mixture using phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption is described. The process utilizes a multiphasic absorbent that absorbs an acid gas at increased rate and leads to reduced overall energy costs for the deacidizing operation.

  17. Gaseous fuel and air proportioning device

    SciTech Connect

    Lassanske, G. G.; Poshlman, A. G.

    1984-01-10

    The device for proportioning a gaseous fuel and air for combustion in an internal combustion engine includes a plate-like first member having a peripheral edge portion and a second member cooperating with the first member having a peripheral edge portion and a second member cooperating with the first member to define a mixing chamber having an outlet adapted to be connected in communication with the air intake of the engine carburetor. The second member also includes an annular portion having an arcuate first wall which is convex to and spaced from the peripheral edge portion of the first member to define an annular venturi having an inlet in communication with the atmosphere and an annular outlet in communication with the mixing chamber. A base member or second wall cooperates with the arcuate wall to form a substantially closed, annular plenum chamber into which a gaseous fuel, such as natural gas, is admitted when the engine is to be operated on the gaseous fuel. The gaseous fuel is admitted into the mixing chamber from the plenum chamber through one or more ports in the arcuate wall at or in the vicinity of the throat of the annular venturi. A pair of circumferentially spaced radially extending partitions located on the opposite sides of each port define a radially extending venturi which has a throat located at or in the vicinity of the port and serves to induce flow of the gaseous fuel through the corresponding port. The proportioning device preferably is arranged to fit inside the housing of an existing air cleaner.

  18. OSSA Space Station waste inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Bosley, John J.; Curran, George L.; Mains, Richard

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has compiled an inventory of the types and quantities of the wastes that will be generated by the Space Station's initial operational phase in 35 possible mission scenarios. The objective of this study was the definition of waste management requirements for both the Space Station and the Space Shuttles servicing it. All missions, when combined, will produce about 5350 kg of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes every 90 days. A characterization has been made of the wastes in terms of toxicity, corrosiveness, and biological activity.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of a Subscale Gaseous Hydrogen/Gaseous Oxygen Coaxial Rocket Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Farhangi, Shahram; Sutton, Robert

    2002-11-01

    The next generation reusable launch vehicle may utilize a Full-Flow Stage Combustion (FFSC) rocket engine cycle. One of the key technologies required is the development of an injector that uses gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen as propellants. Gas-gas propellant injection provides an engine with increased stability margin over a range of throttle set points. This paper summarizes an injector design and testing effort that evaluated a coaxial rocket injector for use with gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. A total of 19 hot-fire tests were conducted up to a chamber pressure of 1030 psia, over a range of 3.3 to 6.7 for injector element mixture ratio. Post-test condition of the hardware was also used to assess injector face cooling. Results show that high combustion performance levels could be achieved with gas-gas propellants and there were no problems with excessive face heating for the conditions tested.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of a Subscale Gaseous Hydrogen/gaseous Oxygen Coaxial Rocket Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Farhangi, Shahram; Sutton, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The next generation reusable launch vehicle may utilize a Full-Flow Stage Combustion (FFSC) rocket engine cycle. One of the key technologies required is the development of an injector that uses gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen as propellants. Gas-gas propellant injection provides an engine with increased stability margin over a range of throttle set points. This paper summarizes an injector design and testing effort that evaluated a coaxial rocket injector for use with gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. A total of 19 hot-fire tests were conducted up to a chamber pressure of 1030 psia, over a range of 3.3 to 6.7 for injector element mixture ratio. Post-test condition of the hardware was also used to assess injector face cooling. Results show that high combustion performance levels could be achieved with gas-gas propellants and there were no problems with excessive face heating for the conditions tested.

  1. 40 CFR 89.417 - Data evaluation for gaseous emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emission Test Procedures § 89.417 Data evaluation for gaseous emissions. For the evaluation of the gaseous emission recording, the last 60 seconds of each mode are recorded, and the average values for HC, CO,...

  2. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  3. Membrane for Olefin Recovery from Chemical Waste Streams -

    SciTech Connect

    2003-03-01

    Membrane Separation Recovers Olefins from Gaseous Waste Streams for Use as Chemical Feedstocks. Selective polymer membranes are being developed to allow recovery of olefins from petrochemicals by-product and vent streams.

  4. Gaseous modification of MCrAlY coatings

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes methods for modifying MCrAlY coatings by using gaseous carburization, gaseous nitriding or gaseous carbonitriding. The modified MCrAlY coatings are useful in thermal barrier coating systems, which may be used in gas turbine engines.

  5. Integrated bioprocess for conversion of gaseous substrates to liquids

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Peng; Chakraborty, Sagar; Kumar, Amit; Woolston, Benjamin; Liu, Hongjuan; Emerson, David; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    In the quest for inexpensive feedstocks for the cost-effective production of liquid fuels, we have examined gaseous substrates that could be made available at low cost and sufficiently large scale for industrial fuel production. Here we introduce a new bioconversion scheme that effectively converts syngas, generated from gasification of coal, natural gas, or biomass, into lipids that can be used for biodiesel production. We present an integrated conversion method comprising a two-stage system. In the first stage, an anaerobic bioreactor converts mixtures of gases of CO2 and CO or H2 to acetic acid, using the anaerobic acetogen Moorella thermoacetica. The acetic acid product is fed as a substrate to a second bioreactor, where it is converted aerobically into lipids by an engineered oleaginous yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica. We first describe the process carried out in each reactor and then present an integrated system that produces microbial oil, using synthesis gas as input. The integrated continuous bench-scale reactor system produced 18 g/L of C16-C18 triacylglycerides directly from synthesis gas, with an overall productivity of 0.19 g⋅L−1⋅h−1 and a lipid content of 36%. Although suboptimal relative to the performance of the individual reactor components, the presented integrated system demonstrates the feasibility of substantial net fixation of carbon dioxide and conversion of gaseous feedstocks to lipids for biodiesel production. The system can be further optimized to approach the performance of its individual units so that it can be used for the economical conversion of waste gases from steel mills to valuable liquid fuels for transportation. PMID:26951649

  6. Integrated bioprocess for conversion of gaseous substrates to liquids.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Chakraborty, Sagar; Kumar, Amit; Woolston, Benjamin; Liu, Hongjuan; Emerson, David; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    In the quest for inexpensive feedstocks for the cost-effective production of liquid fuels, we have examined gaseous substrates that could be made available at low cost and sufficiently large scale for industrial fuel production. Here we introduce a new bioconversion scheme that effectively converts syngas, generated from gasification of coal, natural gas, or biomass, into lipids that can be used for biodiesel production. We present an integrated conversion method comprising a two-stage system. In the first stage, an anaerobic bioreactor converts mixtures of gases of CO2 and CO or H2 to acetic acid, using the anaerobic acetogen Moorella thermoacetica The acetic acid product is fed as a substrate to a second bioreactor, where it is converted aerobically into lipids by an engineered oleaginous yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica We first describe the process carried out in each reactor and then present an integrated system that produces microbial oil, using synthesis gas as input. The integrated continuous bench-scale reactor system produced 18 g/L of C16-C18 triacylglycerides directly from synthesis gas, with an overall productivity of 0.19 g⋅L(-1)⋅h(-1) and a lipid content of 36%. Although suboptimal relative to the performance of the individual reactor components, the presented integrated system demonstrates the feasibility of substantial net fixation of carbon dioxide and conversion of gaseous feedstocks to lipids for biodiesel production. The system can be further optimized to approach the performance of its individual units so that it can be used for the economical conversion of waste gases from steel mills to valuable liquid fuels for transportation. PMID:26951649

  7. Gaseous mediators in resolution of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wallace, John L; Ianaro, Angela; Flannigan, Kyle L; Cirino, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    There are numerous gaseous substances that can act as signaling molecules, but the best characterized of these are nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide. Each has been shown to play important roles in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. This article is focused on the effects of these gasotransmitters in the context of inflammation. There is considerable overlap in the actions of nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide with respect to inflammation, and these mediators appear to act primarily as anti-inflammatory substances, promoting resolution of inflammatory processes. They also have protective and pro-healing effects in some tissues, such as the gastrointestinal tract and lung. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in the development of novel anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective drugs that release of one or more of these gaseous mediators.

  8. Effect of gaseous ammonia on nicotine sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, A.M.; Singer, B.C.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2002-06-01

    Nicotine is a major constituent of environmental tobacco smoke. Sorptive interactions of nicotine with indoor surfaces can substantially alter indoor concentrations. The phenomenon is poorly understood, including whether sorption is fully reversible or partially irreversible. They hypothesize that acid-base chemistry on indoor surfaces might contribute to the apparent irreversibility of nicotine sorption under some circumstances. Specifically, they suggest that nicotine may become protonated on surfaces, markedly reducing its vapor pressure. If so, subsequent exposure of the surface to gaseous ammonia, a common base, could raise the surface pH, causing deprotonation and desorption of nicotine from surfaces. A series of experiments was conducted to explore the effect of ammonia on nicotine sorption to and reemission from surfaces. The results indicate that, under some conditions, exposure to gaseous ammonia can substantially increase the rate of desorption of previously sorbed nicotine from common indoor surface materials.

  9. Cs based photocathodes for gaseous detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Borovick-Romanov, A.; Peskov, V.

    1993-08-01

    We demonstrated that some standard photocathodes SbCs, GaAs(Cs), Au(Cs) can easily be manufactured for use inside gaseous detectors. When filed with clean quenched gases such detectors have a quantum efficiency of a few percent in the visible region of the spectra and can operate at a gain >10{sup 3}. We tried to make these photocathodes more air stable by protecting their surfaces with a thin layer of CsI or liquid TMAE. The most air stable were photocathodes with a CsI protective layer. A wavelengths {le}185 nm such photocathodes have the highest quantum efficiency among all known air stable photocathodes, including CsI. Gaseous detectors with such photocathodes can operate at a gain of 10{sup 5}. Results of first tests of doped CsI photocathode are also presented. Possible fields of application of new photocathodes are discussed.

  10. Gaseous fuel reactor systems for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, K.; Schwenk, F. C.

    1977-01-01

    Research on the gaseous fuel nuclear rocket concept continues under the programs of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office for Aeronautics and Space Technology and now includes work related to power applications in space and on earth. In a cavity reactor test series, initial experiments confirmed the low critical mass determined from reactor physics calculations. Recent work with flowing UF6 fuel indicates stable operation at increased power levels. Preliminary design and experimental verification of test hardware for high-temperature experiments have been accomplished. Research on energy extraction from fissioning gases has resulted in lasers energized by fission fragments. Combined experimental results and studies indicate that gaseous-fuel reactor systems have significant potential for providing nuclear fission power in space and on earth.

  11. Diffusion method of seperating gaseous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Pontius, Rex B.

    1976-01-01

    A method of effecting a relatively large change in the relative concentrations of the components of a gaseous mixture by diffusion which comprises separating the mixture into heavier and lighter portions according to major fraction mass recycle procedure, further separating the heavier portions into still heavier subportions according to a major fraction mass recycle procedure, and further separating the lighter portions into still lighter subportions according to a major fraction equilibrium recycle procedure.

  12. Dry-Enzyme Test For Gaseous Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barzana, Eduardo; Karel, Marcus; Klibanov, Alexander

    1990-01-01

    Simple, dry-chemical test detects ethanol in human breath. Method of test also adapted to detection of such toxic chemicals as formaldehyde in airstreams. Used qualitatively to detect chemical compounds above present level; for example, ethanol above legal level for driving. Also used to indicate quantitatively concentrations of compounds. Involves dry enzyme and color indicator. Adapted to detect any gaseous compound transformed by enzymes to produce change evident to human eye or to instrument.

  13. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  14. Gaseous reference standards of formaldehyde from trioxane.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Paul J; di Meane, Elena Amico; Vargha, Gergely M; Brown, Richard J C; Milton, Martin J T

    2013-04-15

    We have developed a dynamic reference standard of gaseous formaldehyde based on diffusion of the sublimate of trioxane and thermal conversion to formaldehyde in the gas phase. We have also produced a gravimetric standard for formaldehyde in a nitrogen matrix, also by thermal conversion of the sublimate of trioxane. Analysis of the gravimetric standard with respect to the dynamic standard has confirmed the comparability of the static and dynamic gravimetric values.

  15. Trace organic impurities in gaseous helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schehl, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    A program to determine trace organic impurities present in helium has been initiated. The impurities were concentrated in a cryogenic trap to permit detection and identification by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique. Gaseous helium (GHe) exhibited 63 GC flame ionization response peaks. Relative GC peak heights and identifications of 25 major impurities by their mass spectra are given. As an aid to further investigation, identities are proposed for 16 other components, and their mass spectra are given.

  16. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  17. Selective remote diagnostics of gaseous hydrocarbon flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antsygin, Valery D.; Borzov, Sergei M.; Kozik, Victor I.; Potaturkin, Oleg I.; Shushkov, Nikolai N.; Vaskov, S. T.

    1997-05-01

    An optoelectronic remote method of gaseous flame parameters determination is suggested. It is based on the principles of passive optical spectroscopy with the use of a receiving radiation of tongues followed by electronic digital data processing. The radiation is registered in green-blue range of spectrum by multielement semiconductor photodetector with a predominant use of one spatial coordinate and optical integration along the other coordinate. The digital data processing is performed by means of local and pointwise image processing operators.

  18. Method for reacting nongaseous material with a gaseous reactant

    DOEpatents

    Lumpkin, Robert E.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy

    1979-03-27

    This invention relates to a new and novel method and apparatus for reacting nongaseous material with a gaseous reactant comprising introducing a first stream containing a nongaseous material into a reaction zone; simultaneously introducing a second stream containing a gaseous reactant into the reaction zone such that the gaseous reactant immediately contacts and reacts with the first stream thereby producing a gaseous product; forming a spiralling vortex within the reaction zone to cause substantial separation of gases, including the gaseous product, from the nongaseous material; forming and removing a third stream from the reaction zone containing the gaseous product which is substantially free of the nongaseous material before a major portion of the gaseous product can react with the nongaseous material; and forming and removing a fourth stream containing the nongaseous material from the reaction zone.

  19. Modeling of gaseous sup 14 CO sub 2 release from perforations in spent fuel disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1991-11-01

    The potential release of gaseous {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from small perforations in spent fuel containers has been evaluated as a function of temperature, hole size, effective porosity of corrosion products within the hole, and time, based on the waste package design parameters and environmental conditions described in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Report (SCP). The SCP does not specify initial fill gas (argon) pressure and temperature. It is shown that, if significant {sup 14}C oxidation takes place during the initial, inert-gas phase, an incentive exists to initially underpressurize the containers. This will avoid large, spiked releases of gaseous {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and will result in delayed, smaller, and more uniform release rates over time. Therefore, larger size perforations could be tolerated while meeting the applicable regulations.

  20. Detection of Pollution Caused by Solid Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golueke, Clarence G.

    1971-01-01

    To develop a means of detecting pollution, it s necessary to know something about the source and nature of the pollution. The type of pollution rising from solid wastes differs considerably from hat from liquid wastes or that from gaseous wastes ni its effect on the immediate environment. It may be "defined" by a series of negatives. When solid wastes are discarded on land, the resulting pollution is not land pollution in the sense of air and water pollution. For one thing, the solid wastes do not become a "part" of the land in that the wastes are neither intimately mixed nor homogenized into the land as are liquid and gaseous wastes into their respective media. The waste particles retain not only their chemical identity but also their visible (i.e., physical) characteristics. When buried, for example, the soil is under, above, and around the solids, because the wastes are there as discrete units. Secondly, solid wastes neither diffuse nor are they carried from the place at which they were deposited. In other words they remain stationary, providing of course the disposal site is land and not moving water. In a given area, solid wastes be not distributed uniformly over that area. Even the solid wastes falling into the specification of letter meets these specifications. In contrast liquid and gaseous wastes become intimately mixed, homogenized, and even dissolved in their media. Because solid wastes remain stationary, pollution constituted by their presence is highly localized and heavily concentrated, even to the extent that the pollution could be termed "micro" when compared to the macro-pollution arising from liquid and gasequs wastes.

  1. Waste acceptance criteria for closure generated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The PORTS Facility has been operating since 1954. The PORTS Facility is used to enrich uranium for nuclear navy applications and commercial nuclear reactors. The PORTS process uses molecular diffusion techniques to separate the U-235 isotope from the U-238 isotope. The PORTS Facility consists of a complex cascade of compressors and converters through which gaseous uranium hexafluoride feed is processed. The feed contains approximately 0.7 percent U-235 by weight while products contain from 4 to 97 percent U-235 by weight, depending on the final application. In general, the majority of the closure wastes generated at PORTS consists of personal protective equipment (PPE), rags, soils, decontamination solutions, and construction related debris. These hazardous wastes will be predominately characterized on the basis of process knowledge. PORTS assumes its conservative waste characterizations that are based on process knowledge are correct unless and until further investigation and/or analysis proves the constituents are not present or are present at concentrations below characteristic regulatory thresholds. Waste Acceptance Criteria for wastes generated by the closure of active and inactive RCRA facilities at PORTS has been developed. The criteria presented in this document govern the activities that are performed during the closure and subsequent generation of waste and relocation from the closure locations to the storage unit. These criteria are intended to ensure the proper handling, classification, processing, and storage of wastes in order to prevent hazardous waste release that may pose a threat to human health or the environment. Any wastes currently stored at each of the facilities that are to be closed will be transferred to the X-326 or X-7725 Storage Units. The waste transfers will be accomplished in accordance with the Container Transfer Plan.

  2. Experimental and simulation study of a Gaseous oxygen/Gaseous hydrogen vortex cooling thrust chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nanjia; Zhao, Bo; Li, Gongnan; Wang, Jue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, RNG k-ε turbulence model and PDF non-premixed combustion model are used to simulate the influence of the diameter of the ring of hydrogen injectors and oxidizer-to-fuel ratio on the specific impulse of the vortex cooling thrust chamber. The simulation results and the experimental tests of a 2000 N Gaseous oxygen/Gaseous hydrogen vortex cooling thrust chamber reveal that the efficiency of the specific impulse improves significantly with increasing of the diameter of the ring of hydrogen injectors. Moreover, the optimum efficiency of the specific impulse is obtained when the oxidizer-to-fuel ratio is near the stoichiometric ratio.

  3. Health physics fundamentals, radiation protection, and radioactive waste treatment. Volume ten

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Topics include health physics fundamentals (is radiation dangerous, what is health physics, federal regulations, presence of radiation, sources of radiation, types of radiation), radiation protection (amounts of radiation, radiation measurement, individual radiation exposure measurements, reducing the effects of radiation), and radioactive waste treatment (what are radioactive wastes, gaseous radioactive waste, liquid radioactive waste, solid radioactive waste, methods of rad-waste treatment, PWR and BWR radwaste treatment.

  4. Tidal Decay and Disruption of Gaseous Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Brian K.; Arras, Phil; Jensen, Emily; Peacock, Sarah; Marchant, Pablo; Penev, Kaloyan

    2015-11-01

    Many gaseous exoplanets in short-period orbits are on the verge of Roche-lobe overflow, and observations, along with orbital stability analysis, show tides probably drive significant orbital decay. Thus, the coupled processes of orbital evolution and tidal disruption likely shape the observed distribution of close-in exoplanets and may even be responsible for producing the shortest-period solid planets. However, the exact outcome for an overflowing planet depends on its internal response to mass loss and variable stellar insolation, and the accompanying orbital evolution can act to enhance or inhibit the disruption process. The final orbits of the denuded remnants of gas giants may be predictable from their mass-radius relationship, and so a distinctive mass-period relationship for some short-period solid planets may provide evidence for their origins as gaseous planets. In this presentation, we will discuss our work on tidal decay and disruption of close-in gaseous planets using a new model that accounts for the fact that short-period planets have hot, distended atmospheres, which can result in overflow even for planets that are not officially in Roche lobe contact. We will also point out that the orbital expansion that can accompany mass transfer may be less effective than previously realized because the resulting accretion disk may not return all of its angular momentum to the donor, as is usually assumed. Both of these effects have bee incorporated into the fully-featured and robust Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) suite.

  5. Turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elperin, T.; Kleeorin, N.; Liberman, M.; Rogachevskii, I.

    2014-11-01

    We study turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures in a developed turbulence. In our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 69 (1998), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.80.69] using a path-integral approach for a delta-correlated in a time random velocity field, we demonstrated a strong modification of turbulent transport in fluid flows with chemical reactions or phase transitions. In the present study we use the spectral τ approximation that is valid for large Reynolds and Peclet numbers and show that turbulent diffusion of the reacting species can be strongly depleted by a large factor that is the ratio of turbulent and chemical times (turbulent Damköhler number). We have demonstrated that the derived theoretical dependence of a turbulent diffusion coefficient versus the turbulent Damköhler number is in good agreement with that obtained previously in the numerical modeling of a reactive front propagating in a turbulent flow and described by the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov-Fisher equation. We have found that turbulent cross-effects, e.g., turbulent mutual diffusion of gaseous admixtures and turbulent Dufour effect of the chemically reacting gaseous admixtures, are less sensitive to the values of stoichiometric coefficients. The mechanisms of the turbulent cross-effects differ from the molecular cross-effects known in irreversible thermodynamics. In a fully developed turbulence and at large Peclet numbers the turbulent cross-effects are much larger than the molecular ones. The obtained results are applicable also to heterogeneous phase transitions.

  6. Studies of Gaseous Multiplication Coefficient in Isobutane

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Iara B.; Vivaldini, Tulio C.; Goncalves, Josemary A. C.; Botelho, Suzana; Bueno Tobias, Carmen C.; Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R.; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio

    2010-05-21

    This work presents the studies of gaseous multiplication coefficient behavior for isobutane, as function of the reduced electric field, by means of signal amplitude analysis. The experimental method used is based on the Pulsed Townsend technique, which follows from Townsend equation solution for a uniform electric field. In our configuration, the anode is made of a high resistivity (2.10{sup 12} OMEGA.cm) glass, while the cathode is of aluminium. In order to validate the technique and to analyze effects of non-uniformity, results for nitrogen, which has well-established data available in literature, are also presented.

  7. Electrostatic Precipitation in Nearly Pure Gaseous Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, Charles; Calle, Carlos; Clements, Sid; Cox, Bobby; Ritz, Mindy

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatic precipitation was performed in a nearly pure gaseous nitrogen system as a possible remedy for black dust contaminant from high pressure 6000 psi lines at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. The results of a prototype electrostatic precipitator that was built and tested using nitrogen gas at standard atmospheric pressures is presented. High voltage pulsed waveforms are generated using a rotating spark gap system at 30 Hz. A unique dust delivery system utilizing the Venturi effect was devised that supplies a given amount of dust per unit time for testing purposes.

  8. Detection of Gaseous Methane on Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Leslie; Tokunaga, Alan; Elliot, J.; deBergh, Catherine; Owen, Tobias; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We obtained Pluto's spectrum using the CSHELL echelle spectrograph at NASA's IRTF on Mauna Kea, on 25-26 May 1992, with a spectral resolution of 13,300. The spectral range (5998 - 6018 per centimeter, or 1661.8 - 1666.9 nm) includes the R(0) and the Q(1) - Q(9) lines of the 2v3 band of methane. The resulting spectrum shows the first detection of gaseous methane on Pluto, with a column height of 1.20 (sup +3.15) (sub -0.87) cm-A (3.22 (sup +8.46) (sub -2.34) x 10(exp 19) molecule per square centimeter)).

  9. Gaseous discs at intermediate redshifts from kinematic data modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipper, R.; Tamm, A.; Tenjes, P.; Tempel, E.

    2016-10-01

    Our purpose is to measure thickness of gaseous discs in 0 < z < 1.2 galaxies. As gas dispersions are sensitive to scale height of gaseous discs, we model the kinematics of galaxies using Jeans equations. The resulting thicknesses of gaseous discs at higher redshifts are more thicker (and arbitrary) while nearby ones are thinner. We also found that clumpiness of galaxy is a possible indicator of the gas disc thickness.

  10. Thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons in noble gaseous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Wei-Rong Xu, Zhi-Cheng; Zheng, Dong-Qin; Ai, Bao-Quan

    2014-02-24

    We investigate the thermal conductivity of suspended graphene nanoribbons in noble gaseous environments using molecular dynamics simulations. It is reported that the thermal conductivity of perfect graphene nanoribbons decreases with the gaseous pressure. The decreasing is more obvious for the noble gas with large atomic number. However, the gaseous pressure cannot change the thermal conductivity of defective graphene nanoribbons apparently. The phonon spectra of graphene nanoribbons are also provided to give corresponding supports.

  11. Measuring the effectiveness of gaseous virus disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Knotzer, Simone; Kindermann, Johanna; Modrof, Jens; Kreil, Thomas R

    2015-11-01

    The efficacy of gaseous disinfection is critical for prevention and treatment of microbial contamination in biotechnological facilities. For an evaluation of gaseous disinfection efficacy, a down-scaled laboratory model was established, using currently available carrier tests and a custom-made dry fog box. A mixture of peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (PAA/HP) was investigated as example, at concentrations between 0.4 and 2.9 mL/m(3) for up to 3 h for inactivation of a panel of lipid-enveloped and non-lipid-enveloped viruses. The influenza viruses were most sensitive to PAA/HP treatment and minute virus of mice was most resistant. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and reovirus III showed intermediate stability and similar inactivation kinetics. Use of the dry fog box circumvents dedicating an entire lab for the investigation, which renders the generation of data more cost-effective and allows for production of highly reproducible kinetic data.

  12. Gaseous radiocarbon measurements of small samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, M.; Szidat, S.; Gäggeler, H. W.; Suter, M.; Synal, H.-A.; Wacker, L.

    2010-04-01

    Radiocarbon dating by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a well-established method for samples containing carbon in the milligram range. However, the measurement of small samples containing less than 50 μg carbon often fails. It is difficult to graphitise these samples and the preparation is prone to contamination. To avoid graphitisation, a solution can be the direct measurement of carbon dioxide. The MICADAS, the smallest accelerator for radiocarbon dating in Zurich, is equipped with a hybrid Cs sputter ion source. It allows the measurement of both, graphite targets and gaseous CO 2 samples, without any rebuilding. This work presents experiences dealing with small samples containing 1-40 μg carbon. 500 unknown samples of different environmental research fields have been measured yet. Most of the samples were measured with the gas ion source. These data are compared with earlier measurements of small graphite samples. The performance of the two different techniques is discussed and main contributions to the blank determined. An analysis of blank and standard data measured within years allowed a quantification of the contamination, which was found to be of the order of 55 ng and 750 ng carbon (50 pMC) for the gaseous and the graphite samples, respectively. For quality control, a number of certified standards were measured using the gas ion source to demonstrate reliability of the data.

  13. Measuring the effectiveness of gaseous virus disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Knotzer, Simone; Kindermann, Johanna; Modrof, Jens; Kreil, Thomas R

    2015-11-01

    The efficacy of gaseous disinfection is critical for prevention and treatment of microbial contamination in biotechnological facilities. For an evaluation of gaseous disinfection efficacy, a down-scaled laboratory model was established, using currently available carrier tests and a custom-made dry fog box. A mixture of peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (PAA/HP) was investigated as example, at concentrations between 0.4 and 2.9 mL/m(3) for up to 3 h for inactivation of a panel of lipid-enveloped and non-lipid-enveloped viruses. The influenza viruses were most sensitive to PAA/HP treatment and minute virus of mice was most resistant. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and reovirus III showed intermediate stability and similar inactivation kinetics. Use of the dry fog box circumvents dedicating an entire lab for the investigation, which renders the generation of data more cost-effective and allows for production of highly reproducible kinetic data. PMID:26260690

  14. Gaseous detonation synthesis and characterization of nano-oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Honghao; Wu, Linsong; Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Gaseous detonation is a new method of heating the precursor of nanomaterials into gas, and integrating it with combustible gas as mixture to be detonated for the synthesis of nanomaterials. In this paper, the mixed gas of oxygen and hydrogen is used as the source for detonation, to synthesize nano TiO2, nano SiO2 and nano SnO2 through gaseous detonation method, characterization and analysis of the products, it was found that the products from gaseous detonation method were of high purity, good dispersion, smaller particle size and even distribution. It also shows that for the synthesis of nano-oxides, gaseous detonation is universal.

  15. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  16. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  17. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  18. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  19. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  20. Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactor research for multimegawatt power in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, K.; Schneider, R. T.; Helmick, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    In the gaseous-fuel reactor concept, the fissile material is contained in a moderator-reflector cavity and exists in the form of a flowing gas or plasma separated from the cavity walls by means of fluid mechanical forces. Temperatures in excess of structural limitations are possible for low-specific-mass power and high-specific-impulse propulsion in space. Experiments have been conducted with a canister filled with enriched UF6 inserted into a beryllium-reflected cavity. A theoretically predicted critical mass of 6 kg was measured. The UF6 was also circulated through this cavity, demonstrating stable reactor operation with the fuel in motion. Because the flowing gaseous fuel can be continuously processed, the radioactive waste in this type of reactor can be kept small. Another potential of fissioning gases is the possibility of converting the kinetic energy of fission fragments directly into coherent electromagnetic radiation, the nuclear pumping of lasers. Numerous nuclear laser experiments indicate the possibility of transmitting power in space directly from fission energy. The estimated specific mass of a multimegawatt gaseous-fuel reactor power system is from 1 to 5 kg/kW while the companion laser-power receiver station would be much lower in specific mass.

  1. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Flux from Substrates Associated with Industrial Scale Gold Mining in Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Gaseous elemental and oxidized mercury (Hg) fluxes were measured in a laboratory setting from substrate materials derived from industrial-scale open pit gold mining operations in Nevada, USA. Mercury is present in these substrates at a range of concentrations (10 - 40000 ng g-1), predominantly of local geogenic origin in association with the mineralized gold ores, but altered and redistributed to a varying degree by subsequent ore extraction and processing operations, including deposition of Hg recently emitted to the atmosphere from large point sources on the mines. Waste rock, heap leach, and tailings material usually comprise the most extensive and Hg emission relevant substrate surfaces. All three of these material types were collected from active Nevada mine sites in 2010 for previous research, and have since been stored undisturbed at the University of Nevada, Reno. Gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) flux was previously measured from these materials under a variety of conditions, and was re-measured in this study, using Teflon® flux chambers and Tekran® 2537A automated ambient air analyzers. GEM flux from dry undisturbed materials was comparable between the two measurement periods. Gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) flux from these materials was quantified using an active filter sampling method that consisted of polysulfone cation-exchange membranes deployed in conjunction with the GEM flux apparatus. Initial measurements conducted within greenhouse laboratory space indicate that in dry conditions GOM is deposited to relatively low Hg cap and leach materials, but may be emitted from the much higher Hg concentration tailings material.

  2. The gaseous jet in supersonic crossflow

    SciTech Connect

    Heister, S.D.; Karagozian, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical/numerical model for the deflection and mixing of a single gaseous jet in a supersonic crossflow is presented. The jet cross-section is described in terms of the compressible vortex pair resulting from viscous and impulsive forces acting at the jet periphery, and the vortex pair data are combined with data for the mass and momentum balance along the jet axis in order to model the trajectory and mixing of the injected fluid. A numerical technique is employed to solve for the inviscid outer flow and the position of the bow shock which envelopes the jet. The model is shown to be capable of predicting overall jet penetration (for perfectly or slightly underexpanded jets) to within 10 percent of experimental findings, while requiring only a few seconds of computer time. 24 refs.

  3. GCN: a gaseous Galactic halo stream?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shoko

    2010-10-01

    We show that a string of HI clouds that form part of the high-velocity cloud complex known as GCN is a probable gaseous stream extending over more than 50° in the Galactic halo. The radial velocity gradient along the stream is used to deduce transverse velocities as a function of distance, enabling a family of orbits to be computed. We find that a direction of motion towards the Galactic disc coupled with a mid-stream distance of ~20kpc provides a good match to the observed sky positions and radial velocities of the HI clouds comprising the stream. With an estimated mass of 105Msolar, its progenitor is likely to be a dwarf galaxy. However, no stellar counterpart has been found amongst the currently known Galactic dwarf spheroidal galaxies or stellar streams and the exact origin of the stream is therefore currently unknown.

  4. 2011 GASEOUS IONS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Anderson

    2011-03-04

    The Gaseous Ions: Structures, Energetics and Reactions Gordon Research Conference will focus on ions and their interactions with molecules, surfaces, electrons, and light. The conference will cover theory and experiments, and systems ranging from molecular to biological to clusters to materials. The meeting goal continues to be bringing together scientists interested in fundamentals, with those applying fundamental phenomena to a wide range of practical problems. Each of the ten conference sessions will focus on a topic within this spectrum, and there will also be poster sessions for contributed papers, with sufficient space and time to allow all participants to present their latest results. To encourage active participation by young investigators, about ten of the poster abstracts will be selected for 15 minute 'hot topic' talks during the conference sessions. Hot topic selection will be done about a month before the meeting. Funds should be available to offset the participation cost for young investigators.

  5. Simulating Isotope Enrichment by Gaseous Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cameron

    2015-04-01

    A desktop-computer simulation of isotope enrichment by gaseous diffusion has been developed. The simulation incorporates two non-interacting point-mass species whose members pass through a cascade of cells containing porous membranes and retain constant speeds as they reflect off the walls of the cells and the spaces between holes in the membranes. A particular feature is periodic forward recycling of enriched material to cells further along the cascade along with simultaneous return of depleted material to preceding cells. The number of particles, the mass ratio, the initial fractional abundance of the lighter species, and the time between recycling operations can be chosen by the user. The simulation is simple enough to be understood on the basis of two-dimensional kinematics, and demonstrates that the fractional abundance of the lighter-isotope species increases along the cascade. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of some typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  6. Allis Prize Lecture: Gaseous Electronics Physics Inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garscadden, Alan

    2002-10-01

    I was fortunate to enjoy the advice of K. G. Emeleus during my graduate studies and for many years afterwards. He introduced me to the papers of Will Allis and later I was privileged to correspond with Professor Allis. At this time I had moved from the Queens university environment to work at a large Air Force base. There I have worked with a lot of smart people, including several who also come to the GEC each year to be refreshed and calibrated. A personal overview is presented on a few of the many roles that atomic, molecular and optical physics, including gaseous electronics, play in programs of the Air Force Research Laboratory and subsequently on AF systems and operations. While there have been misses, overall there have been many successes with impacts that provide more effective systems, as recent experiences have demonstrated. Some example studies, involving primarily electron collision physics, successful and unsuccessful in being chosen for application, are discussed.

  7. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    SciTech Connect

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi; Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François

    2015-08-17

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal {sup 210}Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  8. Infrared radiative energy transfer in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the radiative interactions in various energy transfer processes in gaseous systems. Both gray and non-gray radiative formulations for absorption and emission by molecular gases are presented. The gray gas formulations are based on the Planck mean absorption coefficient and the non-gray formulations are based on the wide band model correlations for molecular absorption. Various relations for the radiative flux and divergence of radiative flux are developed. These are useful for different flow conditions and physical problems. Specific plans for obtaining extensive results for different cases are presented. The procedure developed was applied to several realistic problems. Results of selected studies are presented.

  9. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi; Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François; Savvidis, Ilias

    2015-08-01

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal 210Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  10. 40 CFR 91.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 91.415 Section 91.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Raw gaseous sampling procedures. Fit all heated sampling lines with a heated filter to extract...

  11. 40 CFR 91.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 91.415 Section 91.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Raw gaseous sampling procedures. Fit all heated sampling lines with a heated filter to extract...

  12. 40 CFR 90.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 90.415 Section 90.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Test Procedures § 90.415 Raw gaseous sampling procedures. Fit all heated sampling lines with a...

  13. 40 CFR 90.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 90.415 Section 90.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Test Procedures § 90.415 Raw gaseous sampling procedures. Fit all heated sampling lines with a...

  14. 40 CFR 91.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 91.415 Section 91.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Raw gaseous sampling procedures. Fit all heated sampling lines with a heated filter to extract...

  15. 40 CFR 91.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 91.415 Section 91.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Raw gaseous sampling procedures. Fit all heated sampling lines with a heated filter to extract...

  16. 40 CFR 90.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 90.415 Section 90.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Test Procedures § 90.415 Raw gaseous sampling procedures. Fit all heated sampling lines with a...

  17. 40 CFR 91.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 91.415 Section 91.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Raw gaseous sampling procedures. Fit all heated sampling lines with a heated filter to extract...

  18. 40 CFR 90.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 90.415 Section 90.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Test Procedures § 90.415 Raw gaseous sampling procedures. Fit all heated sampling lines with a...

  19. Removing gaseous NH3 using biochar as an adsorbent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia is a major fugitive gas emitted from livestock operations and fertilization production. This study tested the potential of various biochars in removing gaseous ammonia via adsorption processes. Gaseous ammonia adsorption capacities of various biochars made from two different feedstocks (wood...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. 1910.162... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment § 1910.162 Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. (a) Scope and...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. 1910.162... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment § 1910.162 Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. (a) Scope and...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. 1910.162... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment § 1910.162 Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. (a) Scope and...

  3. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: A new gaseous detector — micro mesh gaseous structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hao-Hui; Guo, Jun-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Lian; Xu, Zi-Zong

    2009-09-01

    The structure and working principle of Micromegas (MICRO Mesh Gaseous Structure) is discussed. Some radiation sources of α and X rays are used to test this detector. The optimized electric-field intensity of the conversion gap is obtained. The transmission of electrons and the uniformity of the amplification gap are also presented. The energy resolution of the 5.9 keV peak is better than 27%.

  4. Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1997-01-01

    A process for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes.

  5. Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1997-03-18

    A process is described for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes. 3 figs.

  6. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  7. Gaseous methyl- and inorganic mercury in landfill gas from landfills in Florida, Minnesota, Delaware, and California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Southworth, G.; Prestbo, E. M.; Wallschläger, D.; Bogle, M. A.; Price, J.

    2005-01-01

    Municipal waste landfills contain numerous sources of mercury which could be emitted to the atmosphere. Their generation of methane by anaerobic bacteria suggests that landfills may act as bioreactors for methylated mercury compounds. Since our previous study at a single Florida landfill, gaseous inorganic and methylated mercury species have now been identified and quantified in landfill gas at nine additional municipal landfills in several regions of the US. Total gaseous mercury occurs at concentrations in the μg m-3 range, while methylated compounds occur at concentrations in the ng m-3 range at all but one of the landfill sites. Dimethylmercury is the predominant methylated species, at concentrations up to 100 ng m-3, while monomethyl mercury was generally lower. Limited measurements near sites where waste is exposed for processing (e.g. working face, transfer areas) suggest that dimethylmercury is released during these activities as well. Although increasing amounts of landfill gas generated in the US are flared (which should thermally decompose the organic mercury to inorganic mercury), unflared landfill gas is a potentially important anthropogenic source of methylated mercury emissions to the atmosphere.

  8. Electrochemical incineration of wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaba, L.; Hitchens, G. D.; Bockris, J. O'M.

    1989-01-01

    A low temperature electrolysis process has been developed for the treatment of solid waste material and urine. Experiments are described in which organic materials are oxidized directly at the surface of an electrode. Also, hypochlorite is generated electrochemically from chloride component of urine. Hypochlorite can act as a strong oxidizing agent in solution. The oxidation takes place at 30-60 C and the gaseous products from the anodic reaction are carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen. Hydrogen is formed at the cathode. Carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides and methane were not detected in the off gases. Chlorine was evolved at the anode in relatively low amounts.

  9. Heating with waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Beabout, R.W.

    1986-09-02

    Most of the power consumed in the gaseous diffusion process is converted into heat of compression, which is removed from the process gas and rejected into the atmosphere by recirculating cooling water over cooling towers. The water being handled through the X-333 and X-330 Process Buildings can be heated to 140 to 150/sup 0/F for heating use. The Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant is provided with a recirculating heating water (RHW) system which uses X-330 water and wasted heat. The RHW flow is diagrammed. (DLC)

  10. Mass spectrometric study of thermodynamic properties of gaseous lead tellurates. Estimation of formation enthalpies of gaseous lead polonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugurov, S. M.; Panin, A. I.; Lopatin, S. I.; Emelyanova, K. A.

    2016-10-01

    Gaseous reactions involving lead oxides, tellurium oxide and lead tellurates were studied by the Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry. Equilibrium constants and reaction enthalpies were evaluated. Structures, molecular parameters and thermodynamic functions of gaseous PbTeO3 and Pb2TeO4 were calculated by quantum chemistry methods. The formation enthalpies ΔfH0 (298.15) = -294 ± 13 for gaseous PbTeO3 and ΔfH0 (298.15) = -499 ± 12 for gaseous Pb2TeO4 were obtained. On the base of these results the formation enthalpies of gaseous PbPoO3 and Pb2PoO4 were estimated as -249 ± 34 and -478 ± 38, respectively.

  11. SEPARATION OF RUTHENIUM COMPOUNDS FROM GASEOUS MIXTURES

    DOEpatents

    Newby, B.J.; Hanson, D.A.; May, C.E.

    1960-12-13

    A process is given for removing RuO/sub 4/ from waste calcination off- gases by adsorption on silica gel, preferably of from 70 to 80 deg C. The RuO/sub 4/ can be eluted from the silica gel with water of a temperature between 60 and 70 deg C.

  12. Radiant Extinction of Gaseous Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berhan, Sean; Atreya, Arvind; Everest, David; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    1999-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity (mu-g) and the resulting increase in the reactant residence time significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal gravity (ng) and mu-g flames have been reported in experiments on candle flames, flame spread over solids, droplet combustion, and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence times and higher concentration of combustion products in the flame zone create a thermochemical environment that changes the flame chemistry and the heat and mass transfer processes. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored in ng, become very important and sometimes even controlling. Furthermore, microgravity conditions considerably enhance flame radiation by: (1) the build-up of combustion products in the high-temperature reaction zone which increases the gas radiation; and (2) longer residence times make conditions appropriate for substantial amounts of soot to form which is also responsible for radiative heat loss. Thus, it is anticipated that radiative heat loss may eventually extinguish the "weak" (low burning rate per unit flame area) mu-g diffusion flame. Yet, space shuttle experiments on candle flames show that in an infinite ambient atmosphere, the hemispherical candle flame in mu-g will burn indefinitely. This may be because of the coupling between the fuel production rate and the flame via the heat-feedback mechanism for candle flames, flames over solids and fuel droplet flames. Thus, to focus only on the gas-phase phenomena leading to radiative extinction, aerodynamically stabilized gaseous diffusion flames are examined. This enables independent control of the fuel flow rate to help identify conditions under which radiative extinction occurs. Also, spherical geometry is chosen for the mu-g experiments and modeling because: (1) It reduces the complexity by making the problem one

  13. Radiant Extinction Of Gaseous Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berhan, S.; Chernovsky, M.; Atreya, A.; Baum, Howard R.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2003-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity (mu:g) and the resulting increase in the reactant residence time significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal gravity (ng) and :g flames have been reported in experiments on candle flames [1, 2], flame spread over solids [3, 4], droplet combustion [5,6], and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence times and higher concentration of combustion products in the flame zone create a thermochemical environment that changes the flame chemistry and the heat and mass transfer processes. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored in ng, become very important and sometimes even controlling. Furthermore, microgravity conditions considerably enhance flame radiation by: (i) the build-up of combustion products in the high-temperature reaction zone which increases the gas radiation, and (ii) longer residence times make conditions appropriate for substantial amounts of soot to form which is also responsible for radiative heat loss. Thus, it is anticipated that radiative heat loss may eventually extinguish the Aweak@ (low burning rate per unit flame area) :g diffusion flame. Yet, space shuttle experiments on candle flames show that in an infinite ambient atmosphere, the hemispherical candle flame in :g will burn indefinitely [1]. This may be because of the coupling between the fuel production rate and the flame via the heat-feedback mechanism for candle flames, flames over solids and fuel droplet flames. Thus, to focus only on the gas-phase phenomena leading to radiative extinction, aerodynamically stabilized gaseous diffusion flames are examined. This enables independent control of the fuel flow rate to help identify conditions under which radiative extinction occurs. Also, spherical geometry is chosen for the :g experiments and modeling because: (i) It reduces the complexity by making the problem

  14. Odorous gaseous emissions as influence by process condition for the forced aeration composting of pig slaughterhouse sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Blazy, V.; Guardia, A. de; Benoist, J.C; Daumoin, M.; Lemasle, M.; Wolbert, D.; Barrington, S.

    2014-07-15

    bulking agent to waste ratio: hydrogen sulphide, trimethylamine, ammonia, 2-pentanone and 1-propanol-2-methyl. However, dropping the aeration rate and increasing the bulking agent to waste ratio reduced gaseous odour emissions by a factor of 5–10, when the required threshold dilution factor ranged from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6}, to avoid nuisance at peak emission rates. Process influence on emissions of dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide were poorly correlated with both aeration rate and bulking agent to waste ratio as a reaction with hydrogen sulphide was suspected. Acetophenone emissions originated from the wood chips. Olfactory measurements need to be correlated to gaseous emissions for a more accurate odour emission evaluation.

  15. Detection of Gaseous Plumes using Basis Vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, Lawrence; Walsh, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. There are several methods currently being used to detect plumes. They can be grouped into two categories: those that use a chemical spectral library and those that don’t. The approaches that use chemical libraries include least squares methods and physics-based approaches. They are "optimal" only if the plume chemical is actually in the search set but risk missing chemicals not in the library. The methods that don’t use a chemical spectral library are based on a statistical or data analytical transformation applied to the data. These include principle components, independent components, entropy, Fourier transform, and others. These methods do not explicitly take advantage of the physics of the signal formulation process and therefore don’t exploit all available information in the data. This paper presents initial results of employing basis vectors as a tool for plume detection. It describes the standard generalized least squares approach using gas spectra, presents the detection approach using basis vectors, and compares detection images resulting from applying both methods to synthetic hyperspectral images.

  16. Elements of radiative interactions in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1991-01-01

    Basic formulations, analyses, and numerical procedures are presented to study radiative interactions in gray as well as nongray gases under different physical and flow conditions. After preliminary fluid-dynamical considerations, essential governing equations for radiative transport are presented that are applicable under local and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Auxiliary relations for relaxation times and spectral absorption model are also provided. For specific applications, several simple gaseous systems are analyzed. The first system considered consists of a gas bounded by two parallel plates having the same temperature. For this system, both vibrational nonequilibrium effects and radiation conduction interactions are studied. The second system consists of fully developed laminar flow and heat transfer in a parallel plate duct under the boundary condition of a uniform surface heat flux. For this system, effects of gray surface emittance are studied. With the single exception of a circular geometry, the third system is identical to the second system. Here, the influence of nongray walls is also studied, and a correlation between the parallel plates and circular tube results is presented. The particular gases selected are CO, CO2, H2O, CH4, N2O, NH3, OH, and NO. The temperature and pressure range considered are 300 to 2000 K, and 0.1 to 100 atmosphere, respectively. Illustrative results obtained for different cases are discussed and some specific conclusions are provided.

  17. Measurements of reactive gaseous rocket injector admittances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Daniel, B. R.; Bell, W. A.; Zinn, B. T.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the results of an experimental study of the quantitative determination of the capabilities of the combustion processes associated with coaxial gaseous propellant rocket injectors to drive combustor pressure oscillations. The data, obtained by employing the modified impedance tube technique with compressed air as the oxidizer and acetylene gas as the fuel, describe the frequency dependence of the admittance of the combined injector-combustion process. The measured data are compared with the predictions of the Feiler and Heidmann analytical model utilizing different values for the characteristic combustion time tau sub b. The values of tau sub b which result in a best fit between the measured and predicted data are indicated for different equivalence ratios. It is shown that for the coaxial injector investigated in this study the tau sub b varies between 0.7 and 1.2 msec for equivalence ratios in the range of 0.57 to 1.31. In addition, the experimental data indicate that the tested injector system could drive combustion instabilities over a frequency range that is in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the Feiler and Heidmann model.

  18. Gaseous Nitrogen Orifice Mass Flow Calculator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritrivi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Gaseous Nitrogen (GN2) Orifice Mass Flow Calculator was used to determine Space Shuttle Orbiter Water Spray Boiler (WSB) GN2 high-pressure tank source depletion rates for various leak scenarios, and the ability of the GN2 consumables to support cooling of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) lubrication during entry. The data was used to support flight rationale concerning loss of an orbiter APU/hydraulic system and mission work-arounds. The GN2 mass flow-rate calculator standardizes a method for rapid assessment of GN2 mass flow through various orifice sizes for various discharge coefficients, delta pressures, and temperatures. The calculator utilizes a 0.9-lb (0.4 kg) GN2 source regulated to 40 psia (.276 kPa). These parameters correspond to the Space Shuttle WSB GN2 Source and Water Tank Bellows, but can be changed in the spreadsheet to accommodate any system parameters. The calculator can be used to analyze a leak source, leak rate, gas consumables depletion time, and puncture diameter that simulates the measured GN2 system pressure drop.

  19. Measuring scattering lengths of gaseous samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, M. G.; Black, T. C.; Haun, R.; Pushin, D. A.; Shahi, C. B.; Weitfeldt, F. E.

    2016-03-01

    Neutron interferometry represents one of the most precise techniques for measuring the coherent scattering lengths (bc) of particular nuclear isotopes. Currently bc for helium-4 is known only to 1% relative uncertainty; a factor of ten higher than precision measurements of other light isotopes. Scattering lengths are measured using a neutron interferometer and by comparing the phase shift a neutron acquires as it passes through a gaseous sample relative to that of a neutron passing through vacuum. The density of the gas is determined by continuous monitoring of the sample's temperature and pressure. Challenges for these types of experiments include achieving the necessary long-term phase stability and accurate determination of the phase shift caused by the aluminum cell used to hold the gas; a phase shift many times greater than that of the sample. The present status on the effort to measure the n-4He scattering length at the NIST center for Neutron Research will be given. Financial support provided by the NSERC `Create' and `Discovery' programs, CERC, NIST and NSF Grant PHY-1205342.

  20. A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinping; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shizhong; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation was developed to address the disadvantages of the insufficient driving capability of high-pressure gas and the constraints of gunpowder. The performance of this gasdynamic gun was investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Much more powerful launching capability was achieved by this gun relative to a conventional high-pressure gas gun, owing to the use of the chemical energy of the driver gas. To achieve the same launching condition, the initial pressure required for this gun was an order of magnitude lower than that for a gun driven by high-pressure H2. Because of the presence of the detonation, however, a more complex internal ballistic process of this gun was observed. Acceleration of projectiles for this gun was accompanied by a series of impulse loads, in contrast with the smooth acceleration for a conventional one, which indicates that this gun should be used conditionally. The practical feasibility of this gun was verified by experiments. The experiments demonstrated the convenience of taking advantage of the techniques developed for detonation-driven shock tubes and tunnels. PMID:26827358

  1. First gaseous boronization during pulsed discharge cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, J.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Weix, P. J.; Limbach, S. T.

    2013-01-01

    The first successful gaseous boronization during a pulsed discharge is reported. Sublimation of o-carborane (C2B10H12) combined with pulsed discharge plasmas with a repetition rate of 1 Hz is used to produce a hard boron-containing coating for reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas in the Madison Symmetric Torus. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with Ar ion beam etching for silicon coupons installed at the plasma boundary shows about 60% boron concentration in the deposited layer. Both profilometer and scanning electron microscope analyses of the silicon coupons imply a strong toroidally non-uniform deposition depending on the location of the o-carborane injection. The layer thickness ranges from 50 to 300 nm. Ellipsometry calibrated with the profilometer results yields a refractive index of 2.2-2.3 for the films. The high refractive index implies that the coating is hard and has a well-ordered morphology. A reduction in wall recycling has consistently been observed after all boronization sessions. Comparison of the X-ray spectra in standard RFP plasmas before and after boronization indicates a slight decrease in the effective ionic charge.

  2. A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinping; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shizhong; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation was developed to address the disadvantages of the insufficient driving capability of high-pressure gas and the constraints of gunpowder. The performance of this gasdynamic gun was investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Much more powerful launching capability was achieved by this gun relative to a conventional high-pressure gas gun, owing to the use of the chemical energy of the driver gas. To achieve the same launching condition, the initial pressure required for this gun was an order of magnitude lower than that for a gun driven by high-pressure H2. Because of the presence of the detonation, however, a more complex internal ballistic process of this gun was observed. Acceleration of projectiles for this gun was accompanied by a series of impulse loads, in contrast with the smooth acceleration for a conventional one, which indicates that this gun should be used conditionally. The practical feasibility of this gun was verified by experiments. The experiments demonstrated the convenience of taking advantage of the techniques developed for detonation-driven shock tubes and tunnels.

  3. A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinping; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shizhong; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation was developed to address the disadvantages of the insufficient driving capability of high-pressure gas and the constraints of gunpowder. The performance of this gasdynamic gun was investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Much more powerful launching capability was achieved by this gun relative to a conventional high-pressure gas gun, owing to the use of the chemical energy of the driver gas. To achieve the same launching condition, the initial pressure required for this gun was an order of magnitude lower than that for a gun driven by high-pressure H2. Because of the presence of the detonation, however, a more complex internal ballistic process of this gun was observed. Acceleration of projectiles for this gun was accompanied by a series of impulse loads, in contrast with the smooth acceleration for a conventional one, which indicates that this gun should be used conditionally. The practical feasibility of this gun was verified by experiments. The experiments demonstrated the convenience of taking advantage of the techniques developed for detonation-driven shock tubes and tunnels.

  4. Action-FRET of a Gaseous Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Steven; Knight, Geoffrey; Halim, Mohamed Abdul; Kulesza, Alexander; Choi, Chang Min; Chirot, Fabien; MacAleese, Luke; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Mass spectrometry is an extremely powerful technique for analysis of biological molecules, in particular proteins. One aspect that has been contentious is how much native solution-phase structure is preserved upon transposition to the gas phase by soft ionization methods such as electrospray ionization. To address this question—and thus further develop mass spectrometry as a tool for structural biology—structure-sensitive techniques must be developed to probe the gas-phase conformations of proteins. Here, we report Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements on a ubiquitin mutant using specific photofragmentation as a reporter of the FRET efficiency. The FRET data is interpreted in the context of circular dichroism, molecular dynamics simulation, and ion mobility data. Both the dependence of the FRET efficiency on the charge state—where a systematic decrease is observed—and on methanol concentration are considered. In the latter case, a decrease in FRET efficiency with methanol concentration is taken as evidence that the conformational ensemble of gaseous protein cations retains a memory of the solution phase conformational ensemble upon electrospray ionization.

  5. Growth of graphene films from non-gaseous carbon sources

    DOEpatents

    Tour, James; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-08-04

    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides methods of forming graphene films by: (1) depositing a non-gaseous carbon source onto a catalyst surface; (2) exposing the non-gaseous carbon source to at least one gas with a flow rate; and (3) initiating the conversion of the non-gaseous carbon source to the graphene film, where the thickness of the graphene film is controllable by the gas flow rate. Additional embodiments of the present disclosure pertain to graphene films made in accordance with the methods of the present disclosure.

  6. Gaseous mediator-based anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Sulaieva, Oksana; Wallace, John L

    2015-12-01

    Among the most commonly used drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) remain problematic because of their propensity to cause serious adverse events, principally affecting the gastrointestinal tract. In recent years, the discovery of potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of endogenous gaseous mediators (nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide) stimulated efforts to develop novel, combination NSAIDs that suppress prostaglandin synthesis (producing anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects) and release one or more of the cytoprotective gaseous mediators. Gaseous mediator-based anti-inflammatory drugs have reached the human clinical trial stage and show considerable promise as a safer option for treating chronic inflammatory diseases.

  7. Plasma technology for waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, D.R.

    1995-04-01

    Improved environmental cleanup technology is needed to meet demanding goals for remediation and treatment of future waste streams. Plasma technology has unique features which could provide advantages of reduced secondary waste, lower cost, and onsite treatment for a wide variety of applications. Plasma technology can provide highly controllable processing without the need for combustion heating. It can be used to provide high temperature processing ({approximately}10,000{degrees}C). Plasma technology can also be employed for low temperature processing (down to room temperature range) through selective plasma chemistry. A graphite electrode arc plasma furnace at MIT has been used to investigate high temperature processing of simulated solid waste for Department of Energy environmental cleanup applications. Stable, non-leachable glass has been produced. To ensure reliable operation and to meet environmental objectives, new process diagnostics have been developed to measure furnace temperature and to determine metals emissions in the gaseous effluent. Selective plasma destruction of dilute concentrations of hazardous compounds in gaseous waste streams has been investigated using electron beam generated plasmas. Selective destruction makes it possible to treat the gas steam at relatively low temperatures in the 30-300{degrees}C range. On-line infrared measurements have been used in feedback operation to maximize efficiency and ensure desired performance. Plasma technology and associated process diagnostics will be used in future studies of a wide range of waste streams.

  8. 91. VIEW OF OXYGEN AND GASEOUS NITROGEN TANKS AND OXIDIZER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW OF OXYGEN AND GASEOUS NITROGEN TANKS AND OXIDIZER APRON FROM NORTH - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 53. THRUST SECTION HEATER AND GASEOUS NITROGEN PURGE CONTROLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. THRUST SECTION HEATER AND GASEOUS NITROGEN PURGE CONTROLS ON EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK. LAUNCHER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. 40 CFR 90.418 - Data evaluation for gaseous emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gaseous emissions recording, record the last two minutes of each mode and determine the average values for HC, CO, CO2 and NOX during each mode from the average concentration readings determined from...

  11. Liquid and gaseous oxygen safety review, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapin, A.

    1972-01-01

    Materials used or contained in liquid and gaseous oxygen systems are analyzed for their compatibility; and areas of possible concern in oxygen systems are outlined. Design criteria, cleaning procedures, and quality control methods are covered in detail.

  12. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett; Zielke, Clyde W.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  13. Favorite Demonstrations: Gaseous Diffusion: A Demonstration of Graham's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.; Ebner, Ronald D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which gaseous ammonia and hydrochloric acid are used to illustrate rates of diffusion (Graham's Law). Simple equipment needed for the demonstration include a long tube, rubber stoppes, and cotton. Two related demonstrations are also explained. (DH)

  14. Trapping behavior of gaseous cesium by fly ash filters.

    PubMed

    Shin, J M; Park, J J; Song, K C; Kim, J H

    2009-01-01

    The high volatility of a gaseous form and its high chemical reactivity make a cesium emission control very difficult work. In this study, fly ash filters were tested for the removal of gaseous cesium from a hot flue gas under air and hydrogen conditions at 700-1000 degrees C. Tests were performed by using a simulated gaseous cesium volatilized from Cs(2)SiO(3) in a two-zone furnace. Fly ash filter was found to be the most promising filter for trapping the gaseous cesium. The results of the trapping tests are presented, along with the effects of the temperature, superficial gas velocity, and carrier gas on the cesium trapping quantity.

  15. Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  16. Selective Gaseous Extraction: Research, Development and Training for Isotope Production, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertch, Timothy C,

    2014-03-31

    General Atomics and the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) completed research and development of selective gaseous extraction of fission products from irradiated fuel, which included training and education of MURR students. The process used porous fuel and after irradiation flowed product gases through the fuel to selectively removed desired fission products with the primary goal of demonstrating the removal of rhodium 105. High removal rates for the ruthenium/rhodium (Ru/Rh), tellurium/iodine (Te/I) and molybdenum/technetium (Mo/Tc) series were demonstrated. The success of this research provides for the reuse of the target for further production, significantly reducing the production of actinide wastes relative to processes that dissolve the target. This effort was conducted under DOE funding (DE-SC0007772). General Atomics objective of the project was to conduct R&D on alternative methods to produce a number of radioactive isotopes currently needed for medical and industry applications to include rhodium-105 and other useful isotopes. Selective gaseous extraction was shown to be effective at removing radioisotopes of the ruthenium/rhodium, tellurium/iodine and molybdenum/technetium decay chains while having trace to no quantities of other fission products or actinides. This adds a new, credible method to the area of certain commercial isotope production beyond current techniques, while providing significant potential reduction of process wastes. Waste reduction, along with reduced processing time/cost provides for superior economic feasibility which may allow domestic production under full cost recovery practices. This provides the potential for improved access to domestically produced isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment at reduced cost, providing for the public good.

  17. Gaseous iodine monitoring in Europe after the Fukushima accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Olivier; de Vismes-Ott, Anne; Manificat, Guillaume; Gurriaran, Rodolfo; Debayle, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    After the Fukushima accident and following the worldwide dispersion of contaminated air masses, many monitoring networks have reported airborne levels of emitted radionuclides, namely and mainly cesium isotopes and iodine 131. Most of the values focused on the particulate fraction (i.e. radionuclide-labeled aerosols) and were dedicated to cesium 137, cesium 134 and iodine 131. Iodine-131 was also found under gaseous form that accounted for most part of the total (gaseous + particulate)I-131 throughout the world. This gaseous predominance was also noticed after the Chernobyl accident despite differences in the type of accident. This predominance is due to the high iodine volatility and also by a rather low transfer from the gaseous form to the particulate one by adsorption on ambient airborne particles. Paradoxically, the number of gaseous determinations was rather low compared to the magnitude of data related to the particulate form (around 10 percent). Routine monitoring of airborne radionuclides species have been extensively based on aerosol sampling for decades as this allows the long term characterization of trace levels of remnant anthropogenic radionuclides. Moreover the capability of gaseous sampler equipped with activated charcoal to allow the quantification of 131I gaseous at trace level is limited by the contact time required for the sorption of iodine on the sorbent and thus by the low acceptable flow rate (usually between 3 and 5 m3/h, exceptionally 12 m3/h). In this context and despite the fact that airborne level outside Japan were of no concern for public health, this contribute to the lack of information on the actual levels of gaseous iodine. Other incidents involving iodine determination in the air have been reported in Europe in 2011 and 2012 without any relation with the Fukushima accident. For the same reason as previously mentioned, mainly, if not only, the particulate form was reported whereas it can be supposed that the predominant form was

  18. Gaseous emissions from plants in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubay, Denis T.

    1988-01-01

    Plant growth in a controlled ecological life support system may entail the build-up over extended time periods of phytotoxic concentrations of volatile organic compounds produced by the plants themselves. Ethylene is a prominent gaseous emission of plants, and is the focus of this report. The objective was to determine the rate of ethylene release by spring wheat, white potato, and lettuce during early, middle, and late growth stages, and during both the light and dark segments of the diurnal cycle. Plants grown hydroponically using the nutrient film technique were covered with plexiglass containers for 4 to 6 h. At intervals after enclosure, gas samples were withdrawn with a syringe and analyzed for ethylene with a gas chromatograph. Lettuce produced 10 to 100 times more ethylene than wheat or potato, with production rates ranging from 141 to 158 ng g-dry/wt/h. Wheat produced from 1.7 to 14.3 ng g-dry/wt/h, with senescent wheat producing the least amount and flowering wheat the most. Potatoes produced the least amount of ethylene, with values never exceeding 5 ng g-dry/wt/h. Lettuce and potatoes each produced ethylene at similar rates whether in dark period or light period. Ethylene sequestering of 33 to 43 percent by the plexiglass enclosures indicated that these production estimates may be low by one-third to one-half. These results suggest that concern for ethylene build-up in a contained atmosphere should be greatest when growing lettuce, and less when growing wheat or potato.

  19. Gaseous Vortices in Barred Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Martin N.; Hunter, James H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    During the course of examining many two-dimensional, as well as a smaller sample of three-dimensional, models of gas flows in barred spiral galaxies, we have been impressed by the ubiquitous presence fo vortex pairs, oriented roughly perpendicular to their bars, with one vortex on each side. The vortices are obvious only when viewed in the bar frame, and the centers of their velocity fields usually are near Lagrangian points L(sub 4,5). In all models that we have studied, the vortices form on essentially the same time scale as that for the development of gaseous spiral arms, typically two bar rotations. Usually the corotation radius, r(sub c), lies slightly beyond the end of the bar. Depending upon the mass distributions of the various components, gas spirals either into, or out of, the vortices: In the former case, the vortices become regions of high density, whereas the opposite is true if the gas spirals out of a vortex. The models described in this paper have low-density vortices, as do most of the models we have studied. Moreover, usually the vortex centers lie approximately within +/- 15 deg of L(sub 4,5). In the stellar dynamic limit, when pressure and viscous forces are absent, short-period orbits exist, centered on L(sub 4,5). These orbits need not cross and therefore their morphology is that of gas streamlines, that is, vortices. We believe that the gas vortices in our models are hydrodynamic analogues of closed, short-period, libration orbits centered on L(sub 4,5).

  20. Euthanasia using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Valentim, A M; Guedes, S R; Pereira, A M; Antunes, L M

    2016-08-01

    Several questions have been raised in recent years about the euthanasia of laboratory rodents. Euthanasia using inhaled agents is considered to be a suitable aesthetic method for use with a large number of animals simultaneously. Nevertheless, its aversive potential has been criticized in terms of animal welfare. The data available regarding the use of carbon dioxide (CO2), inhaled anaesthetics (such as isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane and enflurane), as well as carbon monoxide and inert gases are discussed throughout this review. Euthanasia of fetuses and neonates is also addressed. A table listing currently available information to ease access to data regarding euthanasia techniques using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents was compiled. Regarding better animal welfare, there is currently insufficient evidence to advocate banning or replacing CO2 in the euthanasia of rodents; however, there are hints that alternative gases are more humane. The exposure to a volatile anaesthetic gas before loss of consciousness has been proposed by some scientific studies to minimize distress; however, the impact of such a measure is not clear. Areas of inconsistency within the euthanasia literature have been highlighted recently and stem from insufficient knowledge, especially regarding the advantages of the administration of isoflurane or sevoflurane over CO2, or other methods, before loss of consciousness. Alternative methods to minimize distress may include the development of techniques aimed at inducing death in the home cage of animals. Scientific outcomes have to be considered before choosing the most suitable euthanasia method to obtain the best results and accomplish the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement).

  1. New insights into the physical state of gaseous nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peimbert, M.

    1981-01-01

    The impact of knowledge of H II regions, planetary nebulae and supernova remnants due to International Ultraviolet Explorer is examined. The more relevant aspects related to the physical conditions of gaseous nebulae are reviewed. The following properties of gaseous nebulae are discussed: (1) density and temperature distribution; (2) ionization structure; (3) chemical composition; (4) internal dust; and (5) shock velocity for supernova remnants. The CNO abundances of planetary nebulae are compared with stellar evolution models.

  2. Modeling of gaseous {sup 14}CO{sub 2} release from perforations in spent fuel disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1991-11-01

    The potential release of gaseous {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from small perforations in spent fuel containers has been evaluated as a function of temperature, hole size, effective porosity of corrosion products within the hole, and time, based on the waste package design parameters and environmental conditions described in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Report (SCP). The SCP does not specify initial fill gas (argon) pressure and temperature. It is shown that, if significant {sup 14}C oxidation takes place during the initial, inert-gas phase, an incentive exists to initially underpressurize the containers. This will avoid large, spiked releases of gaseous {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and will result in delayed, smaller, and more uniform release rates over time. Therefore, larger size perforations could be tolerated while meeting the applicable regulations.

  3. Management of municipal solid waste incineration residues.

    PubMed

    Sabbas, T; Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Astrup, T; Hjelmar, O; Mostbauer, P; Cappai, G; Magel, G; Salhofer, S; Speiser, C; Heuss-Assbichler, S; Klein, R; Lechner, P

    2003-01-01

    The management of residues from thermal waste treatment is an integral part of waste management systems. The primary goal of managing incineration residues is to prevent any impact on our health or environment caused by unacceptable particulate, gaseous and/or solute emissions. This paper provides insight into the most important measures for putting this requirement into practice. It also offers an overview of the factors and processes affecting these mitigating measures as well as the short- and long-term behavior of residues from thermal waste treatment under different scenarios. General conditions affecting the emission rate of salts and metals are shown as well as factors relevant to mitigating measures or sources of gaseous emissions. PMID:12623102

  4. Management of municipal solid waste incineration residues.

    PubMed

    Sabbas, T; Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Astrup, T; Hjelmar, O; Mostbauer, P; Cappai, G; Magel, G; Salhofer, S; Speiser, C; Heuss-Assbichler, S; Klein, R; Lechner, P

    2003-01-01

    The management of residues from thermal waste treatment is an integral part of waste management systems. The primary goal of managing incineration residues is to prevent any impact on our health or environment caused by unacceptable particulate, gaseous and/or solute emissions. This paper provides insight into the most important measures for putting this requirement into practice. It also offers an overview of the factors and processes affecting these mitigating measures as well as the short- and long-term behavior of residues from thermal waste treatment under different scenarios. General conditions affecting the emission rate of salts and metals are shown as well as factors relevant to mitigating measures or sources of gaseous emissions.

  5. Non-Thermal Removal of Gaseous Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S.; McGowan, J. William; Chiu, K. C. Ray

    1995-01-01

    The removal of fluorine based exhaust gases such as CFC's, PFC's, NF3, and SF6 used for plasma etching of and deposition on semi-conductors is a subject of increasing interest because of safety, air pollution, and global warming issues. Conventional treatment methods for removing exhaust gas pollutants are wet scrubbing, carbon and resin adsorption, catalytic oxidation, and thermal incineration. However, there are drawbacks associated with each of these methods which include difficulties in implementation, problems with the disposal of solid and liquid pollutant waste, large water and fuel consumption, and additional pollutants such as NOx emissions which are generated in thermal incineration processes.

  6. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  7. Odorous gaseous emissions as influence by process condition for the forced aeration composting of pig slaughterhouse sludge.

    PubMed

    Blazy, V; de Guardia, A; Benoist, J C; Daumoin, M; Lemasle, M; Wolbert, D; Barrington, S

    2014-07-01

    Compost sustainability requires a better control of its gaseous emissions responsible for several impacts including odours. Indeed, composting odours have stopped the operation of many platforms and prevented the installation of others. Accordingly, present technologies collecting and treating gases emitted from composting are not satisfactory and alternative solutions must be found. Thus, the aim of this paper was to study the influence of composting process conditions on gaseous emissions. Pig slaughterhouse sludge mixed with wood chips was composted under forced aerationin 300 L laboratory reactors. The process conditions studied were: aeration rate of 1.68, 4.03, 6.22, 9.80 and 13.44 L/h/kg of wet sludge; incorporation ratio of 0.55, 0.83 and 1.1 (kg of wet wood chips/kg of wet sludge), and; bulking agent particles size of <10, 10<20 and 20<30 mm. Out-going gases were sampled every 2 days and their composition was analysed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-nine compounds were identified and quantified. Dividing the cumulated mass production over 30 days of composting, by odour threshold, 9 compounds were identified as main potential odour contributors: hydrogen sulphide, trimethylamine, ammonia, 2-pentanone, 1-propanol-2-methyl, dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide and acetophenone. Five gaseous compounds were correlated with both aeration rate and bulking agent to waste ratio: hydrogen sulphide, trimethylamine, ammonia, 2-pentanone and 1-propanol-2-methyl. However, dropping the aeration rate and increasing the bulking agent to waste ratio reduced gaseous odour emissions by a factor of 5-10, when the required threshold dilution factor ranged from 10(5) to 10(6), to avoid nuisance at peak emission rates. Process influence on emissions of dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide were poorly correlated with both aeration rate and bulking agent to waste ratio as a reaction with

  8. Atmospheric mercury emissions from waste combustions measured by continuous monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kida, Akiko

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric mercury emissions have attracted great attention owing to adverse impact of mercury on human health and the ecosystem. Although waste combustion is one of major anthropogenic sources, estimated emission might have large uncertainty due to great heterogeneity of wastes. This study investigated atmospheric emissions of speciated mercury from the combustions of municipal solid wastes (MSW), sewage treatment sludge (STS), STS with waste plastics, industrial waste mixtures (IWM), waste plastics from construction demolition, and woody wastes using continuous monitoring devices. Reactive gaseous mercury was the major form at the inlet side of air pollution control devices in all combustion cases. Its concentration was 2.0-70.6 times larger than elemental mercury concentration. In particular, MSW, STS, and IWM combustions emitted higher concentration of reactive gaseous mercury. Concentrations of both gaseous mercury species varied greatly for all waste combustions excluding woody waste. Variation coefficients of measured data were nearly equal to or more than 1.0. Emission factors of gaseous elemental mercury, reactive gaseous mercury, and total mercury were calculated using continuous monitoring data. Total mercury emission factors are 0.30 g-Hg/Mg for MSW combustion, 0.21 g-Hg/Mg for STS combustion, 0.077 g-Hg/Mg for STS with waste plastics, 0.724 g-Hg/Mg for industrial waste mixtures, 0.028 g-Hg/Mg for waste plastic combustion, and 0.0026 g-Hg/Mg for woody waste combustion. All emission factors evaluated in this study were comparable or lower than other reported data. Emission inventory using old emission factors likely causes an overestimation.

  9. Evaluation of aqueous degreasers versus chlorinated solvents at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, D.

    1988-10-31

    Spent chlorinated solvents are produced mainly as a result of degreasing operations at several Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) locations. This waste is a listed hazardous waste under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations (40 CFR 261). In addition, some of the solvents become contaminated with uranium which classifies the waste as a mixed waste for which no disposal method is currently available. Due to health and environmental concerns and the desire to minimize mixed and hazardous waste generation, degreasing operations in the plant were delineated and alternate nonhazardous solvents were evaluated for their suitability for replacing the chlorinated solvents. Metal cleanliness testing of eight aqueous degreasers using ultrasonic cleaning and immersion with agitation, and vapor degreasing with trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TC-ane) was performed. Soils such as dust, fingerprints, lube oil, water-soluble oil, silicone grease, and petroleum-based grease were removed from Monel, copper, mild steel, aluminum, and phosphor bronze. Cleanliness was determined by estimating the surface energy of metal coupons before and after cleaning. A Kepner-Tregoe (KT) decision analysis was utilized to determine the three best multipurpose degreasers for the plant. Additional testing was performed on the top three selected degreasers to evaluate corrosive effects of the cleaning solutions (general surface corrosion and pitting), and to determine the compatability of any residual contamination with process gases. Corrosion testing was performed in an electrochemical corrosion tester. Cleaned coupons were exposed to uranium hexafluoride, fluorine, and chlorine trifluoride. In addition, metal cleanliness testing was conducted to evaluate the cleaning efficiency of parts cleaned in the field.

  10. Transport of gaseous C-14 from a repository in unsaturated rock

    SciTech Connect

    Light, W.B.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W. L.; Pigford, T.H. |

    1990-09-01

    The authors predict the transport of gaseous {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated rock using a porous-medium model. This model is justified if the appropriate modified Peclet number, which indicates equilibrium between gas in fractures and liquid in rock pores, is much less than unity. Numerical illustrations are given which are applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain which is 350 m underground. Maximum predicted concentrations of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} near the ground surface are comparable to the USNRC limit for unrestricted areas. Maximum predicted dose rates above ground are less than 1% of background. Travel times are predicted to be hundreds to thousands of years. For some cases, it is shown that the release rate from the source has negligible effect on concentrations at the ground surface. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effect of continuous ozone injection on performance and biomass accumulation of biofilters treating gaseous toluene.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinying; Saingam, Prakit; Gu, Feng; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Xuefei

    2014-11-01

    Biofilters treating high-concentration gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be subject to bed clogging induced by excess biomass accumulation. In this study, O3 was continuously injected into biofilters to control biomass. Its effects on the performance of the biofilters and on biomass accumulation were investigated. Four identical biofilters designed to treat gaseous toluene were operated for 70 days, and three of them were continuously injected with O3 at different concentrations (from 80 to 320 mg/m(3)). The results showed that continuous O3 injection could effectively keep the bed pressure drop stable and had no adverse effect on toluene removal when O3 concentrations were 180-220 mg/m(3). The maximum toluene elimination capacity of the four biofilters was 140 g-toluene/m(3)/h, and the bed pressure drop of the biofilter fed with 180-220 mg/m(3) O3 remained below 3 mmH2O/m throughout the operation period. The biomass accumulation rates of the three biofilters with O3 at 80-320 mg/m(3) were lowered by 0.15-0.25 g/L/day compared with the biofilter without O3. The decreases in biomass accumulation resulted in higher void fractions of the filter beds with O3 injection. Carbon balance analysis indicated that CO2 production had increased while biomass accumulation and leachate waste production decreased in response to O3 injection. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded here that continuous O3 injection can reduce increases in bed pressure effectively, preserve VOC removal capacity, and prevent production of extra leachate waste.

  12. Effect of continuous ozone injection on performance and biomass accumulation of biofilters treating gaseous toluene.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinying; Saingam, Prakit; Gu, Feng; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Xuefei

    2015-01-01

    Biofilters treating high-concentration gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be subject to bed clogging induced by excess biomass accumulation. In this study, O3 was continuously injected into biofilters to control biomass. Its effects on the performance of the biofilters and on biomass accumulation were investigated. Four identical biofilters designed to treat gaseous toluene were operated for 70 days, and three of them were continuously injected with O3 at different concentrations (from 80 to 320 mg/m(3)). The results showed that continuous O3 injection could effectively keep the bed pressure drop stable and had no adverse effect on toluene removal when O3 concentrations were 180-220 mg/m(3). The maximum toluene elimination capacity of the four biofilters was 140 g-toluene/m(3)/h, and the bed pressure drop of the biofilter fed with 180-220 mg/m(3) O3 remained below 3 mmH2O/m throughout the operation period. The biomass accumulation rates of the three biofilters with O3 at 80-320 mg/m(3) were lowered by 0.15-0.25 g/L/day compared with the biofilter without O3. The decreases in biomass accumulation resulted in higher void fractions of the filter beds with O3 injection. Carbon balance analysis indicated that CO2 production had increased while biomass accumulation and leachate waste production decreased in response to O3 injection. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded here that continuous O3 injection can reduce increases in bed pressure effectively, preserve VOC removal capacity, and prevent production of extra leachate waste.

  13. Extension of jaguar procedures for new gaseous species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest L.; Murphy, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Jaguar is a highly efficient and accurate thermochemical equilibrium program for the detonation properties of explosives. In previous studies, equation of state Exp-6 parameters for H-C-N-O gaseous explosives product species have been optimized with available individual species Hugoniot data. The Jaguar library also includes solid and liquid properties for carbon and aluminum, silicon, and boron compounds. In this study the Jaguar property library has been expanded to include additional gaseous detonation products. New Exp-6 parameters for gaseous fluorine and chlorine compounds have been established by analyses of Hugoniot data for the actual species or for reactants which decompose into these compounds. Tests with data for explosives and additional compounds containing fluorine and chlorine have been performed to determine the accuracy of calculated detonation properties in comparison to experimental data.

  14. Extension of JAGUAR Procedures for New Gaseous and Condensed Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest; Murphy, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    JAGUAR is a highly efficient and accurate thermochemical equilibrium program for the detonation properties of explosives. In previous studies equation of state EXP-6 parameters for H-CN-O gaseous explosives product species have been optimized with available individual species Hugoniot data. The Jaguar library also includes solid and liquid properties for carbon and aluminum, silicon, and boron compounds. In this study the Jaguar property library has been expanded to include additional gaseous, liquid, and solid detonation products. New EXP-6 parameters for gaseous fluorine and chlorine compounds have been established through theoretical procedures, and by analyses of Hugoniot data for the actual species or for reactants which decompose into these compounds. Properties for additional condensed species have also been analyzed and added to the library. Extensive tests have beeb performed to determine the accuracy of calculated detonation properties in comparison to experimental data. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Institute for Multi Scale Reactive Modeling.

  15. Charge transfer properties through graphene for applications in gaseous detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchino, S.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Jackman, R. B.; Muller, H.; Nguyen, T. T.; de Oliveira, R.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Smith, J.; van Stenis, M.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; Veenhof, R.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical and electrical properties. Regarded as the thinnest and narrowest conductive mesh, it has drastically different transmission behaviours when bombarded with electrons and ions in vacuum. This property, if confirmed in gas, may be a definitive solution for the ion back-flow problem in gaseous detectors. In order to ascertain this aspect, graphene layers of dimensions of about 2×2 cm2, grown on a copper substrate, are transferred onto a flat metal surface with holes, so that the graphene layer is freely suspended. The graphene and the support are installed into a gaseous detector equipped with a triple Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM), and the transparency properties to electrons and ions are studied in gas as a function of the electric fields. The techniques to produce the graphene samples are described, and we report on preliminary tests of graphene-coated GEMs.

  16. Characteristics of response factors of coaxial gaseous rocket injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Daniel, B. R.; Zinn, B. T.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation undertaken to determine the frequency dependence of the response factors of various gaseous propellant rocket injectors subject to axial instabilities are presented. The injector response factors were determined, using the modified impedance-tube technique, under cold-flow conditions simulating those observed in unstable rocket motors. The tested injectors included a gaseous-fuel injector element, a gaseous-oxidizer injector element and a coaxial injector with both fuel and oxidizer elements. Emphasis was given to the determination of the dependence of the injector response factor upon the open-area ratio of the injector, the length of the injector orifice, and the pressure drop across the injector orifices. The measured data are shown to be in reasonable agreement with the corresponding injector response factor data predicted by the Feiler and Heidmann model.

  17. Extruder system and method for treatment of a gaseous medium

    DOEpatents

    Silvi, Norberto; Perry, Robert James; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Balch, Gary Stephen; Westendorf, Tiffany Elizabeth Pinard

    2016-04-05

    A system for treatment of a gaseous medium, comprises an extruder having a barrel. The extruder further comprises a first inlet port, a second inlet port, and a plurality of outlet ports coupled to the barrel. The first inlet port is configured for feeding a lean sorbent, the second inlet port is configured for feeding a gaseous medium, and the plurality of outlet ports are configured for releasing a plurality of components removed from the gaseous medium. Further, the extruder comprises a plurality of helical elements coupled to a plurality of kneading elements, mounted on a shaft, and disposed within the barrel. The barrel and the plurality of helical and kneading elements together form an absorption unit and a desorption unit. The first and second inlet ports are formed in the absorption unit and the plurality of outlet ports are formed in the absorption and desorption units.

  18. Estimate of Gaseous 14Carbon Concentrations Emanating from the Intermediate-Level Vault Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D

    2005-08-31

    {sup 14}Carbon-bearing resin waste will be disposed in the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Intermediate Level Vaults (ILV) located in E-Area on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This waste will be buried in a cementitious environment in the vadose zone, i.e., the subsurface zone above the aquifer. As the resin ages, and equilibrates with slowly infiltrating water, it is expected that the {sup 14}C will partition to the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases. The objective of this task was to estimate the concentration of gaseous {sup 14}C in the waste pore space that is in contact with the resin leachate. The approach used to estimate this value was built largely around data generated from lysimeter studies that were conducted for 9 years. These lysimeters contained the same type of used resins (mixed-bed deionizer resins used in the purification of the heavy water moderator of SRS reactors) as are being disposed in the ILV. During the 9 year period, pore water {sup 14}C leaching concentrations were monitored to provide an excellent estimate of the long-term behavior of {sup 14}C release rates from the resins. Thermodynamic calculations were conducted to calculate {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentrations. These calculations included the {sup 14}C pore water data from the lysimeter study, and data from a field study that was a natural analogue to a long-term cementitious environment (Khoury et al. 1992). The calculations predicted an extremely low {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentration of 1.9 x 10{sup -7} Ci/m{sup 3} {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} in the air spaces above the resin leachate. This low concentrations is not surprising in light of both laboratory and field observations that concrete acts as a strong sorbent of CO{sub 2(g)}. This calculated {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentration will now be included in future risk calculations.

  19. Enhancement of gaseous iodine emission by aqueous ferrous ions during the heterogeneous reaction of gaseous ozone with aqueous iodide.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yosuke; Enami, Shinichi; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2013-04-11

    Gaseous I2 formation from the heterogeneous reaction of gaseous ozone with aqueous iodide in the presence of aqueous ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) was investigated by electron impact ionization mass spectrometry. Emission of gaseous I2 increased as a function of the aqueous FeCl2 concentration, and the maximum I2 formation with Fe(2+) was about 10 times more than without Fe(2+). This enhancement can be explained by the OH(-) scavenging by Fe(3+) formed from Fe(2+) ozonation to produce colloidal Fe(OH)3. This mechanism was confirmed by measurements of aqueous phase products using a UV-vis spectrometer and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. We infer that such a pH-buffering effect may play the key role in general halogen activations.

  20. A Gaseous Compton Camera using a 2D-sensitive gaseous photomultiplier for Nuclear Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, C. D. R.; Pereira, F. A.; Lopes, T.; Correia, P. M. M.; Silva, A. L. M.; Carramate, L. F. N. D.; Covita, D. S.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new Compton Camera (CC) concept based on a High Pressure Scintillation Chamber coupled to a position-sensitive Gaseous PhotoMultiplier for Nuclear Medical Imaging applications is proposed. The main goal of this work is to describe the development of a ϕ25×12 cm3 cylindrical prototype, which will be suitable for scintimammography and for small-animal imaging applications. The possibility to scale it to an useful human size device is also in study. The idea is to develop a device capable to compete with the standard Anger Camera. Despite the large success of the Anger Camera, it still presents some limitations, such as: low position resolution and fair energy resolutions for 140 keV. The CC arises a different solution as it provides information about the incoming photon direction, avoiding the use of a collimator, which is responsible for a huge reduction (10-4) of the sensitivity. The main problem of the CC's is related with the Doppler Broadening which is responsible for the loss of angular resolution. In this work, calculations for the Doppler Broadening in Xe, Ar, Ne and their mixtures are presented. Simulations of the detector performance together with discussion about the gas choice are also included .

  1. Determination of gaseous and particulate carbonyls (glycolaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nonanal and decanal) in the atmosphere at Mt. Tai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Okuzawa, K.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Irie, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous and particulate semi-volatile carbonyl compounds were determined every three hours in the atmosphere of Mount Tai (elevation, 1534 m) in the North China Plain during 2-5, 23-24 and 25 June, 2006 under a clear sky condition. Using two-step filter cartridge in a series, particulate carbonyls were first collected on a quartz filter and then gaseous carbonyls were collected on a quartz filter impregnated with O-benzylhydroxylamine (BHA). After the two-step derivatization with BHA and N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), carbonyl derivatives were measured using a gas chromatography. The gaseous concentrations were obtained as follow: glycolaldehyde (range 0-1271 ng m-3, average 555 ng m-3), hydroxyacetone (0-707 ng m-3, 163 ng m-3), glyoxal (198-1396 ng m-3, 720 ng m-3), methylglyoxal (410-3170 ng m-3, 1376 ng m-3), n-nonanal (0-236 ng m-3, 71 ng m-3), and n-decanal (0-159 ng m-3, 31 ng m-3). These concentrations are among the highest ever reported in the urban and forest atmosphere. We found that gaseous carbonyls are more than 10 times more abundant than particulate carbonyls. Time-resolved variations of carbonyls did not show any a clear diurnal pattern, except for hydroxyacetone. We found that glyoxal, methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde positively correlated with levoglucosan (a tracer of biomass burning), suggesting that a contribution from field burning of agricultural wastes (wheat crops) is significant for the bifunctional carbonyls in the atmosphere of Mt. Tai. Upward transport of the pollutants to the mountaintop from the low lands in the North China Plain is a major process to control the distributions of carbonyls in the upper atmosphere over Mt. Tai.

  2. Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

    1980-06-01

    The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

  3. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. 1910.162 Section 1910.162 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment § 1910.162 Fixed...

  4. 40 CFR 90.415 - Raw gaseous sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw gaseous sampling procedures. 90.415 Section 90.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... filter to extract solid particles from the flow of gas required for analysis. The sample line for...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1910.162 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire... control. (3) The employer shall assure that employees are not exposed to toxic levels of gaseous agent...

  6. Methods for deacidizing gaseous mixtures by phase enhanced absorption

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Liang

    2012-11-27

    An improved process for deacidizing a gaseous mixture using phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption is described. The process utilizes a multiphasic absorbent that absorbs an acid gas at increased rate and leads to reduced overall energy costs for the deacidizing operation.

  7. Studies on the Effects of Gaseous Ions on Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Albert P.; Beckett, J. C.; Andriese, Paul C.; Kotaka, Sadao

    1962-01-01

    Air pollutants seriously interfere with the maintenance of unipolar ionized atmospheres required in experimenting with the biological effects of gaseous ions. The construction and operation of an air purification unit designed to reduce air pollution to tolerable levels are described; it has functioned satisfactorily in conducting experiments with plants and animals. PMID:14459882

  8. External tank gaseous oxygen line simulated lightning tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. E.; Avery, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Tests were made to evaluate the effects of lightning strikes on the shuttle external tank gaseous oxygen pressurization line. This line, designed to conduct gaseous oxygen may also act as a lightning conductor. Questions have been raised as to the potential hazard of this line as a lightning conductor with speculation as to the damage that might occur to the pressurization line, and the adjacent thermal protective surfaces, from a lightning strike. The region of investigation was from above the cone of the launch tower lightning protection to 15.24 km (50, 000 ft) altitude. Tests were performed on samples of thin wall stainless steel tubing filled with gaseous oxygen under simulated flight conditions. No specimen malfunctions occurred when the tests were conducted according to JSC specifications. Based on the JSC specifications and the results of these tests, it is concluded that a lightning strike will not cause a malfunction of the shuttle external tank gaseous oxygen line made of the representative material tested.

  9. An introduction to technetium in the gaseous diffusion cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, D.W.

    1996-09-01

    The radioisotope technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) was introduced into the gaseous diffusion plants (GDP) as a contaminant in uranium that had been reprocessed from spent nuclear reactor fuel. {sup 99}Tc is a product of the nuclear fission of uranium-235 ({sup 235}U). The significantly higher emitted radioactivity of {sup 99}Tc generates concern in the enrichment complex and warrants increased attention (1) to the control of all site emissions, (2) to worker exposures and contamination control when process equipment requires disassembly and decontamination, and (3) to product purity when the enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) product is marketed to the private sector. A total of 101,268 metric tons of RU ({approximately}96% of the total) was fed at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) between FY1953 and FY1976. An additional 5600 metric tons of RU from the government reactors were fed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), plus an approximate 500 tons of foreign reactor returns. Only a small amount of RU was fed directly at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The slightly enriched PGDP product was then fed to either the ORGDP or PORTS cascades for final enrichment. Bailey estimated in 1988 that of the 606 kg of Tc received at PGDP from RU, 121 kg was subsequently re-fed to ORGDP and 85 kg re-fed to PORTS.

  10. Crystal growing by electrodeposition from dense gaseous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiditch, S.; Williams, R. A.

    1970-01-01

    Single crystals and dendritic formations of silver are grown on platinum electrodes by electrodeposition from a dense gaseous solution of silver nitrate in ammonia. Process is modification of hydrothermal process, and also differs from standard electrodeposition by permitting single crystals to be grown from hydrogen-bonded solvents.

  11. DETAIL OF THE GASEOUS NITROGEN PRESSURIZATION AND CHECKOUT PANEL, SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE GASEOUS NITROGEN PRESSURIZATION AND CHECKOUT PANEL, SECOND LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. 14 CFR 34.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  13. 14 CFR 34.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  14. Thermodynamic and transport properties of gaseous tetrafluoromethane in chemical equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Boney, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    Equations and in computer code are presented for the thermodynamic and transport properties of gaseous, undissociated tetrafluoromethane (CF4) in chemical equilibrium. The computer code calculates the thermodynamic and transport properties of CF4 when given any two of five thermodynamic variables (entropy, temperature, volume, pressure, and enthalpy). Equilibrium thermodynamic and transport property data are tabulated and pressure-enthalpy diagrams are presented.

  15. 14 CFR 34.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.71... engine shall be determined by comparing the pollutant level in grams/kilonewton/thrust/cycle or...

  16. Atmospheric escape by magnetically driven wind from gaseous planets

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Yuki A.; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the mass loss driven by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves from hot Jupiters by using MHD simulations in one-dimensional flux tubes. If a gaseous planet has a magnetic field, MHD waves are excited by turbulence at the surface, dissipate in the upper atmosphere, and drive gas outflows. Our calculation shows that mass-loss rates are comparable to the observed mass-loss rates of hot Jupiters; therefore, it is suggested that gas flow driven by MHD waves can play an important role in the mass loss from gaseous planets. The mass-loss rate varies dramatically with the radius and mass of a planet: a gaseous planet with a small mass but an inflated radius produces a very large mass-loss rate. We also derive an analytical expression for the dependence of mass-loss rate on planet radius and mass that is in good agreement with the numerical calculation. The mass-loss rate also depends on the amplitude of the velocity dispersion at the surface of a planet. Thus, we expect to infer the condition of the surface and the internal structure of a gaseous planet from future observations of mass-loss rate from various exoplanets.

  17. Direct readout of gaseous detectors with tiled CMOS circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visschers, J. L.; Blanco Carballo, V.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; van der Graaf, H.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.; Timmermans, J.

    2007-03-01

    A coordinated design effort is underway, exploring the three-dimensional direct readout of gaseous detectors by an anode plate equipped with a tiled array of many CMOS pixel readout ASICs, having amplification grids integrated on their topsides and being contacted on their backside.

  18. Environmental aspects of the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and of solid agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, W; Baier, U; Engeli, H

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain more detailed information for better decision making in future biogenic waste treatment, different processes to treat biogenic wastes in plants with a treatment capacity of 10,000 tons of organic household wastes per year as well as agricultural codigestion plants were compared by life cycle assessments (LCA). With the tool EcoIndicator, anaerobic digestion is shown to be advantageous as compared to composting, incineration or a combination of digestion and composting, mainly because of a better energy balance. The management of the liquid manure in agricultural codigestion of organic solid wastes causes increased gaseous emissions, which have negative effects on the LCA, however. It is recommended to cover the slurry pit and to use an improved manure management in order to compensate for the additional gaseous emissions. In the LCAs, the quality of the digester output could only be taken into account to a small extent; the reasons are discussed. PMID:16180429

  19. Environmental aspects of the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and of solid agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, W; Baier, U; Engeli, H

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain more detailed information for better decision making in future biogenic waste treatment, different processes to treat biogenic wastes in plants with a treatment capacity of 10,000 tons of organic household wastes per year as well as agricultural codigestion plants were compared by life cycle assessments (LCA). With the tool EcoIndicator, anaerobic digestion is shown to be advantageous as compared to composting, incineration or a combination of digestion and composting, mainly because of a better energy balance. The management of the liquid manure in agricultural codigestion of organic solid wastes causes increased gaseous emissions, which have negative effects on the LCA, however. It is recommended to cover the slurry pit and to use an improved manure management in order to compensate for the additional gaseous emissions. In the LCAs, the quality of the digester output could only be taken into account to a small extent; the reasons are discussed.

  20. Novel mass spectrometric instrument for gaseous and particulate characterization and monitoring. Final report, September 1992--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Coggiola, M.J.; Becker, C.H.; Witham, C.L.

    1994-10-01

    An instrument is being developed that will be capable of providing real-time (<1 minute), quantitative, chemical analysis of gaseous and particulate pollutants generated from DOE waste cleanup activities. The instrument can detect and identify volatile organic compounds, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and transuranic species released during waste cleanup. It consists of an isokinetic sampler operable up to 500 K and wide flow rate range, a high- to low-pressure transition and sampling region separating particles from vapors for separate analysis, two small mass spectrometers (one for organic analysis by field ionization and one for particulate analysis by thermal pyrolysis and electron-impact ionization), and a powerful PC for control/data acquisition. Initially, the instrument will used with the K-1435 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator at K-25; other applications are also possible, eg, vitrification monitoring, storage tank offgassing analysis, etc. It will be easily transportable. This report details the technical accomplishments of Phase I.

  1. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  2. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.414 Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description... exceed the leakage rate specification for the vacuum side of the pump. (d) Venting. All vents...

  3. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.414 Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description... exceed the leakage rate specification for the vacuum side of the pump. (d) Venting. All vents...

  4. Levels and spatial distribution of gaseous polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qilu; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Pan, Xiaohui; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2012-09-01

    Monitoring marine persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is important because oceans play a significant role in the cycling of POPs. The South China Sea (SCS) is surrounded by developing countries in Southeast Asia which are centers of e-waste recycling and the ship dismantling industry. In this study, shipboard air samples collected over the SCS between September 6 and 22, 2005 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The levels of ∑12PCBs ranged from 32.3 to 167 pg m-3, with a mean value of 98.4 ± 36.0 pg m-3. Tetra-CBs were the predominant congeners. The concentrations of ∑18PCNs ranged from N.D. to 26.0 pg m-3, with a mean value of 10.5 ± 7.16 pg m-3, and tri-CNs were predominant. The gaseous concentrations of PCBs and PCNs over the SCS were consistent with those over other seas and oceans. Compared with previous studies, it was found that the concentrations of PCBs exhibited an obviously declining trend. The measured PCB and PCN concentrations in the atmosphere over the SCS were influenced by their proximity to source regions and air mass origins. The highest gaseous PCB and PCN concentrations were found at sampling sites adjacent to the continental South China. E-waste recycling, ship dismantling and combustion in South China and some Southeast Asian countries might contribute PCBs and PCNs to the atmosphere of the SCS.

  5. Analysis of gaseous-phase stable and radioactive isotopes in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, I.C.; Haas, H.H.; Weeks, E.P.; Thorstenson, D.C.

    1985-12-31

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project of the US Department of Energy provides that agency with data for evaluating volcanic tuff beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine its suitability for a potential repository of high-level radioactive waste. Thickness of the unsaturated zone, which consists of fractured, welded and nonwelded tuff, is about 1640 to 2460 feet (500 to 750 meters). One question to be resolved is an estimate of minimum ground-water traveltime from the disturbed zone of the potentail repository to the accessible environment. Another issue is the potential for diffusive or convective gaseous transport of radionuclides from an underground facility in the unsaturated zone to the accessible environment. Gas samples were collected at intervals to a depth of 1200 feet from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for major atmospheric gases; carbon dioxide in the samples was analyzed for carbon-14 activity and for {delta}2!{sup 3}C; water vapor in the samples was analyzed for deuterium and oxygen-18. These data could provide insight into the nature of unsaturated zone transport processes. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. PMID:22163835

  7. Hazardous-waste minimization assessment: Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmavaram, S.; Knowlton, D.A.; Heflin, C.; Donahue, B.A.

    1991-03-01

    Waste minimization is the process of reducing the net outflow of hazardous materials that may be solid, liquid, or gaseous effluents from a given source or generating process. It involves reducing air pollution emissions, contamination of surface and ground water, and land disposal by means of source reduction, waste recycling processes, and treatment leading to complete destruction. Among Federal regulations is a requirement that every generator of hazardous wastes producing in excess of 2205 pounds per month certify that a hazardous waste minimization program is in operation. Generators are required to submit biennial reports to the USEPA that describe efforts taken to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated during the year. The objective of this research was to develop a hazardous waste minimization plan for Fort Campbell, Kentucky, to include actions necessary to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. Reduction should be in both volume and toxicity.

  8. Method of producing gaseous products using a downflow reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cortright, Randy D; Rozmiarek, Robert T; Hornemann, Charles C

    2014-09-16

    Reactor systems and methods are provided for the catalytic conversion of liquid feedstocks to synthesis gases and other noncondensable gaseous products. The reactor systems include a heat exchange reactor configured to allow the liquid feedstock and gas product to flow concurrently in a downflow direction. The reactor systems and methods are particularly useful for producing hydrogen and light hydrocarbons from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons using aqueous phase reforming. The generated gases may find used as a fuel source for energy generation via PEM fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells, internal combustion engines, or gas turbine gensets, or used in other chemical processes to produce additional products. The gaseous products may also be collected for later use or distribution.

  9. Measurement of uranium enrichment for gaseous uranium at low pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, D. A.; Pratt, J. C.; Atwater, H. F.; Malanify, J. J.; Nixon, K. V.; Speir, L. G.

    X-ray fluorescence determines the amount of total uranium present in gaseous UF6 inside cascade header pipes of a uranium centrifuge enrichment facility. A highly collimated source, highly collimated detctor, and a very rigid, reproducible geometry are required. Two measurements of the 185.7 keV gamma ray from U-235 using two collimators determine the amount of U-235 present only in the gas phase. The ratio of the gas only U235 signal to the total uranium gas only signal is directly proportional to the enrichment of the process UF6 gas. This measurement technique is independent of the deposit that forms on a surface in contact with UF6. This measurement technique is independent of the pressure of the gaseous UF6. This technique has the required sensitivity to determine whether the process gas is of uranium enrichment less than or equal to 20% or 20%.

  10. Shuttle Gaseous Hydrogen Venting Risk from Flow Control Valve Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Baurle, Robert A.; Gafney, Richard L.; Norris, Andrew T.; Pellett, Gerald L.; Rock, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a series of studies to assess the potential risk associated with the failure of one of three gaseous hydrogen flow control valves in the orbiter's main propulsion system during the launch of Shuttle Endeavour (STS-126) in November 2008. The studies focused on critical issues associated with the possibility of combustion resulting from release of gaseous hydrogen from the external tank into the atmosphere during assent. The Shuttle Program currently assumes hydrogen venting from the external tank will result in a critical failure. The current effort was conducted to increase understanding of the risk associated with venting hydrogen given the flow control valve failure scenarios being considered in the Integrated In-Flight Anomaly Investigation being conducted by NASA.

  11. High-Pressure Gaseous Burner (HPGB) Facility Became Operational

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2003-01-01

    A gas-fueled high-pressure combustion facility with optical access, developed over the last 3 years, is now collecting research data in a production mode. The High-Pressure Gaseous Burner (HPGB) rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center can operate at sustained pressures up to 60 atm with a variety of gaseous fuels and liquid jet fuel. The facility is unique because it is the only continuous-flow, hydrogen-capable 60-atm rig in the world with optical access. It will provide researchers with new insights into flame conditions that simulate the environment inside the ultra-high-pressure-ratio combustion chambers of tomorrow s advanced aircraft engines. The facility provides optical access to the flame zone through four fused-silica optical windows, enabling the calibration of nonintrusive optical diagnostics to measure chemical species and temperature. The data from the HPGB rig enable the validation of numerical codes that simulate gas turbine combustors.

  12. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results and compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and orders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Environmental monitoring at PGDP consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment. Environmental surveillance is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media. Environmental monitoring is performed to characterize and quantify contaminants, assess radiation exposures of members of the public, demonstrate compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, and detect and assess the effects (if any) on the local environment. Multiple samples are collected throughout the year and are analyzed for radioactivity, chemical content, and various physical attributes.

  13. Gaseous sodium sulfate formation in flames and flowing gas environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Miller, R. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    Formation of Na2SO4(g) in flames and hot flowing gas systems was studied by high pressure, free-jet expansion, modulated molecular beam mass spectrometric sampling. Fuel-lean CH4-O2 flames doped with SO2, H2O and NaCl yielded the gaseous Na2SO4 molecule in residence times of less than one millisecond. Intermediate species NaSO2(g) and NaSO3(g) were also observed and measured. Composition profiles were obtained for all reaction products. Nonflame flowing gas experiments showed that Na2SO4 and NaSO3 gaseous molecules were formed at 1140 C in mixtures of O2, H2O(g), SO2 and NaCl(g). Experimental results are compared with calculated equilibrium thermodynamic predictions.

  14. Thermal and chemical remediation of mixed waste

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, P.A.; Swift, W.M.

    1994-08-09

    A process and system for treating organic waste materials without venting gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. A fluidized bed including lime particles is operated at a temperature of at least 500 C by blowing gas having 20%/70% oxygen upwardly through the bed particles at a rate sufficient to fluidize same. A toxic organic waste material is fed into the fluidized bed where the organic waste material reacts with the lime forming CaCO[sub 3]. The off gases are filtered and cooled to condense water which is separated. A portion of the calcium carbonate formed during operation of the fluidized bed is replaced with lime particles. The off gases from the fluidized bed after drying are recirculated until the toxic organic waste material in the bed is destroyed. 3 figs.

  15. Thermal and chemical remediation of mixed waste

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A.; Swift, William M.

    1994-01-01

    A process and system for treating organic waste materials without venting gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. A fluidized bed including lime particles is operated at a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. by blowing gas having 20%/70% oxygen upwardly through the bed particles at a rate sufficient to fluidize same. A toxic organic waste material is fed into the fluidized bed where the organic waste material reacts with the lime forming CaCO.sub.3. The off gases are filtered and cooled to condense water which is separated. A portion of the calcium carbonate formed during operation of the fluidized bed is replaced with lime particles. The off gases from the fluidized bed after drying are recirculated until the toxic organic waste material in the bed is destroyed.

  16. FREQUENCY CONTROL OF RF HEATING OF GASEOUS PLASMA

    DOEpatents

    Herold, E.W.

    1962-09-01

    This invention relates to the heating of gaseous plasma by radiofrequency ion-cyclotron resonance heating. The cyclotron resonance frequencies are varied and this invention provides means for automatically controlling the frequency of the radiofrequency to maximize the rate of heating. To this end, a servo-loop is provided to sense the direction of plasma heating with frequency and a control signal is derived to set the center frequency of the radiofrequency energy employed to heat the plasma. (AEC)

  17. Method and apparatus for analyzing particle-containing gaseous suspensions

    DOEpatents

    Solomon, P.R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Best, P.E.

    1987-03-24

    The method and apparatus permit analyses, by optical means, of properties of gaseous suspensions of particles, by measuring radiation that is emitted, transmitted or scattered by the particles. Determinations of composition, size, temperature and spectral emittance can be performed either in-situ or by sampling, and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometric techniques are most effectively used. Apparatus specifically adapted for performing radiation scattering analyses, and for collecting radiation from different sources, are provided. 51 figs.

  18. Factors affecting the pretreatment of biomass with gaseous ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of a wide variety of lignocellulosic biomass with gaseous ozone results in greatly enhanced susceptibility to cellulase enzyme hydrolysis and to digestion by rumen microorganisms so that it can be used as ruminant animal feed or for the production of glucose via enzymatic hydrolysis. By use of appropriate reaction conditions a useful degree of such pretreatment may be obtained in 1-2 h contact time with an ozone consumption of ca. 4-6% of the dry weight of the biomass.

  19. Process and composition for drying of gaseous hydrogen halides

    DOEpatents

    Tom, Glenn M.; Brown, Duncan W.

    1989-08-01

    A process for drying a gaseous hydrogen halide of the formula HX, wherein X is selected from the group consisting of bromine, chlorine, fluorine, and iodine, to remove water impurity therefrom, comprising: contacting the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide with a scavenger including a support having associated therewith one or more members of the group consisting of: (a) an active scavenging moiety selected from one or more members of the group consisting of: (i) metal halide compounds dispersed in the support, of the formula MX.sub.y ; and (ii) metal halide pendant functional groups of the formula -MX.sub.y-1 covalently bonded to the support, wherein M is a y-valent metal, and y is an integer whose value is from 1 to 3; (b) corresponding partially or fully alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, of the metal halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); wherein the alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, when present, are reactive with the gaseous hydrogen halide to form the corresponding halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); and M being selected such that the heat of formation, .DELTA.H.sub.f of its hydrated halide, MX.sub.y.(H.sub.2 O).sub.n, is governed by the relationship: .DELTA.H.sub.f .gtoreq.n.times.10.1 kilocalories/mole of such hydrated halide compound wherein n is the number of water molecules bound to the metal halide in the metal halide hydrate. Also disclosed is an appertaining scavenger composition and a contacting apparatus wherein the scavenger is deployed in a bed for contacting with the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide.

  20. Overview of seismic considerations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.J.; Stoddart, W.C.; Burnett, W.A.; Beavers, J.E.

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of seismic considerations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the Department of Energy (DOE). The overview describes the original design, the seismic evaluations performed for the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) issued in 1985, and current evaluations and designs to address revised DOE requirements. Future plans to ensure changes in requirements and knowledge are addressed.

  1. Photosynthetic water splitting: A biotechnological approach to gaseous fuel synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Reeves, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photosynthesis research in the Chemical Technology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory is focused on understanding the physicochemical aspects of photosynthesis, with specific application to developing a biotechnological process for production of gaseous fuels from renewable inorganic materials. This paper provides a general review of photosynthetic water splitting by intact microalgae and platinum-modified chloroplasts for the simultaneous photoproduction of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. 9 refs.

  2. The gaseous component of the disk around Beta Pictoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, L. M.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Ferlet, R.; Albert, C. E.; Gry, C.

    1985-01-01

    Optical spectra of alpha Lyr, alpha PsA, and beta Pic have been obtained at a velocity resolution of 3 km/s. No circumstellar absorption lines of Ca II or Na I are detected toward alpha Lyr or alpha PsA at sensitive limits. In the favorable case of beta Pic, where the circumstellar disk imaged by Smith and Terrile (1984) is seen nearly edge-on, a strong, narrow, circumstellar Ca II K absorption line previously reported by Slettebak (1982) and weaker, still narrower circumstellar Na I D lines are detected. Negative results of high sensitivity also are obtained for the Ca I 4226 A and CH(+) 4232 A lines, along with upper limits on the Zn II 2026, 2062 A doublet from archival IUE spectra. Under assumptions which agree with other well-established observations of the gaseous abundances of calcium and zinc, the total gaseous column density of hydrogen along a radius of the circumstellar disk is between 10 to the 18th and 4 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm. Within the boundaries of the dust disk detected by Smith and Terrile (1984) the total gaseous mass then is less than about 2, or less than 1 percent of the mass of the planetary system. A simplified model of the density distribution in the gaseous disk yields a characteristic total density n(H) of about 100,000/cu cm, which exceeds that of all interplanetary gas at earth's position by a factor of about 10,000.

  3. Plasma-assisted cataluminescence sensor array for gaseous hydrocarbons discrimination.

    PubMed

    Na, Na; Liu, Haiyan; Han, Jiaying; Han, Feifei; Liu, Hualin; Ouyang, Jin

    2012-06-01

    Combining plasma activation and cross-reactivity of sensor array, we have developed a plasma-assisted cataluminescence (PA-CTL) sensor array for fast sensing and discrimination of gaseous hydrocarbons, which can be potentially used for fast diagnosis of lung cancer. Based on dielectric barrier discharge, a low-temperature plasma is generated to activate gaseous hydrocarbons with low cataluminescence (CTL) activities. Extremely increased CTL responses have been obtained, which resulted in a plasma assistance factor of infinity (∞) for some hydrocarbons. On a 4 × 3 PA-CTL sensor array made from alkaline-earth nanomaterials, gaseous hydrocarbons showed robust and unique CTL responses to generate characteristic patterns for fast discrimination. Because of the difference in the component of hydrocarbons in breath, exhaled breath samples from donors with and without lung cancer were tested, and good discrimination has been achieved by this technique. In addition, the feasibility of multidimentional detection based on temperature was confirmed. It had good reproducibility and gave a linear range of 65-6500 ng/mL or 77-7700 ppmv (R > 0.98) for CH(4) with a detection limit of 33 ng/mL (38 ppmv) on MgO. The PA-CTL sensor array is simple, low-cost, thermally stable, nontoxic, and has an abundance of alkaline-earth nanomaterials to act as sensing elements. This has expanded the applications of CTL-based senor arrays and will show great potential in clinical fast diagnosis.

  4. Onsite Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plant UF6 Cylinder Destructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Carter, Jennifer C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Phillips, Jon R.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2012-07-17

    The IAEA safeguards approach for gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) includes measurements of gross, partial, and bias defects in a statistical sampling plan. These safeguard methods consist principally of mass and enrichment nondestructive assay (NDA) verification. Destructive assay (DA) samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision offsite mass spectrometer analysis. DA is typically used to quantify bias defects in the GCEP material balance. Under current safeguards measures, the operator collects a DA sample from a sample tap following homogenization. The sample is collected in a small UF6 sample bottle, then sealed and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Current practice is expensive and resource intensive. We propose a new and novel approach for performing onsite gaseous UF6 DA analysis that provides rapid and accurate assessment of enrichment bias defects. DA samples are collected using a custom sampling device attached to a conventional sample tap. A few micrograms of gaseous UF6 is chemically adsorbed onto a sampling coupon in a matter of minutes. The collected DA sample is then analyzed onsite using Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry-Destructive Assay (LAARS-DA). DA results are determined in a matter of minutes at sufficient accuracy to support reliable bias defect conclusions, while greatly reducing DA sample volume, analysis time, and cost.

  5. Precision tracking with a single gaseous pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigaridas, S.; van Bakel, N.; Bilevych, Y.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N. P.; de Jong, P.; Kluit, R.

    2015-09-01

    The importance of micro-pattern gaseous detectors has grown over the past few years after successful usage in a large number of applications in physics experiments and medicine. We develop gaseous pixel detectors using micromegas-based amplification structures on top of CMOS pixel readout chips. Using wafer post-processing we add a spark-protection layer and a grid to create an amplification region above the chip, allowing individual electrons released above the grid by the passage of ionising radiation to be recorded. The electron creation point is measured in 3D, using the pixel position for (x, y) and the drift time for z. The track can be reconstructed by fitting a straight line to these points. In this work we have used a pixel-readout-chip which is a small-scale prototype of Timepix3 chip (designed for both silicon and gaseous detection media). This prototype chip has several advantages over the existing Timepix chip, including a faster front-end (pre-amplifier and discriminator) and a faster TDC which reduce timewalk's contribution to the z position error. Although the chip is very small (sensitive area of 0.88 × 0.88mm2), we have built it into a detector with a short drift gap (1.3 mm), and measured its tracking performance in an electron beam at DESY. We present the results obtained, which lead to a significant improvement for the resolutions with respect to Timepix-based detectors.

  6. The Gaseous Explosive Reaction : The Effect of Inert Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, F W

    1928-01-01

    Attention is called in this report to previous investigations of gaseous explosive reactions carried out under constant volume conditions, where the effect of inert gases on the thermodynamic equilibrium was determined. The advantage of constant pressure methods over those of constant volume as applied to studies of the gaseous explosive reaction is pointed out and the possibility of realizing for this purpose a constant pressure bomb mentioned. The application of constant pressure methods to the study of gaseous explosive reactions, made possible by the use of a constant pressure bomb, led to the discovery of an important kinetic relation connecting the rate of propagation of the zone of explosive reaction within the active gases, with the initial concentrations of those gases: s = K(sub 1)(A)(sup n1)(B)(sup n2)(C)(sup n3)------. By a method analogous to that followed in determining the effect of inert gases on the equilibrium constant K, the present paper records an attempt to determine their kinetic effect upon the expression given above.

  7. Systems and methods of storing combustion waste products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Shen-En; Wang, Peng; Miao, Xiexing; Feng, Qiyan; Zhu, Qianlin

    2016-04-12

    In one aspect, methods of storing one or more combustion waste products are described herein. Combustion waste products stored by a method described herein can include solid combustion waste products such as coal ash and/or gaseous combustion products such as carbon dioxide. In some embodiments, a method of storing carbon dioxide comprises providing a carbon dioxide storage medium comprising porous concrete having a macroporous and microporous pore structure and flowing carbon dioxide captured from a combustion flue gas source into the pore structure of the porous concrete.

  8. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  9. Textile Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from textile industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as removing heavy metals in textile wastes, and the biodegradability of six dyes. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Effect of low-dose gaseous ozone on pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of chronically infected wounds is a challenge, and bacterial environmental contamination is a growing issue in infection control. Ozone may have a role in these situations. The objective of this study was to determine whether a low dose of gaseous ozone/oxygen mixture eliminates pathogenic bacteria cultivated in Petri dishes. Methods A pilot study with 6 bacterial strains was made using different concentrations of ozone in an ozone-oxygen mixture to determine a minimally effective dose that completely eliminated bacterial growth. The small and apparently bactericidal gaseous dose of 20 μg/mL ozone/oxygen (1:99) mixture, applied for 5min under atmospheric pressure was selected. In the 2nd phase, eight bacterial strains with well characterized resistance patterns were evaluated in vitro using agar-blood in adapted Petri dishes (105 bacteria/dish). The cultures were divided into 3 groups: 1- ozone-oxygen gaseous mixture containing 20 μg of O3/mL for 5 min; 2- 100% oxygen for 5 min; 3- baseline: no gas was used. Results The selected ozone dose was applied to the following eight strains: Escherichia coli, oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter baumannii susceptible only to carbapenems, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptible to imipenem and meropenem. All isolates were completely inhibited by the ozone-oxygen mixture while growth occurred in the other 2 groups. Conclusion A single topical application by nebulization of a low ozone dose completely inhibited the growth of all potentially pathogenic bacterial strains with known resistance to antimicrobial agents. PMID:23249441

  11. TREATMENT OF GASEOUS EFFLUENTS ISSUED FROM RECYCLING – A REVIEW OF THE CURRENT PRACTICES AND PROSPECTIVE IMPROVEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; William Kerlin; Steven Bakhtiar

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of gaseous waste management for the recycling of nuclear used fuel is to reduce by best practical means (ALARA) and below regulatory limits, the quantity of activity discharged to the environment. The industrial PUREX process recovers the fissile material U(VI) and Pu(IV) to re-use them for the fabrication of new fuel elements e.g. recycling plutonium as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel or recycling uranium for new enrichment for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Meanwhile the separation of the waste (activation and fission product) is performed as a function of their pollution in order to store and avoid any potential danger and release towards the biosphere. Raffinate, that remains after the extraction step and which contains mostly all fission products and minor actinides is vitrified, the glass package being stored temporarily at the recycling plant site. Hulls and end pieces coming from PWR recycled fuel are compacted by means of a press leading to a volume reduced to 1/5th of initial volume. An organic waste treatment step will recycle the solvent, mainly tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and some of its hydrolysis and radiolytic degradation products such as dibutyl phosphate (HDPB) and monobutyl phosphate (H2MBP). Although most scientific and technological development work focused on high level waste streams, a considerable effort is still under way in the area of intermediate and low level waste management. Current industrial practices for the treatment of gaseous effluents focusing essentially on Iodine-129 and Krypton-85 will be reviewed along with the development of novel technologies to extract, condition, and store these fission products. As an example, the current industrial practice is to discharge Kr-85, a radioactive gas, entirely to the atmosphere after dilution, but for the large recycling facilities envisioned in the near future, several techniques such as 1) cryogenic distillation and selective absorption in solvents, 2) adsorption on activated

  12. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Automotive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Guigard, Selma E; Shariaty, Pooya; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Lashaki, Masoud Jahandar; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature from 2014 related to automotive wastes is presented. Topics include solid wastes from autobodies and tires as well as vehicle emissions to soil and air as a result of the use of conventional and alternative fuels. Potential toxicological and health risks related to automotive wastes are also discussed.

  14. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Hickox, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of radioactive wastes. Topics covered include: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; decontamination and decommissioning; remedial actions and treatment; and environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides. 155 refs.

  16. Interaction between gaseous ozone and crystalline potassium bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanov, A. V.; Maksimov, I. B.; Isaikina, O. Ya.; Antipenko, E. E.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The formation of nonvolatile products of the oxidation of a bromide ion during the interaction between gaseous ozone and powdered crystalline KBr is studied. It is found that potassium bromate KBrO3 is the main product of the reaction. The influence of major experimental factors (the duration of ozonation, the concentration of ozone, the humidity of the initial gas, and the temperature) on the rate of formation of bromate is studied. The effective constants of the formation of bromate during the interaction between O3 and Br- in a heterogeneous gas-solid body system and in a homogeneous aqueous solution are compared.

  17. Interpretation of the [ClIII] Lines in Gaseous Nebulae.

    PubMed

    Aller, L H; Czyzak, S J; Walker, M F; Krueger, T K

    1970-05-01

    The intensity ratio of the green lambdalambda5517 and 5537 lines of [ClIII] serves as an indicatrix of the electron density in many gaseous nebulae whose spectra can be observed with an image converter. Quantitative interpretation of the line ratio requires accurate values of the collisional strengths and transition probabilities. With improved values of these parameters we have revised electron densities for a number of nebulae; the results seem to be in good accord with those derived from other criteria. PMID:16591829

  18. NOx formation in combustion of gaseous fuel in ejection burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimár, Miroslav; Kulikov, Andrii

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare model for researching of the formation in combustion of gaseous fuels. NOx formation is one of the main ecological problems nowadays as nitrogen oxides is one of main reasons of acid rains. The ANSYS model was designed according to the calculation to provide full combustion and good mixing of the fuel and air. The current model is appropriate to research NOx formation and the influence of the different principles of NOx reduction method. Applying of designed model should spare both time of calculations and research and also money as you do not need to measure the burner characteristics.

  19. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental report for 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Counce-Brown, D.

    1991-09-01

    This calendar year 1990 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the summary, discussion, and conclusions (Part 1) and the data presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are as follows: report 1990 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (when appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance.

  20. Fuel enrichment apparatus and method for gaseous fuel mixers

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, C.D.

    1981-08-25

    A fuel enrichment apparatus and method is shown for a gaseous fuel carburetor of either a fixed venturi or air valve type. The apparatus provides fuel enriching at the starting and wide open throttle conditions of the carburetor when the pressure drop in the induction passage is at a minimum. The apparatus also economizes on fuel usage by being closed to fuel transfer at idle speed and normal engine speed. The apparatus operates from the fuel supply line to the carburetor with only the fuel pressure available in that line, thereby obviating the need for either a second fuel line or a high pressure fuel line.

  1. Viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of gaseous and liquid oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, H. J. M.; Mccarty, R. D.; Sengers, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Equations and tables are presented for the viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of gaseous and liquid oxygen at temperatures between 80 K and 400 K for pressures up to 200 atm. and at temperatures between 80 K and 2000 K for the dilute gas. A description of the anomalous behavior of the thermal conductivity in the critical region is included. The tabulated coefficients are reliable to within about 15% except for a region in the immediate vicinity of the critical point. Some possibilities for future improvements of this reliability are discussed.

  2. Proposed sale of radioactively contaminated nickel ingots located at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to sell 8,500 radioactively contaminated nickel ingots (9.350 short tons), currently in open storage at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), to Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) for decontamination and resale on the international market. SEG would take ownership of the ingots when they are loaded for transport by truck to its facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. SEG would receive approximately 200 short tons per month over approximately 48 months (an average of 180 ingots per month). The nickel decontamination process specified in SEG`s technical proposal is considered the best available technology and has been demonstrated in prototype at SEG. The resultant metal for resale would have contamination levels between 0.3 and 20 becquerel per gram (Bq/g). The health hazards associated with release of the decontaminated nickel are minimal. The activity concentration of the end product would be further reduced when the nickel is combined with other metals to make stainless steel. Low-level radioactive waste from the SEG decontamination process, estimated to be approximately 382 m{sup 3} (12,730 ft), would be shipped to a licensed commercial or DOE disposal facility. If the waste were packaged in 0.23 m{sup 3}-(7.5 ft{sup 3}-) capacity drums, approximately 1,500 to 1,900 drums would be transported over the 48-month contract period. Impacts from the construction of decontamination facilities and the selected site are minimal.

  3. Evaluation of an offline method for the analysis of atmospheric reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutter, A.P.; Hanford, K.L.; Zwers, J.T.; Perillo-Nicholas, A. L.; Schauer, J.J.; Olson, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (PHg) were collected in Milwaukee, WI, between April 2004 and May 2005, and in Riverside, CA, between July 25 and August 7, 2005 using sorbent and filter substrates. The substrates were analyzed for mercury by thermal desorption analysis (TDA) using a purpose-built instrument. Results from this offline-TDA method were compared with measurements using a real-time atmospheric mercury analyzer. RGM measurements made with the offline-TDA agreed well with a commercial real-time method. However, the offline TDA reported PHg concentrations 2.7 times higher than the real-time method, indicating evaporative losses might be occurring from the real-time instrument during sample collection. TDA combined with reactive mercury collection on filter and absorbent substrates was cheap, relatively easy to use, did not introduce biases due to a semicontinuous sample collection strategy, and had a dynamic range appropriate for use in rural and urban locations. The results of this study demonstrate that offline-TDA is a feasible method for collecting reactive mercury concentrations in a large network of filter-based samplers. Copyright 2008 Air & Waste Management Association.

  4. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Description of Work for Drilling at the 183-DR Site in Support of the In Situ Gaseous Reduction Test

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Edward C.; Olsen, Khris B.; Schalla, Ronald

    2000-06-26

    In Situ Gaseous Reduction is a technology currently being developed by DOE for the remediation of soil waste sites contaminated with hexavalent chromium. Prior work suggests that a candidate for application of this approach is the 183-DR site at Hanford. However, deep vadose zone drilling is needed to verify the presence of a hexavalent chromium source and to determine the concentration levels and spatial distribution of contamination. This document presents the requirements associated with drilling one to two vadose zone boreholes at the 183-DR site to obtain this information. If hexavalent chromium is determined to be present at levels of at least 10 ppm in the vadose zone in one of the initial boreholes, this hole will be completed for gas injection and six additional gas extraction boreholes will be drilled and completed. This network will be used as a flowcell for performing a gas treatment test at the site.

  6. An interim report to the manager of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant from the Paducah Environmental Advisory Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.D.

    1987-10-01

    The Paducah Environmental Advisory Committee was formed as: (1) an outgrowth of other Environmental Advisory Committees already in existence at Oak Ridge and other Martin Marietta Energy Systems plants; (2) a result of public concern following significant nuclear incidents at Bhopal and Chernobyl; (3) a result of the new direction and commitment of the management of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant following contract acquisition by Martin Marietta Energy Systems; and (4) a means of reducing and/or preventing local and/or public concern regarding the activities of and potential risks created by PGDP. This report discusses the following issues and concerns of the Committee arrived at through a series of meetings: (1) groundwater monitoring; (2) long-range tails storage; C-404, scrap yrads, and PCB and TCE cleanup; nuclear criticality plan and alarm systems; documentation of historical data regarding hazardous waste burial grounds; dosimeter badges; and asbestos handling and removal.

  7. Locations, volumes, and characteristics of DOE's mixed low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Elmore, M.R. ); Warner, C.L. ); Wachter, L.J. . HAZWRAP Support Contractor Office); Carlson, W.L.; Devries, R.L. )

    1992-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) has collected and analyzed mixed low-level waste data to assist in developing treatment capability for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) wastes. Initial data on the characteristics of mixed waste was obtained from the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) data base, and has been updated based on visits to DOE sites where most of the wastes are generated and stored. The streams of interest have a current inventory of about 70,000 m{sup 3} and a generation rate of about 7,700 m{sup 3}/yr. The twelve sites with the most significant processing needs are Fernald, Hanford, K-25 (Oak Ridge), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Savannah River Site (SRS), and Y-12 (Oak Ridge). These twelve sites account for about 98% of the mixed waste volumes. The wastes have been assigned to specific waste characterization categories. The largest category in current interim storage is inorganic solids, with sludges, filter cakes, and residues the largest specific subcategory. Aqueous liquids are the largest currently generated stream. The other large categories are solid organics, metals wastes, and heterogeneous wastes. Organic liquids, which have been a major focus, are the smallest of the categories.

  8. Locations, volumes, and characteristics of DOE`s mixed low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Elmore, M.R.; Warner, C.L.; Wachter, L.J.; Carlson, W.L.; Devries, R.L.

    1992-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) has collected and analyzed mixed low-level waste data to assist in developing treatment capability for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) wastes. Initial data on the characteristics of mixed waste was obtained from the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) data base, and has been updated based on visits to DOE sites where most of the wastes are generated and stored. The streams of interest have a current inventory of about 70,000 m{sup 3} and a generation rate of about 7,700 m{sup 3}/yr. The twelve sites with the most significant processing needs are Fernald, Hanford, K-25 (Oak Ridge), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Savannah River Site (SRS), and Y-12 (Oak Ridge). These twelve sites account for about 98% of the mixed waste volumes. The wastes have been assigned to specific waste characterization categories. The largest category in current interim storage is inorganic solids, with sludges, filter cakes, and residues the largest specific subcategory. Aqueous liquids are the largest currently generated stream. The other large categories are solid organics, metals wastes, and heterogeneous wastes. Organic liquids, which have been a major focus, are the smallest of the categories.

  9. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  10. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  11. Stability evaluation of a rocket engine for gaseous oxygen difluoride (OF2) and gaseous diborane (B2H6) propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    Results of an experimental evaluation of the dynamic stability of a candidate combustor for the space storable propellants gaseous OF2/B2H6 show that the combustor is unstable without supplementary damping. A computer analysis indicated that the uninhibited engine could be unstable. The experiments, conducted with O2/C2H4 substitute propellants and with 70-30 FLOX/B2H6 (OF2 simulated with FLOX), show that the uninhibited combustor has a low stability margin to starting transient perturbations, but that is relatively insensitive to bomb disturbances. Damping cavities are shown to provide stability.

  12. The use of gaseous fuels mixtures for SI engines propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flekiewicz, M.; Kubica, G.

    2016-09-01

    Paper presents results of SI engine tests, carried on for different gaseous fuels. Carried out analysis made it possible to define correlation between fuel composition and engine operating parameters. Tests covered various gaseous mixtures: of methane and hydrogen and LPG with DME featuring different shares. The first group, considered as low carbon content fuels can be characterized by low CO2 emissions. Flammability of hydrogen added in those mixtures realizes the function of combustion process activator. That is why hydrogen addition improves the energy conversion by about 3%. The second group of fuels is constituted by LPG and DME mixtures. DME mixes perfectly with LPG, and differently than in case of other hydrocarbon fuels consists also of oxygen makes the stoichiometric mixture less oxygen demanding. In case of this fuel an improvement in engine volumetric and overall engine efficiency has been noticed, when compared to LPG. For the 11% DME share in the mixture an improvement of 2% in the efficiency has been noticed. During the tests standard CNG/LPG feeding systems have been used, what underlines utility value of the research. The stand tests results have been followed by combustion process simulation including exhaust forming and charge exchange.

  13. Pathophysiological Mechanisms in Gaseous Therapies for Severe Malaria.

    PubMed

    Kayano, Ana Carolina A V; Dos-Santos, João Conrado K; Bastos, Marcele F; Carvalho, Leonardo J; Aliberti, Júlio; Costa, Fabio T M

    2016-04-01

    Over 200 million people worldwide suffer from malaria every year, a disease that causes 584,000 deaths annually. In recent years, significant improvements have been achieved on the treatment of severe malaria, with intravenous artesunate proving superior to quinine. However, mortality remains high, at 8% in children and 15% in adults in clinical trials, and even worse in the case of cerebral malaria (18% and 30%, respectively). Moreover, some individuals who do not succumb to severe malaria present long-term cognitive deficits. These observations indicate that strategies focused only on parasite killing fail to prevent neurological complications and deaths associated with severe malaria, possibly because clinical complications are associated in part with a cerebrovascular dysfunction. Consequently, different adjunctive therapies aimed at modulating malaria pathophysiological processes are currently being tested. However, none of these therapies has shown unequivocal evidence in improving patient clinical status. Recently, key studies have shown that gaseous therapies based mainly on nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hyperbaric (pressurized) oxygen (HBO) alter vascular endothelium dysfunction and modulate the host immune response to infection. Considering gaseous administration as a promising adjunctive treatment against severe malaria cases, we review here the pathophysiological mechanisms and the immunological aspects of such therapies.

  14. Application of gaseous ozone for inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Ahmet; Gurol, Mirat D

    2006-02-01

    The effectiveness of gaseous ozone (O3) as a disinfectant was tested on Bacillus subtilis spores, which share the same physiological characteristics as Bacillus anthracis spores that cause the anthrax disease. Spores dried on surfaces of different carrier material were exposed to O3 gas in the range of 500-5000 ppm and at relative humidity (RH) of 70-95%. Gaseous O3 was found to be very effective against the B. subtilis spores, and at O3 concentrations as low as 3 mg/L (1500 ppm), approximately 3-log inactivation was obtained within 4 hr of exposure. The inactivation curves consisted of a short lag phase followed by an exponential decrease in the number of surviving spores. Prehydration of the bacterial spores has eliminated the initial lag phase. The inactivation rate increased with increasing O3 concentration but not >3 mg/L. The inactivation rate also increased with increase in RH. Different survival curves were obtained for various surfaces used to carry spores. Inactivation rates of spores on glass, a vinyl floor tile, and office paper were nearly the same. Whereas cut pile carpet and hardwood flooring surfaces resulted in much lower inactivation rates, another type of carpet (loop pile) showed significant enhancement in the inactivation of the spores. PMID:16568801

  15. The fundamental limitations of high-rate gaseous detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fonte, P.

    1999-06-01

    Future high-luminosity experiments make serious demands on detector technologies and have prompted a chain of inventions of new high-rate gaseous detectors: Microstrip Gas Counters (MSGC`s), Microgap Chambers (MGC`s), Compteur A Trou (CAT`s), Micromesh Gas Structure (MICROMEGAS), and Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM`s). The authors report results from a systematic study of breakdown mechanisms in these and other gaseous detectors recently chosen or considered as candidates for high-luminosity experiments. It was found that, for all the detectors tested, the maximum achievable gain before breakdown appeared, dropped dramatically with rate, sometimes inversely proportional to it. Further, in the presence of alpha particles, typical of the backgrounds in high-energy experiments, additional gain drops of 1--2 orders of magnitude were observed for some detectors. They discovered that the breakdown in these detectors was through a previously unknown mechanism for which they give a qualitative explanation. They also present possible ways of increasing the value of the maximum achievable detector gain at high rates and have verified these experimentally.

  16. Pathophysiological Mechanisms in Gaseous Therapies for Severe Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Kayano, Ana Carolina A. V.; Dos-Santos, João Conrado K.; Bastos, Marcele F.; Carvalho, Leonardo J.; Aliberti, Júlio

    2016-01-01

    Over 200 million people worldwide suffer from malaria every year, a disease that causes 584,000 deaths annually. In recent years, significant improvements have been achieved on the treatment of severe malaria, with intravenous artesunate proving superior to quinine. However, mortality remains high, at 8% in children and 15% in adults in clinical trials, and even worse in the case of cerebral malaria (18% and 30%, respectively). Moreover, some individuals who do not succumb to severe malaria present long-term cognitive deficits. These observations indicate that strategies focused only on parasite killing fail to prevent neurological complications and deaths associated with severe malaria, possibly because clinical complications are associated in part with a cerebrovascular dysfunction. Consequently, different adjunctive therapies aimed at modulating malaria pathophysiological processes are currently being tested. However, none of these therapies has shown unequivocal evidence in improving patient clinical status. Recently, key studies have shown that gaseous therapies based mainly on nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hyperbaric (pressurized) oxygen (HBO) alter vascular endothelium dysfunction and modulate the host immune response to infection. Considering gaseous administration as a promising adjunctive treatment against severe malaria cases, we review here the pathophysiological mechanisms and the immunological aspects of such therapies. PMID:26831465

  17. Mevva ion source operated in purely gaseous mode

    SciTech Connect

    Yushkov, G.Y.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I. G.

    2003-03-27

    We have operated a vacuum arc ion source in such a way as to form beams of purely gaseous ions. The vacuum arc configuration that is conventionally used to produce intense beams of metal ions was altered so as to form gaseous ion beams, with only minimal changes to the external circuitry and no changes at all internally to the ion source. In our experiments we formed beams from oxygen (O{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup +}), nitrogen (N{sup +} and N{sub 2}{sup +}), argon (Ar{sup +}) and carbon dioxide (C{sup +}, CO{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup +}) at extraction voltage of 2 to 50 kV. We used a pulsed mode of operation, with beam pulses approximately 50 milliseconds long and repetition rate 10 pulses per second, for a duty cycle of about 50%. Downstream ion beam current as measured by a 5 cm diameter Faraday cup was typically 0.5 mA pulse or about 250 {micro}A time averaged. This time averaged beam current is very similar to that obtained for metal ions when the source is operated in the usual vacuum arc mode. Here we describe the modifications made to the source and the results of our investigations.

  18. Chemical aspects of nuclear waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical aspects of the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes are discussed in overview. The role of chemistry and the chemical reactions in waste treatment are emphasized. Waste treatment methods encompass the chemistry of radioactive elements from every group of the periodic table. In most streams, the radioactive elements are present in relatively low concentrations and are often associated with moderately large amounts of process reagents, or materials. In general, it is desirable that waste treatment methods are based on chemistry that is selective for the concentration of radionuclides and does not require the addition of reagents that contribute significantly to the volume of the treated waste. Solvent extraction, ion exchange, and sorbent chemistry play a major role in waste treatment because of the high selectivity provided for many radionuclides. This paper deals with the chemistry of the onsite treatment methods that is typically used at nuclear installations and is not concerned with the chemistry of the various alternative materials proposed for long-term storage of nuclear wastes. The chemical aspects are discussed from a generic point of view in which the chemistry of important radionuclides is emphasized.

  19. Thermal and chemical remediation of mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A.; Swift, William M.

    1997-01-01

    A process for treating organic waste materials without venting gaseous emissions to the atmosphere which includes oxidizing the organic waste materials at an elevated temperature not less than about 500.degree. C. with a gas having an oxygen content in the range of from about 20% to about 70% to produce an oxidation product containing CO.sub.2 gas. The gas is then filtered to remove particulates, and then contacted with an aqueous absorbent solution of alkali metal carbonates or alkanolamines to absorb a portion of the CO.sub.2 gas from the particulate-free oxidation product. The CO.sub.2 absorbent is thereafter separated for further processing. A process and system are also disclosed in which the waste materials are contacted with a reactive medium such as lime and product treatment as described.

  20. Thermal and chemical remediation of mixed wastes

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, P.A.; Swift, W.M.

    1997-12-16

    A process is described for treating organic waste materials without venting gaseous emissions to the atmosphere which includes oxidizing the organic waste materials at an elevated temperature not less than about 500 C with a gas having an oxygen content in the range of from about 20% to about 70% to produce an oxidation product containing CO{sub 2} gas. The gas is then filtered to remove particulates, and then contacted with an aqueous absorbent solution of alkali metal carbonates or alkanolamines to absorb a portion of the CO{sub 2} gas from the particulate-free oxidation product. The CO{sub 2} absorbent is thereafter separated for further processing. A process and system are also disclosed in which the waste materials are contacted with a reactive medium such as lime and product treatment as described. 8 figs.

  1. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    DOEpatents

    Jujasz, Albert J.; Burkhart, James A.; Greenberg, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  2. Recent Applications of Gaseous Discharges: Dusty Plasmas and Upward-Directed Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.

    1999-01-01

    Intriguing phenomena have been recently observed in gaseous discharges which involve dust particles, and discharges which are produced in the ionosphere involving formation of upward-directed lightning.

  3. Determination of gaseous and particulate carbonyls (glycolaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nonanal and decanal) in the atmosphere at Mt. Tai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Okuzawa, K.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Irie, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2013-05-01

    Gaseous and particulate semi-volatile carbonyl compounds were determined every three hours in the atmosphere of Mount Tai (elevation, 1534 m) in the North China Plain during 2-5, 23-24 and 25 June 2006 under clear sky conditions. Using a two-step filter cartridge in a series, particulate carbonyls were first collected on a quartz filter and then gaseous carbonyls were collected on a quartz filter impregnated with O-benzylhydroxylamine (BHA). After the two-step derivatization with BHA and N,O-Bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), carbonyl derivatives were measured using a gas chromatography. The gaseous concentrations were obtained as follow: glycolaldehyde (range 0-826 ng m-3, average 303 ng m-3), hydroxyacetone (0-579 ng m-3, 126 ng m-3), glyoxal (46-1200 ng m-3, 487 ng m-3), methylglyoxal (88-2690 ng m-3, 967 ng m-3), n-nonanal (0-500 ng m-3, 89 ng m-3), and n-decanal (0-230 ng m-3, 39 ng m-3). These concentrations are among the highest ever reported in the urban and forest atmosphere. We found that gaseous α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal) are more than 20 times more abundant than particulate carbonyls and that glycolaldehyde is one order of magnitude more abundant than in aerosol phase. In contrast, hydroxyacetone and normal aldehydes (nonanal and decanal) are equally present in both phases. Time-resolved variations of carbonyls did not show any a clear diurnal pattern, except for hydroxyacetone. We found that glyoxal, methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde positively correlated with levoglucosan (a tracer of biomass burning), suggesting that a contribution from field burning of agricultural wastes (wheat crops) is significant for the bifunctional carbonyls in the atmosphere of Mt. Tai. Upward transport of the pollutants to the mountaintop from the low lands in the North China Plain is a major process to control the distributions of carbonyls in the upper atmosphere over Mt. Tai.

  4. Oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury to gaseous divalent mercury during 2003 polar sunrise at Ny-Alesund.

    PubMed

    Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola; Landis, Matthew S; Stevens, Robert K

    2005-12-01

    The springtime phenomenon, termed as the mercury depletion event (MDE), during which elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0) may be converted to a reactive form that accumulates in polar ecosystems, first noted in the Arctic, has now been observed at both poles and results in an important removal pathway for atmospheric mercury. An intensive international springtime mercury experiment was performed at Ny-Alesund, Spitsbergen, from 19 April to 13 May 2003 to study the atmospheric mercury chemistry in the Arctic environment and, in particular, the MDEs which occurred in the arctic boundary layer after polar sunrise. Automated ambient measurements of Hg0, divalent reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and fine particulate mercury (<2.5 microm) (Hg(p)) were made at the Zeppelin Mountain Station (ZMS). During the experiment mercury concentrations in the lower atmosphere varied in synchrony with ozone levels throughout the Spring. Hg0 concentrations ranged from background levels (approximately 1.6 ng m(-3)) to undetectable values (<0.1 ng m(-3)) during the first and major MDE, while RGM data showed an opposite trend during the sampling period with concentrations increasing dramatically to a peak of 230 pg m(-3), synchronous with the depletion of Hg0. The results of a meteorological transport analysis indicate the MDEs observed at ZMS were primarily due to air masses being transported in from open water areas in the Arctic Ocean that were already depleted of Hg0 when they arrived and not due to in-situ oxidation mechanisms.

  5. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:27620100

  6. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  7. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  8. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:26420096

  9. Plasma burner operated by means of gaseous mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegelberg, K.; Ebeling, F.; Hoffmann, H.; Jeske, H.; Kolm, A.

    1984-09-04

    The present invention relates to a plasma burner for metallurgical furnaces which is operated with gaseous mixtures, wherein an addition gas is fed to the plasma burner via a ring conduit into the inside of the burner. The gas conduction pipes on the addition-gas outlet are arranged at a predetermined angle to the longitudinal axis of the burner, 35/sup 0/ to 45/sup 0/. The point of intersection between plasma arc and addition gas is 25 to 45 mm in front of the rod-shaped cathode. In order to increase the output with constant arc current and without chemical reaction with as molten material, hydrogen or nitrogen is used as addition gas; and when a chemical reaction is desired, oxygen or oxygen-containing gas mixtures are used.

  10. Investigation of Micropatent Gaseous Detector for X-ray Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbang; Liang, En-Wei; Liu, Qian; Zheng, Yangheng

    2016-07-01

    We present an investigation of the Micropatent Gaseous Detector (THGEM and MicroMegas) for the X-ray polarimeter. THGEMs with different thickness and diameter have been studied with vary electrical parameter. The energy resolution of 15.9% with 5.9 keV X-rays was obtained for the thinner-THGEM. MicroMegas with ITO glass has been assembled and tested in Ne-5%CF _{4} which emits light during the electron multiplication. The track of the primary photoelectron excited by the incident X-ray was imaged on an intensified CCD. For the expected sensitivity of the polarimeter, we used the Monte Carlo package Geant4 and Garfield to simulate the charge distribution of the photoelectron, diffusion of the charge track during drift and track image of the detector. The associated Monte Carlo calculation of energy resolution dependence on drift electric field and induction field has been compared with the experimental results.

  11. Modeling of combustion of a gaseous sphere using mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, R. G.; Baum, H. R.

    Transient combustion of a gaseous sphere of fuel is examined in the flamesheet limit. The gas is considered thermally expandable, the Lewis numbers are taken as unity and a temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity is allowed. Evaluation of some approximations used in forming the model are evaluated by examining a spherical, nonlinear thermal conduction problem first. Mathematica is used to solve the PDEs arising from both problems by a Method of Lines. The solutions for the combustion problem show the expansion and subsequent collapse of the flame-sheet trajectory, the sharp initial temperature spike at the flame front and its later diffusive spreading, and the early peaked expansion velocity, followed by a double humped velocity profile.

  12. Interactions of gaseous-pollutant and acid-rain effects

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    This research addresses the significance of individual and combined effects of gaseous pollutants and acid rain on plant growth and development. It is specifically structured to determine the importance of pollutant interactions at concentrations, combinations and exposure frequencies typical of the eastern regional environment. Laboratory, greenhouse, and field studies are designed to establish pollutant-concentration thresholds for damage from SO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, NO/sub x/, and acid rain. Research to date has determined visible-injury thresholds and growth-and-yield thresholds for a variety of cultivars of bean, wheat, radish, tomato, and loblolly pine. The thresholds vary within cultivars of a species and between species.

  13. Quantitative Thermochemical Measurements in High-Pressure Gaseous Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun J.; Fischer, David G.

    2012-01-01

    We present our strategic experiment and thermochemical analyses on combustion flow using a subframe burst gating (SBG) Raman spectroscopy. This unconventional laser diagnostic technique has promising ability to enhance accuracy of the quantitative scalar measurements in a point-wise single-shot fashion. In the presentation, we briefly describe an experimental methodology that generates transferable calibration standard for the routine implementation of the diagnostics in hydrocarbon flames. The diagnostic technology was applied to simultaneous measurements of temperature and chemical species in a swirl-stabilized turbulent flame with gaseous methane fuel at elevated pressure (17 atm). Statistical analyses of the space-/time-resolved thermochemical data provide insights into the nature of the mixing process and it impact on the subsequent combustion process in the model combustor.

  14. Emulation workbench for position sensitive gaseous scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, L.; Margato, L. M. S.; Morozov, A.; Solovov, V.; Fraga, F. A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Position sensitive detectors based on gaseous scintillation proportional counters with Anger-type readout are being used in several research areas such as neutron detection, search for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Design and optimization of such detectors are complex and time consuming tasks. Simulations, while being a powerful tool, strongly depend on the light transfer models and demand accurate knowledge of many parameters, which are often not available. Here we describe an alternative approach based on the experimental evaluation of a detector using an isotropic point-like light source with precisely controllable light emission properties, installed on a 3D positioning system. The results obtained with the developed setup at validation conditions, when the scattered light is strongly suppressed show good agreement with simulations.

  15. METAL TRANSPORT TO THE GASEOUS OUTSKIRTS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Werk, J. K.; Putman, M. E.; Santiago-Figueroa, N.; Meurer, G. R.

    2011-07-10

    We present a search for outlying H II regions in the extended gaseous outskirts of nearby (D < 40 Mpc) galaxies and subsequent multi-slit spectroscopy used to obtain the H II region nebular oxygen abundances. The galaxies in our sample have extended H I disks and/or interaction-related H I features that extend well beyond their primary stellar components. We report oxygen abundance gradients out to 2.5 times the optical radius for these galaxies which span a range of morphologies and masses. We analyze the underlying stellar and neutral H I gas distributions in the vicinity of the H II regions to understand the physical processes that give rise to the observed metal distributions in galaxies. These measurements, for the first time, convincingly show flat abundance distributions out to large radii in a wide variety of systems and have broad implications for galaxy chemodynamical evolution.

  16. Persufflation (gaseous oxygen perfusion) as a method of heart preservation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Persufflation (PSF; gaseous oxygen perfusion) is an organ preservation technique with a potential for use in donor heart preservation. Improved heart preservation with PSF may improve outcomes by maintaining cardiac tissue quality in the setting of longer cold ischemia times and possibly increasing the number of donor hearts available for allotransplant. Published data suggests that PSF is able to extend the cold storage times for porcine hearts up to 14 hours without compromising viability and function, and has been shown to resuscitate porcine hearts following donation after cardiac death. This review summarizes key published work on heart PSF, including prospective implications and future directions for PSF in heart transplantation. We emphasize the potential impact of extending preservation times and expanding donor selection criteria in heart allotransplant. Additionally, the key issues that need to be addressed before PSF were to become a widely utilized preservation strategy prior to clinical heart transplantation are summarized and discussed. PMID:23607734

  17. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr. ); McGinnis, B. )

    1990-08-31

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Fast integrated gaseous detector with single-photon resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menk, Ralf-Hendrik; Sarvestani, Amir; Besch, Hans-Juergen; Walenta, Albert H.

    1999-10-01

    Gaseous detectors are excellent candidates for x-ray imaging devices which are suitable in the energy range between 5 and 90 kV. Especially the extreme low inherent noise floor which in principle is limited by the read out electronics only in combination with the high flexibility in the choice of gases and the geometry result in high detective quantum efficiency values (DQE). A DQE close to one is valuable especially in medical imaging applications where in general the image quality is dose limited. Moreover, recent developments in gas amplification structures such as the Micro-CAT allow fast imaging with a single photon precision also for integrating devices resulting in high DQE values even for low photon flux applications.

  19. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant annual site environmental report for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    This calendar year (CY) 1993 annual report on environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth) and its environs consists of three separate documents: a summary pamphlet for the general public; a more detail discussion and of compliance status, data, and environmental impacts (this document); and a volume of detailed data that is available on request. The objectives of this report are to report compliance status during 1993; provide information about the plant site and plant operations; report 1993 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; document information on input and assumptions used in calculations; provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on quality assurance for the environmental monitoring program.

  20. Seismic issues at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, K.E. )

    1989-11-01

    A seismic expert workshop was held at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on March 13--15, 1989. the PGDP is operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). During the last twenty years the design criteria for natural phenomenon hazards has steadily become more demanding at all of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) sites. The purpose of the two-day workshop was to review the seismic vulnerability issues of the PGDP facilities. Participants to the workshop included recognized experts in the fields of seismic engineering, seismology and geosciences, and probabilistic analysis, along with engineers and other personnel from Energy Systems. A complete list of the workshop participants is included in the front of this report. 29 refs.

  1. Purge Monitoring Technology for Gaseous Helium (GHe) Conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jonathan; Lansaw, John

    2010-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center provides rocket engine propulsion testing for the NASA space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has gone through acceptance testing before going to Kennedy Space Center for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that used Liquid Oxygen (LO2) and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as propellants. Due to the extremely cold cryogenic conditions of this environment, an inert gas, helium, is used as a purge for the engine and propellant lines since it can be used without freezing in the cryogenic environment. As NASA moves forward with the development of the new ARES V launch system, the main engines as well as the upper stage engine will use cryogenic propellants and will require gaseous helium during the development testing of each of these engines. The main engine for the ARES V will be similar in size to the SSME.

  2. Momentum-space engineering of gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Mark; Benton, Brandon; Heward, Jeffrey; Clark, Charles W.

    2010-12-15

    We show how the momentum distribution of gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates can be shaped by applying a sequence of standing-wave laser pulses. We present a theory, whose validity was demonstrated in an earlier experiment [L. Deng et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5407 (1999)], of the effect of a two-pulse sequence on the condensate wavefunction in momentum space. We generalize the previous result to the case of N pulses of arbitrary intensity separated by arbitrary intervals and show how these parameters can be engineered to produce a desired final momentum distribution. We find that several momentum distributions, important in atom-interferometry applications, can be engineered with high fidelity with two or three pulses.

  3. Perspective: Spectroscopy and kinetics of small gaseous Criegee intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2015-07-14

    The Criegee intermediates, carbonyl oxides proposed by Criegee in 1949 as key intermediates in the ozonolysis of alkenes, play important roles in many aspects of atmospheric chemistry. Because direct detection of these gaseous intermediates was unavailable until recently, previous understanding of their reactions, derived from indirect experimental evidence, had great uncertainties. Recent laboratory detection of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH{sub 2}OO and some larger members, produced from ultraviolet irradiation of corresponding diiodoalkanes in O{sub 2}, with various methods such as photoionization, ultraviolet absorption, infrared absorption, and microwave spectroscopy opens a new door to improved understanding of the roles of these Criegee intermediates. Their structures and spectral parameters have been characterized; their significant zwitterionic nature is hence confirmed. CH{sub 2}OO, along with other products, has also been detected directly with microwave spectroscopy in gaseous ozonolysis reactions of ethene. The detailed kinetics of the source reaction, CH{sub 2}I + O{sub 2}, which is critical to laboratory studies of CH{sub 2}OO, are now understood satisfactorily. The kinetic investigations using direct detection identified some important atmospheric reactions, including reactions with NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, water dimer, carboxylic acids, and carbonyl compounds. Efforts toward the characterization of larger Criegee intermediates and the investigation of related reactions are in progress. Some reactions of CH{sub 3}CHOO are found to depend on conformation. This perspective examines progress toward the direct spectral characterization of Criegee intermediates and investigations of the associated reaction kinetics, and indicates some unresolved problems and prospective challenges for this exciting field of research.

  4. Gaseous and adsorbed PAH in an iron foundry.

    PubMed Central

    Knecht, U; Elliehausen, H J; Woitowitz, H J

    1986-01-01

    The increased risk of lung cancer among foundry workers is assumed to be associated with the inhalation of gaseous and particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These compounds are produced during pyrolysis of carbon containing loading material in the moulding sand. The concentrations of 20 PAH, some of which are carcinogenic, have been determined in the dusty casting area of an iron foundry by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total dust was fractionated by means of a precision cascade impactor. It was possible to differentiate the PAH load in microgram/mg dust in seven particle size fractions ranging from 0.36- greater than or equal to 24.95 microns. Initially, there was an increase of the adsorbed PAH mass concentration with increasing particle diameter up to a maximum of 1.1 microgram/mg in the dust of the 1.57 micron fraction. Thereafter there was a continuous decrease of PAH mass concentration with increasing particle size. When the differing weights of the seven fractions are taken into account, however, the total PAH load of the individual fractions increases steadily with increasing particle size. The inhalable fine dust, 31.4% of the total dust, contains 49.9% of the total adsorbed PAH. The gas phase contained on average three times more carcinogenic PAH with four and five rings than was adsorbed on the dust. Thus the percentage of the gaseous substances amounts to 77% of the total PAH load at the place of work in an iron foundry. PMID:3801335

  5. 78 FR 66779 - United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... (78 FR 47780). At the request of the company official, the Department reviewed the certification for... Employment and Training Administration United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant... Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, including on-site leased workers from Diversified...

  6. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.414 Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and... cylinder displacement of the engine under test. The shape of the mixing chamber must be such that it... specification for the vacuum side of the pump. (e) Venting. All vents, including analyzer vents, bypass...

  7. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.414 Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and... cylinder displacement of the engine under test. The shape of the mixing chamber must be such that it... specification for the vacuum side of the pump. (e) Venting. All vents, including analyzer vents, bypass...

  8. Gaseous emboli detection based on a dual-wavelet transform analysis.

    PubMed

    Ng, H S; Nygaard, H; Hasenkam, J M; Johansen, P

    2007-08-01

    Emboli monitoring is nowadays based on the assessment of microembolic signals by Doppler ultrasound. However, the present systems have problems in detecting multiple emboli. A more dedicated algorithm for post-processing of the recorded Doppler signals was proposed. Based on the hypothesis that single and multiple gaseous emboli can be quantified by combining discrete and continuous wavelet transformation, the aim of this study was to detect gaseous emboli and to validate our method visually. A flow rig was used where gaseous emboli were generated. Doppler signals and visual validation data of gaseous emboli were acquired simultaneously. Microembolic signals were extracted and analysed using wavelet transformation. Results were validated against a visual reference. At various degrees of bubble generation, the system had 100 per cent detection during a low frequency of bubble generation but an estimation error of 7.4 per cent during a high frequency of bubble generation. The estimation error varied between -7.4 and +3 per cent. The system had a higher rate of success in detecting large gaseous emboli in small numbers than small gaseous emboli in large numbers. Single and double emboli were successfully detected and separated, whereas gaseous emboli clouds could be detected but not quantified. Being able to separate simultaneous gaseous emboli may offer new means of increasing detectability for embolism monitoring.

  9. 78 FR 30342 - United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... COMMISSION United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Renewal of its Certificate of Compliance (CoC) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The... compliance for PGDP on November 26, 1996, and assumed regulatory oversight for the plant on March 3,...

  10. 40 CFR 86.237-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous... test run, gaseous emissions. (a) The complete dynamometer test consists of a cold start drive of... terminates after the first period (505 seconds) is run. (d) The provisions of § 86.137(b) apply to...

  11. 40 CFR 86.237-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous... test run, gaseous emissions. (a) The complete dynamometer test consists of a cold start drive of... terminates after the first period (505 seconds) is run. (d) The provisions of § 86.137(b) apply to...

  12. 40 CFR 86.237-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous... test run, gaseous emissions. (a) The complete dynamometer test consists of a cold start drive of... terminates after the first period (505 seconds) is run. (d) The provisions of § 86.137(b) apply to...

  13. 40 CFR 86.137-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-94 Dynamometer test run, gaseous... statement “ .” (a) General. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a cold start test, after a minimum...

  14. 40 CFR 86.237-08 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... after the engine stops running, simultaneously turn off gas flow measuring device No. 2 and if... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous... test run, gaseous emissions. (a) The complete dynamometer test consists of a cold start drive...

  15. 40 CFR 86.137-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-94 Dynamometer test run, gaseous... statement “ .” (a) General. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a cold start test, after a minimum...

  16. 40 CFR 86.237-08 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... after the engine stops running, simultaneously turn off gas flow measuring device No. 2 and if... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous... test run, gaseous emissions. (a) The complete dynamometer test consists of a cold start drive...

  17. 40 CFR 86.137-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-94 Dynamometer test run, gaseous... statement “ .” (a) General. The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a cold start test, after a minimum...

  18. 40 CFR 86.237-08 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... after the engine stops running, simultaneously turn off gas flow measuring device No. 2 and if... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous... test run, gaseous emissions. (a) The complete dynamometer test consists of a cold start drive...

  19. 14 CFR 34.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.64 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions....

  20. 40 CFR 87.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions. 87.64 Section 87.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION....64 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions. (a) The system...

  1. Operating limit evaluation for disposal of uranium enrichment plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.; Kocher, D.C.; Wang, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) will accept wastes generated during normal plant operations that are considered to be non-radioactive. However, nearly all solid waste from any source or facility contains small amounts of radioactive material, due to the presence in most materials of trace quantities of such naturally occurring radionuclides as uranium and thorium. This paper describes an evaluation of operating limits, which are protective of public health and the environment, that would allow waste materials containing small amounts of radioactive material to be sent to a new solid waste landfill at PGDP. The operating limits are expressed as limits on concentrations of radionuclides in waste materials that could be sent to the landfill based on a site-specific analysis of the performance of the facility. These limits are advantageous to PGDP and DOE for several reasons. Most importantly, substantial cost savings in the management of waste is achieved. In addition, certain liabilities that could result from shipment of wastes to a commercial off-site solid waste landfill are avoided. Finally, assurance that disposal operations at the PGDP landfill are protective of public health and the environment is provided by establishing verifiable operating limits for small amounts of radioactive material; rather than relying solely on administrative controls. The operating limit determined in this study has been presented to the Commonwealth of Kentucky and accepted as a condition to be attached to the operating permit for the solid waste landfill.

  2. Gaseous mixed adsorbed films of octadecanol and cholesterol at the oil/water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Matubayasi, Norihiro; Azumaya, Susumu; Kanaya, Kazuhiko

    1992-08-01

    Gaseous/expanded and expanded/condensed phase transitions have been observed in adsorbed films of cholesterol at oil/water interfaces, while only the expanded/condensed phase transition has been observed in adsorbed films of octadecanol. To confirm that the octadecanol films do not exhibit the gaseous/expanded transition and to make clear the gaseous adsorbed film, the interfacial tension was measured in a dilute concentration region as a function of the total concentration and composition of the octadecanol-cholesterol mixture at 25{degrees}C. The result indicated that the gaseous films are expressed by the two-dimensional ideal gas law and the gaseous/expanded transition at oil/water interfaces cannot be observed for octadecanol. Further, the mixed adsorbed film was shown to be enriched with cholesterol which is more surface active than octadecanol. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Plasma reactor waste management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.

    1992-01-01

    The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

  4. Simultaneous and Real-time Measurement of Gaseous Ammonia and Particulate Ammonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, E.; Lee, J. H.

    2001-05-01

    Gaseous ammonia reacts with acidic gaseous species to neutralize atmospheric acidity and forms ammonium salts. In this neutralization reaction, ammonia is converted to ammonium ion in the particles. It plays an important role as CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) in the cloud formation. Moreover it plays a role on the cooling effect resulting from the reflection of solar radiation back to the space. Therefore, an improved simultaneous and real-time measurement technique for gaseous ammonia/particulate ammonium is needed to study the formation mechanism of CCN. Dual channel system for simultaneous and ream-time measurement of gaseous ammonia/particulate ammonium is described. In the 1st channel both gaseous ammonia/particulate ammonium is collected through a glass coil sampling system without citric acid coated denuder. In the 2nd channel gaseous ammonia is removed from the citric acid coated denuder and only particulate ammonium is collected through a glass coil sampling system. Using continuous flow injection system, collected ammonia (ammonium) reacts with sodium sulfite and o-phthaldialdehyde producing fluorescent product, which is detected by the fluorescence detector. The 1st channel signal represents the sum of gaseous ammonia and particulate ammonium, and the 2nd channel signal with the citric acid coated denuder represents only particulate ammonium. The difference in signal between two channels represents gaseous ammonia. This system shows each signal every second, and the baseline is recorded every 3 or 4 hours. Collection efficiency for gaseous ammonia was determined using consecutive two glass coil samplers. For the 2nd channel, collection efficiency of particulate ammonium is tested adapting consecutive two coil samplers. Gaseous ammonia and particulate ammonium were measured in Kwangju, South Korea at real time by using improved dual channel measurement system, and the detailed results and discussion will be presented in the presentation.

  5. The influence of ozone on atmospheric emissions of gaseous elemental mercury and reactive gaseous mercury from substrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, M.A.; Sexauer, Gustin M.; Lindberg, S.E.; Gertler, A.W.; Ariya, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effect of ozone (O 3) on mercury (Hg) emission from a variety of Hg-bearing substrates. Substrates with Hg(II) as the dominant Hg phase exhibited a 1.7 to 51-fold increase in elemental Hg (Hgo) flux and a 1.3 to 8.6-fold increase in reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) flux in the presence of O3-enriched clean (50 ppb O3; 8 substrates) and ambient air (up to ???70 ppb O3; 6 substrates), relative to clean air (oxidant and Hg free air). In contrast, Hgo fluxes from two artificially Hgo-amended substrates decreased by more than 75% during exposure to O3-enriched clean air relative to clean air. Reactive gaseous mercury emissions from Hg o-amended substrates increased immediately after exposure to O 3 but then decreased rapidly. These experimental results demonstrate that O3 is very important in controlling Hg emissions from substrates. The chemical mechanisms that produced these trends are not known but potentially involve heterogenous reactions between O3, the substrate, and Hg. Our experiments suggest they are not homogenous gas-phase reactions. Comparison of the influence of O3 versus light on increasing Hgo emissions from dry Hg(II)-bearing substrates demonstrated that they have a similar amount of influence although O3 appeared to be slightly more dominant. Experiments using water-saturated substrates showed that the presence of high-substrate moisture content minimizes reactions between atmospheric O3 and substrate-bound Hg. Using conservative calculations developed in this paper, we conclude that because O3 concentrations have roughly doubled in the last 100 years, this could have increased Hgo emissions from terrestrial substrates by 65-72%. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Summary of findings on evaluation of aqueous degreasers versus chlorinated solvents at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, D.

    1988-01-01

    Spent trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TC-ane), and sludge are generated mainly as a result of vapor degreasing operations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Additionally, small quantities of spent chlorinated solvents are generated as a result of small parts cleanup. Additionally, some of the solvents become contaminated with uranium which classifies them as mixed waste for which no disposal method is currently available. Due to health and environmental concerns and the desire to minimize mixed and hazardous waste generation, a study was initiated to identify nonchlorinated, less toxic degreasers, perform laboratory testing of the most promising alternatives, and initiate field testing to determine if alternate degreasers present operational problems. The degreaser that cleaned and protected metal surfaces best was an all-purpose, water-based, hard surface cleaner consisting of biodegradable synthetic detergents, inorganic builders, and glycol either solvent. Additionally, this product was free-rinsing and did not leave any contaminants that would react with commonly used process gases. This product is recommended as a replacement for chlorinated solvents for many degreasing operations at PGDP.

  7. Nuclear criticality safety controls for uranium deposits during D and D at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Jollay, L.J. III; Dahl, T.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management has issued a challenge to complete DOE environmental cleanup within a decade. The response for Oak Ridge facilities is in accordance with the DOE ten-year plan which calls for completion of > 95% of environmental management work by the year 2006. This will result in a 99% risk reduction and in a significant savings in base line costs in waste management (legacy waste); remedial action (groundwater, soil, etc.); and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). It is assumed that there will be long-term institutional control of cascade equipment, i.e., there will be no walk away from sites, and that there will be firm radioactivity release limits by 1999 for recycle metals. An integral part of these plants is the removal of uranium deposits which pose nuclear criticality safety concerns in the shut down of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. DOE has initiated the Nuclear Criticality Stabilization Program to improve nuclear criticality safety by removing the larger uranium deposits from unfavorable geometry equipment. Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements have identified the location of these deposits. The objective of the K-25 Site Nuclear Criticality Stabilization Program is to remove and place uranium deposits into safe geometry storage containers to meet the double contingency principle. Each step of the removal process results in safer conditions where multiple controls are present. Upon completion of the Program, nuclear criticality risks will be greatly reduced.

  8. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford retrievable storage from Babcock and Wilcox, Leechburg, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.

    1994-02-14

    This report characterizes, as far as possible, the solid radioactive wastes generated by Babcock and Wilcox`s Park Township Plutonium Facility near Leechburg, Pennsylvania that were sent to retrievable storage at the Hanford Site. Solid waste as defined in this document is any containerized or self-contained material that has been declared waste. The objective is a description of characteristics of solid wastes that are or will be managed by the Restoration and Upgrades Program; gaseous or liquid effluents are discussed only at a summary level This characterization is of particular interest in the planning of transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval operations, including the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, because Babcock and Wilcox generated greater than 2.5 percent of the total volume of TRU waste currently stored at the Hanford Site.

  9. Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

  10. Treatment of a Chromate-Contaminated Soil Site by In Situ Gaseous Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Edward C.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Olsen, Khris B.; Giblin, Joel T.; Phelan, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory testing activities indicate that hexavalent chromium, a vadose zone contaminant at many waste sites owing to its mobility and toxicity, can be immobilized in place through chemical reduction to the nontoxic trivalent oxidation state using diluted hydrogen sulfide gas. Treating vadose zone contamination by in situ gaseous reduction thus may be potentially applied as part of an overall strategy for groundwater protection and remediation. A proof-of-concept field test has been undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Department of Defense in a joint demonstration conducted at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, to evaluate this remedial approach. This test involved injecting hydrogen sulfide diluted in air into contaminated vadose zone sediments via a centrally located borehole over a 76-day period. The gas mixture was then directed through the sediments using a vacuum applied to six extraction boreholes at the site periphery. Comparison of soil samples taken before and after the test indicated that 70% of the total mass of hexavalent chromium originally present at the site was reduced and immobilized. The zone of highest Cr(VI) contamination was nearly completely treated, with Cr(VI) concentrations of soil samples decreasing from an average of 8.1 mg/kg before treatment to 1.14 mg/kg after treatment and a mass reduction of 88% achieved. Treatment was generally better in zones of higher permeability sand containing less silt and clay. However, all Cr(VI) concentrations measured in post-test samples were well below the EPA Region 9 Residential Preliminary Remediation Goal of 30 mg/kg, compared to a maximum pre-test concentration as high as 85 mg/kg, thus indicating the viability of the technology as a remediation approach.

  11. Hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1981-12-01

    An international meeting held at the State Department in Washington, DC on hazardous waste management is discussed. The conference was held by the Committee on the Challenges to Modern Society of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Among the wastes considered at the meeting were chromium wastes, lead wastes, pesticides, mercury wastes, nickel wastes, oil refinery wastes, PCBs, cadmium wastes, and others. Radioactive wastes were not considered. Legislation, landfill use, recycling, and the Common Market's approach to these wastes were also discussed. (JMT)

  12. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  13. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2012-10-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA 3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro II-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmental Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 8.0 ± 3.1 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF =2.8 ± 1.6 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 × 1015 (kg fuel-1). In the accelerating mode size-resolved EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg fuel)-1. An anti

  14. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2013-05-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel-1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs) showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg

  15. Dynamical friction for supersonic motion in a homogeneous gaseous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thun, Daniel; Kuiper, Rolf; Schmidt, Franziska; Kley, Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    Context. The supersonic motion of gravitating objects through a gaseous ambient medium constitutes a classical problem in theoretical astrophysics. Its application covers a broad range of objects and scales from planetesimals, planets, and all kind of stars up to galaxies and black holes. In particular, the dynamical friction caused by the wake that forms behind the object plays an important role for the dynamics of the system. To calculate the dynamical friction for a particular system, standard formulae based on linear theory are often used. Aims: It is our goal to check the general validity of these formulae and provide suitable expressions for the dynamical friction acting on the moving object, based on the basic physical parameters of the problem: first, the mass, radius, and velocity of the perturber; second, the gas mass density, soundspeed, and adiabatic index of the gaseous medium; and finally, the size of the forming wake. Methods: We perform dedicated sequences of high-resolution numerical studies of rigid bodies moving supersonically through a homogeneous ambient medium and calculate the total drag acting on the object, which is the sum of gravitational and hydrodynamical drag. We study cases without gravity with purely hydrodynamical drag, as well as gravitating objects. In various numerical experiments, we determine the drag force acting on the moving body and its dependence on the basic physical parameters of the problem, as given above. From the final equilibrium state of the simulations, for gravitating objects we compute the dynamical friction by direct numerical integration of the gravitational pull acting on the embedded object. Results: The numerical experiments confirm the known scaling laws for the dependence of the dynamical friction on the basic physical parameters as derived in earlier semi-analytical studies. As a new important result we find that the shock's stand-off distance is revealed as the minimum spatial interaction scale of

  16. In Situ Gaseous Reduction Pilot Demonstration - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, E.C.; Phelan, J.M.; Giblin, J.T.; Olsen, K.B.; Miller, R.D.; Gilmore, T.J.

    1999-02-23

    The demonstration of the IGRS approach conducted at SWMU 143 on the White Sands Missile Range has provided information needed to complete a technical performance assessment and cost analysis of the technology. At least 70% of the Cr(VI) present in contaminated sediment at the site was reduced, thus verifying the effectiveness of the approach. Most of the treatment occurred in a zone located from {approximately}4 to 10 ft below ground surface, which appears to be a higher permeability interval. A deeper zone from {approximately}10 to 16 ft that contains lower levels of contamination was essentially unaffected. The deeper zone is somewhat finer grained and has a higher clay content and is, thus, less permeable. It appears that most of the treatment gas was channeled through the higher, more-permeable zone and the lower zone was bypassed. Treatment of the lower zone could probably be accomplished, however, if a second injection well were installed and screened across the zone so that treatment gas could be forced into this interval. The amount of H{sub 2}S consumed during the test exceeded the amount predicted by the laboratory treatability study. In addition, the levels of H{sub 2}S observed at the extraction wells were relatively low, even though a significant level of treatment was observed at the site. It is inferred that interfering reactions or slower reaction kinetics are the likely source of consumption of extra H{sub 2}S observed in the field. Future laboratory work will be undertaken to investigate the nature of these chemical reactions and the reaction rates associated with the gaseous reduction of Cr(VI) in soils. Elucidation of these effects may reveal methods for improving the effectiveness of the technology and reducing unit costs. A life-cycle cost model was developed for the technology based on demonstration information (Hogan 1998). This model suggests that the technology should compare favorably with excavation from a cost basis for larger sites

  17. Performance Capability of Single-Cavity Vortex Gaseous Nuclear Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, Robert G.

    1963-01-01

    An analysis was made to determine the maximum powerplant thrust-to-weight ratio possible with a single-cavity vortex gaseous reactor in which all the hydrogen propellant must diffuse through a fuel-rich region. An assumed radial temperature profile was used to represent conduction, convection, and radiation heat-transfer effects. The effect of hydrogen property changes due to dissociation and ionization was taken into account in a hydrodynamic computer program. It is shown that, even for extremely optimistic assumptions of reactor criticality and operating conditions, such a system is limited to reactor thrust-to-weight ratios of about 1.2 x 10(exp -3) for laminar flow. For turbulent flow, the maximum thrust-to-weight ratio is less than 10(exp -3). These low thrusts result from the fact that the hydrogen flow rate is limited by the diffusion process. The performance of a gas-core system with a specific impulse of 3000 seconds and a powerplant thrust-to-weight ratio of 10(exp -2) is shown to be equivalent to that of a 1000-second advanced solid-core system. It is therefore concluded that a single-cavity vortex gaseous reactor in which all the hydrogen must diffuse through the nuclear fuel is a low-thrust device and offers no improvement over a solid-core nuclear-rocket engine. To achieve higher thrust, additional hydrogen flow must be introduced in such a manner that it will by-pass the nuclear fuel. Obviously, such flow must be heated by thermal radiation. An illustrative model of a single-cavity vortex system employing supplementary flow of hydrogen through the core region is briefly examined. Such a system appears capable of thrust-to-weight ratios of approximately 1 to 10. For a high-impulse engine, this capability would be a considerable improvement over solid-core performance. Limits imposed by thermal radiation heat transfer to cavity walls are acknowledged but not evaluated. Alternate vortex concepts that employ many parallel vortices to achieve higher

  18. Gaseous fission product management for molten salt reactors and vented fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Messenger, S. J.; Forsberg, C.; Massie, M.

    2012-07-01

    for disposal of fission gas wastes. In each option, lithostatic pressure, a kilometer or more underground, eliminates the pressure driving force for noble gas release and dissolves any untrapped gas in deep groundwater or into incorporated solid waste forms. The options, challenges, and potential for these methods to dispose of gaseous fission products are described. With this research, we hope to help both MSRs and other advanced reactors come one step closer to commercialization. (authors)

  19. Results from the first Waste and Residue NDA Measurements School

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, N.; Abhold, M.; Coop, K.; Prettyman, T.; Rinard, P.; Sheppard, G.; Smith, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first Waste and Residue Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Measurements School was given at Los Alamos on June 3--7, 1996. This school is a new part of the DOE Office of Safeguards and Security, Safeguards Training Program, with additional instructor support from the National Transuranic Waste Program, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Westinghouse savannah River Company, Pajarito Scientific Corporation, and Canberra Industries. The school was attended by 22 safeguards and waste measurement personnel from DOE facilities, and included lectures on waste characterization requirements, the WIPP Performance Demonstration Program, waste and residue NDA techniques, and a workshop discussion on waste assay issues. Hands-on training modules with 55-gallon-drum waste assay systems were held using a Segmented Gamma-ray Scanner, a Tomographic Gamma-ray Scanner, two Add-a-Source Waste-Drum Assay Systems, a Californium Shuffler, and a Differential Die-away system that included Combined Thermal-Epithermal Neutron Interrogation (CTEN). This paper will describe the new school and report on the measurement results obtained during the school with the above-mentioned waste-drum assay systems.

  20. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 4, Site specific---Ohio through South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE`s mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes at the following five Ohio facilities: Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Fernald Environmental Management Project; Mound Plant; Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and RMI, Titanium Company.

  1. Tensile properties of ADI material in water and gaseous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rajnovic, Dragan; Balos, Sebastian; Sidjanin, Leposava; Eric Cekic, Olivera; Grbovic Novakovic, Jasmina

    2015-03-15

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is an advanced type of heat treated ductile iron, having comparable mechanical properties as forged steels. However, it was found that in contact with water the mechanical properties of austempered ductile irons decrease, especially their ductility. Despite considerable scientific attention, the cause of this phenomenon remains unclear. Some authors suggested that hydrogen or small atom chemisorption causes the weakening of the surface atomic bonds. To get additional reliable data of that phenomenon, in this paper, two different types of austempered ductile irons were tensile tested in various environments, such as: argon, helium, hydrogen gas and water. It was found that only the hydrogen gas and water gave a statistically significant decrease in mechanical properties, i.e. cause embrittlement. Furthermore, the fracture surface analysis revealed that the morphology of the embrittled zone near the specimen surface shares similarities to the fatigue micro-containing striation-like lines, which indicates that the morphology of the brittle zone may be caused by cyclic local-chemisorption, micro-embrittlement and local-fracture. - Highlights: • In contact with water and other liquids the ADI suddenly exhibits embrittlement. • The embrittlement is more pronounced in water than in the gaseous hydrogen. • The hydrogen chemisorption into ADI surface causes the formation of a brittle zone. • The ADI austempered at lower temperatures (300 °C) is more resistant to embrittlement.

  2. The chemistry of gaseous acids in medieval churches in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupa, G.; Charpantidou, E.; Karageorgos, E.; Rapsomanikis, S.

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of HCl, HNO 3, HCOOH and CH 3COOH were determined in two medieval churches in Cyprus, during July 2003 and March 2004. The high air exchange rate through the open windows and doors led to lower indoor, compared to outdoor, acid concentrations in July 2003. Indoor pollutant emissions and a low air exchange rate resulted in higher indoor compared to outdoors acid concentrations in both churches during March 2004. Indoor to outdoor inorganic acid ratios were higher than the corresponding indoor to outdoor organic acid ratios during July 2003, whilst the opposite trend was observed during March 2004. Direct acid emission from candle burning appears to play a major role in the observed indoor acid concentrations. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from other sources, like humans, cleaning products and incense, led also to formation or depletion of the gaseous acids via homogeneous photochemical, heterogeneous and dark reaction sequences. Chemical reaction pathways were extensively investigated and appear to explain the observed results. The apparent indoor acid deposition velocities ranged between 0.05 and 0.15 cm s -1.

  3. Dispersing the Gaseous Protoplanetary Disk and Halting Type II Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecar, M.; Sasselov, D. D.

    2003-10-01

    More than 30 extrasolar Jupiter-like planets have shorter periods than the planet Mercury. It is generally accepted that they formed farther out, past the ``snow line'' (~1 AU), and migrated inward. In order to be driven by tidal torques from the gaseous disk, the disk exterior to the planet had to contain about a planetary mass. The fact that the planets stopped migrating means that their outer disk was removed. We suggest, following the simulation by Kley and Bate et al., that the outer disk was accreted by the planet. This not only halts migration but removes the outer disk. For planets exterior to about 2 AU, the outer disk could have been removed by photoevaporation (Matsuyama et al.). Furthermore, as also shown by Bate et al., this process also provides an upper limit to planetary masses in agreement with the analysis of observed planetary masses by Zucker & Mazeh. In this scenario, the endgame is a race. The central star is accreting the inner disk and the planet, while the planet is accreting the outer disk. The planet survives if it accretes its outer disk before being accreted by the star. The winner is determined solely by the ratio of the mass of the outer disk to the local surface density of the disk. Some planets certainly lose the race and are eaten by the central star.

  4. Thermal Conductivity of Nonazeotropic Gaseous Mixtures of Fluorocarbon Refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Ueno, Hiroshi; Kubota, Hironobu; Makita, Tadashi

    The thermal conductivity of four binary gaseous mixtures of R22 (CHCIF2) with R13(CClF3), R23(CHF3), R12(CCl2F2) and R114(CClF2·CClF2) has been measured at temperatures 298.15 and 323.15K under pressures from atmospheric to saturated pressures by a coaxial cylinder cell. The precision of the thermal conductivity obtained is within 2%. The thermal conductivity of mixtures increases with increasing temperature and pressure at a constant composition. The thermal conductivity in each mixture changes almost linearly with the concentration of R22 at a constant temperature and pressure, although the thermal conductivity at each composition is slightly larger than the calculated values by a simple molefraction average method. The experimental results were correlated with composition and pressure by empirical equations and compared with several kinds of prediction methods. The Brokaw's equation is found to reproduce the experimental data most successfully with a mean deviation of 0.7%.

  5. Photoelectron spectroscopy of wet and gaseous samples through graphene membranes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kraus, Jürgen; Reichelt, Robert; Günther, Sebastian; Gregoratti, Luca; Amati, Matteo; Kiskinova, Maya; Yulaev, Alexander; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and microscopy are highly important for exploring morphologically and chemically complex liquid–gas, solid–liquid and solid–gas interfaces under realistic conditions, but the very small electron mean free path inside dense media imposes serious experimental challenges. Currently, near ambient pressure PES is conducted using dexterously designed electron energy analyzers coupled with differentially pumped electron lenses which make it possible to conduct PES measurements at a few hPa. This report proposes an alternative ambient pressure approach that can be applied to a broad class of samples and be implemented in conventional PES instruments. It uses ultrathin electron transparent but molecularmore » impermeable membranes to isolate the high pressure sample environment from the high vacuum PES detection system. We show that the separating graphene membrane windows are both mechanically robust and sufficiently transparent for electrons in a wide energy range to allow soft X-ray PES of liquid and gaseous water. The performed proof-of-principle experiments confirm the possibility to probe vacuum-incompatible toxic or reactive samples placed inside such hermetic, gas flow or fluidic environmental cells.« less

  6. Photoelectron spectroscopy of wet and gaseous samples through graphene membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Jürgen; Reichelt, Robert; Günther, Sebastian; Gregoratti, Luca; Amati, Matteo; Kiskinova, Maya; Yulaev, Alexander; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and microscopy are highly important for exploring morphologically and chemically complex liquid–gas, solid–liquid and solid–gas interfaces under realistic conditions, but the very small electron mean free path inside dense media imposes serious experimental challenges. Currently, near ambient pressure PES is conducted using dexterously designed electron energy analyzers coupled with differentially pumped electron lenses which make it possible to conduct PES measurements at a few hPa. This report proposes an alternative ambient pressure approach that can be applied to a broad class of samples and be implemented in conventional PES instruments. It uses ultrathin electron transparent but molecular impermeable membranes to isolate the high pressure sample environment from the high vacuum PES detection system. We show that the separating graphene membrane windows are both mechanically robust and sufficiently transparent for electrons in a wide energy range to allow soft X-ray PES of liquid and gaseous water. The performed proof-of-principle experiments confirm the possibility to probe vacuum-incompatible toxic or reactive samples placed inside such hermetic, gas flow or fluidic environmental cells.

  7. Photoresist removal using gaseous sulfur trioxide cleaning technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Puppo, Helene; Bocian, Paul B.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1999-06-01

    A novel cleaning method for removing photoresists and organic polymers from semiconductor wafers is described. This non-plasma method uses anhydrous sulfur trioxide gas in a two-step process, during which, the substrate is first exposed to SO3 vapor at relatively low temperatures and then is rinsed with de-ionized water. The process is radically different from conventional plasma-ashing methods in that the photoresist is not etched or removed during the exposure to SO3. Rather, the removal of the modified photoresist takes place during the subsequent DI-water rinse step. The SO3 process completely removes photoresist and polymer residues in many post-etch applications. Additional advantages of the process are absence of halogen gases and elimination of the need for other solvents and wet chemicals. The process also enjoys a very low cost of ownership and has minimal environmental impact. The SEM and SIMS surface analysis results are presented to show the effectiveness of gaseous SO3 process after polysilicon, metal an oxide etch applications. The effects of both chlorine- and fluorine-based plasma chemistries on resist removal are described.

  8. Measurements of reactive gaseous rocket injector response factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Daniel, B. R.; Bell, W. A.; Zinn, B. T.

    1977-01-01

    The results presented represent the first successful attempt at the measurement of the driving capabilities of coaxial gaseous propellant rocket injectors. The required data have been obtained by employing the modified impedance tube technique with compressed air as the oxidizer and acetylene gas as the fuel. The data describe the frequency dependence of the injector admittances, from which the frequency dependence of the injection response factors can be calculated. The measured injector admittances have been compared with the predictions of the Feiler and Heidmann (1967) analytical model assuming different values for the characteristic combustion time. The values of combustion time which result in a best fit between the measured and predicted data are indicated for different equivalence ratios. It is shown that for the coaxial injector system investigated in this study the characteristic combustion times vary between .7 and 1.2 msec for equivalence ratios in the range of .57 to 1.31. The experimental data clearly show that the tested injector system could indeed drive combustion instabilities over a frequency range that is in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the Feiler and Heidmann model.

  9. GASEOUS CO ABUNDANCE-AN EVOLUTIONARY TRACER FOR MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei E-mail: ywu@pku.edu.cn

    2013-09-20

    Planck cold clumps are among the most promising objects to investigate the initial conditions of the evolution of molecular clouds. In this work, by combing the dust emission data from the survey of the Planck satellite with the molecular data of {sup 12}CO/{sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O (1-0) lines from observations with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m telescope, we investigate the CO abundance, CO depletion, and CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor of 674 clumps in the early cold cores sample. The median and mean values of the CO abundance are 0.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} and 1.28 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, respectively. The mean and median of CO depletion factor are 1.7 and 0.9, respectively. The median value of X{sub CO-to-H{sub 2}} for the whole sample is 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} K{sup -1} km{sup -1} s. The CO abundance, CO depletion factor, and CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor are strongly (anti-)correlated to other physical parameters (e.g., dust temperature, dust emissivity spectral index, column density, volume density, and luminosity-to-mass ratio). To conclude, the gaseous CO abundance can be used as an evolutionary tracer for molecular clouds.

  10. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Northwest Plume interceptor system evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Laase, A.D.; Clausen, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) recently installed an interceptor system consisting of four wells, evenly divided between two well fields, to contain the Northwest Plume. As stated in the Northwest Plume Record of Decision (ROD), groundwater will be pumped at a rate to reduce further contamination and initiate control of the northwest contaminant plume. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the optimum (minimal) well field pumping rates required for plume hotspot containment. Plume hotspot, as defined in the Northwest Plume ROD and throughout this report, is that portion of the plume with trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations greater than 1,000 {micro}g/L. An existing 3-dimensional groundwater model was modified and used to perform capture zone analyses of the north and south interceptor system well fields. Model results suggest that the plume hotspot is not contained at the system design pumping rate of 100 gallons per minute (gal/min) per well field. Rather, the modeling determined that north and south well field pumping rates of 400 and 150 gal/min, respectively, are necessary for plume hotspot containment. The difference between the design and optimal pumping rates required for containment can be attributed to the discovery of a highly transmissive zone in the vicinity of the two well fields.

  11. Modeling of gaseous flows within proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Grot, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Development of a comprehensive mechanistic model has been helpful to understand PEM fuel cell performance. Both through-the-electrode and down-the-channel models have been developed to support our experimental effort to enhance fuel cell design and operation. The through-the-electrode model was described previously. This code describes the known transport properties and dynamic processes that occur within a membrane and electrode assembly. Key parameters include transport through the backing layers, water diffusion and electroosmotic transport in the membrane, and reaction electrochemical kinetics within the cathode catalyst layer. In addition, two geometric regions within the cathode layer are represented, the first region below saturation and second with liquid water present. Although processes at high gas stoichiometry are well represented by more simple codes, moderate stoichiometry processes require a two dimensional representation that include the gaseous composition and temperature along flow channel. Although usually PEM hardware utilizes serpentine flow channels, this code does not include such geometric features and thus the flow can be visualized along a single channel.

  12. Acceleration of Ions from a near critical density gaseous target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helle, Michael; Gordon, Daniel; Kaganovich, Dmitri; Ting, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Efficient acceleration of ions by means of high power laser radiation requires electron plasma densities at or in excess of the critical density. For optical wavelengths where most of the world's high intensity lasers operate, the critical density is nCRIT ~ 2*1021 cm-3. This value lies between gaseous and solid like densities making it difficult to obtain. In order to reach these densities a ``gas foil'' target has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The target is created by igniting an optically driven hydrodynamic shock into the gas flow of a gas jet in vacuum. Experiments have shown that a laser-ignited shock is capable of producing <10 μm gradients, thicknesses ~ 100 μm, and peak densities >4 times ambient. 3D PIC simulations of the interaction of an intense laser pulse with this type of thin, near critical density target have shown characteristics of the recently purposed Magnetic Vortex Acceleration mechanism. This mechanism takes advantage of an inductive accelerating field at the rear of the target. This field is generated by the strong azimuthal magnetic field produced by electrons accelerating through the target. Simulations and preliminary experimental results using the TFL laser system at NRL will be discussed. This work is supported by the Department of Energy and the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program.

  13. Passive air sampling of gaseous elemental mercury: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLagan, David S.; Mazur, Maxwell E. E.; Mitchell, Carl P. J.; Wania, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Because gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is distributed globally through the atmosphere, reliable means of measuring its concentrations in air are important. Passive air samplers (PASs), designed to be cheap, simple to operate, and to work without electricity, could provide an alternative to established active sampling techniques in applications such as (1) long-term monitoring of atmospheric GEM levels in remote regions and in developing countries, (2) atmospheric mercury source identification and characterization through finely resolved spatial mapping, and (3) the recording of personal exposure to GEM. An effective GEM PAS requires a tightly constrained sampling rate, a large and stable uptake capacity, and a sensitive analytical technique. None of the GEM PASs developed to date achieve levels of accuracy and precision sufficient for the reliable determination of background concentrations over extended deployments. This is due to (1) sampling rates that vary due to meteorological factors and manufacturing inconsistencies, and/or (2) an often low, irreproducible and/or unstable uptake capacity of the employed sorbents. While we identify shortcomings of existing GEM PAS, we also reveal potential routes to overcome those difficulties. Activated carbon and nanostructured metal surfaces hold promise as effective sorbents. Sampler designs incorporating diffusive barriers should be able to notably reduce the influence of wind on sampling rates.

  14. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  15. Distinguishing between microscale gaseous bubbles and liquid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Beng Hau; An, Hongjie; Chan, Chon U.; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, there has been strong research interest in decorating surfaces with tiny bubbles and drops due to their potential applications in reducing slippage in micro and nanofluidic devices. Both nanobubbles and nanodrops are typically nucleated by exchanging fluids over a suitable substrate. However, the nucleation experiments present many challenges, such as reproducibility and the possibility of contamination. The use of one-use plastic syringes and needle cannulas in nucleation experiments can introduce polymeric contamination. A contaminated experiment may nucleate bubbles, drops or both. Moreover, it is surprisingly difficult to distinguish between bubbles and drops under the usual atomic force microscopy or optical techniques. Here we present an experimental study comparing bubbles and oil (PDMS) drops on an atomically smooth surface (HOPG). Instead of nucleating the objects via solvent exchange, we directly introduced bubbles via electrolysis, and oil drops by injecting a dilute solution. Contrary to previous reports, we find that under careful AFM characterisation, liquid drops and gaseous bubbles respond differently to a change in imaging force, and moreover present different characteristic force curves.

  16. IAEA verification experiment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.M.; Subudhi, M.; Calvert, O.L.; Bonner, T.N.; Adams, J.G.; Cherry, R.C.; Whiting, N.E.

    1998-08-01

    In April 1996, the United States (US) added the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to the list of facilities eligible for the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. At that time, the US proposed that the IAEA carry out a Verification Experiment at the plant with respect to the downblending of about 13 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the form of UF{sub 6}. This material is part of the 226 metric tons of fissile material that President Clinton has declared to be excess to US national-security needs and which will be permanently withdrawn from the US nuclear stockpile. In September 1997, the IAEA agreed to carry out this experiment, and during the first three weeks of December 1997, the IAEA verified the design information concerning the downblending process. The plant has been subject to short-notice random inspections since December 17, 1997. This paper provides an overview of the Verification Experiment, the monitoring technologies used in the verification approach, and some of the experience gained to date.

  17. Bioavailability study for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, T.L.; Kszos, L.A.

    1996-08-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to assess the bioavailability of metals in the continuous and intermittent outfalls. The results may be used to determine alternative metal limits that more appropriately measure the portion of metal present necessary for toxicity to aquatic life. These limits must remain protective of in-stream aquatic life; thus, the highest concentration of metal in the water will be determined concurrently with an assessment of acute or chronic toxicity on laboratory tests. Using the method developed by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW), biomonitoring results and chemical data will be used to recommend alternative metal limits for the outfalls of concern. The data will be used to meet the objectives of the study: (1) evaluate the toxicity of continuous outfalls and intermittent outfalls at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; (2) determine the mean ratio of dissolved to Total Recoverable metal for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in the continuous and intermittent outfalls; (3) determine whether the concentration of total recoverable metal discharged causes toxicity to fathead minnows and /or Ceriodaphnia; and (4) determine alternative metal limits for each metal of concern (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn).

  18. Acceleration of solid particles by gaseous detonation products

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilenko, T.P.; Grigoriev, V.V.; Zhdan, S.A.; Nikolaev, Y.A.; Boiko, V.M.; Papyrin, A.N.

    1986-11-01

    This investigation is concerned with a theoretical and experimental study of acceleration dynamics of spherically inert solid particles (100 ..mu..m nominal diameter) in flows of gaseous detonation products. The experiments were conducted in a detonation channel 1.5 m long with a 20 x 20 mm/sup 2/ cross section and one open end. Particle motion was observed with the method of multiexposure photographic recording and a laser stroboscopic light source. The character of velocity variation of individual particles inside and outside of the channel was investigated for different initial positions of particles. Under certain conditions the accelerated particles are destroyed. A mathematical model based on two-phase multivelocity continuum mechanics has been formulated to describe the detonation wave propagation, outflow of detonation products from the channel, and interaction between particles and a nonstationary flow of detonation products. The model includes chemical equilibrium of detonation products, particle acceleration, heat exchange between phases and channel walls, particle melting, and fragmentation of droplets if the Weber number exceeds some critical value. Particle destruction has been correlated with the initial position, diameter, and physical properties of particles. Comparison of computer and experimental results shows that the model satisfactorily describes acceleration, heating, and fragmentation of particles.

  19. Spontaneous Raman Scattering Diagnostics for High-pressure Gaseous Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Reddy, D. R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A high-pressure (up to 60 atm) gaseous burner facility with optical access that provides steady, reproducible flames with high precision, and the ability to use multiple fuel/oxidizer combinations has been developed. In addition, a high-performance spontaneous Raman scattering system for use in the above facility has also been developed. Together, the two systems will be used to acquire and establish a comprehensive Raman scattering spectral database for use as a quantitative high-pressure calibration of single-shot Raman scattering measurements in high-pressure combustion systems. Using these facilities, the Raman spectra of H2-Air flames were successfully measured at pressures up to 20 atm. The spectra demonstrated clear rotational and ro-vibrational Raman features of H2, N2, and H2O. theoretical Raman spectra of pure rotational H2, vibrational H2, and vibrational N2 were calculated using a classical harmonic-oscillator model with pressure broadening effects and fitted to the data. At a gas temperature of 1889 K for a phi = 1.34 H2-Air flame, the model and the data showed good agreement, confirming a ro-vibrational equilibrium temperature.

  20. Dark oxidation of dissolved gaseous mercury in polar ice mimics.

    PubMed

    O'Concubhair, Ruairí; O'Sullivan, Daniel; Sodeau, John R

    2012-05-01

    The low-temperature chemistry associated with environmentally available mercury has recently attracted considerable scientific interest due to the discovery of systemic gas-phase mercury depletion events (MDEs) which occur periodically at the poles. However, the fate of the mercury once it enters the snowpack is not fully understood, even its chemical speciation has yet to be well characterized. An issue that is of particular concern in frozen environments is the transformation of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to more bioavailable oxidized forms, which can then be methylated by biotic and abiotic processes. The resulting methyl mercury species produced can bioaccumulate through the food chain and the health effects of this on humans and mammals have been well-documented. During the current study, a novel set of "freeze-induced" pathways, which can potentially affect the reactivity of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) were followed. The experiments were performed using environmentally relevant cosolutes at appropriate concentration levels and temperatures. Evidence is thereby presented that due to rate accelerations associated with the operation of the freeze-concentration effect, DGM is oxidized to Hg(2+) ions when frozen in the presence of a variety of materials including hydrogen peroxide, nitrous acid and the sulfuric acid/O(2) couple.

  1. Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of PH 13-8 Mo steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Y. S.; Tsay, L. W.; Chiang, M. F.; Chen, C.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, notched tensile and fatigue crack growth tests in gaseous hydrogen were performed on PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel specimens at room temperature. These specimens were susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement (HE), but at different degrees, depending on the aging conditions or the microstructures of the alloys. In hydrogen, the accelerated fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) usually accompanied a reduced notched tensile strength (NTS) of the specimens, i.e., the faster the FCGR the lower the NTS. It was proposed that the same fracture mechanism could be applied to these two different types of specimens, regardless of the loading conditions. Rapid fatigue crack growth and high NTS loss were found in the H800 (426 °C under-aged) and H900 (482 °C peak-aged) specimens. The HE susceptibility of the steel was reduced by increasing the aging temperature above 593 °C, which was attributed to the increased amount of austenite in the structure. Extensive quasi-cleavage fracture was observed for the specimens that were deteriorated severely by HE.

  2. Tidal Decay and Roche-Lobe Overflow of Gaseous Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Brian; Jensen, Emily; Peacock, Sarah; Arras, Phil; Penev, Kaloyan

    2016-10-01

    Many gaseous exoplanets in short-period orbits are on the verge or are in the process of Roche-lobe overflow (RLO). Moreover, orbital stability analysis shows tides can drive many hot Jupiters to spiral inevitably toward their host stars, and the distributions of orbital periods and semi-major axes point to non-negligible orbital decay during the main sequence lifetimes of the host stars. Thus, the coupled processes of orbital evolution and RLO likely shape the observed distribution of close-in exoplanets. However, the exact outcome for an overflowing planet depends on its internal response to mass loss, and the accompanying orbital evolution can act to enhance or inhibit RLO. Applying the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) suite to model RLO, we find that, although the detailed evolution may depend on several properties of the planetary system, it is largely determined by the core mass of the overflowing gas giant. In particular, we find that the orbital expansion that accompanies RLO often stops and reverses at a specific maximum period that depends on the core mass. We suggest that RLO may often strand the remnant of a gas giant near or interior to this orbital period, providing an observational prediction that can corroborate the RLO hypothesis. We conduct a preliminary comparison of this prediction to the observed population of small, short-period planets and find some planets in orbits that may be consistent with this picture.

  3. NASA Research on the Hydrodynamics of the Gaseous Vortex Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, Robert G.

    1960-01-01

    The experimental and analytical results to date of a study of a two-component gaseous vortex system are presented in this paper. Analytical expressions for tangential velocity and static-pressure profiles in a turbulent vortex show good agreement with experimental data. Airflow rates from 0.075 to 0.14 pound per second and corresponding tangential velocities from 160 to 440 feet per second are correlated by turbulent Reynolds numbers from 1.95 to 2.4. An analysis of an air-bromine gas mixture in a turbulent vortex indicates that a boundary value of bromine-to-air radial velocity ratio (u(2)/u(1)) of 0.999 gives essentially no bromine buildup, while a value of 0.833 results in considerable separation. For a constant value of (u(2)/u(1))(0) the bromine buildup increases as (1) the tangential velocity increases, (2) the air-to-bromine weight-flow ratio decreases, (3) the airflow rate decreases, (4) the temperature decreases, and (5) the turbulence decreases. Analytical temperature, pressure, and tangential-velocity profiles are also presented. Preliminary experimental results indicate that the flow of an air-bromine mixture through a vortex field results in a bromine density increase to a maximum value; followed by a decrease; the air density exhibits a uniform decrease from the outer vortex radius to the exhaust-nozzle radius.

  4. Gaseous hydrocarbons from flash pyrolysis of almond shells

    SciTech Connect

    Font, R.; Marcilla, A.; Devesa, J.; Verdu, E.

    1988-07-01

    By use of a sand fluidized bed reactor, yields from major products from almond shells pyrolysis were measured in the 745-950/sup 0/C temperature range. A Pyroprobe 100 pyrolyzer was also used to study the influence of particle size temperature and catalysts impregnated in the almond shell samples. The highest yield of gas was obtained in the sand fluidized bed reactor, without catalyst impregnated in the almond shells, at a temperature of 890/sup 0/C and at a residence time of volatiles of ca. 2.3 s. Under these conditions, the yields of the major products are the following: 1.5% H/sub 2/, 8.3% CH/sub 4/, 4% C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, 45% CO, 28% CO/sub 2/, 0.7% C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ 0.5% C/sub 3/H/sub 6/ (weight dry basis). From the different set of experiments, it has been deduced that the production of the gaseous hydrocarbons can be explained taking into account the CO yield. The yields obtained with the fluidized bed reactor were greater than those from the Pyroprobe 100. This is due to the cracking reactions of the volatilized tars. In addition, a better heat transfer in the fluidized bed reactor has probably a certain influence.

  5. Gaseous fueled vehicles: A role for natural gas and hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Jasionowski, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The commercialization of gaseous hydrogen fueled vehicles requires both the development of hydrogen fueled vehicles and the establishment of a hydrogen fueling infrastructure. These requirements create a classic chicken and egg scenario in that manufacturers will not build and consumers will not buy vehicles without an adequate refueling infrastructure and potential refueling station operators will not invest the needed capital without an adequate market to serve. One solution to this dilemma is to create a bridging strategy whereby hydrogen is introduced gradually via another carrier. The only contending alternative fuel that can act as a bridge to hydrogen fueled vehicles is natural gas. To explore this possibility, IGT is conducting emission tests on its dedicated natural gas vehicle (NGV) test platform to determine what, if any, effects small quantities of hydrogen have on emissions and performance. Furthermore, IGT is actively developing an adsorbent based low-pressure natural gas storage system for NGV applications. This system has also shown promise as a storage media for hydrogen. A discussion of our research results in this area will be presented. Finally, a review of IGT's testing facility will be presented to indicate our capabilities in conducted natural gas/hydrogen vehicle (NGHV) research. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Innovative Decontamination Technology for Use in Gaseous Diffusion Plant Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, M.J.; Norton, C.J.; Fraikor, G.B.; Potter, G.L.; Chang, K.C.

    2006-07-01

    The results of bench scale tests demonstrated that TechXtract{sup R} RadPro{sup TM} technology (hereinafter referred to as RadPro{sup R}) can provide 100% coverage of complex mockup gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) equipment and can decontaminate uranium (U) deposits with 98% to 99.99% efficiency. Deployment tests demonstrated RadPro{sup R} can be applied as foam, mist/fog, or steam, and fully cover the internal surfaces of complex mockup equipment, including large piping. Decontamination tests demonstrated that two formulations of RadPro{sup R}, one with neutron attenuators and one without neutron attenuators, could remove up to 99.99% of uranyl fluoride deposits, one of the most difficult to remove deposits in GDP equipment. These results were supplemented by results from previous tests conducted in 1994 that showed RadPro{sup R} could remove >97% of U and Tc-99 contamination from actual GDP components. Operational use of RadPro{sup R} at other DOE and commercial facilities also support these data. (authors)

  7. Contamination of liquid oxygen by pressurized gaseous nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; King, Tracy K.; Ngo, Kim Chi

    1989-01-01

    The penetration of pressurized gaseous nitrogen (GN2) into liquid oxygen (LOX) was investigated experimentally in the 7-inch High Temperature Tunnel, the pilot tunnel for the 8-foot High Temperature Tunnel (8'HTT) at Langley Research Center. A preliminary test using a nuclear monitor revealed the extent of the liquid nitrogen (LN2) build-up at the LOX interface as a function of GN2 pressure. Then an adaptation of the differential flash vaporization technique was used to determine the binary diffusivity of the LOX-LN2 system at a temperature of 90.2 K. The measured value D equals 0.000086 sq cm/s + or - 25 percent together with two prior measurements at lower temperatures revealed an excellent fit to the Arrhenius equation, yielding a pre-exponential factor D sub 0 equals 0.0452 sq cm/s and an activation enthalpy H equals 1.08 kcal/mol. At a pressure of 1700 psi and holding time of 15 min, the penetration of LN2 into LOX (to a 1 percent contamination level) was found to be 0.9 cm, indicating but minimal impact upon 8'HTT operations.

  8. Gaseous phase coal surface modification. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Okoh, J.M.; Pinion, J.; Thiensatit, S.

    1992-05-07

    In this report, we present an improved, feasible and potentially cost effective method of cleaning and beneficiating ultrafine coal. Increased mechanization of mining methods and the need towards depyritization, and demineralization have led to an increase in the quantity of coal fines generated in recent times. For example, the amount of {minus}100 mesh coal occurring in coal preparation plant feeds now typically varies from 5 to 25% of the total feed. Environmental constraints coupled with the greatly increased cost of coal have made it increasingly important to recover more of these fines. Our method chemically modifies the surface of such coals by a series of gaseous phase treatments employing Friedel-Crafts reactions. By using olefins (ethene, propene and butene) and hydrogen chloride catalyst at elevated temperature, the surface hydrophobicity of coal is enhanced. This increased hydrophobicity is manifest in surface phenomena which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid interphase (zeta potential) and those which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid/gas interphases (contact angle, wettability and floatability).

  9. Suppression of Buoyancy in Gaseous Media at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2003-01-01

    Consider a rectangular box filled with a fluid having a heated bottom and a cold top surface, and insulated side-walls (Benard problem). As the temperature difference between the horizontal top and bottom surfaces increases, a critical condition, defined quantitatively by the Rayleigh number, is reached beyond which density stratification can no longer be sustained by conduction and the fluid disrupts from its stable, quiescent state into an unstable, convective mode in which lighter and heavier gas mix. This paper suggests that such a statement is not necessarily true for gaseous media under normalized temperature differences that are much larger than justifiable for the Boussinesq approximation! In fact, there may be situations where a system cannot ever be made unstable with respect to the onset on buoyant convection no matter how large the temperature (density) difference becomes at a given pressure even under normal gravity! This unexpected behavior is primarily attributed to highly temperature-sensitive kinematic viscosity which counteracts the tendency toward instability and dampens convection by making the gas more viscous at higher temperatures. This compensation of the buoyant force by the viscous force exhibits itself by the formation of a peak hot-surface temperature beyond which a system will tend to be more stable as the hot-surface temperature increases.

  10. Ultraviolet Channeling Dynamics in Gaseous Media for X -- Ray Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkindale, John Charters

    The development of a coherent high brightness / short duration X -- ray source has been of considerable interest to the scientific community as well as various industries since the invention of the technology. Possible applications include X -- ray lithography, biological micro-imaging and the probing of molecular and atomic dynamics. One such source under investigation involves the interaction of a high pulsed power KrF UV laser with a noble gas target (krypton or xenon), producing a photon energy from 1 -- 5 keV. Amplification in this regime requires materials with very special properties found in spatially organized hollow atom clusters. One of the driving forces behind X -- ray production is the UV laser. Theoretical analysis shows that above a critical laser power, the formation of a stable plasma channel in the gaseous medium will occur which can act as a guide for the X-ray pulse and co-propagating UV beam. These plasma channels are visualized with a triple pinhole camera, axial and transverse von Hamos spectrometers and a Thomson scattering setup. In order to understand observed channel morphologies, full characterization of the drive laser was achieved using a Transient Grating -- Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (TG-FROG) technique which gives a full temporal representation of the electric field and associated phase of the ultrashort pulse. Insights gleaned from the TG -- FROG data as well as analysis of photodiode diagnostics placed along the UV laser amplification chain provide explanations for the plasma channel morphology and X -- ray output.

  11. A new method for oxidation of gaseous, elemental mercury.

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C. D.; Mendelsohn, M. H.

    1999-08-23

    Elemental mercury (Hg) is difficult to remove from flue-gas streams using existing wet-scrubber technology, primarily because of its limited volubility in water. We have proposed and tested a concept for enhancing gaseous Hg{sup 0}removal in wet scrubber systems by altering the chemical form of the Hg{sup 0} to a water-soluble oxidized species. Recently, we have discovered a new method for injection of the oxidizing species that dramatically improves reactant utilization and at the same time gives significant nitric oxide (NO) oxidation as well. Our method uses a diluted oxidizing solution containing chloric acid and sodium chlorate (sold commercially as NOXSORB{trademark}). When this solution is injected into a gas stream containing Hg{sup 0} at about 300 F, we found that nearly 100% of the Hg{sup 0} was removed from the gas phase and was recovered in liquid samples from the test system. At the same time, approximately 80% of the added NO was also removed (oxidized). The effect of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) on this method was also investigated, and it appears to decrease slightly the amount of Hg oxidized. We are currently testing the effect of variations in oxidizing solution concentration, SO{sub 2} concentration, NO concentration, and reaction time (residence time).

  12. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.W. )

    1990-10-01

    This calendar year 1989 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the Summary, Discussion, and Conclusions (Part 1) and the Data Presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are the following: report 1989 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance. Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the DOE site are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, to identify trends, to provide information for the public, and to contribute to general environmental knowledge. The surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of protecting the public, employees, and environment from harm that could be caused by its activities and reducing negative environmental impacts to the greatest degree practicable. Environmental-monitoring information complements data on specific releases, trends, and summaries. 26 refs.

  13. Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Whitesides, R; Hessel, R P; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M

    2010-12-03

    A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.

  14. Formation and thermodynamics of gaseous germanium and tin vanadates: a mass spectrometric and quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Shugurov, S M; Panin, A I; Lopatin, S I; Emelyanova, K A

    2015-06-01

    The stabilities of gaseous germanium and tin vanadates were confirmed by high temperature mass spectrometry, and its structures were determined by quantum chemical calculations. A number of gas-phase reactions involving these gaseous salts were studied. On the basis of the equilibrium constants, the standard formation enthalpies of gaseous GeV2O6 (-1520 ± 42 kJ mol(-1)) and SnV2O6 (-1520 ± 43 kJ mol(-1)) were determined at a temperature of 298 K.

  15. Energy recovery from solid waste. [production engineering model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, C.; Huang, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A recent group study on the problem of solid waste disposal provided a decision making model for a community to use in determining the future for its solid waste. The model is a combination of the following factors: technology, legal, social, political, economic and environmental. An assessment of local or community needs determines what form of energy recovery is desirable. A market for low pressure steam or hot water would direct a community to recover energy from solid waste by incineration to generate steam. A fuel gas could be produced by a process known as pyrolysis if there is a local market for a low heating value gaseous fuel. Solid waste can also be used directly as a fuel supplemental to coal in a steam generator. An evaluation of these various processes is made.

  16. Biodegradation of petroleum-based oil wastes through composting.

    PubMed

    Kirchmann, H; Ewnetu, W

    1998-01-01

    Composting of horse manure was used as a means of degradation of two oil wastes, oil sludge from petrol stations and petroleum residues from a refinery. Paraffin oil was chosen as a reference. Oil wastes decomposed to 78-93% during 4.5 months of composting. The degradation of the waste oils was higher than that of the reference paraffin oil and no difference was found between the two types of oil wastes concerning their decomposition. At the end of the experiment, most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons had been degraded except pyrene, chrysene and dibenz(ah)anthracene. Gaseous losses of oil compounds through volatilisation from composts were found not to be significant.

  17. Controlled waste-oil biodegradation at existing drying beds

    SciTech Connect

    Hary, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Facility to determine if sludge drying beds at a sewage treatment plant could be used as controlled waste oil biodegradation plots has been completed. A greenhouse-like enclosure would be constructed over three 9.1 meter by 21.3 meter beds to allow for year-round use, and any waste oil runoff would be collected by existing leachate piping. It has been determined that this proposed facility could dispose of existing radioactive waste oil generation (7200 liters/year) from the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP); however, it would be inadequate to handle radioactive waste oils from the new Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) as well. The study reviewed nuclear criticality constraints, biodegradation technology, and the capital cost for an enclosed biodegradation facility.

  18. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  19. ESTIMATING GASEOUS EXCHANGES BETWEEN THE ATMOSPHERE AND PLANTS USING A COUPLED BIOCHEMICAL DRY DEPOSITION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    To study gaseous exchanges between the soil, biosphere and atmosphere, a biochemical model was coupled with the latest version of Meyers Multi-Layer Deposition Model. The biochemical model describes photosynthesis and respiration and their coupling with stomatal resistance for...

  20. The Gaseous Explosive Reaction at Constant Pressure : Further Data on the Effect of Inert Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, F W

    1932-01-01

    An investigation of gaseous explosive reactions is discussed in this report. Measurements were taken to calculate the maximum flame temperature attained and making correlations with existing thermal data on this reaction.

  1. ECHOES OF A DECAYING PLANETARY SYSTEM: THE GASEOUS AND DUSTY DISKS SURROUNDING THREE WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, C.; Jura, M.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Albert, L.

    2010-10-20

    We have performed a comprehensive ground-based observational program aimed at characterizing the circumstellar material orbiting three single white dwarf stars previously known to possess gaseous disks. Near-infrared imaging unambiguously detects excess infrared emission toward Ton 345 and allows us to refine models for the circumstellar dust around two of the three white dwarf stars. We find that each white dwarf hosts gaseous and dusty disks that are roughly spatially coincident, a result that is consistent with a scenario in which dusty and gaseous material has its origin in remnant parent bodies of the white dwarfs' planetary systems. We briefly describe a new model for the gas disk heating mechanism in which the gaseous material behaves like a 'Z II' region. In this Z II region, gas primarily composed of metals is photoionized by ultraviolet light and cools through optically thick allowed Ca II-line emission.

  2. Thermocapillary flow and gaseous convection in microgravity: Results from GAS payload G-0518

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, S.

    1986-01-01

    Thermocapillary flow and gaseous convection in microgravity were investigated in GAS payload G-0518 during Space Shuttle Mission 41-D. A cylinder of paraffin was supported and heated differentially from its ends to induce a melt from solid to liquid and drive thermocapillary flow in the resulting liquid phase. Laminar thermocapillary flow was observed in the liquid paraffin and found to show a transition to time-dependent oscillatory motion at a Marangoni number of about Ma = 34000 with a period of approximately T = 8 seconds. In addition, free convection in a gas in microgravity was observed for the first time. The gaseous convection was caused by the thermal and/or velocity boundary layers present at the heater-liquid interface. Oscillation occurred in the gaseous convection simultaneously with those in the liquid, implying the two are strongly coupled. The gaseous convection may be driven by coupled thermocapillary flow/thermal expansion convection or microgravity bouyancy convection.

  3. Results of mathematical modelling the kinetics of gaseous exchange through small channels in micro dischargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushin, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Results obtained using mathematical calculating models for physical processes of gaseous exchange through low-conductivity channels in the sealed envelopes of dischargers for various flow modes of indicative working gas are presented.

  4. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: WASTE CO- FIRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an overview of waste co-firing and auxiliary fuel fired technology and identifies the extent to which co-firing and auxiliary fuel firing are practised. Waste co-firing is defined as the combustion of wastes (e. g., sewage sludge, medical waste, wood waste, and agri...

  5. Elimination of Gaseous Microemboli from Cardiopulmonary Bypass using Hypobaric Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Keith E.; Rosinski, David J.; Schonberger, Robert B.; Kubera, Cathryn; Mathew, Eapen S.; Nichols, Frank; Dyckman, William; Courtin, Francois; Sherburne, Bradford; Bordey, Angelique F; Gross, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous gaseous microemboli (GME) are delivered into the arterial circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). These emboli damage end organs through multiple mechanisms that are thought to contribute to neurocognitive deficits following cardiac surgery. Here, we use hypobaric oxygenation to reduce dissolved gases in blood and greatly reduce GME delivery during CPB. Methods Variable subatmospheric pressures were applied to 100% oxygen sweep gas in standard hollow fiber microporous membrane oxygenators to oxygenate and denitrogenate blood. GME were quantified using ultrasound while air embolism from the surgical field was simulated experimentally. We assessed end organ tissues in swine postoperatively using light microscopy. Results Variable sweep gas pressures allowed reliable oxygenation independent of CO2 removal while denitrogenating arterial blood. Hypobaric oxygenation produced dose-dependent reductions of Doppler signals produced by bolus and continuous GME loads in vitro. Swine were maintained using hypobaric oxygenation for four hours on CPB with no apparent adverse events. Compared with current practice standards of O2/air sweep gas, hypobaric oxygenation reduced GME volumes exiting the oxygenator (by 80%), exiting the arterial filter (95%), and arriving at the aortic cannula (∼100%), indicating progressive reabsorption of emboli throughout the CPB circuit in vivo. Analysis of brain tissue suggested decreased microvascular injury under hypobaric conditions. Conclusions Hypobaric oxygenation is an effective, low-cost, common sense approach that capitalizes on the simple physical makeup of GME to achieve their near-total elimination during CPB. This technique holds great potential for limiting end-organ damage and improving outcomes in a variety of patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation. PMID:24206970

  6. Uncertainties of Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Measurements: How to Move Forward?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustin, M. S.; Huang, J.; Lyman, S. N.; Jaffe, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The atmosphere is a primary pathway by which mercury (Hg) enters ecosystems. To adequately assess the risk to humans and wildlife the chemistry of atmospheric Hg must be understood, along with the processes controlling deposition and assimilation into ecosystems. Given current high uncertainties with the Tekran analytical system used to measure gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) and particulate bound Hg (PBM) recent work has combined these for data analyses as Reactive Hg (RM). GOM measurements using this system are biased low due to lack of efficient collection of different compounds and interferences with water vapor and ozone. Because of this, estimation of GOM dry deposition to ecosystems using concentrations derived from this instrument in models are biased low, and dry deposition measured with surrogate surfaces are typically higher than model values. It is likely that different compounds of GOM are present in the atmosphere. These will have different chemical and physical properties that will influence atmospheric behavior. Field and laboratory results have shown that a new active Hg collection system using membranes collected higher GOM concentrations than the Tekran KCl-coated denuder. Field data from 5 locations showed that different GOM compounds were present across space and time. More work is needed to calibrate existing methods and develop methods to measure GOM. New approaches include collection of GOM on a membrane to determine concentrations; couple this with a ramp heating thermo-desorption through a pyrolyzer into a Tekran 2537, or GC-MS, to understand the chemistry of GOM compounds; and passive samplers for long-term global Hg monitoring of GOM. Lastly, during the NOMADSS/SAS experiment 2 Hg analyzers were used, with one having a cation exchange membrane and the other a pyrolyzer in-line to get GOM by difference. In all cases, calibration sources must be used to understand the GOM collection and recovery efficiency.

  7. Interaction of gaseous aromatic and aliphatic compounds in thermophilic biofilters.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing-yuan; Wang, Can

    2015-12-30

    Two thermophilic biofilters were applied in treating a mixture of gaseous aromatic (benzene) and aliphatic compounds (hexane) to evaluate the interaction of the compounds. The performance of the biofilters was investigated in terms of removal efficiencies, elimination capacity, kinetic analysis, interaction indices, and microbial metabolic characteristics. Results showed that the removal performance of benzene was unaffected by the addition of hexane. The removal efficiencies of benzene were maintained at approximately 80% and the biodegradation rate constant was maintained at 120 h(-1). However, the removal efficiencies of hexane decreased significantly from 60% to 20% and the biodegradation rate constant exhibited a distinct decrease from 93.59 h(-1) to 56.32 h(-1). The interaction index of benzene with the addition of hexane was -0.029, which indicated that hexane had little effect on the degradation of benzene. By contrast, the interaction index of hexane by benzene was -0.557, which showed that benzene inhibited the degradation of hexane significantly. Similar conclusions were obtained about the substrate utilization. Moreover, the utilization degree of carbon sources and the microbial metabolic activities in the biofilter treating hexane were significantly improved with the addition of benzene, whereas the addition of hexane had a slight effect on the microbial communities in the biofilter treating benzene. Conclusions could be obtained that when mixtures of benzene and hexane were treated using biofilters, the degradation of benzene, which was more easily degradable, was dominant and unaffected; whereas the degradation of hexane, which was less easily degradable, was inhibited because of the changing of microbes.

  8. Ejection of gaseous clumps from gravitationally unstable protostellar disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, E. I.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We investigate the dynamics of gaseous clumps formed via gravitational fragmentation in young protostellar disks, focusing on the fragments that are ejected from the disk via many-body gravitational interaction. Methods: Numerical hydrodynamics simulations were employed to study the evolution of young protostellar disks that were formed from the collapse of rotating pre-stellar cores. Results: The protostellar disks that formed in our models undergo gravitational fragmentation driven by continuing mass-loading from parental collapsing cores. Several fragments can be ejected from the disk during the early evolution, but the low-mass fragments (<15 MJup) disperse, which creates spectacular bow-type structures while passing through the disk and collapsing core. The least massive fragment that survived the ejection (21 MJup) straddles the planetary-mass limit, while the most massive ejected fragments (145 MJup) can break up into several pieces, leading to the ejection of wide separation binary clumps in the brown-dwarf mass range. About half of the ejected fragments are gravitationally bound, the majority are supported by rotation against gravity, and all fragments have the specific angular momentum that is much higher than that expected for brown dwarfs. We found that the internal structure of the ejected fragments is distinct from what would be expected for gravitationally contracting clumps formed via molecular cloud fragmentation, which can help in differentiating their origin. Conclusions: The ejection of fragments is an important process, which is inherent to massive protostellar disks, and which produces freely floating pre-brown dwarf cores, regulates the disk and stellar masses and, potentially, enriches the intracluster medium with processed dust and complex organics.

  9. Contact CMOS imaging of gaseous oxygen sensor array.

    PubMed

    Daivasagaya, Daisy S; Yao, Lei; Yi Yung, Ka; Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Cheung, Maurice C; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2011-10-01

    We describe a compact luminescent gaseous oxygen (O2) sensor microsystem based on the direct integration of sensor elements with a polymeric optical filter and placed on a low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC). The sensor operates on the measurement of excited-state emission intensity of O2-sensitive luminophore molecules tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp)3](2+)) encapsulated within sol-gel derived xerogel thin films. The polymeric optical filter is made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that is mixed with a dye (Sudan-II). The PDMS membrane surface is molded to incorporate arrays of trapezoidal microstructures that serve to focus the optical sensor signals on to the imager pixels. The molded PDMS membrane is then attached with the PDMS color filter. The xerogel sensor arrays are contact printed on top of the PDMS trapezoidal lens-like microstructures. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. Correlated double sampling circuit, pixel address, digital control and signal integration circuits are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data is read out as a serial coded signal. The CMOS imager consumes a static power of 320 µW and an average dynamic power of 625 µW when operating at 100 Hz sampling frequency and 1.8 V DC. This CMOS sensor system provides a useful platform for the development of miniaturized optical chemical gas sensors.

  10. Contact CMOS imaging of gaseous oxygen sensor array

    PubMed Central

    Daivasagaya, Daisy S.; Yao, Lei; Yi Yung, Ka; Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Cheung, Maurice C.; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.; Bright, Frank V.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a compact luminescent gaseous oxygen (O2) sensor microsystem based on the direct integration of sensor elements with a polymeric optical filter and placed on a low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC). The sensor operates on the measurement of excited-state emission intensity of O2-sensitive luminophore molecules tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp)3]2+) encapsulated within sol–gel derived xerogel thin films. The polymeric optical filter is made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that is mixed with a dye (Sudan-II). The PDMS membrane surface is molded to incorporate arrays of trapezoidal microstructures that serve to focus the optical sensor signals on to the imager pixels. The molded PDMS membrane is then attached with the PDMS color filter. The xerogel sensor arrays are contact printed on top of the PDMS trapezoidal lens-like microstructures. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. Correlated double sampling circuit, pixel address, digital control and signal integration circuits are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data is read out as a serial coded signal. The CMOS imager consumes a static power of 320 µW and an average dynamic power of 625 µW when operating at 100 Hz sampling frequency and 1.8 V DC. This CMOS sensor system provides a useful platform for the development of miniaturized optical chemical gas sensors. PMID:24493909

  11. Investigation of factors affecting gaseous mercury concentrations in soils.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher W; Castro, Mark S

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of soil temperature, soil moisture, redox potential (Eh) and soil organic matter (SOM) on the total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in background soils. Our measurements were made in a grass field and deciduous forest at the Piney Reservoir Ambient Air Monitoring Station (PRAAMS) in Garrett County, Maryland. Three plots in each area were sampled every third week from July 2009 to June 2010 at the Oe-A soil horizon interface, the A-E soil horizon interface, and 5 and 10 cm into the E soil horizon. The mean soil TGM concentration for all depths in the forest (2.3 ± 2.2 ng m(-3)) was significantly higher than the mean soil TGM concentration in the grass field (1.5 ± 1.9 ng m(-3)). Soil TGM at all depths was most strongly and consistently correlated to soil temperature. The soil TGM concentrations were highest and most variable at the forest Oe-A soil horizon interface (4.1 ± 2.0 ng m(-3)), ranging from 1.5 to 8.4 ng m(-3). This soil horizon interface had 11 to 26% more SOM and the soil Eh was 100 to 400 mV lower than the other soil depths. Our results suggest that soil temperature, soil Eh and SOM are significant factors affecting TGM concentrations in forest soils. Future studies of TGM dynamics in background soils may benefit from closely monitoring the organic soil horizon.

  12. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Carballo, V. M.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; van der Graaf, H.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E.; Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S. M.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10 16 hadrons/cm 2. The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO 2/DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC 4H 10 mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature.

  13. Method for selectively removing fluorine and fluorine-containing contaminants from gaseous UF.sub.6

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Robert L.; Otey, Milton G.; Perkins, Roy W.

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a method for effecting preferential removal and immobilization of certain gaseous contaminants from gaseous UF.sub.6. The contaminants include fluorine and fluorides which are more reactive with CaCO.sub.3 than is UF.sub.6. The method comprises contacting the contaminant-carrying UF.sub.6 with particulate CaCO.sub.3 at a temperature effecting reaction of the contaminant and the CaCO.sub.3.

  14. Seasonal variation of organochlorine pesticides in the gaseous phase and aerosols over the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Tianyi; Lin, Tian; Wang, Fengwen; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang

    2015-05-01

    Eighty paired gaseous phase and PM2.5 (particulate matter < 2.5 μm in diameter) samples, covering four seasons from October 2011 to August 2012 were collected simultaneously from a remote island in the East China Sea (ECS). The samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to determine their seasonal variation and potential sources over the coastal marine environment. The concentrations of individual OCPs in the PM2.5 samples were higher in winter and lower in summer, and the reverse trend was observed for the measured OCP compounds (except hexachlorocyclohexanes, HCHs) in the gaseous phase. Principal component analysis revealed one trend that contributed 40% to PM2.5-bound OCPs characterized by β-HCH, α-HCH, p,p‧-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p‧-DDD), p,p‧-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p‧-DDE), and chlordanes; whereas two seasonal trends, represented by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) or chlordanes and HCHs, were responsible for 38% and 23% of the gaseous OCPs, respectively. Continental outflow driven by the East Asian monsoon brought large quantities of particulate OCPs to the ECS, especially in winter. Possible fresh sources or net volatilization from the Yangtze River induced by both higher ambient temperature and higher discharge rates caused the higher gaseous DDT and chlordane levels observed in summer. However, the lower concentrations of gaseous HCHs observed in summer suggested that net volatilization had a relatively limited impact on gaseous HCHs due to the long-term prohibition of their use and their low residual levels in the catchment, whereas the elevated concentrations of gaseous HCHs in winter controlled by gas-particle partitioning, resulted from increased particulate HCHs producing a partial shift to gaseous HCHs over ECS.

  15. Process for the separation of sulfur oxides from a gaseous mixture containing sulfur oxides and oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Derosset, A.J.; Ginger, E.A.

    1980-12-23

    An improved process for the separation of sulfur oxides from a gaseous mixture containing sulfur oxides and oxygen is disclosed. The gaseous mixture is contacted with a solid sulfur oxide acceptor comprising copper, copper oxide, or a mixture thereof dispersed on a carrier material in combination with a platinum group metal component and a component selected from the group consisting of rhenium, germanium and tin.

  16. Effect of Near-Threshold Ionization on Electron Attachment in Gaseous Dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Hirotake; Ishigaki, Takuya; Hirochi, Yuuki; Sakai, Yosuke

    2004-11-01

    It has been predicted that near-threshold ionization (NTI) in a gaseous dielectric inhibits the development of electron avalanche when the gaseous dielectric has a sufficient capability for low-energy electron attachment. The NTI leaves little energy for the primary and secondary electrons involved in the ionization; thus, both electrons can be captured by dielectric gas molecules without further ionization. A computational estimation indicates that this process can occur in SF6.

  17. HUBBLE FINDS THOUSANDS OF GASEOUS FRAGMENTS SURROUNDING DYING STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Resembling a bizarre setting from a science fiction movie, dramatic images sent back by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have surprised astronomers by uncovering thousands of gigantic tadpole-shaped objects surrounding a dying star. Dubbed 'cometary knots' because their glowing heads and gossamer tails superficially resemble comets, they are probably the result of a dying star's final outbursts. Though ground-based telescopic observations have hinted at such objects, they have not previously been seen in such abundance, say researchers. The knots were detected by Hubble astronomer C. Robert O'Dell and graduate student Kerry P. Handron of Rice University in Houston, Texas, while exploring the Helix nebula, a ring of glowing gases blown off the surface of a sunlike star late in its life. O'Dell expects the gaseous knots, which are each several billion miles across, will eventually dissipate and vanish into the cold emptiness of interstellar space. However, he speculates that if the objects contract to form permanent solid bodies, they may contribute to a fraction (less than ten percent) of the missing mass of our galaxy, simply because of their sheer abundance around a typical dying star. (This so-called dark matter is a known source of gravity that affects the motions of stars in the galaxy). The mysterious 'space pods' came into view as O'Dell used Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 to survey the Helix nebula, located 450 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius and the closest planetary nebula to Earth -- so close that its angular size is almost half that of the full Moon. The most visible cometary knots all lie along the inner edge of the ring, at a distance of trillions of miles from the central star. Their comet-like tails, each stretching a hundred billion miles, form a radial pattern around the star like the spokes on a wagon wheel. Though previous ground-based observations show a spoke pattern in the Helix, and some structure, O'Dell emphasizes that

  18. Abundance and distribution of gaseous ammonia and particulate ammonium at Delhi (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; Kulshrestha, U. C.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports abundance and distribution of gaseous NH3 and particulate NH4+ at Delhi. Gaseous NH3 and particulate NH4+ concentrations were measured during pre monsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon seasons of the years 2010 and 2011. Average concentrations of gaseous NH3 during premonsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons were recorded as 26.4, 33.2 and 32.5 μg m-3, respectively. Gaseous NH3 concentrations were the highest during monsoon due to decay and decomposition of plants and other biogenic material under wet conditions which emit NH3. The results showed that particulate NH4+ was always lower than the gaseous NH3 during all the seasons. The concentrations of particulate NH4+ were recorded as 11.6, 22.9 and 8.5 μg m-3 during premonsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon seasons, respectively. The percent fraction of particulate NH4+ was noticed highest during monsoon season due to increased humidity levels. On anaverage, 33.3 % of total N-NHx was present as particulate NH4+. Higher concentrations of NH3 noticed during night time may be due to stable atmospheric conditions. Study highlighted that as compared to rural sites, urban sites showed higher concentrations of gaseous NH3 in India which may be due to higher population density, human activities and poor sanitation arrangements.

  19. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Gilliam, T.M.; Harrington, E.S.; Youngblood, E.L. ); Baer, M.B. )

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now know as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) prepared two mixed-waste surface impoundments for closure by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage of the stabilized waste was planned until final disposition. The strategy for disposal included delisting the stabilized pond sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, {approximately}46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and {approximately}32,000 drums of unprocessed sludge are presently being stored. In addition, the abandoned treatment facility still contains {approximately}16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such conditions do not comply with the requirements set forth by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for the storage of listed waste. Various steps are being taken to bring the storage of {approximately}78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. This paper (1) reviews the current situation, (2) discusses the plan for remediation of regulatory noncompliances, including decanting liquid from stabilized waste and dewatering untreated waste, and (3) provides an assessment of alternative raw-waste treatment processes. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Waste not.

    PubMed

    McGuire, S

    1996-01-01

    Wasting, a condition characterized by extreme loss of body tissue and lean muscle mass, should never be allowed to occur. Generally defined as weight loss of 10 percent, it is now being redefined as an unintended weight loss accompanied by fever, weakness or diarrhea lasting more than 30 days. This definition is important because wasting is invisible in its early stages. Patients may gain fat while losing muscle, giving them a stable appearance. However, muscle tissue is where most metabolic processes take place. Wasting can be detected early through a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) test. A checklist is included to determine the level of nutritional risk, and safety tips for shopping and preparing foods are provided. Patients are cautioned to never eat foods containing raw meat, fish, or poultry, and to avoid foods with raw eggs. PMID:11363612

  1. Catalytic Cracking of Gaseous Heavy Hydrocarbons by Ceramic Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Heidenreich, S.; Nacken, M.; Walch, A.; Chudzinski, S.

    2002-09-19

    The use of syngas from waste or biomass gasification to generate electricity is a way which is attracting increasing attention especially with regard to the demands of regenerable energy consumption and to the reduction of waste disposal. In order to feed the syngas to a gas motor or a gas turbine the gas has to be cleaned. In future also the coupling of biomass gasification with a fuel cell will be applied, which needs a very efficient gas cleaning. The decomposition of tars and the removal of particles from the gas are the key issues of gas cleaning. Up to now these two steps are performed in two separate units. Normally, the tars are decomposed in catalytic beds or honeycomb structures. The catalytic decomposition is achieved at temperatures between 750 C and 900 C depending on the catalyst used. Particles are removed by filtration of the hot gas. Filtration at high temperatures and with high efficiencies is possible when using ceramic filter elements. Ceramic hot gas filters are well established in advanced coal gasification, such as the integrated gasification combined cycle process, as well as in waste and biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes. Since the catalytic reaction requires high temperatures the gas has to be reheated after the particles are removed in the filter or the hot unfiltered gas has to flow through the catalytic unit. If the gas is filtered first, reheating of the gas stream is an additional cost factor. Furthermore, pipes downstream of the filter can be plugged, if the temperature of the gas falls below the condensation temperature of the heavy hydrocarbons. Using the second way of hot unfiltered gas flows through the catalytic unit, there is the problem of deactivation of the catalyst by deposition of dust at higher dust concentrations. At worst the catalytic unit can be plugged by dust deposition.

  2. Can Incineration Technology Convert CELSS Wastes to Resources for Crop Production ? A Working Hypothesis and some Preliminary Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wignarajah, K.; Pisharody, S.; Fisher, J. W.

    Considerable evidence exists to support the hypothesis that human-generated wastes can be utilized as resources in crop production. In the waste mix from a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), the elemental resources are found mainly in the solid fraction. In order to make these resources available for crop growth, it is necessary to convert the solid wastes to either an aqueous or a gaseous phase. Incineration is one method for processing solid wastes to produce a gaseous fraction and a small solid fraction of ash. Evidence from literature provides a compelling case for a working hypothesis that plants can utilize the gases of incineration. Although uptake and utilization of inorganic elements in the aqueous phase is well established, the uptake and utilization of inorganic elements in the gaseous phase, with the exception of CO2 and O2, is not fully understood. This paper attempts to (a) summarize existing literature on uptake/metabolism of inorganic elements in the gaseous fraction, with the exception of CO2 and O2 and (b) develop a working hypothesis to predict the use of incineration flue gases by plants. Preliminary experimental findings on effects of carbon monoxide, a component of the flue gas, are also presented

  3. Can incineration technology convert CELSS wastes to resources for crop production? A working hypothesis and some preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Wignarajah, K; Pisharody, S; Fisher, J W

    2000-01-01

    Considerable evidence exists to support the hypothesis that human-generated wastes can be utilized as resources in crop production. In the waste mix from a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), the elemental resources are found mainly in the solid fraction. In order to make these resources available for crop growth, it is necessary to convert the solid wastes to either an aqueous or a gaseous phase. Incineration is one method for processing solid wastes to produce a gaseous fraction and a small solid fraction of ash. Evidence from literature provides a compelling case for a working hypothesis that plants can utilize the gases of incineration. Although uptake and utilization of inorganic elements in the aqueous phase is well established, the uptake and utilization of inorganic elements in the gaseous phase, with the exception of CO2 and O2, is not fully understood. This paper attempts to (a) summarize existing literature on uptake/metabolism of inorganic elements in the gaseous fraction, with the exception of CO2 and O2 and (b) develop a working hypothesis to predict the use of incineration flue gases by plants. Preliminary experimental findings on effects of carbon monoxide, a component of the flue gas, are also presented.

  4. DOE mixed wastes: What are they and where can thermal technologies be applied

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A. ); Borduin, L.C. ); Musgrave, B.C. )

    1992-05-01

    The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) has collected and analyzed mixed low-level waste data to assist in developing treatment capability for the US Department of Energy is (DOE) wastes. Initial data on the characteristics of mixed waste was obtained from the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) data base, and has been updated based on visits to DOE sites where most of the wastes are generated and stored. The streams of interest to the MWTP have a current inventory of about 70,000 m[sup 3] and a generation rate of about 7,700 m[sup 3]/yr. The 12 sites with the most significant processing needs are Fernald, Hanford, K-25 (Oak Ridge), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Savannah River Site (SRS), and Y-12 (Oak Ridge). These 12 sites account for about 98% of the mixed waste volumes. The wastes have been assigned to specific waste characterization categories and a flowsheet that identifies applicable technologies has been developed. The largest waste stream category, when considering the current inventory in storage, is inorganic solids, with sludges, filter cakes, and residues the largest specific subcategories. Aqueous liquids are the largest currently generated stream. The other large categories are solid organics, metals wastes, and heterogenous wastes. Organic liquids, which have been a major focus, are the smallest of the categories. The major thermal treatment units include evaporators, incinerators, vitrifiers, metal melters, and off-gas treatment systems.

  5. DOE mixed wastes: What are they and where can thermal technologies be applied?

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Borduin, L.C.; Musgrave, B.C.

    1992-05-01

    The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) has collected and analyzed mixed low-level waste data to assist in developing treatment capability for the US Department of Energy is (DOE) wastes. Initial data on the characteristics of mixed waste was obtained from the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) data base, and has been updated based on visits to DOE sites where most of the wastes are generated and stored. The streams of interest to the MWTP have a current inventory of about 70,000 m{sup 3} and a generation rate of about 7,700 m{sup 3}/yr. The 12 sites with the most significant processing needs are Fernald, Hanford, K-25 (Oak Ridge), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Savannah River Site (SRS), and Y-12 (Oak Ridge). These 12 sites account for about 98% of the mixed waste volumes. The wastes have been assigned to specific waste characterization categories and a flowsheet that identifies applicable technologies has been developed. The largest waste stream category, when considering the current inventory in storage, is inorganic solids, with sludges, filter cakes, and residues the largest specific subcategories. Aqueous liquids are the largest currently generated stream. The other large categories are solid organics, metals wastes, and heterogenous wastes. Organic liquids, which have been a major focus, are the smallest of the categories. The major thermal treatment units include evaporators, incinerators, vitrifiers, metal melters, and off-gas treatment systems.

  6. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  7. Can the Oxygenator Screen Filter Reduce Gaseous Microemboli?

    PubMed Central

    Johagen, Daniel; Appelblad, Micael; Svenmarker, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Gaseous microemboli (GME) define small bubbles as <200 μm in size. GME are reported to increase morbidity after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cardiac surgery. To prevent intrusion of GME into the systemic circulation during CPB, arterial line filtration is generally recommended. New trends in oxygenator design promote location of arterial filtration as an integral part of the oxygenator housing. The present experimental study aimed to evaluate the GME removal properties of an integrated arterial screen filter in a standard microporous oxygenator. The GME properties of Terumo Capiox® FX25 with an integrated arterial screen filter was assessed in an experimental setup and compared with Capiox® RX25, in which no arterial screen filter is present. A blood analog prime solution was recirculated using a roller pump at 4 and 6 L per minute flow rate, respectively, through a customized CPB circuit comprising oxygenator, reservoir, and connecting tubing. A controlled volume of air was introduced into the circuit. The GME activity was measured and computed using a Gampt BCC200® ultrasonic device placing one probe at the venous inlet and one other at the arterial outlet of the oxygenator. Transmembrane delta values of GME activity were used to calculate the removal efficacy based on counts and volume of GME. Use of screen filtration reduced the GME volume by 99.1% ± .1% compared with 98.0% ± .1% for controls at 4 L/min flow rate (p < .001). At 6 L/min, the reduction was 97.9% ± .1% compared with 97.0% ± .1% (p < .001). In contrast, the reduction of GME counts was less effective after screen filtration compared with controls: 89.6 ± .6% versus 91.4 ± .4% at 4 L/min and 55.6% ± 1.6% versus 76.0% ± 1.4% at 6 L/min, respectively (p < .001). The tested oxygenator with incorporated arterial screen filter reduced GME activity based on the calculated volume at the same time as counts of GME increased. PMID:24779120

  8. Carburization of austenitic alloys by gaseous impurities in helium

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, G.Y.; Johnson, W.R.

    1980-03-01

    The carburization behavior of Alloy 800H, Inconel Alloy 617 and Hastelloy Alloy X in helium containing various amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/ was studied. Corrosion tests were conducted in a temperature range from 649 to 1000/sup 0/C (1200 to 1832/sup 0/F) for exposure time up to 10,000 h. Four different helium environments, identified as A, B, C, and D, were investigated. Concentrations of gaseous impurities were 1500 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/, 450 ..mu..atm CO, 50 ..mu..atm CH/sub 4/ and 50 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/O for Environment A; 200 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/, 100 ..mu..atm CO, 20 ..mu..atm CH/sub 4/, 50 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/O and 5 ..mu..atm CO/sub 2/ for Environment B; 500 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/, 50 ..mu..atm CO, 50 ..mu..atm CH/sub 4/ and < 0.5 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/O for Environment C; and 500 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/, 50 ..mu..atm CO, 50 ..mu..atm CH/sub 4/ and 1.5 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/O for Environment D. Environments A and B were characteristic of high-oxygen potential, while C and D were characteristic of low-oxygen potential. The results showed that the carburization kinetics in low-oxygen potential environments (C and D) were significantly higher, approximately an order of magnitude higher at high temperatures, than those in high-oxygen potential environments (A and B) for all three alloys. Thermodynamic analyses indicated no significant differences in the thermodynamic carburization potential between low- and high-oxygen potential environments. It is thus believed that the enhanced carburization kinetics observed in the low-oxygen potential environments were related to kinetic effects. A qualitatively mechanistic model was proposed to explain the enhanced kinetics. The present results further suggest that controlling the oxygen potential of the service environment can be an effective means of reducing carburization of alloys.

  9. Students' understandings of the behavior of a gaseous substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Edward Louis, II

    One hundred sixteen community college students enrolled in a basic chemistry class who had completed a unit on the behavior of a gaseous substance were given a written instrument that presented several mathematical and conceptual problems describing the behavior of a gas. Nine students representing a range of achievement levels were chosen for more intensive clinical interviews. Interview results revealed that students commonly experience difficulties at three different levels: (1) Mathematical understanding. Most students could manipulate the gas law equations, but few had a real understanding of the equation. There were some unique understanding of proportional relationships. (2) Conceptual understanding. Many students could represent pictorially the notion that gas molecules randomly occupy the entire space of its container. Many, however, had a different conception of this when the air was compressed. The reason for this seemed to be due to a misunderstanding of the kinetic molecular theory. (3) Real-world application . Students' use of their mathematical understanding to explain the behavior of air in a real syringe revealed some internal consistency found in mathematical explanations of real-world phenomena. Many students used mathematical strategies consistent with their mathematical understanding and satisfactory for producing reasonable estimates of numerical values. All of the 9 students had misconceptions about mathematical proportionality with most of them understanding proportional relationships as being additive in nature. Although some of the students were able to state the relationship between two variables, they could only do so outside of the context of the gas law equation. Only one student was able to propose a reasonable explanation of the proportional relationships between variables in a gas law equation. All 9 students were classified as either transitional or naive in the real-world use of their mathematical understandings with 3 of the 9

  10. Dairy Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pico, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the dairy industry covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) government regulations; (2) ion-plant control of dairy effluents; (3) dairy effluent treatment methods; and (4) research on dairy effluents. A list of 26 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Waste Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Marilyn; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that focus on waste reduction in the school and community. The ideas are divided into grade level categories. Sample activities include Techno-Trash, where children use tools to take apart broken appliances or car parts, then reassemble them or build new creations. Activities are suggested for areas including language arts and…

  12. Method for removing sulfur oxide from waste gases and recovering elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.

    1977-01-01

    A continuous catalytic fused salt extraction process is described for removing sulfur oxides from gaseous streams. The gaseous stream is contacted with a molten potassium sulfate salt mixture having a dissolved catalyst to oxidize sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide and molten potassium normal sulfate to solvate the sulfur trioxide to remove the sulfur trioxide from the gaseous stream. A portion of the sulfur trioxide loaded salt mixture is then dissociated to produce sulfur trioxide gas and thereby regenerate potassium normal sulfate. The evolved sulfur trioxide is reacted with hydrogen sulfide as in a Claus reactor to produce elemental sulfur. The process may be advantageously used to clean waste stack gas from industrial plants, such as copper smelters, where a supply of hydrogen sulfide is readily available.

  13. A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

  14. Dual degradation of gaseous 1,2-dichlorobenzene and PCDD/Fs using Ce doped VxOy/TiO2 immobilized on cordierite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Kuiren

    2016-07-01

    The photocatalytic film Ce doped VxOy/TiO2 was loaded on cordierite honeycomb (CHC), and this composite was prepared by sol-gel and dipping method, with Ce, oxides of V and TiO2 as dopant and key substances, respectively. Using gaseous 1,2-dichlorobenzene to replace dioxin as target pollutant, dual degradation experiments at 140-280 °C were carried out (thermal decomposition and photodegradation), and the effects of preparation conditions on catalytic activity were investigated: doping amount of Ce, dipping time in the gel, the concentration of ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) solution, dipping time in NH4VO3 solution, sintering temperature. The gaseous samples were taken before and after the reactor and analyzed by gas chromatography. According to the results, the optimal preparation conditions were determined, and the corresponding removal rate was above 95% after 90 min of degradation at 280 °C. The composite was examined by ultrasonic to analyze the adhesive strength between the film and CHC, and further characterized by XRD and SEM. Furthermore, flue gas from waste incinerator was chosen as target pollutant, which contained PCDD/Fs, the industrial sidestream degradation experiment was carried out and showed excellent removal efficiency of the composite, the removal rate of PCDD/Fs reached ca. 90% after 90 min of degradation.

  15. Dual degradation of gaseous 1,2-dichlorobenzene and PCDD/Fs using Ce doped VxOy/TiO2 immobilized on cordierite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Kuiren

    2016-07-01

    The photocatalytic film Ce doped VxOy/TiO2 was loaded on cordierite honeycomb (CHC), and this composite was prepared by sol-gel and dipping method, with Ce, oxides of V and TiO2 as dopant and key substances, respectively. Using gaseous 1,2-dichlorobenzene to replace dioxin as target pollutant, dual degradation experiments at 140-280 °C were carried out (thermal decomposition and photodegradation), and the effects of preparation conditions on catalytic activity were investigated: doping amount of Ce, dipping time in the gel, the concentration of ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) solution, dipping time in NH4VO3 solution, sintering temperature. The gaseous samples were taken before and after the reactor and analyzed by gas chromatography. According to the results, the optimal preparation conditions were determined, and the corresponding removal rate was above 95% after 90 min of degradation at 280 °C. The composite was examined by ultrasonic to analyze the adhesive strength between the film and CHC, and further characterized by XRD and SEM. Furthermore, flue gas from waste incinerator was chosen as target pollutant, which contained PCDD/Fs, the industrial sidestream degradation experiment was carried out and showed excellent removal efficiency of the composite, the removal rate of PCDD/Fs reached ca. 90% after 90 min of degradation. PMID:27085061

  16. Radioactive waste storage and disposal in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.D.; Maul, P.R.; Passant, F.H.

    1990-12-31

    Even though mankind has evolved in a naturally radioactive environment, the existence of radiation was only discovered about a century or so ago. Since then the use of radioactive materials has grown rapidly and they are now used extensively in hospitals for medical diagnosis and treatment, and in general industry where they are used for measurement and inspection, as well as by the nuclear power industry, research laboratories and defence establishments. Like virtually all of man`s activities, the use of radioactive materials inevitably leads to the production of unwanted waste by-products, some of which will be radioactive. These radioactive wastes can be found in many different solid, liquid or gaseous forms and the radioactivity can range from such low levels that it is radiologically insignificant to levels that could cause death on direct exposure to it. To give a general indication of the levels of radioactivity, the wastes in the UK are usually grouped into three broad categories: (1) Low level waste (LLW): the least radioactive category; (2) Intermediate level waste (ILW); (3) High level waste (HLW): the most radioactive category. This waste is so highly radioactive that it generates significant quantities of heat and it is therefore also sometimes referred to as Heat Generating Waste. Radioactive wastes are produced by many industries in the UK although the majority both in terms of volume and radioactivity content comes from the civil nuclear power industry. This chapter concentrates on describing the way solid radioactive wastes are managed by the UK nuclear industry, within the Governments`s overall policy framework. It includes a description of the types and quantities of waste to be managed, current practices including the disposal of LLW, and plans for a deep repository for both ILW and LLW. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a DC arc melter.

    PubMed

    Overcamp, Thomas J; Speer, Matthew P; Griner, Stewart J; Cash, Douglas M

    2003-01-01

    Tests treating soils contaminated with metal compounds and radionuclide surrogates were conducted in a DC arc melter. The soil melted, and glassy or ceramic waste forms with a separate metal phase were produced. Tests were run in the melter plenum with either air or N2 purge gases. In addition to nitrogen, the primary emissions of gases were CO2, CO, oxygen, methane, and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)). Although the gas flow through the melter was low, the particulate concentrations ranged from 32 to 145 g/m3. Cerium, a nonradioactive surrogate for plutonium and uranium, was not enriched in the particulate matter (PM). The PM was enriched in cesium and highly enriched in lead. PMID:12568249

  18. Characterization Activities Conducted at the 183-DR Site in Support of an In Situ Gaseous Reduction Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Edward C.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Olsen, Khris B.; Schalla, Ronald; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2001-03-30

    In Situ Gaseous Reduction (ISGR) is a technology developed by DOE for the remediation of soil waste sites contaminated with hexavalent chromium. This document presents information associated with characterization activities conducted at the 183-DR site at Hanford, which is associated with a significant groundwater contaminant plume and was formerly a water treatment facility that utilized chromate as a corrosion inhibitor. Geotechnical and chemical data were collected during the excavation of trenches and the drilling of two vadose zone boreholes to support a possible ISGR demonstration at 183-DR. Although elevated total chromium and trace levels of hexavalent chromium were identified from one of the trenches and one of the boreholes, it appears that the boreholes missed the vadose zone contaminant source responsible for the chromium groundwater plume located downgradient of the 183-DR site. Recommendations are provided, however, for future work at 183-DR that may serve to identify the source for the groundwater plume and possibly provide an opportunity for an ISGR demonstration.

  19. Bioelectronic nose combined with a microfluidic system for the detection of gaseous trimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Lim, Jong Hyun; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2015-09-15

    A bioelectronic nose based on a novel microfluidic system (μBN) was fabricated to detect gaseous trimethylamine (TMA) in real-time. Single-walled carbon nanotube-field effect transistors (SWNT-FETs) were functionalized with olfactory receptor-derived peptides (ORPs) that can recognize the TMA molecules. The ORP-coated SWNT-FETs were assembled with a microfluidic channel and were sealed with top and bottom frames. This simple process was used to complete the μBNs, and a well-defined condition was achieved to detect the gaseous molecules. The μBNs allowed us to detect gaseous TMA molecules down to 10 parts per trillion (ppt) in real-time and showed high selectivity when distinguishing gaseous TMA from other gaseous odorants. The sensor was used to determine the quality of seafood (oysters), and spoiled seafood and other types of spoiled foods were also successfully discriminated without any pretreatment processes. These results indicate that portable-scale platforms can be manufactured by using μBNs and can be applicable for real-time on-site gas analysis.

  20. Histological effects of aqueous acids and gaseous hydrogen chloride on bean leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Swiecki, T.J.; Endress, A.G.; Taylor, O.C.

    1982-01-01

    Primary leaves of Phaseoulus vulgaris L. (pinto bean), 9 or 12 days from sowing, were exposed to aqueous acids, chloride salts, or hydrogen chloride gas. Leaves were examined for the presence and severity of resultant visible injury and samples for light and scanning electron microscopy. Exposure to 0.06 N HCl, HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or 14.5-19.0 mg m/sup -3/ gaseous HCl for 20 min evoked similar foliar injury including glazing and necrosis of the laminas. This injury appeared to result initially from plasmolysis and collapse of the epidermis and subsequently of the underlying mesophyll. Cellular injury was accompanied by various cytoplasmic alterations. Microscopic symptoms observed in leaves exposed to gaseous HCl or aqueous acids included vesicles and particulates within the larger vacuoles. Similar symptoms were present in leaves exposed to polyethylene glycol 6000. Differential effects included formation of necrotic pits and preferential injury to paravascular tissues in leaves treated with aqueous acids and crystalline chloroplast inclusions in gaseous HCl-treated and water-stressed leaves. The visible and microscopic appearances of leaves exposed to aqueous acids or gaseous HCl were compared and related to injury stemming from acid precipitation and a possible mechanism of action for gaseous HCl phytotoxicity.

  1. Influence of coolant injector configuration on film cooling effectiveness for gaseous and liquid film coolants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shine, S. R.; Sunil Kumar, S.; Suresh, B. N.

    2012-05-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to bring out the effects of coolant injector configuration on film cooling effectiveness, film cooled length and film uniformity associated with gaseous and liquid coolants. A series of measurements are performed using hot air as the core gas and gaseous nitrogen and water as the film coolants in a cylindrical test section simulating a thrust chamber. Straight and compound angle injection at two different configurations of 30°-10° and 45°-10° are investigated for the gaseous coolant. Tangential injection at 30° and compound angle injection at 30°-10° are examined for the liquid coolant. The analysis is based on measurements of the film-cooling effectiveness and film uniformity downstream of the injection location at different blowing ratios. Measured results showed that compound angle configuration leads to lower far-field effectiveness and shorter film length compared to tangential injection in the case of liquid film cooling. For similar injector configurations, effectiveness along the stream wise direction showed flat characteristics initially for the liquid coolant, while it was continuously dropping for the gaseous coolant. For liquid coolant, deviations in temperature around the circumference are very low near the injection point, but increases to higher values for regions away from the coolant injection locations. The study brings out the existance of an optimum gaseous film coolant injector configuration for which the effectiveness is maximum.

  2. Bioelectronic nose combined with a microfluidic system for the detection of gaseous trimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Lim, Jong Hyun; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2015-09-15

    A bioelectronic nose based on a novel microfluidic system (μBN) was fabricated to detect gaseous trimethylamine (TMA) in real-time. Single-walled carbon nanotube-field effect transistors (SWNT-FETs) were functionalized with olfactory receptor-derived peptides (ORPs) that can recognize the TMA molecules. The ORP-coated SWNT-FETs were assembled with a microfluidic channel and were sealed with top and bottom frames. This simple process was used to complete the μBNs, and a well-defined condition was achieved to detect the gaseous molecules. The μBNs allowed us to detect gaseous TMA molecules down to 10 parts per trillion (ppt) in real-time and showed high selectivity when distinguishing gaseous TMA from other gaseous odorants. The sensor was used to determine the quality of seafood (oysters), and spoiled seafood and other types of spoiled foods were also successfully discriminated without any pretreatment processes. These results indicate that portable-scale platforms can be manufactured by using μBNs and can be applicable for real-time on-site gas analysis. PMID:25909337

  3. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses how, as part of the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE's failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million for the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  4. A detailed numerical investigation of Burke-Schumann gaseous and spray flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mawid, M. A.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    1991-01-01

    The classical Burke-Schumann gaseous diffusion flame, and the effect of introducing fuel in the form of liquid sprays are investigated numerically. The time-dependent two-dimensional, axisymmetric conservation equations are solved for the gas phase. A Lagrangian approach is used for the dispersed phase. The chemical reactions are modeled through the one-step global reaction scheme. The numerical results show that the computed flame structure is significantly different from that given by the analytical solution. The computed flame is about 15 percent longer and 5 percent narrower than the classical Burke-Schumann flame. The predicted flame shape is, however, in better agreement with experimental observations than the Burke-Schumann flame. The effects of introducing liquid sprays is found to produce thinner and longer flames than its counterpart gaseous flame. A detailed comparison of the structures of gaseous and spray flames is made, and the differences are discussed.

  5. Differences in the production of noncharacteristic radiation in gaseous and solid targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubert, R.; Peterson, R. S.; Forester, J. P.; Liao, K.-H.; Griffin, P. M.; Hayden, H.; Elston, S. B.; Pegg, D. J.; Thoe, R. S.; Sellin, I. A.

    1976-01-01

    Bell et al. (1975) found that the observed yield of noncharacteristic radiation (NCR) for a beam of S atoms hitting Al and Ne targets is of approximately equal magnitude for gaseous and solid targets under similar collision conditions. They concluded that NCR is produced predominantly in single collisions for 55-MeV S atoms on an Al target. This conclusion is tested in a similar collision system by comparing the NCR yields obtained with a 40-MeV Si(6+) ion beam on SiH4 (gaseous target) and on Al (solid target). Corrected X-ray spectra recorded in both cases clearly indicate a difference in the NCR yield for gaseous and solid targets. The results suggest that double collisions dominate the NCR production and that a single-collision production contribution of 15% to 20% is an upper limit for the projectile-target system used.

  6. Method and apparatus for producing laser radiation following two-photon excitation of a gaseous medium

    DOEpatents

    Bischel, W.K.; Jacobs, R.R.; Prosnitz, D.P.; Rhodes, C.K.; Kelly, P.J.

    1979-02-20

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing laser radiation by two-photon optical pumping of an atomic or molecular gaseous medium and subsequent lasing action. A population inversion is created as a result of two-photon absorption of the gaseous species. Stark tuning is utilized, if necessary, in order to tune the two-photon transition into exact resonance. In particular, gaseous ammonia (NH[sub 3]) or methyl fluoride (CH[sub 3]F) is optically pumped by a pair of CO[sub 2] lasers to create a population inversion resulting from simultaneous two-photon excitation of a high-lying vibrational state, and laser radiation is produced by stimulated emission of coherent radiation from the inverted level. 3 figs.

  7. Method and apparatus for producing laser radiation following two-photon excitation of a gaseous medium

    DOEpatents

    Bischel, William K. [Menlo Park, CA; Jacobs, Ralph R. [Livermore, CA; Prosnitz, Donald [Hamden, CT; Rhodes, Charles K. [Palo Alto, CA; Kelly, Patrick J. [Fort Lewis, WA

    1979-02-20

    Method and apparatus for producing laser radiation by two-photon optical pumping of an atomic or molecular gaseous medium and subsequent lasing action. A population inversion is created as a result of two-photon absorption of the gaseous species. Stark tuning is utilized, if necessary, in order to tune the two-photon transition into exact resonance. In particular, gaseous ammonia (NH.sub.3) or methyl fluoride (CH.sub.3 F) is optically pumped by a pair of CO.sub.2 lasers to create a population inversion resulting from simultaneous two-photon excitation of a high-lying vibrational state, and laser radiation is produced by stimulated emission of coherent radiation from the inverted level.

  8. Innovation in biological production and upgrading of methane and hydrogen for use as gaseous transport biofuel.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-01-01

    Biofuels derived from biomass will play a major role in future renewable energy supplies in transport. Gaseous biofuels have superior energy balances, offer greater greenhouse gas emission reductions and produce lower pollutant emissions than liquid biofuels. Biogas derived through fermentation of wet organic substrates will play a major role in future transport systems. Biogas (which is composed of approximately 60% methane/hydrogen and 40% carbon dioxide) requires an upgrading process to reduce the carbon dioxide content to less than 3% before it is used as compressed gas in transport. This paper reviews recent developments in fermentative biogas production and upgrading as a transport fuel. Third generation gaseous biofuels may be generated using marine-based algae via two-stage fermentation, cogenerating hydrogen and methane. Alternative biological upgrading techniques, such as biological methanation and microalgal biogas upgrading, have the potential to simultaneously upgrade biogas, increase gaseous biofuel yield and reduce carbon dioxide emission.

  9. Modelling the dynamics of plasma in gaseous channels during streamer propagation in hydrocarbon liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidis, G. V.

    2016-06-01

    A numerical model is developed and the calculation results of plasma dynamics in gaseous channels of streamers propagating in hydrocarbon liquids are presented. It is shown that, due to Joule heating leading to a reduction of the gas density, the local electric field, governed by the ionization-recombination balance of charged species, decreases along the channel. As a result, the mean electric field in long gaseous channels decreases with the growth of channel length. Correspondingly, the calculated length of streamer propagation (stopping length) increases with applied voltage faster than linearly, in accordance with experimental data. Calculated values of the mean electric field in long gaseous channels agree with those obtained in experiments on streamer propagation in long gaps.

  10. The Gaseous Explosive Reaction : A Study of the Kinetics of Composite Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, F W

    1929-01-01

    This report deals with the results of a series of studies of the kinetics of gaseous explosive reactions where the fuel under observation, instead of being a simple gas, is a known mixture of simple gases. In the practical application of the gaseous explosive reaction as a source of power in the gas engine, the fuels employed are composite, with characteristics that are apt to be due to the characteristics of their components and hence may be somewhat complex. The simplest problem that could be proposed in an investigation either of the thermodynamics or kinetics of the gaseous explosive reaction of a composite fuel would seem to be a separate study of the reaction characteristics of each component of the fuel and then a study of the reaction characteristics of the various known mixtures of those components forming composite fuels more and more complex. (author)

  11. Innovation in biological production and upgrading of methane and hydrogen for use as gaseous transport biofuel.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-01-01

    Biofuels derived from biomass will play a major role in future renewable energy supplies in transport. Gaseous biofuels have superior energy balances, offer greater greenhouse gas emission reductions and produce lower pollutant emissions than liquid biofuels. Biogas derived through fermentation of wet organic substrates will play a major role in future transport systems. Biogas (which is composed of approximately 60% methane/hydrogen and 40% carbon dioxide) requires an upgrading process to reduce the carbon dioxide content to less than 3% before it is used as compressed gas in transport. This paper reviews recent developments in fermentative biogas production and upgrading as a transport fuel. Third generation gaseous biofuels may be generated using marine-based algae via two-stage fermentation, cogenerating hydrogen and methane. Alternative biological upgrading techniques, such as biological methanation and microalgal biogas upgrading, have the potential to simultaneously upgrade biogas, increase gaseous biofuel yield and reduce carbon dioxide emission. PMID:26724182

  12. Compositional and stable carbon isotopic fractionation during non-autocatalytic thermochemical sulfate reduction by gaseous hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, Xinyu; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ma, Qisheng; Tang, Yongchun

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of autocatalysis during thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) by gaseous hydrocarbons was investigated by examination of previously reported laboratory and field data. This reaction was found to be a kinetically controlled non-autocatalytic process, and the apparent lack of autocatalysis is thought to be due to the absence of the required intermediate species. Kinetic parameters for chemical and carbon isotopic fractionations of gaseous hydrocarbons affected by TSR were calculated and found to be consistent with experimentally derived values for TSR involving long-chain hydrocarbons. Model predictions based on these kinetic values indicate that TSR by gaseous hydrocarbon requires high-temperature conditions. The oxidation of C2–5 hydrocarbons by sulfate reduction is accompanied by carbon isotopic fractionation with the residual C2–5 hydrocarbons becoming more enriched in 13C. Kinetic parameters were calculated for the stable carbon isotopic fractionation of gaseous hydrocarbons that have experienced TSR. Model predictions based on these kinetics indicate that it may be difficult to distinguish the effects of TSR from those of thermal maturation at lower levels of hydrocarbon oxidation; however, unusually heavy δ13C2+ values (>−10‰) can be diagnostic of high levels of conversion (>50%). Stoichiometric and stable carbon isotopic data show that methane is stable under the investigated reaction conditions and is likely a product of TSR by other gaseous hydrocarbons rather than a significant reactant. These results indicate that the overall TSR reaction mechanism for oxidation of organic substrates containing long-chain hydrocarbons involves three distinct phases as follows: (1) an initial slow and non-autocatalytic stage characterized by the reduction of reactive sulfate by long-chain saturated hydrocarbons; (2) a second autocatalytic reaction phase dominated by reactions involving reduced sulfur species and partially oxidized hydrocarbons; (3

  13. Abundance and distribution of gaseous ammonia and particulate ammonium at Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; Kulshrestha, U. C.

    2012-12-01

    This study reports abundance and distribution of gaseous NH3 and particulate NH4+ at Delhi. Gaseous NH3 and particulate NH4+ concentrations were measured during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons of the years 2010 and 2011. Average concentrations of gaseous NH3 during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons were recorded as 26.4, 33.2 and 32.5 μg m-3, respectively. Gaseous NH3 concentrations were the highest during monsoon, thought to be due to decay and decomposition of plants and other biogenic material under wet conditions, leading to increased NH3 emission. The results showed that particulate NH4+ was always lower than the gaseous NH3 during all the seasons. The concentrations of particulate NH4+ were recorded as 11.6, 22.9 and 8.5 μg m-3 during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. The percent fraction of particulate NH4+ was noticed to be highest during the monsoon season, which is attributed to increased humidity levels favouring partitioning into the aerosol phase. On an average, 33.3% of total N-NHx was present as particulate NH4+. Higher concentrations of NH3 noticed during night time may be due to stable atmospheric conditions. The study highlighted that, as compared with rural sites, urban sites showed higher concentrations of gaseous NH3 in India, which may be due to higher population density, human activities and poor sanitation arrangements.

  14. Enhanced solid waste stabilization in aerobic landfills using low aeration rates and high density compaction.

    PubMed

    El Fadel, Mutasem; Fayad, Wissam; Hashisho, Jihan

    2013-01-01

    Historically, municipal solid waste landfills have been designed and operated as storage facilities with suboptimal degradation under anaerobic conditions resulting in slow waste stabilization, gaseous emissions and leachate formation. This article examines the aerobic bioreactor alternative combining the recirculation of high strength leachate [chemical oxygen demand (COD): 89,000-95,600 mg/l; biological oxygen demand (BOD): 75,700-80,000 mg/l)] with low aeration rates (0.0125-0.05 l/min.kg) at high initial waste compaction (657-875 kg/m3) to promote and control biodegradation of solid waste in laboratory-scale columns (diameter = 60 cm, height = 1 m). Low aeration rates coupled with high initial density demonstrated improved performance with increased levels of stabilization with COD and BOD attenuation reaching up to 96%, final C:N ratio of 25 and waste settlement up to 55%. PMID:22878935

  15. Gaseous analytes of concern at Hanford Tank Farms. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Large amounts of toxic and radioactive waste materials are stored in underground tanks at DOE sites. When the vapors in the tank headspaces vent to the open atmosphere a potentially dangerous situation can occur for personnel in the area. An open-path atmospheric pollution monitor is being developed for DOE to monitor the open air space above these tanks. In developing this monitor it is important to know what hazardous gases are most likely to be found in dangerous concentrations. These gases are called the Analytes of Concern. At the present time, measurements in eight tanks have detected thirty-one analytes in at least two tanks and fifteen analytes in only one tank. In addition to these gases, Carbon tetrachloride is considered to be an Analyte of Concern because it permeates the ground around the tanks. These Analytes are described and ranked according to a Hazard Index which combines their vapor pressure, density, and approximate danger level. The top sixteen ranked analytes which have been detected in at least two tanks comprise an {open_quotes}Analytes of Concern Test List{close_quotes} for determining the system performance of the atmospheric pollution monitor under development. A preliminary examination of the infrared spectra, barring atmospheric interferences, indicates that: The pollution monitor will detect all forty-seven Analytes!

  16. Regenerable magnetic octahedral layer catalyst for gaseous UPOPs removal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Shuzhen; Wang, Siwen; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Bin; Yu, Gang

    2014-09-15

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCBz), pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UPOPs) emitted from waste combustion and industrial processes. In this study, Fe3O4 fabricated manganese oxide octahedral layer (Fe/OL) and Cu-doped OL (Fe/Cu-OL) catalysts were synthesized and they exhibited high activity for catalytic destruction of UPOPs, but also suffered from deactivation. The deactivation of Fe/Cu-OL can be assigned to the formation of surface MnClx species. As for Fe/OL, Mn sites are protected from chlorination by tunnel K(+), and the deactivation is ascribed to the blocking of active sites by KCl crystal. Simple water washing can completely regenerate the spent catalysts due to the dissolution of surface MnClx or KCl. With the advantage of magnetism, catalysts can be easily separated from water. Although Fe/Cu-OL has higher catalytic activity than Fe/OL, it is less stable in water washing due to the collapse of Mn framework structure. Considering the protection role of K(+), the spent Fe/Cu-OL was regenerated by KNO3 solution to induce additional K(+) onto the structure. In this way, the activity can be recovered while the unwanted dissolution of Mn is avoided. PMID:25218261

  17. Development of advanced fluid-bed agglomeration and cyclonic incineration for simultaneous waste disposal and energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Khinkis, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is currently developing a two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incineration system for waste disposal that is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration/incineration and cyclonic combustion techologies. Both technologies have been developed individually at IGT over many years. This combination has resulted in a unique and extremely flexible incinerator for solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes including municipal sludges. The system can operate over a wide range of conditions in the first stage, from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of wastes. In the combined system, solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes are incinerated with ease and great efficiency (>99.99% destruction and removal efficiency (DRE)), while solid inorganic contaminants contained within a glassy matrix are rendered benign and suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill. The heat generated within the incinerator can be recovered using the state-of-the-art boilers. The development of the two-stage incinerator is a culmination of extensive research and development efforts on each stage of the incinerator. The variety of data obtained with solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes for both stages includes agglomeration of ash, incineration and reclamation of used blast grit and foundry sand, partial combustion of carbonaceous fuels, in-situ desulfurization, combustion of low-Btu gases, incineration of industrial wastewater, and incineration of carbon tetrachloride. 5 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. 2D formulation of E-beam interaction with multi-resonant gaseous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Voin, M.; Hogan, M.; Kimura, W.; Muggli, P.; Schaechter, L.

    2012-12-21

    The interaction of a beam of electrons with an excited gaseous medium is formulated and a few examples are presented. In the framework of the model, the dielectric properties of the gaseous medium are represented by a finite set of resonances corresponding to spectral lines of the gas constituents. Both stimulated emission and absorption from the various states are considered. It is assumed that the population of one of the energy states is inverted. Longitudinal and transverse dynamics are evaluated analytically and Panofsky-Wenzel theorem for such a medium is derived. Based on the numerical simulations performed, possible operation is discussed.

  19. Building and commissioning of a setup to study ageing phenomena in gaseous detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuhoza, A.; Schmidt, H. R.; Biswas, S.; Frankenfeld, U.; Hehner, J.; Schmidt, C. J.

    2016-07-01

    In high-rate heavy-ion experiments, gaseous detectors encounter big challenges in terms of degradation of their performance due to a phenomenon called ageing. A setup for high precision ageing studies has been constructed and commissioned at the GSI detector laboratory. The setup as well as the gas system have been carefully optimized to reach a high sensitivity for ageing effects. Two different materials have been examined for their influence on gaseous detectors: RTV-3145 and Gerband 705. The details of the construction of the ageing test setup and the test results will be presented.

  20. Quantum chemical approach for condensed-phase thermochemistry (IV): Solubility of gaseous molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Kamata, Masahiro; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    The harmonic solvation model (HSM) was applied to the solvation of gaseous molecules and compared to a procedure based on the ideal gas model (IGM). Examination of 25 molecules showed that (i) the accuracy of ΔGsolv was similar for both methods, but the HSM shows advantages for calculating ΔHsolv and TΔSsolv; (ii) TΔSsolv contributes more than ΔHsolv to ΔGsolv in the HSM, i.e. the solvation of gaseous molecules is entropy-driven, which agrees well with experimental understanding (the IGM does not show this); (iii) the temperature dependence of Henry's law coefficient was correctly reproduced with the HSM.

  1. Turbulence coefficients and stability studies for the coaxial flow or dissimiliar fluids. [gaseous core nuclear reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, H.; Lavan, Z.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical investigations of fluid dynamics problems of relevance to the gaseous core nuclear reactor program are presented. The vortex type flow which appears in the nuclear light bulb concept is analyzed along with the fluid flow in the fuel inlet region for the coaxial flow gaseous core nuclear reactor concept. The development of numerical methods for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for appropriate geometries is extended to the case of rotating flows and almost completes the gas core program requirements in this area. The investigations demonstrate that the conceptual design of the coaxial flow reactor needs further development.

  2. 2D formulation of E-beam interaction with multi-resonant gaseous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voin, M.; Hogan, M.; Kimura, W.; Muggli, P.; Schächter, L.

    2012-12-01

    The interaction of a beam of electrons with an excited gaseous medium is formulated and a few examples are presented. In the framework of the model, the dielectric properties of the gaseous medium are represented by a finite set of resonances corresponding to spectral lines of the gas constituents. Both stimulated emission and absorption from the various states are considered. It is assumed that the population of one of the energy states is inverted. Longitudinal and transverse dynamics are evaluated analytically and Panofsky-Wenzel theorem for such a medium is derived. Based on the numerical simulations performed, possible operation is discussed.

  3. Hydrochloric acid aerosol and gaseous hydrogen chloride partitioning in a cloud contaminated by solid rocket exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Bendura, R. J.; Wornom, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Partitioning of hydrogen chloride between hydrochloric acid aerosol and gaseous HCl in the lower atmosphere was experimentally investigated in a solid rocket exhaust cloud diluted with humid ambient air. Airborne measurements were obtained of gaseous HCl, total HCl, relative humidity and temperature to evaluate the conditions under which aerosol formation occurs in the troposphere in the presence of hygroscopic HCl vapor. Equilibrium predictions of HCl aerosol formation accurately predict the measured HCl partitioning over a range of total HCl concentrations from 0.6 to 16 ppm.

  4. Waste to fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, N.B.

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses methods for making synthetic fuels from various kinds of wastes. Basic chemistry of synthesis gas creation and conversion is covered. Potentially productive wastes discussed are landfill natural gas, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes, industrial wastes, biomass, and tires. (VC)

  5. Waste to fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses methods for making synthetic fuels from various kinds of wastes. Basic chemistry of synthesis gas creation and conversion is covered. Potentially productive wastes discussed are landfill natural gas, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes, industrial wastes, biomass, and tires. (VC)

  6. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  7. DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

  8. Test set of gaseous analytes at Hanford tank farms

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    DOE has stored toxic and radioactive waste materials in large underground tanks. When the vapors in the tank headspaces vent to the open atmosphere a potentially dangerous situation can occur for personnel in the area. An open-path atmospheric pollution monitor is being developed to monitor the open air space above these tanks. In developing this infrared spectra monitor as a safety alert instrument, it is important to know what hazardous gases, called the Analytes of Concern, are most likely to be found in dangerous concentrations. The monitor must consider other gases which could interfere with measurements of the Analytes of Concern. The total list of gases called the Test Set Analytes form the basis for testing the pollution monitor. Prior measurements in 54 tank headspaces have detected 102 toxic air pollutants (TAPs) and over 1000 other analytes. The hazardous Analytes are ranked herein by a Hazardous Atmosphere Rating which combines their measured concentration, their density relative to air, and the concentration at which they become dangerous. The top 20 toxic air pollutants, as ranked by the Hazardous Atmosphere Rating, and the top 20 other analytes, in terms of measured concentrations, are analyzed for possible inclusion in the Test Set Analytes. Of these 40 gases, 20 are selected. To these 20 gases are added the 6 omnipresent atmospheric gases with the highest concentrations, since their spectra could interfere with measurements of the other spectra. The 26 Test Set Analytes are divided into a Primary Set and a Secondary Set. The Primary Set, gases which must be detectable by the monitor, includes the 6 atmospheric gases and the 6 hazardous gases which have been measured at dangerous concentrations. The Secondary Set gases need not be monitored at this time. The infrared spectra indicates that the pollution monitor will detect all 26 Test Set Analytes by thermal emission and will detect 15 Test Set Analytes by laser absorption.

  9. Waste remediation

    DOEpatents

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-12-29

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  10. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  11. WASTE RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Research Strategy covers research necessary to support both the proper management of solid and hazardous wastes and the effective remediation of contaminated waste sites. This research includes improving the assessment of existing environmental risks, as well as develop...

  12. Localization and quantitation of tritiated compounds in tissue sections with a gaseous detector of beta particles: comparison with film autoradiography.

    PubMed Central

    Tribollet, E; Dreifuss, J J; Charpak, G; Dominik, W; Zaganidis, N

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of tritium polymer standards and of brain sections labeled with tritiated vasopressin was carried out by using a gaseous detector of beta particles designed for this purpose. The gaseous detector showed major advantages compared with film autoradiography: the linearity and the large dynamic range of intensity measurements as well as the short time needed for data acquisition. Images PMID:1996346

  13. Localization and Quantitation of Tritiated Compounds in Tissue Sections with a Gaseous Detector of β Particles: Comparison with Film Autoradiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribollet, Eliane; Dreifuss, Jean Jacques; Charpak, Georges; Dominik, Wojciech; Zaganidis, Nicolas

    1991-02-01

    Quantitative analysis of tritium polymer standards and of brain sections labeled with tritiated vasopressin was carried out by using a gaseous detector of β particles designed for this purpose. The gaseous detector showed major advantages compared with film autoradiography: the linearity and the large dynamic range of intensity measurements as well as the short time needed for data acquisition.

  14. Localization and quantitation of tritiated compounds in tissue sections with a gaseous detector of beta particles: Comparison with film autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Tribollet, E.; Dreifuss, J.J.; Charpak, G.; Dominik, W.; Zaganidis, N. )

    1991-02-15

    Quantitative analysis of tritium polymer standards and of brain sections labeled with tritiated vasopressin was carried out by using a gaseous detector of beta particles designed for this purpose. The gaseous detector showed major advantages compared with film autoradiography: the linearity and the large dynamic range of intensity measurements as well as the short time needed for data acquisition.

  15. Characterization of solid waste conversion and cogeneration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Three basic technologies for recovering energy from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) were considered: direct combustion using a waterwall incinerator in which the heat from burning refuse is converted to steam by circulating water in steel tubes jacketing the interior of the incinerator; manufacture of a relatively uniform shredded, pulverized or pelleted refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for supplemental firing in a utility boiler; and pyrolysis or destructive distillation of MSW to extract a low-Btu fuel gas. While resource recovery and energy recovery systems can be installed independently, the processes described include both energy and resource recovery systems as well as necessary pollution control equipment for gaseous emissions.

  16. Quantitative assessment of in situ microbial communities affecting nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C. |

    1996-05-01

    Microbes in the environments surrounding nuclear waste depositories pose several questions regarding the protection of the surrounding communities. microbes can facilitate microbially influenced corrosion (MIC), mobilize and facilitate the transport of nuclides as well as produce gaseous emissions which can compromise containment. We have developed an analysis of the extant microbiota that is independent of quantitative recovery and subsequent growth, based on signature biomarkers analysis (SBA).

  17. FEASIBILITY AND EXPEDIENCE TO VITRIFY NPP OPERATIONAL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    LIFANOV, F.A.; OJOVAN, M.I.; STEFANOVSKY, S.V.; BURCL, R.

    2003-02-27

    radioactivity and second is the off gas flow, which contains off gaseous and aerosol airborne. The melt glass is fed into containers, which are slowly cooled in an annealing tunnel furnace to avoid accumulation of mechanical stresses in the glass. Containers with glass are the final processing product containing the overwhelming part of waste contaminants. The second stream from melter is directed to gas purification system, which is a rather complex system taking into account the necessity to remove from off gas not only radionuclides but also the chemical contaminants. Operation of this purification system leads to generation of a small amount of secondary waste. This waste stream slightly contaminated with volatilized radionuclides is recycled in the same technological scheme. As a result only non-radioactive materials are produced. They are either discharged into environment or reused. Based on the experience gained during operation of vitrification plant one can conclude on high efficiency achieved through vitrification method. Another significant argument on vitrifying NPP operational waste is the minimal impact of vitrified radioactive waste onto environment. Solidified waste shall be disposed of into a near surface disposal facility. Waste forms disposed of in a near-surface wet repository eventually come into contact with groundwater. Engineered structures used or designed to prevent or postpone such contact and the subsequent radionuclide release are complex and often too expensive. Vitrification technologies provide waste forms with excellent resistance to corrosion and gave the basic possibility of maximal simplification of engineered barrier systems. The most simple disposal option is to locate the vitrified waste form packages directly into earthen trenches provided the host rock has the necessary sorption and confinement properties. Such an approach will significantly make simpler the disposal facilities thus contributing both to enhancing safety and economic al

  18. SUNLIGHT AND IRON(III)-INDUCED PHOTOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVED GASEOUS MERCURY IN FRESHWATER. (R827632)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanistic understanding of sunlight-induced natural processes for
    production of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in freshwaters has remained
    limited, and few direct field tests of the mechanistic hypotheses are available.
    We exposed ferric iron salt-spiked fresh s...

  19. SIMULATION STUDY FOR GASEOUS FLUXES FROM AN AREA SOURCE USING COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents a new approach to quantifying emissions from fugitive gaseous air pollution sources. Computed tomography (CT) and path-integrated optical remote sensing (PI-ORS) concentration data are combined in a new field beam geometry. Path-integrated concentrations are ...

  20. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Conform to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR... condensation at any point in the dilution system. Gaseous emission samples may be taken directly from this... requirement that condensation does not occur. The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) must...

  1. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Conform to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR... condensation at any point in the dilution system. Gaseous emission samples may be taken directly from this... requirement that condensation does not occur. The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) must...

  2. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Conform to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR... condensation at any point in the dilution system. Gaseous emission samples may be taken directly from this... requirement that condensation does not occur. The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) must...

  3. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Conform to the continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system to the specifications of 40 CFR... condensation at any point in the dilution system. Gaseous emission samples may be taken directly from this... requirement that condensation does not occur. The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) must...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.140 - Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nitrogen. References in this part to “dilution air” may include any of these. For gaseous emission... for background concentrations (40 CFR 1066.610 for vehicle testing). (2) Measure these background... raw exhaust sample for any batch or continuous PM emission sampling over any transient duty cycle,...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.140 - Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nitrogen. For gaseous emission measurement the diluent must be at least 15 °C. Note that the composition of... sampling over any transient duty cycle only if we have explicitly approved it according to § 1065.10 as an...-state duty cycle or its ramped-modal cycle (RMC) equivalent. (v) You may use PFD to extract...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.140 - Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.140 Dilution for gaseous and PM constituents. (a) General. You may dilute exhaust with ambient air, synthetic air, or... diluting exhaust at a location as close as possible to the location where ambient air dilution would...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.170 - Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. 1065.170 Section 1065.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.170 Batch...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.170 - Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. 1065.170 Section 1065.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.170 Batch...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.170 - Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. 1065.170 Section 1065.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.170 Batch...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.170 - Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. 1065.170 Section 1065.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.170 Batch...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.170 - Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents. 1065.170 Section 1065.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.170 Batch...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FINE PARTICLE AND GASEOUS EMISSIONS DURING SCHOOL BUS IDLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The particulate matter (PM) and gaseous emissions from six diesel school buses were determined over a simulated idling period typical of schools in the northeastern U.S. Testing was conducted for both continuous idle and hot restart conditions using particle and gas analyzers. Th...

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 11--20, 1990, over an 83-square-kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 122 meters (400 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h) at 1 meter above the ground. Analysis of the data for man-made sources and for the uranium decay product, protactinium-234m ([sup 234m]Pa), showed five sites within the boundaries of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant with elevated readings. Spectra obtained in the vicinity of the buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant showed the presence of [sup 234m]Pa, a uranium-238 ([sup 238]U) decay product. In addition, spectral analysis of the data obtained over the processing plant facility showed gamma activity indicative of uranium-235 ([sup 234]U). No other man-made gamma ray emitting radioactive material was detected, either on or off the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant property. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at five different locations within the survey boundlaries to support the aerial data.

  14. Gaseous Structures and Mass Drift in Spiral Galaxies: Effects of Arm Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kim, W.-T.

    2015-10-01

    Stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies play an important role in the formation of gaseous substructures such as gaseous feathers as well as mass inflows/outflows in the radial direction. We study nonlinear responses of self-gravitating gas to an imposed stellar spiral potential in galactic disks with differing arm strength and pattern speed. We find that the extent and shapes of gaseous arms as well as the radial mass drift rate depend rather sensitively on the arm pattern speed. Quasi-steady spiral shocks can exist only when the normal Mach number is small. The pitch angle of gaseous arms is usually smaller than that of stellar arms. The mass drift rate to the central region is in the range of ˜0.05-3.0M⊙yr-1 , with larger values corresponding to stronger and/or slower-rotating arms. Using a normal-mode linear stability analysis together with nonlinear simulations, we show that wiggle instability of spiral shocks is due to the accumulation of potential vorticity at a perturbed shock front, rather than Kelvin-Helmholtz instability as previously suggested.

  15. 40 CFR 60.1230 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What continuous emission monitoring... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1230 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission...

  16. DYNAMIC OXIDATION OF GASEOUS MERCURY IN THE ARCTIC TROPOSPHERE AT POLAR SUNRISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) is a globally distributed air toxin with a long atmospheric residence time. Any process that reduces it atmospheric lifetime increases its potential accumulation in the biosphere. Our data from Barrow, AK, at 71 N show that rapid, photochemica...

  17. Simplified MPN method for enumeration of soil naphthalene degraders using gaseous substrate.

    PubMed

    Wallenius, Kaisa; Lappi, Kaisa; Mikkonen, Anu; Wickström, Annika; Vaalama, Anu; Lehtinen, Taru; Suominen, Leena

    2012-02-01

    We describe a simplified microplate most-probable-number (MPN) procedure to quantify the bacterial naphthalene degrader population in soil samples. In this method, the sole substrate naphthalene is dosed passively via gaseous phase to liquid medium and the detection of growth is based on the automated measurement of turbidity using an absorbance reader. The performance of the new method was evaluated by comparison with a recently introduced method in which the substrate is dissolved in inert silicone oil and added individually to each well, and the results are scored visually using a respiration indicator dye. Oil-contaminated industrial soil showed slightly but significantly higher MPN estimate with our method than with the reference method. This suggests that gaseous naphthalene was dissolved in an adequate concentration to support the growth of naphthalene degraders without being too toxic. The dosing of substrate via gaseous phase notably reduced the work load and risk of contamination. The result scoring by absorbance measurement was objective and more reliable than measurement with indicator dye, and it also enabled further analysis of cultures. Several bacterial genera were identified by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from the MPN wells incubated in the presence of gaseous naphthalene. In addition, the applicability of the simplified MPN method was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation between the level of oil contamination and the number of naphthalene degraders detected in soil.

  18. Influences of packaging design on antimicrobial effects of gaseous chlorine dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas is an effective surface disinfectant, for it has the ability to reach and inactivate bacterial cells in biofilms which are attached to inaccessible sites on produce surfaces. One of the most promising applications of gaseous ClO2 is to be included in the headspace of foo...

  19. New packaging design for fresh produce with effective distribution of antimicrobial gaseous chlorine dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last decade, the potential use of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as an antimicrobial agent for vapor-phase decontamination to extend the shelf-life of fresh produce has been widely studied. Most of the works focused on the dose of gaseous ClO2 for particular food product and/or specific microorganis...

  20. Low NOx heavy fuel combustor concept program addendum: Low/mid heating value gaseous fuel evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novick, A. S.; Troth, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion performance of a rich/quench/lean (RQL) combustor was evaluated when operated on low and mid heating value gaseous fuels. Two synthesized fuels were prepared having lower heating values of 10.2 MJ/cu m. (274 Btu/scf) and 6.6 MJ/cu m (176 Btu/scf). These fuels were configured to be representative of actual fuels, being composed primarily of nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. A liquid fuel air assist fuel nozzle was modified to inject both of the gaseous fuels. The RQL combustor liner was not changed from the configuration used when the liquid fuels were tested. Both gaseous fuels were tested over a range of power levels from 50 percent load to maximum rated power of the DDN Model 570-K industrial gas turbine engine. Exhaust emissions were recorded for four power level at several rich zone equivalence ratios to determine NOx sensitivity to the rich zone operating point. For the mid Btu heating value gas, ammonia was added to the fuel to simulate a fuel bound nitrogen type gaseous fuel. Results at the testing showed that for the low heating value fuel NOx emissions were all below 20 ppmc and smoke was below a 10 smoke number. For the mid heating value fuel, NOx emissions were in the 50 to 70 ppmc range with the smoke below a 10 smoke number.