Science.gov

Sample records for gases carbon dioxide

  1. 21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161... (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Other Exemptions § 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene, helium, and nitrous oxide gases intended for drug use are...

  2. 21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161... (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Other Exemptions § 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene, helium, and nitrous oxide gases intended for drug use are...

  3. 21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161... (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Other Exemptions § 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene, helium, and nitrous oxide gases intended for drug use are...

  4. 21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161... (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Other Exemptions § 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene, helium, and nitrous oxide gases intended for drug use are...

  5. 21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161... (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Other Exemptions § 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene, helium, and nitrous oxide gases intended for drug use are...

  6. Natural sources of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide emissions from volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, Terrence

    1990-01-01

    Volcanic degassing of carbon dioxide plays an important role in keeping the atmosphere-ocean portion of the carbon geochemical cycle in balance. The atmosphere-ocean carbon deficit requires replenishment of 6??1012 mol CO2/yr, and places an upper limit on the output of carbon dioxide from volcanoes. The CO2 output of the global mid-oceanic ridge system is ca. 0.7??1012 mol/yr, thus supplying only a fraction of the amount needed to balance the carbon deficit. The carbon dioxide flux from subaerial volcanoes is poorly known, but it appears to be at least as large as the mid-oceanic ridge flux. Much (perhaps most) of the CO2 emitted from volcanoes is degassed noneruptively. This mode of degassing may lead to impacts on the environment and biosphere that are fundamentally different in character from those envisioned in published scenarios, which are based on the assumption that CO2 degassing occurs predominantly by eruptive processes. Although the flux of carbon dioxide from volcanoes is poorly constrained at present, it is clearly two orders of magnitude lower than the anthropogenic output of CO2.

  7. Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

  8. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  9. Automatic carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor based on the solubility of gases in water.

    PubMed

    Cadena-Pereda, Raúl O; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Gomez-Melendez, Domingo J; Anaya-Rivera, Ely K

    2012-01-01

    Biogas methane content is a relevant variable in anaerobic digestion processing where knowledge of process kinetics or an early indicator of digester failure is needed. The contribution of this work is the development of a novel, simple and low cost automatic carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor based on the solubility of gases in water as the precursor of a sensor for biogas quality monitoring. The device described in this work was used for determining the composition of binary mixtures, such as carbon dioxide-methane, in the range of 0-100%. The design and implementation of a digital signal processor and control system into a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform has permitted the successful application of data acquisition, data distribution and digital data processing, making the construction of a standalone carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor possible.

  10. Automatic Carbon Dioxide-Methane Gas Sensor Based on the Solubility of Gases in Water

    PubMed Central

    Cadena-Pereda, Raúl O.; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M.; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Gomez-Melendez, Domingo J.; Anaya-Rivera, Ely K.

    2012-01-01

    Biogas methane content is a relevant variable in anaerobic digestion processing where knowledge of process kinetics or an early indicator of digester failure is needed. The contribution of this work is the development of a novel, simple and low cost automatic carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor based on the solubility of gases in water as the precursor of a sensor for biogas quality monitoring. The device described in this work was used for determining the composition of binary mixtures, such as carbon dioxide-methane, in the range of 0–100%. The design and implementation of a digital signal processor and control system into a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform has permitted the successful application of data acquisition, data distribution and digital data processing, making the construction of a standalone carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor possible. PMID:23112626

  11. Discrepancy between Measured Serum Total Carbon Dioxide Content and Bicarbonate Concentration Calculated from Arterial Blood Gases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngho; Massie, Larry; Murata, Glen H

    2015-01-01

    Large differences between the concentrations of serum total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and blood gas bicarbonate (HCO3-) were observed in two consecutive simultaneously drawn sets of samples of serum and arterial blood gases in a patient who presented with severe carbon dioxide retention and profound acidemia. These differences could not be explained by the effect of the high partial pressure of carbon dioxide on TCO2, by variations in the dissociation constant of the carbonic acid/bicarbonate system or by faults caused by the algorithms of the blood gas apparatus that calculate HCO3-. A recalculation using the Henderson-Hasselbach equation revealed arterial blood gas HCO3- values close to the corresponding serum TCO2 values and clarified the diagnosis of the acid-base disorder, which had been placed in doubt by the large differences between the reported TCO2 and HCO3- values. Human error in the calculation of HCO3- was identified as the source of these differences. Recalculation of blood gas HCO3- should be the first step in identifying the source of large differences between serum TCO2 and blood gas HCO3-. PMID:26824002

  12. Discrepancy between Measured Serum Total Carbon Dioxide Content and Bicarbonate Concentration Calculated from Arterial Blood Gases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngho; Massie, Larry; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-12-07

    Large differences between the concentrations of serum total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and blood gas bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) were observed in two consecutive simultaneously drawn sets of samples of serum and arterial blood gases in a patient who presented with severe carbon dioxide retention and profound acidemia. These differences could not be explained by the effect of the high partial pressure of carbon dioxide on TCO2, by variations in the dissociation constant of the carbonic acid/bicarbonate system or by faults caused by the algorithms of the blood gas apparatus that calculate HCO3 (-). A recalculation using the Henderson-Hasselbach equation revealed arterial blood gas HCO3 (-) values close to the corresponding serum TCO2 values and clarified the diagnosis of the acid-base disorder, which had been placed in doubt by the large differences between the reported TCO2 and HCO3 (-) values. Human error in the calculation of HCO3 (-) was identified as the source of these differences. Recalculation of blood gas HCO3 (-) should be the first step in identifying the source of large differences between serum TCO2 and blood gas HCO3 (-).

  13. Reactions of Criegee Intermediates with Non-Water Greenhouse Gases: Implications for Metal Free Chemical Fixation of Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Francisco, Joseph S

    2017-09-07

    High-level theoretical calculations suggest that a Criegee intermediate preferably interacts with carbon dioxide compared to two other greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide and methane. The results also suggest that the interaction between Criegee intermediates and carbon dioxide involves a cycloaddition reaction, which results in the formation of a cyclic carbonate-type adduct with a barrier of 6.0-14.0 kcal/mol. These results are in contrast to a previous assumption that the reaction occurs barrierlessly. The subsequent decomposition of the cyclic adduct into formic acid and carbon dioxide follows both concerted and stepwise mechanisms. The latter mechanism has been overlooked previously. Under formic acid catalysis, the concerted decomposition of the cyclic carbonate may be favored under tropospheric conditions. Considering that there is a strong nexus between carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and global warming, the high reactivity of Criegee intermediates could be utilized for designing efficient carbon capture technologies.

  14. Joseph Black, carbon dioxide, latent heat, and the beginnings of the discovery of the respiratory gases.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2014-06-15

    The discovery of carbon dioxide by Joseph Black (1728-1799) marked a new era of research on the respiratory gases. His initial interest was in alkalis such as limewater that were thought to be useful in the treatment of renal stone. When he studied magnesium carbonate, he found that when this was heated or exposed to acid, a gas was evolved that he called "fixed air" because it had been combined with a solid material. He showed that the new gas extinguished a flame, that it could not support life, and that it was present in gas exhaled from the lung. Within a few years of his discovery, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen were also isolated. Thus arguably Black's work started the avalanche of research on the respiratory gases carried out by Priestley, Scheele, Lavoisier, and Cavendish. Black then turned his attention to heat and he was the first person to describe latent heat, that is the heat added or lost when a liquid changes its state, for example when water changes to ice or steam. Latent heat is a key concept in thermal physiology because of the heat lost when sweat evaporates. Black was a friend of the young James Watt (1736-1819) who was responsible for the development of early steam engines. Watt was puzzled why so much cooling was necessary to condense steam into water, and Black realized that the answer was the latent heat. The resulting improvements in steam engines ushered in the Industrial Revolution.

  15. Foliage plants for indoor removal of the primary combustion gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Mesick, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Foliage plants were evaluated for their ability to sorb carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, the two primary gases produced during the combustion of fossil fuels and tobacco. The spider plant (Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum) could sorb 2.86 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in a 6 h photoperiod. The golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) sorbed 0.98 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in the same time period. In a system with the spider plant, greater than or equal to 99 percent of an initial concentration of 47 ppm NO2 could be removed in 6 h from a void volume of approximately 0.35 cu m. One spider plant potted in a 3.8 liter container can sorb 3300 micrograms CO and effect the removal of 8500 micrograms NO2/hour, recognizing the fact that a significant fraction of NO2 at high concentrations will be lost by surface sorption, dissolving in moisture, etc.

  16. Foliage plants for indoor removal of the primary combustion gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Mesick, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Foliage plants were evaluated for their ability to sorb carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, the two primary gases produced during the combustion of fossil fuels and tobacco. The spider plant (Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum) could sorb 2.86 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in a 6 h photoperiod. The golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) sorbed 0.98 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in the same time period. In a system with the spider plant, greater than or equal to 99 percent of an initial concentration of 47 ppm NO2 could be removed in 6 h from a void volume of approximately 0.35 cu m. One spider plant potted in a 3.8 liter container can sorb 3300 micrograms CO and effect the removal of 8500 micrograms NO2/hour, recognizing the fact that a significant fraction of NO2 at high concentrations will be lost by surface sorption, dissolving in moisture, etc.

  17. Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, M.D.; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases, Fiscal Year 2002 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.

    2003-08-28

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including atmospheric concentrations and atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels.

  19. Carbon dioxide analysers: accuracy, alarm limits and effects of interfering gases.

    PubMed

    Lauber, R; Seeberger, B; Zbinden, A M

    1995-07-01

    Six mainstream and twelve sidestream infrared carbon dioxide (CO2) analysers were tested for accuracy of the CO2 display value, alarm activation and the effects of nitrous oxide (N2O), oxygen (O2) and water vapour according to the ISO Draft International Standard (DIS)#9918. Mainstream analysers (M-type): Novametrix Capnogard 1265; Hewlett Packard HP M1166A (CO2-module HP M1016A); Datascope Passport; Marquette Tramscope 12; Nellcor Ultra Cap N-6000; Hellige Vicom-sm SMU 611/612 ETC. Sidestream analysers: Brüel & Kjaer Type 1304; Datex Capnomac II; Marquette MGA-AS; Datascope Multinex; Ohmeda 4700 OxiCap (all type S1: respiratory cycles not demanded); Biochem BCI 9000; Bruker BCI 9100; Dräger Capnodig and PM 8020; Criticare Poet II; Hellige Vicom-sm SMU 611/612 A-GAS (all type S2: respiratory cycles demanded). The investigations were performed with premixed test gases (2.5, 5, 10 vol%, error < or = 1% rel.). Humidification (37 degrees C) of gases were generated by a Dräger Aquapor. Respiratory cycles were simulated by manually activated valves. All monitors complied with the tolerated accuracy bias in CO2 reading (< or = 12% or 4 mmHg of actual test gas value) for wet and dry test gases at all concentrations, except that the Marquette MGA-AS exceeded this accuracy limit with wet gases at 5 and 10 vol% CO2. Water condensed in the metal airway adapter of the HP M1166A at 37 degrees C gas temperature but not at 30 degrees C. The Servomex 2500 (nonclinical reference monitor), Passport (M-type), Multinex (S1-type) and Poet II (S2-type) showed the least bias for dry and wet gases. Nitrous oxide and O2 had practically no effect on the Capnodig and the errors in the others were max. 3.4 mmHg, still within the tolerated bias in the DIS (same as above). The difference between the display reading at alarm activation and the set point was in all monitors (except in the Capnodig: bias 1.75 mmHg at 5 vol% CO2) below the tolerated limit of the DIS (difference < or = 0.2 vol

  20. Understanding the contribution of non-carbon dioxide gases in deep mitigation scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Gernaat, David; Calvin, Katherine V.; Lucas, Paul; Luderer, Gunnar; Otto, Sander; Rao, Shilpa; Strefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-07-01

    The combined 2010 emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and the fluorinated gasses (F-gas) account for about 20-30% of total emissions and about 30% of radiative forcing. At the moment, most studies looking at reaching ambitious climate targets project the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) to be reduced to zero (or less) by the end of the century. As for non-CO2 gases, the mitigation potential seem to be more constrained, we find that by the end of the century in the current deep mitigation scenarios non-CO2 emissions could form the lion’s share of remaining greenhouse gas emissions. In order to support effective climate policy strategies, in this paper we provide a more in-depth look at the role of non-CO2¬ emission sources (CH4, N2O and F-gases) in achieving deep mitigation targets (radiative forcing target of 2.8 W/m2 in 2100). Specifically, we look at the sectorial mitigation potential and the remaining non-CO2 emissions. By including a set of different models, we provide some insights into the associated uncertainty. Most of the remaining methane emissions in 2100 in the climate mitigation scenario come from the livestock sector. Strong reductions are seen in the energy supply sector across all models. For N2O, less reduction potential is seen compared to methane and the sectoral differences are larger between the models. The paper shows that the assumptions on remaining non-CO2 emissions are critical for the feasibility of reaching ambitious climate targets and the associated costs.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 2000 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.

    2001-11-15

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels.

  2. Shock-tube thermochemistry tables for high-temperature gases. Volume 5: Carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menard, W. A.; Horton, T. E.

    1971-01-01

    Equilibrium thermodynamic properties and species concentrations for carbon dioxide are tabulated for moving, standing, and reflected shock waves. Initial pressures range from 6.665 to 6665 N/sq m (0.05 to 50.0 torr), and temperatures from 2,000 to over 80,000K. In this study, 20 molecular and atomic species were considered.

  3. Origin and migration of hydrocarbon gases and carbon dioxide, Bekes Basin, southeastern Hungary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clayton, J.L.; Spencer, C.W.; Koncz, I.; Szalay, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Bekes Basin is a sub-basin within the Pannonian Basin, containing about 7000 m of post-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Natural gases are produced from reservoirs (Precambrian to Tertiary in age) located on structural highs around the margins of the basin. Gas composition and stable carbon isotopic data indicate that most of the flammable gases were derived from humic kerogen contained in source rocks located in the deep basin. The depth of gas generation and vertical migration distances were estimated using quantitative source rock maturity-carbon isotope relationships for methane compared to known Neogene source rock maturity-depth relationships in the basin. These calculations indicate that as much as 3500 m of vertical migration has occured in some cases. Isotopically heavy (> - 7 > 0) CO2 is the predominant species present in some shallow reservoirs located on basin-margin structural highs and has probably been derived via long-distance vertical and lateral migration from thermal decompositon of carbonate minerals in Mesozoic and older rocks in the deepest parts of the basin. A few shallow reservoirs (< 2000m) contain isotopically light (-50 to -60%0) methane with only minor amounts of C2+ homologs (< 3% v/v). This methane is probably mostly microbial in origin. Above-normal pressures, occuring at depths greater than 1800 m, are believed to be the principal driving force for lateral and vertical gas migration. These pressures are caused in part by active hydrocarbon generation, undercompaction, and thermal decomposition of carbonates

  4. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W. |

    1994-01-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

  5. Solubility selective membrane materials for carbon dioxide removal from mixtures with light gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Haiqing

    Membrane technology has attracted interest for the selective removal of carbon dioxide from mixtures with light gases such as H2, CH4 and N2. While conventional structure-property correlations have focused mainly on improving the separation performance by increasing polymer size sieving ability (i.e., diffusivity selectivity), this project explores the possibility of harnessing favorable interactions between CO 2 and polymers containing polar groups to improve permeability/selectivity properties. Ether oxide groups are discovered to be among the best moieties known to interact with CO2, leading to high CO2 solubility and CO2/light gas solubility selectivity, while still providing polymer chain flexibility, leading to high CO2 diffusivity and favorable CO2/H2 diffusivity selectivity. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) has a high concentration of ether oxygen groups and exhibits high CO2/light gas selectivities. However, gas permeability is low due to the high crystallinity in PEO. Crosslinking and introduction of short chain branching are efficient methods to inhibit crystallization. Three series of crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) rubbers have been prepared using prepolymer solutions containing: (1) poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and H2O, (2) PEGDA and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGMEA), and (3) PEGDA and poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate (PEGA). Independent of the prepolymer composition, all of these polymers have similar ethylene oxide (EO) content (approximately 82 wt.%). Crosslink density decreases with decreasing PEGDA content in the prepolymer solution, which is estimated from water swelling experiments and/or dynamic mechanical testing and has essentially no effect on gas transport properties. Increasing PEGMEA content increases the average size of free volume elements, resulting in a decreased glass transition temperature, and increased CO 2 permeability and CO2/H2 selectivity. In contrast, the presence of PEGA or water has a negligible

  6. The air we breathe: three vital respiratory gases and the red blood cell: oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Dzik, Walter H

    2011-04-01

    Three vital respiratory gases-oxygen (O(2)), nitric oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO(2))-intersect at the level of the human red blood cell (RBC). In addition to hemoglobin (Hb)'s central role in O(2) transport, interaction of Hb with the Band 3 metabolon balances RBC energy flow. 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate enhances O(2) transport across the placenta and plays an important role in regulating RBC plasticity. NO is a key mediator of hypoxic vasodilation, but the precise role of RBC Hb remains controversial. In addition to established theories that depend on RBC uptake, delivery, and discharge of NO or its metabolites, an alternative hypothesis based on RBC permeability is suggested. NO depletion by free Hb may account for several clinical features seen during intravascular hemolysis or during deliberate infusion of Hb solutions used as RBC substitutes. CO(2) released by tissues triggers oxygen release through a series of well-coordinated reactions centered on the Band 3 metabolon. While RBC carbonic anhydrase and the Band 3 anion exchanger are central to this process, there is surprisingly little research on the kinetics of CO(2) clearance by transfusion. The three RBC gases are directly related to the three principal gases of Earth's atmosphere. Human fossil fuel consumption dumps 90 million metric tons of carbon into the atmosphere annually. Increasing CO(2) levels are linked to global warming, melting Arctic ice, rising sea levels, and climate instability. Just as individual cells depend on balance of the three vital gases, so too will their balance determine survival of life on Earth.

  7. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  9. Carbon dioxide removal from flue gases by absorption/ desorption in aqueous diethanolamine solutions.

    PubMed

    Kierzkowska-Pawlak, Hanna; Chacuk, Andrzej

    2010-08-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2) desorption rate from CO2- loaded aqueous diethanolamine (DEA) solutions was measured using a stirred cell with a flat gas-liquid interface. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 293.15-313.15 K and an amine concentration range of 10-20% mass DEA. Measurements were based on a semibatch isothermal absorption of the gas until the equilibrium state was reached, followed by desorption, which was initiated by the pressure release in the system. A simplified mass transfer model based on the film theory coupled with CO2, mass balance was developed to interpret the experimental data. On the basis of the proposed model, the initial mass transfer rates were calculated from the experimental results. The calculated initial desorption rates enabled estimation of the enhancement factor for CO2 mass transfer from aqueous DEA solutions. Analysis of the experimental data showed that desorption took place in the diffusive mass transfer regime.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.

    2000-03-31

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global-change data and information analysis center of the Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has--since its inception in 1982--enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level. CDIAC is located within the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. CDIAC is co-located with ESD researchers investigating global-change topics, such as the global carbon cycle and the effects of carbon dioxide on vegetation. CDIAC staff are also connected with current ORNL research on related topics, such as renewable energy and supercomputing technologies. CDIAC is supported by the Environmental Sciences Division (Jerry Elwood, Acting Director) of DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC's FY 1999 budget was 2.2M dollars. CDIAC represents the DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System. Bobbi Parra, and Wanda Ferrell on an interim basis, is DOE's Program Manager with responsibility for CDIAC. CDIAC comprises three groups, Global Change Data, Computer Systems, and Information

  11. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.

    2002-10-15

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels. CDIAC is located within the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. CDIAC is co-located with ESD researchers investigating global-change topics, such as the global carbon cycle and the effects of carbon dioxide on climate and vegetation. CDIAC staff are also connected with current ORNL research on related topics, such as renewable energy and supercomputing technologies. CDIAC is supported by the Environmental Sciences Division (Jerry Elwood, Director) of DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC represents DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS). Wanda Ferrell is DOE's Program Manager with overall responsibility for CDIAC. Roger Dahlman is responsible for CDIAC's AmeriFlux tasks, and Anna Palmisano for CDIAC's Ocean Data tasks. CDIAC is made up of three groups: Data

  12. Capture of carbon dioxide from flue gases by amine-functionalized TiO2 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fujiao; Zhao, Yunxia; Cao, Yan; Ding, Jie; Bu, Yunfei; Zhong, Qin

    2013-03-01

    The novel carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbents with high capture efficiency were prepared through impregnating TiO2 nanotubes (TiNT) with four kinds of amines, namely monoethanolamine (MEA), ethylenediamine (EDA), triethylenetetramine (TETA) and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), respectively. The samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, low temperature N2 adsorption and transmission electron microscopy. CO2 capture was investigated in a dynamic packed column. The TEPA-loaded sample showed a better adsorption capacity due to its higher amino-groups content. In condition, TiNT-TEPA-69 shows the highest CO2 adsorption capacity among the four TEPA-loaded samples, approximately 4.37 mmol/g at 60 °C. The adsorption capacity was enhanced to 5.24 mmol/g under moisture conditions. TiNT-TEPA-69 was selected as adsorbent to study the adsorption/desorption behavior in the absence of moisture and in the presence of moisture. While the former is fairly stable after 5 adsorption/desorption cycles, the latter decreases dramatically.

  13. Effect of variation in argon content of calibration gases on determination of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Min, Deullae; Kang, Namgoo; Moon, Dong Min; Lee, Jin Bok; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Jin Seog

    2009-12-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is a greenhouse gas that makes by far the largest contribution to the global warming of the Earth's atmosphere. For the measurements of atmospheric CO(2) a non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR) and gas chromatography are conventionally being used. We explored whether and to what degree argon content can influence the determination of atmospheric CO(2) using the comparison of CO(2) concentrations between the sample gas mixtures with varying Ar amounts at 0 and 18.6 mmol mol(-1) and the calibration gas mixtures with Ar at 8.4, 9.1, and 9.3 mmol mol(-1). We newly discovered that variation of Ar content in calibration gas mixtures could undermine accuracy for precise and accurate determination of atmospheric CO(2) in background air. The differences in CO(2) concentration due to the variation of Ar content in the calibration gas mixtures were negligible (<+/-0.03 micromol mol(-1)) for NDIR systems whereas they noticeably increased (<+/-1.09 micromol mol(-1)) especially for the modified GC systems to enhance instrumental sensitivity. We found that the thermal mass flow controller is the main source of the differences although such differences appeared only in the presence of a flow restrictor in GC systems. For reliable monitoring of real atmospheric CO(2) samples, one should use calibration gas mixtures that contain Ar content close to the level (9.332 mmol mol(-1)) in the ambient air as possible. Practical guidelines were highlighted relating to selection of appropriate analytical approaches for the accurate and precise measurements of atmospheric CO(2). In addition, theoretical implications from the findings were addressed.

  14. Warming of subarctic tundra increases emissions of all three important greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Carolina; Lamprecht, Richard E; Marushchak, Maija E; Lind, Saara E; Novakovskiy, Alexander; Aurela, Mika; Martikainen, Pertti J; Biasi, Christina

    2017-08-01

    Rapidly rising temperatures in the Arctic might cause a greater release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. To study the effect of warming on GHG dynamics, we deployed open-top chambers in a subarctic tundra site in Northeast European Russia. We determined carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes as well as the concentration of those gases, inorganic nitrogen (N) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) along the soil profile. Studied tundra surfaces ranged from mineral to organic soils and from vegetated to unvegetated areas. As a result of air warming, the seasonal GHG budget of the vegetated tundra surfaces shifted from a GHG sink of -300 to -198 g CO2 -eq m(-2) to a source of 105 to 144 g CO2 -eq m(-2) . At bare peat surfaces, we observed increased release of all three GHGs. While the positive warming response was dominated by CO2 , we provide here the first in situ evidence of increasing N2 O emissions from tundra soils with warming. Warming promoted N2 O release not only from bare peat, previously identified as a strong N2 O source, but also from the abundant, vegetated peat surfaces that do not emit N2 O under present climate. At these surfaces, elevated temperatures had an adverse effect on plant growth, resulting in lower plant N uptake and, consequently, better N availability for soil microbes. Although the warming was limited to the soil surface and did not alter thaw depth, it increased concentrations of DOC, CO2, and CH4 in the soil down to the permafrost table. This can be attributed to downward DOC leaching, fueling microbial activity at depth. Taken together, our results emphasize the tight linkages between plant and soil processes, and different soil layers, which need to be taken into account when predicting the climate change feedback of the Arctic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Robust IR Remote Sensing Technique of the Total Column of Trace Gases Including Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Heaps, W. S.

    2011-01-01

    Progress on the development of a differential radiometer based upon the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) for methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (C02) detection in the atmosphere is presented. Methane measurements are becoming increasingly important as a component of NASA's programs to understand the global carbon cycle and quantifY the threat of global warming. Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas in the Earth's radiation budget (after water vapor and carbon dioxide) and the second most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming. The importance of global warming and air quality to society caused the National Research Council to recommend that NASA develop the following missions [1]: ASCENDS (Active Sensing of C02 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons), GEOCAPE (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events), and GACM (Global Atmosphere Composition Mission). Though methane measurements are not specifically called out in these missions, ongoing environmental changes have raised the importance of understanding the methane budget. In the decadal survey is stated that "to close the carbon budget, we would also address methane, but the required technology is not obvious at this time. If appropriate and cost-effective methane technology becomes available, we strongly recommend adding a methane capability". In its 2007 report the International Panel on Climate Change identified methane as a key uncertainty in our understanding saying that the causes of recent changes in the growth rate of atmospheric CH4 are not well understood. What we do know is that methane arises from a number of natural sources including wet lands and the oceans plus man made sources from agriculture, as well as coal and petroleum production and distribution. It has recently been pointed out that large amount of methane are frozen in the permafrost of Canada and Siberia. There is a fear that melting of this permafrost driven by global warming may release large amounts of

  16. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center - A for atmospheric trace gases. Fiscal year 1996, annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.

    1997-02-01

    Fiscal year 1996 was especially productive for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report describes publications and statistical data from the CDIAC.

  17. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  18. Separation of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide gases using room-temperature ionic liquid (hmim)(Tf2N)

    SciTech Connect

    A. Yokozeki; Mark B. Shiflett

    2009-09-15

    To understand capturing and/or enhanced gaseous selectivity of industrial flue gases containing CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} using room-temperature ionic liquids, we have developed a ternary equation of state (EOS) model for a CO{sub 2}/SO{sub 2}/1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((hmim)(Tf2N)) system. The present model is based on a generic RK (Redlich-Kwong) EOS, with empirical binary interaction parameters of each binary system. These interaction parameters have been determined using our measured VLE (vapor-liquid-equilibrium) data for SO{sub 2}/(hmim)(Tf2N) and CO{sub 2}/(hmim)(Tf2N) and literature data for CO{sub 2}/SO{sub 2}. The validity of the present EOS has been checked by conducting ternary VLE experiments for the present system. With this EOS, isothermal ternary phase diagrams and solubility (VLE) behaviors have been calculated for various (T, P, and feed compositions) conditions. For large and equimolar CO{sub 2}/SO{sub 2} mole ratios, the gaseous selectivity is nearly independent of the amount of the ionic liquid addition. However, for small CO{sub 2}/SO{sub 2} mole ratios the addition of the ionic liquid significantly increases the selectivity. The strong absorption of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in this ionic liquid may be practical for the simultaneous capture of these acid gases. 39 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Use of Molecular Modeling to Determine the Interaction and Competition of Gases within Coal for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey D. Evanseck; Jeffry D. Madura

    2003-02-23

    A 3-dimensional coal structural model for the Argonne Premium Coal Pocahontas No. 3 has been generated. The model was constructed based on the wealth of structural information available in the literature with the enhancement that the structural diversity within the structure was represented implicitly (for the first time) based on image analysis of HRTEM in combination with LDMS data. The complex and large structural model (>10,000 carbon atoms) will serve as a basis for examining the interaction of gases within this low volatile bituminous coal. Simulations are of interest to permit reasonable simulations of the host-guest interactions with regard to carbon dioxide sequestration within coal and methane displacement from coal. The molecular structure will also prove useful in examining other coal related behavior such as solvent swelling, liquefaction and other properties. Molecular models of CO{sub 2} have been evaluated with water to analyze which classical molecular force-field parameters are the most reasonable to predict the interactions of CO{sub 2} with water. The comparison of the molecular force field models was for a single CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O complex and was compared against first principles quantum mechanical calculations. The interaction energies and the electrostatic interaction distances were used as criteria in the comparison. The ab initio calculations included Hartree-Fock, B3LYP, and Moeller-Plesset 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order perturbation theories with basis sets up to the aug-cc-pvtz basis set. The Steele model was the best literature model, when compared to the ab initio data, however, our new CO{sub 2} model reproduces the QM data significantly better than the Steele force-field model.

  20. Efficient recovery of carbon dioxide from flue gases of coal-fired power plants by cyclic fixed-bed operations over K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Hiromu; Taniuchi, Jun; Furuyashiki, Nobuyoshi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Hirano, Shinichi; Shigemoto, Naoya; Nonaka, Takazumi

    1998-01-01

    An efficient chemical absorption method capable of cyclic fixed-bed operations under moist conditions for the recovery of carbon dioxide from flue gases has been proposed employing K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon. Carbon dioxide was chemically absorbed by the reaction K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O {r_equilibrium} 2KHCO{sub 3} to form potassium hydrogen carbonate. Moisture, usually contained as high as 8--17% in flue gases, badly affects the capacity of conventional adsorbents such as zeolites, but the present technology has no concern with moisture; water is rather necessary in principle as shown in the equation above. Deliquescent potassium carbonate should be supported on an appropriate porous material to adapt for fixed-bed operations. After breakthrough of carbon dioxide, the entrapped carbon dioxide was released by the decomposition of hydrogen carbonate to shift the reaction in reverse on flushing with steam, which could be condensed by cooling to afford carbon dioxide in high purity. Among various preparations of alkaline-earth carbonates (X{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, X = Li, Na, K) on porous materials, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-activated carbon revealed excellent properties for the present purpose. Preparation and characterization of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon and illustrative fixed-bed operations under flue gas conditions in laboratory columns and a bench-scale plant are described.

  1. Evaluation of carbon dioxide mass transfer in raceway reactors for microalgae culture using flue gases.

    PubMed

    de Godos, I; Mendoza, J L; Acién, F G; Molina, E; Banks, C J; Heaven, S; Rogalla, F

    2014-02-01

    Mass transfer of CO2 from flue gas was quantified in a 100m(2) raceway. The carbonation sump was operated with and without a baffle at different liquid/gas ratios, with the latter having the greatest influence on CO2 recovery from the flue gas. A rate of mass transfer sufficient to meet the demands of an actively growing algal culture was best achieved by maintaining pH at ∼8. Full optimisation of the process required both pH control and selection of the best liquid/gas flow ratio. A carbon transfer rate of 10gCmin(-1) supporting an algal productivity of 17gm(-2)day(-1) was achieved with only 4% direct loss of CO2 in the sump. 66% of the carbon was incorporated into biomass, while 6% was lost by outgassing and the remainder as dissolved carbon in the liquid phase. Use of a sump baffle required additional power without significantly improving carbon mass transfer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alternative carbon dioxide modelling approaches accounting for high residual gases in LandGEM.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Nathan; Ng, Kelvin Tsun Wai; Richter, Amy

    2017-06-01

    High Canadian waste disposal rates necessitate landfill gas monitoring and accurate forecasting. CO2 estimates in LandGEM version 3.02 currently rest on the assumptions that CO2 is a function of CH4, where the two gases make up nearly 100% of landfill gas content, leading to overestimated CO2 collection estimates. A total of 25 cases (five formulas, five approaches) compared annual CO2 collection at four western Canadian landfills. Despite common use in literature, the 1:1 ratio of CH4 to CO2 was not recommended to forecast landfill gas collection in cold climates. The existing modelling approach significantly overestimated CO2 production in three of four sites, resulting in the highest residual sum of squares. Optimization resulted in the most accurate results for all formulas and approaches, which had the greatest reduction in residual sums of squares (RSS) over the default approach (60.1 to 97.7%). The 1.4 Ratio approach for L o:L o-CO2 yielded the second most accurate results for CO2 flow (mean RSS reduction of 50.2% for all sites and subsection models). The annual k-modified LandGEM calculated k's via two empirical formulas (based on precipitation) and yielded the lowest accuracy in 12 of 20 approaches. Unlike other studies, strong relationships between optimized annual k's and precipitation were not observed.

  3. Diffusion of carbon dioxide (1); kerosene (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) carbon dioxide; (2) kerosene

  4. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: Fiscal year 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, M.D.; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.; Stoss, F.W.

    1996-01-01

    Fiscal year 1995 was both a very productive year for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and a year of significant change. This document presents information about the most notable accomplishments made during the year. Topics include: high-lights; statistics; future plans; publications, presentations, and awards; and change in organization and staff.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Littoral Zone of a Chinese Reservoir, and a Comparison with Other Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Meng

    2017-04-01

    The continuous increase in the number of reservoirs in countries like China, India and Brazil has raised important questions about the environmental impact of their greenhouse gases emissions. In particular, the littoral zone may be a hotspot for production of greenhouse gases. We investigated the spatiotemporal variation of CO2 flux at the littoral zone of a Chinese reservoir along a wet-to-dry transect from permanent flooded land, seasonal flooded land to non-flooded dry land, using the static dark chamber technique. The mean total respiration was 346 mg m-2 h-1 (52% of which was contributed by shoots) and the rate varied significantly among water levels, months and time of day. We developed a statistical model which shows that temperature and biomass explain 76% of the variation. Flooding could play a positive role in carbon balance if water recession occurs at the time when carbon gains associated with plant growth overcomes the carbon loss of ecosystem. The overall carbon balance was analysed using cumulative greenhouse gases fluxes and biomass, bringing the data of the present study alongside our published data of CH4 and N2O flux which had been investigated simultaneously. CO2 and CH4 emissions correlated significantly under flooding, while N2O did not show significant correlations with CO2 or CH4 irrespective of whether the land was flooded or not. For the growing season, 11.6 g C m-2 was absorbed by the littoral zone. Taking CH4 and N2O into the calculation showed that permanently flooded sites were a source of greenhouse gases, rather than a sink. We emphasise the importance of taking into account all three gases when evaluating the greenhouse gas budgets of wetland ecosystems.

  6. The natural flux of greenhouse gases in the case of monitoring the flux of juvenile carbon dioxide in the Hranice Karst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geršl, Milan; Stepišnik, Uroš; Mareček, Jan; Geršlová, Eva; Hammerschmiedt, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Located in the Teplice nad Bečvou district 40 km SE of Olomouc (Czech Republic), the hydrothermal Hranice Karst with the Zbrašov Aragonite Caves has been developed in the sequence of Palaeozoic limestones as a result of deep influx of thermal water charged with subcrustal carbon dioxide (CO2). This area of discharge of juvenile carbon dioxide is a unique place where one can study the long-term natural production of a greenhouse gas and confront it with the anthropogenic production. As a result, the continuous measurements of the properties of the cave microclimate with additional seasonal measurements of flux of carbon dioxide give rise to a rare pool of data that cover natural routes of greenhouse gases. Repeated seasonal analysis of the ratio of stable carbon isotopes in carbon dioxide (d13C around -5 ) (Meyberg - Rinne, 1995)has suggested the juvenile (mantle) origin of this gas. Isotopic analyses in the mineral water of dissolved gases (He) show that some part of these gases come from the upper mantle of the Earth. The lower floors of the caves are filled with carbon dioxide producing so-called gas lakes in the area. Concentrations of the gas commonly reach 40 % by volume. In 1999, for example, the average concentration in the Gallas dome was 84.9 % by volume. Flux of CO2 (g.m-2.d-1) was measured on the surface and in the cave. The homogenisation chamber and the pumping test were applied to evaluate the CO2 flux. The average CO2 flux in the soil ranged from 74 to 125 g.m-2.d-1, reflecting the venting of subcrustal CO2 in the Hranice area (Geršl et al., 2012). In the Zbrašov Aragonite Caves the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere fluctuates from 0,X to 85 % with the measured constant flux being 32 894 g.m-2.d-1. Since 2005, the CO2 concentrations in the cave area have been reported by an automatic monitoring system at 10 cave sites. CO2 concentrations are recorded in 5-min intervals. Interpretation can be put into the context of measuring concentrations of

  7. Carbon Dioxide Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases fiscal year 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, M.D.; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Kaiser, D.P.; Nelson, T.R.

    1998-03-01

    Fiscal year (FY) 1997 was another exciting and productive one for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. During FY 1997, CDIAC launched the Quality Systems Science Center for the North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone (NARSTO). The purpose of NARSTO--a US-Canada-Mexico initiative of government agencies, industry, and the academic research community--is to improve the understanding of the formation and transport of tropospheric ozone.

  8. Determination of carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide in refinery hydrogen gases and air by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Marian; Kartanowicz, Rafal; Jastrzebski, Daniel; Kamiński, Marcin M

    2003-03-14

    This paper illustrates a method for determining trace amounts of CO, CH4 and CO2 with the detection limit of 0.15, 0.15 and 0.20 microg/l, respectively, in refinery hydrogen gases or in air. A simple modification of a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-ionization detector is presented. A Porapak Q column, additionally connected with a short molecular sieve 5A packed column and a catalytic hydrogenation reactor on the Ni catalyst have been applied. The principle of the analytical method proposed is the separation of CO from O2 before the introduction of CO to the methanizer. The analytical procedure and examples of the results obtained have been presented. The modification applied makes it possible to use the GC instrument for other determinations, requiring utilization of the Porapak Q column and the flame-ionization detector. In such cases, the short molecular sieve 5A column and the methanizer can be by-passed.

  9. Carbon dioxide conversion over carbon-based nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Khavarian, Mehrnoush; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-07-01

    The utilization of carbon dioxide for the production of valuable chemicals via catalysts is one of the efficient ways to mitigate the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is known that the carbon dioxide conversion and product yields are still low even if the reaction is operated at high pressure and temperature. The carbon dioxide utilization and conversion provides many challenges in exploring new concepts and opportunities for development of unique catalysts for the purpose of activating the carbon dioxide molecules. In this paper, the role of carbon-based nanocatalysts in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from carbon dioxide and methanol are reviewed. The current catalytic results obtained with different carbon-based nanocatalysts systems are presented and how these materials contribute to the carbon dioxide conversion is explained. In addition, different strategies and preparation methods of nanometallic catalysts on various carbon supports are described to optimize the dispersion of metal nanoparticles and catalytic activity.

  10. Pressure pumping of carbon dioxide from soil

    Treesearch

    E. S. Takle; J. R. Brandle; R. A. Schmidt; R. Garcia; I. V. Litvina; G. Doyle; X. Zhou; Q. Hou; C. W. Rice; W. J. Massman

    2000-01-01

    Recent interest in atmospheric increases in carbon dioxide have heightened the need for improved accuracy in measurements of fluxes of carbon dioxide from soils. Diffusional movement has long been considered the dominant process by which trace gases move from the subsurface source to the surface, although there has been some indication that atmospheric pressure...

  11. Removing Sulphur Dioxide From Stack Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, A. V.

    1973-01-01

    Process types, process concepts, claims and counterclaims, cost factors, and the level of developed technology for sulfur dioxide control in stack gases are focused upon and evaluated. Wet and dry processes as well as recovery and throwaway processes are compared. (BL)

  12. Removing Sulphur Dioxide From Stack Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, A. V.

    1973-01-01

    Process types, process concepts, claims and counterclaims, cost factors, and the level of developed technology for sulfur dioxide control in stack gases are focused upon and evaluated. Wet and dry processes as well as recovery and throwaway processes are compared. (BL)

  13. Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Data Center -- A for Atmospheric Trace Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Hook, L.A.; Jones, S.B.; Kaiser, D.P.; Nelson, T.R.

    1999-03-01

    Once again, the most recent fiscal year was a productive one for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as well as a year for change. The FY 1998 in Review section in this report summarizes quite a few new and updated data and information products, and the ''What's Coming in FY 1999'' section describes our plans for this new fiscal year. During FY 1998, CDIAC began a data-management system for AmeriFlux, a long-term study of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere of the Western Hemisphere and the atmosphere. The specific objectives of AmeriFlux are to establish an infrastructure for guiding, collecting, synthesizing, and disseminating long-term measurements of CO{sub 2}, water, and energy exchange from a variety of ecosystems; collect critical new information to help define the current global CO{sub 2} budget; enable improved predictions of future concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}; and enhance understanding of carbon fluxes. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), and carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere. The data-management system, available from CDIAC'S AmeriFlux home page (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/programs/ameriflux/ ) is intended to provide consistent, quality-assured, and documented data across all AmeriFlux sites in the US, Canada, Costa Rica, and Brazil. It is being developed by Antoinette Brenkert and Tom Boden, with assistance from Susan Holladay (who joined CDIAC specifically to support the AmeriFlux data-management effort).

  14. Carbon dioxide concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. F.; Huebscher, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Passed exhaled air through electrochemical cell containing alkali metal carbonate aqueous solution, and utilizes platinized electrodes causing reaction of oxygen at cathode with water in electrolyte, producing hydroxyl ions which react with carbon dioxide to form carbonate ions.

  15. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  16. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF CARBON DIOXIDE AT ONE ATMOSPHERE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARBON DIOXIDE , THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, VISCOSITY, HIGH TEMPERATURE, GASES, NITROGEN COMPOUNDS, OXYGEN, LAMINAR FLOW, TEST EQUIPMENT, DIFFUSION, PRESSURE, DENSITY, MEASUREMENT, WATER, CYLINDRICAL BODIES, THEORY.

  17. An improved back-flush-to-vent gas chromatographic method for determination of trace permanent gases and carbon dioxide in ultra-high purity ammonia.

    PubMed

    Trubyanov, Maxim M; Mochalov, Georgy M; Vorotyntsev, Ilya V; Vorotyntsev, Andrey V; Suvorov, Sergey S; Smirnov, Konstantin Y; Vorotyntsev, Vladimir M

    2016-05-20

    A novel method for rapid, quantitative determination of trace permanent gases and carbon dioxide in ultra-high purity ammonia by dual-channel two-dimensional GC-PDHID is presented. An improved matrix back-flush-to-vent approach combining back-flush column switching technique with auxiliary NaHSO4 ammonia trap is described. The NaHSO4 trap prevents traces of ammonia from entering the analytical column and is shown not to affect the impurity content of the sample. The approach allows shortening the analysis time and increasing the amount of measurements without extensive maintenance of the GC-system. The performance of the configuration has been evaluated utilizing ammonia- and helium-based calibration standards. The method has been applied for the analysis of 99.9999+% ammonia purified by high-pressure distillation at the production site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The carbon dioxide cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION SYSTEM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARBON DIOXIDE , *SPACE FLIGHT, RESPIRATION, REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY), RESPIRATION, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, ELECTROLYSIS, INSTRUMENTATION, ELECTROLYTES, VOLTAGE, MANNED, YTTRIUM COMPOUNDS, ZIRCONIUM COMPOUNDS, NICKEL.

  20. Use of molecular modeling to determine the interaction and competition of gases within coal for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey D. Evanseck; Jeffry D. Madura; Jonathan P. Mathews

    2006-04-21

    Molecular modeling was employed to both visualize and probe our understanding of carbon dioxide sequestration within a bituminous coal. A large-scale (>20,000 atoms) 3D molecular representation of Pocahontas No. 3 coal was generated. This model was constructed based on a the review data of Stock and Muntean, oxidation and decarboxylation data for aromatic clustersize frequency of Stock and Obeng, and the combination of Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry data with HRTEM, enabled the inclusion of a molecular weight distribution. The model contains 21,931 atoms, with a molecular mass of 174,873 amu, and an average molecular weight of 714 amu, with 201 structural components. The structure was evaluated based on several characteristics to ensure a reasonable constitution (chemical and physical representation). The helium density of Pocahontas No. 3 coal is 1.34 g/cm{sup 3} (dmmf) and the model was 1.27 g/cm{sup 3}. The structure is microporous, with a pore volume comprising 34% of the volume as expected for a coal of this rank. The representation was used to visualize CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} capacity, and the role of moisture in swelling and CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} capacity reduction. Inclusion of 0.68% moisture by mass (ash-free) enabled the model to swell by 1.2% (volume). Inclusion of CO{sub 2} enabled volumetric swelling of 4%.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

  2. Carbon Dioxide and Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Peter G.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing at a rate that could cause significant warming of the Earth's climate in the not too distant future. Oceanographers are studying the role of the ocean as a source of carbon dioxide and as a sink for the gas. (Author/BB)

  3. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

  4. Carbon Dioxide and Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Peter G.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing at a rate that could cause significant warming of the Earth's climate in the not too distant future. Oceanographers are studying the role of the ocean as a source of carbon dioxide and as a sink for the gas. (Author/BB)

  5. Carbon Dioxide Removal via Passive Thermal Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Michael; Hanford, Anthony; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes a regenerable approach to separate carbon dioxide from other cabin gases by means of cooling until the carbon dioxide forms carbon dioxide ice on the walls of the physical device. Currently, NASA space vehicles remove carbon dioxide by reaction with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or by adsorption to an amine, a zeolite, or other sorbent. Use of lithium hydroxide, though reliable and well-understood, requires significant mass for all but the shortest missions in the form of lithium hydroxide pellets, because the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide is essentially irreversible. This approach is regenerable, uses less power than other historical approaches, and it is almost entirely passive, so it is more economical to operate and potentially maintenance- free for long-duration missions. In carbon dioxide removal mode, this approach passes a bone-dry stream of crew cabin atmospheric gas through a metal channel in thermal contact with a radiator. The radiator is pointed to reject thermal loads only to space. Within the channel, the working stream is cooled to the sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide at the prevailing cabin pressure, leading to formation of carbon dioxide ice on the channel walls. After a prescribed time or accumulation of carbon dioxide ice, for regeneration of the device, the channel is closed off from the crew cabin and the carbon dioxide ice is sublimed and either vented to the environment or accumulated for recovery of oxygen in a fully regenerative life support system.

  6. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

    2015-02-05

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  7. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  8. Laboratory shock emplacement of noble gases, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide into basalt, and implications for trapped gases in shergottite EETA 79001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Pepin, R. O.

    1988-01-01

    Basalts from the Servilleta flows, Taos, NM, described by Lofgren (1983) were analyzed by mass spectrometry for shock-implanted noble gases, N2, and CO2 (which were isotopically labeled) after an exposure to 20-60 GPa shock in the presence of 0.0045-3.0 atm of ambient gas. The results were compared with data available on the constituents of the EETA 79001 meteorite. As expected, the samples shocked in this study attained emplacement efficiencies significantly lower than those apparent for lithology C of EETA 79001. Possible explanations for this difference include atmospheric overpressure at the time of EETA 79001 exposure to shock, the trapping of gas already in vugs by the intruding melt material, or the collapse of gas-filled vugs to form gas-laden glass inclusions.

  9. Environmental carbon dioxide control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Baker, B.; Gidaspow, D.

    1974-01-01

    A study of environmental carbon dioxide control for NASA EVA missions found solid potassium carbonate to be an effective regenerable absorbent in maintaining low carbon dioxide levels. The supported sorbent was capable of repeated regeneration below 150 C without appreciable degradation. Optimum structures in the form of thin pliable sheets of carbonate, inert support and binder were developed. Interpretation of a new solid-gas pore closing model helped predict the optimum sorbent and analysis of individual sorbent sheet performance in a thin rectangular channel sorber can predict packed bed performance.

  10. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dutta, Prabir K [Worthington, OH; Lee, Inhee [Columbus, OH; Akbar, Sheikh A [Hilliard, OH

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  11. [Adsorption of carbon dioxide gas].

    PubMed

    Juniot, A; Seltzer, S; Louvier, N; Milesi-Defrance, N; Cros-Terraux, N

    1999-03-01

    To analyse the various methods for carbon dioxide absorption in anaesthesia, the available absorbents and their modes of use. We searched the Medline and Internet databases for papers using the key words: carbon dioxide absorption, soda-lime, zeolite. We also had correspondence and contacts with soda lime manufacturers. All types of articles containing data on CO2 absorption. The articles were analysed for the benefits and adverse effects of the various absorbents. Carbon dioxide absorption enables the use of low flow anaesthesia, and a decreased consumption of medical gases and halogenated anaesthetics, as well as reduced pollution. Chemical absorbents (soda-lime and barium hydroxide lime (Baralyme) may produce toxic compounds: carbon monoxide with all halogenated anaesthetics and compound A with sevoflurane. Simple measures against desiccation of the lime prevent carbon monoxide production. The toxicity of compound A, shown in the rat, has not been proven in clinical anaesthesia. Recent improvements in manufacture processes have decreased the powdering of lime. Moreover, filters inserted between the anaesthesia circuit and the patient abolish the risk for powder inhalation.

  12. Carbon dioxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Langford, Nigel J

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a physiologically important gas, produced by the body as a result of cellular metabolism. It is widely used in the food industry in the carbonation of beverages, in fire extinguishers as an 'inerting' agent and in the chemical industry. Its main mode of action is as an asphyxiant, although it also exerts toxic effects at cellular level. At low concentrations, gaseous carbon dioxide appears to have little toxicological effect. At higher concentrations it leads to an increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias and impaired consciousness. Concentrations >10% may cause convulsions, coma and death. Solid carbon dioxide may cause burns following direct contact. If it is warmed rapidly, large amounts of carbon dioxide are generated, which can be dangerous, particularly within confined areas. The management of carbon dioxide poisoning requires the immediate removal of the casualty from the toxic environment, the administration of oxygen and appropriate supportive care. In severe cases, assisted ventilation may be required. Dry ice burns are treated similarly to other cryogenic burns, requiring thawing of the tissue and suitable analgesia. Healing may be delayed and surgical intervention may be required in severe cases.

  13. Carbon dioxide recycling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  14. Carbon dioxide recycling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  15. Polymeric Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C-S.

    1999-11-02

    Synthesis of polymeric carbon dioxide has long been of interest to many chemists and materials scientists. Very recently we discovered the polymeric phase of carbon dioxide (called CO{sub 2}-V) at high pressures and temperatures. Our optical and x-ray results indicate that CO{sub 2}-V is optically non-linear, generating the second harmonic of Nd: YLF laser at 527 nm and is also likely superhard similar to cubic-boron nitride or diamond. CO{sub 2}-V is made of CO{sub 4} tetrahedra, analogous to SiO{sub 2} polymorphs, and is quenchable at ambient temperature at pressures above 1 GPa. In this paper, we describe the pressure-induced polymerization of carbon dioxide together with the stability, structure, and mechanical and optical properties of polymeric CO{sub 2}-V. We also present some implications of polymeric CO{sub 2} for high-pressure chemistry and new materials synthesis.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burghardt, Stanley I.; Chandler, Horace W.; Taylor, T. I.; Walden, George

    1961-01-01

    The Methoxy system for regenerating oxygen from carbon dioxide was studied. Experiments indicate that the reaction between carbon dioxide and hydrogen can be carried out with ease in an efficient manner and with excellent heat conservation. A small reactor capable of handling the C02 expired by three men has been built and operated. The decomposition of methane by therma1,arc and catalytic processes was studied. Both the arc and catalytic processes gave encouraging results with over 90 percent of the methane being decomposed to carbon and hydrogen in some of the catalytic processes. Control of the carbon deposition in both the catalytic and arc processes is of great importance to prevent catalyst deactivation and short circuiting of electrical equipment. Sensitive analytical techniques have been developed for all of the components present in the reactor effluent streams.

  17. CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION BY SELECTIVE PERMEATION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARBON DIOXIDE , SEPARATION), (*PERMEABILITY, CARBON DIOXIDE ), POROUS MATERIALS, SILICON COMPOUNDS, RUBBER, SELECTION, ADSORPTION, TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, POLYMERS, FILMS, PLASTICS, MEMBRANES, HUMIDITY.

  18. From the First Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide During the IGY to the Global Annual Greenhouse Gas Index in 2006: The Evolution of the Global Observing Network for Greenhouse Gases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Butler, J. H.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Masarie, K.; Montzka, S. A.; Tans, P. P.

    2006-05-01

    During the International Geophysical Year, Dr. Charles "Dave" Keeling instituted both air sample collections at the South Pole in Antarctica and continuous carbon dioxide measurements with an infrared analyzer at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. Both of these locations were later to become Observatories of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), following its formation in 1970, and the pioneering measurements of Dave Keeling continued to be supported by NOAA at these sites until this day. In addition to instituting Observatories at key background locations (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; American Samoa; and more recently Trinidad Head, California, in addition to the Hawaii and Antarctic sites) the forerunners of NOAA/ESRL also began a global cooperative air sampling network in the late 1960's. The air samples were analyzed for carbon dioxide and other gases in the Boulder, Colorado laboratories. With the help of many people in many nations, this network has grown to the largest such effort in the world, numbering about 90 sites, including three ship routes, at present. In 1996, data from this network and from other networks around the world formed the basis of GLOBALVIEW, a web-based collection of carbon dioxide and methane data used extensively with transport models to determine global carbon dioxide sources and sinks. This data set is available at http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccgg/globalview/index.html . In 2004, the global measurements of all the long-lived greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, the chlorofluorocarbons, and ten minor halogen gases were condensed into a simple index, the "Annual Greenhouse Gas Index" (AGGI) by summing their radiative climate forcing since the pre-industrial era (taken as 1750). The NOAA AGGI is designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The contribution of long-lived greenhouse gases to

  19. Bench Remarks: Carbon Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Henry A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the properties of carbon dioxide in its solid "dry ice" stage. Suggests several demonstrations and experiments that use dry ice to illustrate Avogadro's Law, Boyle's Law, Kinetic-Molecular Theory, and the effects of dry ice in basic solution, in limewater, and in acetone. (TW)

  20. Bench Remarks: Carbon Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Henry A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the properties of carbon dioxide in its solid "dry ice" stage. Suggests several demonstrations and experiments that use dry ice to illustrate Avogadro's Law, Boyle's Law, Kinetic-Molecular Theory, and the effects of dry ice in basic solution, in limewater, and in acetone. (TW)

  1. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

    2003-11-01

    Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

  2. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  3. Carbon dioxide absorption methanol process

    SciTech Connect

    Apffel, F.

    1989-08-29

    This patent describes a process for removing carbon dioxide from a feed stream of natural gas having at least methane, ethane and heavier. It comprises: first, separating the feed stream in a first separator to form a first stream having substantially all of the propane and heavier hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide and ethane and a second stream, having methane, carbon dioxide and ethane; separating the second stream in a second separator into a stream of carbon dioxide product and a third stream having ethane, methane and carbon dioxide: mixing at least a portion of the third stream with a polar compound; stream after the mixing in an absorber; separating the vapor and liquid of the third stream after the mixing in an absorber; absorbing the remaining unabsorbed carbon dioxide in a lean portion of the polar compound in the absorber, the absorber carbon dioxide and ethane with the polar; separating the first stream in a third separator to separate the propane and heavier hydrocarbons from the carbon dioxide and ethane, which carbon dioxide and ethane forms a fifth stream; and separating the polar compound/carbon dioxide effluent of the absorber in a fourth separator, to separate the carbon dioxide from the polar compound, the polar compound forming a sixth stream.

  4. Effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on penicillin fermentations: mycelial growth and penicillin production. [Penicillium chrysogenum

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S.; Smith, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on the specific growth rate and the penicillin production rate of Penicillium chrysogenum was examined experimentally. The dissolved carbon dioxide was found to inhibit the specific growth rate and the penicillin production rate when the aerated submerged penicillin fermentation was exposed to influent gases of 12.6 and 20% carbon dioxide, respectively. Upon exposure to influent gases of 3 and 5% carbon dioxide, no pronounced metabolic inhibition was noted.

  5. Plants Can't Do without Carbon Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an experiment to induce carbon dioxide deficiency to demonstrate its effects on plant growth. Suggests further studies to examine respiration by soil microbes and the effects of relative humidity, other gases, and air pollution on plant growth. (MDH)

  6. Plants Can't Do without Carbon Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an experiment to induce carbon dioxide deficiency to demonstrate its effects on plant growth. Suggests further studies to examine respiration by soil microbes and the effects of relative humidity, other gases, and air pollution on plant growth. (MDH)

  7. Cycling of greenhouse gases as a function of groundwater level in a floodplain - carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane: Implications for Biogeochemical Change in a Warming World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Hobson, C.; Williams, K. H.

    2016-12-01

    Floodplain sediment-water systems play an important role in carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane greenhouse gas cycling. Changes in temperature and precipitation can alter biogeochemical equilibrium as well as production and consumption of greenhouse gases. We monitored CO2, N2O, CH4 greenhouse gas concentrations and C, O, and N stable isotope variations over a period of 4 years in a cross section of five wells located with increasing distance from the Colorado River. Pore space of partially saturated sediments located above an alluvial aquifer was sampled in vertically resolved profiles from 0.5 m to 3 m depth at a periodicity of one month to 2 weeks. Gas concentrations and stable isotopic signatures show annual-scale fluctuations. From 2013 to 2016 during cold seasons, low δ13C of CO2 ( -24‰) and high δ15N of N2O ( -5‰) and minimum concentrations in CO2 (< 5%v), N2O (< 5ppmv) and CH4 (< 0.5ppmv) coincide with low water table elevation and low temperature. At the beginning of summer, which corresponds to maximum water table elevation, we observed the highest concentrations of N2O ( 50ppmv) and of CO2 ( 5.5%v). Low δ15N ( -16‰) and relatively high δ13C ( -21‰) values were also observed for the summer season. CH4 was observed only in the well closest to the river (7ppmv). The variation of CO2, N2O and CH4 concentrations and δ values suggest changes in reducing/oxidizing microbial activity. Strongest biologically mediated reduction is associated with the highest water table, which typically induces reducing conditions. The maximum water elevation coincides with the annual snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains. Climate change directly impacts on biogeochemical cycling in the floodplain by affecting stream and river water discharge. At local and global scales, a drier and warmer climate will decrease N2O and CH4 production. A wetter climate induces higher stream and river water discharge, which will increase the zone and magnitude of N2O and CH4 production.

  8. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    SciTech Connect

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  9. Frozen Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a south polar residual cap landscape, formed in frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that one can go to visit a landscape covering thousands of square kilometers with frozen carbon dioxide, so mesas, pits, and other landforms of the martian south polar region are as alien as they are beautiful. The scarps of the south polar region are known from thousands of other MGS MOC images to retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year, indiating that slowly, over the course of the MGS mission, the amount of carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere has probably been increasing.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 25.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  10. Carbon Dioxide Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 March 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is mostly made of frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that a person can go to see the landforms that would be produced by erosion and sublimation of hundreds or thousands of cubic kilometers of carbon dioxide. Thus, the south polar cap of Mars is as alien as alien can get. This image, acquired in February 2004 by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), shows how the cap appears in summer as carbon dioxide is subliming away, creating a wild pattern of pits, mesas, and buttes. Darker surfaces may be areas where the ice contains impurities, such as dust, or where the surface has been roughened by the removal of ice. This image is located near 86.3oS, 0.8oW. This picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper left.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 March 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is mostly made of frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that a person can go to see the landforms that would be produced by erosion and sublimation of hundreds or thousands of cubic kilometers of carbon dioxide. Thus, the south polar cap of Mars is as alien as alien can get. This image, acquired in February 2004 by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), shows how the cap appears in summer as carbon dioxide is subliming away, creating a wild pattern of pits, mesas, and buttes. Darker surfaces may be areas where the ice contains impurities, such as dust, or where the surface has been roughened by the removal of ice. This image is located near 86.3oS, 0.8oW. This picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper left.

  12. Frozen Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a south polar residual cap landscape, formed in frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that one can go to visit a landscape covering thousands of square kilometers with frozen carbon dioxide, so mesas, pits, and other landforms of the martian south polar region are as alien as they are beautiful. The scarps of the south polar region are known from thousands of other MGS MOC images to retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year, indiating that slowly, over the course of the MGS mission, the amount of carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere has probably been increasing.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 25.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  13. Capturing Gases in Carbon Honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.

    2017-04-01

    In our recent paper (Krainyukova and Zubarev in Phys Rev Lett 116:055501, 2016. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.055501) we reported the observation of an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. A family of structures can be built from absolutely dominant {sp}2-bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. Such structures demonstrate high absorption capacity for gases and liquids. In this work we show that the formation of honeycomb structures is highly sensitive to the carbon evaporation temperature and deposition rates. Both parameters are controlled by the electric current flowing through thin carbon rods. Two distinctly different regimes were found. At lower electric currents almost pure honeycomb structures form owing to sublimation. At higher currents the surface-to-bulk rod melting is observed. In the latter case densification of the carbon structures and a large contribution of glassy graphite emerge. The experimental diffraction patterns from honeycomb structures filled with absorbed gases and analyzed by the advanced method are consistent with the proposed models for composites which are different for Ar, Kr and Xe atoms in carbon matrices.

  14. Capturing Gases in Carbon Honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.

    2016-12-01

    In our recent paper (Krainyukova and Zubarev in Phys Rev Lett 116:055501, 2016. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.055501) we reported the observation of an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. A family of structures can be built from absolutely dominant {sp}2 -bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. Such structures demonstrate high absorption capacity for gases and liquids. In this work we show that the formation of honeycomb structures is highly sensitive to the carbon evaporation temperature and deposition rates. Both parameters are controlled by the electric current flowing through thin carbon rods. Two distinctly different regimes were found. At lower electric currents almost pure honeycomb structures form owing to sublimation. At higher currents the surface-to-bulk rod melting is observed. In the latter case densification of the carbon structures and a large contribution of glassy graphite emerge. The experimental diffraction patterns from honeycomb structures filled with absorbed gases and analyzed by the advanced method are consistent with the proposed models for composites which are different for Ar, Kr and Xe atoms in carbon matrices.

  15. Carbon dioxide absorption methanol process

    SciTech Connect

    Apffel, F.P.

    1987-06-23

    A process is described for removing carbon dioxide from a feed stream of natural gas, having at least methane, ethane and heavier hydrocarbon, comprising: separating the feed stream in a first separator to form a first stream, having substantially all of the propane and heavier hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide and ethane, and a second stream, having methane, carbon dioxide and ethane; mixing the second stream with a polar compound to form a third stream; separating the vapor and liquid of the third stream in the bottom portion of an absorber; absorbing carbon dioxide and ethane from the separated vapor of Step C in a lean portion of the polar compound in the absorber, the absorber carbon dioxide and ethane forming a fourth stream; separating the ethane from the polar compound and carbon dioxide in a separator; separating the first stream in a third separator to separate the propane and heavier hydrocarbons from the carbon dioxide and ethane: carbon dioxide and ethane forms a fifth stream; and separating the polar compound/carbon dioxide effluent of the second separator in a fourth separator, to separate the carbon dioxide from the polar compound. The polar compound forming a sixth stream.

  16. Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, David W.; Haag, Gary L.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to barium carbonate. The method has several important advantages: it can be conducted effectively at ambient temperature; it provides a very rapid reaction rate over a wide range of carbon dioxide concentrations; it provides high decontamination factors; and it has a high capacity for carbon dioxide. The invention is especially well suited for the removal of radioactive carbon dioxide from off-gases generated by nuclear-fuel reprocessing facilities and nuclear power plants.

  17. Biological effects of short, high-level exposure to gases: ammonia, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides. Final summary report, 1 June 1979-15 August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Legters, L.; Nightingale, T.E.; Normandy, M.J.; Morton, J.D.

    1980-06-01

    This project addressed the exposure of soldiers to toxic gases for periods of less than one hour and at concentrations above occupational exposure standards, with repetition up to six times per day for 14 days. Sources of the four gases are primarily propellant fumes and engine exhaust. Measurements have shown physiologically significant exposures to carbon monoxide and ammonia. Literature reviews and critical evaluations developed acceptable data bases on the types of biologic effects to be expected and on quantitative relationships between exposure level and intensity of response. These were interpreted in the context of the military exposure scenario and exposure criteria were suggested. Information gaps were identified and suggestions were made for further research. (Author)

  18. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atomspheric trace gases: Catalog of data bases and reports

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    This document provides information about the many reports and other materials made available by the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (GCRP). Section A provides information about the activities, scope, and direction of the GCRP; Sections B,C, D, and E contain information about research that has been sponsered by GCRP; Sections F and G contains information about the numeric data packages and computer model pa kages the have been compiled by the GCRP; Section H describes reports about research dealing with the responses of vegetation to carbon dioxide; and Section I conatins reports from various workshops, symposia, and reviews.

  19. Oil shales and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, E T; Miller, G A

    1980-05-16

    During retorting of oil shales in the western United States, carbonate minerals are calcined, releasing significant amounts of carbon dioxide. Residual organic matter in the shales may also be burned, adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The amount of carbon dioxide produced depends on the retort process and the grade and mineralogy of the shale. Preliminary calculations suggest that retorting of oil shales from the Green River Formation and burning of the product oil could release one and one-half to five times more carbon dioxide than burning of conventional oil to obtain the same amount of usable energy. The largest carbon dioxide releases are associated with retorting processes that operate at temperatures greater than about 600 degrees C.

  20. Coral reefs and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    This commentary argues the conclusion from a previous article, which investigates diurnal changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure and community metabolism on coral reefs, that coral `reefs might serve as a sink, not a source, for atmospheric carbon dioxide.` Commentaries from two groups are given along with the response by the original authors, Kayanne et al. 27 refs.

  1. Carbon dioxide/dewpoint monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczkowski, S.

    1977-01-01

    The portable Carbon Dioxide/Dewpoint Monitor was designed to permit measurements of carbon dioxide partial pressure and dewpoint and ambient gas temperature at any place within the Saturn Workshop. It required no vehicle interface other than storage. All components necessary for operation, including battery power source, were incorporated in the instrument.

  2. Turning carbon dioxide into fuel.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Xiao, T; Kuznetsov, V L; Edwards, P P

    2010-07-28

    Our present dependence on fossil fuels means that, as our demand for energy inevitably increases, so do emissions of greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide (CO2). To avoid the obvious consequences on climate change, the concentration of such greenhouse gases in the atmosphere must be stabilized. But, as populations grow and economies develop, future demands now ensure that energy will be one of the defining issues of this century. This unique set of (coupled) challenges also means that science and engineering have a unique opportunity-and a burgeoning challenge-to apply their understanding to provide sustainable energy solutions. Integrated carbon capture and subsequent sequestration is generally advanced as the most promising option to tackle greenhouse gases in the short to medium term. Here, we provide a brief overview of an alternative mid- to long-term option, namely, the capture and conversion of CO2, to produce sustainable, synthetic hydrocarbon or carbonaceous fuels, most notably for transportation purposes. Basically, the approach centres on the concept of the large-scale re-use of CO2 released by human activity to produce synthetic fuels, and how this challenging approach could assume an important role in tackling the issue of global CO2 emissions. We highlight three possible strategies involving CO2 conversion by physico-chemical approaches: sustainable (or renewable) synthetic methanol, syngas production derived from flue gases from coal-, gas- or oil-fired electric power stations, and photochemical production of synthetic fuels. The use of CO2 to synthesize commodity chemicals is covered elsewhere (Arakawa et al. 2001 Chem. Rev. 101, 953-996); this review is focused on the possibilities for the conversion of CO2 to fuels. Although these three prototypical areas differ in their ultimate applications, the underpinning thermodynamic considerations centre on the conversion-and hence the utilization-of CO2. Here, we hope to illustrate that advances

  3. Carbon Dioxide (Reduction)

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Etsuko

    2000-01-12

    The twin problems of global warming, caused by an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and limited fossil fuel resources have stimulated research in the utilization of CO2. These problems would be partially alleviated by the development of artificial photochemical systems that could economically fix CO2 into fuels or useful chemicals. During the past one and a half decades, intensive efforts have been directed toward the photochemical production of carbon monoxide (CO) and formic acid (HCOOH) from CO2. These systems have several common elements: they all contain photosensitizers (such as metalloporphyrins, ruthenium or rhenium complexes with bipyridine), electron mediators or catalysts, and sacrificial electron donors (such as tertiary amines or ascorbic acid). Recent progress along these lines has resulted in advances in our understanding of the interaction of CO2 molecules with metal complexes, and the factors controlling the efficient storage of solar energy in the form of reduced carbon compounds.

  4. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy.

  5. Carbon dioxide: atmospheric overload

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing and may double within the next century. The result of this phenomenon, climatic alterations, will adversely affect crop production, water supplies, and global temperatures. Sources of CO2 include the combustion of fossil fuels, photosynthesis, and the decay of organic matter in soils. The most serious effect of possible climatic changes could occur along the boundaries of arid and semiarid regions. Shifts is precipitation patterns could accelerate the processes of desertification. An increase of 5..cap alpha..C in the average temperature of the top 1000 m of ocean water would raise sea level by 2 m. CO2 releases to the atmosphere can be reduced by controlling emissions from fossil fuel-fired facilities and by careful harvesting of forest regions. (3 photos, 5 references)

  6. Simultaneous quantification of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes reveals that a shallow arctic methane seep is a net sink for greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlman, J.; Greinert, J.; Ruppel, C. D.; Silyakova, A.; Vielstädte, L.; Magen, C.; Casso, M.; Bunz, S.; Mienert, J.

    2015-12-01

    Warming of high-latitude continental-margin oceans has the potential to release large quantities of carbon from gas hydrate and other sedimentary reservoirs. To assess how carbon mobilized from the seafloor might amplify global warming or alter ocean chemistry, a robust analysis of the concentrations and isotopic content of methane and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the water column and atmosphere is required. To this effect, a gas analysis system consisting of three cavity ring-down spectrometers was developed to obtain a real-time, three-dimensional characterization of the distribution and isotopic variability of methane and CO2 at a shallow (<100 m water depth) bubbling methane seep offshore of western Svalbard. Surface water methane concentrations from the continuous-flow CRDS system agreed remarkably well with discrete samples analyzed by the GC-based headspace analysis technique and with a CRDS-based discrete sample analysis module. Reliable carbon isotope data were also obtained from the CRDSs once an isotopic calibration routine was applied. The resulting data revealed that CO2 uptake from the atmosphere within the surface water methane plume overlying the gas seep was elevated by 36-45% relative to surrounding waters. In comparison to the positive radiative forcing effect expected from the methane emissions, the negative radiative forcing potential from CO2 uptake was 32-43 times greater. Lower water temperatures, elevated chlorophyll-fluorescence and 13C-enriched CO2 within the surface methane plume suggest that bubble-driven upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water stimulated CO2 uptake by phytoplankton. The observation that a shallow methane seep has a net negative radiative forcing effect challenges the widely-held perception that methane seeps contribute to the global atmospheric greenhouse gas burden.

  7. Carbon dioxide removal with inorganic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Fain, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    The increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere has sparked a great deal of interest in the removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of fossil fueled plants. Presently, several techniques for the removal of CO{sub 2} are considered to have potential, but are lacking in practicality. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is potential, but are lacking in practically. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is effective in removing CO{sub 2}, but costs are high; efficiency suffers; and other acid gases must be removed prior to amine stripping. Membrane systems for CO{sub 2} removal are held in high regard, and inorganic, particularly ceramic, membranes offer the potential for high temperature, thus energy saving, removal.

  8. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Robert James [Niskayuna, NY; Lewis, Larry Neil [Scotia, NY; O'Brien, Michael Joseph [Clifton Park, NY; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev [Latham, NY; Kniajanski, Sergei [Clifton Park, NY; Lam, Tunchiao Hubert [Clifton Park, NY; Lee, Julia Lam [Niskayuna, NY; Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona [Ballston Spa, NY

    2011-10-04

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

  9. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  10. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1992-12-31

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  11. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  12. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1993-03-30

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  13. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  14. Tunable pulsed carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G. J.; Menzies, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transverse electrically-excited-atmosphere (TEA) laser is continuously tunable over several hundred megahertz about centers of spectral lines of carbon dioxide. It is operated in single longitudinal mode (SLM) by injection of beam from continuous-wave, tunable-waveguide carbon dioxide laser, which serves as master frequency-control oscillator. Device measures absorption line of ozone; with adjustments, it is applicable to monitoring of atmospheric trace species.

  15. Proceedings: carbon dioxide research conference: carbon dioxide, science and consensus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Papers presented discussed the carbon cycle climate modelling, the West Antarctic ice sheet, and first detection of climate change. An appendix lists the carbon dioxide research programs of the European Community and of the World Meteorological Organization. A list of delegates is also included.

  16. Measuring Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide from Space: The GOSAT and OCO-2 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) is providing new insight into atmospheric carbon dioxide trends. The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)Mission will build on this record with increased sensitivity resolution, and coverage.

  17. Sulfur dioxide removal from gases using a modified lime

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.J.; Benson, L.B.

    1992-01-21

    This patent describes improvement in a process for removing sulfur dioxide from combustion gases by contacting the gases in a wet scrubbing unit with an aqueous scrubbing slurry, containing calcium components, for the removal of the sulfur dioxide, the calcium components provided in the slurry by adding aqueous slaked lime thereto, and a portion of the effluent from the scrubbing unit, containing calcium sulfite solids, is clarified to remove calcium sulfite solids therefrom as an aqueous sludge. The improvement comprises: the aqueous slaked lime added to the scrubbing slurry is formed by mixing lime and water, with the water containing a calcium sulfur-oxide salt in an amount sufficient to provide between about 0.3 to 5.0 percent by weight of the calcium sulfur-oxide salt based on the lime, whereby the average particle size of calcium sulfite solids in the aqueous sludge is increased to provide improved separation of water of the aqueous sludge therefrom.

  18. Methods and compositions for removing carbon dioxide from a gaseous mixture

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jing; Wu, Haohan

    2014-06-24

    Provided is a method for adsorbing or separating carbon dioxide from a mixture of gases by passing the gas mixture through a porous three-dimensional polymeric coordination compound having a plurality of layers of two-dimensional arrays of repeating structural units, which results in a lower carbon dioxide content in the gas mixture. Thus, this invention provides useful compositions and methods for removal of greenhouse gases, in particular CO.sub.2, from industrial flue gases or from the atmosphere.

  19. Preliminary simulations of planned experiments to study the impact of trace gases on the capacity of the Weyburn-Midale field to store carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Hao, Y

    2009-11-13

    The CO{sub 2} stream injecting into the Weyburn-Midale field can be generally classified as a reducing stream with residual H{sub 2}S and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons. The composition of the CO{sub 2} gas stream from the Dakota Gasification Company is reported to be 95% CO{sub 2}, 4% hydrocarbons, and 1% H{sub 2}S by volume (Huxley 2006). In addition to the H{sub 2}S introduced at the injection wells, significant concentrations of H{sub 2}S are thought to have been produced in-situ by sulfate reducing bacteria from previous water floods for enhanced oil production. Produced gas compositions range in H{sub 2}S concentrations from 1 to 6 volume percent. The produced gas, including the trace impurities, is re-injected into the field. Although there is no evidence for inorganic reduction of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} to H{sub 2}S at the Weyburn-Midale field, Sitchler and Kazuba (2009) suggest that SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} can be inorganically reduced to elemental sulfur in highly reducing environments based on a natural analog study of the Madison Formation in Wyoming. They propose that elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} dissolve anhydrite to produce the sulfate that is then reduced. Oxidizing CO{sub 2} streams with residual O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} typical of streams captured from oxyfuel and post combustion processes are not presently an issue at the Weyburn-Midale field. However it is possible that the oxidizing CO{sub 2} streams may be injected in the future in carbonate reservoirs similar to the Weyburn-Midale field. To date there are few modeling and experimental studies that have explored the impact of impurity gases in CO{sub 2} streams targeted for geologic storage (Gale 2009). Jacquemet et al (2009) reviewed select geochemical modeling studies that explored the impact of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S impurities in the waste streams (Gunter et al., 2000, Knauss et al., 2005, Xu et al., 2007). These studies collectively show that SO{sub 2} significantly reduces the pH when

  20. Carbon dioxide and climate: Summaries of research in FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    Detailed worldwide measurements indicate that the amount of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere has increased about 25 percent during the past 188 years, primarily because of fossil-fuel combustion and deforestation. Carbon dioxide is one of several trace gases that can modify the earth's heat balance by absorbing outgoing radiation from the earth's surface, thereby increasing the amount of heat retained by the atmosphere--the so-called greenhouse effect. Scientific analyses suggest that this increase could substantially affect climate, agriculture, and other human endeavors. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program is aimed at improving the scientific knowledge base to enable researchers to project future atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, to estimate carbon dioxide-induced global and regional climate changes, and to assess the responses of vegetation to higher concentrations of carbon dioxide and changing climate. The Department of Energy is the lead federal agency for research related to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Its responsibility is to sponsor a program of directed research and to coordinate this research with relevant activities of other federal agencies, private concerns, and international institutions. This Program Summary documents the activities and products of the Carbon Dioxide Research (CDR) Program in Fiscal Year 1988. The Summary provides descriptions of all projects funded during the year and a brief overview of the CDR Program's goals, objectives, and organization. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Collection and Purification System for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. Larry; Trevathan, Joseph R.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most abundant resources available on Mars is the atmosphere. The primary constituent, carbon dioxide, can be used to produce a wide variety of consumables including propellants and breathing air. The residual gases can be used for additional pressurization tasks including supplementing the oxygen partial pressure in human habitats. A system is presented that supplies pure, high-pressure carbon dioxide and a separate stream of residual gases ready for further processing. This power-efficient method freezes the carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere using a pulse-tube cryocooler. The resulting CO2 mass is later thawed in a closed pressure vessel, resulting in a compact source of liquefied gas at the vapor pressure of the bulk fluid. Results from a demonstration system are presented along with analysis and system scaling factors for implementation at larger scales. Trace gases in the Martian atmosphere challenge the system designer for all carbon dioxide acquisitions concepts. The approximately five percent of other gases build up as local concentrations of CO2 are removed, resulting in diminished performance of the collection process. The presented system takes advantage of this fact and draws the concentrated residual gases away as a useful byproduct. The presented system represents an excelient volume and mass solution for collecting and compressing this valuable Martian resource. Recent advances in pulse-tube cryocooler technology have enabled this concept to be realized in a reliable, low power implementation.

  2. Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

  3. Method of removing carbon monoxide from gases

    DOEpatents

    Gerstein, Bernard C.; Macaulay, David B.

    1976-06-01

    A process and catalyst are disclosed for purifying an atmosphere containing carbon monoxide by passing the atmosphere through a bed of a catalyst of TbO.sub.x, where x = 1.8 to 1.5, which oxidizes the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane to Syngas by Thermal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanpeng; Nie, Yong; Wu, Angshan; Ji, Dengxiang; Yu, Fengwen; Ji, Jianbing

    2012-03-01

    Experiments were conducted on syngas preparation from dry reforming of methane by carbon dioxide with a DC arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. In all experiments, nitrogen gas was used as the working gas for thermal plasma to generate a high-temperature jet into a horizontal tube reactor. A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide was fed vertically into the jet. In order to obtain a higher conversion rate of methane and carbon dioxide, chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency, parametric screening studies were conducted, in which the volume ratio of carbon dioxide to methane in fed gases and the total flux of fed gases were taken into account. Results showed that carbon dioxide reforming of methane to syngas by thermal plasma exhibited a larger processing capacity, higher conversion of methane and carbon dioxide and higher chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency. In addition, thermodynamic simulation for the reforming process was conducted. Experimental data agreed well with the thermodynamic results, indicating that high thermal efficiency can be achieved with the thermal plasma reforming process.

  5. Carbon Dioxide - Our Common "Enemy"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Macatangay, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Health effects of brief and prolonged exposure to carbon dioxide continue to be a concern for those of us who manage this pollutant in closed volumes, such as in spacecraft and submarines. In both examples, considerable resources are required to scrub the atmosphere to levels that are considered totally safe for maintenance of crew health and performance. Defining safe levels is not a simple task because of many confounding factors, including: lack of a robust database on human exposures, suspected significant variations in individual susceptibility, variations in the endpoints used to assess potentially adverse effects, the added effects of stress, and the fluid shifts associated with micro-gravity (astronauts only). In 2007 the National Research Council proposed revised Continuous Exposure Guidelines (CEGLs) and Emergency Exposure Guidelines (EEGLs) to the U.S. Navy. Similarly, in 2008 the NASA Toxicology Group, in cooperation with another subcommittee of the National Research Council, revised Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). In addition, a 1000-day exposure limit was set for long-duration spaceflights to celestial bodies. Herein we examine the rationale for the levels proposed to the U.S. Navy and compare this rationale with the one used by NASA to set its limits. We include a critical review of previous studies on the effects of exposure to carbon dioxide and attempt to dissect out the challenges associated with setting fully-defensible limits. We also describe recent experiences with management of carbon dioxide aboard the International Space Station with 13 persons aboard. This includes the tandem operations of the Russian Vozduk and the U.S. Carbon Dioxide Removal System. A third removal system is present while the station is docked to the Shuttle spacecraft, so our experience includes the lithium hydroxide system aboard Shuttle for the removal of carbon dioxide. We discuss strategies for highly-efficient, regenerable removal of carbon

  6. Carbon dioxide utilization in the chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Aresta, M.; Quaranta, E.; Tommasi, I.

    1996-12-31

    Carbon dioxide as a raw material for the Chemical Industry is receiving growing attention because: (i) if recovery of CO{sub 2} from flue gases will be implemented, huge amounts of CO{sub 2} will be available; (ii) environmental issues urge to develop new processes/products, avoiding toxic materials. Several uses of CO{sub 2} appear to be responding to both (i) and (ii), i.e. use as a solvent (supplanting organic solvents) use as a building block for carboxylates/carbonates (supplanting phosgene); use as carbon-source in the synthesis of fuels (supplanting CO or coal/hydrocarbons). These options will be evaluated and their potentiality discussed.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  8. THE REMOVAL OF SULFUR DIOXIDE FROM FLUE GASES.

    PubMed

    KETTNER, H

    1965-01-01

    The growth of industrialization makes it imperative to reduce the amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. This article describes various processes for cleaning flue gases, and gives details of new methods being investigated.Wet scrubbing with water, though widely practised, has many disadvantages. Scrubbing with zinc oxide, feasible in zinc works, is more satisfactory.Dry methods use a solid absorbent; they have the advantage of a high emission temperature.Other methods are based on the addition to the fuel or the flue gases of substances such as activated metal oxides, which react with the sulfur to form compounds less harmful than sulfur dioxide. Also being investigated are a two-stage combustion system, in which the sulfur dioxide is removed in the first stage, and the injection of activated powdered dolomite into burning fuel; the resulting sulfates being removed by electrostatic precipitation.A wet catalysis process has recently been developed.Most of the cleaning processes are not yet technically mature, but first results show good efficiency and relatively low cost.

  9. The removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases

    PubMed Central

    Kettner, Helmut

    1965-01-01

    The growth of industrialization makes it imperative to reduce the amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. This article describes various processes for cleaning flue gases, and gives details of new methods being investigated. Wet scrubbing with water, though widely practised, has many disadvantages. Scrubbing with zinc oxide, feasible in zinc works, is more satisfactory. Dry methods use a solid absorbent; they have the advantage of a high emission temperature. Other methods are based on the addition to the fuel or the flue gases of substances such as activated metal oxides, which react with the sulfur to form compounds less harmful than sulfur dioxide. Also being investigated are a two-stage combustion system, in which the sulfur dioxide is removed in the first stage, and the injection of activated powdered dolomite into burning fuel; the resulting sulfates being removed by electrostatic precipitation. A wet catalysis process has recently been developed. Most of the cleaning processes are not yet technically mature, but first results show good efficiency and relatively low cost. PMID:14315714

  10. Carbon Dioxide Embolism during Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Young; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2012-01-01

    Clinically significant carbon dioxide embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of anesthesia administered during laparoscopic surgery. Its most common cause is inadvertent injection of carbon dioxide into a large vein, artery or solid organ. This error usually occurs during or shortly after insufflation of carbon dioxide into the body cavity, but may result from direct intravascular insufflation of carbon dioxide during surgery. Clinical presentation of carbon dioxide embolism ranges from asymptomatic to neurologic injury, cardiovascular collapse or even death, which is dependent on the rate and volume of carbon dioxide entrapment and the patient's condition. We reviewed extensive literature regarding carbon dioxide embolism in detail and set out to describe the complication from background to treatment. We hope that the present work will improve our understanding of carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic surgery. PMID:22476987

  11. Carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Kim, Ki Jun

    2012-05-01

    Clinically significant carbon dioxide embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of anesthesia administered during laparoscopic surgery. Its most common cause is inadvertent injection of carbon dioxide into a large vein, artery or solid organ. This error usually occurs during or shortly after insufflation of carbon dioxide into the body cavity, but may result from direct intravascular insufflation of carbon dioxide during surgery. Clinical presentation of carbon dioxide embolism ranges from asymptomatic to neurologic injury, cardiovascular collapse or even death, which is dependent on the rate and volume of carbon dioxide entrapment and the patient's condition. We reviewed extensive literature regarding carbon dioxide embolism in detail and set out to describe the complication from background to treatment. We hope that the present work will improve our understanding of carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic surgery.

  12. Chemical Reactions in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai, Chien M.; Hunt, Fred; Ji, Min; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    1998-12-01

    Utilizing supercritical fluids as environmentally benign solvents for chemical synthesis is one of the new approaches in the "greening" of chemistry. Carbon dioxide is the most widely used gas for supercritical fluid studies because of its moderate critical constants, nontoxic nature, and availability in pure form. One unique property of supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) is its high solubility for fluorinated compounds. Thus sc-CO2 can be used to replace Freons that are conventionally used as solvents for synthesis of perfluoro-polymers. Another property of sc-CO2 is its miscibility with gases such as H2. Heterogeneous reactions involving these gases may become homogeneous reactions in sc-CO2. Reactions in sc-CO2 may offer several advantages including controlling phase behavior and products, increasing speed of reactions, and obtaining specific reaction channels. This paper describes the following nine types of chemical reactions reported in the literature utilizing sc-CO2 as a solvent to illustrate the unique properties of the supercritical fluid reaction systems: (i) hydrogenation and hydroformylation, (ii) synthesis of organometallic compounds, (iii) metal chelation and extraction, (iv) preparation of inorganic nanoparticles, (v) stereo-selectivity of lipase-catalyzed reactions, (vi) asymmetric catalytic hydrogenation, (vii) polymerization, (viii) Diels-Alder reaction, and (ix) free radical reactions.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Absorption in a Membrane Contactor with Color Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleao, Ines; Portugal, Ana F.; Mendes, Adelio; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    A pedagogical experiment is described to examine the physical absorption of gases, in this case carbon dioxide, in a hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC) where the absorption concentration profile can be followed by a color change. The HFMC is used to teach important concepts and can be used in interesting applications for students, such as…

  14. Carbon Dioxide Absorption in a Membrane Contactor with Color Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleao, Ines; Portugal, Ana F.; Mendes, Adelio; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    A pedagogical experiment is described to examine the physical absorption of gases, in this case carbon dioxide, in a hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC) where the absorption concentration profile can be followed by a color change. The HFMC is used to teach important concepts and can be used in interesting applications for students, such as…

  15. Helium/Carbon dioxide ratios as premonitors of volcanic activity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D M; Naughton, J J

    1979-06-15

    The composition of the gaseous emissions of two fumaroles at the summit of Kilauea Volcano was monitored for môre than 2 years. Magma was released from the summit reservoir on three occasions during this period; prior to or during each event the ratios of helium to carbon dioxide in the fumarole gases decreased substantially from that observed during periods of quiescence.

  16. Removable well in reaction flask facilitates carbon dioxide collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Removable plastic well with a flange that seats on the rim of an Erlenmeyer screwcap flask aids quantitative collection of carbon dioxide liberated in the flask. The well can be removed without danger of cross-contamination. It can collect other gases using appropriate absorbents.

  17. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes; Zhang, Yinzhi; Kuchta, Matthew E.; Andresen, John M.; Fauth, Dan J.

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food and....1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2, CAS Reg. No. 124-38-9) occurs as a..., sublimes under atmospheric pressure at a temperature of −78.5 °C. Carbon dioxide is prepared as a byproduct...

  19. Carbon dioxide transport over complex terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Burns, Sean P.; Delany, A.C.; Oncley, S.P.; Turnipseed, A.; Stephens, B.; Guenther, A.; Anderson, D.E.; Monson, R.

    2004-01-01

    The nocturnal transport of carbon dioxide over complex terrain was investigated. The high carbon dioxide under very stable conditions flows to local low-ground. The regional drainage flow dominates the carbon dioxide transport at the 6 m above the ground and carbon dioxide was transported to the regional low ground. The results show that the local drainage flow was sensitive to turbulent mixing associated with local wind shear.

  20. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  1. Modelling Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reports results in their efforts to model sublimation of carbon dioxide and the associated kinetics order and parameter estimation issues in their model. They have offered the reader two sets of data and several approaches to determine the rate of sublimation of a piece of solid dry ice. They presented several models…

  2. Modelling Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reports results in their efforts to model sublimation of carbon dioxide and the associated kinetics order and parameter estimation issues in their model. They have offered the reader two sets of data and several approaches to determine the rate of sublimation of a piece of solid dry ice. They presented several models…

  3. 21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 582.1240 Section 582.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 582.1240 Section 582.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 582.1240 Section 582.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 582.1240 Section 582.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 582.1240 Section 582.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. Enhanced oil recovery using carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Cullick, A.S.

    1986-09-02

    A method is described for increasing the solubility of a polymer in dense-phase carbon dioxide, which comprises dissolving a substantially water-insoluble polymer in dense-phase carbon dioxide in the presence of an entrainer which is soluble in the dense phase carbon dioxide.

  9. Method for carbon dioxide splitting

    DOEpatents

    Miller, James E.; Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Siegel, Nathan P.

    2017-02-28

    A method for splitting carbon dioxide via a two-step metal oxide thermochemical cycle by heating a metal oxide compound selected from an iron oxide material of the general formula A.sub.xFe.sub.3-xO.sub.4, where 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1 and A is a metal selected from Mg, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, and Mn, or a ceria oxide compound of the general formula M.sub.aCe.sub.bO.sub.c, where 0carbon dioxide, and heating to a temperature less than approximately 1400 C, thereby producing carbon monoxide gas and the original metal oxide compound.

  10. Raman Spectra and Cross Sections of Ammonia, Chlorine, Hydrogen Sulfide, Phosgene, and Sulfur Dioxide Toxic Gases in the Fingerprint Region 400-1400 cm-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-14

    carbon dioxide (CO2) as the reference.7 II. EXPERIMENTAL Figure 1 shows a...nitrogen) was purchased from Cross Company. Carbon dioxide (103 L of 4.97 ppm balance air), chlorine (103 L of 4.60 ppm balance air), phosgene (103 L of...1 Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region

  11. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400 1400 cm 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-24

    carbon dioxide (CO2) as the reference.7 II. EXPERIMENTAL Figure 1 shows a...nitrogen) was purchased from Cross Company. Carbon dioxide (103 L of 4.97 ppm balance air), chlorine (103 L 3 of 4.60 ppm balance air), phosgene (103...1 Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region

  12. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    SciTech Connect

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  13. Uncertainities in carbon dioxide radiative forcing in atmospheric general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Cess, R.D.; Zhang, M.H. ); Potter, G.L.; Gates, W.L.; Taylor, K.E. ); Colman, R.A.; Fraser, J.R.; McAvaney, B.J. ); Dazlich, D.A.; Randall, D.A. ); Del Genio, A.D.; Lacis, A.A. ); Esch, M.; Roeckner, E. ); Galin, V. ); Hack, J.J.; Kiehl, J.T. ); Ingram, W.J. ); Le Treut, H.; Lli, Z.X. ); Liang, X.Z.; Wang, W.C. ); Mahfouf,

    1993-11-19

    Global warming, caused by an increase in the concentrations of greenhouse gases, is the direct result of greenhouse gas-induced radiative forcing. When a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide is considered, this forcing differed substantially among 15 atmospheric general circulation models. Although there are several potential causes, the largest contributor was the carbon dioxide radiation parameterizations of the models.

  14. Uncertainties in Carbon Dioxide Radiative Forcing in Atmospheric General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Zhang, M.-H.; Potter, G. L.; Gates, W. L.; Taylor, K. E.; Barker, H. W.; Colman, R. A.; Fraser, J. R.; McAvaney, B. J.; Dazlich, D. A.; Randall, D. A.; DelGenio, A. D.; Lacis, A. A.; Esch, M.; Roeckner, E.; Galin, V.; Hack, J. J.; Kiehl, J. T.; Ingram, W. J.; LeTreut, H.

    1993-01-01

    Global warming, caused by an increase in the concentrations of greenhouse gases, is the direct result of greenhouse gas-induced radiative forcing. When a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide is considered, this forcing differed substantially among 15 atmospheric general circulation models. Although there are several potential causes, the largest contributor was the carbon dioxide radiation parameterizations of the models.

  15. Somatic and genetic effects of the increase of carbon dioxide and other trace gases in the atmosphere through changes of radon and thoron exhalation rates and other factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kazuto

    Somatic and genetic effects of the increase of greenhouse gases are investigated. The exhalation rates of radon and thoron are affected by the climate change through the temperature rise itself, melting of snow and ice and the change of soil moisture, and the lung cancer rate is affected by these changes. On the other hand the greenhouse warming of the troposphere leads to cooling of the stratosphere, which protects the O 3 layer and reduces skin cancer. In the genetic side the temperature rise is harmful for sperm. The Rn increase leads to an increase of chromosome aberrations. Crude estimates of these effects show that the soil moisture effect is probably the largest, but the O 3 protection effect may also be significant.

  16. BOREAS TGB-12 Isotropic Carbon Dioxide Data over the NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumbore, Susan; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Sundquist, Eric; Winston, Greg; Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-12 team made measurements of soil carbon inventories, carbon concentration in soil gases, and rates of soil respiration at several sites to estimate the rates of carbon accumulation and turnover in each of the major vegetation types. This data set contains information on the carbon isotopic content of carbon dioxide sampled from soils in the NSA-OBS, NSA-YJP, and NSA-OJP sites. Data were collected from 14-Nov-1993 to 10-Oct-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  17. The Impact of Carbon Dioxide on Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Gordon J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the relationship between climatic change and carbon dioxide from the historical perspective; details the contributions of carbon-based fuels to increasing carbon dioxide concentrations; and using global circulation models, discusses the future impact of the heavy reliance of our society on carbon-based fuels on climatic change. (BT)

  18. The Impact of Carbon Dioxide on Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Gordon J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the relationship between climatic change and carbon dioxide from the historical perspective; details the contributions of carbon-based fuels to increasing carbon dioxide concentrations; and using global circulation models, discusses the future impact of the heavy reliance of our society on carbon-based fuels on climatic change. (BT)

  19. Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Fan (Inventor); Pearton, Stephen John (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a CO.sub.2 or O.sub.2 sensor is disclosed, hi one implementation, a polymer solar cell can be connected to the HEMT for use in an infrared detection system. In a second implementation, a selective recognition layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. For carbon dioxide sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, PEI/starch. For oxygen sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, indium zinc oxide (IZO). In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of carbon dioxide and oxygen in exhaled breath or blood.

  20. Electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary designs were generated for two electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber concepts. Initially, an electrochemically regenerable absorption bed concept was designed. This concept incorporated the required electrochemical regeneration components in the absorber design, permitting the absorbent to be regenerated within the absorption bed. This hardware was identified as the electrochemical absorber hardware. The second hardware concept separated the functional components of the regeneration and absorption process. This design approach minimized the extravehicular activity component volume by eliminating regeneration hardware components within the absorber. The electrochemical absorber hardware was extensively characterized for major operating parameters such as inlet carbon dioxide partial pressure, process air flow rate, operational pressure, inlet relative humidity, regeneration current density and absorption/regeneration cycle endurance testing.

  1. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-09-22

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation. This process allows for the immobilization of the injected SC--CO.sub.2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia is accomplished by alternating injection of SC--CO.sub.2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the SC--CO.sub.2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces and small enough for immobilization through viscous instability.

  2. Summer ice and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kukla, G.; Gavin, J.

    1981-10-30

    The extent of Antarctic pack ice in the summer, as charted from satellite imagery, decreased by 2.5 million square kilometers between 1973 and 1980. The U.S. Navy and Russian atlases and whaling and reseach ship reports from the 1930's indicate that summer ice conditions earlier in this century were heavier than the current average. Surface air temperatures along the seasonally shifting belt of melting snow between 55/sup o/ and 80/sup o/N during spring and summer were higher in 1974 to 1978 than in 1934 to 1938. The observed departures in the two hemispheres qualitatively agree with the predicted impact of an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, since it is not known to what extent the changes in snow and ice cover and in temperature can be explained by the natural variability of the climate system or by other processes unrelated to carbon dioxide, a cause-and-effect relation cannot yet be established.

  3. Summer Ice and Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukla, G.; Gavin, J.

    1981-10-01

    The extent of Antarctic pack ice in the summer, as charted from satellite imagery, decreased by 2.5 million square kilometers between 1973 and 1980. The U.S. Navy and Russian atlases and whaling and research ship reports from the 1930's indicate that summer ice conditions earlier in this century were heavier than the current average. Surface air temperatures along the seasonally shifting belt of melting snow between 55 degrees and 80 degrees N during spring and summer were higher in 1974 to 1978 than in 1934 to 1938. The observed departures in the two hemispheres qualitatively agree with the predicted impact of an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, since it is not known to what extent the changes in snow and ice cover and in temperature can be explained by the natural variability of the climate system or by other processes unrelated to carbon dioxide, a cause-and-effect relation cannot yet be established.

  4. Carbon dioxide separation with a two-dimensional polymer membrane.

    PubMed

    Schrier, Joshua

    2012-07-25

    Carbon dioxide gas separation is important for many environmental and energy applications. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize a two-dimensional hydrocarbon polymer, PG-ES1, that uses a combination of surface adsorption and narrow pores to separate carbon dioxide from nitrogen, oxygen, and methane gases. The CO2 permeance is 3 × 10(5) gas permeation units (GPU). The CO2/N2 selectivity is 60, and the CO2/CH4 selectivity exceeds 500. The combination of high CO2 permeance and selectivity surpasses all known materials, enabling low-cost postcombustion CO2 capture, utilization of landfill gas, and horticulture applications.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2, CAS Reg. No.... The solid form, dry ice, sublimes under atmospheric pressure at a temperature of −78.5 °C. Carbon...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2, CAS Reg. No.... The solid form, dry ice, sublimes under atmospheric pressure at a temperature of −78.5 °C. Carbon...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2, CAS Reg. No.... The solid form, dry ice, sublimes under atmospheric pressure at a temperature of −78.5 °C. Carbon...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2, CAS Reg. No.... The solid form, dry ice, sublimes under atmospheric pressure at a temperature of −78.5 °C. Carbon...

  9. Carbon dioxide review 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The buildup of CO/sub 2/ is a reality, monitored with increasing precision since 1957 and inferred for much earlier dates. A statistical section gives the monitored values to 1980, as well as a review of a long series of measurements made at Mauna Loa by the pioneers of such monitoring, Charles D. Keeling, Robert B. Bacastow, and Timothy P. Whorf. The book discusses internal transport processes in the ocean, of ocean-atmosphere interaction, of the magnitude of forest and soil carbon wastage, of the future course of fossil-fuel consumption. Yet something else emerges, too: if the CO/sub 2/ buildup continues; if the big general circulation models are right about its impact on climate, and if we have not miscalculated the potential role of the oceans, then we face a climatic change in the next century and a half like nothing the post-glacial world, and hence civilized humanity, has seen.

  10. Carbon dioxide detection using a co-doped Tm-Ho optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Theodore F.; Oh, Kyunghwan; Reinhart, Lawrence J.

    1995-09-01

    A Tm-Ho co-doped optical fiber laser exhibits significant fluorescence between 1.6 and 2.1 micrometers . Such a fiber can from the basis of a gas detection system, since many gases of interest have overtone absorption bands in this wavelength region: in particular, carbon dioxide, methane, arsine, replacement gases for refrigerants, and nitrous oxide. Using this fiber we have demonstrated a simple shceme for the detection of overtone absorption bands of carbon dioxide in the 2 micrometers region. The detection sensitivity for carbon dioxide with this present method is of the order of 1%.

  11. Control of spiracles in silk moths by oxygen and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Burkett, B N; Schneiderman, H A

    1967-06-23

    Spiracles of insects open in high carbon dioxide tensions and close in high oxygen tensions. However, the targets of these gases in insects have never been identified. In diapausing pupae of the cecropia silk moth carbon dioxide acts primarily and directly on the spiracular apparatus itself (muscle or neuromuscular junctions), whereas oxygen has as its primary target the central nervous system. The spiracle behaves as an independent effector in response to carbon dioxide; this is quite different from the situation in vertebrates, where carbon dioxide acts primarily on the central nervous system. The roles of various nerves in controlling spiracular activity are discussed.

  12. Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Pat; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity measuring the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide in carbonated water at different temperatures. The amount of carbon dioxide is measured by the amount of dilute ammonia solution needed to produce a pH indicator color change. (PR)

  13. Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Pat; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity measuring the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide in carbonated water at different temperatures. The amount of carbon dioxide is measured by the amount of dilute ammonia solution needed to produce a pH indicator color change. (PR)

  14. [Thoracoscopic thymectomy with carbon dioxide insufflation in the mediastinum].

    PubMed

    Ferrero-Coloma, C; Navarro-Martinez, J; Bolufer, S; Rivera-Cogollos, M J; Alonso-García, F J; Tarí-Bas, M I

    2015-02-01

    The case is presented of a 71 year-old male, diagnosed with a thymoma. A thoracoscopic thymectomy was performed using the carbon dioxide insufflation technique in the mediastinum. During the procedure, while performing one-lung ventilation, the patient's respiration worsened. The contralateral lung had collapsed, as carbon dioxide was travelling from the mediastinum to the thorax through the opened pleura. Two-lung ventilation was decided upon, which clearly improved oxygenation in the arterial gases and airway pressures. Both pH and pCO2 stabilized. The surgical approach and the carbon dioxide technique were continued because 2-lung ventilation did not affect the surgical procedure. This technique has many serious complications and it should always be performed using 2-lung ventilation.

  15. Correlation of end-tidal carbon dioxide with arterial carbon dioxide in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Razi, Ebrahim; Moosavi, Gholam Abbass; Omidi, Keivan; Khakpour Saebi, Ashkan; Razi, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Patients undergone mechanical ventilation need rapid and reliable evaluation of their respiratory status. Monitoring of End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) as a surrogate, noninvasive measurement of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is one of the methods used for this purpose in intubated patients. The aim of the present trial was to study the relationship between end-tidal CO2 tensions with PaCO2 measurements in mechanically ventilated patients. End-tidal carbon dioxide levels were recorded at the time of arterial blood gas sampling. Patients who were undergoing one of the mechanical ventilation methods such as: synchronized mandatory mechanical ventilation (SIMV), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and T-Tube were enrolled in this study. The difference between ETCO2 and PaCO2 was tested with a paired t-test. The correlation of end-tidal carbon dioxide to (ETCO2) CO2 was obtained in all patients. A total of 219 arterial blood gases were obtained from 87 patients (mean age, 71.7 ± 15.1 years). Statistical analysis demonstrated a good correlation between the mean of ETCO2 and PaCO2 in each of the modes of SIMV, CPAP and T-Tube; SIMV (42.5 ± 17.3 and 45.8 ± 17.1; r = 0.893, P < 0.0001), CPAP (37 ± 9.7 and 39.4 ± 10.1; r = 0.841, P < 0.0001) and T-Tube (36.1 ± 9.9 and 39.4 ± 11; r = 0.923, P < 0.0001), respectively. End-tidal CO2 measurement provides an accurate estimation of PaCO2 in mechanically ventilated patients. Its use may reduce the need for invasive monitoring and/or repeated arterial blood gas analyses.

  16. Volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.

    2011-01-01

    Which emits more carbon dioxide (CO2): Earth's volcanoes or human activities? Research findings indicate unequivocally that the answer to this frequently asked question is human activities. However, most people, including some Earth scientists working in fields outside volcanology, are surprised by this answer. The climate change debate has revived and reinforced the belief, widespread among climate skeptics, that volcanoes emit more CO2 than human activities [Gerlach, 2010; Plimer, 2009]. In fact, present-day volcanoes emit relatively modest amounts of CO2, about as much annually as states like Florida, Michigan, and Ohio.

  17. Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-16

    A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

  18. Sorption of carbon dioxide onto sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Sang-Wook Park; Deok-Ho Sung; Byoung-Sik Choi; Kwang-Joong Oh; Kil-Ho Moon

    2006-07-01

    Sodium carbonate was used as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} from a gaseous stream of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and moisture. The breakthrough data of CO{sub 2} were measured in a fixed bed to observe the reaction kinetics of CO{sub 2}-carbonate reaction. Several models such as the shrinking-core model, the homogeneous model, and the deactivation model in the non-catalytic heterogeneous reaction systems were used to explain the kinetics of reaction among CO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and moisture using analysis of the experimental breakthrough data. Good agreement of the deactivation model was obtained with the experimental breakthrough data. The sorption rate constant and the deactivation rate constant were evaluated by analysis of the experimental breakthrough data using a nonlinear least squares technique and described as Arrhenius form.

  19. Carbon dioxide disposal in solid form

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Sharp, D.H.; Wendt, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    Coal reserves can provide for the world`s energy needs for centuries. However, coal`s long term use may be severely curtailed if the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not eliminated. We present a safe and permanent method of carbon dioxide disposal that is based on combining carbon dioxide chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. We discuss the availability of raw materials and potential process designs. We consider our initial rough cost estimate of about 3{cents}/kWh encouraging. The availability of a carbon dioxide fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming, or the perception of global warming, causes severe restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. If the increased energy demand of a growing world population is to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of such a technology would quite likely be unavoidable.

  20. Growth responses of Populus tremuloides clones to interacting elevated carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone

    Treesearch

    J. G. Isebrands; E. P. McDonald; E. Kruger; G. Hendrey; K. Percy; K. Pregitzer; J. Sober; D. F. Karnosky

    2001-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded that the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) are increasing concomitantly globally. Little is known about the effect of these interacting gases on growth, survival, and productivity of forest ecosystems. In this study we assess...

  1. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

    2001-06-15

    The authors' long term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The major objectives of the project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coal being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals, to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. The specific accomplishments of this project during this reporting period are summarized below in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization. (1) Experimental Work: Our adsorption apparatus was reassembled, and all instruments were tested and calibrated. Having confirmed the viability of the experimental apparatus and procedures used, adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 2%. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on two other coals. (2) Model Development: The experimental data were used to evaluate the

  2. Carbon Dioxide for pH Control

    SciTech Connect

    Wagonner, R.C.

    2001-08-16

    Cardox, the major supplier of carbon dioxide, has developed a diffuser to introduce carbon dioxide into a water volume as small bubbles to minimize reagent loss to the atmosphere. This unit is integral to several configurations suggested for treatment to control alkalinity in water streams.

  3. Adsorption of Gases on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaye, Mamadou Thiao

    2014-01-01

    This research focus in studying the interaction between various classical and quantum gases with novel carbon nanostructures, mainly carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Since their discovery by the Japanese physicist Sumio Iijima [1] carbon nanotubes have, experimentally and theoretically, been subjected to many scientific investigation. Studies of adsorption on CNTs are particularly directed toward their better usage in gas storage, gas separation, catalyst, drug delivery, and water purification. We explore the adsorption of different gases entrapped in a single, double, or multi-bundles of CNTs using computer simulations. The first system we investigate consists of Ar and Kr films adsorbed on zigzag or armchair nanotubes. Our simulations revealed that Kr atoms on intermediate size zigzag NTs undergo two phase transitions: A liquid-vapor (L→V), and liquid-commensurate (L→CS) with a fractional coverage of one Kr atoms adsorbed for every four carbon atoms. For Ar on zigzag and armchair NTs, the only transition observed is a L→V. In the second problem, we explore the adsorption of CO2 molecules in a nanotube bundle and calculate the isosteric heat of adsorption of the entrapped molecules within the groove. We observed that the lower the temperature, the higher the isosteric of adsorption. Last, we investigate the adsorption of hydrogen, Helium, and Neon gases on the groove site of two parallel nanotubes. At low temperature, the transverse motion on the plane perpendicular to the tubes' axis is frozen out and as a consequence, the heat capacity is reduced to 1/2. At high temperature, the atoms gain more degree of freedom and as a consequence the heat capacity is 5/2.

  4. Technical and economical evaluation of carbon dioxide capture and conversion to methanol process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Aditya Anugerah; Juwari, Handogo, Renanto

    2017-05-01

    Phenomenon of global warming, which is indicated by increasing of earth's surface temperature, is caused by high level of greenhouse gases level in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide, which increases year by year because of high demand of energy, gives the largest contribution in greenhouse gases. One of the most applied solution to mitigate carbon dioxide level is post-combustion carbon capture technology. Although the technology can absorb up to 90% of carbon dioxide produced, some worries occur that captured carbon dioxide that is stored underground will be released over time. Utilizing captured carbon dioxide could be a promising solution. Captured carbon dioxide can be converted into more valuable material, such as methanol. This research will evaluate the conversion process of captured carbon dioxide to methanol, technically and economically. From the research, it is found that technically methanol can be made from captured carbon dioxide. Product gives 25.6905 kg/s flow with 99.69% purity of methanol. Economical evaluation of the whole conversion process shows that the process is economically feasible. The capture and conversion process needs 176,101,157.69 per year for total annual cost and can be overcome by revenue gained from methanol product sales.

  5. Microfluidic studies of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Abolhasani, Milad; Günther, Axel; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2014-07-28

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, storage and recycling will greatly benefit from comprehensive studies of physical and chemical gas-liquid processes involving CO2. Over the past five years, microfluidics emerged as a valuable tool in CO2-related research, due to superior mass and heat transfer, reduced axial dispersion, well-defined gas-liquid interfacial areas and the ability to vary reagent concentrations in a high-throughput manner. This Minireview highlights recent progress in microfluidic studies of CO2-related processes, including dissolution of CO2 in physical solvents, CO2 reactions, the utilization of CO2 in materials science, and the use of supercritical CO2 as a "green" solvent.

  6. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  7. Carbon dioxide warming of the early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1997-01-01

    Svante Arrhenius' research in atmospheric physics extended beyond the recent past and the near future states of the Earth, which today are at the center of sociopolitical attention. His plan encompassed all of the physical phenomena known at the time to relate to the formation and evolution of stars and planets. His two-volume textbook on cosmic physics is a comprehensive synopsis of the field. The inquiry into the possible cause of the ice ages and the theory of selective wavelength filter control led Arrhenius to consider the surface states of the other terrestrial planets, and of the ancient Earth before it had been modified by the emergence of life. The rapid escape of hydrogen and the equilibration with igneous rocks required that carbon in the early atmosphere prevailed mainly in oxidized form as carbon dioxide, together with other photoactive gases exerting a greenhouse effect orders of magnitude larger than in our present atmosphere. This effect, together with the ensuing chemical processes, would have set the conditions for life to evolve on our planet, seeded from spores spreading through an infinite Universe, and propelled, as Arrhenius thought, by stellar radiation pressure.

  8. Carbon dioxide warming of the early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1997-01-01

    Svante Arrhenius' research in atmospheric physics extended beyond the recent past and the near future states of the Earth, which today are at the center of sociopolitical attention. His plan encompassed all of the physical phenomena known at the time to relate to the formation and evolution of stars and planets. His two-volume textbook on cosmic physics is a comprehensive synopsis of the field. The inquiry into the possible cause of the ice ages and the theory of selective wavelength filter control led Arrhenius to consider the surface states of the other terrestrial planets, and of the ancient Earth before it had been modified by the emergence of life. The rapid escape of hydrogen and the equilibration with igneous rocks required that carbon in the early atmosphere prevailed mainly in oxidized form as carbon dioxide, together with other photoactive gases exerting a greenhouse effect orders of magnitude larger than in our present atmosphere. This effect, together with the ensuing chemical processes, would have set the conditions for life to evolve on our planet, seeded from spores spreading through an infinite Universe, and propelled, as Arrhenius thought, by stellar radiation pressure.

  9. Carbon dioxide warming of the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Arrhenius, G

    1997-02-01

    Svante Arrhenius' research in atmospheric physics extended beyond the recent past and the near future states of the Earth, which today are at the center of sociopolitical attention. His plan encompassed all of the physical phenomena known at the time to relate to the formation and evolution of stars and planets. His two-volume textbook on cosmic physics is a comprehensive synopsis of the field. The inquiry into the possible cause of the ice ages and the theory of selective wavelength filter control led Arrhenius to consider the surface states of the other terrestrial planets, and of the ancient Earth before it had been modified by the emergence of life. The rapid escape of hydrogen and the equilibration with igneous rocks required that carbon in the early atmosphere prevailed mainly in oxidized form as carbon dioxide, together with other photoactive gases exerting a greenhouse effect orders of magnitude larger than in our present atmosphere. This effect, together with the ensuing chemical processes, would have set the conditions for life to evolve on our planet, seeded from spores spreading through an infinite Universe, and propelled, as Arrhenius thought, by stellar radiation pressure.

  10. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, L.; Blackman, T.E.

    1994-01-21

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved.

  11. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide. The developed catalyst activates carbon dioxide and delivers over 16% yield of DMC without the use of any dehydrating agent or requirement for azeotropic distillation. Prepared for submission to Nature Scientific reports.

  12. Capture and storage of Carbon dioxid: a method for countering climatic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the options aimed at preventing climatic changes is the capture and storage of carbon dioxide, a method with a great potential for reducing greenhouse gases. Capturing and storing carbon dioxide in the soil involves new benefits for the communities in the respective areas. Those benefits also follow from the fact that the organic compound has an essential factor in the soil, determining its properties. The paper presents several results concerning the determination of the quantity of carbon dioxide in different types of soil and it is intended to be the beginning of the process of data collection and the analysis of the reserves and the flow of carbon.

  13. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  14. Recycling Carbon Dioxide during Xylose Fermentation by Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Xia, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Walker, Berkley; Seo, Seung-Oh; Kwak, Suryang; Liu, Jing-Jing; Kim, Heejin; Ort, Donald R; Wang, Shu-Guang; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-02-17

    Global climate change caused by the emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a grand challenge to humanity. To alleviate the trend, the consumption of fossil fuels needs to be largely reduced and alternative energy technologies capable of controlling GHG emissions are anticipated. In this study, we introduced a synthetic reductive pentose phosphate pathway (rPPP) into a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain SR8 to achieve simultaneous lignocellulosic bioethanol production and carbon dioxide recycling. Specifically, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum and phosphoribulokinase from Spinacia oleracea were introduced into the SR8 strain. The resulting strain with the synthetic rPPP was able to exhibit a higher yield of ethanol and lower yields of byproducts (xylitol and glycerol) than a control strain. In addition, the reduced release of carbon dioxide by the engineered strain was observed during xylose fermentation, suggesting that the carbon dioxide generated by pyruvate decarboxylase was partially reassimilated through the synthetic rPPP. These results demonstrated that recycling of carbon dioxide from the ethanol fermentation pathway in yeast can be achieved during lignocellulosic bioethanol production through a synthetic carbon conservative metabolic pathway. This strategy has a great potential to alleviate GHG emissions during the production of second-generation ethanol.

  15. Electrochemical cell for obtaining oxygen from carbon dioxide atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, M. W.; Rast, H. E.; Rogers, D. K.

    1989-01-01

    For manned missions to Mars to become a reality, an efficient and reliable means of obtaining oxygen from the carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere will be required. Otherwise, the high cost of transporting the oxygen needed to sustain the astronauts will severely restrict the expedition to the martian surface. Recently, the use of electrochemical devices has been explored as a means of obtaining oxygen from the carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere. In these devices, oxygen ions diffuse through solid oxide membranes, thus, separating oxygen from the other gases presented. This phenomenon has only recently been explored as a means of obtaining large quantities of oxygen from toxic atmospheres, although first observed by Walter nernst in 1899. Nernst observed that stabilized zirconia will conduct oxygen ions when an electrical potential is applied across metallic electrodes applied to the ceramic membrane. Diatomic oxygen molecules are dissociated at the positive electrode/electrolyte interface. The oxygen ions enter the ceramic body due to the ion density gradient which is produced by the electrical potential across the electrolytic membrane. Once the ions have diffused through the membrane, they reform diatomic oxygen molecules at the anode. The separation of oxygen from carbon dioxide is achieved by the combination of thermal and electrochemical processes. The thermal decomposition of carbon dioxide (at 1000 C) results in the production of carbon monoxide and oxygen by the reaction.

  16. A new look at atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, David J.; Butler, James H.; Tans, Pieter P.

    Carbon dioxide is increasing in the atmosphere and is of considerable concern in global climate change because of its greenhouse gas warming potential. The rate of increase has accelerated since measurements began at Mauna Loa Observatory in 1958 where carbon dioxide increased from less than 1 part per million per year (ppm yr -1) prior to 1970 to more than 2 ppm yr -1 in recent years. Here we show that the anthropogenic component (atmospheric value reduced by the pre-industrial value of 280 ppm) of atmospheric carbon dioxide has been increasing exponentially with a doubling time of about 30 years since the beginning of the industrial revolution (˜1800). Even during the 1970s, when fossil fuel emissions dropped sharply in response to the "oil crisis" of 1973, the anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide level continued increasing exponentially at Mauna Loa Observatory. Since the growth rate (time derivative) of an exponential has the same characteristic lifetime as the function itself, the carbon dioxide growth rate is also doubling at the same rate. This explains the observation that the linear growth rate of carbon dioxide has more than doubled in the past 40 years. The accelerating growth rate is simply the outcome of exponential growth in carbon dioxide with a nearly constant doubling time of about 30 years (about 2%/yr) and appears to have tracked human population since the pre-industrial era.

  17. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

    2001-06-15

    During the present reporting period, six complementary tasks involving experimentation, model development, and coal characterization were undertaken to meet our project objectives: (1) A second adsorption apparatus, utilizing equipment donated by BP Amoco, was assembled. Having confirmed the reliability of this additional experimental apparatus and procedures, adsorption isotherms for CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 3%. The addition of this new facility has allowed us to essentially double our rate of data production. (2) Adsorption isotherms for pure CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen on wet Illinois-6 coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia) on our first apparatus. The activated carbon measurements showed good agreement with literature data and with measurements obtained on our second apparatus. The expected uncertainty of the data is about 3%. The Illinois-6 adsorption measurements are a new addition to the existing database. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on DESC-8 coal. (3) Adsorption from binary mixtures of methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} at a series of compositions was also measured on the wet Fruitland coal at 319.3 K (115 F), using our first apparatus. The nominal compositions of these mixtures are 20%/80%, 40%/60%, 60%/40%, and 80%/20%. The experiments were conducted at pressures from 100 psia to 1800 psia. The expected uncertainty for these binary mixture data varies from 2 to 9%. (4) A study was completed to address the previously-reported rise in the CO{sub 2} absolute adsorption on wet Fruitland coal at 115 F and pressures exceeding 1200 psia. Our additional adsorption measurements on

  18. High performance hydrophobic solvent, carbon dioxide capture

    DOEpatents

    Nulwala, Hunaid; Luebke, David

    2017-05-09

    Methods and compositions useful, for example, for physical solvent carbon capture. A method comprising: contacting at least one first composition comprising carbon dioxide with at least one second composition to at least partially dissolve the carbon dioxide of the first composition in the second composition, wherein the second composition comprises at least one siloxane compound which is covalently modified with at least one non-siloxane group comprising at least one heteroatom. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials and ethylene-glycol based materials have high carbon dioxide solubility but suffer from various problems. PDMS is hydrophobic but suffers from low selectivity. Ethylene-glycol based systems have good solubility and selectivity, but suffer from high affinity to water. Solvents were developed which keep the desired combinations of properties, and result in a simplified, overall process for carbon dioxide removal from a mixed gas stream.

  19. Photolytical Generation of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, E. E.; Brown, R. H.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon dioxide has been found by Cassini VIMS throughout the Saturnian system in locations such as Iapetus' equator where the temperature is too high for it to remain as free ice for more than a few hundred years. We suggest that the 4.26 micron absorption feature found on Iapetus and Hyperion (that has been attributed to complexed CO2) is the result of either UV photolysis or ion bombardment driving chemistry between the carbon rich layer and the water ice regolith. We conducted experiments to simulate the generation of CO2 by UV radiation under conditions similar to those on the surface of Iapetus. A simulated icy regolith was created in an argon atmosphere using flash-frozen, degassed water crushed into sub-millimeter sized particles. Isotopically labeled amorphous carbon (13C), which was ground into a fine dust, was mixed into the regolith allowing for extensive grain contact. This sample was placed in a vacuum chamber and cooled to temperatures as low at 60K. The sample was irradiated with UV light, and the products were measured using both a mass spectrometer to identify free molecules and an IR spectrometer for molecules that remained trapped on and in the simulated regolith. We report on the production and reaction rates of CO2 and CO, as well as the generation of free hydrogen and oxygen as detected by a SRS-100 mass spectrometer. We also identify residual products that either freeze on the surface or become entrained by or adsorbed onto the ice grains. We attempt to match the CO2 absorption feature found on Iapetus with that seen in our simulation, perhaps identifying a possible source of CO2 in the Saturnian system. Finally, we estimate the time required for these reactions to occur on Iapetus to see if UV photolysis would be effective.

  20. Diffuse volcanic emissions of carbon dioxide from Vulcano Island, Italy.

    PubMed

    Baubron, J C; Allard, P; Toutain, J P

    1990-03-01

    RECENT investigations on Mount Etna (Sicily)(1-3) have revealed that volcanoes may release abundant carbon dioxide not only from their active craters, but also from their flanks, as diffuse soil emanations. Here we present analyses of soil gases and air in water wells on Vulcano Island which provide further evidence of such lateral degassing. Nearly pure carbon dioxide, enriched in helium and radon, escapes from the slopes of the Fossa active cone, adding a total output of 30 tonnes per day to the fumarolic crater discharge ( 180 tonnes CO(2) per day). This emanation has similar He/CO(2) and (13)C/(12)C ratios to those of the crater fumaroles (300%ndash;500 degrees C) and therefore a similar volcanic origin. Gases rich in carbon dioxide also escape at sea level along the isthmus between the Fossa and Vulcanello volcanic cones, but their depletion in both He and (13)C suggests a distinct source. Diffuse volcanic gas emanations, once their genetic link with central fumarole degassing has been demonstrated, can be used for continuous volcano monitoring, at safe distances from active craters. Such monitoring has been initiated at Vulcano, where soil and well emanations of nearly pure CO(2) themselves represent a threat to the local population.

  1. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section 97.37-11... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any...

  2. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... permit the release of carbon dioxide gas to prevent a buildup of pressure that could rupture the...

  3. 46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section 108.626... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any...

  4. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space...

  5. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... permit the release of carbon dioxide gas to prevent a buildup of pressure that could rupture the...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon dioxide...

  7. 46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section 108.626... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any...

  8. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  9. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b) ...

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section 78.47-11... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into which...

  11. 21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon dioxide...

  12. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” ...

  13. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide...-5(d), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within...

  14. 46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8 Section 196.37-8... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into...

  15. 46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 Section 131.817... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any...

  16. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a...), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within the space...

  17. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide...-5(d), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within...

  18. 21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon dioxide...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b) ...

  20. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If the...

  1. 46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8 Section 196.37-8... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into...

  2. 46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 Section 131.817... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any...

  3. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... permit the release of carbon dioxide gas to prevent a buildup of pressure that could rupture the...

  4. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  5. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  6. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” ...

  7. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide...-5(d), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within...

  8. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next to...

  9. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a...), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within the space...

  10. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section 97.37-11... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any...

  11. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space...

  12. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section 97.37-11... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any...

  13. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If the...

  14. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If the...

  15. 21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon dioxide...

  16. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space...

  17. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space...

  18. 46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section 108.626... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any...

  19. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next to...

  20. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If the...

  1. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space...

  2. 46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 Section 131.817... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any...

  3. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If the...

  4. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section 78.47-11... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into which...

  5. 46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8 Section 196.37-8... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into...

  6. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  7. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... permit the release of carbon dioxide gas to prevent a buildup of pressure that could rupture the...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon dioxide...

  9. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... permit the release of carbon dioxide gas to prevent a buildup of pressure that could rupture the...

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section 78.47-11... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into which...

  11. Cryotherapy gas--to use nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide?

    PubMed

    Maiti, H; Cheyne, M F; Hobbs, G; Jeraj, H A

    1999-02-01

    Cryotherapy is regularly used in our clinic for treating genital warts. Nitrous oxide was used as the cryogenic gas. Following a health and safety review it was decided to monitor the nitrous oxide levels in the treatment room under different conditions. The Occupational Exposure Standard for nitrous oxide is 100 parts per million (PPM) (8-h time weighted average) and an indicative short-term exposure limit of 300 PPM (15-min reference period). High levels of gas were detected, especially when the exhaust was not vented to the outside. Venting of the gas to the outside could also present a hazard to adjacent areas. The situation was considered to be unacceptable and carbon dioxide was proposed as an alternative. The Occupational Exposure Standard for carbon dioxide is 5000 PPM (8-h time weighted average) and a short-term limit of 15,000 PPM (15-min reference period). Carbon dioxide levels were found to be within the Occupational Exposure Standard. There is no noticeable difference in the cryogenic efficacy of the 2 gases. Carbon dioxide is, therefore, a safer alternative. It also offers significant savings when compared with nitrous oxide.

  12. Raman Spectra and Cross Sections of Ammonia, Chlorine, Hydrogen Sulfide, Phosgene, and Sulfur Dioxide Toxic Gases in the Fingerprint Region 400-1400 cm-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-11

    region 400-1400 cm−1 using the Raman cross section of the 1285 cm−1 mode of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the reference.9 Raman cross sections of NH3, Cl2...Safety. Hydrogen sulfide (34 L of 50 ppm balance nitrogen) was purchased from Cross Company. Carbon dioxide (103 L of 4.97 ppm balance air), chlorine...AIP ADVANCES 6, 025310 (2016) Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in

  13. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program

    SciTech Connect

    Beatty, N.B.

    1981-01-01

    Chapter titles are: the first detection of carbon dioxide effects; the atmosphere; the polar regions; the oceans; and the biosphere. Sixteen papers were abstracted and indexed individually for EDB/ERA. (JGB)

  14. Carbon dioxide-soluble polymers and swellable polymers for carbon dioxide applications

    DOEpatents

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Birnbaum, Eva; Carbonell, Ruben G.; Crette, Stephanie; McClain, James B.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Powell, Kimberly R.; Romack, Timothy J.; Tumas, William

    2004-06-08

    A method for carrying out a catalysis reaction in carbon dioxide comprising contacting a fluid mixture with a catalyst bound to a polymer, the fluid mixture comprising at least one reactant and carbon dioxide, wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product. A composition of matter comprises carbon dioxide and a polymer and a reactant present in the carbon dioxide. The polymer has bound thereto a catalyst at a plurality of chains along the length of the polymer, and wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product.

  15. Carbonate buffering and metabolic controls on carbon dioxide in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stets, Edward; Butman, David; McDonald, Cory P.; Stackpoole, Sarah M.; DeGrandpre, Michael D.; Striegl, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Multiple processes support the significant efflux of carbon dioxide (CO2) from rivers and streams. Attribution of CO2 oversaturation will lead to better quantification of the freshwater carbon cycle and provide insights into the net cycling of nutrients and pollutants. CO2 production is closely related to O2consumption because of the metabolic linkage of these gases. However, this relationship can be weakened due to dissolved inorganic carbon inputs from groundwater, carbonate buffering, calcification, and anaerobic metabolism. CO2and O2 concentrations and other water quality parameters were analyzed in two data sets: a synoptic field study and nationwide water quality monitoring data. CO2 and O2 concentrations were strongly negatively correlated in both data sets (ρ = −0.67 and ρ = −0.63, respectively), although the correlations were weaker in high-alkalinity environments. In nearly all samples, the molar oversaturation of CO2 was a larger magnitude than molar O2 undersaturation. We used a dynamically coupled O2CO2 model to show that lags in CO2 air-water equilibration are a likely cause of this phenomenon. Lags in CO2 equilibration also impart landscape-scale differences in the behavior of CO2 between high- and low-alkalinity watersheds. Although the concept of carbonate buffering and how it creates lags in CO2 equilibration with the atmosphere is well understood, it has not been sufficiently integrated into our understanding of CO2 dynamics in freshwaters. We argue that the consideration of carbonate equilibria and its effects on CO2 dynamics are primary steps in understanding the sources and magnitude of CO2 oversaturation in rivers and streams.

  16. Carbonate buffering and metabolic controls on carbon dioxide in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stets, Edward G.; Butman, David; McDonald, Cory P.; Stackpoole, Sarah M.; DeGrandpre, Michael D.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2017-04-01

    Multiple processes support the significant efflux of carbon dioxide (CO2) from rivers and streams. Attribution of CO2 oversaturation will lead to better quantification of the freshwater carbon cycle and provide insights into the net cycling of nutrients and pollutants. CO2 production is closely related to O2 consumption because of the metabolic linkage of these gases. However, this relationship can be weakened due to dissolved inorganic carbon inputs from groundwater, carbonate buffering, calcification, and anaerobic metabolism. CO2 and O2 concentrations and other water quality parameters were analyzed in two data sets: a synoptic field study and nationwide water quality monitoring data. CO2 and O2 concentrations were strongly negatively correlated in both data sets (ρ = -0.67 and ρ = -0.63, respectively), although the correlations were weaker in high-alkalinity environments. In nearly all samples, the molar oversaturation of CO2 was a larger magnitude than molar O2 undersaturation. We used a dynamically coupled O2CO2 model to show that lags in CO2 air-water equilibration are a likely cause of this phenomenon. Lags in CO2 equilibration also impart landscape-scale differences in the behavior of CO2 between high- and low-alkalinity watersheds. Although the concept of carbonate buffering and how it creates lags in CO2 equilibration with the atmosphere is well understood, it has not been sufficiently integrated into our understanding of CO2 dynamics in freshwaters. We argue that the consideration of carbonate equilibria and its effects on CO2 dynamics are primary steps in understanding the sources and magnitude of CO2 oversaturation in rivers and streams.

  17. SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM DAIRY FARMS TO ASSESS GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION STRATEGIES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Farming practices can have a large impact on the soil carbon cycle and the resulting net emission of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide (CO**2), methane and nitrous oxide. Primary sources of CO**2 emission on dairy farms are soil, plant, and animal respiration with smaller contributions from ...

  18. Carbon dioxide separation using adsorption with steam regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Jeannine Elizabeth; Copeland, Robert James; Leta, Daniel P.; McCall, Patrick P.; Bai, Chuansheng; DeRites, Bruce A.

    2016-11-29

    A process for separating a carbon dioxide from a gas stream is disclosed. The process can include passing the gas stream over a sorbent that adsorbs the carbon dioxide by concentration swing adsorption and adsorptive displacement. The sorbent can be regenerated and the carbon dioxide recaptured by desorbing the carbon dioxide from the sorbent using concentration swing adsorption and desorptive displacement. A carbon dioxide separation system is also disclosed. Neither the system nor the process rely on temperature swing or pressure swing adsorption.

  19. Nadir Sounding of Carbon Gases using SCIAMACHY Near Infrared Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno García, Sebastián; Schreier, Franz; Lichtenberg, Günter; Slijkhuis, Sander; Hess, Michael; Aberle, Bernd

    The Beer InfraRed Retrieval Algorithm (BIRRA) and Column EstimatoR Vertical InfraRed Sounding Atmosphere (CERVISA) codes have been designed to retrieve vertical column den-sities (VCDs) of atmospheric gases in the near and thermal infrared (NIR,TIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum by means of non-linear least squares fitting of radiances. As part of the operational SCIAMACHY level 1-2 processor, BIRRA is currently used for the specific retrieval of carbon monoxide (CO) VCDs exploiting the fitting window 4282-4301 cm-1 within the SCIAMACHY channel 8. Using appropriate fitting windows in channel 6, BIRRA also allows to gain information on greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, the increasing number of dead and bad pixels -specially in the NIR channels -reduces the available spectral information and consequently makes the VCDs retrieval more and more challenging. The proper choice of the pixel mask, fitting window, auxiliary fit parameters, as well as the filtering of the Level 2 data is crucial for obtaining a high quality atmospheric product. For validation of BIRRA the closely related CERVISA code is used to retrieve CO and CH4 from nadir infrared sounding data of AIRS, IASI, or TES. BIRRA and CERVISA share a large portion of modules, e.g., for line-by-line absorption and the nonlinear least squares solver; the essential difference is the part of the forward model devoted to radiative transfer through the atmosphere, i.e., Beer's law for the NIR versus Schwarzschild's equation for the TIR. CERVISA retrieval results are compared both to the operational products of the TIR sounder and to the SCIAMACHY-BIRRA product. In this work, we present recent results of carbon monoxide and methane retrievals.

  20. Mineralization strategies for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Progress is reported in three primary research areas--each concerned with sequestering carbon dioxide into mineral matrices. Direct mineral carbonation was pioneered at Albany Research Center. The method treats the reactant, olivine or serpentine in aqueous media with carbon dioxide at high temperature and pressure to form stable mineral carbonates. Recent results are introduced for pretreatment by high-intensity grinding to improve carbonation efficiency. To prove feasibility of the carbonation process, a new reactor was designed and operated to progress from batch tests to continuous operation. The new reactor is a prototype high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop reactor that will furnish information on flow, energy consumption, and wear and corrosion resulting from slurry flow and the carbonation reaction. A promising alternative mineralization approach is also described. New data are presented for long-term exposure of carbon dioxide to Colombia River Basalt to determine the extent of conversion of carbon dioxide to permanent mineral carbonates. Batch autoclave tests were conducted using drill-core samples of basalt and reacted under conditions that simulate in situ injection into basalt-containing geological formations.

  1. Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Using Ion Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R; Bourcier, W L; Johnson, M R

    2006-04-21

    We are developing a new way of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas based on ionic pumping of carbonate ions dissolved in water. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, which can be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a nearly pure gas. This novel approach to increasing the concentration of the extracted gas permits new approaches to treating flue gas. The slightly basic water used as the extraction medium is impervious to trace acid gases that destroy existing solvents, and no pre-separation is necessary. The simple, robust nature of the process lends itself to small separation plants. Although the energy cost of the ion pump is significant, we anticipate that it will be compete favorably with the current 35% energy penalty of chemical stripping systems in use at power plants. There is the distinct possibility that this simple method could be significantly more efficient than existing processes.

  2. Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  3. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2010-02-02

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  4. Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

  5. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

    2003-04-30

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also

  6. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

    2003-03-10

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project has developed, an important additional objective has been added to the above original list. Namely, we have been encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we have participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects

  7. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-01-07

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture.

  8. Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Peter J; Hills, Colin D; Carey, Paula J

    2009-10-01

    The concomitant recycling of waste and carbon dioxide emissions is the subject of developing technology designed to close the industrial process loop and facilitate the bulk-re-use of waste in, for example, construction. The present work discusses a treatment step that employs accelerated carbonation to convert gaseous carbon dioxide into solid calcium carbonate through a reaction with industrial thermal residues. Treatment by accelerated carbonation enabled a synthetic aggregate to be made from thermal residues and waste quarry fines. The aggregates produced had a bulk density below 1000 kg/m(3) and a high water absorption capacity. Aggregate crushing strengths were between 30% and 90% stronger than the proprietary lightweight expanded clay aggregate available in the UK. Cast concrete blocks containing the carbonated aggregate achieve compressive strengths of 24 MPa, making them suitable for use with concrete exposed to non-aggressive service environments. The energy intensive firing and sintering processes traditionally required to produce lightweight aggregates can now be augmented by a cold-bonding, low energy method that contributes to the reduction of green house gases to the atmosphere.

  9. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  10. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  11. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  12. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  13. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  14. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure carbon...

  15. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure carbon...

  16. 49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-1... Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid... anchorage of tanks must be made of carbon steel conforming to ASTM A 516/A 516M (IBR, see § 171.7 of this...

  17. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure carbon...

  18. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure carbon...

  19. 49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-1... Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid... anchorage of tanks must be made of carbon steel conforming to ASTM A 516/A 516M (IBR, see § 171.7 of this...

  20. 49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-1...) § 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide... and anchorage of tanks must be made of carbon steel conforming to ASTM A 516/A 516M (IBR, see § 171.7...

  1. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure carbon...

  2. 49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-1... Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid... anchorage of tanks must be made of carbon steel conforming to ASTM A 516/A 516M (IBR, see § 171.7 of this...

  3. 49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-1... Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid... anchorage of tanks must be made of carbon steel conforming to ASTM A 516/A 516M (IBR, see § 171.7 of this...

  4. Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Tumas, William; Powell, Kimberly R.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Romack, Timothy J.; McClain, James B.; Birnbaum, Eva R.

    2001-01-01

    A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

  5. Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Sam

    2007-04-15

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage is a technology that could be used to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere from large industrial installations such as fossil fuel-fired power stations by 80-90%. It involves the capture of carbon dioxide at a large industrial plant, its transport to a geological storage site and its long-term isolation in a geological storage reservoir. The technology has aroused considerable interest because it can help reduce emissions from fossil fuels which are likely to remain the dominant source of primary energy for decades to come. The main issues for the technology are cost and its implications for financing new or retrofitted plants, and the security of underground storage.

  6. Absorption of sulfur dioxide from gases by ferrous sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, B.J.; Zambrano, A.R.

    1980-12-09

    This application is directed to the use of ferrous sulfate for absorption of sulfur from gases containing the same. The invention is predicated on the reaction of the sulfur oxides with ferrous sulfate in the presence of oxygen to form principally ferric sulfate.

  7. Spark combustion reactor for 13-carbon isotope enrichment analysis of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Michael; Gray, Michael; Kuo, John E.; Tan, C. T.

    2003-04-01

    A novel spark combustion reactor was designed, built, and utilized for quantitative 13-carbon isotope determination of highly enriched permanent gases. The analytical methodology developed is straightforward and begins by loading the reactor with hydrocarbon and oxygen using a steel gas manifold. High voltage is applied to the platinum electrode spark plug incorporated into the reactor, which rapidly converts hydrocarbon to carbon dioxide (and other products). Carbon dioxide species are then quantitated by quadrupole mass spectrometry. The primary reactor consists of a three-way stainless steel tee, plus the following components connected to threaded ports: (1) a platinum electrode spark plug sealed with a Viton O ring, (2) a steel gas storage cylinder, and (3) a manual bellows valve terminated with a VCO type connector. Making use of the spark combustion reactor, the 13-carbon fraction of highly enriched 13CH4 was measured to be ⩾99.5 at. % 13C. This portable, static reactor permits determination of the 13C/12C isotope fraction for permanent gases utilizing mass spectrometric detection. The analytical system presented is relatively rapid (due to spark ignition), straightforward, and flexible (applicable to hydrocarbon gases using various gas detectors). Its limitation in performance for 13C isotope work is probably due to carbon embedded in the reactor interior.

  8. Electrochemical Cell for Obtaining Oxygen from Carbon Dioxide Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Matthew; Rast, H. Edward; Rogers, Darren K.; Borja, Luis; Clark, Kevin; Fleming, Kimberly; Mcgurren, Michael; Oldaker, Tom; Sweet, Nanette

    1989-01-01

    To support human life on the Martian surface, an electrochemical device will be required to obtain oxygen from the carbon dioxide rich atmosphere. The electrolyte employed in such a device must be constructed from extremely thin, dense membranes to efficiently acquire the oxygen necessary to support life. A forming process used industrially in the production of multilayer capacitors and electronic substrates was adapted to form the thin membranes required. The process, known as the tape casting, involves the suspension consisting of solvents and binders. The suspension is passed under a blade, resulting in the production of ceramic membranes between 0.1 and 0.5 mm thick. Once fired, the stabilized zirconia membranes were assembled into the cell design by employing a zirconium phosphate solution as the sealing agent. The resulting ceramic-to-ceramic seals were found to be structurally sound and gas-tight. Furthermore, by using a zirconia-based solution to assemble the cell, the problem of a thermal expansion mismatch was alleviated. By adopting an industrial forming process to produce thin membranes, an electrochemical cell for obtaining oxygen from carbon dioxide was produced. The proposed cell design is unique in that it does not require a complicated manifold system for separating the various gases present in this process, nor does it require a series of complex electrical connections. Thus, the device can reliably obtain the vital oxygen supply from the toxic carbon dioxide atmosphere.

  9. A carbon dioxide fatality from dry ice.

    PubMed

    Srisont, Smith; Chirachariyavej, Thamrong; Peonim, A V M Vichan

    2009-07-01

    This report documents a rare case of carbon dioxide intoxication in a young healthy male. The deceased hid in a small plastic container, size 1.5 x 1 x 1 m, and within 5 min he was located suffering convulsions and was reported as dead within minutes. Scene investigation revealed dry ice in the container. Autopsy findings were unremarkable. The probable cause of the convulsions was carbon dioxide intoxication due to both the dry ice sublimation and the small confined space in which he was hiding. This report emphasizes the significance of scene investigation in establishing the cause of the death.

  10. Carbon dioxide hydrate and floods on Mars.

    PubMed

    Milton, D J

    1974-02-15

    Ground ice on Mars probably consists largely of carbon dioxide hydrate, CO(2) . 6H(2)O. This hydrate dissociates upon release of pressure at temperatures between 0 degrees and 10 degrees C. The heat capacity of the ground would be sufficient to produce up to 4 percent (by volume) of water at a rate equal to that at which it can be drained away. Catastrophic dissociation of carbon dioxide hydrate during some past epoch when the near surface temperature was in this range would have produced chaotic terrain and flood channels.

  11. Carbon dioxide hydrate and floods on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Ground ice on Mars probably consists largely of carbon dioxide hydrate. This hydrate dissociates upon release of pressure at temperatures between 0 and 10 C. The heat capacity of the ground would be sufficient to produce up to 4% (by volume) of water at a rate equal to that at which it can be drained away. Catastrophic dissociation of carbon dioxide hydrate during some past epoch when the near-surface temperature was in this range would have produced chaotic terrain and flood channels.

  12. Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Woodwell, G.M.; Hobbie, J.E.; Houghton, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Peterson, B.J.; Shaver, G.R.

    1983-12-09

    A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10/sup 15/ and 228 X 10/sup 15/ grams. Between 1.8 X 10/sup 15/ and 4.7 X 10/sup 15/ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly 80 percent was due to deforestation, principally in the tropics. The annual release of carbon from the biota and soils exceeded the release from fossil fuels until about 1960. Because the biotic release has been and remains much larger than is commonly assumed, the airborne fraction, usually considered to be about 50 percent of the releases from fossil fuels, was probably between 22 and 43 percent of the total carbon released in 1980. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is thought by some to be increasing the storage of carbon in the earth's remaining forests sufficiently to offset the release from deforestation. The interpretation of the evidence presented here suggests no such effect; deforestation appears to be the dominant biotic effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide. If deforestation increases in proportion to population, the biotic release of carbon will reach 9 X 10/sup 15/ grams per year before forests are exhausted early in the next century. The possibilities for limiting the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through reduction in use of fossil fuels and through management of forests may be greater than is commonly assumed.

  13. Influences of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on soil respiration and carbon accumulation in a no-till soybean-wheat system after six years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone often have counteracting influences on many C3 crops depending on the concentration of the gases and sensitivity of the crop and variety, but effects of these gases on plant-soil processes are poorly understood. The objective of this six-year experiment was to d...

  14. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-04-01

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2004 and March 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. RTI has produced laboratory scale batches (approximately 300 grams) of supported sorbents (composed of 20 to 40% sodium carbonate) with high surface area and acceptable activity. Initial rates of weight gain of the supported sorbents when exposed to a simulated flue gas exceeded that of 100% calcined sodium bicarbonate. One of these sorbents was tested through six cycles of carbonation/calcination by thermogravimetric analysis and found to have consistent carbonation activity. Kinetic modeling of the regeneration cycle on the basis of diffusion resistance at the particle surface is impractical, because the evolving gases have an identical composition to those assumed for the bulk fluidization gas. A kinetic model of the reaction has been developed on the basis of bulk motion of water and carbon dioxide at the particle surface (as opposed to control by gas diffusion). The model will be used to define the operating conditions in future laboratory- and pilot-scale testing.

  15. International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Performance testing of the International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly flight hardware in the United States Laboratory during 1999 is described. The CDRA exceeded carbon dioxide performance specifications and operated flawlessly. Data from this test is presented.

  16. Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

  17. Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

  18. Fertilizer and tillage management impacts on non-carbon-dioxide greenhouse gas emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent efforts have been placed on trying to establish emission estimates for greenhouse gases (GHG) from agricultural soils in the United States. This research was conducted to assess the influence of cropping systems management on nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissio...

  19. Subsurface capture of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, Gerald; Siddal, Alvin A.; Falta, Ronald W.

    2014-07-22

    A process and apparatus of separating CO.sub.2 gas from industrial off-gas source in which the CO.sub.2 containing off-gas is introduced deep within an injection well. The CO.sub.2 gases are dissolved in the, liquid within the injection well while non-CO.sub.2 gases, typically being insoluble in water or brine, are returned to the surface. Once the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid is present within the injection well, the injection well may be used for long-term geologic storage of CO.sub.2 or the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid can be returned to the surface for capturing a purified CO.sub.2 gas.

  20. Discussion of Refrigeration Cycle Using Carbon Dioxide as Refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Amin; Sun, Miming; Li, Jie; Yin, Gang; Cheng, Keyong; Zhen, Bing; Sun, Ying

    Nowadays, the problem of the environment goes worse, it urges people to research and study new energy-saving and environment-friendly refrigerants, such as carbon dioxide, at present, people do research on carbon dioxide at home and abroad. This paper introduces the property of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant, sums up and analyses carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles, and points out the development and research direction in the future.

  1. Tuning Organic Carbon Dioxide Absorbents for Carbonation and Decarbonation

    PubMed Central

    Rajamanickam, Ramachandran; Kim, Hyungsoo; Park, Ji-Woong

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of carbon dioxide with a mixture of a superbase and alcohol affords a superbase alkylcarbonate salt via a process that can be reversed at elevated temperatures. To utilize the unique chemistry of superbases for carbon capture technology, it is essential to facilitate carbonation and decarbonation at desired temperatures in an easily controllable manner. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal stabilities of the alkylcarbonate salts of superbases in organic solutions can be tuned by adjusting the compositions of hydroxylic solvent and polar aprotic solvent mixtures, thereby enabling the best possible performances to be obtained from the various carbon dioxide capture agents based on these materials. The findings provides valuable insights into the design and optimization of organic carbon dioxide absorbents. PMID:26033537

  2. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture -- part II: development of gas transfer models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The basic mass transfer equation for gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide can be derived from integration of the driving force equation. Because of the physical characteristics of the gas transfer processes, slightly different models are used for aerators tested under the non steady-state procedures, than for packed columns, or weirs. It is suggested that the standard condition for carbon dioxide should be 20 °C, 1 atm, CCO2=20 mg/kg, and XCO2=0.000285. The selection of the standard condition for carbon dioxide based on a fixed mole fraction ensures that standardized carbon dioxide transfer rates will be comparable even though the value of C*CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing with time. The computation of mass transfer for carbon dioxide is complicated by the impact of water depth and gas phase enrichment on the saturation concentration within the unit, although the importance of either factor depends strongly on the specific type of aerator. For some types of aerators, the most accurate gas phase model remains to be determined for carbon dioxide. The assumption that carbon dioxide can be treated as a non-reactive gas in packed columns may apply for cold acidic waters but not for warm alkaline waters.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-04-01

    Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

  4. Magnesian calcite sorbent for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Mabry, James C; Mondal, Kanchan

    2011-01-01

    Magnesian calcite with controlled properties was synthesized for the removal of carbon dioxide. The results from characterization, reactivity and CO2 capture capacity for different synthesis conditions are reported. The magnesian calcite samples (CaCO3:MgCO3) were synthesized by the coprecipitation of specific amounts of commercially available CaO and MgO by carbon dioxide. Characterization was done with BET, SEM/EDS, particle size analysis and XRD. The capacity was measured using TGA cycles at 800 degrees C and compared for different preparation conditions. The effects of CaO, MgO and surfactant loading on the physical properties and carbonation activity were studied to determine the optimal synthesis condition. A long-term carbonation-calcination cycling test was conducted on the optimal sample. It was observed that the sample maintained its capacity to 86% of its original uptake even after 50 cycles.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Fluctuations in Comet Hartley 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-04

    The upper panel of this figure shows small images of comet Hartley 2 taken by NASA EPOXI mission over time. The lower panel is a graph showing the variation of total brightness, and the variation of the total amount of carbon dioxide, during the time.

  6. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Husson, Scott M.

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  7. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in a...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in a...

  9. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up and...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in a...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of an...

  12. 9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in connection...

  13. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89... Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into... instrument start-up and operation. Adjust the analyzer to optimize performance. (2) Zero the carbon dioxide...

  14. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume of...

  15. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine; except...

  16. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide...

  17. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume of...

  18. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine...

  19. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90... Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial use and monthly thereafter, or within one month prior to the certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer...

  20. 9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in connection...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated as follows: (a...

  2. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume of...

  3. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine; except...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of an...

  5. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction... carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. New calibration...

  6. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction... carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. New calibration...

  7. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a record of the laboratory tests conducted to...

  8. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a record of the laboratory tests conducted to...

  9. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction... carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. New calibration...

  10. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine; except...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of an...

  12. 40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91....320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly thereafter, or within one month prior to the certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer...

  13. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine...

  14. 9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in connection...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in a...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of an...

  17. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine...

  18. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide...

  19. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction... carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. New calibration...

  20. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a record of the laboratory tests conducted to...

  1. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine; except...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated as follows: (a...

  3. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up and...

  4. 40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly thereafter, or within one month prior to the certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of an...

  6. 9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in connection...

  7. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine...

  8. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a record of the laboratory tests conducted to...

  9. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine; except...

  10. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume of...

  11. 40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly thereafter, or within one month prior to the certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide...

  12. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume of...

  13. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine...

  14. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide...

  15. 9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in connection...

  16. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide...

  17. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide...

  18. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a record of the laboratory tests conducted to...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in a...

  20. Recovery of carbon dioxide from fuel cell exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, H.C.; Kolodney, M.; Levy, A.H.; Trocciola, P.

    1988-06-14

    An acid fuel cell power plant system operable to produce carbon dioxide as a by-product is described comprising: (a) fuel cell stack means having anode means, cathode means, and fuel cell cooling means, the cooling means using a water coolant; (b) means for delivering a hydrogen-rich fuel gas which contains carbon dioxide to the anode means for consumption of hydrogen by the anode means in an electrochemical reaction in the stack; (c) carbon dioxide absorber means including an absorbent for stripping carbon dioxide from gaseous mixtures thereof; (d) means for delivering hydrogen-depleted exhaust gas containing carbon dioxide from the anode means to the carbon dioxide absorber means for absorption of carbon dioxide from the exhaust gas; (e) an absorbent regenerator; (f) means for delivering carbon dioxide-enriched absorbent from the absorber means to the regenerator for separation of carbon dioxide from the absorbent; (g) means for exhausting carbon dioxide from the regenerator, the means for exhausting further including means for cooling and compressing carbon dioxide exhausted from the regenerator; and (h) means for removing the compressed carbon dioxide from the power plant.

  1. Catalyst cartridge for carbon dioxide reduction unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A catalyst cartridge, for use in a carbon dioxide reducing apparatus in a life support system for space vehicles, is described. The catalyst cartridge includes an inner perforated metal wall, an outer perforated wall space outwardly from the inner wall, a base plate closing one end of the cartridge, and a cover plate closing the other end of the cartridge. The cover plate has a central aperture through which a supply line with a heater feeds a gaseous reaction mixture comprising hydrogen and carbon dioxide at a temperature from about 1000 to about 1400 F. The outer surfaces of the internal wall and the inner surfaces of the outer wall are lined with a ceramic fiber batting material of sufficient thickness to prevent carbon formed in the reaction from passing through it. The portion of the surfaces of the base and cover plates defined within the inner and outer walls are also lined with ceramic batting. The heated reaction mixture passes outwardly through the inner perforated wall and ceramic batting and over the catalyst. The solid carbon product formes is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The solid carbon product formed is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The water vapor and unreacted carbon dioxide and any intermediate products pass through the perforations of the outer wall.

  2. RESEARCH ON ELECTRIC ARC REDUCTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARBON DIOXIDE , REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY), ELECTRIC ARCS, CHEMICAL REACTIONS, HEAT OF REACTION, GAS FLOW, OXYGEN, CARBON COMPOUNDS, MONOXIDES, ELECTRODES, LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, HIGH TEMPERATURE, PLASMAS(PHYSICS), ENERGY.

  3. Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Mudge, Lyle K.; Brown, Michael D.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Baker, Eddie G.

    1989-01-01

    A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

  4. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro

    1993-06-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0{sup 2} include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO{sup 2} and total concentration of dissolved C0{sup 2}, sea-air pCO{sup 2} difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0{sup 2} uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0{sup 2} from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0{sup 2} fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks.

  5. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Tsung-Hung ); Takahashi, Taro . Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory)

    1993-01-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0[sup 2] include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO[sup 2] and total concentration of dissolved C0[sup 2], sea-air pCO[sup 2] difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0[sup 2] uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0[sup 2] from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0[sup 2] fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks.

  6. Carbon Dioxide: The Other Planetary Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, S.; Gamez, D.; Shock, E.

    2016-12-01

    Cometary and interstellar ices have carbon dioxide to water mole ratios of up to 0.3. When melted, such high levels of carbon dioxide cannot all be dissolved in the aqueous phase and instead partition into a CO2-rich (carbonic) fluid. This implies that during the accretion and formation of planetary systems carbonic fluids are not only possible, but common. In fact, they make up the atmosphere of Venus, are found bubbling out of Champagne Vent in the Pacific Ocean, and are documented by metamorphic fluid inclusions. Examination of phase diagrams reveals the conditions where carbonic fluids will exist or predominate. Carbonic fluids are predicted to exist in Earth's subduction zones and under the ice of small ocean worlds. CO2 had previously been shown to completely dissolve into NH­­3­-H­­2O oceans on small icy bodies by forming ammonium carbonate, but the newer measurements of CO2­ abundances indicate that not all of the CO2 can partition into the aqueous fluid as ammonium carbonate. The remaining CO2 would necessarily form a separate carbonic fluid making it likely that liquid CO2 would be a major oceanic component on some small icy bodies. The enhanced solubility of nonpolar and slightly polar organic compounds in carbonic fluids relative to aqueous fluids means that generation, transport, and deposition processes can be greatly enhanced in those cases where carbonic fluids occur. As an example, the solubility of benzoic acid, a polar compound, is about an order of magnitude greater in carbonic than in aqueous fluids, which is surprising given that water is a polar solvent and carbon dioxide is a nonpolar solvent. Anthracene, a nonpolar compound, has an even greater solubility difference between carbonic and aqueous fluids at approximately four orders of magnitude. Highly polar compounds, including most of the building blocks of life, are more soluble in aqueous fluids than in carbonic fluids. The solubility difference of organic molecules in carbonic

  7. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers. (b...

  8. 75 FR 29534 - Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft Ecological Risk... inorganic nitrates- nitrites, carbon and carbon dioxide uses, as well as gas cartridge uses of sulfur. The... registration review of inorganic nitrates - nitrites, carbon and carbon dioxide, and sulfur pursuant to section...

  9. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers. (b...

  10. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers. (b...

  11. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers. (b...

  12. [Monitoring the flux of carbon dioxide gas with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Song, Xue-Mei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Zeng, Zong-Yong; He, Ying; Cui, Yi-Ben; Chen, Yin; Tian, Yong-Zhi; Zhang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse effect exacerbated by the increase of Carbon-containing gases is the more important causes of the climate change, It is very meaningful to the large-scale flux of carbon dioxide detection for the estimate the contributions of the main greenhouse gases in the atmosphere of various errestrial eco-systems. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a highly sensitive, highly selective and fast time response trace gas detection technique. In the present paper, the authors used a DFB laser was used as the light source, and by employing wavelength modulation method, and measuring the second harmonic signal of one absorption line near 1.573 microm of carbon dioxide molecule, the authors built a system for online monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration within the optical path of more than 700 meters at different heights. Combined with Alonzo Mourning -Obukhov length and characteristic velocity detected by large aperture scintillometer, the flux of carbon dioxide gas within one day calculated by the formula is within--1.5-2.5, breaking through the phenomenon of only providing the flux of trace gases near the ground at present, makking the measurement of trace gas fluxes within a large area possible.

  13. Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) using red mud.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vishwajeet S; Prasad, Murari; Khan, Jeeshan; Amritphale, S S; Singh, M; Raju, C B

    2010-04-15

    Red mud, an aluminium industry hazardous waste, has been reported to be an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. In the present work applicability of red mud for the sequestration of green house gases with reference to carbon dioxide has been studied. Red mud sample was separated into three different size fractions (RM I, RM II, RM III) of varying densities (1.5-2.2 g cm(-3)). Carbonation of each fraction of red mud was carried out separately at room temperature using a stainless steel reaction chamber at a fixed pressure of 3.5 bar. Effects of reaction time (0.5-12 h) and liquid to solid ratio (0.2-0.6) were studied for carbonation of red mud. Different instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction, FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to ascertain the different mineral phases before and after carbonation of each fraction of red mud. Characterization studies revealed the presence of boehmite, cancrinite, chantalite, hematite, gibbsite, anatase, rutile and quartz. Calcium bearing mineral phases (cancrinite and chantalite) were found responsible for carbonation of red mud. Maximum carbonation was observed for the fraction RM II having higher concentration of cancrinite. The carbonation capacity is evaluated to be 5.3 g of CO(2)/100 g of RM II.

  14. The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS): measurement of the carbon gases from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M.; Dickerson, R.; Marshall, B. T.; McHugh, M.; Fish, C.; Bloom, H.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change and air quality are the most pressing environmental issues of the 21st century. Despite decades of research, the sources and sinks of key greenhouse gases remain highly uncertain [IPCC1] making quantitative predictions of atmospheric composition and their impacts. The Geostationary Remote Infrared Pollution Sounder (GRIPS) is a multi-purpose instrument designed to reduce uncertainty associated with atmospheric radiative forcing. GRIPS will measure will measure greenhouse gases and aerosols - two of the most important elements in the earth's radiation budget. GRIPS will observe carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), - the carbon gases, nitrous oxide (N2O), water vapor and aerosols with unprecedented precision through the atmosphere. The GRIPS instrument uses gas filter correlation radiometry (GFCR) to detect reflected and thermal IR radiation to detect the gases and the reflected solar radiation in the visible and short-wave infrared bands for aerosols. GRIPS is designed to have sensitivity down to the Earth's surface at ~2-8km nadir resolution. GRIPS can resolve CO2, CO, and CH4 anomalies in the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere to quantify lofting, diurnal variations and longrange transport. With repeated measurements throughout the day GRIPS can maximize the number of cloud free measurements determining biogenic and anthropogenic sources, sinks, and fluxes. GRIPS is highly complementary to the Orbiting Carbon Observatory, OCO-2, the geostationary Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and other existing and planned missions.

  15. Using a Natural Analogue to Investigate Chemical Reactions Associated with Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Kaszuba, J.; Thyne, G.

    2008-12-01

    Capture and storage of carbon dioxide in deep underground geologic formations (geologic carbon sequestration) is currently the most advanced technology for reducing or mitigating anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. There are a number of scientific challenges associated with injection and storage of large amounts of CO2 in geologic formations. Understanding the chemical reactions that can occur among reservoir rocks, aqueous fluids, and supercritical carbon dioxide ± other gasses is one of these challenges. Natural analogues to CO2 sequestration are systems where carbon dioxide has been stored over geologic time scales. By studying these analogues we can determine important chemical reactions between the host rock and stored gases. The Moxa Arch is a structural feature located in the southern end of the greater Green River Basin, Wyoming. Carbon dioxide and methane were emplaced in Paleozoic rocks, including the 1000 feet thick Mississippian age Madison Limestone, of the Moxa Arch through natural processes. Concentrations of carbon dioxide in the emplaced gas in these formations vary in the region of the Moxa Arch from 70-95% and are as low as ~ 15% in gas producing areas outside of the Moxa Arch. Methane, hydrogen sulfide and helium comprise the balance of the gas compositons. Geochemical reaction path and reactive transport models based upon the mineralogy of 12 core samples collected from three wells completed in the Madison Limestone near the Moxa Arch will be presented. These models help identify potential geochemical reactions between reservoir minerals and stored gasses.

  16. Carbon dioxide utilization: Bridging the GHG mitigation with environmentally friendly technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Aresta, M.

    1997-12-31

    The recovery of carbon dioxide from power plants, flue gases, or industrial processes has been proposed as a technology for its mitigation. The end fate of recovered CO{sub 2} is either disposal in natural fields or gainful utilization (biological, technological, or chemical). The latter option deserves careful consideration as it would be doubly beneficial, helping to control the carbon dioxide emission and to save natural resources through the recycling of carbon. The economical aspects of the utilization option need thorough analysis to determine its feasibility. Another major point to consider is the amount of avoided carbon dioxide. This will define the extent of mitigation possible via the utilization option. To assess the potential of carbon dioxide utilization in the short-, medium-, and long-term is an exercise of great value from both the environmental and economical points of view. In this paper, criteria for the assessment be discussed as well as the current status of industrial carbon dioxide utilization. Furthermore, the perspectives for carbon dioxide utilization will be framed within the research needed for its implementation.

  17. The synthesis of organic carbonates from carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Sakakura, Toshiyasu; Kohno, Kazufumi

    2009-03-21

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is an easily available, renewable carbon resource, which has the advantages of being non-toxic, abundant and economical. CO(2) is also attractive as an environmentally friendly chemical reagent, and is especially useful as a phosgene substitute. CO(2) is an "anhydrous carbonic acid" that rapidly reacts with basic compounds. Nucleophilic attack at CO(2) conveniently produces carboxyl and carbamoyl groups. Further reactions of these species with electrophiles lead to the formation of organic carbonates and carbamates. The present article deals with the synthetic technologies leading to organic carbonates using CO(2) as a raw material.

  18. Electrochemistry of Carbon Dioxide on Carbon Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nianjun; Waldvogel, Siegfried R; Jiang, Xin

    2016-01-04

    Carbon electrodes have the advantages of being chemically inert at negative potential ranges in all media and high offset potentials for hydrogen evolution in comparison to metal electrodes, and therefore are the most suitable electrodes for electrochemistry and electrochemical conversion of CO2 into valuable chemicals. Herein we summarize on carbon electrodes the voltammetry, electrochemical and electrocatalytic CO2 reduction, as well as electron synthesis using CO2 and carbon electrodes. The electrocatalytic CO2 reduction using carbocatalyts and the future activities about electrochemical CO2 conversion are highlighted.

  19. Carbon dioxide capture and use: organic synthesis using carbon dioxide from exhaust gas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Kwang Hee; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2014-01-13

    A carbon capture and use (CCU) strategy was applied to organic synthesis. Carbon dioxide (CO2) captured directly from exhaust gas was used for organic transformations as efficiently as hyper-pure CO2 gas from a commercial source, even for highly air- and moisture-sensitive reactions. The CO2 capturing aqueous ethanolamine solution could be recycled continuously without any diminished reaction efficiency.

  20. Recycling technology of emitted carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Hironori

    1993-12-31

    Ways to halt global warming are being discussed worldwide. Global warming is an energy problem which is mainly attributed to the large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) released into the atmosphere from the rapid increase in energy consumption since the Industrial Revolution. The basic solution to the problem, therefore, is to cut consumption of fossil fuels. To this end, it is important to promote energy conservation by improving the fuel efficiency of machines, as well as shift to energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide and develop related technologies. If current trends in economic growth continue in the devloping world as well as the developed countries, there can be no doubt that energy consumption will increase. Therefore, alongside energy conservation and the development of alternative energies, the importance of technologies to recover and fix CO{sub 2} will increase in the fight against global warming.

  1. Regulation of cerebral autoregulation by carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingzhong; Gelb, Adrian W

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation describes a mechanism that maintains cerebral blood flow stable despite fluctuating perfusion pressure. Multiple nonperfusion pressure processes also regulate cerebral perfusion. These mechanisms are integrated. The effect of the interplay between carbon dioxide and perfusion pressure on cerebral circulation has not been specifically reviewed. On the basis of the published data and speculation on the aspects that are without supportive data, the authors offer a conceptualization delineating the regulation of cerebral autoregulation by carbon dioxide. The authors conclude that hypercapnia causes the plateau to progressively ascend, a rightward shift of the lower limit, and a leftward shift of the upper limit. Conversely, hypocapnia results in the plateau shifting to lower cerebral blood flows, unremarkable change of the lower limit, and unclear change of the upper limit. It is emphasized that a sound understanding of both the limitations and the dynamic and integrated nature of cerebral autoregulation fosters a safer clinical practice.

  2. Climate impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J; Johnson, D; Lacis, A; Lebedeff, S; Lee, P; Rind, D; Russell, G

    1981-08-28

    The global temperature rose by 0.2 degrees C between the middle 1960's and 1980, yielding a warming of 0.4 degrees C in the past century. This temperature increase is consistent with the calculated greenhouse effect due to measured increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Variations of volcanic aerosols and possibly solar luminosity appear to be primary causes of observed fluctuations about the mean trend of increasing temperature. It is shown that the anthropogenic carbon dioxide warming should emerge from the noise level of natural climate variability by the end of the century, and there is a high probability of warming in the 1980's. Potential effects on climate in the 21st century include the creation of drought-prone regions in North America and central Asia as part of a shifting of climatic zones, erosion of the West Antarctic ice sheet with a consequent worldwide rise in sea level, and opening of the fabled Northwest Passage.

  3. Sequestering ADM ethanol plant carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, R.J.; Riddle, D.

    2008-01-01

    Archer Daniels Midland Co. (ADM) and the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) are collaborating on a project in confirming that a rock formation can store carbon dioxide from the plant in its pores. The project aimed to sequester the gas underground permanently to minimize release of the greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. It is also designed to store one million tons of carbon dioxide over a three-year period. The project is worth $84.3M, funded by $66.7M from the US Department Energy, supplemented by co-funding from ADM and other corporate and state resources. The project will start drilling of wells to an expected depth over 6500 feet into the Mount Simon Sandstone formation.

  4. There is more to climate than carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Walker, J C

    1995-07-01

    Discussion of climate change on a range of time scales has tended to focus on carbon dioxide and a changing greenhouse effect. Because carbon dioxide couples climate to ocean, land, and biota, it has appealed to scientists with an interest in the whole Earth system. Carbon dioxide has left a geological record in fossils, isotopes, and sediments, so we can reasonably expect to reconstruct its history. While important questions of detail remain to be resolved, many published applications of carbon cycle modelling suggest that we understand the biogeochemical cycles of carbon well enough to estimate carbon dioxide concentrations in the past and the future. Furthermore, we have an excellent instrumental record of recent changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide. While these considerations make carbon dioxide attractive to paleoclimatologists, they do not necessarily make it a major component of climate change. I shall argue in this paper that clouds deserve much more attention than they have been getting.

  5. The direct viscosity enhancement of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Iezzi, A.; Enick, R.; Brady, J. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1988-01-01

    A high pressure viscometer has been constructed for use over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, including near-critical and supercritical conditions. An aluminum cylinder falls through a tube containing a stationary column of fluid, enabling viscosities to be determined from terminal velocity measurements. Preliminary results are presented on the search for an additive which can enhance the viscosity of carbon dioxide when present in low (less than 1%) concentrations.

  6. Electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Carlson, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    A steady state computer simulation model of an Electrochemical Depolarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator (EDC) has been developed. The mathematical model combines EDC heat and mass balance equations with empirical correlations derived from experimental data to describe EDC performance as a function of the operating parameters involved. The model is capable of accurately predicting performance over EDC operating ranges. Model simulation results agree with the experimental data obtained over the prediction range.

  7. Innovative Ration Preservation via Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    aerobic plate count (APC), E. coli/coliform count, and yeast and mold counts were determined on PetriFilm® (3 M). Plates were incubated...an existing processing such as high pressure to completely kill spores . Two major industrial gas companies, Praxair and Air Liquide, have explored...Bacillus spores by the supercritical carbon dioxide micro-bubble method. J of Biosci Biotech Biochem 61:1022-23. 10. Lin H., Yang Z., Chen L. 1992

  8. The interaction of carbon dioxide and hypoxia in the control of cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Mardimae, Alexandra; Balaban, Dahlia Y; Machina, Matthew A; Battisti-Charbonney, Anne; Han, Jay S; Katznelson, Rita; Minkovich, Leonid L; Fedorko, Ludwik; Murphy, Patricia M; Wasowicz, Marcin; Naughton, Finola; Meineri, Massimiliano; Fisher, Joseph A; Duffin, James

    2012-10-01

    Both hypoxia and carbon dioxide increase cerebral blood flow (CBF), and their effective interaction is currently thought to be additive. Our objective was to test this hypothesis. Eight healthy subjects breathed a series of progressively hypoxic gases at three levels of carbon dioxide. Middle cerebral artery velocity, as an index of CBF; partial pressures of carbon dioxide and oxygen and concentration of oxygen in arterial blood; and mean arterial blood pressure were monitored. The product of middle cerebral artery velocity and arterial concentration of oxygen was used as an index of cerebral oxygen delivery. Two-way repeated measures analyses of variance (rmANOVA) found a significant interaction of carbon dioxide and hypoxia factors for both CBF and cerebral oxygen delivery. Regression models using sigmoidal dependence on carbon dioxide and a rectangular hyperbolic dependence on hypoxia were fitted to the data to illustrate this interaction. We concluded that carbon dioxide and hypoxia act synergistically in their control of CBF so that the delivery of oxygen to the brain is enhanced during hypoxic hypercapnia and, although reduced during normoxic hypocapnia, can be restored to normal levels with progressive hypoxia.

  9. Carbon dioxide makes heat therapy work

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, H.

    1987-01-01

    Scientists can now propagate healthy blueberry and raspberry plants from virus-infected stock by treating it with heat and carbon dioxide. Plants are grown at 100/sup 0/F, which makes them develop faster than the virus can spread. Then cuttings are taken of the new growth - less than an inch long - and grown into full-sized, virus-free plants. But in this race to outdistance the virus, some plant species are not able to take the heat. Some even die. Chemical reactions double for every 14/sup 0/F rise in temperature. So, if you try to grow a plant at 100/sup 0/F that was originally growing at 86/sup 0/F, it will double its respiration rate. Adding carbon dioxide increases the rate of photosynthesis in plants, which increases the plant's food reserves. What carbon dioxide does to allow some plants to grow at temperatures at which they would otherwise not survive and it allows other plants to grow for longer periods at 100/sup 0/F. One problem with the process, says Converse, is that the longer plants are exposed to heat the greater the mutation rate. So, resulting clones should be closely examined for trueness to horticultural type.

  10. Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1981-03-01

    A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

  11. Extraction of furfural with carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gamse, T.; Marr, R.; Froeschl, F.; Siebenhofer, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach to separate furfural from aqueous waste has been investigated. Recovery of furfural and acetic acid from aqueous effluents of a paper mill has successfully been applied on an industrial scale since 1981. The process is based on the extraction of furfural and acetic acid by the solvent trooctylphosphineoxide (TOPO). Common extraction of both substances may cause the formation of resin residues. Improvement was expected by selective extraction of furfural with chlorinated hydrocarbons, but ecological reasons stopped further development of this project. The current investigation is centered in the evaluation of extraction of furfural by supercritical carbon dioxide. The influence of temperature and pressure on the extraction properties has been worked out. The investigation has considered the multi-component system furfural-acetic acid-water-carbon dioxide. Solubility of furfural in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide has been measured, and equilibrium data for the ternary system furfural-water-CO{sub 2} as well as for the quaternary system furfural-acetic acid-water-CO{sub 2} have been determined. A high-pressure extraction column has been used for evaluation of mass transfer rates.

  12. Limiting future atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Le QuéRé, Corinne; Pacala, Stephen W.

    1995-03-01

    We estimate anthropogenic carbon emissions required to stabilize future atmospheric CO2 at various levels ranging from 350 ppm to 750 ppm. Over the next three centuries, uptake by the ocean and terrestrial biosphere would permit emissions to be 3 to 6 times greater than the total atmospheric increase, with each of them contributing approximately equal amounts. Owing to the nonlinear dependence of oceanic and terrestrial biospheric uptake on CO2 concentration, the uptake by these two sinks decreases substantially at higher atmospheric CO2 levels. The uptake also decreases with increased atmospheric CO2 growth rate. All the stabilization scenarios require a substantial future reduction in emissions.

  13. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Adsorption by Activated Carbon Functionalized with Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkurnai, N. Z.; Ali, U. F. Md.; Ibrahim, N.; Manan, N. S. Abdul

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, carbon dioxide (CO2) emission has become a major concern as the amount of the emitted gas significantly increases annually. Consequently, this phenomenon contributes to global warming. Several CO2 capture methods, including chemical adsorption by activated carbon, have been proposed. In this study, activated carbon was prepared from sea mango (Cerbera odollam), which was functionalized with deep eutectic solvent (DES) composed of choline chloride and glycerol to increase the efficiency of CO2 capture. The samples underwent pre-carbonization and carbonization processes at 200 °C and 500 °C, respectively, with nitrogen gas and flowing several gases, namely, CO2 and steam, and then followed by impregnation with 50 phosphoric acid (H3PO4) at 1:2 precursor-to-activant ratio. The prepared activated carbon was impregnated with DES at 1:2 precursor-to-activant ratio. The optimum CO2 adsorption capacity of the activated carbon was obtained by using CO2 gas treatment method (9.851 mgCO2/gsol), followed by the absence of gases (9.685 mgCO2/gsol), steam (9.636 mgCO2/gsol), and N2 (9.536 mgCO2/gsol).

  14. A miniature chemiresistor sensor for carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Srinives, Sira; Sarkar, Tapan; Hernandez, Raul; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-05-18

    A carpet-like nanostructure of polyaniline (PANI) nanothin film functionalized with poly(ethyleneimine), PEI, was used as a miniature chemiresistor sensor for detection of CO2 at room temperature. Good sensing performance was observed upon exposing the PEI-PANI device to 50-5000 ppm CO2 in presence of humidity with negligible interference from ammonia, carbon monoxide, methane and nitrogen dioxide. The sensing mechanism relied on acid-base reaction, CO2 dissolution and amine-catalyzed hydration that yielded carbamates and carbonic acid for a subsequent pH detection. The sensing device showed reliable results in detecting an unknown concentration of CO2 in air.

  15. Carbon dioxide reduction by the Bosch process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, M. P.; Reid, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Prototype units for carrying out the reduction of carbon dioxide to elementary carbon have been built and operated successfully. In some cases, however, startup difficulties have been reported. Moreover, the recycle reactor product has been reported to contain only small amounts of water and undesirably high yields of methane. This paper presents the results of the first phase of an experimental study that was carried out to define the mechanisms occurring in the reduction process. Conclusions are drawn and possible modifications to the present recycle process are suggested.

  16. Carbon dioxide reduction by the Bosch process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, M. P.; Reid, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Prototype units for carrying out the reduction of carbon dioxide to elementary carbon have been built and operated successfully. In some cases, however, startup difficulties have been reported. Moreover, the recycle reactor product has been reported to contain only small amounts of water and undesirably high yields of methane. This paper presents the results of the first phase of an experimental study that was carried out to define the mechanisms occurring in the reduction process. Conclusions are drawn and possible modifications to the present recycle process are suggested.

  17. Sequestering Naturally Occurring Liquid Carbon Dioxide in the Deep Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capron, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide has been found as shallow as 1,500 meters in seafloor ooze. Did the liquid carbon dioxide originate from volcanic activity? Or did bacteria convert organic matter, which started as atmospheric carbon dioxide, into methane and liquid carbon dioxide? At typical ocean temperatures carbon dioxide coming out of solution below 600 meters will be liquid. Therefore, one likely mechanism for generating liquid carbon dioxide in seafloor ooze is the bacterial decomposition of organic matter. This paper examines quantitative and qualitative bacterial decomposition of aquatic biomass, with an emphasis on assessing and demonstrating feasibility. Calculations suggest natural processes sequestering liquid carbon dioxide in the seafloor can be sustainably increased to decrease atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. First, algae growing on the ocean surface absorb carbon dioxide. The algae are then gathered into a submerged container. Naturally occurring bacteria will digest the algae producing methane, liquid carbon dioxide, and ammonium. The ammonium can be recycled as a nutrient for growing more algae. Bacterial decomposition continues in dilute solutions with any biomass. The process does not require any particular biomass. Also, concentrating the biomass by removing water is not essential. The buoyancy provided by water allows relatively inexpensive tension fabric structures to contain the dilute algae and decomposition products. Calculations based on algae growth in open ponds and experience with bacterial decomposition at 1 to 5 bar pressures suggest the economics of the associated macro-algae growing and harvesting can favor increasing ocean species diversity.

  18. Carbon dioxide and oxygen linkage in human hemoglobin tetramers.

    PubMed

    Doyle, M L; Di Cera, E; Robert, C H; Gill, S J

    1987-08-20

    Differential binding curve measurements for oxygen in the presence of fixed carbon dioxide activities have allowed a detailed determination of the linkage between carbon dioxide and the oxygenated intermediates of human hemoglobin. Model-independent analysis of the data shows that at pH 7.4: (1) the oxygen binding curves are asymmetrical, the population of the triply oxygenated species being negligible; (2) the shape of the oxygen binding curve is invariant with carbon dioxide activity; (3) the maximum linkage is -0.32 moles carbon dioxide per mole oxygen; and (4) the overall carbon dioxide-dependent shift in the oxygen binding curve cannot be explained in terms of carbamino formation alone, the additional influence of bicarbonate being required. An allosteric model that accounts for the low population of triply oxygenated hemoglobin species is employed here as a framework from which to explore the carbon dioxide linkage mechanism at the intermediate stages of oxygenation. Carbon dioxide binding constants are found to be 780 M-1 and 580 M-1 for carbon dioxide binding to the deoxygenated alpha and beta chains, respectively, and 150 M-1 for carbon dioxide binding to the oxygenated form of both chains, as determined by simultaneous fitting of the oxygen binding curves with the model. Finally, by use of the determined binding polynomial for the carbon dioxide-oxygen linkage scheme, we have constructed a series of linkage graphs.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Resulting from Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawkes, S.

    An earlier paper by the author examined the links between space tourism and sustainable development. One important aspect of sustainable development is environmental impact and within that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission is a key issue as it is linked to climate change. Space tourism operators need to consider the environmental impact of their operations and in particular measure their total carbon emissions (“carbon footprint”) and then put in place arrangements to reduce or offset them. This paper presents some initial calculations on the carbon dioxide emissions likely to result from both sub-orbital and orbital space tourism flights and discusses options and prices for carbon offsetting. The effect of scaling up the space tourism industry is also considered.

  20. Lidar detection of carbon dioxide in volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; Maio, Giovanni; Del Franco, Mario; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    Volcanic gases give information on magmatic processes. In particular, anomalous releases of carbon dioxide precede volcanic eruptions. Up to now, this gas has been measured in volcanic plumes with conventional measurements that imply the severe risks of local sampling and can last many hours. For these reasons and for the great advantages of laser sensing, the thorough development of volcanic lidar has been undertaken at the Diagnostics and Metrology Laboratory (UTAPRAD-DIM) of the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA). In fact, lidar profiling allows one to scan remotely volcanic plumes in a fast and continuous way, and with high spatial and temporal resolution. Two differential absorption lidar instruments will be presented in this paper: BILLI (BrIdge voLcanic LIdar), based on injection seeded Nd:YAG laser, double grating dye laser, difference frequency mixing (DFM) and optical parametric amplifier (OPA), and VULLI (VULcamed Lidar), based on injection seeded Nd:YAG laser and optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The first one is funded by the ERC (European Research Council) project BRIDGE and the second one by the ERDF (European Regional Development Fund) project VULCAMED. While VULLI has not yet been tested in a volcanic site, BILLI scanned the gas emitted by Pozzuoli Solfatara (Campi Flegrei volcanic area, Naples, Italy) during a field campaign carried out from 13 to 17 October 2014. Carbon dioxide concentration maps were retrieved remotely in few minutes in the crater area. Lidar measurements were in good agreement with well-established techniques, based on different operating principles. To our knowledge, it is the first time that carbon dioxide in a volcanic plume is retrieved by lidar, representing the first direct measurement of this kind ever performed on an active volcano and showing the high potential of laser remote sensing in geophysical research.

  1. Will peak oil accelerate carbon dioxide emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.; Davis, S. J.; Cao, L.

    2008-12-01

    The relative scarcity of oil suggests that oil production is peaking and will decline thereafter. Some have suggested that this represents an opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. However, in the absence of constraints on carbon dioxide emission, "peak oil" may drive a shift towards increased reliance on coal as a primary energy source. Because coal per unit energy, in the absence of carbon capture and disposal, releases more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than oil, "peak oil" may lead to an acceleration of carbon dioxide emissions. We will never run out of oil. As oil becomes increasingly scarce, prices will rise and therefore consumption will diminish. As prices rise, other primary energy sources will become increasingly competitive with oil. The developed world uses oil primarily as a source of transportation fuels. The developing world uses oil primarily for heat and power, but the trend is towards increasing reliance on oil for transportation. Liquid fuels, including petroleum derivatives such as gasoline and diesel fuel, are attractive as transportation fuels because of their relative abundance of energy per unit mass and volume. Such considerations are especially important for the air transport industry. Today, there is little that can compete with petroleum-derived transportation fuels. Future CO2 emissions from the transportation sector largely depend on what replaces oil as a source of fuel. Some have suggested that biomass-derived ethanol, hydrogen, or electricity could play this role. Each of these potential substitutes has its own drawbacks (e.g., low power density per unit area in the case of biomass, low power density per unit volume in the case of hydrogen, and low power density per unit mass in the case of battery storage). Thus, it is entirely likely that liquefaction of coal could become the primary means by which transportation fuels are produced. Since the burning of coal produces more CO2 per unit energy than does the burning of

  2. Review of global energy and carbon dioxide projections

    SciTech Connect

    Keepin, B.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) in the Earth's atmosphere has risen steadily over the last century, giving rise to the widely publicized ''greenhouse effect,'' believed to be responsible for a gradual warming trend in the Earth's climate. In addition to CO/sub 2/, recent studies have revealed increasing atmospheric concentrations of other ''greenhouse'' gases (e.g. methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons) that may well exacerbate this warming trend considerably. While the sources of these latest gases have not yet been clearly identified, emissions of CO/sub 2/ into the atmosphere are known to come from anthropogenic sources, primarily the combustion of fossil fuels. Thus an important component in the investigation of future global warming is an understanding of future carbon emissions, which in turn requires a study of future energy developments, particularly fossil fuel consumption. Various attempts have recently been made to project the global energy future and corresponding CO/sub 2/ emissions several decades ahead. This paper provides a critical review of some of these efforts.

  3. End tidal carbon dioxide measurement using an electro acoustic sensor.

    PubMed

    Folke, M; Hok, B; Ekstrom, M; Backlund, Y

    2004-01-01

    End tidal carbon dioxide measurement with an electro-acoustic sensor is demonstrated. The sensor consists of an acoustic resonator coupled to a low cost electro-acoustic element. By simultaneous measurements with a reference sensor, the new device was tested on subjects performing exercise, hypo- and hyperventilation whereby the CO2concentration ranged from 2.1 to 7.0 kPa. The output from the experimental device correlated well with the reference CO2readings with a correlation coefficient of 0.976. Response time for expiration less than 0.8 seconds was noted. The new device could be useful in situations where selectivity to other gases is not important.

  4. Adsorption of light hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide on silica gel

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, M.G.; Jadot, R.

    1997-03-01

    The main component of natural gas is methane, but small quantities of other gases are also present. These compounds are in negligible quantities in natural gas but can become a problem for the storage of methane by adsorption, being less volatile than methane and so preferentially occupying the active sites of adsorbents. Adsorption isotherms of methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, propane, propadiene, butane, 2-methylpropane, and carbon dioxide on silica gel are given at three temperatures (278 K, 293 K, and 303 K). The results at pressures up to 0.8 P/P{sub s} for the subcritical compounds and up to 3,500 kPa for the supercritical compounds are measured using an automated apparatus.

  5. Temperature-controlled 'breathing' of carbon dioxide bubbles.

    PubMed

    Tumarkin, Ethan; Nie, Zhihong; Park, Jai Il; Abolhasani, Milad; Greener, Jesse; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Günther, Axel; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2011-10-21

    We report a microfluidic (MF) approach to studies of temperature mediated carbon dioxide (CO(2)) transfer between the gas and the liquid phases. Micrometre-diameter CO(2) bubbles with a narrow size distribution were generated in an aqueous or organic liquid and subsequently were subjected to temperature changes in the downstream channel. In response to the cooling-heating-cooling cycle the bubbles underwent corresponding contraction-expansion-contraction transitions, which we term 'bubble breathing'. We examined temperature-controlled dissolution of CO(2) in four exemplary liquid systems: deionized water, a 0.7 M aqueous solution of NaCl, ocean water extracted from Bermuda coastal waters, and dimethyl ether of poly(ethylene glycol), a solvent used in industry for absorption of CO(2). The MF approach can be extended to studies of other gases with a distinct, temperature-dependent solubility in liquids.

  6. Chemistry and uses of carbon dioxide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wender, I.; Sayari, A.

    1986-06-01

    Carbon dioxide, CO/sub 2/, long considered a compound of large but limited uses, mostly as a chemical in the manufacture of the fertilizer, urea, has additional great values derived from a combination of its physical and chemical properties. Its greatest use at present is for enhanced oil recovery, an application that is demanding more CO/sub 2/ than is now available. This report delineates a number of other present and potential uses of CO/sub 2/ such as in supercritical separations, methanol and higher alcohol synthesis, refrigeration and the manufacture of polymers. A future usage of CO/sub 2/ will be an outgrowth of research on its catalytic and stoichiometric reactions with transition metals. The isolation and purification of CO/sub 2/ from coal and other fossil fuel gasifiers (possibly even from stack gases) is an area that promises visibly great rewards as a result of intensive research and development. 256 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Global Biogenic Emission of Carbon Dioxide from Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R.; Nolasco, D.; Meneses, W.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P.; Pérez, N.

    2002-12-01

    Human-induced increases in the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gas components have been underway over the past century and are expected to drive climate change in the coming decades. Carbon dioxide was responsible for an estimated 55 % of the antropogenically driven radiactive forcing of the atmosphere in the 1980s and is predicted to have even greater importance over the next century (Houghton et al., 1990). A highly resolved understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2, and how they are affected by climate and land use, is essential in the analysis of the global carbon cycle and how it may be impacted by human activities. Landfills are biochemical reactors that produce CH4 and CO2 emissions due to anaerobic digestion of solid urban wastes. Estimated global CH4 emission from landfills is about 44 millions tons per year and account for a 7.4 % of all CH4 sources (Whiticar, 1989). Observed CO2/CH4 molar ratios from landfill gases lie within the range of 0.7-1.0; therefore, an estimated global biogenic emission of CO2 from landfills could reach levels of 11.2-16 millions tons per year. Since biogas extraction systems are installed for extracting, purifying and burning the landfill gases, most of the biogenic gas emission to the atmosphere from landfills occurs through the surface environment in a diffuse and disperse form, also known as non-controlled biogenic emission. Several studies of non-controlled biogenic gas emission from landfills showed that CO2/CH4 weight ratios of surface landfill gases, which are directly injected into the atmosphere, are about 200-300 times higher than those observed in the landfill wells, which are usually collected and burned by gas extraction systems. This difference between surface and well landfill gases is mainly due to bacterial oxidation of the CH4 to CO2 inducing higher CO2/CH4 ratios for surface landfill gases than those well landfill gases. Taking into consideration this observation, the global biogenic

  8. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1992 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-03-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIACs staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. As analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  11. Automated carbon dioxide cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.

    1991-01-01

    Solidified CO2 pellets are an effective blast media for the cleaning of a variety of materials. CO2 is obtained from the waste gas streams generated from other manufacturing processes and therefore does not contribute to the greenhouse effect, depletion of the ozone layer, or the environmental burden of hazardous waste disposal. The system is capable of removing as much as 90 percent of the contamination from a surface in one pass or to a high cleanliness level after multiple passes. Although the system is packaged and designed for manual hand held cleaning processes, the nozzle can easily be attached to the end effector of a robot for automated cleaning of predefined and known geometries. Specific tailoring of cleaning parameters are required to optimize the process for each individual geometry. Using optimum cleaning parameters the CO2 systems were shown to be capable of cleaning to molecular levels below 0.7 mg/sq ft. The systems were effective for removing a variety of contaminants such as lubricating oils, cutting oils, grease, alcohol residue, biological films, and silicone. The system was effective on steel, aluminum, and carbon phenolic substrates.

  12. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-07-01

    Sodium based sorbents including sodium carbonate may be used to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas. A relatively concentrated carbon dioxide stream may be recoverable for sequestration when the sorbent is regenerated. Electrobalance tests indicated that sodium carbonate monohydrate was formed in a mixture of helium and water vapor at temperatures below 65 C. Additional compounds may also form, but this could not be confirmed. In the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor, both the initial reaction rate of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water and the sorbent capacity decreased with increasing temperature, consistent with the results from the previous quarter. Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration at constant temperature and water vapor concentration produced a measurable increase in rate, as did increasing the water vapor concentration at constant carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Runs conducted with a flatter TGA pan resulted in a higher initial reaction rate, presumably due to improved gas-solid contact, but after a short time, there was no significant difference in the rates measured with the different pans. Analyses of kinetic data suggest that the surface of the sodium carbonate particles may be much hotter than the bulk gas due to the highly exothermic reaction with carbon dioxide and water, and that the rate of heat removal from the particle may control the reaction rate. A material and energy balance was developed for a cyclic carbonation/calcination process which captures about 26 percent of the carbon dioxide present in flue gas available at 250 C.

  13. Global Carbon Budget from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Global Carbon Project (GCP) was established in 2001 in recognition of the scientific challenge and critical importance of the carbon cycle for Earth's sustainability. The growing realization that anthropogenic climate change is a reality has focused the attention of the scientific community, policymakers and the general public on the rising concentration of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and on the carbon cycle in general. Initial attempts, through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, are underway to slow the rate of increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These societal actions require a scientific understanding of the carbon cycle, and are placing increasing demands on the international science community to establish a common, mutually agreed knowledge base to support policy debate and action. The Global Carbon Project is responding to this challenge through a shared partnership between the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and Diversitas. This partnership constitutes the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This CDIAC collection includes datasets, images, videos, presentations, and archived data from previous years.

  14. Carbon dioxide transport through membranes.

    PubMed

    Missner, Andreas; Kügler, Philipp; Saparov, Sapar M; Sommer, Klaus; Mathai, John C; Zeidel, Mark L; Pohl, Peter

    2008-09-12

    Several membrane channels, like aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and the RhAG protein of the rhesus complex, were hypothesized to be of physiological relevance for CO(2) transport. However, the underlying assumption that the lipid matrix imposes a significant barrier to CO(2) diffusion was never confirmed experimentally. Here we have monitored transmembrane CO(2) flux (J(CO2)) by imposing a CO(2) concentration gradient across planar lipid bilayers and detecting the resulting small pH shift in the immediate membrane vicinity. An analytical model, which accounts for the presence of both carbonic anhydrase and buffer molecules, was fitted to the experimental pH profiles using inverse problems techniques. At pH 7.4, the model revealed that J(CO2) was entirely rate-limited by near-membrane unstirred layers (USL), which act as diffusional barriers in series with the membrane. Membrane tightening by sphingomyelin and cholesterol did not alter J(CO2) confirming that membrane resistance was comparatively small. In contrast, a pH-induced shift of the CO(2) hydration-dehydration equilibrium resulted in a relative membrane contribution of about 15% to the total resistance (pH 9.6). Under these conditions, a membrane CO(2) permeability (3.2 +/- 1.6 cm/s) was estimated. It indicates that cellular CO(2) uptake (pH 7.4) is always USL-limited, because the USL size always exceeds 1 mum. Consequently, facilitation of CO(2) transport by AQP1, RhAG, or any other protein is highly unlikely. The conclusion was confirmed by the observation that CO(2) permeability of epithelial cell monolayers was always the same whether AQP1 was overexpressed in both the apical and basolateral membranes or not.

  15. Carbon dioxide: A substitute for phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Aresta, M.; Quaranta, E.

    1997-03-01

    One of the many goals of the green chemistry movement is to eliminate the use of phosgene (COCl{sub 2}), an extremely hazardous compound used in many syntheses, including the production of carbamates, organic carbonates, and polymers. One of the most interesting options for eliminating this compound is to replace it with CO{sub 2}. In addition to carbon dioxide`s abundance and benign nature, it has the benefits of recycling carbon and of reducing the amount of CO{sub 2} released into the atmosphere when its use is linked with other processes that emit CO{sub 2}. Several synthetic strategies that do not use phosgene are under development. The authors briefly review the most interesting ones and then expand on the use of CO{sub 2} as a potential building block for organic carbamates, carbonates, and isocyanates. One of these routes, polycarbonate synthesis, is already in industrial-scale operation: PAC Polymers Inc. currently produces CO{sub 2}-epoxide copolymers. The synthesis of carbamates and substituted ureas has been developed, and this process awaits industrial exploitation.

  16. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Eisenberg, David S.

    2014-01-01

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture. PMID:24367077

  17. The nature of carbon dioxide waters in Snaefellsnes, western Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnorsson, S.; Barnes, I.

    1983-01-01

    Over 20 occurrences of thermal and non-thermal waters rich in carbon dioxide are known in the Snaefellsnes Peninsula of western Iceland. On the basis of the thermal, chemical and isotopic characteristics of these waters, and hydrological considerations, it is concluded that they represent meteoric waters which have seeped to variable depths into the bedrock. Ascending carbon dioxide gas originating from intrusions or the mantle mixes with the meteoric waters to produce carbon dioxide waters: at considerable depth in the case of the thermal carbon dioxide waters but close to the surface in the case of cold carbon dioxide waters. The occurrence of carbon dioxide waters cannot be regarded as evidence for underground geothermal reservoirs. ?? 1983.

  18. Effects of carbon dioxide on Penicillium chrysogenum: an autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.G.; Ho, C.S.

    1988-06-20

    Previous research has shown that dissolved carbon dioxide causes significant changes in submerged penicillin fermentations, such as stunted, swollen hyphae, increased branching, lower growth rates, and lower penicillin productivity. Influent carbon dioxide levels of 5 and 10% were shown through the use of autoradiography to cause an increase in chitin synthesis in submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. At an influent 5% carbon dioxide level, chitin synthesis is ca. 100% greater in the subapical region of P. chrysogenum hyphae than that of the control, in which there was no influent carbon dioxide. Influent carbon dioxide of 10% caused an increase of 200% in chitin synthesis. It is believed that the cell wall must be plasticized before branching can occur and that high amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide cause the cell to lose control of the plasticizing effect, thus the severe morphological changes occur.

  19. Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

    2013-12-01

    Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent.

  20. Copolymerization of carbon dioxide and butadiene via a lactone intermediate.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2014-04-01

    Although carbon dioxide has attracted broad interest as a renewable carbon feedstock, its use as a monomer in copolymerization with olefins has long been an elusive endeavour. A major obstacle for this process is that the propagation step involving carbon dioxide is endothermic; typically, attempted reactions between carbon dioxide and an olefin preferentially yield olefin homopolymerization. Here we report a strategy to circumvent the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers for copolymerizations of carbon dioxide and olefins by using a metastable lactone intermediate, 3-ethylidene-6-vinyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one, which is formed by the palladium-catalysed condensation of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene. Subsequent free-radical polymerization of the lactone intermediate afforded polymers of high molecular weight with a carbon dioxide content of 33 mol% (29 wt%). Furthermore, the protocol was applied successfully to a one-pot copolymerization of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene, and one-pot terpolymerizations of carbon dioxide, butadiene and another 1,3-diene. This copolymerization technique provides access to a new class of polymeric materials made from carbon dioxide.

  1. Copolymerization of carbon dioxide and butadiene via a lactone intermediate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Ryo; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2014-04-01

    Although carbon dioxide has attracted broad interest as a renewable carbon feedstock, its use as a monomer in copolymerization with olefins has long been an elusive endeavour. A major obstacle for this process is that the propagation step involving carbon dioxide is endothermic; typically, attempted reactions between carbon dioxide and an olefin preferentially yield olefin homopolymerization. Here we report a strategy to circumvent the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers for copolymerizations of carbon dioxide and olefins by using a metastable lactone intermediate, 3-ethylidene-6-vinyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one, which is formed by the palladium-catalysed condensation of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene. Subsequent free-radical polymerization of the lactone intermediate afforded polymers of high molecular weight with a carbon dioxide content of 33 mol% (29 wt%). Furthermore, the protocol was applied successfully to a one-pot copolymerization of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene, and one-pot terpolymerizations of carbon dioxide, butadiene and another 1,3-diene. This copolymerization technique provides access to a new class of polymeric materials made from carbon dioxide.

  2. Carbon dioxide utilisation of Dunaliella tertiolecta for carbon bio-mitigation in a semicontinuous photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Damien J; Brennan, Liam; Everard, Colm D; McDonnell, Kevin P

    2014-04-01

    Bio-fixation of carbon dioxide (CO2) by microalgae has been recognised as an attractive approach to offset anthropogenic emissions. Biological carbon mitigation is the process whereby autotrophic organisms, such as microalgae, convert CO2 into organic carbon and O2 through photosynthesis; this process through respiration produces biomass. In this study Dunaliella tertiolecta was cultivated in a semicontinuous culture to investigate the carbon mitigation rate of the system. The algae were produced in 1.2-L Roux bottles with a working volume of 1 L while semicontinuous production commenced on day 4 of cultivation when the carbon mitigation rate was found to be at a maximum for D. tertiolecta. The reduction in CO2 between input and output gases was monitored to predict carbon fixation rates while biomass production and microalgal carbon content are used to calculate the actual carbon mitigation potential of D. tertiolecta. A renewal rate of 45 % of flask volume was utilised to maintain the culture in exponential growth with an average daily productivity of 0.07 g L(-1) day(-1). The results showed that 0.74 g L(-1) of biomass could be achieved after 7 days of semicontinuous production while a total carbon mitigation of 0.37 g L(-1) was achieved. This represented an increase of 0.18 g L(-1) in carbon mitigation rate compared to batch production of D. tertiolecta over the same cultivation period.

  3. Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect: A Problem Evaluation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Carol A.; Beiswenger, Jane M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes exercises to examine the global carbon cycle. Students are asked to predict consequences of increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and to suggest ways to mitigate problems associated with these higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A comparison modeling exercise examines some of the variables related to the success…

  4. Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect: A Problem Evaluation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Carol A.; Beiswenger, Jane M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes exercises to examine the global carbon cycle. Students are asked to predict consequences of increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and to suggest ways to mitigate problems associated with these higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A comparison modeling exercise examines some of the variables related to the success…

  5. Upgrading carbon dioxide by incorporation into heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; He, Liang-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is commonly regarded as the primary greenhouse gas, but from a synthetic standpoint can be utilized as an alternative and sustainable C1 synthon in organic synthesis rather than a waste. This results in the production of organic carbonates, carboxylic acids, and derivatives. Recently, CO2 has emerged as an appealing tool for heterocycle synthesis under mild conditions without using stoichiometric amounts of organometallic reducing reagents. This Minireview summarizes recent advances on methodologies for CO2 incorporation into N-, O-, and C-nucleophiles to provide various heterocycles, including cyclic carbamates, benzoxazine-2-one, 4-hydroxyquinolin-2-one, quinazoline-2,4(1 H,3 H)-diones, benzimidazolones, α-alkylidene cyclic carbonate.

  6. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor); England, Christopher (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Mixing of carbon in the form of high sulfur coal with sulfuric acid reduces the temperature of sulfuric acid decomposition from 830.degree. C. to between 300.degree. C. and 400.degree. C. The low temperature sulfuric acid decomposition is particularly useful in thermal chemical cycles for splitting water to produce hydrogen. Carbon dioxide is produced as a commercially desirable byproduct. Lowering of the temperature for the sulfuric acid decomposition or oxygen release step simplifies equipment requirements, lowers thermal energy input and reduces corrosion problems presented by sulfuric acid at conventional cracking temperatures. Use of high sulfur coal as the source of carbon for the sulfuric acid decomposition provides an environmentally safe and energy efficient utilization of this normally polluting fuel.

  7. Supercritical carbon dioxide: a solvent like no other

    PubMed Central

    Peach, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Summary Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) could be one aspect of a significant and necessary movement towards green chemistry, being a potential replacement for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Unfortunately, carbon dioxide has a notoriously poor solubilising power and is famously difficult to handle. This review examines attempts and breakthroughs in enhancing the physicochemical properties of carbon dioxide, focusing primarily on factors that impact solubility of polar and ionic species and attempts to enhance scCO2 viscosity. PMID:25246947

  8. Lake Nyos disaster, Cameroon, 1986: the medical effects of large scale emission of carbon dioxide?

    PubMed

    Baxter, P J; Kapila, M; Mfonfu, D

    1989-05-27

    Carbon dioxide was blamed for the deaths of around 1700 people in Cameroon, west Africa, in 1986 when a massive release of gas occurred from Lake Nyos, a volcanic crater lake. The clinical findings in 845 survivors seen at or admitted to hospital were compatible with exposure to an asphyxiant gas. Rescuers noted cutaneous erythema and bullae on an unknown proportion of corpses and 161 (19%) survivors treated in hospital; though these lesions were initially believed to be burns from acidic gases, further investigation suggested that they were associated with coma states caused by exposure to carbon dioxide in air. The disaster at Lake Nyos and a similar event at Lake Monoun, Cameroon, two years previously provide new information on the possible medical effects of large scale emissions of carbon dioxide, though the presence of other toxic factors in these gas releases cannot be excluded.

  9. [Autopsy case of drowning caused by accidental carbon dioxide intoxication in a hold tank].

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Toshiko; Kasai, Kentaro; Kita, Toshiro

    2009-12-01

    A 49-year-old male captain fell and unfortunately died in a hold tank where he had entered to rescue his fainting co-worker on the disposing waste fluid left there. An autopsy revealed that the captain died from drowning in the waste fluid. In order to clarify the cause of their falling in the tank, the gas in the hold tank was analyzed. The concentration of oxygen was 18.86 to 19.31%, carbon dioxide was 7.28 to 9.07% and the other gases, including hydrogen sulfide, were assessed to be under the normal level. It was concluded that the intoxication of carbon dioxide generated from the waste fluid fermentation was the cause of this fatal accident through loss of consciousness. It is necessary to recognize that carbon dioxide is a dangerous and deleterious gas in circumstances where the gas can be produced.

  10. Frist preliminary results of carbon dioxide retrieval algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Y.; Kim, W. V.; Lee, H.; Kim, J.; Boesch, H.

    2013-12-01

    The significant increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) over the last two hundred years represents critical variations both to the atmosphere and the global carbon cycle. Satellite measurement is one of the most effective approaches to monitor the global distributions of CO2 with high spatio-temporal resolutions and is expected to improve the accuracy of carbon source and sink estimates (Rayner and O'Brien, 2001; Houweling et al., 2004). The Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), which was launched on January 2009, is the world's first satellite dedicated to measure the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 from space. Even though many studies to develop the CO2 retrieval algorithms are performed, there have been serious limitations in spatial coverage and uncertainties due to aerosols and thin cirrus clouds. In this study, we demonstrate our retrieval algorithms of CO2 concentrations from GOSAT and show its preliminary results showing the variations CO2 concentration in global. The quality of the preliminary results in this study will be evaluated through comparison with collocated ground-based observations at several TCCON sites. In the future, we plan to investigate interferences by aerosols using our independent aerosol retrieval algorithms and improve its retrieval quality. This study would be informative to study the estimate the carbon sources and sinks in more detail.

  11. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2015-12-29

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  12. A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the carbon dioxide nu3 band was observed up to 100 kilometers above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10(-12) bar and a temperature of about 150 kelvin, close to the surface temperature. A lifetime on the order of 4 years is suggested, based on photoionization and magnetospheric sweeping. Either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

  13. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2014-06-10

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  14. Toward Solar Fuels: Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, SC; Varghese, OK; Paulose, M; Grimes, CA

    2010-03-01

    The past several decades have seen a significant rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels resulting from the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. A solar energy based technology to recycle carbon dioxide into readily transportable hydrocarbon fuel (i.e., a solar fuel) would help reduce atmospheric CO2 levels and partly fulfill energy demands within the present hydrocarbon based fuel infrastructure. We review the present status of carbon dioxide conversion techniques, with particular attention to a recently developed photocatalytic process to convert carbon dioxide and water vapor into hydrocarbon fuels using sunlight.

  15. A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R W

    1999-02-05

    An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the carbon dioxide nu3 band was observed up to 100 kilometers above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10(-12) bar and a temperature of about 150 kelvin, close to the surface temperature. A lifetime on the order of 4 years is suggested, based on photoionization and magnetospheric sweeping. Either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

  16. Carbon isotopic composition of deep carbon gases in an ombrogenous peatland, northwestern Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Aravena, R. . Center for Groundwater Research and Wetlands Research Center); Warner, B.G. . Wetlands Research Center and Dept. of Geography); Charman, D.J. . Dept. of Geographical Sciences); Belyea, L.R. . School of Biological Sciences); Mathur, S.P. ); Dinel, H. )

    1993-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating and carbon isotope analyses of deep peat and gases in a small ombrogenous peatland in northwestern Ontario reveals the presence of old gases at depth that are 1000-2000 yr younger than the enclosing peat. The authors suggest that the most likely explanation to account for this age discrepancy is the downward movement by advection of younger dissolved organic carbon for use by fermentation and methanogens bacteria. This study identifies a potentially large supply of old carbon gases in peatlands that should be considered in global carbon models of the terrestrial biosphere.

  17. Amorphous silica-like carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Mario; Gorelli, Federico A.; Bini, Roberto; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Scandolo, Sandro; Crichton, Wilson A.

    2006-06-01

    Among the group IV elements, only carbon forms stable double bonds with oxygen at ambient conditions. At variance with silica and germania, the non-molecular single-bonded crystalline form of carbon dioxide, phase V, only exists at high pressure. The amorphous forms of silica (a-SiO2) and germania (a-GeO2) are well known at ambient conditions; however, the amorphous, non-molecular form of CO2 has so far been described only as a result of first-principles simulations. Here we report the synthesis of an amorphous, silica-like form of carbon dioxide, a-CO2, which we call `a-carbonia'. The compression of the molecular phase III of CO2 between 40 and 48GPa at room temperature initiated the transformation to the non-molecular amorphous phase. Infrared spectra measured at temperatures up to 680K show the progressive formation of C-O single bonds and the simultaneous disappearance of all molecular signatures. Furthermore, state-of-the-art Raman and synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements on temperature-quenched samples confirm the amorphous character of the material. Comparison with vibrational and diffraction data for a-SiO2 and a-GeO2, as well as with the structure factor calculated for the a-CO2 sample obtained by first-principles molecular dynamics, shows that a-CO2 is structurally homologous to the other group IV dioxide glasses. We therefore conclude that the class of archetypal network-forming disordered systems, including a-SiO2, a-GeO2 and water, must be extended to include a-CO2.

  18. Carbon dioxide inhalation causes pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed

    Abolhassani, Mohammad; Guais, Adeline; Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe; Sasco, Annie J; Schwartz, Laurent

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether one of the most common poisons of cellular respiration, i.e., carbon dioxide, is proinflammatory. CO(2) is naturally present in the atmosphere at the level of 0.038% and involved in numerous cellular biochemical reactions. We analyzed in vitro the inflammation response induced by exposure to CO(2) for 48 h (0-20% with a constant O(2) concentration of 21%). In vivo mice were submitted to increasing concentrations of CO(2) (0, 5, 10, and 15% with a constant O(2) concentration of 21%) for 1 h. The exposure to concentrations above 5% of CO(2) resulted in the increased transcription (RNase protection assay) and secretion (ELISA) of proinflammatory cytokines [macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, MIP-2, IL-8, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed, and, presumably, secreted (RANTES)] by epithelial cell lines HT-29 or A549 and primary pulmonary cells retrieved from the exposed mice. Lung inflammation was also demonstrated in vivo by mucin 5AC-enhanced production and airway hyperreactivity induction. This response was mostly mediated by the nuclear translocation of p65 NF-kappaB, itself a consequence of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation. Short inhibiting RNAs (siRNAs) targeted toward PP2Ac reversed the effect of carbon dioxide, i.e., disrupted the NF-kappaB activation and the proinflammatory cytokine secretion. In conclusion, this study strongly suggests that exposure to carbon dioxide may be more toxic than previously thought. This may be relevant for carcinogenic effects of combustion products.

  19. Six-fold Coordinated Carbon Dioxide VI

    SciTech Connect

    Iota, V; Yoo, C; Klepeis, J; Jenei, Z

    2006-03-01

    Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent while silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) is a covalent solid, and represents one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO{sub 2} transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO{sub 2} tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of a new extended-solid phase of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}): a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO{sub 2}-II above 50GPa at 530-650K. Together with the previously reported CO{sub 2}-V and a-carbonia, this new extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO{sub 2}--a prototypical molecular solid, and SiO{sub 2}--one of Earth's fundamental building blocks. The phase diagram suggests a limited stability domain for molecular CO{sub 2}-I, and proposes that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50 GPa occurs via intermediate phases II, III, and IV. The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the caxis in stishovite-like P4{sub 2}/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp{sup 3} hybridization.

  20. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOEpatents

    Rau, Gregory Hudson [Castro Valley, CA

    2012-05-15

    A system is described for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizing a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate, in particular water-insoluble calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate, is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide. Among other uses, the metal hydroxide formed can be employed to absorb acid gases such as carbon dioxide from a gas mixture. The invention can also generate hydrogen and oxidative gases such as oxygen or chlorine.

  1. Development of a prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.

    1976-01-01

    Design information was obtained for a new, regenerable carbon dioxide control system for extravehicular activity life support systems. Solid potassium carbonate was supported in a thin porous sheet form and fabricated into carbon dioxide absorber units. Carbon dioxide and water in the life support system atmosphere react with the potassium carbonate and form potassium bicarbonate. The bicarbonate easily reverts to the carbonate by heating to 150 deg C. The methods of effectively packing the sorbent material into EVA-sized units and the effects of inlet concentrations, flowrate, and temperature upon performance were investigated. The cycle life of the sorbent upon the repeated thermal regenerations was demonstrated through 90 cycles.

  2. Synthesis of carbonates and related compounds from carbon dioxide via methanesulfonyl carbonates.

    PubMed

    Bratt, Mark O; Taylor, Paul C

    2003-07-11

    Carbonate anions resulting from reaction of primary or secondary alcohols with carbon dioxide, when added to methanesulfonic anhydride in cooled acetonitrile solution, yield methanesulfonyl carbonates, a new class of synthetic intermediate. Base-mediated reaction of the methanesulfonyl carbonates with alcohols, thiols, and amines yields carbonates, thiocarbonates, and carbamates, respectively. Overall yields for the three steps vary from 19% to 42%.

  3. Adsorption of gases on carbon molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, S.N.; Patwardhan, S.R.; Vijayalakshmi, S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Ganesh, K.S. )

    1994-12-01

    Adsorption on carbon molecular sieves (CMS) prepared by coke deposition has become an interesting area of adsorption due to its microporous nature and favorable separation factor on size and shape selectivity basis for many gaseous systems. In the present work CMS was synthesized from coconut shell through three major steps, namely, carbonization, activation, and coke deposition by hydrocarbon cracking. The crushed, washed, and sieved granules of coconut shell (particle size 2--3 mm) were pretreated with sodium silicate solution and oven-dried at 150 C to create the inorganic sites necessary for coke deposition. Carbonization and activation of the dried granules were carried out at 800 C, for 30 min each. The activated char thus produced was subjected to hydrocarbon cracking at 600 C for periods varying from 30 to 180 min. The product samples were characterized in terms of adsorption isotherm, kinetic adsorption curve, surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and characteristic energy for adsorption by using O[sub 2], N[sub 2], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], C[sub 3]H[sub 6], and CH[sub 4].

  4. Cost analysis of carbon dioxide concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    A methodology is developed to predict the relevant contributions of the more intangible cost elements encountered in the development of flight-qualified hardware and is used to predict the costs of three carbon dioxide concentration systems. The cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other programs are utilized as a basis for establishing the cost estimating relationships. The concentration systems analyzed are the molecular sieves C02 concentrator, the hydrogen-depolarized concentrator, and the regenerable solid desiccant concentrator. Besides the cost estimates for each system, their comparative criteria including relative characteristics, operational differences, and development status are considered.

  5. Carbon dioxide measurements in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Finstad, R.

    1980-01-01

    A mass spectrometer experiment for the analysis of minor constituents in the stratosphere has been flown successfully four times from Palestine, Texas on board a balloon gondola. The carbon dioxide mixing ratio, which shows unexpectedly large variations in the stratosphere, reached 400 ppm in one particular night flight. This is about 20% higher than the ground value. Evidence is presented that the experiment performed well during each of the balloon flights. The isotopic ratio C-12/C-13 was measured and found in good agreement with previous air analyses showing a depletion of C-13.

  6. Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasachar, Srivats

    2014-09-23

    A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

  7. Searching for clues to ancient carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Appenzeller, T.

    1993-02-12

    Something on Earth just won't stop fiddling with the thermostat. In the past 500 million years, the planet has shivered through ice ages lasting millions of years and sweltered through episodes of global warmth. Climatologists, eager to know what keeps jiggling the planet's temperature setting, have focused their suspicions on carbon dioxide, the same heat-trapping gas expected to drive up temperatures in coming decades. Catching this suspect in the act has been difficult, however; the atmospheres of millions of years ago are gone with the wind.

  8. Electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dahlausen, M. J.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    The fabrication of a one-person Electrochemical Depolarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator subsystem incorporating advanced electrochemical, mechanical, and control and monitor instrumentation concepts is discussed. This subsystem included an advanced liquid cooled unitized core composite cell module and integrated electromechanical components. Over 1800 hours with the subsystem with removal efficiencies between 90%. and 100%; endurance tests with a Fluid Control Assembly which integrates 11 gas handling components of the subsystem; and endurance testing of a coolant control assembly which integrates a coolant pump, diverter valve and a liquid accumulator were completed.

  9. A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Raterman, Kevin Thomas; Mc Kellar, Michael George; Turner, Terry Donald; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Stacey, Douglas Edwin; Stokes, B.; Vranicar, J.

    2001-05-01

    Many analysts identify carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Programme cited separation costs from $35 to $264 per tonne of CO2 avoided for a conventional coal fired power plant utilizing existing capture technologies. Because these costs equate to a greater than 40% increase in current power generation rates, it appears obvious that a significant improvement in CO2 separation technology is required if a negative impact on the world economy is to be avoided.

  10. Carbon dioxide detection in adult Odonata.

    PubMed

    Piersanti, Silvana; Frati, Francesca; Rebora, Manuela; Salerno, Gianandrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper shows, by means of single-cell recordings, responses of antennal sensory neurons of the damselfly Ischnura elegans when stimulated by air streams at different CO2 concentrations. Unlike most insects, but similarly to termites, centipedes and ticks, Odonata possess sensory neurons strongly inhibited by CO2, with the magnitude of the off-response depending upon the CO2 concentration. The Odonata antennal sensory neurons responding to CO2 are also sensitive to airborne odors; in particular, the impulse frequency is increased by isoamylamine and decreased by heptanoic and pentanoic acid. Further behavioral investigations are necessary to assign a biological role to carbon dioxide detection in Odonata.

  11. Process for separating aggressive gases from gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, T.E.

    1984-03-06

    A process for separating large percentages of aggressive gases such as carbon dioxide from low temperature gas mixtures wherein the gas mixture is passed through a plurality of treatment zones in series. In each treatment zone the gas mixture is first compressed to a pressure such that the partial pressure of the carbon dioxide is not greater than the critical carbon dioxide partial pressure and the compressed gas mixture is then brought into contact with a membrane more permeable to carbon dioxide than other gases of the mixture such that carbon dioxide permeates the membrane to the other side thereof. The gas mixture is maintained in contact with the membrane a sufficient time to lower the partial pressure of the carbon dioxide in the non-permeated gas mixture to less than about 40 percent of said critical carbon dioxide partial pressure. The process is especially useful for separating carbon dioxide from methane and other gases.

  12. The carbon dioxide emissions game: Playing the net

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, K.R.; Edmonds, J.A.; Rosenthal, D.H.; Wise, M.

    1993-06-01

    Concern about rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the earth`s atmosphere has led to calls for the United States and other countries to reduce carbon emissions. These concerns resulted in the signing of the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The Framework calls for nations to develop action plans for limiting emissions of carbon and other greenhouse gases. In December 1992, in accordance with the Framework, the US Government released for public comment its National Action Plan for Global Climate Change (US Department of State, 1992). The Action Plan detailed steps for reducing carbon emissions by 93 to 130 million metric tons (MMT) by 2000. Some of the steps included in the Action Plan were reforming regulations, setting energy standards, promoting research and development of new energy technologies, expanding the use of alternative-fueled vehicles, and planting trees to sequester carbon. This paper explores the economic implications of implementing a much larger tree-planting program than the one presented in the Action Plan. Whereas the Action Plan estimated that 5 to 9 MMT of carbon (MMTC) could be sequestered in 2000 (with perhaps threefold increases in sequestration in later years when trees are growing the fastest), the program being considered in this analysis annually sequesters as much as 231 MMTC during its peak years. Our analysis focuses on how much the costs of stabilizing US carbon emissions at 1990 levels are reduced when economic criteria alone determine the number of trees that will be used. Our results show that when the focus is shifted from stabilization of gross emissions to net emissions the cost reductions are dramatic, about 20 to 80 percent depending on the assumed cost of trees. Political and institutional obstacles to the formation of such a cost effective response are explored in the conclusions.

  13. Activation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at aluminium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carley, A. F.; Gallagher, D. E.; Roberts, M. W.

    Dynamic photoelectron spectroscopy has shown that the adsorption of carbon dioxide at aluminium surfaces is followed by a dissociative reaction leading to the formation of a metastable surface carbonate in the temperature range 80-120 K. The carbonate is subsequently reduced (120-475 K) (deoxygenated) to generate two different forms of surface carbon, one carbidic C δ- (a) and the other less ionic C 0(a) possibly graphitic. Quantification of the C(ls) and O(ls) spectra enable each of the species O 2-(a), CO 32-(a), C δ-(a) and C 0 (a) to be distinguished and their surface concentrations calculated over a wide temperature range. The temperature and pressure dependences of CO 2 reduction suggest the participation of a precursor dimer state (CO 2---CO 2)(a) which then disproportionates. Furthermore studies of the coadsorption of ammonia and carbon dioxide in analogous systems indicate that a discrete and specifically reactive species, O - (s), is formed during carbonate formation. The results are discussed in the context of recent theoretical studies of F REUND and M ESSMER and also comparisons made with metal-CO 2 complexes. The facile surface reduction of CO 2 via a surface carbonate suggested that a possible route to carbon-oxygen bond cleavage in carbon monoxide interaction with an sp-metal surface (aluminium) was a step-wise oxidation to CO 2 leading to surface carbonate which was then readily deoxygenated. Studies of carbon monoxide: dioxygen mixtures (100: I) confirmed that this indeed occurred. A modified E LEY-R IDEAL type mechanism involving a hopping "non-adsorbed" CO molecule and a short-lived surface O - (s) species is suggested.

  14. Cryogenic Adsorption of Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide in Activated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuzhi; Liu, Huiming; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Hengcheng; Lu, Junfeng; Li, Laifeng

    2017-09-01

    Activated carbon have been used for a long time at low temperature for cryogenic applications. The knowledge of adsorption characteristics of activated carbon at cryogenic temperature is essential for some specific applications. However, such experimental data are very scare in the literature. In order to measure the adsorption characteristics of activated carbon under variable cryogenic temperatures, an adsorption measurement device was presented. The experiment system is based on the commercially available PCT-pro adsorption analyzer coupled to a two-stage Gifford McMahon refrigerator, which allows the sample to be cooled to 4.2K. Cryogenic environment can be maintained steadily without the cryogenic liquid through the cryocooler and temperature can be controlled precisely between 5K and 300K by the temperature controller. Adsorption measurements were performed in activated carbon for carbon dioxide and nitrogen and the adsorption isotherm were obtained.

  15. The kinetics of binding carbon dioxide in magnesium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, D.P.; Lackner, K.S.; Wendt, C.H.; Vaidya, R.; Pile, D.L.; Park, Y.; Holesinger, T.; Harradine, D.M.; Nomura, Koji |

    1998-08-01

    Humans currently consume about 6 Gigatons of carbon annually as fossil fuel. In some sense, the coal industry has a unique advantage over many other anthropogenic and natural emitters of CO{sub 2} in that it owns large point sources of CO{sub 2} from which this gas could be isolated and disposed of. If the increased energy demands of a growing world population are to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of sequestration technologies will likely be unavoidable. The authors` method of sequestration involves binding carbon dioxide as magnesium carbonate, a thermodynamically stable solid, for safe and permanent disposal, with minimal environmental impact. The technology is based on extracting magnesium hydroxide from common ultramafic rock for thermal carbonation and subsequent disposition. The economics of the method appear to be promising, however, many details of the proposed process have yet to be optimized. Realization of a cost effective method requires development of optimal technologies for efficient extraction and thermal carbonation.

  16. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes on the Bakchar bog in warm season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Oleg A.; Maksyutov, Shamil S.; Davydov, Denis K.; Fofonov, Aleksander V.; Glagolev, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-01

    Data terrain-atmosphere fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide overseen for measurement campaign Plotnikovo-2014 on the bog's Flux-NIES automatic complex (N56°51.29' E82° 50.91') in the warn season. Six vegetative groups on the bog's surface were taken in comparison. Improvement precise method used to determinate the sensitivity for the gases analyzers and calculating of the CO2 and CH4 fluxes measured by automated chamber-based technique.

  17. On the abundances of carbon dioxide isotopologues in the atmospheres of mars and earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shved, G. M.

    2016-03-01

    The isotopic composition of carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere from the measurements of Mars Science Laboratory have been used to estimate the relative abundances of CO2 isotopologues in the Martian atmosphere. Concurrently, this study has revealed long-standing errors in the amounts of some of low-abundance CO2 isotopologues in the Earth's atmosphere in the databases of spectroscopic parameters of gases (HITRAN, etc.).

  18. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  19. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Capture Adsorbents: Chemistry and Methods.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hasmukh A; Byun, Jeehye; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2017-04-10

    Excess carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions and their inevitable consequences continue to stimulate hard debate and awareness in both academic and public spaces, despite the widespread lack of understanding on what really is needed to capture and store the unwanted CO2 . Of the entire carbon capture and storage (CCS) operation, capture is the most costly process, consisting of nearly 70 % of the price tag. In this tutorial review, CO2 capture science and technology based on adsorbents are described and evaluated in the context of chemistry and methods, after briefly introducing the current status of CO2 emissions. An effective sorbent design is suggested, whereby six checkpoints are expected to be met: cost, capacity, selectivity, stability, recyclability, and fast kinetics.

  1. Modeling flow of mineralized carbon dioxide slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, Larry R.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Saha, K.K.

    2005-04-01

    Direct mineral carbonation was investigated at Albany Research Center (US DOE) as a means to sequester carbon dioxide into stable mineral matrices. Although previous work focused on treating Mg-containing minerals in conventional autoclaves, recent work has been done using pipeline-reactor technology for the high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) reaction of the minerals in aqueous/CO2 media. Sequestration of CO2 using above-ground reactors may be uneconomical, but the technology may also be applicable in geological sequestration of CO2. Progress is described in using a prototype HTHP flow-loop reactor to model flow in the dynamic three-phase system to help determine the pumping-energy requirements to optimize reactivity.

  2. Cooperative redox activation for carbon dioxide conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Zhong; Nielsen, Dennis U.; Lindhardt, Anders T.; Daasbjerg, Kim; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2016-12-01

    A longstanding challenge in production chemistry is the development of catalytic methods for the transformation of carbon dioxide into useful chemicals. Silane and borane promoted reductions can be fined-tuned to provide a number of C1-building blocks under mild conditions, but these approaches are limited because of the production of stoichiometric waste compounds. Here we report on the conversion of CO2 with diaryldisilanes, which through cooperative redox activation generate carbon monoxide and a diaryldisiloxane that actively participate in a palladium-catalysed carbonylative Hiyama-Denmark coupling for the synthesis of an array of pharmaceutically relevant diarylketones. Thus the disilane reagent not only serves as the oxygen abstracting agent from CO2, but the silicon-containing `waste', produced through oxygen insertion into the Si-Si bond, participates as a reagent for the transmetalation step in the carbonylative coupling. Hence this concept of cooperative redox activation opens up for new avenues in the conversion of CO2.

  3. Carbon dioxide research plan. A summary

    SciTech Connect

    Trivelpiece, Alvin W.; Koomanoff, F. A.; Suomi, Verner E.

    1983-11-01

    The Department of Energy is the lead federal agency for research related to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Its responsibility is to sponsor a program of relevant research, and to coordinate this research with that of others. As part of its responsibilities, the Department of Energy has prepared a research plan. The plan documented in this Summary delineated the logic, objectives, organization, background and current status of the research activities. The Summary Plan is based on research subplans in four specific areas: global carbon cycle, climate effects, vegetative response and indirect effects. These subplans have emanated from a series of national and international workshops, conferences, and from technical reports. The plans have been peer reviewed by experts in the relevant scientific fields. Their execution is being coordinated between the responsible federal and international government agencies and the involved scientific community.

  4. Carbon dioxide extraction from air: Is it an option?

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Grimes, P.; Ziock, H.J.

    1999-07-01

    Controlling the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere without limiting access to fossil energy resources is only possible if carbon dioxide is collected and disposed of away from the atmosphere. While it may be cost-advantageous to collect the carbon dioxide at concentrated sources without ever letting it enter the atmosphere, this approach is not available for the many diffuse sources of carbon dioxide. Similarly, for many older plants, a retrofit to collect the carbon dioxide is either impossible or prohibitively expensive. For these cases the authors investigate the possibility of collecting the carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere. The authors conclude that there are no fundamental obstacles to this approach and that it deserves further investigation. Carbon dioxide extraction directly from the atmosphere would allow carbon management without the need for a completely changed infrastructure. In addition it eliminates the need for a completely changed infrastructure. In addition it eliminates the need for a complex carbon dioxide transportation infrastructure, thus at least in part offsetting the higher cost of extraction from air.

  5. Carbon dioxide enrichment inhibits nitrate assimilation in wheat and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arnold J; Burger, Martin; Rubio Asensio, Jose Salvador; Cousins, Asaph B

    2010-05-14

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere may double by the end of the 21st century. The response of higher plants to a carbon dioxide doubling often includes a decline in their nitrogen status, but the reasons for this decline have been uncertain. We used five independent methods with wheat and Arabidopsis to show that atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment inhibited the assimilation of nitrate into organic nitrogen compounds. This inhibition may be largely responsible for carbon dioxide acclimation, the decrease in photosynthesis and growth of plants conducting C(3) carbon fixation after long exposures (days to years) to carbon dioxide enrichment. These results suggest that the relative availability of soil ammonium and nitrate to most plants will become increasingly important in determining their productivity as well as their quality as food.

  6. Public Perceptions of How Long Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Remain in the Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Dryden, Rachel; Morgan, M Granger; Bostrom, Ann; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2017-06-30

    The atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide is hundreds of years, many orders of magnitude longer than that of common air pollution, which is typically hours to a few days. However, randomly selected respondents in a mail survey in Allegheny County, PA (N = 119) and in a national survey conducted with MTurk (N = 1,013) judged the two to be identical (in decades), considerably overestimating the residence time of air pollution and drastically underestimating that of carbon dioxide. Moreover, while many respondents believed that action is needed today to avoid climate change (regardless of cause), roughly a quarter held the view that if climate change is real and serious, we will be able to stop it in the future when it happens, just as we did with common air pollution. In addition to assessing respondents' understanding of how long carbon dioxide and common air pollution stay in the atmosphere, we also explored the extent to which people correctly identified causes of climate change and how their beliefs affect support for action. With climate change at the forefront of politics and mainstream media, informing discussions of policy is increasingly important. Confusion about the causes and consequences of climate change, and especially about carbon dioxide's long atmospheric residence time, could have profound implications for sustained support of policies to achieve reductions in carbon dioxide emissions and other greenhouse gases. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Differentiation of carbon dioxide-sensing neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans requires the ETS-5 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Guillermin, Manon L; Castelletto, Michelle L; Hallem, Elissa A

    2011-12-01

    Many animals sense environmental gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen using specialized populations of gas-sensing neurons. The proper development and function of these neurons is critical for survival, as the inability to respond to changes in ambient carbon dioxide and oxygen levels can result in reduced neural activity and ultimately death. Despite the importance of gas-sensing neurons for survival, little is known about the developmental programs that underlie their formation. Here we identify the ETS-family transcription factor ETS-5 as critical for the normal differentiation of the carbon dioxide-sensing BAG neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans. Whereas wild-type animals show acute behavioral avoidance of carbon dioxide, ets-5 mutant animals do not respond to carbon dioxide. The ets-5 gene is expressed in BAG neurons and is required for the normal expression of the BAG neuron gene battery. ets-5 may also autoregulate its expression in BAG neurons. ets-5 is not required for BAG neuron formation, indicating that it is specifically involved in BAG neuron differentiation and the maintenance of BAG neuron cell fate. Our results demonstrate a novel role for ETS genes in the development and function of gas-detecting sensory neurons.

  8. Differentiation of Carbon Dioxide-Sensing Neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans Requires the ETS-5 Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Guillermin, Manon L.; Castelletto, Michelle L.; Hallem, Elissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Many animals sense environmental gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen using specialized populations of gas-sensing neurons. The proper development and function of these neurons is critical for survival, as the inability to respond to changes in ambient carbon dioxide and oxygen levels can result in reduced neural activity and ultimately death. Despite the importance of gas-sensing neurons for survival, little is known about the developmental programs that underlie their formation. Here we identify the ETS-family transcription factor ETS-5 as critical for the normal differentiation of the carbon dioxide-sensing BAG neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans. Whereas wild-type animals show acute behavioral avoidance of carbon dioxide, ets-5 mutant animals do not respond to carbon dioxide. The ets-5 gene is expressed in BAG neurons and is required for the normal expression of the BAG neuron gene battery. ets-5 may also autoregulate its expression in BAG neurons. ets-5 is not required for BAG neuron formation, indicating that it is specifically involved in BAG neuron differentiation and the maintenance of BAG neuron cell fate. Our results demonstrate a novel role for ETS genes in the development and function of gas-detecting sensory neurons. PMID:21954162

  9. Engineers Clean Mirror with Carbon Dioxide Snow

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-22

    Just like drivers sometimes use snow to clean their car mirrors in winter, two Exelis Inc. engineers are practicing "snow cleaning'" on a test telescope mirror for the James Webb Space Telescope at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. By shooting carbon dioxide snow at the surface, engineers are able to clean large telescope mirrors without scratching them. "The snow-like crystals (carbon dioxide snow) knock contaminate particulates and molecules off the mirror," said Lee Feinberg, NASA optical telescope element manager. This technique will only be used if the James Webb Space Telescope's mirror is contaminated during integration and testing. The Webb telescope is the scientific successor to NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. It will be the most powerful space telescope ever built. With a mirror seven times as large as Hubble's and infrared capability, Webb will be capturing light from 13.5 billion light years away. To do this, its mirror must be kept super clean. "Small dust particles or molecules can impact the science that can be done with the Webb," said Feinberg. "So cleanliness especially on the mirrors is critical." Webb is an international project led by NASA with its partners, the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency. Image credit: NASA/Goddard/Chris Gunn

  10. Six-fold coordinated carbon dioxide VI

    SciTech Connect

    Iota, Valentin; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Klepeis, Jae-Hyun; Jenei, Zsolt; Evans, William; Cynn, Hyunchae

    2008-06-16

    Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent, whereas silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) is a covalent solid, and one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO{sub 2} transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO{sub 2} tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of an extended-solid phase of CO{sub 2}: a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO{sub 2}-II above 50 GPa at 530-650 K. Together with the previously reported CO{sub 2}-V and a-carbonia, this extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO{sub 2} (a prototypical molecular solid) and SiO{sub 2} (one of Earth's fundamental building blocks). We present a phase diagram with a limited stability domain for molecular CO{sub 2}-I, and suggest that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50 GPa occurs via intermediate phases II, III and IV. The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the c axis in stishovite-like P4{sub 2}/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp{sup 3} hybridization.

  11. Six-fold coordinated carbon dioxide VI.

    PubMed

    Iota, Valentin; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Klepeis, Jae-Hyun; Jenei, Zsolt; Evans, William; Cynn, Hyunchae

    2007-01-01

    Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent, whereas silicon dioxide (SiO2) is a covalent solid, and one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO2 transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO2 tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of an extended-solid phase of CO2: a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO2-II (refs 1,2) above 50 GPa at 530-650 K. Together with the previously reported CO2-V (refs 3-5) and a-carbonia, this extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO2 (a prototypical molecular solid) and SiO2 (one of Earth's fundamental building blocks). We present a phase diagram with a limited stability domain for molecular CO2-I, and suggest that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50 GPa occurs via intermediate phases II (refs 1,2), III (refs 7,8) and IV (refs 9,10). The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the c axis in stishovite-like P42/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp3 hybridization.

  12. Pharmaceutical applications of supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, C S; Römpp, H; Schmidt, P C

    2001-12-01

    The appearance of a supercritical state was already observed at the beginning of the 19th century. Nevertheless, the industrial extraction of plant and other natural materials started about twenty years ago with the decaffeination of coffee. Today carbon dioxide is the most common gas for supercritical fluid extraction in food and pharmaceutical industry. Since pure supercritical carbon dioxide is a lipophilic solvent, mixtures with organic solvents, especially alcohols, are used to increase the polarity of the extraction fluid; more polar compounds can be extracted in this way. The main fields of interest are the extraction of vegetable oils from plant material in analytical and preparative scale, the preparation of essential oils for food and cosmetic industry and the isolation of substances of pharmaceutical relevance. Progress in research was made by the precise measurement of phase equilibria data by means of different methods. Apart from extraction, supercritical fluid chromatography was introduced in the field of analytics, as well as micro- and nanoparticle formation using supercritical fluids as solvent or antisolvent. This review presents pharmaceutical relevant literature of the last twenty years with special emphasis on extraction of natural materials.

  13. Electrocatalytic process for carbon dioxide conversion

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2017-01-31

    An electrocatalytic process for carbon dioxide conversion includes combining a Catalytically Active Element and Helper Catalyst in the presence of carbon dioxide, allowing a reaction to proceed to produce a reaction product, and applying electrical energy to said reaction to achieve electrochemical conversion of said reactant to said reaction product. The Catalytically Active Element can be a metal in the form of supported or unsupported particles or flakes with an average size between 0.6 nm and 100 nm. the reaction products comprise at least one of CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and CF.sub.3COOH.

  14. Algal refossilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide. [Contains bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Neushul, M. )

    1991-07-01

    The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is steadily increasing. With our increasing awareness of the economic and environmental impacts of the greenhouse effects'' of CO{sub 2}, methane and other gases, there is interest in finding new methods to reduce the amounts of these gases in the atmosphere. This study evaluates the possibility that large-scale oceanic cultures of macroalgae (macroscopic seaweeds'') could be used to capture atmospheric CO{sub 2}. It is a design for a marine farm system in which a crop'' of calcareous macroalgae grows attached to, and supported by, floating macroalgae that comprise the farm structure.'' The least complicated, yet feasible, macroalgal farm system appears to be one in which laboratory-propagated calcareous algal epiphytes'' and floating algal basiphytes'' are dispersed together in natural ocean upwelling regions. From there, the plants drift with surface currents to the open ocean and then sink to the sea floor, where the buried carbon is refossilized.'' An important caveat regarding the use of calcareous algae is that the process of calcification may release CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. There is some evidence that CO{sub 2} is not released by calcification in red calcareous algae, but in contrast many geochemists feel that all biologically -- as well as chemically --mediated calcification processes release CO{sub 2}. A substantial amount of research will be necessary to answer basic questions about algal carbon fixation and biomineralization on one hand, while on the other hand to devise strategies for farming the open ocean. 76 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Carbon dioxide conversion by means of coplanar dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiorlin, Milko; Klink, Rouven; Brandenburg, Ronny

    2016-08-01

    To face the worldwide problem of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emission new techniques have to be developed. One approach for carbon capture utilization (CCU) is the conversion of CO2 to more valuable chemicals, e.g., carbon monoxide (CO) by means of non-thermal plasma generated at ambient conditions and supplied by excess energy from renewable sources. This paper reports about the effect of the admixture of inert gases, namely nitrogen or argon to CO2 in a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Systematic experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of applied voltage, frequency, flowrate and CO2 concentration in the influent. The composition of products, energy efficiency and yield were determined. Within the investigated parameter ranges, the maximum conversion of CO2 to CO efficiency of 1% was achieved when the specific input energy was 190 J L-1, whereas the maximum CO yield of 0.7% was achieved when the specific input energy was 210 J L-1. In conclusion, the energy efficiency can be significantly increased by operating the plasma in a diluted CO2 gas. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  16. Disintegration of Carbon Dioxide Molecules in a Microwave Plasma Torch

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hyoung S.; Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Choi, Eun H.

    2015-01-01

    A pure carbon dioxide torch is generated by making use of 2.45 GHz microwave. Carbon dioxide gas becomes the working gas and produces a stable carbon dioxide torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. Temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and thermocouple. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of high-temperature zone and a bluish, dimmer region of relatively low-temperature zone. Study of carbon dioxide disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in the carbon dioxide plasma of a microwave plasma torch under atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of carbon dioxide disintegration indicates that substantial fraction of carbon dioxide molecules disintegrate and form other compounds in the torch. For example, the normalized particle densities at center of plasma are given by nCO2/nN = 6.12 × 10−3, nCO/nN = 0.13, nC/nN = 0.24, nO/nN = 0.61, nC2/nN = 8.32 × 10−7, nO2/nN = 5.39 × 10−5, where nCO2, nCO, nC, nO, nC2, and nO2 are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon and oxygen atom, carbon and oxygen molecule densities, respectively. nN is the neutral particle density. Emission profiles of the oxygen and carbon atom radicals and the carbon monoxide molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of carbon dioxide disintegration in the torch. PMID:26674957

  17. Disintegration of Carbon Dioxide Molecules in a Microwave Plasma Torch.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyoung S; Uhm, Han S; Hong, Yong C; Choi, Eun H

    2015-12-17

    A pure carbon dioxide torch is generated by making use of 2.45 GHz microwave. Carbon dioxide gas becomes the working gas and produces a stable carbon dioxide torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. Temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and thermocouple. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of high-temperature zone and a bluish, dimmer region of relatively low-temperature zone. Study of carbon dioxide disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in the carbon dioxide plasma of a microwave plasma torch under atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of carbon dioxide disintegration indicates that substantial fraction of carbon dioxide molecules disintegrate and form other compounds in the torch. For example, the normalized particle densities at center of plasma are given by nCO2/nN = 6.12 × 10(-3), nCO/nN = 0.13, nC/nN = 0.24, nO/nN = 0.61, nC2/nN = 8.32 × 10(-7), nO2/nN = 5.39 × 10(-5), where nCO2, nCO, nC, nO, nC2, and nO2 are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon and oxygen atom, carbon and oxygen molecule densities, respectively. nN is the neutral particle density. Emission profiles of the oxygen and carbon atom radicals and the carbon monoxide molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of carbon dioxide disintegration in the torch.

  18. Responses of Tree Seedlings to a Changing Atmosphere: Effects of Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, A. S.; Sparks, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Human activities have caused changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere: the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) have increased and are expected to continue increasing in the future. These gases have the potential to alter plant physiological processes, change growth rates, C:N, and carbon storage potential. The responses of tree seedlings to these changes will have a profound impact on the species composition and carbon storage potential of forests in the future. Others have found CO2 tends to increase plant growth and O3 to decrease it. NO2, if assimilated by plants, can be a source of nutrient nitrogen, but is also an oxidant with the potential to damage cell membranes and decrease growth. The objectives of this study were to determine the single and combined effects of CO2, NO2, and O3 on sugar maple, eastern hemlock, and two clones of trembling aspen. The trees were fumigated for two growing seasons with elevated (40ppb) or ambient NO2, elevated (560ppm) or ambient CO2, elevated (100 ppb 5 days/week) or ambient O3, and with or without additional soil nitrate (30 kg ha-1 yr-1) to simulate ecosystems with and without nitrogen limitation. We found that elevated CO2 increased total biomass of both maples and hemlocks. Further, the CO2 growth effect was most striking when combined with elevated O2; elevated CO2 eliminated the growth decrease induced by O3 especially when nitrogen was limited. Elevated NO2 had no effect on maple seedlings, but, similar to CO2, eliminated the decrease in growth under O3 on hemlock seedlings. The two aspen clones differed in their resistance to ozone. The non-resistant clone exhibited growth responses similar to maple. However, the resistant clone did not exhibit a growth response under any gas treatment regardless of soil nitrogen status. The variation in responses among species, within clones of the same species, and between fumigations was large in this study and suggests

  19. Thickness Map of Buried Carbon-Dioxide Deposit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-21

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter color-codes thickness estimates in a newly found, buried deposit of frozen carbon dioxide, dry ice, near the south pole of Mars contains ~30 times more carbon dioxide than previously estimated to be frozen near the pole.

  20. Investigating Diffusion and Entropy with Carbon Dioxide-Filled Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jadrich, James; Bruxvoort, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    Fill an ordinary latex balloon with helium gas and you know what to expect. Over the next day or two the volume will decrease noticeably as helium escapes from the balloon. So what happens when a latex balloon is filled with carbon dioxide gas? Surprisingly, carbon dioxide balloons deflate at rates as much as an order of magnitude faster than…

  1. 40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86.224-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.224-94 Carbon dioxide...

  2. 40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86.224-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.224-94 Carbon dioxide...

  3. 40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86.224-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.224-94 Carbon dioxide...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration requirements for the...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration requirements for the...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration requirements for the...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration requirements for the...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration requirements for the dilute...

  9. 40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86.224-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.224-94 Carbon dioxide...

  10. Investigating Diffusion and Entropy with Carbon Dioxide-Filled Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jadrich, James; Bruxvoort, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    Fill an ordinary latex balloon with helium gas and you know what to expect. Over the next day or two the volume will decrease noticeably as helium escapes from the balloon. So what happens when a latex balloon is filled with carbon dioxide gas? Surprisingly, carbon dioxide balloons deflate at rates as much as an order of magnitude faster than…

  11. Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming: A Failed Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is a current environmental issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…

  12. Solid amine compounds as sorbents for carbon dioxide: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Solid amine compounds were examined as possible absorbents for removal of carbon dioxide in life support systems of type which may be employed in high altitude aircraft, spacecraft, or submarines. Many solid amine compounds release absorbed carbon dioxide when heated in vacuum, therefore, when properly packaged spent amine compounds can be readily regenerated and put back into service.

  13. Cationic Polymerization of Vegetable Oils in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polymers derived from vegetable oils have been prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium by cationic polymerization. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BF3.O(C2H2)2 are used as initiator. Influences of polymerization temperature, initiator amount, and carbon dioxide pressure on the m...

  14. Promising flame retardant textile in supercritical carbon dioxide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since carbon dioxide is non-toxic, non-flammable and cost-effective, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is widely used in textile dyeing applications. Due to its environmentally benign character, scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. O...

  15. Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming: A Failed Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is a current environmental issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…

  16. Carbon Dioxide Detection and Indoor Air Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Bonino, Steve

    2016-04-01

    When building ventilation is reduced, energy is saved because it is not necessary to heat or cool as much outside air. Reduced ventilation can result in higher levels of carbon dioxide, which may cause building occupants to experience symptoms. Heating or cooling for ventilation air can be enhanced by a DCV system, which can save energy while providing a comfortable environment. Carbon dioxide concentrations within a building are often used to indicate whether adequate fresh air is being supplied to the building. These DCV systems use carbon dioxide sensors in each space or in the return air and adjust the ventilation based on carbon dioxide concentration; the higher the concentration, the more people occupy the space relative to the ventilation rate. With a carbon dioxide sensor DCV system, the fresh air ventilation rate varies based on the number ofpeople in the space, saving energy while maintaining a safe and comfortable environment.

  17. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture. part 1: terminology and reporting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The removal of carbon dioxide gas in aquacultural systems is much more complex than for oxygen or nitrogen gas because of liquid reactions of carbon dioxide and their kinetics. Almost all published carbon dioxide removal information for aquaculture is based on the apparent removal value after the CO2(aq) + HOH ⇔ H2CO3 reaction has reached equilibrium. The true carbon dioxide removal is larger than the apparent value, especially for high alkalinities and seawater. For low alkalinity freshwaters (<2000 μeq/kg), the difference between the true and apparent removal is small and can be ignored for many applications. Analytical and reporting standards are recommended to improve our understanding of carbon dioxide removal.

  18. Fullerenes: An extraterrestrial carbon carrier phase for noble gases

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Luann; Poreda, Robert J.; Bunch, Ted E.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, we report on the discovery of naturally occurring fullerenes (C60 to C400) in the Allende and Murchison meteorites and some sediment samples from the 65 million-year-old Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary layer (KTB). Unlike the other pure forms of carbon (diamond and graphite), fullerenes are extractable in an organic solvent (e.g., toluene or 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene). The recognition of this unique property led to the detection and isolation of the higher fullerenes in the Kratschmer/Huffmann arc evaporated graphite soot and in the carbon material in the meteorite and impact deposits. By further exploiting the unique ability of the fullerene cage structure to encapsulate and retain noble gases, we have determined that both the Allende and Murchison fullerenes and the KTB fullerenes contain trapped noble gases with ratios that can only be described as extraterrestrial in origin. PMID:10725367

  19. Accelerating carbonate dissolution to sequester carbon dioxide in the ocean: Geochemical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Rau, Greg H.

    2000-01-01

    Various methods have been proposed for mitigating release of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere, including deep-sea injection of CO2 captured from fossil-fuel fired power plants. Here, we use a schematic model of ocean chemistry and transport to analyze the geochemical consequences of a new method for separating carbon dioxide from a waste gas stream and sequestering it in the ocean. This method involves reacting CO2-rich power-plant gases with seawater to produce a carbonic acid solution which in turn is reacted on site with carbonate mineral (e.g., limestone) to form Ca2+ and bicarbonate in solution, which can then be released and diluted in the ocean. Such a process is similar to carbonate weathering and dissolution which would have otherwise occurred naturally, but over many millennia. Relative to atmospheric release or direct ocean CO2 injection, this method would greatly expand the capacity of the ocean to store anthropogenic carbon while minimizing environmental impacts of this carbon on ocean biota. This carbonate-dissolution technique may be more cost-effective and less environmentally harmful, and than previously proposed CO2 capture and sequestration techniques.

  20. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of