Science.gov

Sample records for gasoline plant engineering

  1. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 12. Fluor project status. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document and summarize activities associated with Fluor's efforts on the Tri-State Synfuels Project. The proposed facility was to be coal-to-transport fuels facility located in Henderson, Kentucky. Tri-State Synfuels Company was participating in the project as a partner of the US Department of Energy per terms of a Cooperative Agreement resulting from DOE's synfuel's program solicitation. Fluor's initial work plan called for preliminary engineering and procurement services to the point of commitment for construction for a Sasol Fischer-Tropsch plant. Work proceeded as planned until October 1981 when results of alternative coal-to-methanol studies revealed the economic disadvantage of the Synthol design for US markets. A number of alternative process studies followed to determine the best process configuration. In January 1982 Tri-State officially announced a change from Synthol to a Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) design basis. Further evaluation and cost estimates for the MTG facility eventually led to the conclusion that, given the depressed economic outlook for alternative fuels development, the project should be terminated. Official announcement of cancellation was made on April 13, 1982. At the time of project cancellation, Fluor had completed significant portions of the preliminary engineering effort. Included in this report are descriptions and summaries of Fluor's work during this project. In addition location of key project data and materials is identified and status reports for each operation are presented.

  2. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in gasoline engine mechanics in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of small-engine mechanics; program content (curriculum framework and student performance…

  3. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in gasoline engine mechanics in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of small-engine mechanics; program content (curriculum framework and student performance…

  4. Process engineering and mechanical design reports. Volume 5: Preliminary design and assessment of a 50,000 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-08-01

    Equipment data sheets and other data on automatic control equipment for a coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline fuel production plant are given. Data on operating panels, programmable logic controllers, and conveyor equipment are given.

  5. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of five terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for a basic gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the intermediate course guide see CE 010 946.) The materials were developed for a two semester (2 hours daily)…

  6. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  7. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  8. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section 58.10-5... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended...

  9. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section 58.10-5... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended...

  10. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section 58.10-5... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended...

  11. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section 58.10-5... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended...

  12. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...

  13. Possible improvements in gasoline engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziembinski, S

    1923-01-01

    High-compression engines are investigated with the three main objects being elimination of vibration, increase of maximum efficiency, and conservation of this efficiency at the highest possible speeds.

  14. The lean hunting phenomenon in gasoline engines

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Mochizuki, S.; Nishiwaki, N.; Miyake, M.

    1987-01-01

    A quite interesting self-excited oscillation phenomenon in engine speed, which may not be explained with the classical theory of mechanical hunting, is studied experimentally. The effects of the various engine operating variables on the phenomenon are examined using a four cycle single cylinder gasoline engine with an inertia governor. It was found that the phenomenon occurs when engines are operated at a lean air fuel ratio under light load conditions, and that the hunting phenomenon is ascribable to the temporary shift in air fuel ratio from the steady state value. This shift in air fuel ratio occurs due to the fuel flow delay into the cylinder caused by the fact that the fuel flow into the cylinder cannot follow the movement of the throttle valve.

  15. Gasoline additive requirements for today's smaller engines

    SciTech Connect

    Udelhofen, J.H.; Zahalka, T.L

    1988-01-01

    The performance and driveability of today's smaller engines, particularly those with port fuel injectors, often are adversely affected by deposits at various places throughout the fuel induction system. These deposits can, however, be controlled by the use of optimal detergent additives, which are surface-active agents containing polar heads and hydrocarbon tails. For convenience in discussion, the gasoline detergents may be divided into two groups: low and high molecular weight. Low molecular weight detergents typically are more effective in forming protective films on metal surfaces, and high molecular weight detergents are more effective in dispersing deposit precursors.

  16. Small scale rice hull gas producer-gasoline engine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Creamer, K.S.; Jenkins, B.M.; Goss, J.R.; Chancellor, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, a unique rice hull gas producer fueled a 3.7 kW, single cylinder, gasoline engine. At 3600 RPM and WOT, the engine developed 43% of the rated power on gasoline. Brake thermal efficiency was 16.8%. System thermal efficiency was 9.4%. Optimal spark advance for producer gas was 23/sup 0/.

  17. Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Partridge Jr, William P; Parks, II, James E; Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; Chambon, Paul H; Thomas, John F

    2010-01-01

    Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

  18. Comparative performance study of spark ignition engines burning alcohols, gasoline, and alcohol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Desoky, A.A.; Rabie, L.H.

    1983-12-01

    In recent years it has been clear that the reserves of oil, from which petrol is refined, are becoming limited. In order to conserve these stocks of oil, and to minimize motoring costs as the price of dwindling oil resources escalates, it's obviously desirable to improve the thermal efficiency of the spark ignition engine. There are also obvious benefits to be obtained from making spark ignition engines run efficiently on alternative fuel, (non-crude based fuel). It has been claimed that hydrogen is an ideal fuel for the internal combustion engine it certainly causes little pollution, but is difficult to store, high in price, and difficult to burn efficiently in the engine without it knocking and backfiring. These problems arise because of the very wide flammability limits and the very high flame velocity of hydrogen. Alcohols used an additive or substitute for gasoline could immediately help to solve both energy and pollution problems. An experimental tests were carried out at Mansoura University Laboratories using a small single cylinder SIE, fully instrumented to measure the engine performance. The engine was fueled with pure methonol, pure ethonol, gasoline methanol blends and gasaline ethanol blends. The results showed that in principle, from kechnological aspects it's possible to use alcohols as a gasoline extender or as alcohol's gasoline, blends for automobiles. With regard to energy consumptions alcohols and alcohols gasoline blends lead to interesting results. The fuel economy benefits of using alcohols gasoline blends was found to be interesting in the part throltle operation.

  19. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Heywood, John; Jo, Young Suk; Lewis, Raymond; Bromberg, Leslie; Heywood, John

    2016-01-29

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  20. Health effects of inhaled gasoline engine emissions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D; Campen, Matthew J; Barrett, Edward G; Seagrave, JeanClare; Mauderly, Joe L

    2007-01-01

    Despite their prevalence in the environment, and the myriad studies that have shown associations between morbidity or mortality with proximity to roadways (proxy for motor vehicle exposures), relatively little is known about the toxicity of gasoline engine emissions (GEE). We review the studies conducted on GEE to date, and summarize the findings from each of these studies. While there have been several studies, most of the studies were conducted prior to 1980 and thus were not conducted with contemporary engines, fuels, and driving cycles. In addition, many of the biological assays conducted during those studies did not include many of the assays that are conducted on contemporary inhalation exposures to air pollutants, including cardiovascular responses and others. None of the exposures from these earlier studies were characterized at the level of detail that would be considered adequate today. A recent GEE study was conducted as part of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (www.nercenter.org). In this study several in-use mid-mileage General Motors (Chevrolet S-10) vehicles were purchased and utilized for inhalation exposures. An exposure protocol was developed where engines were operated with a repeating California Unified Driving Cycle with one cold start per day. Two separate engines were used to provide two cold starts over a 6-h inhalation period. The exposure atmospheres were characterized in detail, including detailed chemical and physical analysis of the gas, vapor, and particle phase. Multiple rodent biological models were studied, including general toxicity and inflammation (e.g., serum chemistry, lung lavage cell counts/differentials, cytokine/chemokine analysis, histopathology), asthma (adult and in utero exposures with pulmonary function and biochemical analysis), cardiovascular effects (biochemical and electrocardiograph changes in susceptible rodent models), and susceptibility to infection (Pseudomonas bacteria challenge). GEE resulted in

  1. PAH emission from a gasoline-powdered engine

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, H.H.; Lee, W.J.; Wang, L.C.; Lin, T.A.; Chao, H.R.; Wu, T.L.

    1996-09-01

    A gasoline powered engine operated on a dynamometer was used to investigate the PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) emission. A 95-leadfree gasoline (95-LFG) and a premium leaded gasoline (PLG) were used as power-fuels. The engine was simulated for the idling condition and for the cruising speeds at 40, 80 and 110 km/hr. The concentrations of 21 individual PAHs in the engine exhaust, gasolines, and the ambient air were determined. Engine exhaust samples were collected by a PAH sampling system, while the ambient air sample was collected by using a standard PS-1 sampler. Twenty one individual PAHs were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Naphthalene (Nap) has the highest concentration in the liquid phase of both 95-LFG and PLG, in which it accounts for respectively 98.3% and 76.6% of the total PAH. In terms of the mean fraction of the total PAHs entering the 95-LFG and PLG engines, the ambient air contributed less than 0.108% and 0.012%, respectively. Gasoline is the major PAH supplier for the automobile engine. By monitoring the PAH output/input mass ratios, the fuel combustion was found to be a generation process for 11 PAHs; and a depletion process for the rest 10 PAHs, in both 95-LFG and PLG powered engines. The mean emission factors of BaP were 2.92 and 2.47 {mu}g/km for 95-LFG and PLG powered engines, respectively. 11 refs., 12 tabs.

  2. 40 CFR 86.335-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle. 86... Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.335-79 Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle. (a) The following test sequence shall be followed in...

  3. 40 CFR 86.335-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle. 86... Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.335-79 Gasoline-fueled engine test cycle. (a) The following test sequence shall be followed in...

  4. Basic Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This packet contains a program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for the implementation of a basic gasoline engine mechanics program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, lists job titles under the program, and includes a…

  5. 12. Detail of clutch and backup gasoline engine for powering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail of clutch and backup gasoline engine for powering Stoney gates. Clutch mechanism manufactured by Baldridge Machine Company, Detroit, Michigan, ca. 1910. Instrument to the left records volume of flow through headworks. View looking south towards Stoney gates. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  6. Basic Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This packet contains a program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for the implementation of a basic gasoline engine mechanics program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, lists job titles under the program, and includes a…

  7. 35. MODEL T GASOLINE ENGINE. USED TO PUMP WATER FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. MODEL T GASOLINE ENGINE. USED TO PUMP WATER FROM THE ARTISAN WELL (THROUGH THE DOORWAY) TO THE CISTERN ON THE ROOF. WATER WAS THEN FED BY GRAVITY TO THE REST OF THE FACTORY. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  8. Some Notes on Gasoline-Engine Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricardo, H R

    1927-01-01

    Experiments were carried out using a special engine with small glass windows and a stroboscope to record various aspects of engine performance. Valve position, supercharging, and torque recoil were all investigated with this experimental apparatus.

  9. On the knocking of gasoline engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Ludwig

    1926-01-01

    It is of the greatest importance, not only for automobile engines, but also for every other kind of internal combustion engine, since it limits the degree of compression and the thermal efficiency and its investigation indicates ways for saving fuel.

  10. TJ-jet chamber of gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Youjun, L.; Xiujing, S.; Yinlong, L.; Shixiong, W.; Jieping, L.

    1988-08-09

    A cylinder head assembly is described for an internal combustion engine having at least one piston mounted for reciprocation within a cylinder space defined in an engine block, the cylinder space having a clearance space.

  11. Comparison of immunotoxic effects induced by the extracts from methanol and gasoline engine exhausts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Che, Wangjun; Liu, Guiming; Qiu, Hong; Zhang, Hao; Ran, Yun; Zeng, Xianggui; Wen, Weihua; Shu, Ya

    2010-06-01

    Gasoline engine exhaust has been considered as a major source of air pollution in China. Due to lower cyto- and geno-toxicity effects of methanol engine exhaust, methanol is regarded as a potential substitute for gasoline. We have previously compared cyto- and geno-toxicities of gasoline engine exhaust with that of methanol engine exhaust in A549 cells (Zhang et al., 2007).To characterize the immunotoxic effects for gasoline and methanol engine exhausts in immune cell, in this study, we further compared effects of gasoline and methanol engine exhausts on immune function in RAW264.7 cell and rabbit alveolar macrophages. Results showed that both gasoline and methanol engine exhaust could evidently inhibit RAW264.7 cell proliferation, promote RAW264.7 cell apoptosis, decrease E-rosette formation rate and inhibit anti-tumor effects of alveolar macrophages, at the same time, these effects of gasoline engine exhaust were far stronger than those of methanol engine exhaust. In addition, gasoline engine exhaust could significantly inhibit activities of ADCC of alveolar macrophages, but methanol engine exhaust could not. These results suggested that both gasoline and methanol engine exhausts might be immunotoxic atmospheric pollutants, but some effects of gasoline engine exhaust on immunotoxicities may be far stronger than that of methanol engine exhaust.

  12. [Oxidative damage of gasoline engine exhausts to rat lung tissues].

    PubMed

    Che, Wang-Jun; Wang, Ling; Luo, Qing-Ying; Wu, Mei; Zhang, Zun-Zhen

    2009-01-01

    To study the effects of extracts of condensate, particulates and semivolatile organic compounds from gasoline engine exhaust on DNA damage, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1) expression, and changes of ultra-structures in lungs of rats. Organic extracts of gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) was intratrachealy instilled into rat lungs at 0, 5.6, 16.7, and 50.0 L/kg body weight, respectively, once a week for a month. The single DNA strand break was measured by comet assay. The OGG1 was determined using immunohistochemistry method. The ultrastructure of lung cells was observed with electronic microscope. The rates of tailed cells detected by the comet assay increased significantly when the rats were exposed to 16.7 and 50.0 L/kg of GEE compared with those exposed to solvent only (P < 0.05). However, the tail length did not differ significantly between the groups. Similarly, exposure to 16.7 and 50.0 L/kg of GEE led to increased OGG1 significantly. Significant changes of mitochondria in type I and II alveolar cells as well as respiratory bronchiole epithelial cells were observed, which included decrease of numbers, pyknosis and swelling. Gasoline engine exhausts induce single DNA strand break, increase OGG1 expression, decrease numbers of mitochondria, and destroy ultrastructures of mitochondria in various lung cells of rats.

  13. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Terrance

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  14. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  15. Combustion behavior of gasoline and gasoline/ethanol blends in a modern direct-injection 4-cylinder engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, T.; Miers, S. A.

    2008-04-01

    Early in 2007 President Bush announced in his State of the Union Address a plan to off-set 20% of gasoline with alternative fuels in the next ten years. Ethanol, due to its excellent fuel properties for example, high octane number, renewable character, etc., appears to be a favorable alternative fuel from an engine perspective. Replacing gasoline with ethanol without any additional measures results in unacceptable disadvantages mainly in terms of vehicle range.

  16. Camshaft surface temperatures in fired-gasoline engines

    SciTech Connect

    McGeehan, J.A.; Graham, J.P.; Yamaguchi, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors of this paper measured camshaft surface temperatures in to different gasoline engines: a Ford 2.3-litter overhead-camshaft engine with finger-follower and an Oldsmobile V-8 5.7-liter engine with rotating tappets and pushrods. Using unique surface thermocouples in the cam-lobes, we found that maximum cam-lob temperature occur at the cam-nose and increase linearly with speed and oil temperature. At high speed, the rotating tappet produced lower temperatures that the finger-follower. In addition, at maximum speed the cam-lobe temperatures in the ASTM Sequence V-D and IIID tests were similar--200{degrees} C. The similarity in these surface temperatures explains why both engines require similar zinc dithiophosphates (SnDTP) for wear control. The surface temperature controls the surface chemistry.

  17. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100, must...

  18. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100, must...

  19. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100, must...

  20. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100, must...

  1. Emissions and Total Energy Consumption of a Multicylinder Piston Engine Running on Gasoline and a Hydrogen-gasoline Mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    A multicylinder reciprocating engine was used to extend the efficient lean operating range of gasoline by adding hydrogen. Both bottled hydrogen and hydrogen produced by a research methanol steam reformer were used. These results were compared with results for all gasoline. A high-compression-ratio, displacement production engine was used. Apparent flame speed was used to describe the differences in emissions and performance. Therefore, engine emissions and performance, including apparent flame speed and energy lost to the cooling system and the exhaust gas, were measured over a range of equivalence ratios for each fuel. All emission levels decreased at the leaner conditions. Adding hydrogen significantly increased flame speed over all equivalence ratios.

  2. Gas emissions and engine behavior when gasoline-alcohol mixtures are used.

    PubMed

    Arapatsakos, C I; Karkanis, A N; Sparis, P D

    2003-09-01

    This paper deals with the use of gasoline-methanol and gasoline-ethanol mixtures in a small four-stroke engine of internal combustion that is used for the movement of a small alternative generator. It was observed that CO and HC emissions decrease compared to gasoline when the percentage of methanol, ethanol in the fuel was increased, under different load conditions (without load conditions and under full electrical load conditions). The use of gasoline-methanol mixtures showed a higher decrease of emissions. When the mixtures of gasoline-70%methanol and gasoline-90%ethanol and 100%ethanol for which the engine malfunctioned, the rpm of the engine were not constant and the emissions were increased. It is also important that (with the existing regulation of the fuel/air ratio that refers to gasoline) the engine functioned for the case of gasoline-methanol mixtures up to a concentration of -70%methanol mixture, while for the case of gasoline-ethanol mixtures until the use of 100%ethanol. Furthermore, during the use of the mixtures of gasoline-methanol and gasoline-ethanol there was a small increase of fuel consumption when the percentage of the methanol or ethanol in the fuel was increased.

  3. Fundamental Interactions in Gasoline Compression Ignition Engines with Fuel Stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolk, Benjamin Matthew

    Transportation accounted for 28% of the total U.S. energy demand in 2011, with 93% of U.S. transportation energy coming from petroleum. The large impact of the transportation sector on global climate change necessitates more-efficient, cleaner-burning internal combustion engine operating strategies. One such strategy that has received substantial research attention in the last decade is Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). Although the efficiency and emissions benefits of HCCI are well established, practical limits on the operating range of HCCI engines have inhibited their application in consumer vehicles. One such limit is at high load, where the pressure rise rate in the combustion chamber becomes excessively large. Fuel stratification is a potential strategy for reducing the maximum pressure rise rate in HCCI engines. The aim is to introduce reactivity gradients through fuel stratification to promote sequential auto-ignition rather than a bulk-ignition, as in the homogeneous case. A gasoline-fueled compression ignition engine with fuel stratification is termed a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine. Although a reasonable amount of experimental research has been performed for fuel stratification in GCI engines, a clear understanding of how the fundamental in-cylinder processes of fuel spray evaporation, mixing, and heat release contribute to the observed phenomena is lacking. Of particular interest is gasoline's pressure sensitive low-temperature chemistry and how it impacts the sequential auto-ignition of the stratified charge. In order to computationally study GCI with fuel stratification using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and chemical kinetics, two reduced mechanisms have been developed. The reduced mechanisms were developed from a large, detailed mechanism with about 1400 species for a 4-component gasoline surrogate. The two versions of the reduced mechanism developed in this work are: (1) a 96-species version and (2

  4. An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

  5. Comparison of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by the extracts of methanol and gasoline engine exhausts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zunzhen; Che, Wangjun; Liang, Ying; Wu, Mei; Li, Na; Shu, Ya; Liu, Fang; Wu, Desheng

    2007-09-01

    Gasoline engine exhaust has been considered a major source of air pollution in China, and methanol is considered as a potential substitute for gasoline fuel. In this study, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of organic extracts of condensate, particulate matters (PM) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) of gasoline and absolute methanol engine exhaust were examined by using MTT assay, micronucleus assay, comet assay and Ames test. The results have showed that gasoline engine exhaust exhibited stronger cytotoxicity to human lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 cell) than methanol engine exhaust. Furthermore, gasoline engine exhaust increased micronucleus formation, induced DNA damage in A549 cells and increased TA98 revertants in the presence of metabolic activating enzymes in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, methanol engine exhaust failed to exhibit these adverse effects. The results suggest methanol may be used as a cleaner fuel for automobile.

  6. 76 FR 44405 - Regulation To Mitigate the Misfueling of Vehicles and Engines With Gasoline Containing Greater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... production, importation, distribution, marketing, or retailing of diesel fuel and production of gasoline...,\\2\\ and nonroad engines, vehicles, and equipment; \\3\\ (2) labeling requirements for fuel pumps that... over 80 comments from fuel providers, manufacturers of vehicles, engines and gasoline-powered...

  7. Generation and characterization of gasoline engine exhaust inhalation exposure atmospheres.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jacob D; Barr, Edward B; White, Richard K; Kracko, Dean; Chow, Judith C; Zielinska, Barbara; Grosjean, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Exposure atmospheres for a rodent inhalation toxicology study were generated from the exhaust of a 4.3-L gasoline engine coupled to a dynamometer and operated on an adapted California Unified Driving Cycle. Exposure levels were maintained at three different dilution rates. One chamber at the lowest dilution had particles removed by filtration. Each exposure atmosphere was characterized for particle mass, particle number, particle size distribution, and detailed chemical speciation. The majority of the mass in the exposure atmospheres was gaseous carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organics, with small amounts of particle-bound carbon/ions and metals. The atmospheres varied according to the cycle, with the largest spikes in volatile organic and inorganic species shown during the "cold start" portion of the cycle. Ammonia present from the exhaust and rodents interacted with the gasoline exhaust to form secondary inorganic particles, and an increase in exhaust resulted in higher proportions of secondary inorganics as a portion of the total particle mass. Particle size had a median of 10-20 nm by number and approximately 150 nm by mass. Volatile organics matched the composition of the fuel, with large proportions of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons coupled to low amounts of oxygenated organics. A new measurement technique revealed organics reacting with nitrogen oxides have likely resulted in measurement bias in previous studies of combustion emissions. Identified and measured particle organic species accounted for about 10% of total organic particle mass and were mostly aliphatic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  8. High-Speed Visualisation of Combustion in Modern Gasoline Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, W.; Nauwerck, A.; Han, K.-M.; Pfeil, J.; Velji, A.; Spicher, U.

    2006-07-01

    Today research and development in the field of gasoline engines have to face a double challenge: on the one hand, fuel consumption has to be reduced, while on the other hand, ever more stringent emission standards have to be fulfilled. The development of engines with its complexity of in-cylinder processes requires modern development tools to exploit the full potential in order to reduce fuel consumption. Especially optical, non-intrusive measurement techniques will help to get a better understanding of the processes. With the presented high-speed visualisation system the electromagnetic radiation from combustion in the UV range is collected by an endoscope and transmitted to a visualisation system by 10, 000 optical fibres. The signal is projected to 1, 920 photomultipliers, which convert the optical into electric signals with a maximum temporal resolution of 200 kHz. This paper shows the systematic application of flame diagnostics in modern combustion systems. For this purpose, a single-cylinder SI engine has been modified for a spray guided combustion strategy as well as for HCCI. The characteristics of flame propagation in both combustion modes were recorded and correlated with thermodynamic analyses. In case of the spray guided GDI engine, high pressure fuel injection was applied and evaluated.

  9. Gasolines and Engine Oils: Literature Review, New Laboratory Oxidation Method, and Significance of Olefins in Fuel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    stirring both the sample and the heating oil bath. This method was applied to gasoline, its components, and contaminants and to engine oil and its...Effects of Nitrogen Compounds 3 4. Reactivity of Hydrocarbons 3 5. Storage Stability of Gasoline-Gum Formation 3 6. Mechanism of Deposit and Gum... Formation 4 7. Free Radical Oxidation Mechanism 4 8. Effects of Olefins 4 9. Conclusions of Gasoline Review 5 III REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON OIL OXIDATION I

  10. Utilization of LPG and gasoline engine exhaust emissions by microalgae.

    PubMed

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Duygu, Ergin; Ilbaş, Mustafa; Dönmez, Gönül

    2013-02-15

    The effect of engine exhaust emissions on air pollution is one of the greatest problems that the world is facing today. The study focused on the effects of realistic levels of engine exhaust emissions of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline (GSN) on Phormidium sp. and Chlorella sp. Multi parameters including pH, different medial compositions, fuel types, flow rates and biomass concentrations were described in detail. Effects of some growth factors such as triacontanol (TRIA) and salicylic acid (SA) have also been tested. The maximum biomass concentration of Phormidium sp. reached after 15 days at 0.36 and 0.15 g/L initial biomass concentrations were found as 1.160 g/L for LPG emission treated cultures and 1.331 g/L for GSN emission treated cultures, respectively. The corresponding figures were 1.478 g/L for LPG emission treated cultures and 1.636 g/L for GSN emission treated cultures at 0.65 and 0.36 g/L initial Chlorella sp. biomass concentrations. This study highlights the significance of using Phormidium sp. and Chlorella sp. for utilization of LPG and GSN engine exhaust emissions by the help of growth factors.

  11. Intermediate Volatility Organic Compound Emissions from On-Road Gasoline Vehicles and Small Off-Road Gasoline Engines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunliang; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Presto, Albert A; Hennigan, Christopher J; May, Andrew A; Robinson, Allen L

    2016-04-19

    Dynamometer experiments were conducted to characterize the intermediate volatility organic compound (IVOC) emissions from a fleet of on-road gasoline vehicles and small off-road gasoline engines. IVOCs were quantified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of adsorbent samples collected from a constant volume sampler. The dominant fraction (>80%, on average) of IVOCs could not be resolved on a molecular level. These unspeciated IVOCs were quantified as two chemical classes (unspeciated branched alkanes and cyclic compounds) in 11 retention-time-based bins. IVOC emission factors (mg kg-fuel(-1)) from on-road vehicles varied widely from vehicle to vehicle, but showed a general trend of lower emissions for newer vehicles that met more stringent emission standards. IVOC emission factors for 2-stroke off-road engines were substantially higher than 4-stroke off-road engines and on-road vehicles. Despite large variations in the magnitude of emissions, the IVOC volatility distribution and chemical characteristics were consistent across all tests and IVOC emissions were strongly correlated with nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), primary organic aerosol and speciated IVOCs. Although IVOC emissions only correspond to approximately 4% of NMHC emissions from on-road vehicles over the cold-start unified cycle, they are estimated to produce as much or more SOA than single-ring aromatics. Our results clearly demonstrate that IVOCs from gasoline engines are an important class of SOA precursors and provide observational constraints on IVOC emission factors and chemical composition to facilitate their inclusion into atmospheric chemistry models.

  12. Laser-induced ignition of gasoline direct-injection engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedl, Gerhard; Schuoecker, Dieter; Geringer, B.; Graf, J.; Klawatsch, D.; Lenz, H. P.; Piock, W. F.; Jetzinger, M.; Kapus, P.

    2005-03-01

    A q-switched Nd:YAG laser as well as an excimer laser with an unstable resonator have been used for ignition of combustion processes. Following first experiments with a combustion bomb a gasoline direct injection engine has been modified for laser ignition by installation of a focusing element and a beam entrance window. It was possible with the q-switched Nd:YAG laser which delivers short pulses with a duration of lesss than 6 ns to ignite the engine for several 100 hours without problems. Compared to conventional spark ignition, laser ignition allows a more flexible choice of the ignition location inside the combustion chamber with the possibility to ignite even inside the fuel spray. Measurements of fuel consumption and emissions prove that laser ignition has important advantages compared to conventional spark ignition systems. Experiments with the direct injection engine have been carried out at the fundamental wavelength of the Nd:YAG laser as well as with a frequency doubled system. No differences in the minimal pulse energy needed for ignition could be found, since the minimal pulse energy for ignition is mainly determined by the ablation thresholds of combustion deposits at the surface of the window to the combustion chamber. Such combustion deposits reduce the transparency of the window where the laser beam enters the combustion chamber and a "self-cleaning" mechanism of the window by ablation is essential for successful operation. Experiments show that above a certain threshold intensity of the laser beam at the window even highly polluted surfaces could be cleaned with teh first laser pulse which is important for operation in real-world engines. Theoretically calculated energy values for laser ignition are much lower since such mechanisms are usually not considered. Power and space requirements on possible future development of laser ignition systems are discussed briefly. Several concepts for laser ignition, like diode-pumped solid state lasers (DPSS

  13. Gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, O.A.; Smith, G.G.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes a method for improving the quality and performance of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: introducing gasoline into the fuel tank of the internal combustion engine; and adding to the gasoline, in an amount effective to improve the performance of an internal combustion engine, a stable dispersion of 3 to 20 volume percent of a compound consisting essentially of polyoxyethylene sorbitol polyoleate in a gasoline-miscible oxygenated organic solvent; and operating the engine.

  14. Health effects of subchronic inhalation exposure to gasoline engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Reed, M D; Barrett, E G; Campen, M J; Divine, K K; Gigliotti, A P; McDonald, J D; Seagrave, J C; Mauderly, J L; Seilkop, S K; Swenberg, J A

    2008-10-01

    Gasoline engine emissions are a ubiquitous source of exposure to complex mixtures of particulate matter (PM) and non-PM pollutants; yet their health hazards have received little study in comparison with those of diesel emissions. As a component of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) multipollutant research program, F344 and SHR rats and A/J, C57BL/6, and BALBc mice were exposed 6 h/day, 7 days/week for 1 week to 6 months to exhaust from 1996 General Motors 4.3-L engines burning national average fuel on a simulated urban operating cycle. Exposure groups included whole exhaust diluted 1:10, 1:15, or 1:90, filtered exhaust at the 1:10 dilution, or clean air controls. Evaluations included organ weight, histopathology, hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage, cardiac electrophysiology, micronuclei in circulating cells, DNA methylation and oxidative injury, clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the lung, and development of respiratory allergic responses to ovalbumin. Among the 120 outcome variables, only 20 demonstrated significant exposure effects. Several statistically significant effects appeared isolated and were not supported by related variables. The most coherent and consistent effects were those related to increased red blood cells, interpreted as likely to have resulted from exposure to 13-107 ppm carbon monoxide. Other effects supported by multiple variables included mild lung irritation and depression of oxidant production by alveolar macrophages. The lowest exposure level caused no significant effects. Because only 6 of the 20 significant effects appeared to be substantially reversed by PM filtration, the majority of effects were apparently caused by non-PM components of exhaust.

  15. Evaluation of Knock Behavior for Natural Gas - Gasoline Blends in a Light Duty Spark Ignited Engine

    DOE PAGES

    Pamminger, Michael; Sevik, James; Scarcelli, Riccardo; ...

    2016-01-01

    The compression ratio is a strong lever to increase the efficiency of an internal combustion engine. However, among others, it is limited by the knock resistance of the fuel used. Natural gas shows a higher knock resistance compared to gasoline, which makes it very attractive for use in internal combustion engines. The current paper describes the knock behavior of two gasoline fuels, and specific incylinder blend ratios with one of the gasoline fuels and natural gas. The engine used for these investigations is a single cylinder research engine for light duty application which is equipped with two separate fuel systems.more » Both fuels can be used simultaneously which allows for gasoline to be injected into the intake port and natural gas to be injected directly into the cylinder to overcome the power density loss usually connected with port fuel injection of natural gas. Adding natural gas at wide open throttle helps to reduce knock mitigating measures and increases the efficiency and power density compared to the other gasoline type fuels with lower knock resistance. The used methods, knock intensity and number of pressure waves, do not show significant differences in knock behavior for the natural gas - gasoline blends compared to the gasoline type fuels. A knock integral was used to describe the knock onset location of the fuels tested. Two different approaches were used to determine the experimental knock onset and were compared to the knock onset delivered by the knock integral (chemical knock onset). The gasoline type fuels show good agreement between chemical and experimental knock onset. However, the natural gas -gasoline blends show higher discrepancies comparing chemical and experimental knock onset.« less

  16. Evaluation of Knock Behavior for Natural Gas - Gasoline Blends in a Light Duty Spark Ignited Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Pamminger, Michael; Sevik, James; Scarcelli, Riccardo; Wallner, Thomas; Wooldridge, Steven; Boyer, Brad; Hall, Carrie M.

    2016-10-17

    The compression ratio is a strong lever to increase the efficiency of an internal combustion engine. However, among others, it is limited by the knock resistance of the fuel used. Natural gas shows a higher knock resistance compared to gasoline, which makes it very attractive for use in internal combustion engines. The current paper describes the knock behavior of two gasoline fuels, and specific incylinder blend ratios with one of the gasoline fuels and natural gas. The engine used for these investigations is a single cylinder research engine for light duty application which is equipped with two separate fuel systems. Both fuels can be used simultaneously which allows for gasoline to be injected into the intake port and natural gas to be injected directly into the cylinder to overcome the power density loss usually connected with port fuel injection of natural gas. Adding natural gas at wide open throttle helps to reduce knock mitigating measures and increases the efficiency and power density compared to the other gasoline type fuels with lower knock resistance. The used methods, knock intensity and number of pressure waves, do not show significant differences in knock behavior for the natural gas - gasoline blends compared to the gasoline type fuels. A knock integral was used to describe the knock onset location of the fuels tested. Two different approaches were used to determine the experimental knock onset and were compared to the knock onset delivered by the knock integral (chemical knock onset). The gasoline type fuels show good agreement between chemical and experimental knock onset. However, the natural gas -gasoline blends show higher discrepancies comparing chemical and experimental knock onset.

  17. Primary Emission and the Potential of Secondary Aerosol Formation from Chinese Gasoline Engine Exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Qin, Yanhong; Du, Zhuofei; Li, Mengjin; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Guo, Song; Shao, Min; Wang, Yinhui; Shuai, Shijin

    2017-04-01

    Along with the urbanization and economic growth, vehicle population in China reached 269 million, ranked the second in the world in 2015. Gasoline vehicle is identified to be the main source for urban PM2.5 in China, accounting for 15%-31%. In this study the impact of fuel components on PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from a gasoline port fuel injection (PFI) engine and a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine are discussed. Results show that, higher proportion of aromatics, alkenes or sulfur in gasoline fuel will lead to higher PM emissions. The PM from the PFI engine mainly consists of OC and a small amount of EC and inorganic ions, while the PM discharge from the GDI engine mainly consists of EC, OM and a small amount of inorganic ions. Since the GDI engines can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, and it would become more and more popular in the near future. The characteristics of POM component, emission factors and source profile were investigated from GDI engine, particularly focused on the effect of engine speed, load and the catalyst, which will be very much helpful for source identification as source indicators. Chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from exhaust of a PFI gasoline engine and China V gasoline fuel. During 4-5 h simulation, equivalent to10 days of atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing, the extreme SOA production was 426 ± 85 mg/kg fuel, with high precursors and OH exposure. 14% of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatility organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reduction of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles is essential to mediate pollution in China.

  18. Studies on exhaust emissions of catalytic coated spark ignition engine with adulterated gasoline.

    PubMed

    Muralikrishna, M V S; Kishor, K; Venkata Ramana Reddy, Ch

    2006-04-01

    Adulteration of automotive fuels, especially, gasoline with cheaper fuels is widespread throughout south Asia. Some adulterants decrease the performance and life of the engine and increase the emission of harmful pollutants causing environmental and health problems. The present investigation is carried out to study the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine with kerosene blended gasoline with different versions of the engine, such as conventional engine and catalytic coated engine with different proportions of the kerosene ranging from 0% to 40% by volume in steps of 10% in the kerosene-gasoline blend. The catalytic coated engine used in the study has copper coating of thickness 400 microns on piston and inner surface of the cylinder head. The pollutants in the exhaust, carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (UBHC) are measured with Netel Chromatograph CO and HC analyzer at peak load operation of the engine. The engine is provided with catalytic converter with sponge iron as a catalyst to control the pollutants from the exhaust of the engine. An air injection is also provided to the catalytic converter to further reduce the pollutants. The pollutants found to increase drastically with adulterated gasoline. Copper-coated engine with catalytic converter significantly reduced pollutants, when compared to conventional engine.

  19. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  20. Effects of Biofuel and Variant Ambient Pressure on FlameDevelopment and Emissions of Gasoline Engine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Akasha; Khalid, Amir; Sapit, Azwan; Samsudin, Dahrum

    2016-11-01

    There are many technologies about exhaust emissions reduction for wide variety of spark ignition (SI) engine have been considered as the improvement throughout the combustion process. The stricter on legislation of emission and demands of lower fuel consumption needs to be priority in order to satisfy the demand of emission quality. Besides, alternative fuel such as methanol-gasoline blends is used as working fluid in this study due to its higher octane number and self-sustain concept which capable to contribute positive effect to the combustion process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of methanol-gasoline fuel with different blending ratio and variant ambient pressures on flame development and emission for gasoline engine. An experimental study is carried towards to the flame development of methanol-gasoline fuel in a constant volume chamber. Schlieren optical visualization technique is a visual process that used when high sensitivity is required to photograph the flow of fluids of varying density used for captured the combustion images in the constant volume chamber and analysed through image processing technique. Apart from that, the result showed combustion burn rate increased when the percentage of methanol content in gasoline increased. Thus, high percentage of methanol-gasoline blends gave greater flame development area. Moreover, the emissions of CO, NOX and HC are performed a reduction when the percentage of methanol content in gasoline is increased. Contrarily, the emission of Carbon dioxide, CO2 is increased due to the combustion process is enhanced.

  1. Combustion parameters of spark ignition engine using waste potato bioethanol and gasoline blended fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Abasian, M.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the combustion parameters of a SI engine operating on bioethanol-gasoline blends (E0-E20: 20% bioethanol and 80% gasoline by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for bioethanol production from potato wastes. The results showed that increasing the bioethanol content in the blend fuel will decrease the heating value of the blended fuel and increase the octane number. Combustion parameters were evaluated and analyzed at different engine speeds and loads (1000-5000 rpm). The results revealed that using bioethanol-gasoline blended fuels will increase the cylinder pressure and its 1st and 2nd derivatives (P(θ), P•(θ) and P••(θ)). Moreover, using bioethanol- gasoline blends will increase the heat release (Q•(θ)) and worked of the cycle. This improvement was due to the high oxygen percentage in the ethanol.

  2. Batu Pahat Driving Cycle for Light Duty Gasoline Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainul Abidin, Zainul Ameerul Ikhsan B.; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Ahmad, Osman Bin

    2017-08-01

    Driving cycle is a series of data points that represents the vehicle speed versus time. Transient driving cycles involve many changes such as frequent speed changes during typical on-road driving condition [2]. Model driving cycles involve protracted periods at constant speeds. The Batu Pahat Driving Cycle (BPDC) developed to represent the driving pattern of people in a district of Batu Pahat. Based on this driving cycle, it will be a reference to other researchers to study about the gases emission release and fuel consumption by the vehicle on the dynamometer or automotive simulation based on this driving cycle. Existing driving cycles used such as the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the Federal Test Procedure (FTP-72/75, and Japan 10-15 Mode Cycle is not appropriate for Batu Pahat district because of different road conditions, driving habits and environmental of developed driving cycle countries are not same [2][14]. Batu Pahat drive cycle was developed for low-capacity gasoline engine under 150 cc and operating on urban roads, rural roads and road around Universiti Tun Hussein Onn. The importance of these driving cycle as the reference for other research to measure and do automotive simulation regarding fuel consumption and gas emission release from the motorcycle for these three type of driving cycle area. Another use for driving cycles is in vehicle simulations [3]. More specifically, they are used in propulsion system simulations to predict the performance of internal combustion engines, transmissions, electric drive systems, batteries, fuel cell systems, and similar components [18]. Data collection methods used in this study is the use of Global Positioning System (GPS). The results obtained are not similar to each other due to differences in congestion on data taken. From the driving cycle graph obtained, such as the average velocity, maximum velocity, the duration and Positive Acceleration Kinetic Energy (PKE) can be determined. In addition, the best

  3. Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-14

    The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.

  4. Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

    DOE PAGES

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-14

    The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over amore » variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.« less

  5. Effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on small engine generator energy efficiency and exhaust emission.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Yinn; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Hsieh, You-Ru

    2010-02-01

    This study was focused on fuel energy efficiency and pollution analysis of different ratios of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels (E0, E3, E6, and E9) under different loadings. In this research, the experimental system consisted of a small engine generator, a particulate matter measurement system, and an exhaust gas analyzer system. Different fuels, unleaded gasoline, and ethanol-gasoline blends (E0, E3, E6, and E9) were used to study their effects on the exhaust gas emission and were expressed as thermal efficiency of the small engine generator energy efficiency. The results suggested that particle number concentration increased as the engine loading increased; however, it decreased as the ethanol content in the blend increased. While using E6 as fuel, the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration was less than other fuels (E0, E3, and E9) for each engine loading. The average of CO concentration reduction by using E3, E6, and E9 is 42, 86, and 83%, respectively. Using an ethanol-gasoline blend led to a significant reduction in exhaust emissions by approximately 78.7, 97.5, and 89.46% of the mean average values of hydrocarbons (HCs) with E3, E6, and E9 fuels, respectively, for all engine loadings. Using an ethanol-gasoline blend led to a significant reduction in exhaust emissions by approximately 35, 86, and 77% of the mean average values of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with E3, E6, and E9 fuels, respectively, at each engine loading. The E6 fuel gave the best results of the exhaust emissions, and the E9 fuel gave the best results of the particle emissions and engine performance. The thermal efficiency of the small engine generator increased as the ethanol content in the blend increased and as the engine loading increased.

  6. An assessment of combustion products of spark ignition engines supplied by ethanol - gasoline blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzuneanu, K.; Golgotiu, E.

    2016-08-01

    The causes of environmental pollution by internal combustion engines arise from the use of fuels containing bounded carbon, from the fact that combustion takes place on a cyclic basis and at high temperature. The first and the last causes are directly related to the fuel and therefore there is in principle a possibility to reduce pollution by acting upon the fuel used. The present paper deals with the comparison of the level of combustion products of a spark ignition engine supplied by gasoline and by a mixture of 10 % ethanol - 90% gasoline.

  7. Cycle Engine Modelling Of Spark Ignition Engine Processes during Wide-Open Throttle (WOT) Engine Operation Running By Gasoline Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, M. F. Abdul; Rahman, M. M.; Bakar, R. A.

    2012-09-01

    One-dimensional engine model is developed to simulate spark ignition engine processes in a 4-stroke, 4 cylinders gasoline engine. Physically, the baseline engine is inline cylinder engine with 3-valves per cylinder. Currently, the engine's mixture is formed by external mixture formation using piston-type carburettor. The model of the engine is based on one-dimensional equation of the gas exchange process, isentropic compression and expansion, progressive engine combustion process, and accounting for the heat transfer and frictional losses as well as the effect of valves overlapping. The model is tested for 2000, 3000 and 4000 rpm of engine speed and validated using experimental engine data. Results showed that the engine is able to simulate engine's combustion process and produce reasonable prediction. However, by comparing with experimental data, major discrepancy is noticeable especially on the 2000 and 4000 rpm prediction. At low and high engine speed, simulated cylinder pressures tend to under predict the measured data. Whereas the cylinder temperatures always tend to over predict the measured data at all engine speed. The most accurate prediction is obtained at medium engine speed of 3000 rpm. Appropriate wall heat transfer setup is vital for more precise calculation of cylinder pressure and temperature. More heat loss to the wall can lower cylinder temperature. On the hand, more heat converted to the useful work mean an increase in cylinder pressure. Thus, instead of wall heat transfer setup, the Wiebe combustion parameters are needed to be carefully evaluated for better results.

  8. A study on emission characteristics of an EFI engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bang-Quan; Wang, Jian-Xin; Hao, Ji-Ming; Yan, Xiao-Guang; Xiao, Jian-Hua

    The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on emissions and catalyst conversion efficiencies was investigated in a spark ignition engine with an electronic fuel injection (EFI) system. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the octane number of the blended fuels and changes distillation temperature. Ethanol can decrease engine-out regulated emissions. The fuel containing 30% ethanol by volume can drastically reduce engine-out total hydrocarbon emissions (THC) at operating conditions and engine-out THC, CO and NO x emissions at idle speed, but unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions increase. Pt/Rh based three-way catalysts are effective in reducing acetaldehyde emissions, but the conversion of unburned ethanol is low. Tailpipe emissions of THC, CO and NO x have close relation to engine-out emissions, catalyst conversion efficiency, engine's speed and load, air/fuel equivalence ratio. Moreover, the blended fuels can decrease brake specific energy consumption.

  9. About the constructive and functional particularities of spark ignition engines with gasoline direct injection: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculae, M.; Ivan, F.; Neacsu, D.

    2017-08-01

    The paper aims to analyze and compare the environmental performances between a gasoline direct engine and a multi-point injection engine. There are analyzed the stages of emission formation during the New European Driving Cycle. The paper points out the dynamic, economic and environmental performances of spark ignition engines equipped with a GDI systems. Reason why, we believe the widespread implementation of this technology is today an immediate need.

  10. Study of the various factors influencing deposit formation and operation of gasoline engine injection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepien, Z.

    2016-09-01

    Generally, ethanol fuel emits less pollutants than gasoline, it is completely renewable product and has the potential to reduce greenhouse gases emission but, at the same time can present a multitude of technical challenges to engine operation conditions including creation of very adverse engine deposits. These deposits increasing fuel consumption and cause higher exhaust emissions as well as poor performance in drivability. This paper describes results of research and determination the various factors influencing injector deposits build-up of ethanol-gasoline blends operated engine. The relationship between ethanol-gasoline fuel blends composition, their treatment, engine construction as well as its operation conditions and fuel injectors deposit formation has been investigated. Simulation studies of the deposit formation endanger proper functioning of fuel injection system were carried out at dynamometer engine testing. As a result various, important factors influencing the deposit creation process and speed formation were determined. The ability to control of injector deposits by multifunctional detergent-dispersant additives package fit for ethanol-gasoline blends requirements was also investigated.

  11. Carbonyls emission from ethanol-blended gasoline and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel used in engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing; Yuan, Juan; He, Hong

    Detailed carbonyls emissions from ethanol-blended gasoline (containing 10% v/v, ethanol, E-10) and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel (BE-diesel) were carefully investigated on an EQ491i gasoline engine equipped with a three-way-catalyst (TWC) and a Commins-4B diesel engine. In engine-out emissions for the gasoline engine, total carbonyls from E-10 varied in the range of 66.7-99.4 mg kW -1 h -1, which was 3.1-8.2% less than those from fossil gasoline (E-0). In tailpipe emissions, total carbonyls from E-10 varied in the range of 9.2-20.7 mg kW -1 h -1, which were 3.0-61.7% higher than those from E-0. The total carbonyls emissions from BE-diesel were 1-22% higher than those from diesel at different engine operating conditions. Compared with fossil fuels, E-10 can slightly reduce CO emission, and BE-diesel can substantially decrease PM emission, while both alternative fuels increased slightly NO x emission.

  12. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  13. GASOLINE TRACTOR ENGINE SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION, COMPONENTS, AND FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS GASOLINE TRACTOR ENGINE SYSTEMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A…

  14. Conversion of Gasoline Engines to Use Ethanol as the Sole Fuel. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishler, Glenn; Spignesi, Bill

    This instructor's guide contains materials that are intended for use as part of the regular auto mechanics curriculum and that provide information necessary to convert a gasoline engine with a niminum of modifications to successfully be operated on ethanol alcohol. It accompanies a student guide that is available separately. Contents include a…

  15. Conversion of Gasoline Engines to Use Ethanol as the Sole Fuel. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishler, Glenn; Spignesi, Bill

    This instructor's guide contains materials that are intended for use as part of the regular auto mechanics curriculum and that provide information necessary to convert a gasoline engine with a niminum of modifications to successfully be operated on ethanol alcohol. It accompanies a student guide that is available separately. Contents include a…

  16. Conversion of Gasoline Engines to Use Ethanol as the Sole Fuel. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishler, Glenn; Spignesi, Bill

    This student guide is a learning packet that is intended for use as part of the regular auto mechanics curriculum and that provides the information necessary to convert a gasoline engine with a minimum of modifications to successfully be operated on ethanol alcohol. Contents include an introduction, objectives, procedures, list of tasks to be…

  17. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, OR SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN THE ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK…

  18. Conversion of Gasoline Engines to Use Ethanol as the Sole Fuel. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishler, Glenn; Spignesi, Bill

    This student guide is a learning packet that is intended for use as part of the regular auto mechanics curriculum and that provides the information necessary to convert a gasoline engine with a minimum of modifications to successfully be operated on ethanol alcohol. Contents include an introduction, objectives, procedures, list of tasks to be…

  19. 40 CFR 90.419 - Raw emission sampling calculations-gasoline fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.419 Raw emission sampling calculations—gasoline fueled..., use the following equations to determine the weighted emission values for the test engine: ER03JY95.016 Where: WHC = Mass rate of HC in exhaust , GAIRD = Intake air mass flow rate on dry basis ,...

  20. 40 CFR 90.419 - Raw emission sampling calculations-gasoline fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... KILOWATTS Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.419 Raw emission sampling calculations—gasoline fueled..., use the following equations to determine the weighted emission values for the test engine: ER03JY95.016 Where: WHC = Mass rate of HC in exhaust , GAIRD = Intake air mass flow rate on dry basis ,...

  1. Experimental investigation of gasoline compression ignition combustion in a light-duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeper, C. Paul

    Due to increased ignition delay and volatility, low temperature combustion (LTC) research utilizing gasoline fuel has experienced recent interest [1-3]. These characteristics improve air-fuel mixing prior to ignition allowing for reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot (or particulate matter, PM). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Engine Research Center (Ra et al. [4, 5]) have validated these attributes and established baseline operating parameters for a gasoline compression ignition (GCI) concept in a light-duty diesel engine over a large load range (3-16 bar net IMEP). In addition to validating these computational results, subsequent experiments at the Engine Research Center utilizing a single cylinder research engine based on a GM 1.9-liter diesel engine have progressed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition processes, and established the capability of critical controlling input parameters to better control GCI operation. The focus of this thesis can be divided into three segments: 1) establishment of operating requirements in the low-load operating limit, including operation sensitivities with respect to inlet temperature, and the capabilities of injection strategy to minimize NOx emissions while maintaining good cycle-to-cycle combustion stability; 2) development of novel three-injection strategies to extend the high load limit; and 3) having developed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition kinetics, and how changes in physical processes (e.g. engine speed effects, inlet pressure variation, and air-fuel mixture processes) affects operation, develop operating strategies to maintain robust engine operation. Collectively, experimental results have demonstrated the ability of GCI strategies to operate over a large load-speed range (3 bar to 17.8 bar net IMEP and 1300-2500 RPM, respectively) with low emissions (NOx and PM less than 1 g/kg-FI and 0.2 g/kg-FI, respectively), and low

  2. All about gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Day, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Increasingly sophisticated gasoline technology now makes gasoline more expensive to produce, but cheaper to buy, than in the early part of the century. Gasoline technology has kept pace with the sophistication of engines in the effort to find ways to produce gasoline of sufficient octane without using lead. Multi-port fuel injection engines caused problems for detergents in gasoline until Cononco installed mechanical injection systems to blend the detergent with gasoline at its terminals. Other problems will develop as computerized fuel controls and small, high horsepower engines enter the market, but the gasoline refiners will be working on their solutions.

  3. Safe genetically engineered plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  4. Oxidative damage of the extracts of condensate, particulate and semivolatile organic compounds from gasoline engine exhausts on testicles of rats.

    PubMed

    Che, Wangjun; Qiu, Hong; Liu, Guiming; Ran, Yun; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Li; Wen, Weihua

    2009-07-01

    Oxidative damage induced by extracts of condensate, particulate matters and semivolatile organic compounds from gasoline engine exhausts were investigated in testicles of adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that gasoline engine exhaust could increase the contents of malondialdehyde and carbonyl protein, decrease activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and induce DNA damage in testicle of rat. Taking together, the gasoline engine exhaust could promote oxidative damage of bio-macromolecular in testicles of rat and oxidative stress might be an alternative mechanism for male reproductive function of male mammals.

  5. The influence of thermal regime on gasoline direct injection engine performance and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahu, C. I.; Tarulescu, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental research regarding to the effects of a low thermal regime on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. During the experimental researches, the temperature of the coolant and oil used by the engine were modified 4 times (55, 65, 75 and 85 oC), monitoring the effects over the fuel consumption and emissions (CO2, CO and NOx). The variations in temperature of the coolant and oil have been achieved through AVL coolant and oil conditioning unit, integrated in the test bed. The obtained experimental results reveals the poor quality of exhaust gases and increases of fuel consumption for the gasoline direct injection engines that runs outside the optimal ranges for coolant and oil temperatures.

  6. The relative performance obtained with several methods of control of an overcompressed engine using gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, Arthur W; Whedon, William E

    1928-01-01

    This report presents some results obtained during an investigation to determine the relative characteristics for several methods of control of an overcompressed engine using gasoline and operating under sea-level conditions. For this work, a special single cylinder test engine, 5-inch bore by 7-inch stroke, and designed for ready adjustment of compression ratio, valve timing and valve lift while running, was used. This engine has been fully described in NACA-TR-250. Tests were made at an engine speed of 1,400 R. P. M. for compression ratios ranging from 4.0 to 7.6. The air-fuel ratios were on the rich side of the chemically correct mixture and were approximately those giving maximum power. When using plain domestic gasoline, detonation was controlled to a constant, predetermined amount (audible), such as would be permissible for continuous operation, by (a) throttling the carburetor, (b) maintaining full throttle but greatly retarding the ignition, and (c) varying the timing of the inlet valve to reduce the effective compression ratio. From the results of the tests, it may be concluded that method (b) gives the best all-round performance and, being easily employed in service, appears to be the most practicable method for controlling an overcompressed engine using gasoline at low altitudes.

  7. Plant plastid engineering.

    PubMed

    Wani, Shabir H; Haider, Nadia; Kumar, Hitesh; Singh, N B

    2010-11-01

    Genetic material in plants is distributed into nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Plastid has a central role of carrying out photosynthesis in plant cells. Plastid transformation is becoming more popular and an alternative to nuclear gene transformation because of various advantages like high protein levels, the feasibility of expressing multiple proteins from polycistronic mRNAs, and gene containment through the lack of pollen transmission. Recently, much progress in plastid engineering has been made. In addition to model plant tobacco, many transplastomic crop plants have been generated which possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and molecular pharming. In this mini review, we will discuss the features of the plastid DNA and advantages of plastid transformation. We will also present some examples of transplastomic plants developed so far through plastid engineering, and the various applications of plastid transformation.

  8. Development of a fuel injected two-stroke gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Plohberger, D.; Mikulic, L.A.; Landfahrer, K.

    1988-01-01

    AVL's development of a semi-direct injected two-stroke engine employed a carburetted 250cc production motorcycle engine as a baseline. Special emphasis was placed on the investigation of fuel jet and scavenge flow interactions. To evaluate the scavenge flow pattern, a steady flow test procedure was developed and applied. The results of scavenging system optimization were confirmed by subsequent engine tests which showed significant gains in power output. Completion of the first phase of the research program resulted in the development of a semi-direct injection system using currently available automotive low pressure manifold injection system components. Compared to the original carburetted engine, significant improvements were demonstrated, including a 30% reduction of fuel consumption, a reduction of up to 60% in hydrocarbon emissions and up to 70% in carbon monoxide emission, averaged over the engine's speed and load range. Engine BMEP and power characteristics were maintained and improved. In addition, the critical idle operating conditions were improved significantly by stabilizing the combustion with minimized cyclic variations. The results of thermodynamic cycle analyses, based both on engine test measurements and on calculations, are presented. Finally, the paper compares the semi-direct and direct injection systems and presents an outlook based on some of the results of the current phase of AVL's low emission two-stroke engine research program.

  9. Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.

    2012-04-19

    A single-cylinder, wall-guided, spark ignition direct injection engine was used to study the impact of engine operating parameters on engine-out particle number (PN) emissions. Experiments were conducted with certification gasoline and a splash blend of 20% fuel grade ethanol in gasoline (E20), at four steady-state engine operating conditions. Independent engine control parameter sweeps were conducted including start of injection, injection pressure, spark timing, exhaust cam phasing, intake cam phasing, and air-fuel ratio. The results show that fuel injection timing is the dominant factor impacting PN emissions from this wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. The major factor causing high PN emissions is fuel liquid impingement on the piston bowl. By avoiding fuel impingement, more than an order of magnitude reduction in PN emission was observed. Increasing fuel injection pressure reduces PN emissions because of smaller fuel droplet size and faster fuel-air mixing. PN emissions are insensitive to cam phasing and spark timing, especially at high engine load. Cold engine conditions produce higher PN emissions than hot engine conditions due to slower fuel vaporization and thus less fuel-air homogeneity during the combustion process. E20 produces lower PN emissions at low and medium loads if fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl is avoided. At high load or if there is fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl and/or cylinder wall, E20 tends to produce higher PN emissions. This is probably a function of the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol, which slows the vaporization of other fuel components from surfaces and may create local fuel-rich combustion or even pool-fires.

  10. A quasi-dimensional model for SI engines fueled with gasoline-alcohol blends: Knock modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sileghem, Louis; Wallner, Thomas; Verhelst, Sebastian

    2015-01-15

    As knock is one of the main factors limiting the efficiency of spark-ignition engines, the introduction of alcohol blends could help to mitigate knock concerns due to the elevated knock resistance of these blends. A model that can accurately predict their autoignition behavior would be of great value to engine designers. The current work aims to develop such a model for alcohol–gasoline blends. First, a mixing rule for the autoignition delay time of alcohol–gasoline blends is proposed. Subsequently, this mixing rule is used together with an autoignition delay time correlation of gasoline and an autoignition delay time cor-relation of methanol in a knock integral model that is implemented in a two-zone engine code. The pre-dictive performance of the resulting model is validated through comparison against experimental measurements on a CFR engine for a range of gasoline–methanol blends. The knock limited spark advance, the knock intensity, the knock onset crank angle and the value of the knock integral at the experimental knock onset have been simulated and compared to the experimental values derived from in-cylinder pressure measurements.

  11. Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19

    Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

  12. Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Combustion of Ethanol and Gasoline Combustion in AN Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Allen R.; Sakai, Stephen; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2011-06-01

    In order to pursue In Situ measurements in an internal combustion engine, a MegaTech Mark III transparent spark ignition engine was modified with a sapphire combustion chamber. This modification will allow the transmission of infrared radiation for time-resolved spectroscopic measurements by an infrared spectrometer. By using a Step-scan equipped Fourier transform spectrometer, temporally resolved infrared spectral data were acquired and compared for combustion in the modified Mark III engine. Measurements performed with the FTIR system provide insight into the energy transfer vectors that precede combustion and also provides an in situ measurement of the progress of combustion. Measurements were performed using ethanol and gasoline.

  13. A hybrid disturbance rejection control solution for variable valve timing system of gasoline engines.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Song, Kang; He, Yu

    2014-07-01

    A novel solution for electro-hydraulic variable valve timing (VVT) system of gasoline engines is proposed, based on the concept of active disturbance rejection control (ADRC). Disturbances, such as oil pressure and engine speed variations, are all estimated and mitigated in real-time. A feed-forward controller was added to enhance the performance of the system based on a simple and static first principle model, forming a hybrid disturbance rejection control (HDRC) strategy. HDRC was validated by experimentation and compared with an existing manually tuned proportional-integral (PI) controller. The results show that HDRC provided a faster response and better tolerance of engine speed and oil pressure variations.

  14. 40 CFR 86.340-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test... 30 minutes. Cycle 1, or cycles 1 and 2, specified in § 86.335, may be used for this purpose. (5) The... test: (1) Maintain dynamometer test cell average ambient temperature at 25 °C±5 °C (77 °F±9 °F); (2...

  15. 40 CFR 86.340-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test... 30 minutes. Cycle 1, or cycles 1 and 2, specified in § 86.335, may be used for this purpose. (5) The... test: (1) Maintain dynamometer test cell average ambient temperature at 25 °C±5 °C (77 °F±9 °F); (2...

  16. 40 CFR 86.340-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test... 30 minutes. Cycle 1, or cycles 1 and 2, specified in § 86.335, may be used for this purpose. (5) The... test: (1) Maintain dynamometer test cell average ambient temperature at 25 °C±5 °C (77 °F±9 °F); (2...

  17. Low grade bioethanol for fuel mixing on gasoline engine using distillation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abikusna, Setia; Sugiarto, Bambang; Suntoro, Dedi; Azami

    2017-03-01

    Utilization of renewable energy in Indonesia is still low, compared to 34% oil, 20% coal and 20% gas, utilization of energy sources for water 3%, geothermal 1%, 2% biofuels, and biomass 20%. Whereas renewable energy sources dwindling due to the increasing consumption of gasoline as a fuel. It makes us have to look for alternative renewable energy, one of which is bio ethanol. Several studies on the use of ethanol was done to the researchers. Our studies using low grade bio ethanol which begins with the disitillation independently utilize flue gas heat at compact distillator, produces high grade bio ethanol and ready to be mixed with gasoline. Stages of our study is the compact distillator design of the motor dynamic continued with good performance and emission testing and ethanol distilled. Some improvement is made is through the flue gas heat control mechanism in compact distillator using gate valve, at low, medium, and high speed engine. Compact distillator used is kind of a batch distillation column. Column design process using the shortcut method, then carried the tray design to determine the overall geometry. The distillation is done by comparing the separator with a tray of different distances. As well as by varying the volume of the feed and ethanol levels that will feed distilled. In this study, we analyzed the mixing of ethanol through variation between main jet and pilot jet in the carburetor separately interchangeably with gasoline. And finally mixing mechanism bio ethanol with gasoline improved with fuel mixer for performance.

  18. Exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions and the risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Parent, Marie-Elise; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo; Cohen, Aaron; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Pollution from motor vehicles constitutes a major environmental health problem. The present paper describes associations between diesel and gasoline engine emissions and lung cancer, as evidenced in a 1979-1985 population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada. Cases were 857 male lung cancer patients. Controls were 533 population controls and 1,349 patients with other cancer types. Subjects were interviewed to obtain a detailed lifetime job history and relevant data on potential confounders. Industrial hygienists translated each job description into indices of exposure to several agents, including engine emissions. There was no evidence of excess risks of lung cancer with exposure to gasoline exhaust. For diesel engine emissions, results differed by control group. When cancer controls were considered, there was no excess risk. When population controls were studied, the odds ratios, after adjustments for potential confounders, were 1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.8, 1.8) for any exposure and 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 2.8) for substantial exposure. Confidence intervals between risk estimates derived from the two control groups overlapped considerably. These results provide some limited support for the hypothesis of an excess lung cancer risk due to diesel exhaust but no support for an increase in risk due to gasoline exhaust.

  19. Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

  20. A Study on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Gasoline Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Makoto; Morikawa, Koji; Itoh, Jin; Saishu, Youhei

    A new engine concept consisting of HCCI combustion for low and midrange loads and spark ignition combustion for high loads was introduced. The timing of the intake valve closing was adjusted to alter the negative valve overlap and effective compression ratio to provide suitable HCCI conditions. The effect of mixture formation on auto-ignition was also investigated using a direct injection engine. As a result, HCCI combustion was achieved with a relatively low compression ratio when the intake air was heated by internal EGR. The resulting combustion was at a high thermal efficiency, comparable to that of modern diesel engines, and produced almost no NOx emissions or smoke. The mixture stratification increased the local A/F concentration, resulting in higher reactivity. A wide range of combustible A/F ratios was used to control the compression ignition timing. Photographs showed that the flame filled the entire chamber during combustion, reducing both emissions and fuel consumption.

  1. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; James E. Parks, II; Pihl, Josh A.; Toops, Todd J.

    2016-04-05

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. At an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 °C, an NH3:NOX ratio of 1.15:1 (achieved through longer rich cycle timing) resulted in 99.7 % NOX conversion. Increasing NH3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH3 emissions resulted. At higher underfloor temperatures, NH3 oxidation over the SCR limited NH3 availability for NOX reduction. At the

  2. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    DOE PAGES

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; James E. Parks, II; Pihl, Josh A.; ...

    2016-04-05

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCRmore » approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. At an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 °C, an NH3:NOX ratio of 1.15:1 (achieved through longer rich cycle timing) resulted in 99.7 % NOX conversion. Increasing NH3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH3 emissions resulted. At higher underfloor temperatures, NH3 oxidation over the SCR limited NH3 availability for NOX reduction. At the engine conditions studied, greater than 99 % NOX conversion was achieved with passive SCR while delivering

  3. Experimental investigation and modeling of an aircraft Otto engine operating with gasoline and heavier fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldivar Olague, Jose

    A Continental "O-200" aircraft Otto-cycle engine has been modified to burn diesel fuel. Algebraic models of the different processes of the cycle were developed from basic principles applied to a real engine, and utilized in an algorithm for the simulation of engine performance. The simulation provides a means to investigate the performance of the modified version of the Continental engine for a wide range of operating parameters. The main goals of this study are to increase the range of a particular aircraft by reducing the specific fuel consumption of the engine, and to show that such an engine can burn heavier fuels (such as diesel, kerosene, and jet fuel) instead of gasoline. Such heavier fuels are much less flammable during handling operations making them safer than aviation gasoline and very attractive for use in flight operations from naval vessels. The cycle uses an electric spark to ignite the heavier fuel at low to moderate compression ratios, The stratified charge combustion process is utilized in a pre-chamber where the spray injection of the fuel occurs at a moderate pressure of 1200 psi (8.3 MPa). One advantage of fuel injection into the combustion chamber instead of into the intake port, is that the air-to-fuel ratio can be widely varied---in contrast to the narrower limits of the premixed combustion case used in gasoline engines---in order to obtain very lean combustion. Another benefit is that higher compression ratios can be attained in the modified cycle with heavier fuels. The combination of injection into the chamber for lean combustion, and higher compression ratios allow to limit the peak pressure in the cylinder, and to avoid engine damage. Such high-compression ratios are characteristic of Diesel engines and lead to increase in thermal efficiency without pre-ignition problems. In this experimental investigation, operations with diesel fuel have shown that considerable improvements in the fuel efficiency are possible. The results of

  4. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; James E. Parks, II; Pihl, Josh A.; Toops, Todd J.

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. At an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 °C, an NH3:NOX ratio of 1.15:1 (achieved through longer rich cycle timing) resulted in 99.7 % NOX conversion. Increasing NH3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH3 emissions resulted. At higher underfloor temperatures, NH3 oxidation over the SCR limited NH3 availability for NOX reduction. At the

  5. Receding horizon online optimization for torque control of gasoline engines.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mingxin; Shen, Tielong

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a model-based nonlinear receding horizon optimal control scheme for the engine torque tracking problem. The controller design directly employs the nonlinear model exploited based on mean-value modeling principle of engine systems without any linearizing reformation, and the online optimization is achieved by applying the Continuation/GMRES (generalized minimum residual) approach. Several receding horizon control schemes are designed to investigate the effects of the integral action and integral gain selection. Simulation analyses and experimental validations are implemented to demonstrate the real-time optimization performance and control effects of the proposed torque tracking controllers. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  7. Filter-based control of particulate matter from a lean gasoline direct injection engine

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; DeBusk, Melanie Moses; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Storey, John Morse

    2016-01-01

    New regulations requiring increases in vehicle fuel economy are challenging automotive manufacturers to identify fuel-efficient engines for future vehicles. Lean gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines offer significant increases in fuel efficiency over the more common stoichiometric GDI engines already in the marketplace. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from lean GDI engines, particularly during stratified combustion modes, are problematic for lean GDI technology to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tier 3 and other future emission regulations. As such, the control of lean GDI PM with wall-flow filters, referred to as gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology, is of interest. Since lean GDI PM chemistry and morphology differ from diesel PM (where more filtration experience exists), the functionality of GPFs needs to be studied to determine the operating conditions suitable for efficient PM removal. In addition, lean GDI engine exhaust temperatures are generally higher than diesel engines which results in more continuous regeneration of the GPF and less presence of the soot cake layer common to diesel particulate filters. Since the soot layer improves filtration efficiency, this distinction is important to consider. Research on the emission control of PM from a lean GDI engine with a GPF was conducted on an engine dynamometer. PM, after dilution, was characterized with membrane filters, organic vs. elemental carbon characterization, and size distribution techniques at various steady state engine speed and load points. The engine was operated in three primary combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean homogeneous, and lean stratified. In addition, rich combustion was utilized to simulate PM from engine operation during active regeneration of lean NOx control technologies. High (>95%) PM filtration efficiencies were observed over a wide range of conditions; however, some PM was observed to slip through the GPF at high speed and load conditions. The

  8. Engineering of plant chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Mette, Michael Florian; Houben, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Engineered minimal chromosomes with sufficient mitotic and meiotic stability have an enormous potential as vectors for stacking multiple genes required for complex traits in plant biotechnology. Proof of principle for essential steps in chromosome engineering such as truncation of chromosomes by T-DNA-mediated telomere seeding and de novo formation of centromeres by cenH3 fusion protein tethering has been recently obtained. In order to generate robust protocols for application in plant biotechnology, these steps need to be combined and supplemented with additional methods such as site-specific recombination for the directed transfer of multiple genes of interest on the minichromosomes. At the same time, the development of these methods allows new insight into basic aspects of plant chromosome functions such as how centromeres assure proper distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells or how telomeres serve to cap the chromosome ends to prevent shortening of ends over DNA replication cycles and chromosome end fusion.

  9. First methanol-to-gasoline plant nears startup in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Haggin, J.

    1985-03-25

    Sometime during the summer 1985, New Zealand Synthetic Fuels Co. was scheduled to begin operating its new plant at Motunui, New Zealand. It marks the first commercial application of the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process. Moreover, as the result of a modular approach directed by Bechtel Corp. personnel, the plant represents a major construction success. It is also the first example of a new technology that may seriously challenge traditional Fischer-Tropsch chemistry as a route to synthetic fuels and organic feedstocks. The MTG plant will produce 14,000 barrels per day of gasoline with an octane number rating of 92 to 94 (according to research results). This amount is about one third of present New Zealand demand. The gasoline will be made by catalytic conversion of methanol coming from two plants, each producing about 220 metric tons per day for the single-train MTG plant. The methanol, in turn, is derived from reforming of natural gas from offshore fields in the Tasman Sea.

  10. Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Components and Mixtures under Engine Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Curran, H J

    2010-01-11

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, an improved version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multicomponent gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines (3-50 atm, 650-1200K, stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures). Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  11. PAH source fingerprints for coke ovens, diesel and, gasoline engines, highway tunnels, and wood combustion emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Nasrin R.; Scheff, Peter A.; Holsen, Thomas M.

    To evaluate the chemical composition (source fingerprint) of the major sources of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Chicago metropolitan area, a study of major PAH sources was conducted during 1990-1992. In this study, a modified high-volume sampling method (PS-1 sampler) was employed to collect airborne PAHs in both the particulate and gas phases. Hewlett Packard 5890 gas chromatographs equipped with the flame ionization and mass spectrometer detectors (GC/FID and GC/MS) were used to analyze the samples. The sources sampled were: coke ovens, highway vehicles, heavy-duty diesel engines, gasoline engines and wood combustion. Results of this study showed that two and three ring PAHs were responsible for 98, 76, 92, 73 and 80% of the total concentration of measured 20 PAHs for coke ovens, diesel engines, highway tunnels, gasoline engines and wood combustion samples, respectively. Six ring PAHs such as indeno(1,2,3- cd)pyrene and benzo( ghi)perylene were mostly below the detection limit of this study and only detected in the highway tunnel, diesel and gasoline engine samples. The source fingerprints were obtained by averaging the ratios of individual PAH concentrations to the total concentration of categorical pollutants including: (a) total measured mass of PAHs with retention times between naphthalene and coronene, (b) the mass of the 20 PAHs measured in this study, (c) total VOCs, and (d) total PM10. Since concentrations of the above categorical pollutants were different for individual samples and different sources, the chemical composition patterns obtained for each categorical pollutant were different. The source fingerprints have been developed for use in chemical mass balance receptor modeling calculations.

  12. Apparatus for improving gasoline comsumption, power and reducing emission pollutants of internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Piedrafita, R.

    1986-02-18

    This patent describes an apparatus for improving performance and reducing fuel comsumption and emission pollutants from an internal combustion gasoline engine. This apparatus consists of: 1.) an internal combustion gasoline engine having, in part, an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold where the exhaust manifold is modified to include a manifold exhaust port; 2.) a modified internal combustion engine carburetor connected to the intake manifold on the engine; 3.) a positive crankcase ventilation valve (PCV) which has an input port conventionally connected to the internal combustion engine and also has a PCV output port; 4.) an automobile fuel pump having an input connected to a conventional fuel tank and having a fuel pump output port; 5.) a thermic reactor; 6.) a thermic reactor air cleaner pneumatically connected to the clean air input port on the thermic reactor; 7.) a catalytic gas injector; 8.) a fuel regulator/restrictor consisting of a solid block having a fuel pump input port and a carburetor output port.

  13. Assessing the Climate Trade-Offs of Gasoline Direct Injection Engines.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Naomi; Wang, Jonathan M; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Wallace, James S; Evans, Greg J

    2016-08-02

    Compared to port fuel injection (PFI) engine exhaust, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine exhaust has higher emissions of black carbon (BC), a climate-warming pollutant. However, the relative increase in BC emissions and climate trade-offs of replacing PFI vehicles with more fuel efficient GDI vehicles remain uncertain. In this study, BC emissions from GDI and PFI vehicles were compiled and BC emissions scenarios were developed to evaluate the climate impact of GDI vehicles using global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature potential (GTP) metrics. From a 20 year time horizon GWP analysis, average fuel economy improvements ranging from 0.14 to 14% with GDI vehicles are required to offset BC-induced warming. For all but the lowest BC scenario, installing a gasoline particulate filter with an 80% BC removal efficiency and <1% fuel penalty is climate beneficial. From the GTP-based analysis, it was also determined that GDI vehicles are climate beneficial within <1-20 years; longer time horizons were associated with higher BC scenarios. The GDI BC emissions spanned 2 orders of magnitude and varied by ambient temperature, engine operation, and fuel composition. More work is needed to understand BC formation mechanisms in GDI engines to ensure that the climate impacts of this engine technology are minimal.

  14. Emissions of aldehydes and ketones from a two-stroke engine using ethanol and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger; Nilsson, Calle; Andersson, Barbro

    2002-04-15

    Besides aliphatic gasoline, ethanol-blended gasoline intended for use in small utility engines was recently introduced on the Swedish market. For small utility engines, little data is available showing the effects of these fuels on exhaust emissions, especially concerning aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls). The objective of the present investigation was to study carbonyl emissions and regulated emissions from a two-stroke chain saw engine using ethanol, gasoline, and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel (0%, 15%, 50%, 85%, and 100% ethanol). The effects of the ethanol-blending level and mechanical changes of the relative air/fuel ratio, lambda, on exhaust emissions was investigated, both for aliphatic and regular gasoline. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and aromatic aldehydes were the most abundant carbonyls in the exhaust. Acetaldehyde dominated for all ethanol-blended fuels (1.2-12 g/kWh, depending on the fuel and lambda), and formaldehyde dominated for gasoline (0.74-2.3 g/kWh, depending on the type of gasoline and lambda). The main effects of ethanol blending were increased acetaldehyde emissions (30-44 times for pure ethanol), reduced emissions of all other carbonyls exceptformaldehyde and acrolein (which showed a more complex relation to the ethanol content), reduced carbon monoxide (CO) and ntirogen oxide (NO) emissions, and increased hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen dixodie (NO2) emissions. The main effects of increasing lambda were increased emissions of carbonyls and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and reduced CO and HC emissions. When the two types of gasoline are considered, benzaldehyde and tolualdehyde could be directly related to the gasoline content of aromatics or olefins, but also acrolein, propanal, crotonaldehyde, and methyl ethyl ketone mainly originated from aromatics or olefins, while the main source for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, methacrolein, and butanal was saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  15. Three-stage autoignition of gasoline in an HCCI engine: An experimental and chemical kinetic modeling investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon

    2008-12-15

    The alternative HCCI combustion mode presents a possible means for decreasing the pollution with respect to conventional gasoline or diesel engines, while maintaining the efficiency of a diesel engine or even increasing it. This paper investigates the possibility of using gasoline in an HCCI engine and analyzes the autoignition of gasoline in such an engine. The compression ratio that has been used is 13.5, keeping the inlet temperature at 70 C, varying the equivalence ratio from 0.3 to 0.54, and the EGR (represented by N{sub 2}) ratio from 0 to 37 vol%. For comparison, a PRF95 and a surrogate containing 11 vol% n-heptane, 59 vol% iso-octane, and 30 vol% toluene are used. A previously validated kinetic surrogate mechanism is used to analyze the experiments and to yield possible explanations to kinetic phenomena. From this work, it seems quite possible to use the high octane-rated gasoline for autoignition purposes, even under lean inlet conditions. Furthermore, it appeared that gasoline and its surrogate, unlike PRF95, show a three-stage autoignition. Since the PRF95 does not contain toluene, it is suggested by the kinetic mechanism that the benzyl radical, issued from toluene, causes this so-defined ''obstructed preignition'' and delaying thereby the final ignition for gasoline and its surrogate. The results of the kinetic mechanism supporting this explanation are shown in this paper. (author)

  16. Gasoline engine with single overhead camshaft having duel exhaust cams per cylinder wherein each exhaust cam has duel lobes

    SciTech Connect

    Taguma, K.

    1991-03-19

    This patent describes an improved gasoline engine using a spark plug and a spark plug wire. It comprises a cylinder having a cylinder wall and an upper end; a piston movably disposed within the cylinder; a gasoline injector for supplying the gasoline charge into the cylinder; a single tube exhaust valve movably mounted to the cylinder; a single overhead camshaft having duel exhaust came for the cylinder with each exhaust cam having duel exhaust lobes; and port holes contained in the cylinder around the cylinder wall in a ring-like fashion.

  17. Properties, performance and emissions of medium concentration methanol-gasoline blends in a single-cylinder, spark-ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sapre, A.R

    1988-01-01

    Methanol-gasoline blends containing 30 to 70 percent by volume methanol have potential to eliminate, or at least alleviate, major technical problems with the use of neat methanol such as safety, cold start and the reduced vehicle range. However, little information exits on their properties, performance and emissions. Experiments were carried out in a spark-ignited, single-cylinder, variable compression ratio, Waukesha RDH engine with primarily commercial grade unleaded gasoline, commercial grade methanol, M30, M50 and M70 methanol-gasoline blends to compare efficiency, performance and emissions characteristics. The fuels were compared at their knock-limited compression ratios and MBT spark-timing.

  18. Engineered minichromosomes in plants.

    PubMed

    Birchler, James A

    2015-02-01

    Engineered minichromosomes have been produced in several plant species via telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation. This approach bypasses the complications of the epigenetic nature of centromere function in plants, which has to date precluded the production of minichromosomes by the re-introduction of centromere sequences to a plant cell. Genes to be added to a cleaved chromosome are joined together with telomere repeats on one side. When these constructs are introduced into plant cells, the genes are ligated to the broken chromosomes but the telomere repeats will catalyze the formation of a telomere on the other end cutting the chromosome at that point. Telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation is sufficiently efficient that very small chromosomes can be generated consisting of basically the endogenous centromere and the added transgenes. The added transgenes provide a platform onto which it should be possible to assemble a synthetic chromosome to specification. Combining engineered minichromosomes with doubled haploid breeding should greatly expedite the transfer of transgenes to new lines and to test the interaction of transgenes in new background genotypes. Potential basic and applied applications of synthetic chromosomes are discussed.

  19. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J

    2016-01-01

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three-way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in the oxygen-rich exhaust. Thus, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. 15% excess NH3 production over a 1:1 NH3:NOX ratio was required (via longer rich cycle timing) to achieve 99.7% NOX conversion at an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 C. Increasing NH3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH3 emissions resulted. At higher temperatures, NH3 oxidation becomes important and limits NH3 availability for NOX reduction. At the engine conditions studied here, greater than 99% NOX conversion was achieved with passive SCR while delivering fuel

  20. In vitro genotoxicity of exhaust emissions of diesel and gasoline engine vehicles operated on a unified driving cycle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Qing; Keane, Michael; Ensell, Mang; Miller, William; Kashon, Michael; Ong, Tong-man; Mauderly, Joe; Lawson, Doug; Gautam, Mridul; Zielinska, Barbara; Whitney, Kevin; Eberhardt, James; Wallace, William

    2005-01-01

    Acetone extracts of engine exhaust particulate matter (PM) and of vapor-phase semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) collected from a set of 1998-2000 model year normal emitter diesel engine automobile or light trucks and from a set of 1982-1996 normal emitter gasoline engine automobiles or light trucks operated on the California Unified Driving Cycle at 22 [degree]C were assayed for in vitro genotoxic activities. Gasoline and diesel PM were comparably positive mutagens for Salmonella typhimurium strains YG1024 and YG1029 on a mass of PM extract basis with diesel higher on a mileage basis; gasoline SVOC was more active than diesel on an extracted-mass basis, with diesel SVOC more active on a mileage basis. For chromosomal damage indicated by micronucleus induction in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells), diesel PM expressed about one-tenth that of gasoline PM on a mass of extract basis, but was comparably active on a mileage basis; diesel SVOC was inactive. For DNA damage in V79 cells indicated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, gasoline PM was positive while diesel PM was active at the higher doses; gasoline SVOC was active with toxicity preventing measurement at high doses, while diesel SVOC was inactive at all but the highest dose.

  1. Influence of ethanol-gasoline blended fuel on emission characteristics from a four-stroke motorcycle engine.

    PubMed

    Jia, Li-Wei; Shen, Mei-Qing; Wang, Jun; Lin, Man-Qun

    2005-08-31

    Emission characteristics from a four-stroke motorcycle engine using 10% (v/v) ethanol-gasoline blended fuel (E10) were investigated at different driving modes on the chassis dynamometers. The results indicate that CO and HC emissions in the engine exhaust are lower with the operation of E10 as compared to the use of unleaded gasoline, whereas the effect of ethanol on NO(X) emission is not significant. Furthermore, species of both unburned hydrocarbons and their ramifications were analyzed by the combination of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID). This analysis shows that aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylene isomers (o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene), ethyltoluene isomers (o-ethyltoluene, m-ethyltoluene and p-ethyltoluene) and trimethylbenzene isomers (1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene)) and fatty group ones (ethylene, methane, acetaldehyde, ethanol, butene, pentane and hexane) are major compounds in motorcycle engine exhaust. It is found that the E10-fueled motorcycle engine produces more ethylene, acetaldehyde and ethanol emissions than unleaded gasoline engine does. The no significant reduction of aromatics is observed in the case of ethanol-gasoline blended fuel. The ethanol-gasoline blended fuel can somewhat improve emissions of the rest species.

  2. Engineered plant virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava

    2014-11-01

    Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop plants to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. About methods to reduce emissions of turbo charged engine gasoline direct injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neacsu, D.; Ivan, F.; Niculae, M.

    2017-08-01

    The paper aims to analyse and explain new methods applied on gasoline direct injection to reduce gas emissions and greenhouse effect. There are analysed the composition of emission inside the engine and which are the most harmful emission for the environment. Will be analysed the methods and systems which have a contribution to decrease emissions produced by the mixture of air and fuel. The paper contains details about after treatment systems which are designed to decrease gas emissions without any other negative consequence on the environment.

  4. Engineered minichromosomes in plants.

    PubMed

    Birchler, James A

    2014-06-01

    Platforms for the development of synthetic chromosomes in plants have been produced in several species using telomere mediated chromosomal truncation with the simultaneous inclusion of sites that facilitate further additions to the newly generated minichromosome. By utilizing truncated supernumerary or B chromosomes, the output of the genes on the minichromosome can be amplified. Proof of concept experiments have been successful illustrating that minichromosome platforms can be modified in vivo. Engineered minichromosomes can likely be combined with haploid breeding if they are incorporated into inducer lines given that the observations that basically inert chromosomes from haploid inducer lines can be recovered at workable frequencies in otherwise haploid plants. Future needs of synthetic chromosome development are discussed.

  5. Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

  6. Simulation: Gasoline Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-13

    The Mira supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility helped Argonne researchers model what happens inside an engine when you use gasoline in a diesel engine. Engineers are exploring this type of combustion as a sustainable transportation option because it may be more efficient than traditional gasoline combustion engines but produce less soot than diesel.

  7. Detailed Characterization of Particulates Emitted by Pre-Commercial Single-Cylinder Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Reitz, Paul; Stewart, Mark L.; Imre, D.; Loeper, Paul; Adams, Cory; Andrie, Michael; Rothamer, David; Foster, David E.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Najt, Paul M.; Solomon, Arun S.

    2014-08-01

    Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines have the potential to achieve high fuel efficiency and to significantly reduce both NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions by operating under dilute partially-premixed conditions. This low temperature combustion strategy is dependent upon direct-injection of gasoline during the compression stroke and potentially near top dead center (TDC). The timing and duration of the in-cylinder injections can be tailored based on speed and load to create optimized conditions that result in a stable combustion. We present the results of advanced aerosol analysis methods that have been used for detailed real-time characterization of PM emitted from a single-cylinder GCI engine operated at different speed, load, timing, and number and duration of near-TDC fuel injections. PM characterization included 28 measurements of size and composition of individual particles sampled directly from the exhaust and after mass and/or mobility classification. We use these data to calculate particle effective density, fractal dimension, dynamic shape factors in free-molecular and transition flow regimes, average diameter of primary spherules, number of spherules, and void fraction of soot agglomerates.

  8. Preliminary design and assessment of a 50,000-BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1982-30 June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The technical efforts associated with the Statement of Work for the preliminary design and assessment of a 50,000-BPD Coal-to-Methanol-to-Gasoline Plant continued at an accelerated rate. Physical accomplishment increased from 39.6% (March 1982) to 69.1% (June 1982). All contracts were in place prior to the commencement of this quarter and the only significant contractual action bearing on Statement of Work requirements was DOE's approval of a Grace request for modification of the Dames and Moore Subcontract to recognize certain additions and/or expansions resulting from the scoping meeting process. The narrative of this report discusses progress of work associated with technical activities for both the 50,000-BPD and 12,500-BPD plants. Significant progress in the process and mechanical design was achieved following the receipt of all design packages and data from vendors for incorporation in process design documentation. This information enabled the preparation of all process and utility flow diagrams, plot plans, evaluations, and associated direct capital cost estimates for the 50,000-BPD plant. The basic design of all process units comprising the Gasoline Plant was completed, and engineering efforts directed toward supplying inputs for the development of capital and operating cost estimates and economic assessments. Development of engineering documentation for the 12,500-BPD plant was initiated and progressed significantly during the quarter. Development of capital and operating cost estimates for the smaller plant was also active.

  9. Bladder cancer and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions among Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Latifovic, Lidija; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Kachuri, Linda; Harris, Shelley A

    2015-12-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel exhaust as a carcinogen based on lung cancer evidence; however, few studies have investigated the effect of engine emissions on bladder cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and bladder cancer in men using data from the Canadian National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System; a population-based case-control study. This analysis included 658 bladder cancer cases and 1360 controls with information on lifetime occupational histories and a large number of possible cancer risk factors. A job-exposure matrix for engine emissions was supplemented by expert review to assign values for each job across three dimensions of exposure: concentration, frequency, and reliability. Odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression. Relative to unexposed, men ever exposed to high concentrations of diesel emissions were at an increased risk of bladder cancer (OR = 1.64, 0.87-3.08), but this result was not significant, and those with >10 years of exposure to diesel emissions at high concentrations had a greater than twofold increase in risk (OR = 2.45, 1.04-5.74). Increased risk of bladder cancer was also observed with >30% of work time exposed to gasoline engine emissions (OR = 1.59, 1.04-2.43) relative to the unexposed, but only among men that had never been exposed to diesel emissions. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that exposure to high concentrations of diesel engine emissions may increase the risk of bladder cancer.

  10. Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

    2013-12-17

    Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area.

  11. Modelling of flame propagation in the gasoline fuelled Wankel rotary engine with hydrogen additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyanov, E. A.; Zakharov, E. A.; Prikhodkov, K. V.; Levin, Y. V.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, hydrogen has been considered as an alternative fuel for a vehicles power unit. The Wankel engine is the most suitable to be adapted to hydrogen feeding. A hydrogen additive helps to decrease incompleteness of combustion in the volumes near the apex of the rotor. Results of theoretical researches of the hydrogen additives influence on the flame propagation in the combustion chamber of the Wankel rotary engine are presented. The theoretical research shows that the blend of 70% gasoline with 30% hydrogen could accomplish combustion near the T-apex in the stoichiometric mixture and in lean one. Maps of the flame front location versus the angle of rotor rotation and hydrogen fraction are obtained. Relations of a minimum required amount of hydrogen addition versus the engine speed are shown on the engine modes close to the average city driving cycle. The amount of hydrogen addition that could be injected by the nozzle with different flow sections is calculated in order to analyze the capacity of the feed system.

  12. Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Behnam; Semnani, Abolfazl; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shakoori Langeroodi, Hamid; Hakim Davood, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a mineral-based gasoline engine oil have been monitored at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3500, 6000, 8500, and 11500 kilometer of operation. Tracing has been performed by inductively coupled plasma and some other techniques. At each series of measurements, the concentrations of twenty four elements as well as physical properties such as: viscosity at 40 and 100°C; viscosity index; flash point; pour point; specific gravity; color; total acid and base numbers; water content have been determined. The results are indicative of the decreasing trend in concentration of additive elements and increasing in concentration for wear elements. Different trends have been observed for various physical properties. The possible reasons for variations in physical and chemical properties have been discussed.

  13. Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Behnam; Semnani, Abolfazl; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shakoori Langeroodi, Hamid; Hakim Davood, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a mineral-based gasoline engine oil have been monitored at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3500, 6000, 8500, and 11500 kilometer of operation. Tracing has been performed by inductively coupled plasma and some other techniques. At each series of measurements, the concentrations of twenty four elements as well as physical properties such as: viscosity at 40 and 100°C; viscosity index; flash point; pour point; specific gravity; color; total acid and base numbers; water content have been determined. The results are indicative of the decreasing trend in concentration of additive elements and increasing in concentration for wear elements. Different trends have been observed for various physical properties. The possible reasons for variations in physical and chemical properties have been discussed. PMID:22567569

  14. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of extract of particulate emission from a gasoline-powered engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hadnagy, W.; Seemayer, N.H.

    1988-01-01

    Extract of particulate matter (EPM) from gasoline engine exhaust has been investigated for cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in the concentration range 0.16-10 micrograms/ml by means of short-term bioassays using mammalian cell culture systems. Cytotoxicity is demonstrated by a strong dose-dependent reduction of cloning efficiency after treatment of V79 cells with EPM. Employing the dye exclusion test with erythrosin B, no considerable loss of cell viability was observed. Using the same cell system, EPM revealed a highly increased number of aberrant mitoses, whereby the occurrence of C mitoses and metaphases with chromosome clusters was especially pronounced. This effect led to mitotic arrest as shown by a highly increased mitotic index at 5 and 10 micrograms/ml EPM. The results indicate disturbances of the mitotic spindle in a way similar to the known spindle poison colcemid. As a consequence of spindle disturbances, EPM produced numerical chromosome alterations such as aneuploidy and polyploidy. Cytogenetic analyses using human lymphocyte cultures treated with EPM revealed a slight increase of chromosomal aberrations at 10 micrograms/ml and a dose-dependent induction of sister chromatid exchanges in the range 2.5-10 micrograms/ml. At least, EPM showed a dose-dependent increase in the cell transformation assay using SV 40-infected Syrian hamster kidney cultures. The great variety of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects found with EPM suggests a potential health hazard to human populations exposed to gasoline engine exhaust. The possible contribution to cytotoxic and genotoxic activity by organolead compounds derived from antiknock additives is discussed.

  15. A comparison on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their corresponding carcinogenic potencies from a vehicle engine using leaded and lead-free gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Mi, H H; Lee, W J; Tsai, P J; Chen, C B

    2001-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to assess the effect of using two kinds of lead-free gasoline [including 92-lead-free gasoline (92-LFG) and 95-lead-free gasoline (95-LFG), rated according to their octane levels] to replace the use of premium leaded gasoline (PLG) on the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their corresponding benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaP(eq)) amounts from the gasoline-powered engine. The results show that the three gasoline fuels originally contained similar total PAHs and total BaP(eq) contents; however, we found significant differences in the engine exhausts in both contents. The above results suggest that PAHs originally contained in the gasoline fuel did not affect the PAH emissions in the engine exhausts. The emission factors of both total PAHs and total BaP(eq) obtained from the three gasoline fuels shared the same trend: 95-LFG > PLG > 92-LFG. The above result suggests that when PLG was replaced by 95-LFG, the emissions would increase in both total PAHs and total BaP(eq), but when replaced by 92-LFG would lead to the decreased emissions of both contents. By taking emission factors and their corresponding annual gasoline consumption rates into account, we found that both total PAH and total BaP(eq) emissions increased from 1994 to 1999. However, the annual increasing rates in total BaP(eq) emissions were slightly higher than the corresponding increasing rates in total PAHs. PMID:11748037

  16. A comparison on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their corresponding carcinogenic potencies from a vehicle engine using leaded and lead-free gasoline.

    PubMed

    Mi, H H; Lee, W J; Tsai, P J; Chen, C B

    2001-12-01

    Our objective in this study was to assess the effect of using two kinds of lead-free gasoline [including 92-lead-free gasoline (92-LFG) and 95-lead-free gasoline (95-LFG), rated according to their octane levels] to replace the use of premium leaded gasoline (PLG) on the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their corresponding benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaP(eq)) amounts from the gasoline-powered engine. The results show that the three gasoline fuels originally contained similar total PAHs and total BaP(eq) contents; however, we found significant differences in the engine exhausts in both contents. The above results suggest that PAHs originally contained in the gasoline fuel did not affect the PAH emissions in the engine exhausts. The emission factors of both total PAHs and total BaP(eq) obtained from the three gasoline fuels shared the same trend: 95-LFG > PLG > 92-LFG. The above result suggests that when PLG was replaced by 95-LFG, the emissions would increase in both total PAHs and total BaP(eq), but when replaced by 92-LFG would lead to the decreased emissions of both contents. By taking emission factors and their corresponding annual gasoline consumption rates into account, we found that both total PAH and total BaP(eq) emissions increased from 1994 to 1999. However, the annual increasing rates in total BaP(eq) emissions were slightly higher than the corresponding increasing rates in total PAHs.

  17. Multi-location laser ignition using a spatial light modulator towards improving automotive gasoline engine performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Zheng; Lyon, Elliott; Cheng, Hua; Page, Vincent; Shenton, Tom; Dearden, Geoff

    2017-03-01

    We report on a study into multi-location laser ignition (LI) with a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), to improve the performance of a single cylinder automotive gasoline engine. Three questions are addressed: i/ How to deliver a multi-beam diffracted pattern into an engine cylinder, through a small opening, while avoiding clipping? ii/ How much incident energy can a SLM handle (optical damage threshold) and how many simultaneous beam foci could thus be created? ; iii/ Would the multi-location sparks created be sufficiently intense and stable to ignite an engine and, if so, what would be their effect on engine performance compared to single-location LI? Answers to these questions were determined as follows. Multi-beam diffracted patterns were created by applying computer generated holograms (CGHs) to the SLM. An optical system for the SLM was developed via modelling in ZEMAX, to cleanly deliver the multi-beam patterns into the combustion chamber without clipping. Optical damage experiments were carried out on Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) samples provided by the SLM manufacturer and the maximum safe pulse energy to avoid SLM damage found to be 60 mJ. Working within this limit, analysis of the multi-location laser induced sparks showed that diffracting into three identical beams gave slightly insufficient energy to guarantee 100% sparking, so subsequent engine experiments used 2 equal energy beams laterally spaced by 4 mm. The results showed that dual-location LI gave more stable combustion and higher engine power output than single-location LI, for increasingly lean air-fuel mixtures. The paper concludes by a discussion of how these results may be exploited.

  18. Bioethanol-gasoline fuel blends: exhaust emissions and morphological characterization of particulate from a moped engine.

    PubMed

    Seggiani, Maurizia; Prati, M Vittoria; Costagliola, M Antonietta; Puccini, Monica; Vitolo, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of gasoline-ethanol blends on the exhaust emissions in a catalyst-equipped four-stroke moped engine. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in at percentages (10, 15, and 20% v/v). The regulated pollutants and the particulate matter emissions were evaluated over the European ECE R47 driving cycle on the chassis dynamometer bench. Particulate matter was characterized in terms of total mass collected on filters and total number ofparticles in the range 7 nm-10 microm measured by electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI). In addition, particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions were evaluated to assess the health impact of the emitted particulate. Finally, an accurate morphological analysis was performed on the particulate by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with a digital image-processing/data-acquisition system. In general, CO emission reductions of 60-70% were obtained with 15 and 20% v/v ethanol blends, while the ethanol use did not reduce hydrocarbon (HC) and NOx emissions. No evident effect of ethanol on the particulate mass emissions and associated PAHs emissions was observed. Twenty-one PAHs were quantified in the particulate phase with emissions ranging from 26 to 35 microg/km and benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors from 2.2 to 4.1 microg/km. Both particulate matter and associated PAHs with higher carcinogenic risk were mainly emitted in the submicrometer size range (<0.1 microm). On the basis of the TEM observations, no relevant effect of the ethanol use on the particulate morphology was evidenced, showing aggregates composed ofprimary particles with mean diameters in the range 17.5-32.5 nm.

  19. Effects of gasoline engine emissions on preexisting allergic airway responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Day, Kimberly C; Reed, Matthew D; McDonald, Jacob D; Seilkop, Steven K; Barrett, Edward G

    2008-10-01

    Gasoline-powered vehicle emissions contribute significantly to ambient air pollution. We hypothesized that exposure to gasoline engine emissions (GEE) may exacerbate preexisting allergic airway responses. Male BALB/c mice were sensitized by injection with ovalbumin (OVA) and then received a 10-min aerosolized OVA challenge. Parallel groups were sham-sensitized with saline. Mice were exposed 6 h/day to air (control, C) or GEE containing particulate matter (PM) at low (L), medium (M), or high (H) concentrations, or to the H level with PM removed by filtration (high-filtered, HF). Immediately after GEE exposure mice received another 10-min aerosol OVA challenge (pre-OVA protocol). In a second (post-OVA) protocol, mice were similarly sensitized but only challenged to OVA before air or GEE exposure. Measurements of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and blood collection were performed approximately 24 h after the last exposure. In both protocols, M, H, and HF GEE exposure significantly decreased BAL neutrophils from nonsensitized mice but had no significant effect on BAL cells from OVA-sensitized mice. In the pre-OVA protocol, GEE exposure increased OVA-specific IgG(1) but had no effect on BAL interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-13, or interferon (IFN)-gamma in OVA-sensitized mice. Nonsensitized GEE-exposed mice had increased OVA-specific IgG(2a), IgE, and IL-2, but decreased total IgE. In the post-OVA protocol, GEE exposure reduced BAL IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-gamma in nonsensitized mice but had no effect on sensitized mice. These results suggest acute exposure to the gas-vapor phase of GEE suppressed inflammatory cells and cytokines from nonsensitized mice but did not substantially exacerbate allergic responses.

  20. Internal and near nozzle measurements of Engine Combustion Network “Spray G” gasoline direct injectors

    DOE PAGES

    Duke, Daniel J.; Kastengren, Alan L.; Matusik, Katarzyna E.; ...

    2017-07-25

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) sprays are complex multiphase flows. When compared to multi-hole diesel sprays, the plumes are closely spaced, and the sprays are more likely to interact. The effects of multi-jet interaction on entrainment and spray targeting can be influenced by small variations in the mass fluxes from the holes, which in turn depend on transients in the needle movement and small-scale details of the internal geometry. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of a multi-institutional effort to experimentally characterize the internal geometry and near-nozzle flow of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G gasoline injector. Inmore » order to develop a complete picture of the near-nozzle flow, a standardized setup was shared between facilities. A wide range of techniques were employed, including both X-ray and visible-light diagnostics. The novel aspects of this work include both new experimental measurements, and a comparison of the results across different techniques and facilities. The breadth and depth of the data reveal phenomena which were not apparent from analysis of the individual data sets. We show that plume-to-plume variations in the mass fluxes from the holes can cause large-scale asymmetries in the entrainment field and spray structure. Both internal flow transients and small-scale geometric features can have an effect on the external flow. The sharp turning angle of the flow into the holes also causes an inward vectoring of the plumes relative to the hole drill angle, which increases with time due to entrainment of gas into a low-pressure region between the plumes. In conclusion, these factors increase the likelihood of spray collapse with longer injection durations.« less

  1. Impacts of Mid-level Biofuel Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-Out and Tailpipe Particulate Matter Emissions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ireland, J. C.; Zigler, B. T.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Knoll, K. E.; Alleman, T. L.; Tester, J. T.

    2011-02-01

    The influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a GM 2.0L turbocharged Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production ECU with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. US federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at ten selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm. Idle and low speed / low load conditions emitted higher total particle numbers than other operating conditions. At idle, the engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles, and the production TWC reduced these nucleation mode particles by more than 50%, while leaving the accumulation mode particle distribution unchanged. At engine load higher than 6 bar NMEP, accumulation mode particles dominated the engine-out particle emissions and the TWC had little effect. Compared to the baseline gasoline (E0), E10 does not significantly change PM emissions, while E20 and BU12 both reduce PM emissions under the conditions studied. Iso-butanol was observed to impact PM emissions more than ethanol, with up to 50% reductions at some conditions. In this paper, the issues related to PM measurement using FMPS are also discussed. While some uncertainties are due to engine variation, the FMPS must be operated under careful maintenance procedures in order to achieve repeatable measurement results.

  2. Performance Evaluation on Otto Engine Generator Using Gasoline and Biogas from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvan; Trisakti, B.; Husaini, T.; Sitio, A.; Sitorus, TB

    2017-06-01

    Biogas is a flammable gas produced from the fermentation of organic materials by anaerobic bacteria originating from household waste manure and organic waste including palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is mainly discharged from the sterilization unit of palm oil processing into crude palm oil. This study utilized biogas produced from liquid waste palm oil for use as fuel in the Otto engine generator 4 - stroke, type STARKE GFH1900LX with a peak power of 1.3 kW, 1.0 kW average power, bore 55 mm, stroke 40 mm, Vd 95 × 10-6 m3, Vc 10 × 10-6 m3, compression ratio of 10.5 : 1, and the number of cylinders = 1. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of Otto engine generator fueled with biogas that generated from POME, then comparing its performance fueled by gasoline. The performance included power, torque, specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, and the air-fuel ratio. Experiment was conducted by using a variation of the lamp load of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 W. The results revealed that the use of biogas as fuel decreased in power, torque, brake thermal efficiency, and air fuel ratio (AFR), while there is an increasing of value specific fuel consumption (SFC).

  3. Soil uptake of carbon monoxide emitted in the exhaust of a gasoline-powered engine.

    PubMed

    Tilley, David R; Mentzer, Jeff

    2006-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poses dangers to both human and environmental health, sickening thousands of people annually in the United States and decreasing the capacity of the atmosphere to oxidize greenhouse gases. Globally, soil ecosystems with their populations of bacteria, fungi, and algae are estimated to remove 9-36% of total CO emissions, which makes them the second largest CO sink after hydroxyl oxidation. Our aim was determine whether soil ecosystems could remove CO from an atmosphere mixed with gasoline-powered engine exhaust. Sealed microcosms containing no soil (NoSoil), nonvegetated soil (Soil), or vegetated soil (Soil+Veg), were exposed to 800, 100, and 50 ppm of CO for 1 hr. The uptake rate of CO was found to be higher at the 800 ppm level suggesting first-order rate kinetics. Soil+Veg exhibited a significantly higher CO uptake rate than either Soil or NoSoil (P<0.05), and Soil exhibited significantly higher uptake than NoSoil (P<0.05). As a free ecosystem service, the uptake of CO by soil ecosystems needs to be properly valued and ecologically engineered into the urban traffic network in a manner analogous to how wetlands, vegetated swales, and other ecologically based storm water treatment systems have improved urban runoff.

  4. Engineered Plants as Biosensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-28

    GFP fluorescence was detectable in the lower leaves and especially in the roots of one transgenic plant compared to negative and positive control...mgfp5-er gene, lane 5 contains cDNA from a 35s-mgfp5-er transgenic plant , lanes 6-10 contain cDNAs from gn1/gfp plants. RNA extraction was performed 7...contains transgenic plant sprayed with water (negative control). Lanes 5-12 are independent gn1/gfp transgenic events sprayed with 5 mM BTH. Lanes

  5. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission Limitations and Management Practices § 63.11086 What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk...

  6. Technical support report: Preliminary design and assessment of a 50,000 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-04-01

    The technical support provided from process licensors, equipment suppliers, and consultants for use in the preliminary design of a coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant is discussed. Prime consideration was given to the selection of processes and equipment that was proven commercially. Support was given for pollution control, desulfurizing, water treatment, and environment effects.

  7. The Impacts of Mid-Level Alcohol Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-Out and Tailpipe Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xin; Ireland, John C.; Zigler, Bradley T.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Knoll, Keith E.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Luecke, Jon H.; Tester, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Influences of ethanol and iso-butanol on gasoline engine performance, engine-out and tailpipe emissions were studied using a General Motors (GM) 2.0L turbocharged gasoline spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engine. U.S. federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuels were tested. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to measure non-regulated species including methane, ethylene, acetylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, isobutylene, 1,3-butadiene, n-pentane, and iso-octane. A Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle number (PN) size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm. The regulated emissions total hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx ) were also measured. We presented both engine-out and tailpipe emissions results as functions of alcohol content. In general, the alcohols tested reduced total PN emissions, with iso-butanol demonstrating the greatest reduction. Increasing ethanol content and iso-butanol increased formaldehyde emissions, with iso-butanol exhibiting the highest increase. Iso-butanol increased iso-butylene emission; however, it reduced emissions of 1,3-butadiene. Finally, within the context of this study, the alcohols did not significantly change the other regulated emissions.

  8. An experimental study of the combustion characteristics in SCCI and CAI based on direct-injection gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.

    2007-08-15

    Emissions remain a critical issue affecting engine design and operation, while energy conservation is becoming increasingly important. One approach to favorably address these issues is to achieve homogeneous charge combustion and stratified charge combustion at lower peak temperatures with a variable compression ratio, a variable intake temperature and a trapped rate of the EGR using NVO (negative valve overlap). This experiment was attempted to investigate the origins of these lower temperature auto-ignition phenomena with SCCI and CAI using gasoline fuel. In case of SCCI, the combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline-fueled stratified-charge compression ignition (SCCI) engine according to intake temperature and compression ratio was examined. We investigated the effects of air-fuel ratio, residual EGR rate and injection timing on the CAI combustion area. In addition, the effect of injection timing on combustion factors such as the start of combustion, its duration and its heat release rate was also investigated. (author)

  9. Unravelling remote sensing signatures of plants contaminated with gasoline and diesel: an approach using the red edge spectral feature.

    PubMed

    Sanches, I D; Souza Filho, C R; Magalhães, L A; Quitério, G C M; Alves, M N; Oliveira, W J

    2013-03-01

    Pipeline systems used to transport petroleum products represent a potential source of soil pollution worldwide. The design of new techniques that may improve current monitoring of pipeline leakage is imperative. This paper assesses the remote detection of small leakages of liquid hydrocarbons indirectly, through the analysis of spectral features of contaminated plants. Leaf and canopy spectra of healthy plants were compared to spectra of plants contaminated with diesel and gasoline, at increasing rates of soil contamination. Contamination effects were observed both visually in the field and thorough changes in the spectral reflectance patterns of vegetation. Results indicate that the remote detection of small volumes of gasoline and diesel contaminations is feasible based on the red edge analysis of leaf and canopy spectra of plants. Brachiaria grass ranks as a favourable choice to be used as an indicator of HCs leakages along pipelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of air-fuel ratio on engine performance and pollutant emission of an SI engine using ethanol-gasoline-blended fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chan-Wei; Chen, Rong-Horng; Pu, Jen-Yung; Lin, Ta-Hui

    Ethanol-gasoline-blended fuel was tested in a conventional engine under various air-fuel equivalence ratios ( λ) for its performance and emissions. The amount of fuel injection was adjusted manually by an open-loop control system using a CONSULT controller. It was found that without changing throttle opening and injection strategy, λ could be extended to a leaner condition as ethanol content increased. The results of engine performance tests showed that torque output would increase slightly at small throttle valve opening when ethanol-gasoline-blended fuel was used. It was also shown that CO and HC emissions were reduced with the increase of ethanol content in the blended fuel, which resulted from oxygen enrichment. At an air-fuel equivalence ratio slightly larger than one, the smallest amounts of CO and HC and the largest amounts of CO 2 resulted. It was noted that under the lean combustion condition, CO 2 emission was controlled by air-fuel equivalence ratio; while under the rich combustion condition, CO 2 emission is offset by CO emission. It was also found that CO 2 emission per unit horse power output for blended fuel was similar or less than that for gasoline fuel. From the experimental data, the optimal ethanol content in the gasoline and air-fuel equivalence ratio in terms of engine performance and air pollution was found.

  11. An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P.

    2011-01-15

    Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

  12. Distinguishing Gasoline Engine Oils of Different Viscosities Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adbul-Munaim, Ali Mazin; Reuter, Marco; Koch, Martin; Watson, Dennis G.

    2015-07-01

    Terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the range of 0.5-2.0 THz was evaluated for distinguishing among gasoline engine oils of three different grades (SAE 5W-20, 10W-40, and 20W-50) from the same manufacturer. Absorption coefficient showed limited potential and only distinguished ( p < 0.05) the 20W-50 grade from the other two grades in the 1.7-2.0-THz range. Refractive index data demonstrated relatively flat and consistently spaced curves for the three oil grades. ANOVA results confirmed a highly significant difference ( p < 0.0001) in refractive index among each of the three oils across the 0.5-2.0-THz range. Linear regression was applied to refractive index data at 0.25-THz intervals from 0.5 to 2.0 THz to predict kinematic viscosity. All seven linear regression models, intercepts, and refractive index coefficients were highly significant ( p < 0.0001). All models had a similar fit with R 2 ranging from 0.9773 to 0.9827 and RMSE ranging from 6.33 to 7.75. The refractive indices at 1.25 THz produced the best fit. The refractive indices of these oil samples were promising for identification and distinction of oil grades.

  13. Murine precision-cut lung slices exhibit acute responses following exposure to gasoline direct injection engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Maikawa, Caitlin L; Zimmerman, Naomi; Rais, Khaled; Shah, Mittal; Hawley, Brie; Pant, Pallavi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Volckens, John; Evans, Greg; Wallace, James S; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J

    2016-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are increasingly prevalent in the global vehicle fleet. Particulate matter emissions from GDI engines are elevated compared to conventional gasoline engines. The pulmonary effects of these higher particulate emissions are unclear. This study investigated the pulmonary responses induced by GDI engine exhaust using an ex vivo model. The physiochemical properties of GDI engine exhaust were assessed. Precision cut lung slices were prepared using Balb/c mice to evaluate the pulmonary response induced by one-hour exposure to engine-out exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to vehicle highway cruise conditions. Lung slices were exposed at an air-liquid interface using an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system. Particulate and gaseous exhaust was fractionated to contrast mRNA production related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism and oxidative stress. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust upregulated genes involved in PAH metabolism, including Cyp1a1 (2.71, SE=0.22), and Cyp1b1 (3.24, SE=0.12) compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05). GDI engine exhaust further increased Cyp1b1 expression compared to filtered GDI engine exhaust (i.e., gas fraction only), suggesting this response was associated with the particulate fraction. Exhaust particulate was dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. Hmox1, an oxidative stress marker, exhibited increased expression after exposure to GDI (1.63, SE=0.03) and filtered GDI (1.55, SE=0.04) engine exhaust compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05), likely attributable to a combination of the gas and particulate fractions. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust contributes to upregulation of genes related to the metabolism of PAHs and oxidative stress.

  14. Lube oil-dependent ash chemistry on soot oxidation reactivity in a gasoline direct-injection engine

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Seungmok; Seong, Heeje

    2016-09-30

    Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are considered an enabling technology to meet stringent particulate matter (PM) regulations for gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines, which are known to produce significant PM emissions. While ash loading in filters has been recognized to be detrimental in filter performance by increasing back pressure, increased ash fractions in soot were observed to enhance soot oxidation. In this study, GDI soot samples derived from different gasoline/lube oil blends were evaluated to identify potential promoting factors when formulated lube oils were dosed into gasoline fuel. Ca-derived ash enhanced soot oxidation remarkably, while P- and ZDDP-derived ash deteriorated soot oxidation. It is apparent that the promoting effect of lube oil-derived ash is due mainly to the Ca component that is the most abundant among additive components in lube oil. Bulk and surface analyses of these ash compounds indicate that Ca-derived ash would be complex compounds, while the contribution of CaSO4, which is one of the most abundant ash compounds from diesel engines, is almost negligible. For the validation of the ash promoting impact in filters, the regeneration experiments were compared for a TWC-coated GPF in a GDI engine before and after ash loading was performed. The pressure drop of the ash-loaded GPF decreased noticeably in the initial regeneration stage and it increased gradually, whereas that of no ash-loaded GPF increased gradually without any reduction. So, it is concluded that the ash layer in the GPF assisted soot oxidation in the early regeneration stage when it was in close contact with soot.

  15. Lube oil-dependent ash chemistry on soot oxidation reactivity in a gasoline direct-injection engine

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, Seungmok; Seong, Heeje

    2016-09-30

    Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are considered an enabling technology to meet stringent particulate matter (PM) regulations for gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines, which are known to produce significant PM emissions. While ash loading in filters has been recognized to be detrimental in filter performance by increasing back pressure, increased ash fractions in soot were observed to enhance soot oxidation. In this study, GDI soot samples derived from different gasoline/lube oil blends were evaluated to identify potential promoting factors when formulated lube oils were dosed into gasoline fuel. Ca-derived ash enhanced soot oxidation remarkably, while P- and ZDDP-derived ash deteriorated soot oxidation.more » It is apparent that the promoting effect of lube oil-derived ash is due mainly to the Ca component that is the most abundant among additive components in lube oil. Bulk and surface analyses of these ash compounds indicate that Ca-derived ash would be complex compounds, while the contribution of CaSO4, which is one of the most abundant ash compounds from diesel engines, is almost negligible. For the validation of the ash promoting impact in filters, the regeneration experiments were compared for a TWC-coated GPF in a GDI engine before and after ash loading was performed. The pressure drop of the ash-loaded GPF decreased noticeably in the initial regeneration stage and it increased gradually, whereas that of no ash-loaded GPF increased gradually without any reduction. So, it is concluded that the ash layer in the GPF assisted soot oxidation in the early regeneration stage when it was in close contact with soot.« less

  16. Lube oil-dependent ash chemistry on soot oxidation reactivity in a gasoline direct-injection engine

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Seungmok; Seong, Heeje

    2016-09-30

    Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are considered an enabling technology to meet stringent particulate matter (PM) regulations for gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines, which are known to produce significant PM emissions. While ash loading in filters has been recognized to be detrimental in filter performance by increasing back pressure, increased ash fractions in soot were observed to enhance soot oxidation. In this study, GDI soot samples derived from different gasoline/lube oil blends were evaluated to identify potential promoting factors when formulated lube oils were dosed into gasoline fuel. Ca-derived ash enhanced soot oxidation remarkably, while P- and ZDDP-derived ash deteriorated soot oxidation. It is apparent that the promoting effect of lube oil-derived ash is due mainly to the Ca component that is the most abundant among additive components in lube oil. Bulk and surface analyses of these ash compounds indicate that Ca-derived ash would be complex compounds, while the contribution of CaSO4, which is one of the most abundant ash compounds from diesel engines, is almost negligible. For the validation of the ash promoting impact in filters, the regeneration experiments were compared for a TWC-coated GPF in a GDI engine before and after ash loading was performed. The pressure drop of the ash-loaded GPF decreased noticeably in the initial regeneration stage and it increased gradually, whereas that of no ash-loaded GPF increased gradually without any reduction. So, it is concluded that the ash layer in the GPF assisted soot oxidation in the early regeneration stage when it was in close contact with soot.

  17. Comparison of Performance of AN-F-58 Fuel and Gasoline in J34-WE-22 Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowman, Harry W; Younger, George G

    1949-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the performance of AN-F-58 fuel in various types of turbojet engine, the performance of this fuel in a 3000-pound-thrust turbojet engine has been investigated in an altitude test chamber together with the comparative performance of 62-octane gasoline. The investigation of normal engine performance, which covered a range of engine speeds at altitudes from 5000 to 50,000 feet and flight Mach numbers up to 1.00, showed that both the net thrust and average turbine-outlet temperatures were approximately the same for both fuels. The specific fuel consumption and the combustion efficiency at the maximum engine speeds investigated were approximately the same for both fuels at altitudes up to 35,000 feet, but at an altitude of 50,000 feet the specific fuel consumption was about 9 percent higher and the combustion efficiency was correspondingly lower with the AN-F-58 fuel than with gasoline. The low-engine-speed blow-out limits were about the same for both fuels. Ignition of AN-F-58 fuel with the standard spark plug was possible only with the spark plug in a clean condition; ignition was impossible at all flight conditions investigated when the plug was fouled by an accumulation of liquid fuel from a preceding false start. Use of an extended-electrode spark plug provided satisfactory ignition over a slightly smaller range of altitudes and flight Mach numbers than for gasoline with the standard spark plug.

  18. Environmental risk of particulate and soluble platinum group elements released from gasoline and diesel engine catalytic converters.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, M; Palacios, M A; Gómez, M M; Morrison, G; Rauch, S; McLeod, C; Ma, R; Caroli, S; Alimonti, A; Petrucci, F; Bocca, B; Schramel, P; Zischka, M; Pettersson, C; Wass, U; Luna, M; Saenz, J C; Santamaría, J

    2002-09-16

    A comparison of platinum-group element (PGE) emission between gasoline and diesel engine catalytic converters is reported within this work. Whole raw exhaust fumes from four catalysts of three different types were examined during their useful lifetime, from fresh to 80,000 km. Two were gasoline engine catalysts (Pt-Pd-Rh and Pd-Rh), while the other two were diesel engine catalysts (Pt). Samples were collected following the 91441 EUDC driving cycle for light-duty vehicle testing, and the sample collection device used allowed differentiation between the particulate and soluble fractions, the latter being the most relevant from an environmental point of view. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (quadrupole and high resolution), and special attention was paid to the control of spectral interference, especially in the case of Pd and Rh. The results obtained show that, for fresh catalysts, the release of particulate PGE through car exhaust fumes does not follow any particular trend, with a wide range (one-two orders of magnitude) for the content of noble metals emitted. The samples collected from 30,000-80,000 km present a more homogeneous PGE release for all catalysts studied. A decrease of approximately one order of magnitude is observed with respect to the release from fresh catalysts, except in the case of the diesel engine catalyst, for which PGE emission continued to be higher than in the case of gasoline engines. The fraction of soluble PGE was found to represent less than 10% of the total amount released from fresh catalysts. For aged catalysts, the figures are significantly higher, especially for Pd and Rh. Particulate PGE can be considered as virtually biologically inert, while soluble PGE forms can represent an environmental risk due to their bioavailability, which leads them to accumulate in the environment.

  19. Impact of methanol-gasoline fuel blend on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a SI engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifal, Mohamad; Sinaga, Nazaruddin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect of methanol-gasoline fuel blend (M15, M30 and M50) on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a spark ignition engine (SI) were investigated. In the experiment, an engine four-cylinder, four stroke injection system (engine of Toyota Kijang Innova 1TR-FE) was used. Test were did to know the relation of fuel consumption and exhaust emission (CO, CO2, HC) were analyzed under the idle throttle operating condition and variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm. The experimental result showed that the fuel consumption decrease with the use of methanol. It was also shown that the CO and HC emission were reduced with the increase methanol content while CO2 were increased.

  20. Carbon monoxide poisonings from small, gasoline-powered, internal combustion engines: just what is a "well-ventilated area"?

    PubMed

    Earnest, G S; Mickelsen, R L; McCammon, J B; O'Brien, D M

    1997-11-01

    This study modeled the time required for a gasoline-powered, 5 horsepower (hp), 4-cycle engine to generate carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations exceeding the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 200-ppm ceiling and 1200-ppm immediately dangerous to life and health concentration for various room sizes and ventilation rates. The model permitted the ambiguous term "well-ventilated area" to be defined. The model was compared with field data collected at a site where two workers were poisoned while operating a 5-hp concrete saw in a bathroom having open doors and an operating ventilation system. There is agreement between both the modeled and field-generated data, indicating that hazardous CO concentrations can develop within minutes. Comparison of field and modeling data showed the measured CO generation rate at approximately one-half of the value used in the model, which may be partially because the engine used in the field was not under load during data collection. The generation rate and room size from the actual poisoning was then used in the model. The model determined that ventilation rates of nearly 5000 ft3/min (120 air changes per hour) would be required to prevent the CO concentration from exceeding the 200-ppm ceiling for short periods. Results suggest that small gasoline-powered engines should not be operated inside of buildings or in semienclosed spaces and that manufacturers of such tools should improve their warnings and develop engineering control options for better user protection.

  1. Microwave-Based Oxidation State and Soot Loading Determination on Gasoline Particulate Filters with Three-Way Catalyst Coating for Homogenously Operated Gasoline Engines

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Markus; Jahn, Christoph; Lanzerath, Peter; Moos, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a novel method emerged to determine the oxygen storage degree of three way catalysts (TWC) by a microwave-based method. Up to now, this method has been investigated only in lab-scale reactors or under steady state conditions. This work expands those initial studies. A TWC-coated gasoline particulate filter was investigated in a dynamic engine test bench simulating a typical European driving cycle (NEDC). It could be shown that both the oxygen storage degree and the soot loading can be monitored directly, but not simultaneously due to their competitive effects. Under normal driving conditions, no soot accumulation was observed, related to the low raw emissions and the catalytic coating of the filter. For the first time, the quality factor of the cavity resonator in addition to the resonance frequency was used, with the benefit of less cross sensitivity to inconstant temperature and water. Therefore, a temperature dependent calibration of the microwave signal was created and applied to monitor the oxidation state in transient driving cycles. The microwave measurement mirrors the oxidation state determined by lambda probes and can be highly beneficial in start-stop phases (where lambda-probes do not work) and to determine the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) without unnecessary emissions. PMID:26340629

  2. Microwave-Based Oxidation State and Soot Loading Determination on Gasoline Particulate Filters with Three-Way Catalyst Coating for Homogenously Operated Gasoline Engines.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Markus; Jahn, Christoph; Lanzerath, Peter; Moos, Ralf

    2015-09-02

    Recently, a novel method emerged to determine the oxygen storage degree of three way catalysts (TWC) by a microwave-based method. Up to now, this method has been investigated only in lab-scale reactors or under steady state conditions. This work expands those initial studies. A TWC-coated gasoline particulate filter was investigated in a dynamic engine test bench simulating a typical European driving cycle (NEDC). It could be shown that both the oxygen storage degree and the soot loading can be monitored directly, but not simultaneously due to their competitive effects. Under normal driving conditions, no soot accumulation was observed, related to the low raw emissions and the catalytic coating of the filter. For the first time, the quality factor of the cavity resonator in addition to the resonance frequency was used, with the benefit of less cross sensitivity to inconstant temperature and water. Therefore, a temperature dependent calibration of the microwave signal was created and applied to monitor the oxidation state in transient driving cycles. The microwave measurement mirrors the oxidation state determined by lambda probes and can be highly beneficial in start-stop phases (where lambda-probes do not work) and to determine the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) without unnecessary emissions.

  3. Engineering plants for spaceflight environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.

    1999-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of radiation into biomass and yield has steadily increased for centuries because of continued improvement in both plant genetics and environmental control. Considerable effort has gone into improving the environment for plant growth in space, but work has only begun to engineer plants for spaceflight. Genetic manipulation offers tremendous potential to improve our ability to study gravitational effects. Genetic manipulation will also be necessary to build an efficient regenerative life support system. We cannot fully characterize plant response to the spaceflight environment without understanding and manipulating their genetic composition. Identification and selection of the existing germplasm is the first step. There are thousands of cultivars of each of our major crop plants, each specifically adapted to a unique environment on our planet. Thousands of additional lines are held in national germplasm collections to maintain genetic diversity. Spaceflight imposes the need to tap this diversity. Existing lines need to be evaluated in the environment that is characteristic of closed-system spaceflight conditions. Many of the plant growth challenges we confront in space can be better solved through genetic change than by hardware engineering. Ten thousand years of plant breeding has demonstrated the value of matching genetics with the environment. For example, providing continuous light can increase plant growth in space, but this often induces calcium deficiencies because Ca is not supplied by guttation during a dark period. This deficiency cannot be eliminated through increased root-zone and foliar Ca applications. It can be solved, in wheat, through genetic selection of lines that do not have the deficiency. Subsequent comparison of lines with and without the Ca deficiency has also helped us understand the nature of the problem.

  4. Engineering plants for spaceflight environments.

    PubMed

    Bugbee, B

    1999-05-01

    The conversion efficiency of radiation into biomass and yield has steadily increased for centuries because of continued improvement in both plant genetics and environmental control. Considerable effort has gone into improving the environment for plant growth in space, but work has only begun to engineer plants for spaceflight. Genetic manipulation offers tremendous potential to improve our ability to study gravitational effects. Genetic manipulation will also be necessary to build an efficient regenerative life support system. We cannot fully characterize plant response to the spaceflight environment without understanding and manipulating their genetic composition. Identification and selection of the existing germplasm is the first step. There are thousands of cultivars of each of our major crop plants, each specifically adapted to a unique environment on our planet. Thousands of additional lines are held in national germplasm collections to maintain genetic diversity. Spaceflight imposes the need to tap this diversity. Existing lines need to be evaluated in the environment that is characteristic of closed-system spaceflight conditions. Many of the plant growth challenges we confront in space can be better solved through genetic change than by hardware engineering. Ten thousand years of plant breeding has demonstrated the value of matching genetics with the environment. For example, providing continuous light can increase plant growth in space, but this often induces calcium deficiencies because Ca is not supplied by guttation during a dark period. This deficiency cannot be eliminated through increased root-zone and foliar Ca applications. It can be solved, in wheat, through genetic selection of lines that do not have the deficiency. Subsequent comparison of lines with and without the Ca deficiency has also helped us understand the nature of the problem.

  5. Effects of unbalance location on dynamic characteristics of high-speed gasoline engine turbocharger with floating ring bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Longkai; Bin, Guangfu; Li, Xuejun; Liu, Dingqu

    2016-03-01

    For the high-speed gasoline engine turbocharger rotor, due to the heterogeneity of multiple parts material, manufacturing and assembly errors, running wear in impeller and uneven carbon of turbine, the random unbalance usually can be developed which will induce excessive rotor vibration, and even lead to nonlinear vibration accidents. However, the investigation of unbalance location on the nonlinear high-speed turbocharger rotordynamic characteristics is less. In order to discuss the rotor unbalance location effects of turbocharger with nonlinear floating ring bearings(FRBs), the realistic turbocharger of gasoline engine is taken as a research object. The rotordynamic equations of motion under the condition of unbalance are derived by applied unbalance force and nonlinear oil film force of FRBs. The FE model of turbocharger rotor-bearing system is modeled which includes the unbalance excitation and nonlinear FRBs. Under the conditions of four different applied locations of unbalance, the nonlinear transient analyses are performed based on the rotor FEM. The differences of dynamic behavior are obvious to the turbocharger rotor systems for four conditions, and the bifurcation phenomena are different. From the results of waterfall and transient response analysis, the speed for the appearance of fractional frequency is not identical and the amplitude magnitude is different from the different unbalance locations, and the non-synchronous vibration does not occur in the turbocharger and the amplitude is relative stable and minimum under the condition 4. The turbocharger vibration and non-synchronous components could be reduced or suppressed by controlling the applied location of unbalance, which is helpful for the dynamic design, fault diagnosis and vibration control of the high-speed gasoline engine turbochargers.

  6. In vitro relative toxicity screening of combined particulate and semivolatile organic fractions of gasoline and diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Seagrave, JeanClare; Mauderly, Joe L; Seilkop, Steven K

    2003-06-27

    Engine technology modifications designed to reduce engine emissions are likely to alter the physicochemical characteristics of the emissions. These changes may alter the biological effects of the emissions, but these effects cannot currently be predicted from the physical and chemical properties. Rapid in vitro toxicity screening techniques to compare the biological effects of emission samples would be useful as preliminary guides to assess the relative health impact of modified technology. Here, we demonstrate that selected responses of cultured human lung epithelial cells and rat alveolar macrophages can discriminate among combined particulate matter (PM) and semivolatile organic compound (SVOO fractions of emissions collected from normal- and high-emitter, in-use gasoline and diesel vehicles. Macrophages were more susceptible to cytotoxicity than epithelial cells. Samples from gasoline vehicles (except a vehicle that produced visible white smoke) generally caused greater effects than the diesel engine samples. However, low concentrations of diesel emission samples were more potent stimulators of peroxide production than gasoline emission samples. The same rank order of potency applied to suppression of this response at high concentrations. A diesel PM fraction was much less toxic to both types of cells than the combined PM +SVOC fractions, consistent with a role for the SVOC fraction in cytotoxicity. However, the rank order of potency from the in vitro assays in general did not correspond with the previous rankings from in vivo comparisons of the same samples. Thus, while the in vitro assays may provide mechanistic information, revealing cell type-specific responses, they did not accurately reflect in vivo comparative toxicity in their current form.

  7. Site confirmation report. Preliminary design and assessment of a 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant. [Grace C-M-G Plant, Henderson County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    In January 1982, it was agreed to modify the Cooperative Agreement between W.R. Grace and Co. (Grace) and the US Department of Energy calling for the design and assessment of a coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant (Gasoline Plant) which would produce 50,000 barrels per day (BPD) of gasoline from high-sulfur agglomerating coal to include the preparation of a capital and operating cost estimate for a 12,500 BPD Gasoline Plant. The smaller 12,500 BPD Gasoline Plant uses the same basic equipment and processes as the larger plant. The major changes occur in process units after methanol synthesis, where two smaller sulfur recovery and removal units, one methanol-to-gasoline unit, a smaller fractionation unit, and smaller heavy gasoline treating and alkylation units are required. Thus, all processes used in the larger plant are used in the smaller plant. Products produced are identical but less in quantity. The coal pile is reduced considerably in size, and the concept of operation changed. The capacity of the steam generating facilities is reduced, but not by a factor of four, because sufficient steam is still required to start up the air separation plants. There are fewer air separation plants, but each still has a capacity of 2500 TPD. However, instead of three steam generating units each capable of generating 600,000 lb/hr of steam, fewer units of somewhat smaller capacity are used in the 12,500 BPD Gasoline Plant. Consequently, the reduction in scale does not influence the processes used to remove particulates and SO/sub x/ from flue gas. Fewer cooling towers, or towers of reduced capacity, are required instead of the four necessary for the 50,000 BPD Gasoline Plant.

  8. Conversion of methanol to gasoline extended project: methanol to olefins modification and operation of the demonstration plant milestone report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.; Soto, J.; Avidan, A.; Gierlich, H.; Thiagaraja, N.

    1986-04-01

    This milestone report documents operation of the fluid-bed Methanol-to Olefins (MTO process in a 100 BPD demonstration plant. The MTO process converts methanol to light olefins over Mobil's shape selective zeolite catalyst. High octane gasoline is a coproduct. The olefin mixture produced is especially well suited for production of premium diesel or jet fuel via Mobil's Olefins to Gasoline and Distillate (MOGD) Process. The scope of this project, however, covered only the MTO process. Specific conclusions which can be drawn from the 100 BPD demonstration plant operation and the 4 BPD pilot plant pretests, are: Total olefins yield in both units were within 1 to 2 wt% when compared at similar conditions; methanol breakthrough occurred at a lower propane/propene ratio, indicating better conversion efficiency, in the 100 BPT unit; stable steady-state operation with continuous regeneration and fresh catalyst makeup was successfully demonstrated in the 100 BPD plant; lower pressure increased total olefins yield at constant methanol conversion. Pressure could not be reduced below about 2.2 bar in the 100 BPD demonstration plant, due to bottlenecks in the gas compressor and in heat removal; and higher reactor temperatures increased total olefins yield at constant methanol conversion. however, higher reactor temperatures also increased light paraffins yield.

  9. Oxidative destruction of biomolecules by gasoline engine exhaust products and detoxifying effects of the three-way catalytic converter.

    PubMed

    Blaurock, B; Hippeli, S; Metz, N; Elstner, E F

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of engine exhaust condensation products were derived from cars powered by diesel or four-stroke gasoline engines (with and without three-way catalytic converter). The cars were operated on a static test platform. Samples of the different exhaust solutions accumulated in a Grimmer-type distillation trap (VDI 3872) during standard test programs (Federal Test Procedure) were incubated with important biomolecules. As indicators of reactive oxygen species or oxidative destruction, ascorbic acid, cysteine, glutathione, serum albumin, the enzymes glycerinaldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase, and the oxygen free-radical indicator keto-methylthiobutyrate were used. During and after the incubations, oxygen activation (consumption) and oxidative destruction were determined. Comparison of the oxidative activities of the different types of exhaust condensates clearly showed that the exhaust condensate derived from the four-stroke car equipped with a three-way catalytic converter exhibited by far the lowest oxidative and destructive power.

  10. Performance of thin-ceramic-coated combustion chamber with gasoline and methanol as fuels in a two-stroke SI engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Nagalingam, B.; Gopalakrishnan, K. V.

    The performance of a conventional, carbureted, two-stroke spark-ignition (SI) engine can be improved by providing moderate thermal insulation in the combustion chamber. This will help to improve the vaporization characteristics in particular at part load and medium loads with gasoline fuel and high-latent-heat fuels such as methanol. In the present investigation, the combustion chamber surface was coated with a 0.5-mm thickness of partially stabilized zirconia, and experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder, two-stroke SI engine with gasoline and methanol as fuels. Test results indicate that with gasoline as a fuel, the thin ceramic-coated combustion chamber improves the part load to medium load operation considerably, but it affects the performance at higher speeds and at higher loads to the extent of knock and loss of brake power by about 18%. However, with methanol as a fuel, the performance is better under most of the operating range and free from knock. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are significantly reduced, by about 3 to 4% volume, for both gasoline and methanol fuels due to relatively lean operation and more complete combustion. NO(x) emissions were not measured. The results show that moderate thermal insulation of the two-stroke SI engine's combustion chamber is better suited to methanol fuel with respect to thermal efficiency, CO emissions, and knock-free operation compared to gasoline fuel.

  11. Analysis of Tumble and Its Effects on EGR Tolerance for a Gasoline Engine Running at High Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easter, Jordan; Puzinauskas, Paulius; Pyles, Timothy

    2012-11-01

    The series hybrid electric vehicle allows for the design of an engine that can run solely at its most efficient point, wide open throttle (WOT). However, at WOT there is an increase in emissions not typically handled in the conventional gasoline engine. Exhaust gas recirculation can be used to reduce emissions if the tolerance of the engine for the exhaust gas is increased. It is hypothesized that tolerance at WOT will increase when there is an increase in in-cylinder turbulence. In this research, aluminum flow guide vanes were inserted in the intake to induce tumble. The flow was examined through the use of PIV techniques and the increase in EGR tolerance was verified with engine testing. PIV images of the flow structure were taken between the intake valves of a modified cylinder designed to mimic bottom dead center. The lift to valve diameters as well as the vane configurations were altered. Engine testing was performed with varying vane configurations, while the EGR percentage was increased until it became difficult to control combustion. It was been found through the engine testing that the flow guide vanes do significantly increase the EGR tolerance as well as combustion stability. Funding received by the NSF REU Grant 1062611.

  12. Reformulated Gasoline

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reformulated gasoline (RFG) is gasoline blended to burn cleaner and reduce smog-forming and toxic pollutants in the air we breathe. The Clean Air Act requires that RFG be used to reduce harmful emissions of ozone.

  13. The NO 2/NO x ratio in emissions from gasoline-powered cars: High NO 2 percentage in idle engine measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenner, Magnus; Lindqvist, Oliver; Rosén, Åke

    Measurements of the fraction of NO 2 in NO x emissions from a gasoline-powered passenger car showed, that when idling NO 2/NO x (v/v) goes as high as ~ 0.3 for a warm engine. This should be compared with the widely accepted assumption that gasoline cars emit 2-5 % of NO x in the form of NO 2. It can be concluded, that the NO 2 concentration in the exhaust gases from an idle engine is some four times as high as the NO 2 concentration in exhausts from a car driven at 40 km h -1. The high NO 2/NO x ratio, built up at rush hours in Swedish cities, may thus be rationalized as direct emissions from idling gasoline-powered cars.

  14. Chemical Composition of Aerosol Particles Emitted by a Passenger Car Engine Fueled by Ethanol/Gasoline Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrano, J. M.; Gross, D. S.; Dutcher, D. D.; Drayton, M.; Kittelson, D.; McMurry, P.

    2007-12-01

    With concerns of national security, climate change, and human health, many people have called for oil independence for the United States and for the creation of alternative fuels. Ethanol has been widely praised as a viable alternative to petroleum-based fuels, due to the fact that it can be produced locally. A great deal of work has been done to characterize the energy balance of ethanol production versus consumption, but there have been fewer studies of the environmental and health impacts of emissions from combustion of ethanol/gasoline mixtures such as those burned in the modern vehicle fleet. To study the particulate emissions from such fuels, different ethanol/gasoline fuel mixtures with 0, 20, 40, and 85% ethanol were burned in a dynamometer-mounted automobile engine. The engine exhaust was diluted and sampled with two aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers (TSI 3800 ATOFMS), sampling different particle size ranges (50-500 nm and 150-3000 nm, respectively), to measure size and composition of the emitted aerosol particles. A variety of other aerosol characterization techniques were also employed to determine the size distribution of the aerosol particles, the mass emission rate from the engine, and the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle emissions. Here we will focus on results from the ATOFMS, which provides us with a particle size and mass spectra - for both negative and positive ions - for each particle that is sampled. Particles being emitted were found to contain primarily PAHs, elemental carbon (EC), nitrates, and sulfates. Particles were analyzed to investigate trends in particle composition as a function of fuel ethanol content, particle size, and for the types of particles emitted. A trend in particle type as a function of fuel ethanol content was evident in smaller particles, and trends in composition as a function of particle size were visible across the entire size range sampled.

  15. Impact of engine lubricant properties on regulated gaseous emissions of 2000-2001 model-year gasoline vehicles.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Thomas D; Sauer, Claudia G; Pisano, John T; Rhee, Sam H; Huai, Tao; Miller, J Wayne; MacKay, Gervase I; Robbins, John; Gamble, Heather; Hochhauser, Albert M; Ingham, Michael C; Gorse, Robert A; Beard, Loren K

    2004-03-01

    The impact of the sulfur (S) content in lubricating oil was evaluated for four ultra-low-emission vehicles and two super-ultra-low-emission vehicles, all with low mileage. The S content in the lube oils ranged from 0.01 to 0.76%, while the S content of the gasoline was fixed at 0.2 ppmw. Vehicles were configured with aged catalysts and tested over the Federal Test Procedure, at idle and at 50-mph cruise conditions. In all testing modes, variations in the S level of the lubricant did not significantly affect the regulated gas-phase tailpipe emissions. In addition to the regulated gas-phase emissions, a key element of the research was measuring the engine-out sulfur dioxide (SO2) in near-real-time. This research used a new methodology based on a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) to measure SO2 from the lubricants used in this study. With the DOAS, the contribution of SO2 emissions for the highest-S lubricant was found to range from less than 1 to 6 ppm on a gasoline S equivalent basis over the range of vehicles and test cycles used. The development and operation of the DOAS is discussed in this paper.

  16. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Edward; Gough, Charles

    2015-07-07

    This report summarizes activities conducted in support of the project “The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-EE0005654, as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated May 2012.

  17. The Effect of Ethanol Addition to Gasoline on Low- and Intermediate-Temperature Heat Release under Boosted Conditions in Kinetically Controlled Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuilleumier, David Malcolm

    The detailed study of chemical kinetics in engines has become required to further advance engine efficiency while simultaneously lowering engine emissions. This push for higher efficiency engines is not caused by a lack of oil, but by efforts to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, that cause global warming. To operate in more efficient manners while reducing traditional pollutant emissions, modern internal combustion piston engines are forced to operate in regimes in which combustion is no longer fully transport limited, and instead is at least partially governed by chemical kinetics of combusting mixtures. Kinetically-controlled combustion allows the operation of piston engines at high compression ratios, with partially-premixed dilute charges; these operating conditions simultaneously provide high thermodynamic efficiency and low pollutant formation. The investigations presented in this dissertation study the effect of ethanol addition on the low-temperature chemistry of gasoline type fuels in engines. These investigations are carried out both in a simplified, fundamental engine experiment, named Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, as well as in more applied engine systems, named Gasoline Compression Ignition engines and Partial Fuel Stratification engines. These experimental investigations, and the accompanying modeling work, show that ethanol is an effective scavenger of radicals at low temperatures, and this inhibits the low temperature pathways of gasoline oxidation. Further, the investigations measure the sensitivity of gasoline auto-ignition to system pressure at conditions that are relevant to modern engines. It is shown that at pressures above 40 bar and temperatures below 850 Kelvin, gasoline begins to exhibit Low-Temperature Heat Release. However, the addition of 20% ethanol raises the pressure requirement to 60 bar, while the temperature requirement remains unchanged. These findings have major implications for a range of modern engines

  18. Effect of cooled EGR on performance and exhaust gas emissions in EFI spark ignition engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohadi, Heru; Syaiful, Bae, Myung-Whan

    2016-06-01

    Fuel needs, especially the transport sector is still dominated by fossil fuels which are non-renewable. However, oil reserves are very limited. Furthermore, the hazardous components produced by internal combustion engine forces many researchers to consider with alternative fuel which is environmental friendly and renewable sources. Therefore, this study intends to investigate the impact of cooled EGR on the performance and exhaust gas emissions in the gasoline engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends. The percentage of wet methanol blended with gasoline is in the range of 5 to 15% in a volume base. The experiment was performed at the variation of engine speeds from 2500 to 4000 rpm with 500 intervals. The re-circulated exhaust gasses into combustion chamber was 5%. The experiment was performed at the constant engine speed. The results show that the use of cooled EGR with wet methanol of 10% increases the brake torque up to 21.3%. The brake thermal efficiency increases approximately 39.6% using cooled EGR in the case of the engine fueled by 15% wet methanol. Brake specific fuel consumption for the engine using EGR fueled by 10% wet methanol decreases up to 23% at the engine speed of 2500 rpm. The reduction of CO, O2 and HC emissions was found, while CO2 increases.

  19. Mutagenicity and in vivo toxicity of combined particulate and semivolatile organic fractions of gasoline and diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob D; Gigliotti, Andrew P; Nikula, Kristen J; Seilkop, Steven K; Gurevich, Michael; Mauderly, Joe L

    2002-12-01

    Exposure to engine emissions is associated with adverse health effects. However, little is known about the relative effects of emissions produced by different operating conditions, fuels, or technologies. Rapid screening techniques are needed to compare the biological effects of emissions with different characteristics. Here, we examined a set of engine emission samples using conventional bioassays. The samples included combined particulate material and semivolatile organic compound fractions of emissions collected from normal- and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles collected at 72 degrees F, and from normal-emitter groups collected at 30 degrees F. The relative potency of the samples was determined by statistical analysis of the dose-response curves. All samples induced bacterial mutagenicity, with a 10-fold range of potency among the samples. Responses to intratracheal instillation in rats indicated generally parallel rankings of the samples by multiple endpoints reflecting cytotoxic, inflammatory, and lung parenchymal changes, allowing selection of a more limited set of parameters for future studies. The parameters selected to assess oxidative stress and macrophage function yielded little useful information. Responses to instillation indicated little difference in potency per unit of combined particulate material and semivolatile organic compound mass between normal-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles, or between emissions collected at different temperatures. However, equivalent masses of emissions from high-emitter vehicles of both types were more potent than those from normal-emitters. While preliminary in terms of assessing contributions of different emissions to health hazards, the results indicate that a subset of this panel of assays will be useful in providing rapid, cost-effective feedback on the biological impact of modified technology.

  20. Divided Combustion Chamber Gasoline Engines - A Review for Emissions and Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bascunana, Jose L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes characteristic designs of the engine. Data for fuel economy and emission are presented. Data show that automobiles equipped with one of the engines described have passed the 1975 Federal Emissions Standards. (SLH)

  1. 7 CFR 3201.103 - Gasoline fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gasoline fuel additives. 3201.103 Section 3201.103... Designated Items § 3201.103 Gasoline fuel additives. (a) Definition. Chemical agents added to gasoline to increase octane levels, improve lubricity, and provide engine cleaning properties to gasoline-fired engines...

  2. Chemical analysis and biological testing of a polar fraction of ambient air, diesel engine, and gasoline engine particulate extracts.

    PubMed

    Strandell, M; Zakrisson, S; Alsberg, T; Westerholm, R; Winquist, L; Rannug, U

    1994-10-01

    Extracts of gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust and ambient air particles were fractionated into five fractions according to polarity on a silica gel column. Two medium polar fractions showing high genotoxic activity in the Ames test were further subfractionated, using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Chemical analyses were performed by means of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry and flame ionization and detection. The crude extracts, fractions, and subfractions were assayed with the Ames test, with and without S9, and the most abundant compounds in the subfractions are reported.

  3. Chemical analysis and biological testing of a polar fraction of ambient air, diesel engine, and gasoline engine particulate extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Strandell, M; Zakrisson, S; Alsberg, T; Westerholm, R; Winquist, L; Rannug, U

    1994-01-01

    Extracts of gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust and ambient air particles were fractionated into five fractions according to polarity on a silica gel column. Two medium polar fractions showing high genotoxic activity in the Ames test were further subfractionated, using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Chemical analyses were performed by means of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry and flame ionization and detection. The crude extracts, fractions, and subfractions were assayed with the Ames test, with and without S9, and the most abundant compounds in the subfractions are reported. PMID:7529708

  4. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants... Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities; and... Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline...

  5. Skin cleaning with kerosene facilitates passage of carcinogens to the lungs of animals treated with used gasoline engine oil.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Roh, J H; Burks, D; Warshawsky, D; Talaska, G

    2000-04-01

    Solvents such as kerosene or gasoline may be used by workers to clean their skin following contact with oily materials. This practice is not recommended, as it is well known that the solvent will defat the skin. Many also suspect that solvent washing may increase exposure by carrying materials through the skin; however, there is little documentation of this. Auto mechanics may be exposed to used gasoline engine oil (UGEO), an animal carcinogen which forms carcinogen-DNA adducts in skin and lung following topical application. This study was designed to determine if cleaning with kerosene following exposure to UGEO altered absorption of carcinogens from this material. UGEO or new oil (NO) was applied to the shaved skins of groups of HSD-ICR mice for five days. At 1 or 8 hours after application, the treated skins were cleaned with either kerosene or a commercial cleaner, or were not cleaned. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last application, skins and lungs harvested, and DNA analyzed for carcinogen-DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling. Five applications of UGEO significantly increased carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in both lungs and skin compared to animals treated with NO. DNA adduct levels in the skin were reduced significantly in groups washed with kerosene or commercial cleaner. Washing at one as opposed to eight hours after UGEO application resulted in lower adduct levels regardless of cleaner. DNA adduct levels in the lung were reduced when the commercial cleaner was used, again in a time-related fashion. However, cleaning with kerosene resulted in mean carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in the lung which were significantly higher than even the positive controls, regardless of cleaning time. This is the first demonstration that kerosene cleaning facilitates passage of carcinogens through the skin, resulting in higher levels of genetic damage in a critical internal organ.

  6. Enabling plant synthetic biology through genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Baltes, Nicholas J; Voytas, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic biology seeks to create new biological systems, including user-designed plants and plant cells. These systems can be employed for a variety of purposes, ranging from producing compounds of industrial or therapeutic value, to reducing crop losses by altering cellular responses to pathogens or climate change. To realize the full potential of plant synthetic biology, techniques are required that provide control over the genetic code - enabling targeted modifications to DNA sequences within living plant cells. Such control is now within reach owing to recent advances in the use of sequence-specific nucleases to precisely engineer genomes. We discuss here the enormous potential provided by genome engineering for plant synthetic biology.

  7. Modelling, sizing and testing a scroll expander for a waste heat recovery application on a gasoline engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legros, Arnaud; Guillaume, Ludovic; Diny, Mouad; Lemort, Vincent

    2015-08-01

    Waste heat recovery technologies in a mobile application emerge every time energy becomes a valuable resource. It has been the case in the 70s with oil crisis and it is starting to regain some interests now due to the continuously rising price of oil and due to the restrictive standards imposed by the different governments. This paper deals with the recovery on the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine by using a Rankine system. The study focuses on the expander, which is one of the most important components of the system. The use of a scroll expander operating with steam is currently investigated through simulation and experimentation. This paper presents the modelling of a scroll expander. The model is a detailed model including various losses such as leakage, friction or under or over expansion. This model has been used to design and size a tailor-made scroll expander. This was necessary due to the small amount of expanders on the market and also to have a machine that fits our application. After designing the machine, a prototype has been built. It has also been tested on our prototype bench of waste heat recovery on a gasoline engine, by means of a Rankine cycle. Measured performance will be presented, analysed and compared to predictions by the model. The first results will be presented here and discussed in order to give recommendations for the design of next prototypes.

  8. Passive SCR for lean gasoline NOX control: Engine-based strategies to minimize fuel penalty associated with catalytic NH3 generation

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Parks, James E.; Pihl, Josh A.; Toops, Todd J.

    2016-02-18

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than common stoichiometric gasoline engines. However, excess oxygen prevents the use of the current three-way catalyst (TWC) to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in lean exhaust. A passive SCR concept, introduced by General Motors Global R&D, makes use of a TWC that is already onboard to generate NH3 under slightly rich conditions, which is stored on the downstream SCR. The stored NH3 is then used to reduce NOX emissions when the engine switches to lean operation. In this work, the effect of engine parameters, such as air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing, on NH3 generation over a commercial Pd-only TWC with no dedicated oxygen storage component was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine. NOX reduction, NH3 formation, and reductant utilization processes were evaluated, and fuel efficiency was assessed and compared to the stoichiometric engine operation case. We found air-fuel equivalence ratio to be one of the most important parameters in controlling the NH3 production; however, the rich operation necessary for NH3 production results in a fuel consumption penalty. The fuel penalty can be minimized by adjusting spark timing to increase rich-phase engine out NOX emissions and, thereby, NH3 levels. Additionally, higher engine out NOX during engine load increase to simulate acceleration resulted in additional fuel savings. Ultimately, a 10% fuel consumption benefit was achieved with the passive SCR approach by optimizing rich air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing while also utilizing acceleration load conditions.

  9. Passive SCR for lean gasoline NOX control: Engine-based strategies to minimize fuel penalty associated with catalytic NH3 generation

    DOE PAGES

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Parks, James E.; Pihl, Josh A.; ...

    2016-02-18

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than common stoichiometric gasoline engines. However, excess oxygen prevents the use of the current three-way catalyst (TWC) to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in lean exhaust. A passive SCR concept, introduced by General Motors Global R&D, makes use of a TWC that is already onboard to generate NH3 under slightly rich conditions, which is stored on the downstream SCR. The stored NH3 is then used to reduce NOX emissions when the engine switches to lean operation. In this work, the effect of engine parameters, such as air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing, onmore » NH3 generation over a commercial Pd-only TWC with no dedicated oxygen storage component was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine. NOX reduction, NH3 formation, and reductant utilization processes were evaluated, and fuel efficiency was assessed and compared to the stoichiometric engine operation case. We found air-fuel equivalence ratio to be one of the most important parameters in controlling the NH3 production; however, the rich operation necessary for NH3 production results in a fuel consumption penalty. The fuel penalty can be minimized by adjusting spark timing to increase rich-phase engine out NOX emissions and, thereby, NH3 levels. Additionally, higher engine out NOX during engine load increase to simulate acceleration resulted in additional fuel savings. Ultimately, a 10% fuel consumption benefit was achieved with the passive SCR approach by optimizing rich air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing while also utilizing acceleration load conditions.« less

  10. High-Resolution X-Ray and Neutron Computed Tomography of an Engine Combustion Network Spray G Gasoline Injector

    DOE PAGES

    Duke, Daniel J.; Finney, Charles E. A.; Kastengren, Alan; ...

    2017-03-14

    Given the importance of the fuel-injection process on the combustion and emissions performance of gasoline direct injected engines, there has been significant recent interest in understanding the fluid dynamics within the injector, particularly around the needle and through the nozzles. Furthermore, the pressure losses and transients that occur in the flow passages above the needle are also of interest. Simulations of these injectors typically use the nominal design geometry, which does not always match the production geometry. Computed tomography (CT) using x-ray and neutron sources can be used to obtain the real geometry from production injectors, but there are trade-offsmore » in using these techniques. X-ray CT provides high resolution, but cannot penetrate through the thicker parts of the injector. Neutron CT has excellent penetrating power but lower resolution. Here, we present results from a joint effort to characterize a gasoline direct injector representative of the Spray G injector as defined by the Engine Combustion Network. High-resolution (1.2 to 3 µm) x-ray CT measurements from the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory were combined with moderate-resolution (40 µm) neutron CT measurements from the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to generate a complete internal geometry for the injector. This effort combined the strengths of both facilities’ capabilities, with extremely fine spatially resolved features in the nozzles and injector tips and fine resolution of internal features of the needle along the length of injector. Analysis of the resulting surface model of the internal fluid flow volumes of the injector reveals how the internal cross-sectional area and nozzle hole geometry differs slightly from the design dimensions. A simplified numerical simulation of the internal flow shows how deviations from the design geometry can alter the flow inside the sac and holes. Our results of this study will provide

  11. Effect of ventilation and lubricants on sludge formation in passenger car gasoline engines

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Matsumoto, E.; Kurosaka, S.; Murakami, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A bench test has been developed for the estimation of sludge formation. The bench test results along with engine test data reveal the following conclusions: The largest sludge formation occurs under the combination of low oil temperature/low engine speed and high oil temperature/moderate engine speed. Sludge formation is greatly influenced by the ventilation in the rocker chambers and crankcase. In addition to improvement in the ventilation system the use of phenol-type antioxidants, salicylate-type detergents and dispersant-type viscosity improvers was effective for sludge protection.

  12. Metabolomic Changes in Murine Serum Following Inhalation Exposure to Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Brower, Jeremy B.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Moeller, Benjamin; Stirdivant, Steven; McDonald, Jacob D.; Campen, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The adverse health effects of environmental exposure to gaseous and particulate components of vehicular emissions are a major concern among urban populations. A link has been established between respiratory exposure to vehicular emissions and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms driving this interaction remain unknown. Chronic inhalation exposure to mixed vehicle emissions has been linked to CVD in animal models. This study evaluated the temporal effects of acute exposure to mixed vehicle emissions (MVE; mixed gasoline and diesel emissions) on potentially active metabolites in the serum of exposed mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a single 6 hour exposure to filtered air (FA) or MVE (100 or 300 µg/m3) by whole body inhalation. Immediately after and 18 hours after the end of the exposure period, animals were sacrificed for serum and tissue collection. Serum was analyzed for metabolites that were differentially present between treatment groups and time points. Changes in metabolite levels suggestive of increased oxidative stress (oxidized glutathione, cysteine disulfide, taurine), lipid peroxidation (13-HODE, 9-HODE), energy metabolism (lactate, glycerate, branched chain amino acid catabolites, butrylcarnitine, fatty acids), and inflammation (DiHOME, palmitoyl ethanolamide) were observed immediately after the end of exposure in the serum of animals exposed to MVE relative to those exposed to FA. By 18 hours post exposure, serum metabolite differences between animals exposed to MVE versus those exposed to FA were less pronounced. These findings highlight complex metabolomics alterations in the circulation following inhalation exposure to a common source of combustion emissions. PMID:27017952

  13. Metabolomic changes in murine serum following inhalation exposure to gasoline and diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Brower, Jeremy B; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Moeller, Benjamin; Stirdivant, Steven; McDonald, Jacob D; Campen, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    The adverse health effects of environmental exposure to gaseous and particulate components of vehicular emissions are a major concern among urban populations. A link has been established between respiratory exposure to vehicular emissions and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms driving this interaction remain unknown. Chronic inhalation exposure to mixed vehicle emissions has been linked to CVD in animal models. This study evaluated the temporal effects of acute exposure to mixed vehicle emissions (MVE; mixed gasoline and diesel emissions) on potentially active metabolites in the serum of exposed mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a single 6-hour exposure to filtered air (FA) or MVE (100 or 300 μg/m(3)) by whole body inhalation. Immediately after and 18 hours after the end of the exposure period, animals were sacrificed for serum and tissue collection. Serum was analyzed for metabolites that were differentially present between treatment groups and time points. Changes in metabolite levels suggestive of increased oxidative stress (oxidized glutathione, cysteine disulfide, taurine), lipid peroxidation (13-HODE, 9-HODE), energy metabolism (lactate, glycerate, branched chain amino acid catabolites, butrylcarnitine, fatty acids), and inflammation (DiHOME, palmitoyl ethanolamide) were observed immediately after the end of exposure in the serum of animals exposed to MVE relative to those exposed to FA. By 18 hours post exposure, serum metabolite differences between animals exposed to MVE versus those exposed to FA were less pronounced. These findings highlight complex metabolomics alterations in the circulation following inhalation exposure to a common source of combustion emissions.

  14. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  15. Headspace microdrop analysis--an alternative test method for gasoline diluent and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in used engine oils.

    PubMed

    Kokosa, John M; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2003-01-03

    The primary standard test method used for the determination of gasoline diluent in used engine oils is method D 3525-93 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), which involves direct injection of used oil onto a packed GC column and flame ionization detection. Recently, we have utilized a new headspace sampling method: headspace solvent microextraction (HSM), for GC and GC-MS analysis of gasoline diluent in used engine oils. High resolution capillary columns can be used without the necessity for the use of inlet cryogenic cooling or expensive sampling interfaces. This analytical method, which we generically refer to as headspace microdrop analysis yields results comparable to those obtained using the ASTM method, with the added benefit that it allows the quantification of individual volatile diluent components, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the xylenes.

  16. Power plant engineering for overseas market

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, K.S.

    1994-12-31

    Korea`s experience in power plant engineering for the overseas market is reviewed. The following topics are discussed: the Asian electric power market, ordering characteristics, country situations, and overseas market requirements.

  17. Gasoline-related organics in Lake Tahoe before and after prohibition of carbureted two-stroke engines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lico, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    On June 1, 1999, carbureted two-stroke engines were banned on waters within the Lake Tahoe Basin of California and Nevada. The main gasoline components MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) were present at detectable concentrations in all samples taken from Lake Tahoe during 1997-98 prior to the ban. Samples taken from 1999 through 2001 after the ban contained between 10 and 60 percent of the pre-ban concentrations of these compounds, with MTBE exhibiting the most dramatic change (a 90 percent decrease). MTBE and BTEX concentrations in water samples from Lake Tahoe and Lower Echo Lake were related to the amount of boat use at the sampling sites. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are produced by high-temperature pyrolytic reactions. They were sampled using semipermeable membrane sampling devices in Lake Tahoe and nearby Donner Lake, where carbureted two-stroke engines are legal. PAHs were detected in all samples taken from Lake Tahoe and Donner Lake. The number of PAH compounds and their concentrations are related to boat use. The highest concentrations of PAH were detected in samples from two heavily used boating areas, Tahoe Keys Marina and Donner Lake boat ramp. Other sources of PAH, such as atmospheric deposition, wood smoke, tributary streams, and automobile exhaust do not contribute large amounts of PAH to Lake Tahoe. Similar numbers of PAH compounds and concentrations were found in Lake Tahoe before and after the ban of carbureted two-stroke engines. ?? by the North American Lake Management Society 2004.

  18. Numerical simulation and validation of SI-CAI hybrid combustion in a CAI/HCCI gasoline engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyan; Xie, Hui; Xie, Liyan; Zhang, Lianfang; Li, Le; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Hua

    2013-02-01

    SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In this study, a SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) has been constructed on the basis of the 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z). An ignition model is included to initiate the ECFM3Z calculation and induce the flame propagation. In order to precisely depict the subsequent auto-ignition process of the unburned fuel and air mixture independently after the initiation of flame propagation, the tabulated chemistry concept is adopted to describe the auto-ignition chemistry. The methodology for extracting tabulated parameters from the chemical kinetics calculations is developed so that both cool flame reactions and main auto-ignition combustion can be well captured under a wider range of thermodynamic conditions. The SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) is then applied in the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) engine simulation. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data obtained from a single cylinder VVA engine. The detailed analysis of the simulations demonstrates that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is characterised with the early flame propagation and subsequent multi-site auto-ignition around the main flame front, which is consistent with the optical results reported by other researchers. Besides, the systematic study of the in-cylinder condition reveals the influence mechanism of the early flame propagation on the subsequent auto-ignition.

  19. Cycle-to-cycle variation analysis of in-cylinder flow in a gasoline engine with variable valve lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Daming; Wang, Tianyou; Jia, Ming; Wang, Gangde

    2012-09-01

    In spark ignition engines, cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) limits the expansion of the operating range because it induces the load variations and the occurrence of misfire and/or knock. Variable valve actuation (VVA) or variable valve lift (VVL) has been widely used in SI engines to improve the volumetric efficiency or to reduce the pumping losses. It is necessary to investigate the CCV of in-cylinder gas motion and mixing processes in SI engines with VVA/VVL system. This study is aimed to analyze the CCV of the tumble flow in a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine when VVL is employed. Cycle-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (CRD-PIV) data were acquired for the in-cylinder flow field of a motored four-stroke multi-valve GDI optical engine. The CCV of in-cylinder gas motion with a series of valve profiles and different maximum valve lift (MVL) was analyzed, including cyclic variation characteristics of bulk flow (tumble centre and tumble ratio), large- and small-scale fluctuation, total kinetic energy, and circulation. The results show that the CCV of the in-cylinder flow is increased with reduced MVL. With lower MVLs, stable tumble flow cannot be formed in the cylinder, and the ensemble-averaged tumble ratio decreases to zero before the end of the compression stroke due to violent variation. In addition, the evolution of the circulation shows larger variation with lower MVLs that indicates the `spin' of the small-scale eddy in the flow field presents violent fluctuation from one cycle to another, especially at the end of the compression stroke. Moreover, the analyze of the kinetic energy indicates the total energy of the flow field with lower MVLs increases significantly comparing with higher MVL conditions due to the intake flow jet at the intake valve seat in the intake stroke. However, the CCV of the in-cylinder flow becomes more violent under lower MVL conditions, especially for the low-frequency fluctuation kinetic energy. Thus, present strong

  20. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology

  1. A perspective on the range of gasoline compression ignition combustion strategies for high engine efficiency and low NOx and soot emissions: Effects of in-cylinder fuel stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott J.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2016-01-14

    Many research studies have shown that low temperature combustion in compression ignition engines has the ability to yield ultra-low NOx and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. To achieve low temperature combustion, sufficient mixing time between the fuel and air in a globally dilute environment is required, thereby avoiding fuel-rich regions and reducing peak combustion temperatures, which significantly reduces soot and NOx formation, respectively. It has been demonstrated that achieving low temperature combustion with diesel fuel over a wide range of conditions is difficult because of its properties, namely, low volatility and high chemical reactivity. On the contrary, gasoline has a high volatility and low chemical reactivity, meaning it is easier to achieve the amount of premixing time required prior to autoignition to achieve low temperature combustion. In order to achieve low temperature combustion while meeting other constraints, such as low pressure rise rates and maintaining control over the timing of combustion, in-cylinder fuel stratification has been widely investigated for gasoline low temperature combustion engines. The level of fuel stratification is, in reality, a continuum ranging from fully premixed (i.e. homogeneous charge of fuel and air) to heavily stratified, heterogeneous operation, such as diesel combustion. However, to illustrate the impact of fuel stratification on gasoline compression ignition, the authors have identified three representative operating strategies: partial, moderate, and heavy fuel stratification. Thus, this article provides an overview and perspective of the current research efforts to develop engine operating strategies for achieving gasoline low temperature combustion in a compression ignition engine via fuel stratification. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics modeling of the in-cylinder processes during the closed valve portion of the cycle was used to illustrate the opportunities and

  2. Indirect conversion of coal to methanol and gasoline: product price vs product slate

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, R. M.; McCracken, D. J.; Forrester, III, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts process analysis and engineering evaluation studies for the Department of Energy to provide, on a consistent basis, technical and economic assessments of processes and systems for coal conversion and utilization. Such assessments permit better understanding of the relative technical and economic potential of these processes. The objective of the work described here was to provide an assessment of the technical feasibility, economic competitiveness, and environmental acceptability of selected indirect coal liquefaction processes on a uniform, consistent, and impartial basis. Particular emphasis is placed on production of methanol as a principal product or methanol production for conversion to gasoline. Potential uses for the methanol are combustion in peaking-type turbines or blending with gasoline to yield motor fuel. Conversion of methanol to gasoline is accomplished through the use of the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process. Under the guidance of ORNL, Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Houston Division, prepared four conceptual process designs for indirect conversion of a Western subbituminous coal to either methanol or gasoline. The conceptual designs are based on the use of consistent technology for the core of the plant (gasification through methanol synthesis) with additional processing as necessary for production of different liquid products of interest. The bases for the conceptual designs are given. The case designations are: methanol production for turbine-grade fuel; methanol production for gasoline blending; gasoline production with coproduction of SNG; and gasoline production maximized.

  3. An investigation of the treatment of particulate matter from gasoline engine exhaust using non-thermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dan; Gao, Dengshan; Yu, Gang; Shen, Xianglin; Gu, Fan

    2005-12-09

    A plasma reactor with catalysts was used to treat exhaust gas from a gasoline engine in order to decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. The effect of non-thermal plasma (NTP) of the dielectric discharges on the removal of PM from the exhaust gas was investigated experimentally. The removal efficiency of PM was based on the concentration difference in PM for particle diameters ranging from 0.3 to 5.0 microm as measured by a particle counter. Several factors affecting PM conversion, including the density of plasma energy, reaction temperature, flow rate of exhaust gas, were investigated in the experiment. The results indicate that PM removal efficiency ranged approximately from 25 to 57% and increased with increasing energy input in the reactor, reaction temperature and residence time of the exhaust gas in the reactor. Enhanced removal of the PM was achieved by filling the discharge gap of the reactor with Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst pellets. In addition, the removal of unburned hydrocarbons was studied. Finally, available approaches for PM conversion were analyzed involving the interactions between discharge and catalytic reactions.

  4. EMISSIONS FROM TWO OUTBOARD ENGINES OPERATING ON REFORMULATED GASOLINE CONTAINING MTBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air and water pollutant emissions were measured from two 9.9 HP outboard engines: a two-stroke Evinrude and its four-stroke Honda counterpart. In addition to the measurement of regulated air pollutants, speciated organic pollutants and particulate matter emissions were determi...

  5. EMISSIONS FROM TWO OUTBOARD ENGINES OPERATING ON REFORMULATED GASOLINE CONTAINING MTBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air and water pollutant emissions were measured from two 9.9 HP outboard engines: a two-stroke Evinrude and its four-stroke Honda counterpart. In addition to the measurement of regulated air pollutants, speciated organic pollutants and particulate matter emissions were determi...

  6. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition Time the gasoline was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Key Applications of Plant Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Warren; Fischbach, Michael A.; Osbourn, Anne; Sattely, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Great strides have been made in plant metabolic engineering over the last two decades, with notable success stories including Golden rice. Here, we discuss the field's progress in addressing four long-standing challenges: creating plants that satisfy their own nitrogen requirement, so reducing or eliminating the need for nitrogen fertilizer; enhancing the nutrient content of crop plants; engineering biofuel feed stocks that harbor easy-to-access fermentable saccharides by incorporating self-destructing lignin; and increasing photosynthetic efficiency. We also look to the future at emerging areas of research in this field. PMID:24915445

  8. New developments in engineering plant metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Tatsis, Evangelos C; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2016-12-01

    Plants contain countless metabolic pathways that are responsible for the biosynthesis of complex metabolites. Armed with new tools in sequencing and bioinformatics, the genes that encode these plant biosynthetic pathways have become easier to discover, putting us in an excellent position to fully harness the wealth of compounds and biocatalysts (enzymes) that plants provide. For overproduction and isolation of high-value plant-derived chemicals, plant pathways can be reconstituted in heterologous hosts. Alternatively, plant pathways can be modified in the native producer to confer new properties to the plant, such as better biofuel production or enhanced nutritional value. This perspective highlights a range of examples that demonstrate how the metabolic pathways of plants can be successfully harnessed with a variety of metabolic engineering approaches.

  9. In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E; Cho, Kukwon; Sluder, Scott; Kokjohn, Sage; Reitz, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

  10. High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hilbert, D.

    2011-10-01

    Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability. Testing was conducted using a 300-hour wide-open throttle (WOT) test protocol, a typical durability cycle used by the outboard marine industry. Use of E15 resulted in reduced CO emissions, as expected for open-loop, non-feedback control engines. HC emissions effects were variable. Exhaust gas and engine operating temperatures increased as a consequence of leaner operation. Each E15 test engine exhibited some deterioration that may have been related to the test fuel. The 9.9 HP, four-stroke E15 engine exhibited variable hydrocarbon emissions at 300 hours -- an indication of lean misfire. The 300HP, four-stroke, supercharged Verado engine and the 200HP, two-stroke legacy engine tested with E15 fuel failed to complete the durability test. The Verado engine failed three exhaust valves at 285 endurance hours while the 200HP legacy engine failed a main crank bearing at 256 endurance hours. All E0-dedicated engines completed the durability cycle without incident. Additional testing is necessary to link the observed engine failures to ethanol in the test fuel.

  11. Jet air suction port (JASP) improves fuel consumption of 4-stroke cycle gasoline engines at idle

    SciTech Connect

    Okanishi, N.; Fukutani, I.; Watanabe, E.

    1982-02-01

    On 4-stroke cycle engines, the authors report that under certain conditions the cylinder pressure, measured during the suction stroke with a low-pressure pickup, dropped below the critical pressure. Noting this considerable negative cylinder pressure during the suction stroke, the authors devised a jet air suction port (JASP), which was opened and closed by piston movement near bottom dead center. As a result, it was possible not only to burn lean mixtures steadily, but also to decrease the fuel consumption 10-30% at idle by the jet air flow generated automatically from the JASP. Reductions in THC, CO and NO at idle were also noted. 6 refs.

  12. A study of combustion of hydrogen-enriched gasoline in a spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolescu, N.; Chiriac, R.

    1996-09-01

    An investigation has been done on the influence of small amounts of hydrogen added to hydrocarbons-air mixtures on combustion characteristics. The effect of hydrogen addition to a hydrocarbon-air mixture was firstly approached in an experimental bomb, to measure the laminar burning velocity and the shift of lean flammability limit. Experiments carried out with a single-cylinder four stroke SI engine confirmed the possibility of expanding the combustion stability limit, which correlates well with the general trend of enhancing the rate of combustion. An increase of brake thermal efficiency has been obtained with a reduction of HC emissions; the NO{sub x} emissions were higher, except for very lean mixtures.

  13. Deposit information in gasoline engines: Part I. Base oil effects in sequence VE deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Supp, J.A.; Kornbrekke, R.E.; Roby, S.H.

    1994-12-01

    Base oil effects on sludge and deposit formation in the ASTM Sequence VE were studied with blends made using the same American Petroleum Institute (API) SG performance package and the same viscosity improver. One percent of the dispersant was removed from the formulation to accentuate base oil effects. Nine tests on six different 100N base oils were run. Sequence VE test lubricant drain analyses show differences in insolubles, viscosity, and particle size with base stock variations. The most significant base oil factors which can be used to predict Sequence VE sludge ratings are the base oil saturate content, polar content, and volatility. While all oils studied passed the Sequence VE API SG engine varnish and piston varnish requirements, higher levels of poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA`s) are shown to increase the severity of these ratings.

  14. Engineering anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Butelli, Eugenio; Martin, Cathie

    2014-06-01

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments giving the red, purple and blue colours of many flowers and fruit. In addition to their physiological roles in plants, to attract pollinators and seed dispersers, dietary anthocyanins are associated with protection against certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases and other chronic human disorders. Enhanced supplies of pure anthocyanins would service the demands of research to investigate these health-promoting effects and would also prove a valuable resource for the colourants and cosmetic industries to investigate the effects of chemical modifications, co-pigments, and pH on colour and stability for developing new plant sources of natural colourants, and new natural colours. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Risk of esophageal, ovarian, testicular, kidney and bladder cancers and leukemia among finnish workers exposed to diesel or gasoline engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Guo, Johannes; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Pukkala, Eero

    2004-08-20

    Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust has been classified as probably carcinogenic and that to gasoline engine exhaust as possibly carcinogenic to humans. Earlier results concerning cancers other than lung cancer are scarce and inconsistent, and exposure-response relations have seldom been reported. We followed up a cohort of all economically active Finns born between 1906 and 1945 for 30 million person-years during 1971-1995. Incident cases of esophageal cancer (n = 2,198), ovarian cancer (5,082), testicular cancer (387), kidney cancer (7,366), bladder cancer (8,110) and leukemia (4,562) were identified through a record linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry. Occupations from the population census in 1970 were converted to exposures to diesel and gasoline engine exhausts with a job-exposure matrix (FINJEM). Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated as product of prevalence, level and estimated duration of exposure. The relative risk (RR) of cancer for exposure categories in relation to the unexposed group was calculated using the Poisson regression model and adjusted for confounders. An increasing RR for ovarian cancer was observed with the increasing CE of diesel exhaust (p for trend = 0.006). The RR in the highest CE category was 3.69 (95% CI = 1.38-9.86). For gasoline engine exhaust, the RR was significantly increased only in the middle CE category (1.70; 95% CI = 1.11-2.62). Slight elevations of RR for bladder and kidney cancers were found at the lowest exposure level of engine exhausts, largely attributable to drivers. No effect of the exposures was observed for the other cancers. This study suggests an exposure-response relation between diesel exhaust and ovarian cancer.

  16. A perspective on the range of gasoline compression ignition combustion strategies for high engine efficiency and low NOx and soot emissions: Effects of in-cylinder fuel stratification

    DOE PAGES

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott J.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2016-01-14

    Many research studies have shown that low temperature combustion in compression ignition engines has the ability to yield ultra-low NOx and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. To achieve low temperature combustion, sufficient mixing time between the fuel and air in a globally dilute environment is required, thereby avoiding fuel-rich regions and reducing peak combustion temperatures, which significantly reduces soot and NOx formation, respectively. It has been demonstrated that achieving low temperature combustion with diesel fuel over a wide range of conditions is difficult because of its properties, namely, low volatility and high chemical reactivity. On the contrary, gasolinemore » has a high volatility and low chemical reactivity, meaning it is easier to achieve the amount of premixing time required prior to autoignition to achieve low temperature combustion. In order to achieve low temperature combustion while meeting other constraints, such as low pressure rise rates and maintaining control over the timing of combustion, in-cylinder fuel stratification has been widely investigated for gasoline low temperature combustion engines. The level of fuel stratification is, in reality, a continuum ranging from fully premixed (i.e. homogeneous charge of fuel and air) to heavily stratified, heterogeneous operation, such as diesel combustion. However, to illustrate the impact of fuel stratification on gasoline compression ignition, the authors have identified three representative operating strategies: partial, moderate, and heavy fuel stratification. Thus, this article provides an overview and perspective of the current research efforts to develop engine operating strategies for achieving gasoline low temperature combustion in a compression ignition engine via fuel stratification. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics modeling of the in-cylinder processes during the closed valve portion of the cycle was used to illustrate the opportunities

  17. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H [Federal Way, WA; Lanning, David N [Federal Way, WA; Broderick, Thomas F [Lake Forest Park, WA

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  18. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 8. Commercial status of licensed process units. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; licensed commercial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This document demonstrates the commercial status of the process units to be used in the Tri-State Synfuels Project at Henderson, Kentucky. The basic design philosophy as established in October, 1979, was to use the commercial SASOL II/III plants as a basis. This was changed in January 1982 to a plant configuration to produce gasoline via a methanol and methanol to gasoline process. To accomplish this change the Synthol, Oil workup and Chemical Workup Units were eliminated and replaced by Methanol Synthesis and Methanol to Gasoline Units. Certain other changes to optimize the Lurgi liquids processing eliminated the Tar Distillation and Naphtha Hydrotreater Units which were replaced by the Partial Oxidation Unit. The coals to be gasified are moderately caking which necessitates the installation of stirring mechanism in the Lurgi Dry Bottom gasifier. This work is in the demonstration phase. Process licenses either have been obtained or must be obtained for a number of processes to be used in the plant. The commercial nature of these processes is discussed in detail in the tabbed sections of this document. In many cases there is a list of commercial installations at which the licensed equipment is used.

  19. Kinematic amplification strategies in plants and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Victor; Hannequart, Philippe; Adriaenssens, Sigrid; Baverel, Olivier; Viglino, Emmanuel; Eisenman, Sasha

    2017-06-01

    While plants are primarily sessile at the organismal level, they do exhibit a vast array of movements at the organ or sub-organ level. These movements can occur for reasons as diverse as seed dispersal, nutrition, protection or pollination. Their advanced mechanisms generate a myriad of movement typologies, many of which are not fully understood. In recent years, there has been a renewal of interest in understanding the mechanical behavior of plants from an engineering perspective, with an interest in developing novel applications by up-sizing these mechanisms from the micro- to the macro-scale. This literature review identifies the main strategies used by plants to create and amplify movements and anatomize the most recent mechanical understanding of compliant engineering mechanics. The paper ultimately demonstrates that plant movements, rooted in compliance and multi-functionality, can effectively inspire better kinematic/adaptive structures and materials. In plants, the actuators and the deployment structures are fused into a single system. The understanding of those natural movements therefore starts with an exploration of mechanisms at the origins of movements. Plant movements, whether slow or fast, active or passive, reversible or irreversible, are presented and detailed for their mechanical significance. With a focus on displacement amplification, the most recent promising strategies for actuation and adaptive systems are examined with respect to the mechanical principles of shape morphing plant tissues.

  20. Rhizosphere engineering: Enhancing sustainable plant ecosystem productivity

    DOE PAGES

    Ahkami, Amir H.; White, III, Richard Allen; Handakumbura, Pubudu P.; ...

    2017-04-21

    Here, the rhizosphere is arguably the most complex microbial habitat on earth, comprising an integrated network of plant roots, soil and a diverse microbial consortium of bacteria, archaea, viruses, and microeukaryotes. Understanding, predicting and controlling the structure and function of the rhizosphere will allow us to harness plant-microbe interactions and other rhizosphere activities as a means to increase or restore plant ecosystem productivity, improve plant responses to a wide range of environmental perturbations, and mitigate effects of climate change by designing ecosystems for long-term soil carbon storage. Here, we review critical knowledge gaps in rhizosphere science, and how mechanistic understandingmore » of rhizosphere interactions can be leveraged in rhizosphere engineering efforts with the goal of maintaining sustainable plant ecosystem services for food and bioenergy production in an ever changing global climate.« less

  1. Rhizosphere engineering: Enhancing sustainable plant ecosystem productivity

    DOE PAGES

    Ahkami, Amir H.; White, III, Richard Allen; Handakumbura, Pubudu P.; ...

    2017-04-21

    The rhizosphere is arguably the most complex microbial habitat on earth, comprising an integrated network of plant roots, the soil and a diverse microbial consortium of bacteria, archaea, viruses, and microeukaryotes. Understanding, predicting and controlling the structure and function of the rhizosphere will allow us to harness plant-microbe interactions and other rhizosphere activities as a means to increase plant ecosystem productivity, improve plant responses to a wide range of environmental perturbations, and mitigate effects of climate change by designing ecosystems for long-term soil carbon storage. Furthermore, we review critical knowledge gaps in rhizosphere science, and how mechanistic understanding of rhizospheremore » interactions can be leveraged in rhizosphere engineering efforts with the goal of maintaining sustainable plant ecosystem services for food and bioenergy production in an ever changing global climate.« less

  2. Metabolic engineering of plants for artemisinin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Farhi, Moran; Kozin, Magali; Duchin, Shai; Vainstein, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Artemisinin, a natural compound from Artemisia annua, is highly effective in treating drug-resistant malaria. Because chemical synthesis of this natural terpenoid is not economically feasible, its only source remains as the native plant which produces only small quantities of it, resulting in a supply that is far short of demand. Extensive efforts have been invested in metabolic engineering for the biosynthesis of artemisinin precursors in microbes. However, the production of artemisinin itself has only been achieved in plants. Since, A. annua possesses only poorly developed genetic resources for traditional breeders, molecular breeding is the best alternative. In this review, we describe the efforts taken to enhance artemisinin production in A. annua via transgenesis and advocate metabolic engineering of the complete functional artemisinin metabolic pathway in heterologous plants. In both cases, we emphasize the need to apply state-of-the-art synthetic biology approaches to ensure successful biosynthesis of the drug.

  3. Engineering of plant polyketide biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ikuro

    2008-11-01

    A growing number of functionally divergent the chalcone synthase (CHS) superfamily type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) have been cloned and characterized, which include recently obtained pentaketide chromone synthase (PCS) and octaketide synthase (OKS) from aloe (Aloe arborescens). Recombinant PCS expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzes iterative condensations of five molecules of malonyl-CoA to produce a pentaketide, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone, while OKS carries out sequential condensations of eight molecules of malonyl-CoA to yield aromatic octaketides, SEK4 and SEK4b, the longest polyketides generated by the structurally simple type III PKS. The two enzymes share 91% amino acid sequence identity, maintaining most of the active-site residues of CHS including the Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad. One of the most characteristic features is that the conserved Thr197 of CHS (numbering in Medicago sativa CHS) is uniquely replaced with Met207 in PCS and with Gly207 in OKS, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis and X-ray crystallographic studies clearly demonstrated that the chemically inert single residue lining the active-site cavity controls the polyketide chain length and the product specificity depending on the steric bulk of the side chain. Finally, on the basis of the crystal structures of both wild-type and M207G-mutant PCS, a triple mutant PCS F80A/Y82A/M207G was constructed and shown to catalyze condensations of nine molecules of malonyl-CoA to produce a novel nonaketide naphthopyrone with a fused tricyclic ring system. Structure-based engineering of the type III PKS superfamily enzymes would thus lead to further production of chemically and structurally divergent unnatural novel polyketides.

  4. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2011-10-18

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. At least 80% of the particles pass through a 1/4 inch screen having a 6.3 mm nominal sieve opening but are retained by a No. 10 screen having a 2 mm nominal sieve opening. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  5. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2011-10-11

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  6. Capital and operating cost estimates. Volume I. Preliminary design and assessment of a 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant. [Grace C-M-G Plant, Henderson County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This Deliverable No. 18b - Capital and Operating Cost Estimates includes a detailed presentation of the 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant from the standpoint of capital, preoperations, start-up and operations cost estimation. The base capital cost estimate in June 1982 dollars was prepared by the Ralph M. Parsons Company under the direction of Grace. The escalated capital cost estimate as well as separate estimates for preoperations, startup and operations activities were developed by Grace. The deliverable consists of four volumes. Volume I contains details of methodology used in developing the capital cost estimate, summary information on a base June 1982 capital cost, details of the escalated capital cost estimate and separate sections devoted to preoperations, start-up, and operations cost. The base estimate is supported by detailed information in Volumes II, III and IV. The degree of detail for some units was constrained due to proprietary data. Attempts have been made to exhibit the estimating methodology by including data on individual equipment pricing. Proprietary details are available for inspection upon execution of nondisclosure and/or secrecy agreements with the licensors to whom the data is proprietary. Details of factoring certain pieces of equipment and/or entire modules or units from the 50,000 BPD capital estimate are also included. In the case of the escalated capital estimate, Grace has chosen to include a sensitivity analysis which allows for ready assessment of impacts of escalation rates (inflation), contingency allowances and the construction interest financing rates on the escalated capital cost. Each of the estimates associated with bringing the plant to commercial production rates has as a basis the schedule and engineering documentation found in Deliverable No. 14b - Process Engineering and Mechanical Design Report, No. 28b - Staffing Plans, No. 31b - Construction Plan, and No. 33b - Startup and Operation Plan.

  7. Plants disarm soil: engineering plants for the phytoremediation of explosives.

    PubMed

    Rylott, Elizabeth L; Bruce, Neil C

    2009-02-01

    Explosives are toxic, recalcitrant to degradation and contaminate large areas of land and ground water. Remediation of these synthetic compounds is difficult and an enormous logistical task. Phytoremediation is a technique that offers an environmentally friendly, low-cost alternative to current remediation techniques; however, this approach is hindered by the low inherent metabolic abilities of plants towards these xenobiotic compounds and the phytotoxicity of these compounds. As a result of recent advances in our knowledge of the biochemistry underlying endogenous plant detoxification systems and the use of genetic engineering to combine bacterial explosives-detoxifying genes with the phytoremediatory benefits of plants, this technology is now poised for testing in the field and in a wider range of plants, such as poplar and perennial grasses.

  8. Effects of air/fuel ratio on gas emissions in a small spark-ignited non-road engine operating with different gasoline/ethanol blends.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Waldir Nagel; Olanyk, Luciano Zart; Guedes, Carmen Luisa Barbosa; Quessada, Talita Pedroso; Ribeiro, Camilo Bastos; Capanema, Marlon André

    2017-07-13

    This study investigates the effects of several blends of gasoline and anhydrous ethanol on exhaust emission concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (HCs), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from a small spark-ignited non-road engine (SSINRE). Tests were carried out for different air/fuel equivalence ratios as measured by lambda (λ). A 196 cm(3) single-cylinder four-stroke engine-generator operating at a constant load of 2.0 kW was used; pollutant gas concentrations were measured with an automatic analyzer similar to those typically used in vehicle inspections. The results showed that as the ethanol content of the mixture increased the concentrations of CO, HCs, and NOx reduced by 15, 53, and 34%, respectively, for values of λ < 1 (rich mixture) and by 52, 31, and 16% for values of λ > 1 (lean mixture). Overall, addition of anhydrous ethanol to the gasoline helped to reduce emissions of the pollutant gases investigated, what contributes to photochemical smog reduction and quality of life in urban areas.

  9. Workplace exposure to diesel and gasoline engine exhausts and the risk of colorectal cancer in Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Kachuri, Linda; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Harris, Shelley A

    2016-01-14

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) and gasoline exhaust as a possible carcinogen (Group 2B) based studies of lung cancer, however the evidence for other sites is limited. We addressed this question by investigating exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions with respect to risk of colorectal cancer in men. We used data from a population-based case-control study with incident cases of colon (n = 931) and rectal (n = 840) cancer and 1360 controls from 7 Canadian provinces conducted in 1994-1997. Lifetime occupational history and information on other risk factors was collected. Occupational hygienists, blinded to case-control status, assigned exposures to each job for 3 dimensions: concentration, frequency, and reliability. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age, province, use of proxy respondents, smoking, body-mass index, physical activity, intake of alcohol, processed meats, and occupational exposure to asbestos and aromatic amines. Among CRC cases, 638 (36 %) were exposed to diesel and 814 (46 %) were exposed to gasoline emissions. Relative to the unexposed, elevated risks were observed among subjects ever exposed to high concentration levels of diesel emissions for colorectal cancer (OR = 1.65, 95 % CI = 0.98-2.80) and rectal cancer (OR = 1.98, 95 % CI = 1.09-3.60), but not colon cancer. Prolonged (>10 years) exposure at high concentrations was also associated with high risks of rectal cancer (OR = 2.33 95 % CI = 0.94-5.78; p-trend = 0.02). No statistically significant associations were observed for gasoline emissions. Our findings suggest that sustained high-level exposure diesel emissions may increase the risk of rectal cancer.

  10. Gasoline Vapor Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  11. Engineering plant membranes using droplet interface bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, N. E.; Smpokou, E.; Macey, R.; Gould, I. R.; Turnbull, C.; Flemming, A. J.; Brooks, N. J.; Ces, O.; Barter, L. M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) have become widely recognised as a robust platform for constructing model membranes and are emerging as a key technology for the bottom-up assembly of synthetic cell-like and tissue-like structures. DIBs are formed when lipid-monolayer coated water droplets are brought together inside a well of oil, which is excluded from the interface as the DIB forms. The unique features of the system, compared to traditional approaches (e.g., supported lipid bilayers, black lipid membranes, and liposomes), is the ability to engineer multi-layered bilayer networks by connecting multiple droplets together in 3D, and the capability to impart bilayer asymmetry freely within these droplet architectures by supplying droplets with different lipids. Yet despite these achievements, one potential limitation of the technology is that DIBs formed from biologically relevant components have not been well studied. This could limit the reach of the platform to biological systems where bilayer composition and asymmetry are understood to play a key role. Herein, we address this issue by reporting the assembly of asymmetric DIBs designed to replicate the plasma membrane compositions of three different plant species; Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco, and oats, by engineering vesicles with different amounts of plant phospholipids, sterols and cerebrosides for the first time. We show that vesicles made from our plant lipid formulations are stable and can be used to assemble asymmetric plant DIBs. We verify this using a bilayer permeation assay, from which we extract values for absolute effective bilayer permeation and bilayer stability. Our results confirm that stable DIBs can be assembled from our plant membrane mimics and could lead to new approaches for assembling model systems to study membrane translocation and to screen new agrochemicals in plants. PMID:28396711

  12. Effect of Premixed Fuel Preparation for Partially Premixed Combustion with a Low Octane Gasoline on a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M.; Cannella, William C.

    2015-05-12

    Gasoline compression ignition concepts with the majority of the fuel being introduced early in the cycle are known as partially premixed combustion (PPC). Previous research on single- and multi-cylinder engines has shown that PPC has the potential for high thermal efficiency with low NOx and soot emissions. A variety of fuel injection strategies has been proposed in the literature. These injection strategies aim to create a partially stratified charge to simultaneously reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining some level of control over the combustion process through the fuel delivery system. The impact of the direct injection strategy to create a premixed charge of fuel and air has not previously been explored, and its impact on engine efficiency and emissions is not well understood. This paper explores the effect of sweeping the direct injected pilot timing from -91° to -324° ATDC, which is just after the exhaust valve closes for the engine used in this study. During the sweep, the pilot injection consistently contained 65% of the total fuel (based on command duration ratio), and the main injection timing was adjusted slightly to maintain combustion phasing near top dead center. A modern four cylinder, 1.9 L diesel engine with a variable geometry turbocharger, high pressure common rail injection system, wide included angle injectors, and variable swirl actuation was used in this study. The pistons were modified to an open bowl configuration suitable for highly premixed combustion modes. The stock diesel injection system was unmodified, and the gasoline fuel was doped with a lubricity additive to protect the high pressure fuel pump and the injectors. The study was conducted at a fixed speed/load condition of 2000 rpm and 4.0 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The pilot injection timing sweep was conducted at different intake manifold pressures, swirl levels, and fuel injection GTP-15-1067, Dempsey 2 pressures. The gasoline used in this study has

  13. Effect of Premixed Fuel Preparation for Partially Premixed Combustion with a Low Octane Gasoline on a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine

    DOE PAGES

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M.; ...

    2015-05-12

    Gasoline compression ignition concepts with the majority of the fuel being introduced early in the cycle are known as partially premixed combustion (PPC). Previous research on single- and multi-cylinder engines has shown that PPC has the potential for high thermal efficiency with low NOx and soot emissions. A variety of fuel injection strategies has been proposed in the literature. These injection strategies aim to create a partially stratified charge to simultaneously reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining some level of control over the combustion process through the fuel delivery system. The impact of the direct injection strategy to createmore » a premixed charge of fuel and air has not previously been explored, and its impact on engine efficiency and emissions is not well understood. This paper explores the effect of sweeping the direct injected pilot timing from -91° to -324° ATDC, which is just after the exhaust valve closes for the engine used in this study. During the sweep, the pilot injection consistently contained 65% of the total fuel (based on command duration ratio), and the main injection timing was adjusted slightly to maintain combustion phasing near top dead center. A modern four cylinder, 1.9 L diesel engine with a variable geometry turbocharger, high pressure common rail injection system, wide included angle injectors, and variable swirl actuation was used in this study. The pistons were modified to an open bowl configuration suitable for highly premixed combustion modes. The stock diesel injection system was unmodified, and the gasoline fuel was doped with a lubricity additive to protect the high pressure fuel pump and the injectors. The study was conducted at a fixed speed/load condition of 2000 rpm and 4.0 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The pilot injection timing sweep was conducted at different intake manifold pressures, swirl levels, and fuel injection GTP-15-1067, Dempsey 2 pressures. The gasoline used in this study

  14. Automobile gasoline -- quality fuel or commodity

    SciTech Connect

    France, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    The commercial availability and use of good quality gasolines are essential for the operation of high-technology automobiles without adverse effects on driveability and emissions. Some current and future fuel requirements for GM vehicles are addressed with a focus on certain trends in fuel composition and properties which are of importance or concern at this time. Examples include the contribution of elevated gasoline volatility to increased evaporative emissions, the compatibility of GM engines with gasolines blended with certain alcohols, and the need for gasolines without contaminants and with sufficient additives, such as detergents to keep port fuel injection systems clean.

  15. Engineered Gold Nanoparticles and Plant Adaptation Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2016-09-01

    Use of metal nanoparticles in biological system has recently been recognised although little is known about their possible effects on plant growth and development. Nanoparticles accumulation, translocation, growth response and stress modulation in plant system is not well understood. Plants exposed to gold and gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated to exhibit both positive and negative effects. Their growth and yield vary from species to species. Cytoxicity of engineered gold nanoparticles depends on the concentration, particle size and shape. They exhibit increase in vegetative growth and yield of fruit/seed at lower concentration and decrease them at higher concentration. Studies have shown that the gold nanoparticles exposure has improved free radical scavenging potential and antioxidant enzymatic activities and alter micro RNAs expression that regulate different morphological, physiological and metabolic processes in plants. These modulations lead to improved plant growth and yields. Prior to the use of gold nanoparticles, it has been suggested that its cost may be calculated to see if it is economically feasible.

  16. Engineering of complex protein sialylation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Kallolimath, Somanath; Castilho, Alexandra; Strasser, Richard; Grünwald-Gruber, Clemens; Altmann, Friedrich; Strubl, Sebastian; Galuska, Christina Elisabeth; Zlatina, Kristina; Galuska, Sebastian Peter; Werner, Stefan; Thiesler, Hauke; Werneburg, Sebastian; Hildebrandt, Herbert; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Steinkellner, Herta

    2016-01-01

    Sialic acids (Sias) are abundant terminal modifications of protein-linked glycans. A unique feature of Sia, compared with other monosaccharides, is the formation of linear homo-polymers, with its most complex form polysialic acid (polySia). Sia and polySia mediate diverse biological functions and have great potential for therapeutic use. However, technological hurdles in producing defined protein sialylation due to the enormous structural diversity render their precise investigation a challenge. Here, we describe a plant-based expression platform that enables the controlled in vivo synthesis of sialylated structures with different interlinkages and degree of polymerization (DP). The approach relies on a combination of stably transformed plants with transient expression modules. By the introduction of multigene vectors carrying the human sialylation pathway into glycosylation-destructed mutants, transgenic plants that sialylate glycoproteins in α2,6- or α2,3-linkage were generated. Moreover, by the transient coexpression of human α2,8-polysialyltransferases, polySia structures with a DP >40 were synthesized in these plants. Importantly, plant-derived polySia are functionally active, as demonstrated by a cell-based cytotoxicity assay and inhibition of microglia activation. This pathway engineering approach enables experimental investigations of defined sialylation and facilitates a rational design of glycan structures with optimized biotechnological functions. PMID:27444013

  17. LAILAPS: the plant science search engine.

    PubMed

    Esch, Maria; Chen, Jinbo; Colmsee, Christian; Klapperstück, Matthias; Grafahrend-Belau, Eva; Scholz, Uwe; Lange, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    With the number of sequenced plant genomes growing, the number of predicted genes and functional annotations is also increasing. The association between genes and phenotypic traits is currently of great interest. Unfortunately, the information available today is widely scattered over a number of different databases. Information retrieval (IR) has become an all-encompassing bioinformatics methodology for extracting knowledge from complex, heterogeneous and distributed databases, and therefore can be a useful tool for obtaining a comprehensive view of plant genomics, from genes to traits. Here we describe LAILAPS (http://lailaps.ipk-gatersleben.de), an IR system designed to link plant genomic data in the context of phenotypic attributes for a detailed forward genetic research. LAILAPS comprises around 65 million indexed documents, encompassing >13 major life science databases with around 80 million links to plant genomic resources. The LAILAPS search engine allows fuzzy querying for candidate genes linked to specific traits over a loosely integrated system of indexed and interlinked genome databases. Query assistance and an evidence-based annotation system enable time-efficient and comprehensive information retrieval. An artificial neural network incorporating user feedback and behavior tracking allows relevance sorting of results. We fully describe LAILAPS's functionality and capabilities by comparing this system's performance with other widely used systems and by reporting both a validation in maize and a knowledge discovery use-case focusing on candidate genes in barley. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  18. Contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the carcinogenic impact of gasoline engine exhaust condensate evaluated by implantation into the lungs of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmer, G.; Brune, H.; Deutsch-Wenzel, R.; Dettbarn, G.; Misfeld, J.

    1984-03-01

    An attempt was made to identify the substances chiefly responsible for the carcinogenicity of gasoline engine exhaust condensate. A carcinogen-specific bioassay was performed by a comparison of the carcinogenic effect of various fractions with that of a total sample of automobile exhaust condensate, tested in two or three different doses. The results were examined by Probit analysis. After implantation into the lungs of OM rats, the condensate emitted from a gasoline-driven automobile and the fraction of polycyclic aromatic compounds consisting of more than 3 rings induced lung carcinomas and sarcomas. The tumor incidence demonstrated a clear-cut dose-response relationship. The fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) consisting of more than 3 rings accounted for about 81% of the total carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate. This fraction represented only 2.8% by weight of the condensate. The content of benzo(a)pyrene (CAS: 50-32-8; 0.483 mg/g condensate) accounted for 2.4% of the total carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate. Regarding the minor effect of the PAH-free fraction (approximately equal to 87% by wt), no evidence of cocarcinogenic activity was observed, since the total condensate as well as the PAH fraction consisting of more than 3 rings applied proportionally caused about the same tumor incidence.

  19. LAILAPS: The Plant Science Search Engine

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Maria; Chen, Jinbo; Colmsee, Christian; Klapperstück, Matthias; Grafahrend-Belau, Eva; Scholz, Uwe; Lange, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    With the number of sequenced plant genomes growing, the number of predicted genes and functional annotations is also increasing. The association between genes and phenotypic traits is currently of great interest. Unfortunately, the information available today is widely scattered over a number of different databases. Information retrieval (IR) has become an all-encompassing bioinformatics methodology for extracting knowledge from complex, heterogeneous and distributed databases, and therefore can be a useful tool for obtaining a comprehensive view of plant genomics, from genes to traits. Here we describe LAILAPS (http://lailaps.ipk-gatersleben.de), an IR system designed to link plant genomic data in the context of phenotypic attributes for a detailed forward genetic research. LAILAPS comprises around 65 million indexed documents, encompassing >13 major life science databases with around 80 million links to plant genomic resources. The LAILAPS search engine allows fuzzy querying for candidate genes linked to specific traits over a loosely integrated system of indexed and interlinked genome databases. Query assistance and an evidence-based annotation system enable time-efficient and comprehensive information retrieval. An artificial neural network incorporating user feedback and behavior tracking allows relevance sorting of results. We fully describe LAILAPS’s functionality and capabilities by comparing this system’s performance with other widely used systems and by reporting both a validation in maize and a knowledge discovery use-case focusing on candidate genes in barley. PMID:25480116

  20. Development and evaluation of an air quality modeling approach to assess near-field impacts of lead emissions from piston-engine aircraft operating on leaded aviation gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Edward; Lee, Mark; Marin, Kristen; Holder, Christopher; Hoyer, Marion; Pedde, Meredith; Cook, Rich; Touma, Jawad

    2011-10-01

    Since aviation gasoline is now the largest remaining source of lead (Pb) emissions to the air in the United States, there is increased interest by regulatory agencies and the public in assessing the impacts on residents living in close proximity to these sources. An air quality modeling approach using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) was developed and evaluated for estimating atmospheric concentrations of Pb at and near general aviation airports where leaded aviation gasoline (avgas) is used. These detailed procedures were made to accurately characterize emissions and dispersion leading to improved model performance for a pollutant with concentrations that vary rapidly across short distances. The new aspects of this work included a comprehensive Pb emission inventory that incorporated sub-daily time-in-mode (TIM) activity data for piston-engine aircraft, aircraft-induced wake turbulence, plume rise of the aircraft exhaust, and allocation of approach and climb-out emissions to 50-m increments in altitude. To evaluate the modeling approach used here, ambient Pb concentrations were measured upwind and downwind of the Santa Monica Airport (SMO) and compared to modeled air concentrations. Modeling results paired in both time and space with monitoring data showed excellent overall agreement (absolute fractional bias of 0.29 winter, 0.07 summer). The modeling results on individual days show Pb concentration gradients above the urban background concentration of 10 ng m-3 extending downwind up to 900 m from the airport, with a crosswind extent of 400 m. Three-month average modeled concentrations above the background were found to extend to a maximum distance of approximately 450 m beyond the airport property in summer and fall. Modeling results show aircraft engine “run-up” is the most important source contribution to the maximum Pb concentration. Sensitivity analysis

  1. Aquatic Plants and Animals as Ecosystem Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotton, R. S.

    2005-05-01

    Studies on aquatic plants and animals focus on population dynamics, the structure of communities and the part played by organisms in food webs and other ecosystem processes. As Lawton and Jones point out in "Linking Species and Ecosystems", less attention is given to the role of organisms as ecosystem engineers, modifying the environment in which they live. Yet plants can have a profound effect on their surroundings, altering flow patterns and trapping large amounts of organic and inorganic material. Animals also affect aquatic ecosystems in many ways, both in building structures such as tubes and shelters, and in their feeding. For example, detritus feeders often produce large numbers of faecal pellets (and pseudofaeces in bivalves) and these are very different in size to the materials ingested. Pellets are deposited in masses over the bed of streams, lakes and the sea and therefore effect a translocation of nutrients. The action of plants and animals in altering their environment is likely to be a significant process in all water bodies, from both small to large scale.

  2. Genome editing with engineered nucleases in plants.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi

    2015-03-01

    Numerous examples of successful 'genome editing' now exist. Genome editing uses engineered nucleases as powerful tools to target specific DNA sequences to edit genes precisely in the genomes of both model and crop plants, as well as a variety of other organisms. The DNA-binding domains of zinc finger (ZF) proteins were the first to be used as genome editing tools, in the form of designed ZF nucleases (ZFNs). More recently, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), as well as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system, which utilizes RNA-DNA interactions, have proved useful. A key step in genome editing is the generation of a double-stranded DNA break that is specific to the target gene. This is achieved by custom-designed endonucleases, which enable site-directed mutagenesis via a non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair pathway and/or gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) to occur efficiently at specific sites in the genome. This review provides an overview of recent advances in genome editing technologies in plants, and discusses how these can provide insights into current plant molecular biology research and molecular breeding technology.

  3. [Research progress of genetic engineering on medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants.

  4. Photographic Study of Combustion in a Rocket Engine I : Variation in Combustion of Liquid Oxygen and Gasoline with Seven Methods of Propellant Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellman, Donald R; Humphrey, Jack C

    1948-01-01

    Motion pictures at camera speeds up to 3000 frames per second were taken of the combustion of liquid oxygen and gasoline in a 100-pound-thrust rocket engine. The engine consisted of thin contour and injection plates clamped between two clear plastic sheets forming a two-dimensional engine with a view of the entire combustion chamber and nozzle. A photographic investigation was made of the effect of seven methods of propellant injection on the uniformity of combustion. From the photographs, it was found that the flame front extended almost to the faces of the injectors with most of the injection methods, all the injection systems resulted in a considerable nonuniformity of combustion, and luminosity rapidly decreased in the divergent part of the nozzle. Pressure vibration records indicated combustion vibrations that approximately corresponded to the resonant frequencies of the length and the thickness of the chamber. The combustion temperature divided by the molecular weight of the combustion gases as determined from the combustion photographs was about 50 to 70 percent of the theoretical value.

  5. AERIAL VIEW OF SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS, BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE, ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS, BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE, ORE YARD, BLAST FURNACE 1 & 2 & SHARED CAST HOUSE, & CENTRAL STEAM PLANT (LEFT TO RIGHT). - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  6. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  7. X-ray fluorescence mapping and micro-XANES spectroscopic characterization of exhaust particulates emitted from auto engines burning MMT-added gasoline.

    PubMed

    Mölders, N; Schilling, P J; Wong, J; Roos, J W; Smith, I L

    2001-08-01

    The elemental distribution and compositional homogeneity in auto exhaust particulates emitted from methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl-(MMT-)added gasoline engines have been investigated using a newly installed synchrotron X-ray microprobe. Two representative groups of exhaust particulate matter, as defined in a recent bulk X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopic study at the Mn K-edge, were studied. The micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra indicate a relatively homogeneous distribution of phases within a given particulate sample, down to a spatial extent of 40 microm (the resolution of microprobe). The micro-XANES also enabled analysis of several areas which displayed compositions different from the bulk sample, supporting the general theory describing manganese species formation in the exhaust. The ability to evaluate small regions also enabled direct verification of manganese sulfate from the S XANES despite the vast excess of sulfur present in other forms. The presence of a chloride compound, introduced through the sample dilution air and engine intake air, was also revealed. The study demonstrates the value of the combined X-ray microfluorescence with excitation by polychromatic radiation for elemental mapping and micro-XANES spectroscopy for chemical speciation in the study of dilute environmental materials containing low-Z constituents such as Cl, S, and P.

  8. Genetic Engineering of Plants. Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leslie

    Plant scientists and science policymakers from government, private companies, and universities met at a convocation on the genetic engineering of plants. During the convocation, researchers described some of the ways genetic engineering may be used to address agricultural problems. Policymakers delineated and debated changes in research funding…

  9. Genetic Engineering of Plants. Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leslie

    Plant scientists and science policymakers from government, private companies, and universities met at a convocation on the genetic engineering of plants. During the convocation, researchers described some of the ways genetic engineering may be used to address agricultural problems. Policymakers delineated and debated changes in research funding…

  10. 2007 Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Conference and Graduate Research Seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Erich Grotewold

    2008-09-15

    Plant Metabolic Engineering is an emerging field that integrates a diverse range of disciplines including plant genetics, genomics, biochemistry, chemistry and cell biology. The Gordon-Kenan Graduate Research Seminar (GRS) in Plant Metabolic Engineering was initiated to provide a unique opportunity for future researcher leaders to present their work in this field. It also creates an environment allowing for peer-review and critical assessment of work without the intimidation usually associated with the presence of senior investigators. The GRS immediately precedes the Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Research Conference and will be for and by graduate students and post-docs, with the assistance of the organizers listed.

  11. Effects of engineered nanomaterials on plants growth: an overview.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Farzad; Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hashemi, Farahnaz Sadat Golestan; Baghdadi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology brought about a significant increment on the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENs) inevitably entering our living system. Plants comprise of a very important living component of the terrestrial ecosystem. Studies on the influence of engineered nanomaterials (carbon and metal/metal oxides based) on plant growth indicated that in the excess content, engineered nanomaterials influences seed germination. It assessed the shoot-to-root ratio and the growth of the seedlings. From the toxicological studies to date, certain types of engineered nanomaterials can be toxic once they are not bound to a substrate or if they are freely circulating in living systems. It is assumed that the different types of engineered nanomaterials affect the different routes, behavior, and the capability of the plants. Furthermore, different, or even opposing conclusions, have been drawn from most studies on the interactions between engineered nanomaterials with plants. Therefore, this paper comprehensively reviews the studies on the different types of engineered nanomaterials and their interactions with different plant species, including the phytotoxicity, uptakes, and translocation of engineered nanomaterials by the plant at the whole plant and cellular level.

  12. Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials on Plants Growth: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hashemi, Farahnaz Sadat Golestan

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology brought about a significant increment on the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENs) inevitably entering our living system. Plants comprise of a very important living component of the terrestrial ecosystem. Studies on the influence of engineered nanomaterials (carbon and metal/metal oxides based) on plant growth indicated that in the excess content, engineered nanomaterials influences seed germination. It assessed the shoot-to-root ratio and the growth of the seedlings. From the toxicological studies to date, certain types of engineered nanomaterials can be toxic once they are not bound to a substrate or if they are freely circulating in living systems. It is assumed that the different types of engineered nanomaterials affect the different routes, behavior, and the capability of the plants. Furthermore, different, or even opposing conclusions, have been drawn from most studies on the interactions between engineered nanomaterials with plants. Therefore, this paper comprehensively reviews the studies on the different types of engineered nanomaterials and their interactions with different plant species, including the phytotoxicity, uptakes, and translocation of engineered nanomaterials by the plant at the whole plant and cellular level. PMID:25202734

  13. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  14. Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, R F

    1993-12-01

    The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations.

  15. Trends in auto emissions and gasoline composition.

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, R F

    1993-01-01

    The invention of the spark-ignited internal combustion engine provided a market for a petroleum middle distillate, gasoline, about 100 years ago. The internal combustion engine and gasoline have co-evolved until motor vehicles now annually consume about 110 billion gallons of gasoline in the United States. Continuing air pollution problems and resulting regulatory pressures are driving the need for further automotive emissions reductions. Engine and emissions control technology provided most earlier reductions. Changing the composition of gasoline will play a major role in the next round of reductions. The engineering and regulatory definition of a reformulated gasoline is proceeding rapidly, largely as the result of an auto and oil industry cooperative data generation program. It is likely that this new, reformulated gasoline will be introduced in high-ozone regions of the United States in the mid-1990s. Alternative clean fuels, primarily methane, methanol, and liquid petroleum gas, will become more widely used during this same period, probably first in fleet operations. PMID:7517353

  16. Genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Vincent Lee; Li, Laigeng

    2004-11-02

    The present invention relates to a novel DNA sequence, which encodes a previously unidentified lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that regulates the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in plants. Also provided are methods for incorporating this novel SAD gene sequence or substantially similar sequences into a plant genome for genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants.

  17. Real-time, adaptive machine learning for non-stationary, near chaotic gasoline engine combustion time series.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam; Bohac, Stanislav V

    2015-10-01

    Fuel efficient Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine combustion timing predictions must contend with non-linear chemistry, non-linear physics, period doubling bifurcation(s), turbulent mixing, model parameters that can drift day-to-day, and air-fuel mixture state information that cannot typically be resolved on a cycle-to-cycle basis, especially during transients. In previous work, an abstract cycle-to-cycle mapping function coupled with ϵ-Support Vector Regression was shown to predict experimentally observed cycle-to-cycle combustion timing over a wide range of engine conditions, despite some of the aforementioned difficulties. The main limitation of the previous approach was that a partially acasual randomly sampled training dataset was used to train proof of concept offline predictions. The objective of this paper is to address this limitation by proposing a new online adaptive Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) extension named Weighted Ring-ELM. This extension enables fully causal combustion timing predictions at randomly chosen engine set points, and is shown to achieve results that are as good as or better than the previous offline method. The broader objective of this approach is to enable a new class of real-time model predictive control strategies for high variability HCCI and, ultimately, to bring HCCI's low engine-out NOx and reduced CO2 emissions to production engines.

  18. Oxidation characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine soot: Catalytic effects of ash and modified kinetic correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Seungmok; Seong, Heeje

    2015-03-02

    In this paper, experimental analyses are conducted into the GDI soot oxidation characteristics as dependent on engine operating conditions. Soot is sampled at various engine operating conditions of a commercial 2.4 L GDI engine with a naturally aspirated, homogeneous, and stoichiometric operation strategy. The oxidation reactivity, ash composition, and carbon nanostructure of the GDI soot samples are analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope–energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Based on the analyses, a global GDI soot oxidation mechanism is proposed which includes the effects of soluble organic fractions (SOF)/weakly bonded carbon (WBC), and three types of ash on GDI soot oxidation. The results show that GDI soot contains an order of magnitude higher ash fraction than does conventional diesel soot, and oxidation reactivity is significantly enhanced by the catalytic effects of ash, as a function of ash content in soot. A modified empirical kinetic correlation for GDI soot oxidation is suggested on the basis of the results, and the modified kinetic correlation predicts the GDI soot oxidation rate accurately for various engine operation points at wide ranges of soot conversion and temperature without modifying kinetic parameters. The kinetic parameters are determined from isothermal and non-isothermal thremogravimetric analysis (TGA) soot oxidation tests; the methods are elucidated in detail.

  19. Oxidation characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine soot: Catalytic effects of ash and modified kinetic correlation

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, Seungmok; Seong, Heeje

    2015-03-02

    In this paper, experimental analyses are conducted into the GDI soot oxidation characteristics as dependent on engine operating conditions. Soot is sampled at various engine operating conditions of a commercial 2.4 L GDI engine with a naturally aspirated, homogeneous, and stoichiometric operation strategy. The oxidation reactivity, ash composition, and carbon nanostructure of the GDI soot samples are analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope–energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Based on the analyses, a global GDI soot oxidation mechanism is proposed which includes the effects of soluble organic fractions (SOF)/weakly bonded carbon (WBC), andmore » three types of ash on GDI soot oxidation. The results show that GDI soot contains an order of magnitude higher ash fraction than does conventional diesel soot, and oxidation reactivity is significantly enhanced by the catalytic effects of ash, as a function of ash content in soot. A modified empirical kinetic correlation for GDI soot oxidation is suggested on the basis of the results, and the modified kinetic correlation predicts the GDI soot oxidation rate accurately for various engine operation points at wide ranges of soot conversion and temperature without modifying kinetic parameters. The kinetic parameters are determined from isothermal and non-isothermal thremogravimetric analysis (TGA) soot oxidation tests; the methods are elucidated in detail.« less

  20. Comparison of alcogas aviation fuel with export aviation gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W; Harper, D R

    1921-01-01

    Mixtures of gasoline and alcohol when used in internal combustion engines designed for gasoline have been found to possess the advantage of alcohol in withstanding high compression without "knock" while retaining advantages of gasoline with regard to starting characteristics. Test of such fuels for maximum power-producing ability and fuel economy at various rates of consumption are thus of practical importance, with especial reference to high-compression engine development. This report discusses the results of tests which compares the performance of alcogas with x gasoline (export grade) as a standard.

  1. ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF COLLEGE PLANT DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DALTON, LIAM F.; SEGNER, MARVIN

    THE ARTICLE FOCUSES ON MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL FACILITIES THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED WHEN DEVELOPING A LONG RANGE MASTER PLAN. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MASTER PLAN SHOULD CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING--(1) COMPARATIVE FUEL COSTS, (2) POWER DISTRIBUTION, (3) HEATING PLANT, (4) CENTRAL PLANT SITE, (5) COOLING PLANT, (6) WATER SUPPLY, (7) STORM DRAINAGE, (8)…

  2. ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF COLLEGE PLANT DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DALTON, LIAM F.; SEGNER, MARVIN

    THE ARTICLE FOCUSES ON MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL FACILITIES THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED WHEN DEVELOPING A LONG RANGE MASTER PLAN. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MASTER PLAN SHOULD CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING--(1) COMPARATIVE FUEL COSTS, (2) POWER DISTRIBUTION, (3) HEATING PLANT, (4) CENTRAL PLANT SITE, (5) COOLING PLANT, (6) WATER SUPPLY, (7) STORM DRAINAGE, (8)…

  3. Engineered Plants Make Potential Precursor to Raw Material for Plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Shanklin, John

    2010-11-02

    In a first step toward achieving industrial-scale green production, scientists from BNL and collaborators at Dow AgroSciences report engineering a plant that produces industrially relevant levels of chemicals that could potentially be used to make plastics.

  4. Toxicity, Uptake, and Translocation of Engineered Nanomaterials in Vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Pola; Church, Tamara L; Harris, Andrew T

    2012-09-04

    To exploit the promised benefits of engineered nanomaterials, it is necessary to improve our knowledge of their bioavailability and toxicity. The interactions between engineered nanomaterials and vascular plants are of particular concern, as plants closely interact with soil, water, and the atmosphere, and constitute one of the main routes of exposure for higher species, i.e. accumulation through the food chain. A review of the current literature shows contradictory evidence on the phytotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials. The mechanisms by which engineered nanomaterials penetrate plants are not well understood, and further research on their interactions with vascular plants is required to enable the field of phytotoxicology to keep pace with that of nanotechnology, the rapid evolution of which constantly produces new materials and applications that accelerate the environmental release of nanomaterials.

  5. Engineered Plants Make Potential Precursor to Raw Material for Plastics

    ScienceCinema

    Shanklin, John

    2016-10-19

    In a first step toward achieving industrial-scale green production, scientists from BNL and collaborators at Dow AgroSciences report engineering a plant that produces industrially relevant levels of chemicals that could potentially be used to make plastics.

  6. Metabolic engineering for the production of plant isoquinoline alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Andrew; Desgagné-Penix, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Several plant isoquinoline alkaloids (PIAs) possess powerful pharmaceutical and biotechnological properties. Thus, PIA metabolism and its fascinating molecules, including morphine, colchicine and galanthamine, have attracted the attention of both the industry and researchers involved in plant science, biochemistry, chemical bioengineering and medicine. Currently, access and availability of high-value PIAs [commercialized (e.g. galanthamine) or not (e.g. narciclasine)] is limited by low concentration in nature, lack of cultivation or geographic access, seasonal production and risk of overharvesting wild plant species. Nevertheless, most commercial PIAs are still extracted from plant sources. Efforts to improve the production of PIA have largely been impaired by the lack of knowledge on PIA metabolism. With the development and integration of next-generation sequencing technologies, high-throughput proteomics and metabolomics analyses and bioinformatics, systems biology was used to unravel metabolic pathways allowing the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches to increase production of valuable PIAs. Metabolic engineering provides opportunity to overcome issues related to restricted availability, diversification and productivity of plant alkaloids. Engineered plant, plant cells and microbial cell cultures can act as biofactories by offering their metabolic machinery for the purpose of optimizing the conditions and increasing the productivity of a specific alkaloid. In this article, is presented an update on the production of PIA in engineered plant, plant cell cultures and heterologous micro-organisms. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Course in Chemical Engineering Practice: Graduate Plant Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marnell, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Describes a year-long graduate plant design course. The course provides students with an appreciation of the profit motive that drives business activity, the role of the chemical engineer in achieving this goal, and historical and contemporary perspectives on chemical engineering practice. (JN)

  8. A Course in Chemical Engineering Practice: Graduate Plant Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marnell, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Describes a year-long graduate plant design course. The course provides students with an appreciation of the profit motive that drives business activity, the role of the chemical engineer in achieving this goal, and historical and contemporary perspectives on chemical engineering practice. (JN)

  9. Crossing kingdoms: Using decellularized plants as perfusable tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Gershlak, Joshua R; Hernandez, Sarah; Fontana, Gianluca; Perreault, Luke R; Hansen, Katrina J; Larson, Sara A; Binder, Bernard Y K; Dolivo, David M; Yang, Tianhong; Dominko, Tanja; Rolle, Marsha W; Weathers, Pamela J; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio; Cramer, Carole L; Murphy, William L; Gaudette, Glenn R

    2017-05-01

    Despite significant advances in the fabrication of bioengineered scaffolds for tissue engineering, delivery of nutrients in complex engineered human tissues remains a challenge. By taking advantage of the similarities in the vascular structure of plant and animal tissues, we developed decellularized plant tissue as a prevascularized scaffold for tissue engineering applications. Perfusion-based decellularization was modified for different plant species, providing different geometries of scaffolding. After decellularization, plant scaffolds remained patent and able to transport microparticles. Plant scaffolds were recellularized with human endothelial cells that colonized the inner surfaces of plant vasculature. Human mesenchymal stem cells and human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes adhered to the outer surfaces of plant scaffolds. Cardiomyocytes demonstrated contractile function and calcium handling capabilities over the course of 21 days. These data demonstrate the potential of decellularized plants as scaffolds for tissue engineering, which could ultimately provide a cost-efficient, "green" technology for regenerating large volume vascularized tissue mass. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. A historical analysis of the co-evolution of gasoline octane number and spark-ignition engines

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A.; Pawlowski, Alex E.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2016-01-06

    In our work, the authors reviewed engine, vehicle, and fuel data since 1925 to examine the historical and recent coupling of compression ratio and fuel antiknock properties (i.e., octane number) in the U.S. light-duty vehicle market. The analysis identified historical timeframes, trends, and illustrated how three factors: consumer preferences, technical capabilities, and regulatory legislation, affect personal mobility. Data showed that throughout history these three factors have a complex and time sensitive interplay. Long term trends in the data were identified where interaction and evolution between all three factors was observed. Transportation efficiency per unit power (gal/ton-mi/hp) was found to be a good metric to integrate technical, societal, and regulatory effects into the evolutional pathway of personal mobility. From this framework, discussions of future evolutionary changes to personal mobility are also presented.

  11. A historical analysis of the co-evolution of gasoline octane number and spark-ignition engines

    DOE PAGES

    Splitter, Derek A.; Pawlowski, Alex E.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2016-01-06

    In our work, the authors reviewed engine, vehicle, and fuel data since 1925 to examine the historical and recent coupling of compression ratio and fuel antiknock properties (i.e., octane number) in the U.S. light-duty vehicle market. The analysis identified historical timeframes, trends, and illustrated how three factors: consumer preferences, technical capabilities, and regulatory legislation, affect personal mobility. Data showed that throughout history these three factors have a complex and time sensitive interplay. Long term trends in the data were identified where interaction and evolution between all three factors was observed. Transportation efficiency per unit power (gal/ton-mi/hp) was found to bemore » a good metric to integrate technical, societal, and regulatory effects into the evolutional pathway of personal mobility. From this framework, discussions of future evolutionary changes to personal mobility are also presented.« less

  12. Plant synthetic biology for molecular engineering of signalling and development

    PubMed Central

    Nemhauser, Jennifer L.; Torii, Keiko U.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies of model plants in the past few decades have identified many key genes and pathways controlling development, metabolism and environmental responses. Recent technological and informatics advances have led to unprecedented volumes of data that may uncover underlying principles of plants as biological systems. The newly emerged discipline of synthetic biology and related molecular engineering approaches is built on this strong foundation. Today, plant regulatory pathways can be reconstituted in heterologous organisms to identify and manipulate parameters influencing signalling outputs. Moreover, regulatory circuits that include receptors, ligands, signal transduction components, epigenetic machinery and molecular motors can be engineered and introduced into plants to create novel traits in a predictive manner. Here, we provide a brief history of plant synthetic biology and significant recent examples of this approach, focusing on how knowledge generated by the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana has contributed to the rapid rise of this new discipline, and discuss potential future directions. PMID:27249346

  13. Hydroxysafflor yellow A of Carthamus tinctorius attenuates lung injury of aged rats exposed to gasoline engine exhaust by down-regulating platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoyun; Wang, Chunhua; Ma, Chunlei; Huang, Qingxian; Sun, Hongliu; Zhang, Xiaomin; Bai, Xianyong

    2014-02-15

    Long-term inhalation of gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) increases the risk of respiratory disease. Studies have suggested involvement of platelets in the development of some lung diseases. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a flavonoid compound, prevents hemostasis. Therefore, we investigated its effects on GEE-induced lung injury, and role of platelets in injury. Sixty-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to GEE for 4h/day for 6 weeks, and then grouped as follows: control, GEE, GEE+HSYA, GEE+HSYA+GW9662, and GEE+GW9662. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), pH, and the PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. Wet/dry lung weight ratio, total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and cytokine concentrations in serum and BALF were determined. Furthermore, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level and expression levels of target proteins were analyzed. Platelets were counted and their state was evaluated. HSYA attenuated GEE-mediated decreases in PaO2, PaO2/FiO2, platelet cAMP level, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression. HSYA also attenuated GEE-mediated increases in lung permeability, cytokine levels in serum and BALF, plasma platelet count, and ADP-mediated platelet aggregation. Moreover, it suppressed GEE-induced increases in the expression of adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines in platelets and lung tissue. Therefore, HSYA is therapeutically effective for GEE-mediated lung injury and acts by enhancing PKA activity and inhibiting platelet activation.

  14. [Advances in genetic engineering of plant virus resistance].

    PubMed

    Haxim, Yakupjan; Ismayil, Asigul; Wang, Yunjing; Liu, Yule

    2015-06-01

    Plant virus is one of the most economical devastating microorganisms for global agriculture. Although several strategies are useful for controlling viral infection, such as resistant breeds cultivation, chemical bactericides treatment, blocking the infection source, tissue detoxification and field sanitation, viral disease is still a problem in agricultural production. Genetic engineering approach offers various options for introducing virus resistance into crop plants. This paper reviews the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants.

  15. Gasoline from alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, C. R.; Warner, J. P.; Yurchak, S.

    1981-03-01

    This paper discusses laboratory and vehicle performance test results obtained from gasoline produced by the Mobil methanol conversion process. Antiknock qualities, driveability performance, exhaust emission levels, plus other in-car and laboratory characterization tests show the gasoline to compare very favorably with conventional petroleum derived high-octane unleaded gasolines. The methanol conversion process, and its advantages relative to the blending of alcohol-containing fuels, also is discussed briefly.

  16. Engineering system co-design with limited plant redesign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, James T.

    2014-02-01

    Rather than designing engineering systems from the ground up, engineers often redesign strategic portions of existing systems to accommodate emerging needs. In the redesign of mechatronic systems, engineers typically seek to meet the requirements of a new application via control redesign only, but this is often insufficient and physical system (plant) design changes must be explored. Here, an integrated approach is presented for the redesign of mechatronic systems involving partial plant redesign that avoids costly complete redesign. Candidate plant modifications are identified using sensitivity analysis, and then an optimization problem is solved that minimizes redesign cost while satisfying system requirements. This formal methodology for Plant-Limited Co-Design (PLCD) is demonstrated using a robotic manipulator design problem. The PLCD result costs significantly less than the full redesign, and parametric studies illustrate the tradeoff between redesign cost and performance. It is shown that the proposed sensitivity analysis results in the lowest cost limited redesign.

  17. Engineering central metabolism - a grand challenge for plant biologists.

    PubMed

    Sweetlove, Lee J; Nielsen, Jens; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-12-22

    The goal of increasing crop productivity and nutrient-use efficiency is being addressed by a number of ambitious research projects seeking to re-engineer photosynthetic biochemistry. Many of these projects will require the engineering of substantial changes in fluxes of central metabolism. However, as has been amply demonstrated in simpler systems such as microbes, central metabolism is extremely difficult to rationally engineer. This is because of multiple layers of regulation that operate to maintain metabolic steady state and because of the highly connected nature of central metabolism. In this review we discuss new approaches for metabolic engineering that have the potential to address these problems and dramatically improve the success with which we can rationally engineer central metabolism in plants. In particular, we advocate the adoption of an iterative 'design-build-test-learn' cycle using fast-to-transform model plants as test beds. This approach can be realised by coupling new molecular tools to incorporate multiple transgenes in nuclear and plastid genomes with computational modelling to design the engineering strategy and to understand the metabolic phenotype of the engineered organism. We also envisage that mutagenesis could be used to fine-tune the balance between the endogenous metabolic network and the introduced enzymes. Finally, we emphasise the importance of considering the plant as a whole system and not isolated organs: the greatest increase in crop productivity will be achieved if both source and sink metabolism are engineered.

  18. Can Plant-Based Engineered Ecosystems be made Practical?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenheim, D.; Flynn, M.

    Plant-based engineered ecosystems may serve as life support systems for future space exploration and habitation missions. Experience with engineered ecosystem studies on the ground show that, while the concept is sound, the systems are too large, heavy and energy intensive to be considered practical. System performance guidelines are suggested for plant-based engineered ecosystems to achieve practicality. We consider the functional elements of an engineered ecosystem (food, atmosphere, water, waste) operating in a closed-mass envelope and evaluate the potential for technology options within each element to meet the guidelines. We answer the question posed in the title and suggest alternative system configurations and design constraints for future engineered ecosystem testing.

  19. A COMPACT CORONA DISCHARGE DEVICE (CDD{trademark}) FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA GENERATION IN GASOLINE OR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak,Victor J.

    2000-08-20

    Higher fuel economy targets and hybrid vehicles are increasing the marketability of diesel engines. But in order to implement the growth of diesels to achieve the fuel economy benefits, all emission regulation issues must be met. To do this traps and catalysts are being utilized. One of the main problems is finding a technology that enables the exhaust emission system to not only meet the emission requirements when new, but also to meet them at the regulated intermediate and full life requirements. Work is being done that enables catalysts to remain highly efficient throughout their full life. It is done by using a corona discharge device (CDD{trademark}) that introduces non-thermal plasma into the exhaust ahead of the converter. This low power device creates radicals that alter the chemistry of the exhaust so as to limit the poisoning of the catalyst. This can be done without so called ''purge'' cycles that lower fuel economy and degrade catalyst long-term durability. This device has been developed, not as a laboratory tool, but as a production ready product and is the first of its kind that is commercially available for testing. It is this product, the Corona Discharge Device, CDD{trademark}, which will be described.

  20. Tests of several bearing materials lubricated by gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachin, W F; Case, Harold W

    1926-01-01

    This investigation on the relative wear of several bearing materials lubricated by gasoline was conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, as part of a general research on fuel injection engines for aircraft. The specific purpose of the work was to find a durable bearing material for gear pumps to be used for the delivery of gasoline and diesel engine fuel oil at moderate pressures to the high pressure pumps of fuel injection engines.

  1. PHYTOREMEDIATION: INTEGRATING ART AND ENGINEERING THROUGH PLANTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape Architecture and Remediation Engineering are related fields, united by common areas of endeavor, yet they have strikingly different languages, techniques, and habits of thought. What unites the fields is the fact that they often work on the same site, with the common go...

  2. PHYTOREMEDIATION: INTEGRATING ART AND ENGINEERING THROUGH PLANTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape Architecture and Remediation Engineering are related fields, united by common areas of endeavor, yet they have strikingly different languages, techniques, and habits of thought. What unites the fields is the fact that they often work on the same site, with the common go...

  3. Rhizobia species: A Boon for "Plant Genetic Engineering".

    PubMed

    Patel, Urmi; Sinha, Sarika

    2011-10-01

    Since past three decades new discoveries in plant genetic engineering have shown remarkable potentials for crop improvement. Agrobacterium Ti plasmid based DNA transfer is no longer the only efficient way of introducing agronomically important genes into plants. Recent studies have explored a novel plant genetic engineering tool, Rhizobia sp., as an alternative to Agrobacterium, thereby expanding the choice of bacterial species in agricultural plant biotechnology. Rhizobia sp. serve as an open license source with no major restrictions in plant biotechnology and help broaden the spectrum for plant biotechnologists with respect to the use of gene transfer vehicles in plants. New efficient transgenic plants can be produced by transferring genes of interest using binary vector carrying Rhizobia sp. Studies focusing on the interactions of Rhizobia sp. with their hosts, for stable and transient transformation and expression of genes, could help in the development of an adequate gene transfer vehicle. Along with being biologically beneficial, it may also bring a new means for fast economic development of transgenic plants, thus giving rise to a new era in plant biotechnology, viz. "Rhizobia mediated transformation technology."

  4. [Effect of ethanol gasoline and unleaded gasoline on exhaust emissions of EFI vehicles with TWC].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-jie; Wang, Wei; Tang, Da-gang; Cui, Ping

    2004-07-01

    The injectors' flow-rate of all test vehicles that each was fixed with a three-way catalytic converter (TWC) and Electronic Fuel Injection System (EFI) was tested including before and after vehicles operated on unleaded and ethanol gasoline respectively running for a long time on real road. The three main engine-out exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) from vehicles operating on different fuels were also analyzed by exhaust testing procedure for the whole light-duty vehicle. Test results showed that comparing with unleaded gasoline and ethanol gasoline has a remarkable effect on decreasing engine-out exhaust emissions of CO and HC (both at about ten percent) and the exhaust emissions of CO, HC and NOx from vehicles with TWC respectively. When burning with unleaded gasoline the three main pollutants from vehicles with TWC have already or nearly reached Europe Exhaust First Standard, after changing to ethanol gasoline CO has drastically decreased at about thirty percent, while HC and NOx decreased at about eighteen and ten percent respectively, at this time which they were all above Europe Exhaust Standard First or nearly reached Europe Exhaust Second Standard; ethanol gasoline has also other better performance such as a slight cleaning function on injectors, a slower deteriorative trend of engine-out CO and HC and a longer operating life-span of TWC.

  5. Triterpenoid Biosynthesis and Engineering in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sawai, Satoru; Saito, Kazuki

    2011-01-01

    Triterpenoid saponins are a diverse group of natural products in plants and are considered defensive compounds against pathogenic microbes and herbivores. Because of their various beneficial properties for humans, saponins are used in wide-ranging applications in addition to medicinally. Saponin biosynthesis involves three key enzymes: oxidosqualene cyclases, which construct the basic triterpenoid skeletons; cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, which mediate oxidations; and uridine diphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases, which catalyze glycosylations. The discovery of genes committed to saponin biosynthesis is important for the stable supply and biotechnological application of these compounds. Here, we review the identified genes involved in triterpenoid biosynthesis, summarize the recent advances in the biotechnological production of useful plant terpenoids, and discuss the bioengineering of plant triterpenoids. PMID:22639586

  6. Treatment Plant Hydraulics for Environmental Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoopes, John A.

    This book presents the elements of process design and of hydraulic design for water and wastewater treatment plants. In particular, hydraulic principles and methods are given for the analysis and design of flows in pipe systems and open channels, for the characteristics of flow measurement devices, and for single and multiple pump operation and selection. These fundamentals are used to illustrate the steps in the hydraulic design of a wastewater treatment plant. In addition, the hydraulic design of pipe manifolds (for distributing flow amongst basins) and of diffusers (for distributing treated wastewater to a body of water) is presented.

  7. Evaporative Gasoline Emissions and Asthma Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gordian, Mary Ellen; Stewart, Alistair W; Morris, Stephen S

    2010-01-01

    Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences with attached garages exposing people to benzene at levels above ATSDR’s minimal risk level. Residents reported more severe symptoms of asthma in the homes with high gasoline exposure (16%) where benzene levels exceeded the 9 ppb. PMID:20948946

  8. Evaporative gasoline emissions and asthma symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gordian, Mary Ellen; Stewart, Alistair W; Morris, Stephen S

    2010-08-01

    Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences with attached garages exposing people to benzene at levels above ATSDR's minimal risk level. Residents reported more severe symptoms of asthma in the homes with high gasoline exposure (16%) where benzene levels exceeded the 9 ppb.

  9. Trends in motor gasolines: 1942-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M; Whisman, M L; Woodward, P W

    1982-06-01

    Trends in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. The surveys have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948. Various companies from throughout the country obtain samples from retail outlets, analyze the samples by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, and report data to the Bartlesville center for compilation, tabulation, calculation, analysis and publication. A typical motor gasoline report covers 2400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include trend charts, octane plots, and tables of test results from about a dozen different tests. From these data in 77 semiannual surveys, a summary report has thus been assembled that shows trends in motor gasolines throughout the entire era of winter 1942 to 1943 to the present. Trends of physical properties including octane numbers, antiknock ratings, distillation temperatures, Reid vapor pressure, sulfur and lead content are tabulated, plotted and discussed in the current report. Also included are trend effects of technological advances and the interactions of engine design, societal and political events and prices upon motor gasoline evolution during the 40 year period.

  10. The challenges of cellular compartmentalization in plant metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Heinig, Uwe; Gutensohn, Michael; Dudareva, Natalia; Aharoni, Asaph

    2013-04-01

    The complex metabolic networks in plants are highly compartmentalized and biochemical steps of a single pathway can take place in multiple subcellular locations. Our knowledge regarding reactions and precursor compounds in the various cellular compartments has increased in recent years due to innovations in tracking the spatial distribution of proteins and metabolites. Nevertheless, to date only few studies have integrated subcellular localization criteria in metabolic engineering attempts. Here, we highlight the crucial factors for subcellular-localization-based strategies in plant metabolic engineering including substrate availability, enzyme targeting, the role of transporters, and multigene transfer approaches. The availability of compartmentalized metabolic network models for plants in the near future will greatly advance the integration of localization constraints in metabolic engineering experiments and aid in predicting their outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic engineering of micronutrients in crop plants.

    PubMed

    Blancquaert, Dieter; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a widespread phenomenon, most prevalent in developing countries. Being causally linked to the occurrence of a range of diseases, it affects billions of people worldwide. Enhancing the content of micronutrients in crop products through biotechnology is a promising technique to fight micronutrient malnutrition worldwide. Micronutrient fortification of food products has been implemented in a number of Western countries, but remains inaccessible for poor rural populations in a major part of the developing world. Moreover, evidence of the negative impacts of this practice on human health, at least for some vitamins, is accumulating. Biofortification of crop plants-the enhancement of vitamins and minerals through plant biotechnology-is a promising alternative or complement in the battle against micronutrient deficiencies. Owing to a growing knowledge about vitamin metabolism, as well as mineral uptake and reallocation in plants, it is today possible to enhance micronutrient levels in crop plants, offering a sustainable solution to populations with a suboptimal micronutrient intake. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Natural plant genetic engineer Agrobacterium rhizogenes: role of T-DNA in plant secondary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sheela

    2012-03-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a natural plant genetic engineer. It is a gram-negative soil bacterium that induces hairy root formation. Success has been obtained in exploring the molecular mechanisms of transferred DNA (T-DNA) transfer, interaction with host plant proteins, plant defense signaling and integration to plant genome for successful plant genetic transformation. T-DNA and corresponding expression of rol genes alter morphology and plant host secondary metabolism. During transformation, there is a differential loss of a few T-DNA genes. Loss of a few ORFs drastically affect the growth and morphological patterns of hairy roots, expression pattern of biosynthetic pathway genes and accumulation of specific secondary metabolites.

  13. Steam Plant at the Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1945-09-21

    The Steam Plant at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory supplies steam to the major test facilities and office buildings. Steam is used for the Icing Research Tunnel's spray system and the Engine Research Building’s desiccant air dryers. In addition, its five boilers supply heat to various buildings and the cafeteria. Schirmer-Schneider Company built the $141,000 facility in the fall of 1942, and it has been in operation ever since.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD, is summarized. Main elements of the design, systems, and plant facilities are illustrated. System design descriptions are included for closed cycle cooling water, industrial gas systems, fuel oil, boiler flue gas, coal management, seed management, slag management, plant industrial waste, fire service water, oxidant supply, MHD power ventilating

  15. Metabolic engineering with plants for a sustainable biobased economy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Moon; Zhao, Le; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2013-01-01

    Plants are bona fide sustainable organisms because they accumulate carbon and synthesize beneficial metabolites from photosynthesis. To meet the challenges to food security and health threatened by increasing population growth and depletion of nonrenewable natural resources, recent metabolic engineering efforts have shifted from single pathways to holistic approaches with multiple genes owing to integration of omics technologies. Successful engineering of plants results in the high yield of biomass components for primary food sources and biofuel feedstocks, pharmaceuticals, and platform chemicals through synthetic biology and systems biology strategies. Further discovery of undefined biosynthesis pathways in plants, integrative analysis of discrete omics data, and diversified process developments for production of platform chemicals are essential to overcome the hurdles for sustainable production of value-added biomolecules from plants.

  16. An engineered plant peroxisome and its application in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kessel-Vigelius, Sarah K; Wiese, Jan; Schroers, Martin G; Wrobel, Thomas J; Hahn, Florian; Linka, Nicole

    2013-09-01

    Plant metabolic engineering is a promising tool for biotechnological applications. Major goals include enhancing plant fitness for an increased product yield and improving or introducing novel pathways to synthesize industrially relevant products. Plant peroxisomes are favorable targets for metabolic engineering, because they are involved in diverse functions, including primary and secondary metabolism, development, abiotic stress response, and pathogen defense. This review discusses targets for manipulating endogenous peroxisomal pathways, such as fatty acid β-oxidation, or introducing novel pathways, such as the synthesis of biodegradable polymers. Furthermore, strategies to bypass peroxisomal pathways for improved energy efficiency and detoxification of environmental pollutants are discussed. In sum, we highlight the biotechnological potential of plant peroxisomes and indicate future perspectives to exploit peroxisomes as biofactories.

  17. [Evaluation of the viability of BEAS-2B cells exposed to gasoline engine exhaust with different particle sizes by air-liquid interface].

    PubMed

    Yu, T; Zhang, X Y; Wang, Z X; Li, B; Zheng, Y X; Bin, P

    2017-06-20

    Objective: To evaluate the viability of gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) with different particle sizes on human lung cell line BEAS-2B in vitro by air-liquid interface (ALI) . Methods: GEE were collected with a Tedlar bag and their particulate matter (PM) number, surface and mass concentration in three kind of GEE (filtered automobile exhaust, non-filtered automobile exhaust and motorcycle exhaust without three-way catalytic converter) were measured by two type of particle size spectrometer including TSI-3321 and SMPS-3938. Five groups were included, which divided into blank control group, clean air group, filtered automobile exhaust group, non-filtered automobile exhaust group and motorcycle exhaust without three-way catalytic converter group. Except the blank control group, BEAS-2B cells, cultured on the surface of Transwells, were treated with clean air or GEE by ALI method at a flow rate of 25 ml/min, 37 ℃ for 60 min in vitro. CCK-8 cytotoxicity test kit was used to determine the cell relative viability of BEAS-2B cells. Results: In the filtered automobile exhaust, non-filtered automobile exhaust and motorcycle exhaust without three-way catalytic converter, high concentrations of fine particles can be detected, but the coarse particles only accounted for a small proportion, and the sequence of PM concentration was motorcycle exhaust without three-way catalytic converter group> non-filtered automobile exhaust group> filtered automobile exhaust group (P<0.001) . Compared with the clean air group, the cell relative viability in the 3 GEE-exposed groups were significantly lower (P<0.001) . Among the comparisons of GEE exposure groups with different particle size spectra, the sequence of the cell relative viability was filtered automobile exhaust group >non-filtered automobile exhaust group> motorcycle exhaust without three-way catalytic converter group (P<0.001) . When took the clean air control group as a reference, the mean of the cell relative viability in the

  18. 13. View northeast of boiler plant (Building 39), engineering work ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View northeast of boiler plant (Building 39), engineering work order building/former tin shop (Building 129), laundry MAT workshop (Building 28), pipe shop/former water softening plant (Building 81), paint spray shop/former blacksmith shop (Building 95), fuel oil storage tank building (Building 103), mason's shop (Building 77), and carpenter shop (Building 97) with steel water tank (Building 124) in background - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers Western Branch, 4101 South Fourth Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  19. Development and Evaluation of an Air Quality Modeling Approach to Assess Near-Field Impacts of Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft Operating on Leaded Aviation Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since aviation gasoline is now the largest remaining source of lead (Pb) emissions to the air in the United States, there is increased interest by regulatory agencies and the public in assessing the impacts on residents living in close proximity to these sources. An air quality m...

  20. Development and Evaluation of an Air Quality Modeling Approach to Assess Near-Field Impacts of Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft Operating on Leaded Aviation Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since aviation gasoline is now the largest remaining source of lead (Pb) emissions to the air in the United States, there is increased interest by regulatory agencies and the public in assessing the impacts on residents living in close proximity to these sources. An air quality m...

  1. Reformulated gasoline quality issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.G.; Felch, D.E.; Edgar, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    One year ago, a panel of industry experts were interviewed in the November/December 1994 issue of Fuel Reformulation (Vol. 4, No. 6). With the focus then and now on refinery investments, the panelists were asked to forecast which refining processes would grow in importance. It is apparent from their response, and from other articles and discussions throughout the year, that hydroprocessing and catalytic conversion processes are synergistic in the overall refinery design, with flexibility and process objectives varying on a unit-by-unit case. To an extent, future refinery investments in downstream petrochemicals, such as for paraxylene production, are based on available catalytic reforming feedstock. Just a importantly, hydroprocessing units (hydrotreating, hydrocracking) needed for clean fuel production (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel), are heavily dependent on hydrogen production from the catalytic reformer. Catalytic reforming`s significant influence in the refinery hydrogen balance, as well as its status as a significant naphtha conversion route to higher-quality fuels, make this unit a high-priority issue for engineers and planners striving for flexibility.

  2. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  3. Plant genome engineering in full bloom.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Juste, Jorge; Cutler, Sean R

    2014-05-01

    The recent development of tools for precise editing of user-specified sequences is rapidly changing the landscape for plant genetics and biotechnology. It is now possible to target mutations and regulatory proteins to specific sites in a genome using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like endonucleases (TALENs), or the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system. Here we provide an update of recent developments in CRISPR/Cas9 technology and highlight online resources that will help biologists adopt new genome-editing tools. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Green Gasoline from Wood using Carbona Gasification and Topsoe TIGAS Process

    SciTech Connect

    Udengaard, Niels; Knight, Richard; Wendt, Jesper; Patel, Jim; Walston, Kip; Jokela, Pekka; Adams, Cheryl

    2015-02-19

    This final report presents the results of a four-year technology demonstration project carried out by a consortium of companies sponsored in part by a $25 million funding by the Department of Energy (DOE) under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a new, economical technology for the thermochemical conversion of woody biomass into gasoline and to demonstrate that the gasoline produced in this way is suitable for direct inclusion in the already existing gasoline pool. The process that was demonstrated uses the Andritz-Carbona fluidized-bed steam-oxygen gasification technology and advanced tar reforming catalytic systems to produce a clean syngas from waste wood, integrated conventional gas cleanup steps, and finally utilizes Haldor Topsoe’s (Topsoe) innovative Topsoe Improved Gasoline Synthesis (TIGASTM) syngas-to-gasoline process. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out the bulk of the testing work at their Flex Fuel development facility in Des Plaines, Illinois; UPM in Minnesota supplied and prepared the feedstocks, and characterization of liquid products was conducted in Phillips 66 labs in Oklahoma. The produced gasoline was used for a single-engine emission test at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI®) in San Antonio, TX, as well as in a fleet test at Transportation Research Center, Inc. (TRC Inc.) in East Liberty, Ohio. The project benefited from the use of existing pilot plant equipment at GTI, including a 21.6 bone dry short ton/day gasifier, tar reformer, Morphysorb® acid gas removal, associated syngas cleanup and gasifier feeding and oxygen systems.

  5. Combining Wind Plant Control With Systems Engineering (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P.; Ning, A.; Gebraad, P.; Dykes, K.

    2015-02-01

    This presentation was given at the third Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop in Boulder, Colorado, and focused on wind plant controls research, combined optimization, a case study on the Princess Amalia Wind Park, results from the case study, and future work.

  6. Saab claims world's most modern engine-assembly plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmark, U.

    1984-01-01

    The modernization of an engine assembly plant using computer aided manufacturing techniques and robotics is described. The development of associated tools and production procedures used to assemble the Light Component Project (LCP) modular automobile are discussd. Structural design criteria used to reduce the weight and increase the fuel efficiency of the vehicle are explained.

  7. Metabolic engineering of flavonoids in plants and microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yechun; Chen, Steven; Yu, Oliver

    2011-08-01

    Over 9,000 flavonoid compounds have been found in various plants, comprising one of the largest families of natural products. Flavonoids are an essential factor in plant interactions with the environment, often serving as the first line of defense against UV irradiation and pathogen attacks. Flavonoids are also major nutritional compounds in foods and beverages, with demonstrated health benefits. Some flavonoids are potent antioxidants, and specific flavonoid compounds are beneficial in many physiological and pharmacological processes. Therefore, engineering of flavonoid biosynthesis in plants or in microorganisms has significant scientific and economical importance. Construction of biosynthetic pathways in heterologous systems offers promising results for large-scale flavonoid production by fermentation or bioconversion. Genomics and metabolomics now offer unprecedented tools for detailed understanding of the engineered transgenic organism and for developing novel technologies to further increase flavonoid production yields. We summarize some of the recent metabolic engineering strategies in plants and microorganisms, with a focus on applications of metabolic flux analysis. We are confident that these engineering approaches will lead to successful industrial flavonoid production in the near future.

  8. VASCULAR PLANTS AS ENGINEERS OF OXYGEN IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of organisms on oxygen is one of the most dramatic examples of ecosystem engineering on Earth. In aquatic systems, which have much lower oxygen concentrations than the atmosphere, vascular aquatic plants can affect oxygen concentrations significantly not only on long t...

  9. VASCULAR PLANTS AS ENGINEERS OF OXYGEN IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of organisms on oxygen is one of the most dramatic examples of ecosystem engineering on Earth. In aquatic systems, which have much lower oxygen concentrations than the atmosphere, vascular aquatic plants can affect oxygen concentrations significantly not only on long t...

  10. Gasoline immersion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Towards engineering glucosinolates into non-cruciferous plants.

    PubMed

    Geu-Flores, Fernando; Olsen, Carl Erik; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates are amino acid-derived secondary metabolites present in cruciferous plants. Glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products are involved in defence against insects and pathogens, but are also known for their characteristic flavor and their cancer-preventive and antibacterial properties. This wide range of bioactivities has prompted a desire to engineer glucosinolates into non-cruciferous plants. We report the one-step transfer of the last three steps of the benzylglucosinolate pathway (comprising the C-S lyase, glycosyltransferase and sulfotransferase) from Arabidopsis to tobacco. This was achieved using an expression construct consisting of a single 2A polycistronic open reading frame, which allowed the expression of the three coding-sequences from a single promoter. When compared to wildtype plants, transgenic tobacco lines showed increased ability to convert the intermediate phenylacetothiohydroxamate to benzylglucosinolate upon in vivo feeding. Enzymatic assays using plant extracts demonstrated that the individual activities required for this conversion were enhanced in the transgenic plants. The relatively high conversion by wildtype plants in feeding assays supports the hypothesis that the last part of the glucosinolate pathway was recruited from existing detoxification reactions. Immunoblots confirmed that individual proteins were being successfully produced from the 2A polycistronic open reading frame, albeit fusion proteins could also be detected. In summary, we transferred the last three steps of the benzylglucosinolate pathway to tobacco as a first step towards engineering glucosinolates into non-cruciferous plants.

  12. Engineering secondary cell wall deposition in plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Mitra, Prajakta; Zhang, Ling; Prak, Lina; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Kim, Jin-Sun; Sun, Lan; Zheng, Kejian; Tang, Kexuan; Auer, Manfred; Scheller, Henrik V; Loqué, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass was used for thousands of years as animal feed and is now considered a great sugar source for biofuels production. It is composed mostly of secondary cell walls built with polysaccharide polymers that are embedded in lignin to reinforce the cell wall structure and maintain its integrity. Lignin is the primary material responsible for biomass recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis. During plant development, deep reductions of lignin cause growth defects and often correlate with the loss of vessel integrity that adversely affects water and nutrient transport in plants. The work presented here describes a new approach to decrease lignin content while preventing vessel collapse and introduces a new strategy to boost transcription factor expression in native tissues. We used synthetic biology tools in Arabidopsis to rewire the secondary cell network by changing promoter-coding sequence associations. The result was a reduction in lignin and an increase in polysaccharide depositions in fibre cells. The promoter of a key lignin gene, C4H, was replaced by the vessel-specific promoter of transcription factor VND6. This rewired lignin biosynthesis specifically for vessel formation while disconnecting C4H expression from the fibre regulatory network. Secondly, the promoter of the IRX8 gene, secondary cell wall glycosyltransferase, was used to express a new copy of the fibre transcription factor NST1, and as the IRX8 promoter is induced by NST1, this also created an artificial positive feedback loop (APFL). The combination of strategies—lignin rewiring with APFL insertion—enhances polysaccharide deposition in stems without over-lignifying them, resulting in higher sugar yields after enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:23140549

  13. Biosynthesis, function and metabolic engineering of plant volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Dudareva, Natalia; Klempien, Antje; Muhlemann, Joëlle K; Kaplan, Ian

    2013-04-01

    Plants synthesize an amazing diversity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that facilitate interactions with their environment, from attracting pollinators and seed dispersers to protecting themselves from pathogens, parasites and herbivores. Recent progress in -omics technologies resulted in the isolation of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of many volatiles and contributed to our understanding of regulatory mechanisms involved in VOC formation. In this review, we largely focus on the biosynthesis and regulation of plant volatiles, the involvement of floral volatiles in plant reproduction as well as their contribution to plant biodiversity and applications in agriculture via crop-pollinator interactions. In addition, metabolic engineering approaches for both the improvement of plant defense and pollinator attraction are discussed in light of methodological constraints and ecological complications that limit the transition of crops with modified volatile profiles from research laboratories to real-world implementation.

  14. An engineering analysis of a closed cycle plant growth module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickford, G. H., Jr.; Jakob, F. E.; Landstrom, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The SOLGEM model is a numerical engineering model which solves the flow and energy balance equations for the air flowing through a growing environment, assuming quasi-steady state conditions within the system. SOLGEM provides a dynamic simulation of the controlled environment system in that the temperature and flow conditions of the growing environment are estimated on an hourly basis in response to the weather data and the plant growth parameters. The flow energy balance considers the incident solar flux; incoming air temperature, humidity, and flow rate; heat exchange with the roof and floor; and heat and moisture exchange with the plants. A plant transpiration subroutine was developed based plant growth research facility, intended for the study of bioregenerative life support theories. The results of a performance analysis of the plant growth module are given. The estimated energy requirements of the module components and the total energy are given.

  15. Modulation of Phytoalexin Biosynthesis in Engineered Plants for Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Courot, Eric; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Phytoalexins are antimicrobial substances of low molecular weight produced by plants in response to infection or stress, which form part of their active defense mechanisms. Starting in the 1950’s, research on phytoalexins has begun with biochemistry and bio-organic chemistry, resulting in the determination of their structure, their biological activity as well as mechanisms of their synthesis and their catabolism by microorganisms. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of numerous phytoalexins has permitted the use of molecular biology tools for the exploration of the genes encoding enzymes of their synthesis pathways and their regulators. Genetic manipulation of phytoalexins has been investigated to increase the disease resistance of plants. The first example of a disease resistance resulting from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant has concerned a phytoalexin from grapevine which was transferred to tobacco. Transformations were then operated to investigate the potential of other phytoalexin biosynthetic genes to confer resistance to pathogens. Unexpectedly, engineering phytoalexins for disease resistance in plants seem to have been limited to exploiting only a few phytoalexin biosynthetic genes, especially those encoding stilbenes and some isoflavonoids. Research has rather focused on indirect approaches which allow modulation of the accumulation of phytoalexin employing transcriptional regulators or components of upstream regulatory pathways. Genetic approaches using gain- or less-of functions in phytoalexin engineering together with modulation of phytoalexin accumulation through molecular engineering of plant hormones and defense-related marker and elicitor genes have been reviewed. PMID:23880860

  16. Modulation of phytoalexin biosynthesis in engineered plants for disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Courot, Eric; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2013-07-08

    Phytoalexins are antimicrobial substances of low molecular weight produced by plants in response to infection or stress, which form part of their active defense mechanisms. Starting in the 1950's, research on phytoalexins has begun with biochemistry and bio-organic chemistry, resulting in the determination of their structure, their biological activity as well as mechanisms of their synthesis and their catabolism by microorganisms. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of numerous phytoalexins has permitted the use of molecular biology tools for the exploration of the genes encoding enzymes of their synthesis pathways and their regulators. Genetic manipulation of phytoalexins has been investigated to increase the disease resistance of plants. The first example of a disease resistance resulting from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant has concerned a phytoalexin from grapevine which was transferred to tobacco. Transformations were then operated to investigate the potential of other phytoalexin biosynthetic genes to confer resistance to pathogens. Unexpectedly, engineering phytoalexins for disease resistance in plants seem to have been limited to exploiting only a few phytoalexin biosynthetic genes, especially those encoding stilbenes and some isoflavonoids. Research has rather focused on indirect approaches which allow modulation of the accumulation of phytoalexin employing transcriptional regulators or components of upstream regulatory pathways. Genetic approaches using gain- or less-of functions in phytoalexin engineering together with modulation of phytoalexin accumulation through molecular engineering of plant hormones and defense-related marker and elicitor genes have been reviewed.

  17. Engineering Plant One-Carbon Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    David Rhodes

    2005-02-09

    Primary and secondary metabolism intersect in the one-carbon (C1) area. Primary metabolism supplies most of the C1 units and competes with secondary metabolism for their use. This competition is potentially severe because secondary products such as lignin, alkaloids, and glycine betaine (GlyBet) require massive amounts of C1 units. Towards the goal of understanding how C1 metabolism is regulated at the metabolic and gene levels so as to successfully engineer C1 supply to match demand, we have: (1) cloned complete suites of C1 genes from maize and tobacco, and incorporated them into DNA arrays; (2) prepared antisense constructs and mutants engineered with alterations in C1 unit supply and demand; and (3) have quantified the impacts of these alterations on gene expression (using DNA arrays), and on metabolic fluxes (by combining isotope labeling, MS, NMR and computer modeling). Metabolic flux analysis and modeling in tobacco engineered for GlyBet synthesis by expressing choline oxidizing enzymes in either the chloroplast or cytosol, has shown that the choline biosynthesis network is rigid, and tends to resist large changes in C1 demand. A major constraint on engineering enhanced flux to GlyBet in tobacco is a low capacity of choline transport across the chloroplast envelope. Maize and sorghum mutants defective in GlyBet synthesis show greatly reduced flux of C1 units into choline in comparison to GlyBet-accumulating wildtypes, but this is not associated with altered expression of any of the C1 genes. Control of C1 flux to choline in tobacco, maize and sorghum appears to reside primarily at the level of N-methylation of phosphoethanolamine. A candidate signal for the control of this flux is the pool size of phosphocholine which down-regulates and feedback inhibits phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase. Methionine S-methyltransferase (MMT) catalyzes the synthesis of S-methylmethionine (SMM) from methionine (Met) and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). SMM can be

  18. Computational Modeling of Auxin: A Foundation for Plant Engineering.

    PubMed

    Morales-Tapia, Alejandro; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Since the development of agriculture, humans have relied on the cultivation of plants to satisfy our increasing demand for food, natural products, and other raw materials. As we understand more about plant development, we can better manipulate plants to fulfill our particular needs. Auxins are a class of simple metabolites that coordinate many developmental activities like growth and the appearance of functional structures in plants. Computational modeling of auxin has proven to be an excellent tool in elucidating many mechanisms that underlie these developmental events. Due to the complexity of these mechanisms, current modeling efforts are concerned only with single phenomena focused on narrow spatial and developmental contexts; but a general model of plant development could be assembled by integrating the insights from all of them. In this perspective, we summarize the current collection of auxin-driven computational models, focusing on how they could come together into a single model for plant development. A model of this nature would allow researchers to test hypotheses in silico and yield accurate predictions about the behavior of a plant under a given set of physical and biochemical constraints. It would also provide a solid foundation toward the establishment of plant engineering, a proposed discipline intended to enable the design and production of plants that exhibit an arbitrarily defined set of features.

  19. Engineering plants for aphid resistance: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiudao; Wang, Genping; Huang, Siliang; Ma, Youzhi; Xia, Lanqin

    2014-10-01

    The current status of development of transgenic plants for improved aphid resistance, and the pros and cons of different strategies are reviewed and future perspectives are proposed. Aphids are major agricultural pests that cause significant yield losses of crop plants each year. Excessive dependence on insecticides for aphid control is undesirable because of the development of insecticide resistance, the potential negative effects on non-target organisms and environmental pollution. Transgenic plants engineered for resistance to aphids via a non-toxic mode of action could be an efficient alternative strategy. In this review, the distribution of major aphid species and their damages on crop plants, the so far isolated aphid-resistance genes and their applications in developments of transgenic plants for improved aphid resistance, and the pros and cons of these strategies are reviewed and future perspectives are proposed. Although the transgenic plants developed through expressing aphid-resistant genes, manipulating plant secondary metabolism and plant-mediated RNAi strategy have been demonstrated to confer improved aphid resistance to some degree. So far, no aphid-resistant transgenic crop plants have ever been commercialized. This commentary is intended to be a helpful insight into the generation and future commercialization of aphid-resistant transgenic crops in a global context.

  20. Computational Modeling of Auxin: A Foundation for Plant Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Tapia, Alejandro; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Since the development of agriculture, humans have relied on the cultivation of plants to satisfy our increasing demand for food, natural products, and other raw materials. As we understand more about plant development, we can better manipulate plants to fulfill our particular needs. Auxins are a class of simple metabolites that coordinate many developmental activities like growth and the appearance of functional structures in plants. Computational modeling of auxin has proven to be an excellent tool in elucidating many mechanisms that underlie these developmental events. Due to the complexity of these mechanisms, current modeling efforts are concerned only with single phenomena focused on narrow spatial and developmental contexts; but a general model of plant development could be assembled by integrating the insights from all of them. In this perspective, we summarize the current collection of auxin-driven computational models, focusing on how they could come together into a single model for plant development. A model of this nature would allow researchers to test hypotheses in silico and yield accurate predictions about the behavior of a plant under a given set of physical and biochemical constraints. It would also provide a solid foundation toward the establishment of plant engineering, a proposed discipline intended to enable the design and production of plants that exhibit an arbitrarily defined set of features. PMID:28066453

  1. California Tribal Gasoline Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is proposing a draft general permit under the Clean Air Act Federal Indian Country Minor NSR program for gasoline dispensing facilities, such as gas stations, located in Indian country within the geographical boundaries of California.

  2. Resveratrol biosynthesis: plant metabolic engineering for nutritional improvement of food.

    PubMed

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Ingrosso, Ilaria; Paradiso, Annalisa; De Gara, Laura; Santino, Angelo

    2012-09-01

    The plant polyphenol trans-resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) mainly found in grape, peanut and other few plants, displays a wide range of biological effects. Numerous in vitro studies have described various biological effects of resveratrol. In order to provide more information regarding absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of resveratrol, various research approaches have been performed, including in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. In recent years, the induction of resveratrol synthesis in plants which normally do not accumulate such polyphenol, has been successfully achieved by molecular engineering. In this context, the ectopic production of resveratrol has been reported to have positive effects both on plant resistance to biotic stress and the enhancement of the nutritional value of several widely consumed fruits and vegetables. The metabolic engineering of plants offers the opportunity to change the content of specific phytonutrients in plant - derived foods. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding on resveratrol bioproduction and its effects on the prevention of the major pathological conditions in man.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 4: Supplementary engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the Magnetohydrodynamic Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates, and identification of engineering issues that should be reexamined are also given. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program are integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant. Supplementary Engineering Data (Issues, Background, Performance Assurance Plan, Design Details, System Design Descriptions and Related Drawings) is presented.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 4: Supplementary engineering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    The reference conceptual design of the Magnetohydrodynamic Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates, and identification of engineering issues that should be reexamined are also given. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program are integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant. Supplementary Engineering Data (Issues, Background, Performance Assurance Plan, Design Details, System Design Descriptions and Related Drawings) is presented.

  5. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  6. Expanding the docosahexaenoic acid food web for sustainable production: engineering lower plant pathways into higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, James R.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Algae are becoming an increasingly important component of land plant metabolic engineering projects. Land plants and algae have similar enough genetics to allow relatively straightforward gene transfer and they also share enough metabolic similarities that algal enzymes often function in a plant cell environment. Understanding metabolic systems in algae can provide insights into homologous systems in land plants. As examples, algal models are currently being used by several groups to better understand starch and lipid metabolism and catabolism, fields which have relevance in land plants. Importantly, land plants and algae also have enough metabolic divergence that algal genes can often provide new metabolic traits to plants. Furthermore, many algal genomes have now been sequenced, with many more in progress, and this easy access to genome-wide information has revealed that algal genomes are often relatively simple when compared with plants. Scope One example of the importance of algal, and in particular microalgal, resources to land plant research is the metabolic engineering of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids into oilseed crops which typically uses microalgal genes to extend existing natural plant biosynthetic pathways. This review describes both recent progress and remaining challenges in this field. PMID:22476481

  7. Metabolic engineering of higher plants and algae for isoprenoid production.

    PubMed

    Kempinski, Chase; Jiang, Zuodong; Bell, Stephen; Chappell, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a class of compounds derived from the five carbon precursors, dimethylallyl diphosphate, and isopentenyl diphosphate. These molecules present incredible natural chemical diversity, which can be valuable for humans in many aspects such as cosmetics, agriculture, and medicine. However, many terpenoids are only produced in small quantities by their natural hosts and can be difficult to generate synthetically. Therefore, much interest and effort has been directed toward capturing the genetic blueprint for their biochemistry and engineering it into alternative hosts such as plants and algae. These autotrophic organisms are attractive when compared to traditional microbial platforms because of their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as a carbon substrate instead of supplied carbon sources like glucose. This chapter will summarize important techniques and strategies for engineering the accumulation of isoprenoid metabolites into higher plants and algae by choosing the correct host, avoiding endogenous regulatory mechanisms, and optimizing potential flux into the target compound. Future endeavors will build on these efforts by fine-tuning product accumulation levels via the vast amount of available "-omic" data and devising metabolic engineering schemes that integrate this into a whole-organism approach. With the development of high-throughput transformation protocols and synthetic biology molecular tools, we have only begun to harness the power and utility of plant and algae metabolic engineering.

  8. Gasoline surrogate modeling of gasoline ignition in a rapid compression machine and comparison to experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Kukkadapu, G; Kumar, K; Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Sung, S J

    2011-09-15

    The use of gasoline in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) and in duel fuel diesel - gasoline engines, has increased the need to understand its compression ignition processes under engine-like conditions. These processes need to be studied under well-controlled conditions in order to quantify low temperature heat release and to provide fundamental validation data for chemical kinetic models. With this in mind, an experimental campaign has been undertaken in a rapid compression machine (RCM) to measure the ignition of gasoline mixtures over a wide range of compression temperatures and for different compression pressures. By measuring the pressure history during ignition, information on the first stage ignition (when observed) and second stage ignition are captured along with information on the phasing of the heat release. Heat release processes during ignition are important because gasoline is known to exhibit low temperature heat release, intermediate temperature heat release and high temperature heat release. In an HCCI engine, the occurrence of low-temperature and intermediate-temperature heat release can be exploited to obtain higher load operation and has become a topic of much interest for engine researchers. Consequently, it is important to understand these processes under well-controlled conditions. A four-component gasoline surrogate model (including n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and 2-pentene) has been developed to simulate real gasolines. An appropriate surrogate mixture of the four components has been developed to simulate the specific gasoline used in the RCM experiments. This chemical kinetic surrogate model was then used to simulate the RCM experimental results for real gasoline. The experimental and modeling results covered ultra-lean to stoichiometric mixtures, compressed temperatures of 640-950 K, and compression pressures of 20 and 40 bar. The agreement between the experiments and model is encouraging in terms of first

  9. Plant-derived human collagen scaffolds for skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Willard, James J; Drexler, Jason W; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Shilo, Shani; Shoseyov, Oded; Powell, Heather M

    2013-07-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly formed using proteins extracted from animal tissues, such as bovine hide. Risks associated with the use of these materials include hypersensitivity and pathogenic contamination. Human-derived proteins lower the risk of hypersensitivity, but possess the risk of disease transmission. Methods engineering recombinant human proteins using plant material provide an alternate source of these materials without the risk of disease transmission or concerns regarding variability. To investigate the utility of plant-derived human collagen (PDHC) in the development of engineered skin (ES), PDHC and bovine hide collagen were formed into tissue engineering scaffolds using electrospinning or freeze-drying. Both raw materials were easily formed into two common scaffold types, electrospun nonwoven scaffolds and lyophilized sponges, with similar architectures. The processing time, however, was significantly lower with PDHC. PDHC scaffolds supported primary human cell attachment and proliferation at an equivalent or higher level than the bovine material. Interleukin-1 beta production was significantly lower when activated THP-1 macrophages where exposed to PDHC electrospun scaffolds compared to bovine collagen. Both materials promoted proper maturation and differentiation of ES. These data suggest that PDHC may provide a novel source of raw material for tissue engineering with low risk of allergic response or disease transmission.

  10. Plant-Derived Human Collagen Scaffolds for Skin Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Willard, James J.; Drexler, Jason W.; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Shilo, Shani; Shoseyov, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly formed using proteins extracted from animal tissues, such as bovine hide. Risks associated with the use of these materials include hypersensitivity and pathogenic contamination. Human-derived proteins lower the risk of hypersensitivity, but possess the risk of disease transmission. Methods engineering recombinant human proteins using plant material provide an alternate source of these materials without the risk of disease transmission or concerns regarding variability. To investigate the utility of plant-derived human collagen (PDHC) in the development of engineered skin (ES), PDHC and bovine hide collagen were formed into tissue engineering scaffolds using electrospinning or freeze-drying. Both raw materials were easily formed into two common scaffold types, electrospun nonwoven scaffolds and lyophilized sponges, with similar architectures. The processing time, however, was significantly lower with PDHC. PDHC scaffolds supported primary human cell attachment and proliferation at an equivalent or higher level than the bovine material. Interleukin-1 beta production was significantly lower when activated THP-1 macrophages where exposed to PDHC electrospun scaffolds compared to bovine collagen. Both materials promoted proper maturation and differentiation of ES. These data suggest that PDHC may provide a novel source of raw material for tissue engineering with low risk of allergic response or disease transmission. PMID:23298216

  11. Ecosystem engineers modulate exotic invasions in riparian plant communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corenblit, D.; Tabacchi, E.; Steiger, J.; Gonzales, E.; Planty-Tabacchi, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and invasibility of exotic plant species within different environments and at different spatial scales is still being discussed amongst scientists. In this study, patterns of native and exotic plant species richness and cover were examined in relation with ecosystem engineer effects of pioneer vegetation within the active tract of the Mediterranean gravel bed river Tech, South France. The floristic composition was characterized according to two distinct vegetation types corresponding to two habitats with contrasted conditions: (i) open and exposed alluvial bars dominated by herbaceous communities and (ii) islands and river margins partly stabilized by ecosystem engineer plants, disconnected from annual hydrogeomorphic disturbances, and covered by woody vegetation. A significant positive correlation between exotic and native plant species richness and cover was observed for the herbaceous and the woody types, indicating that both native and exotic richness benefit from the prevailing environmental conditions. However, significant differences in native and exotic specific richness and cover were found between these two vegetation types. Higher values of total species richness and Shannon diversity of native and exotic species were attained within the herbaceous vegetation type compared to the woody type. These differences may be related to changes in local exposure to hydrogeomorphic disturbances driven by engineer plant species, and to vegetation succession. A lower exotic cover within the woody vegetation type compared to the herbaceous type suggested an increase of resistance to invasion by exotic species during the biogeomorphic succession. The engineer effects of woody vegetation resulted in a decrease of alpha (α) diversity at patch scale but, in parallel, caused an increase in gamma (γ) diversity at the scale of the studied river segment. Our study corroborates recent investigations that support the theory of biotic

  12. Biomass to Gasoline and Diesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Kraus, Larry; McLeod, Celeste; DelPaggio, Alan; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Gromov, Dmitri; Purtle, Ian; Starr, Jack; Hahn, John; Dorrington, Paul; Stevens, James; Shonnard, David; Maleche, Edwin

    2013-01-02

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

  13. [Pilot plant for microbiological synthesis. Engineer and technological aspects].

    PubMed

    Lukanin, A V

    2007-01-01

    A biotechnological pilot plant (National Research Centre of Antibiotics) and its technical potentialities in production of various biosynthetic products are described. Some engineer and technological aspects of the fermentation equipment and particularly sterilization of the media and apparatus, fermentation broth aeration under sterile conditions and control of biosynthesis technological parameters (t degrees, pO2, P, pH, foaming, etc.) are considered. The pilot plant is designed for fermentation processes under aseptic conditions with the use practically of any object, from bacteria to tissue cultures.

  14. Metabolic engineering of anthocyanins and condensed tannins in plants.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Richard A; Liu, Chenggang; Jun, Ji Hyung

    2013-04-01

    Monomeric anthocyanins and polymeric proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) contribute to important plant traits such as flower and fruit pigmentation, fruit astringency, disease resistance and forage quality. Recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional control mechanisms that regulate anthocyanin and condensed tannin formation in plants suggest new approaches for the engineering of quality traits associated with these molecules. In particular, MYB family transcription factors are emerging as central players in the coordinated activation of sets of genes specific for the anthocyanin and tannin pathways. Mutations in these genes underlie potentially valuable crop traits, and ectopic over- or under-expression of MYB transcription factors provides routes for engineering of these complex pathways. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic engineering of plant food with reduced allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Stephan; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Food allergies are a major health concern in industrialized countries. Since a specific immunotherapy for food allergies is not available in clinical routine praxis till now, reduction of allergens in foods, either by food processing or genetic engineering are strategies to minimize the risk of adverse reactions for food allergic patients. This review summarizes biotechnological approaches, especially the RNA interference (RNAi) technology, for the reduction of selected allergens in plant foods. So far, only a limited number of reports showing proof-of-concept of this methodology are available. Using RNAi an impressive reduction of allergen accumulation was obtained which was stable in the next generations of plants. Since threshold doses for most food allergens are not known, the beneficial effect has to be evaluated by oral challenge tests in the future. The article critically addresses the potential and limitations of genetic engineering, as well as of alternative strategies to generate "low allergic" foods.

  16. Metabolic engineering of the plant primary-secondary metabolism interface.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Asaph; Galili, Gad

    2011-04-01

    Plants synthesize a myriad of secondary metabolites (SMs) that are derived from central or primary metabolism. While these so-called natural products have been targets for plant metabolic engineering attempts for many years, the immense value of manipulating the interface between committed steps in secondary metabolism pathways and those in primary metabolism pathways has only recently emerged. In this review we discuss a few of the major issues that should be taken into consideration in attempts to engineer the primary to secondary metabolism interface. The availability of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur resources will have a major impact on the production of specific classes of primary metabolites (PMs) and consequently on the levels and composition of SMs derived from these PMs. Recent studies have shown that transcription factors associated with the synthesis of a given class of SMs coactivate the expression of genes encoding metabolic enzymes associated with primary pathways that supply precursors to these SMs. In addition, metabolic engineering approaches, which alter post-transcriptional feedback and feedforward regulatory mechanisms of the primary-secondary metabolism interface, have been highly fruitful in Taylormade enhancements of the content of specific beneficial SMs. Lastly, the evolution of pathways of secondary metabolism from pathways of primary metabolism highlights the need to consider cases in which common enzymatic reactions and pathways take place between the two. Taken together, the available information indicates a supercoordinated gene expression networks connecting primary and secondary metabolism in plants, which should be taken into consideration in future attempts to metabolically engineer the various classes of plant SMs.

  17. 24. Photographic copy of plant engineer's handdrawn buildings function chart, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of plant engineer's hand-drawn buildings function chart, dated 1967; Ink and pencil on tracing paper; Attributed to GWN, Original in collection of Rath drawings and blueprints owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SHEET ONE; OUTLINES ACTIVITIES TAKING PLANE ON EACH FLOOR OF MAJOR BUILDINGS IN THE RATH COMPLEX - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  18. 25. Photographic copy of plant engineer's handdrawn buildings function chart, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of plant engineer's hand-drawn buildings function chart, dated 1967; Ink and pencil on tracing paper; Attributed to GWN, Original in collection of Rath drawings and blueprints owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SHEET TWO; OUTLINES ACTIVITIES TAKING PLANE ON EACH FLOOR OF MAJOR BUILDINGS IN THE RATH COMPLEX - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. 26. Photographic copy of plant engineer's handdrawn buildings function chart, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of plant engineer's hand-drawn buildings function chart, dated 1967; Ink and pencil on tracing paper; Attributed to GWN, Original in collection of Rath drawings and blueprints owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SHEET THREE; OUTLINES ACTIVITIES TAKING PLANE ON EACH FLOOR OF MAJOR BUILDINGS IN THE RATH COMPLEX - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  20. Global gasoline prices: The need to raise gasoline taxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin Lawell, C.-Y. Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Gasoline taxes are considered to be a cost-effective policy instrument for reducing carbon emissions. A study finds that while gasoline taxes rose in 83 countries between 2003 and 2015, the global mean fell by 13.3% due to a shift in consumption towards countries that maintain gasoline subsidies or that have low taxes.

  1. Genetic elements of plant viruses as tools for genetic engineering.

    PubMed Central

    Mushegian, A R; Shepherd, R J

    1995-01-01

    Viruses have developed successful strategies for propagation at the expense of their host cells. Efficient gene expression, genome multiplication, and invasion of the host are enabled by virus-encoded genetic elements, many of which are well characterized. Sequences derived from plant DNA and RNA viruses can be used to control expression of other genes in vivo. The main groups of plant virus genetic elements useful in genetic engineering are reviewed, including the signals for DNA-dependent and RNA-dependent RNA synthesis, sequences on the virus mRNAs that enable translational control, and sequences that control processing and intracellular sorting of virus proteins. Use of plant viruses as extrachromosomal expression vectors is also discussed, along with the issue of their stability. PMID:8531885

  2. Some ocean engineering considerations in the design of OTEC plants

    SciTech Connect

    McGuiness, T.

    1982-08-01

    An alternate energy resource using the temperature differences between warm surface waters and cool bottom waters of the world's oceans, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) utilizes the solar energy potential of nearequatorial water masses and can be applied to generate electrical energy as a baseload augmentation of landside power plants or to process energy-intensive products at sea. Designs of OTEC plants include concepts of floating barge or shipshape structures with large (up to 100-foot diameter, 3,000 feet in length) pipes used to intake cool bottom waters and platforms located in 300-foot water depths similar to oil drilling rigs, also with a pipe to ingest cool waters, but in this case the pipe is laid on continental shelf areas in 25/sup 0/-30/sup 0/ slopes attaining a length of several miles. The ocean engineering design considerations, problem areas, and proposed solutions to data regarding various OTEC plant concepts are the topic of this presentation.

  3. The Plant Genetic Engineering Laboratory For Desert Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, John D.; Phillips, Gregory C.

    1985-11-01

    The Plant Genetic Engineering Laboratory for Desert Adaptation (PGEL) is one of five Centers of Technical Excellence established as a part of the state of New Mexico's Rio Grande Research Corridor (RGRC). The scientific mission of PGEL is to bring innovative advances in plant biotechnology to bear on agricultural productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. Research activities focus on molecular and cellular genetics technology development in model systems, but also include stress physiology investigations and development of desert plant resources. PGEL interacts with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a national laboratory participating in the RGRC. PGEL also has an economic development mission, which is being pursued through technology transfer activities to private companies and public agencies.

  4. Lessons learned: Are engineered nanomaterials toxic to terrestrial plants?

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Venkata Laxma; Hernandez-Viezcas, J A; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2016-10-15

    The expansion of nanotechnology and its ubiquitous applications has fostered unavoidable interaction between engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and plants. Recent research has shown ambiguous results with regard to the impact of ENMs in plants. On one hand, there are reports that show hazardous effects, while on the other hand, some reports highlight positive effects. This uncertainty whether the ENMs are primarily hazardous or whether they have a potential for propitious impact on plants, has raised questions in the scientific community. In this review, we tried to demystify this ambiguity by citing various exposure studies of different ENMs (nano-Ag, nano-Au, nano-Si, nano-CeO2, nano-TiO2, nano-CuO, nano-ZnO, and CNTs, among others) and their effects on various groups of plant families. After scrutinizing the most recent literature, it seems that the divergence in the research results may be possibly attributed to multiple factors such as ENM properties, plant species, soil dynamics, and soil microbial community. The analysis of the literature also suggests that there is a knowledge gap on the effects of ENMs towards changes in color, texture, shape, and nutritional aspects on ENM exposed plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineering plant-microbe symbiosis for rhizoremediation of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cindy H; Wood, Thomas K; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2006-02-01

    The use of plants for rehabilitation of heavy-metal-contaminated environments is an emerging area of interest because it provides an ecologically sound and safe method for restoration and remediation. Although a number of plant species are capable of hyperaccumulation of heavy metals, the technology is not applicable for remediating sites with multiple contaminants. A clever solution is to combine the advantages of microbe-plant symbiosis within the plant rhizosphere into an effective cleanup technology. We demonstrated that expression of a metal-binding peptide (EC20) in a rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida 06909, not only improved cadmium binding but also alleviated the cellular toxicity of cadmium. More importantly, inoculation of sunflower roots with the engineered rhizobacterium resulted in a marked decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a 40% increase in cadmium accumulation in the plant root. Owing to the significantly improved growth characteristics of both the rhizobacterium and plant, the use of EC20-expressing P. putida endowed with organic-degrading capabilities may be a promising strategy to remediate mixed organic-metal-contaminated sites.

  6. Engineering Plant-Microbe Symbiosis for Rhizoremediation of Heavy Metals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cindy H.; Wood, Thomas K.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    The use of plants for rehabilitation of heavy-metal-contaminated environments is an emerging area of interest because it provides an ecologically sound and safe method for restoration and remediation. Although a number of plant species are capable of hyperaccumulation of heavy metals, the technology is not applicable for remediating sites with multiple contaminants. A clever solution is to combine the advantages of microbe-plant symbiosis within the plant rhizosphere into an effective cleanup technology. We demonstrated that expression of a metal-binding peptide (EC20) in a rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida 06909, not only improved cadmium binding but also alleviated the cellular toxicity of cadmium. More importantly, inoculation of sunflower roots with the engineered rhizobacterium resulted in a marked decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a 40% increase in cadmium accumulation in the plant root. Owing to the significantly improved growth characteristics of both the rhizobacterium and plant, the use of EC20-expressing P. putida endowed with organic-degrading capabilities may be a promising strategy to remediate mixed organic-metal-contaminated sites. PMID:16461658

  7. Desulfurization of gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, J E

    1975-01-01

    Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures. PMID:1157782

  8. Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.

    PubMed

    Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism.

  9. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuel/air mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: Effects of residual exhaust gas on quantitative PLIF

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ben; Ewart, Paul; Wang, Xiaowei; Stone, Richard; Ma, Hongrui; Walmsley, Harold; Cracknell, Roger; Stevens, Robert; Richardson, David; Fu, Huiyu; Wallace, Stan

    2010-10-15

    A study of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing distributions in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine is reported using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. A multi-component fuel synthesised from three pairs of components chosen to simulate light, medium and heavy fractions was seeded with one of three tracers, each chosen to co-evaporate with and thus follow one of the fractions, in order to account for differential volatility of such components in typical gasoline fuels. In order to make quantitative measurements of fuel-air ratio from PLIF images, initial calibration was by recording PLIF images of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures under similar conditions of in-cylinder temperature and pressure using a re-circulation loop and a motored engine. This calibration method was found to be affected by two significant factors. Firstly, calibration was affected by variation of signal collection efficiency arising from build-up of absorbing deposits on the windows during firing cycles, which are not present under motored conditions. Secondly, the effects of residual exhaust gas present in the firing engine were not accounted for using a calibration loop with a motored engine. In order to account for these factors a novel method of PLIF calibration is presented whereby 'bookend' calibration measurements for each tracer separately are performed under firing conditions, utilising injection into a large upstream heated plenum to promote the formation of homogeneous in-cylinder mixtures. These calibration datasets contain sufficient information to not only characterise the quantum efficiency of each tracer during a typical engine cycle, but also monitor imaging efficiency, and, importantly, account for the impact of exhaust gas residuals (EGR). By use of this method EGR is identified as a significant factor in quantitative PLIF for fuel mixing diagnostics in firing engines. The effects of cyclic variation in fuel concentration on burn rate are analysed for different

  10. Exposure to regular gasoline and ethanol oxyfuel during refueling in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Backer, L C; Egeland, G M; Ashley, D L; Lawryk, N J; Weisel, C P; White, M C; Bundy, T; Shortt, E; Middaugh, J P

    1997-08-01

    Although most people are thought to receive their highest acute exposures to gasoline while refueling, relatively little is actually known about personal, nonoccupational exposures to gasoline during refueling activities. This study was designed to measure exposures associated with the use of an oxygenated fuel under cold conditions in Fairbanks, Alaska. We compared concentrations of gasoline components in the blood and in the personal breathing zone (PBZ) of people who pumped regular unleaded gasoline (referred to as regular gasoline) with concentrations in the blood of those who pumped an oxygenated fuel that was 10% ethanol (E-10). A subset of participants in a wintertime engine performance study provided blood samples before and after pumping gasoline (30 using regular gasoline and 30 using E-10). The biological and environmental samples were analyzed for selected aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in gasoline (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, m-/p-xylene, and o-xylene); the biological samples were also analyzed for three chemicals not found in gasoline (1,4-dichlorobenzene, chloroform, and styrene). People in our study had significantly higher levels of gasoline components in their blood after pumping gasoline than they had before pumping gasoline. The changes in VOC levels in blood were similar whether the individuals pumped regular gasoline or the E-10 blend. The analysis of PBZ samples indicated that there were also measurable levels of gasoline components in the air during refueling. The VOC levels in PBZ air were similar for the two groups. In this study, we demonstrate that people are briefly exposed to low (ppm and sub-ppm) levels of known carcinogens and other potentially toxic compounds while pumping gasoline, regardless of the type of gasoline used.

  11. Exposure to regular gasoline and ethanol oxyfuel during refueling in Alaska.

    PubMed Central

    Backer, L C; Egeland, G M; Ashley, D L; Lawryk, N J; Weisel, C P; White, M C; Bundy, T; Shortt, E; Middaugh, J P

    1997-01-01

    Although most people are thought to receive their highest acute exposures to gasoline while refueling, relatively little is actually known about personal, nonoccupational exposures to gasoline during refueling activities. This study was designed to measure exposures associated with the use of an oxygenated fuel under cold conditions in Fairbanks, Alaska. We compared concentrations of gasoline components in the blood and in the personal breathing zone (PBZ) of people who pumped regular unleaded gasoline (referred to as regular gasoline) with concentrations in the blood of those who pumped an oxygenated fuel that was 10% ethanol (E-10). A subset of participants in a wintertime engine performance study provided blood samples before and after pumping gasoline (30 using regular gasoline and 30 using E-10). The biological and environmental samples were analyzed for selected aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in gasoline (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, m-/p-xylene, and o-xylene); the biological samples were also analyzed for three chemicals not found in gasoline (1,4-dichlorobenzene, chloroform, and styrene). People in our study had significantly higher levels of gasoline components in their blood after pumping gasoline than they had before pumping gasoline. The changes in VOC levels in blood were similar whether the individuals pumped regular gasoline or the E-10 blend. The analysis of PBZ samples indicated that there were also measurable levels of gasoline components in the air during refueling. The VOC levels in PBZ air were similar for the two groups. In this study, we demonstrate that people are briefly exposed to low (ppm and sub-ppm) levels of known carcinogens and other potentially toxic compounds while pumping gasoline, regardless of the type of gasoline used. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9347900

  12. Tissue engineered plant extracts as nanofibrous wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guorui; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Kai, Dan; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Kantha D; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2013-01-01

    Use of plant extracts for treatment of burns and wound is a common practice followed over the decades and it is an important aspect of health management. Many medicinal plants have a long history of curative properties in wound healing. Electrospun nanofibers provide high porosity with large surface area-to-volume ratio and are more appropriate for cell accommodation, nutrition infiltration, gas exchange and waste excretion. Electrospinning makes it possible to combine the advantages of utilizing these plant extracts in the form of nanofibrous mats to serve as skin graft substitutes. In this study, we investigated the potential of electrospinning four different plant extracts, namely Indigofera aspalathoides, Azadirachta indica, Memecylon edule (ME) and Myristica andamanica along with a biodegradable polymer, polycaprolactone (PCL) for skin tissue engineering. The ability of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) to proliferate on the electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds was evaluated via cell proliferation assay. HDF proliferation on PCL/ME nanofibers was found the highest among all the other electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds and it was 31% higher than the proliferation on PCL nanofibers after 9 days of cell culture. The interaction of HDF with the electrospun scaffold was studied by F-actin and collagen staining studies. The results confirmed that PCL/ME had the least cytotoxicity among the different plant extract containing scaffolds studied here. Therefore we performed the epidermal differentiation of adipose derived stem cells on PCL/ME scaffolds and obtained early and intermediate stages of epidermal differentiation. Our studies demonstrate the potential of electrospun PCL/ME nanofibers as substrates for skin tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Engineering metabolic pathways in plants by multigene transformation.

    PubMed

    Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Masip, Gemma; Arjó, Gemma; Bai, Chao; Banakar, Raviraj; Bassie, Ludovic; Berman, Judit; Farré, Gemma; Miralpeix, Bruna; Pérez-Massot, Eduard; Sabalza, Maite; Sanahuja, Georgina; Vamvaka, Evangelia; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic engineering in plants can be used to increase the abundance of specific valuable metabolites, but single-point interventions generally do not improve the yields of target metabolites unless that product is immediately downstream of the intervention point and there is a plentiful supply of precursors. In many cases, an intervention is necessary at an early bottleneck, sometimes the first committed step in the pathway, but is often only successful in shifting the bottleneck downstream, sometimes also causing the accumulation of an undesirable metabolic intermediate. Occasionally it has been possible to induce multiple genes in a pathway by controlling the expression of a key regulator, such as a transcription factor, but this strategy is only possible if such master regulators exist and can be identified. A more robust approach is the simultaneous expression of multiple genes in the pathway, preferably representing every critical enzymatic step, therefore removing all bottlenecks and ensuring completely unrestricted metabolic flux. This approach requires the transfer of multiple enzyme-encoding genes to the recipient plant, which is achieved most efficiently if all genes are transferred at the same time. Here we review the state of the art in multigene transformation as applied to metabolic engineering in plants, highlighting some of the most significant recent advances in the field.

  14. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Bunting, Bruce G

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its

  15. Gasoline from coal in the State of Illinois: feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the feasibility of producing approximately 12,000 barrels per day of gasoline from high sulfur Illinois coal. The project was to be based on indirect liquefaction of coal by producing methanol and converting the methanol to raw gasoline. The plant design was based on proven processes: including atmospheric Koppers-Totzek type coal gasification, Rectisol gas purification, Claus and Scot sulfur recovery, and ICI low pressure methanol synthesis, all of which have been used in large commercial plants; and the fixed bed Mobil MTG process, which has been demonstrated in a four barrel per day pilot plant, to convert methanol into gasoline. The plant was designed to meet all federal and state regulations pertaining to environmental protection. The plant would cost approximately $1.27 billion (1981 dollars). Annual operating costs would total $243 million (1981 dollars). It has been determined that the project would not be viable in the present economic environment. Using 1981 dollars, and recognizing the present average refinery selling price in the mid-West of gasoline produced from crude oil is about $42 per barrel, the following gasoline prices have been calculated. For example, if the project were financed entirely by equity funds, then the selling price of gasoline would have to be $122 per barrel in a moderately inflating general economy in order to obtain a rate of return of 10% on the investment. The selling price would be lowered to $106 per barrel if no inflation is assumed. If 75% of the project were financed by debt at 16% interest, and the real price of coal and gasoline increased by 3% more than the general inflation rate, the selling price in 1981 dollars would be $76 per barrel in a moderately inflating economy. As the real price of gasoline increases in the future, this project and the related economics should be reviewed.

  16. Gasoline Composition in 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition in the U.S is determined by factors related to crude oil source, refinery capacity, geography and regulatory factors. Major regulation derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments determines the benzene and former oxygenate requirements for reformulated...

  17. Gasoline Composition in 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition in the U.S is determined by factors related to crude oil source, refinery capacity, geography and regulatory factors. Major regulation derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments determines the benzene and former oxygenate requirements for reformulated...

  18. Genetically engineered plants in the product development pipeline in India.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Ranjini; Pande, Hem

    2016-01-02

    In order to proactively identify emerging issues that may impact the risk assessment and risk management functions of the Indian biosafety regulatory system, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change sought to understand the nature and diversity of genetically engineered crops that may move to product commercialization within the next 10 y. This paper describes the findings from a questionnaire designed to solicit information about public and private sector research and development (R&D) activities in plant biotechnology. It is the first comprehensive overview of the R&D pipeline for GE crops in India.

  19. Genetically engineered plants in the product development pipeline in India

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Ranjini; Pande, Hem

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to proactively identify emerging issues that may impact the risk assessment and risk management functions of the Indian biosafety regulatory system, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change sought to understand the nature and diversity of genetically engineered crops that may move to product commercialization within the next 10 y. This paper describes the findings from a questionnaire designed to solicit information about public and private sector research and development (R&D) activities in plant biotechnology. It is the first comprehensive overview of the R&D pipeline for GE crops in India. PMID:26954729

  20. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture: the most flexible foundations for plant metabolic engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Shinjiro

    2015-05-01

    Significant advances in plant cell, tissue and organ culture (PCTOC) have been made in the last five decades. PCTOC is now thought to be the underlying technique for understanding general or specific biological functions of the plant kingdom, and it is one of the most flexible foundations for morphological, physiological and molecular biological applications of plants. Furthermore, the recent advances in the field of information technology (IT) have enabled access to a large amount of information regarding all aspects of plant biology. For example, sequencing information is stored in mega repositories such as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which can be easily accessed by researchers worldwide. To date, the PCTOC and IT combination strategy for regulation of target plant metabolism and the utilization of bioactive plant metabolites for commercial purposes is essential. In this review, the advantages and the limitations of these methodologies, especially regarding the production of bioactive plant secondary metabolites and metabolic engineering in target plants are discussed mainly from the phenotypic view point.

  1. Improving Nutritional Quality of Plant Proteins Through Genetic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Le, Ngoc Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Humans and animals are unable to synthesize essential amino acids such as branch chain amino acids methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) and tryptophan (Trp). Therefore, these amino acids need to be supplied through the diets. Several essential amino acids are deficient or completely lacking among crops used for human food and animal feed. For example, soybean is deficient in Met; Lys and Trp are lacking in maize. In this mini review, we will first summarize the roles of essential amino acids in animal nutrition. Next, we will address the question: “What are the amino acids deficient in various plants and their biosynthesis pathways?” And: “What approaches are being used to improve the availability of essential amino acids in plants?” The potential targets for metabolic engineering will also be discussed, including what has already been done and what remains to be tested. PMID:27252589

  2. Plant Metabolic Engineering Strategies for the Production of Pharmaceutical Terpenoids

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xu; Tang, Kexuan; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical terpenoids belong to the most diverse class of natural products. They have significant curative effects on a variety of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, malaria and Alzheimer’s disease. Nowadays, elicitors, including biotic and abiotic elicitors, are often used to activate the pathway of secondary metabolism and enhance the production of target terpenoids. Based on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, several plant metabolic engineering strategies hold great promise to regulate the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical terpenoids. Overexpressing terpenoids biosynthesis pathway genes in homologous and ectopic plants is an effective strategy to enhance the yield of pharmaceutical terpenoids. Another strategy is to suppress the expression of competitive metabolic pathways. In addition, global regulation which includes regulating the relative transcription factors, endogenous phytohormones and primary metabolism could also markedly increase their yield. All these strategies offer great opportunities to enhance the supply of scarce terpenoids drugs, reduce the price of expensive drugs and improve people’s standards of living. PMID:27877181

  3. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  4. Catalytic control of mutagenic exhaust emissions from gasoline passenger cars

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, B.J.; Shore, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    Extracts of exhaust emissions from passenger cars equipped with conventional and lean-burn gasoline engines were tested for PAHs, NPAHs and mutagenicity. When installed with an appropriate three-way or oxidation catalyst very large reductions in each of these measurements were observed. Engine exhaust emissions contain hydrocarbons which are potentially hazardous to human health. Although there is an extensive database on the levels of mutagenic hydrocarbons in diesel particulate, much less data are available for modern gasoline engines. The study discussed in this paper addresses this with particular reference to the effect of exhaust catalysts on potentially harmful hydrocarbon species emitted by conventional and lean-burn gasoline engines. The effects over the European Extra-Urban Cycle are also addressed.

  5. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  6. 40 CFR 80.28 - Liability for violations of gasoline volatility controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....27 is detected at a refinery that is not an ethanol blending plant or at an importer's facility, the... refiner (if he is not an ethanol blender) at whose refinery the gasoline was produced or the importer at...; (3) The ethanol blender (if any) at whose ethanol blending plant the gasoline was produced, except...

  7. 40 CFR 80.28 - Liability for violations of gasoline volatility controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....27 is detected at a refinery that is not an ethanol blending plant or at an importer's facility, the... refiner (if he is not an ethanol blender) at whose refinery the gasoline was produced or the importer at...; (3) The ethanol blender (if any) at whose ethanol blending plant the gasoline was produced, except...

  8. 40 CFR 80.28 - Liability for violations of gasoline volatility controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....27 is detected at a refinery that is not an ethanol blending plant or at an importer's facility, the... refiner (if he is not an ethanol blender) at whose refinery the gasoline was produced or the importer at...; (3) The ethanol blender (if any) at whose ethanol blending plant the gasoline was produced, except...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  14. Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, B. G.

    1993-12-01

    A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to $12.5 billion to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at $8/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway.

  15. Production of reformulated gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.J.; Raghuram, S.

    1992-08-04

    This patent describes a process combination for producing a gasoline component from a naphtha feedstock. It comprises: contacting the naphtha feedstock in a reforming zone at reforming conditions with a reforming catalyst comprising a Group VIII metal on a refractory support to produce a reformate and a hydrogen-rich gas; separating the reformate, in a first separation zone, into a light hydrocarbon product and a heavy reformate; separating the heavy reformate, in a second separation zone, into a low-octane paraffin fraction and an aromatic-rich fraction; contacting a low-octane paraffin fraction in a paraffin-isomerization zone at primary isomerization conditions with a paraffin-isomerizing catalyst to produce an isomerized heavy-paraffin product; and, combining at least a portion of each of the aromatic-rich fraction and the isomerized heavy-paraffin product to produce the gasoline component.

  16. How to modify your car to run on alcohol fuel: guidelines for converting gasoline engines with specific instructions for air-cooled volkswagens

    SciTech Connect

    Lippman, R.

    1982-04-01

    It is simple to run an engine on alcohol, but doing it right is more complex. In converting an engine, it is important to obtain good fuel economy and driveability while minimizing exhaust emissions and engine wear. This manual describes significant properties of alcohol and explains the engine changes which must consequently be made, as well as providing step-by-step instructions. Engine modification procedures are presented for the amateur and professional mechanic. Conversion involves modifying the carburetor, intake manifold, and ignition system; installing a cold starting system; and raising the compression ratio. If one can tune up an engine, overhaul a carburetor, replace a cylinder head, and follow directions carefully, he is well qualified to convert his car to run on alcohol. The process will take three or four days, and the cost to the do-it-yourselfer will be $250 to $300.

  17. Engineering of plant-specific phenylpropanoids biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Ryeol; Yoon, Jin A; Paik, Ji Hye; Park, Je Won; Jung, Won Seok; Ban, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Eun Ji; Yoo, Young Ji; Han, Ah Reum; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2009-05-20

    Phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and stilbenes, are plant secondary metabolites with potential pharmacological and nutraceutical properties. To expand the applicability of Streptomyces venezuelae as a heterologous host to plant polyketide production, flavonoid and stilbene biosynthetic genes were expressed in an engineered strain of S. venezuelae DHS2001 bearing a deletion of native pikromycin polyketide synthase gene. A plasmid expressing the 4-coumarate/cinnamate:coenzyme A ligase from Streptomyces coelicolor (ScCCL) and the chalcone synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana (atCHS) under the control of a single ermE* promoter was constructed and introduced into S. venezuelae DHS2001. The resulting strain produced racemic naringenin and pinocembrin from 4-coumaric acid and cinnamic acid, respectively. Placement of an additional ermE* promoter upstream of the codon-optimized atCHS (atCHS(op)) gene significantly increased the yield of both flavanones. Expression of codon-optimized chalcone isomerase gene from Medicago sativa, together with ScCCL and atCHS(op) genes led to production of (2S)-flavanones, but the yield was reduced. On the other hand, a recombinant strain harboring the ScCCL and codon-optimized stilbene synthase gene from Arachis hypogaea generated stilbenes such as resveratrol and pinosylvin. This is the first report on the heterologous expression of plant phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathways in Streptomyces genus.

  18. Analysis of axial-induction-based wind plant control using an engineering and a high-order wind plant model

    SciTech Connect

    Annoni, Jennifer; Gebraad, Pieter M. O.; Scholbrock, Andrew K.; Fleming, Paul A.; Wingerden, Jan-Willem van

    2015-08-14

    Wind turbines are typically operated to maximize their performance without considering the impact of wake effects on nearby turbines. Wind plant control concepts aim to increase overall wind plant performance by coordinating the operation of the turbines. This paper focuses on axial-induction-based wind plant control techniques, in which the generator torque or blade pitch degrees of freedom of the wind turbines are adjusted. The paper addresses discrepancies between a high-order wind plant model and an engineering wind plant model. Changes in the engineering model are proposed to better capture the effects of axial-induction-based control shown in the high-order model.

  19. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission Limitations and Management Practices... management practice in Table 1 to this subpart that applies to your gasoline storage tank. (b) You must...

  20. 33. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, 1800HORSEPOWER CORLISS STEAM ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, 1800-HORSEPOWER CORLISS STEAM ENGINE AND FLYWEEL FOR 22-INCH MILL, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  1. 36. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, 1000HORSEPOWER CORLISS STEAM ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, 1000-HORSEPOWER CORLISS STEAM ENGINE AND FLYWHEEL FOR 14-INCH MILL, 1910. (From the Jefferson County Historical society Collection, Townsend, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  2. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gasoline; special rules for gasoline..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline blendstocks...

  3. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline blendstocks...

  4. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gasoline; special rules for gasoline..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline blendstocks...

  5. 26 CFR 48.4081-4 - Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gasoline; special rules for gasoline..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4081-4 Gasoline; special rules for gasoline blendstocks... gasoline blendstocks. Generally, under prescribed conditions, tax is not imposed on gasoline blendstocks...

  6. Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-03-09

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  7. High temperature solar photon engines. [heat engines for terrestrial and space-based solar power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Decher, R.; Mattick, A. T.; Lau, C. V.

    1978-01-01

    High temperature heat engines designed to make maximum use of the thermodynamic potential of concentrated solar radiation are described. Plasmas between 2000 K and 4000 K can be achieved by volumetric absorption of radiation in alkali metal vapors, leading to thermal efficiencies up to 75% for terrestrial solar power plants and up to 50% for space power plants. Two machines capable of expanding hot plasmas using practical technology are discussed. A binary Rankine cycle uses fluid mechanical energy transfer in a device known as the 'Comprex' or 'energy exchanger.' The second machine utilizes magnetohydrodynamics in a Brayton cycle for space applications. Absorption of solar energy and plasma radiation losses are investigated for a solar superheater using potassium vapor.

  8. A survey of mortality at two automotive engine manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Park, R M; Mirer, F E

    1996-12-01

    Mortality at two engine plants was analyzed using proportional mortality and logistic regression models of mortality odds ratios to expand previous observations of increased cancers of the stomach, pancreas, and bladder, and cirrhosis of the liver among workers exposed to machining fluids. Causes of death and work histories were available for 1,870 decendents. There was a significant excess of deaths coded as diabetes for white men in both plants (PMR = 25/16.7 = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.20), and a deficit of respiratory diseases. Black men had fewer than expected diabetes deaths and more emphysema deaths. Elevated PMRs for cancers of the stomach, pancreas, prostate, bladder, and kidney were not statistically significant in plantwide populations. However, stomach cancer mortality increased with duration in camshaft and crankshaft production at Plant 1 (OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.6, 17; at mean duration of exposed cases), and among tool room workers (OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.3, 31), but these results were based on five cases. Nitrosamines were probably present in camshaft and crankshaft grinding at Plant 1. Pancreas cancer risk increased among workers at both plants ever employed in inspection (OR = 2.5, 16), in machining with straight oil (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.04, 12), or in skilled trades (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.1, 7.5). Lung cancer increased in cylinder head machining (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.4, 11), millwright work (OR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6, 9.0), and in Plant 2 generally (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.97, 2.2). Potential lung carcinogens included heat treatment emissions, chlorinated oils, and coal tar fumes (millwrights). Bladder cancer increased with duration among workers grinding in straight oil MF (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.15, 7.8) and in machining/heat-treat operations (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.14, 7.2).

  9. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  10. Gasoline: No end in sight

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, L.

    1995-05-01

    In early 1989, ARCO launched the world`s first reformulated gasoline: EC-1 Regular. The decisions made by the company prior to the production of EC-1 are reviewed. Gasoline is the primary transportation fuel in America. Nearly 98% of the 190 million vehicles in this country run on gasoline or diesel fuel. EC-1 Regular was designed for use in old cars without catalytic converters - the pre-1975 vehicles designed for using leaded fuel. EC-1 Regular cut pollution from those old cars in the Los Angeles Basin by 20%, equivalent to removing thousands of these cars from the road. The advantages of using EC-1 Regular gasoline are discussed.

  11. An outbreak of extrinsic alveolitis at a car engine plant.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Paul; Robertson, Alastair; Robertson, Wendy; Moore, Vicky; Reynolds, John; Langman, Gerald; Robinson, Edward; Harris-Roberts, Joanne; Crook, Brian; Burge, Sherwood

    2006-12-01

    Twelve workers from a car engine-manufacturing plant presented with extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), with heterogeneous clinical, radiological and pathological findings. They were exposed to metalworking fluids (MWF) that cooled, lubricated and cleaned the machines. They were characterized by history, examination, lung function testing, radiology, bronchoscopic lavage, lung biopsy and serology. Sera were tested for precipitins to a crude extract of used MWF and to reference cultures of bacteria suspected to be implicated. All were males and none were current smokers. All had dyspnoea, many had weight loss and cough, but only half had influenza-like symptoms. Only half had auscultatory crackles. Five had peak flow variability, four with an occupational component. There was overall restrictive spirometry, decreased lung volumes and reduced gas transfers. Ten had radiological evidence of interstitial lung disease. Seven (of eight) had lymphocytosis on bronchial lavage, including the two with inconclusive radiology. Seven (of 11) had lung biopsies showing inflammatory infiltrates, two with fibrosis and one with granulomas. Three (of 11) had strong positive precipitins to an extract of the used MWF from the plant. Molecular biological analysis of the MWF revealed Acinetobacter and Ochrobactrum. Precipitins to Acinetobacter were detected in seven of 11 workers tested (and four of 11 control workers). Precipitins to Ochrobactrum were detected in three of 11 workers tested (and three of 11 control workers). This is the largest series reported in Europe of EAA due to an aerosol of microbiologically contaminated MWF in heavy manufacturing industry.

  12. Feasibility demonstration of a road vehicle fueled with hydrogen-enriched gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.; Dowdy, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    Evaluation of the concept of using hydrogen-enriched gasoline in a modified internal combustion engine in order to make possible the burning of ultralean mixtures. The use of such an engine in a road vehicle demonstrated that the addition of small quantities of gaseous hydrogen to gasoline resulted in significant reductions in exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides as well as in thermal efficiency improvements of the engine performance.

  13. LTR-retrotransposons in plants: Engines of evolution.

    PubMed

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Mhiri, Corinne; Deyholos, Michael K; Grandbastien, Marie-Angèle

    2017-08-30

    LTR retrotransposons are the most abundant group of transposable elements (TEs) in plants. These elements can fall inside or close to genes, and therefore influence their expression and evolution. This review aims to examine how LTR retrotransposons, especially Ty1-copia elements, mediate gene regulation and evolution. Various stimuli, including polyploidization and biotic and abiotic elicitors, result in the transcription and movement of these retrotransposons, and can facilitate adaptation. The presence of cis-regulatory motifs in the LTRs are central to their stress-mediated responses and are shared with host stress-responsive genes, showing a complex evolutionary history in which TEs provide new regulatory units to genes. The presence of retrotransposon remnants in genes that are necessary for normal gene function, demonstrates the importance of exaptation and co-option, and is also a consequence of the abundance of these elements in plant genomes. Furthermore, insertions of LTR retrotransposons in and around genes provide potential for alternative splicing, epigenetic control, transduction, duplication and recombination. These characteristics can become an active part of the evolution of gene families as in the case of resistance genes (R-genes). The character of TEs as exclusively selfish is now being re-evaluated. Since genome-wide reprogramming via TEs is a long evolutionary process, the changes we can examine are case-specific and their fitness advantage may not be evident until TE-derived motifs and domains have been completely co-opted and fixed. Nevertheless, the presence of LTR retrotransposons inside genes and as part of gene promoter regions is consistent with their roles as engines of plant genome evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Engineering plants to reflect light: strategies for engineering water-efficient plants to adapt to a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Zamft, Bradley M; Conrado, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Population growth and globally increasing standards of living have put a significant strain on the energy-food-water nexus. Limited water availability particularly affects agriculture, as it accounts for over 70% of global freshwater withdrawals (Aquastat). This study outlines the fundamental nature of plant water consumption and suggests a >50% reduction in renewable freshwater demand is possible by engineering more reflective crops. Furthermore, the decreased radiative forcing resulting from the greater reflectivity of crops would be equivalent to removing 10-50 ppm CO2 from the atmosphere. Recent advances in engineering optical devices and a greater understanding of the mechanisms of biological reflectance suggest such a strategy may now be viable. Here we outline the challenges involved in such an effort and suggest three potential approaches that could enable its implementation. While the local benefits may be straightforward, determining the global externalities will require careful modelling efforts and gradually scaled field trials. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Improving the environmental and performance characteristics of vehicles by introducing the surfactant additive into gasoline.

    PubMed

    Magaril, Elena; Magaril, Romen

    2016-09-01

    The operation of modern vehicles requires the introduction of package of fuel additives to ensure the required level of operating characteristics, some of which cannot be achieved by current oil refining methods. The use of additives allows flexibility of impact on the properties of the fuel at minimal cost, increasing the efficiency and environmental safety of vehicles. Among the wide assortment of additives available on the world market, many are surfactants. It has been shown that the introduction of some surfactants into gasoline concurrently reduces losses from gasoline evaporation, improves the mixture formation during injection of gasoline into the engine and improves detergent and anticorrosive properties. The surfactant gasoline additive that provides significant improvement in the quality of gasoline used and environmental and operating characteristics of vehicles has been developed and thoroughly investigated. The results of studies confirming the efficiency of the gasoline additive application are herein presented.

  16. Engineering Plants for Geminivirus Resistance with CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syed Shan-E-Ali; Mansoor, Shahid; Ali, Zahir; Tashkandi, Manal; Mahfouz, Magdy M

    2016-04-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient genome-editing platform for diverse eukaryotic species, including plants. Recent work harnessed CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer resistance to geminiviruses. Here, we discuss opportunities, emerging developments, and potential pitfalls for using this technology to engineer resistance against single and multiple geminivirus infections in plants.

  17. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    PubMed

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline.

  18. ARCO introduces new low-emission gasoline in Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    ARCO announced plans on August 15 to introduce a new low-emission regular gasoline into the Southern California market September 1 that will significantly reduce air pollution from pre-1975 cars and pre-1980 trucks. The new environmentally formulated blend, called EC-1, will replace ARCO's leaded regular gasoline. ARCO's price to its dealers will be the same as it was for leaded regular. EC (Emission Control) -1 is the first phase of ARCO's plan to help make even greater reductions in vehicular air pollution in Southern California during the next decade. The unique lead-free gasoline is for use only in vehicles not equipped with catalytic converters which now operate on leaded regular gasoline. ARCO's tests, shared with the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the California Air Resources Board (ARB), show that is all current users of leaded regular gasoline in Southern California switched to the new gasoline about 350 tons of pollutants would be removed from the air each day. It is uniquely formulated to help Southern Californians meet federal and state ambient air quality standards on carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, and particular matter without any reduction in vehicular performance or engine modification.

  19. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 17. Plant section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 17 which reports the design of Plant Section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air. The plant and instrument air system is designed to provide dry, compressed air for a multitude of uses in plant operations and maintenance. A single centrifugal air compressor provides the total plant and instrument air requirements. An air drying system reduces the dew point of the plant and instrument air. Plant Section 2500 is designed to provide air at 100/sup 0/F and 100 psig. Both plant and instrument air are dried to a -40/sup 0/F dew point. Normal plant and instrument air requirements total 1430 standard cubic feet per minute.

  20. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Phase I. The pipeline gas demonstration plant. Volume 15. Plant Section 2000: water treatment and steam plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 23 volumes. This is Volume 15 which covers the design of Plant Section 2000 - Water Treatment and Steam Plant. This unit provides fire water service water, boiler feed water and steam for the various users in the plant. The unit provides the necessary treatment for the various plant water systems. A clarification/softening step followed by filtration is included to produce service water for cooling tower make-up, chemical dilution, and other plant uses. An additional demineralization step is utilized to produce boiler feed water for the plant steam generators. The steam system consists of two gas-fired steam boilers which produce the steam requirement for plant start-up. When the plant is on stream, the waste heat steam generated is sufficient for most steam needs, and the boiler steam requirement is reduced to a minimum level. A turbogenerator is utilized to produce electricity and to provide a base steam load for the boilers when the plant is on stream.

  1. Data on Ethanol in Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

  2. Data on Ethanol in Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline composition varies for technical, market and regulatory reasons. Knowledge of any one of these is insufficient for understanding the chemical composition of gasoline at any specific location in the U.S. Historical data collected by the National Institute of Petroleum ...

  3. All-regime combined-cycle plant: Engineering solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezinets, P. A.; Tumanovskii, G. G.; Tereshina, G. E.; Krylova, I. N.; Markina, V. N.; Migun, E. N.

    2016-12-01

    The development of distributed power generation systems as a supplement to the centralized unified power grid increases the operational stability and efficiency of the entire power generation industry and improves the power supply to consumers. An all-regime cogeneration combined-cycle plant with a power of 20-25 mW (PGU-20/25T) and an electrical efficiency above 50% has been developed at the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (ATEI) as a distributed power generation object. The PGU-20/25T two-circuit cogeneration plant provides a wide electrical and thermal power adjustment range and the absence of the mutual effect of electrical and thermal power output regimes at controlled frequency and power in a unified or isolated grid. The PGU-20/25T combined-cycle plant incorporates a gas-turbine unit (GTU) with a power of 16 MW, a heat recovery boiler (HRB) with two burners (before the boiler and the last heating stage), and a cogeneration steam turbine with a power of 6/9 MW. The PGU-20/25T plant has a maximum electrical power of 22 MW and an efficiency of 50.8% in the heat recovery regime and a maximum thermal power output of 16.3 MW (14 Gcal/h) in the cogeneration regime. The use of burners can increase the electrical power to 25 MW in the steam condensation regime at an efficiency of 49% and the maximum thermal power output to 29.5 MW (25.4 Gcal/h). When the steam turbine is shut down, the thermal power output can grow to 32.6 MW (28 Gcal/h). The innovative equipment, which was specially developed for PGU-20/25T, improves the reliability of this plant and simplifies its operation. Among this equipment are microflame burners in the heat recovery boiler, a vacuum system based on liquid-ring pumps, and a vacuum deaerator. To enable the application of PGU-20/25T in water-stressed regions, an air condenser preventing the heat-transfer tubes from the risk of covering with ice during operation in frost air has been developed. The vacuum system eliminates the need for

  4. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 2: Engineering. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Engineering design details for the principal systems, system operating modes, site facilities, and structures of an engineering test facility (ETF) of a 200 MWE power plant are presented. The ETF resembles a coal-fired steam power plant in many ways. It is analogous to a conventional plant which has had the coal combustor replaced with the MHD power train. Most of the ETF components are conventional. They can, however, be sized or configured differently or perform additional functions from those in a conventional coal power plant. The boiler not only generates steam, but also performs the functions of heating the MHD oxidant, recovering seed, and controlling emissions.

  5. Intelligent Growth Automaton of Virtual Plant Based on Physiological Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qingsheng; Guo, Mingwei; Qu, Hongchun; Deng, Qingqing

    In this paper, a novel intelligent growth automaton of virtual plant is proposed. Initially, this intelligent growth automaton analyzes the branching pattern which is controlled by genes and then builds plant; moreover, it stores the information of plant growth, provides the interface between virtual plant and environment, and controls the growth and development of plant on the basis of environment and the function of plant organs. This intelligent growth automaton can simulate that the plant growth is controlled by genetic information system, and the information of environment and the function of plant organs. The experimental results show that the intelligent growth automaton can simulate the growth of plant conveniently and vividly.

  6. Metabolic engineering of novel ketocarotenoid production in carrot plants.

    PubMed

    Jayaraj, Jayaraman; Devlin, Robert; Punja, Zamir

    2008-08-01

    Carotenoids constitute a vast group of pigments that are ubiquitous throughout nature. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots provide an important source of dietary beta-carotene (provitamin A), alpha-carotene and lutein. Ketocarotenoids, such as canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are produced by some algae and cyanobacteria but are rare in plants. Ketocarotenoids are strong antioxidants that are chemically synthesized and used as dietary supplements and pigments in the aquaculture and neutraceutical industries. We engineered the ketocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway in carrot tissues by introducing a beta-carotene ketolase gene isolated from the alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Gene constructs were made with three promoters (double CaMV 35S, Arabidopsis-ubiquitin, and RolD from Agrobacterium rhizogenes). The pea Rubisco small sub-unit transit peptide was used to target the enzyme to plastids in leaf and root tissues. The phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (bar) gene was used as a selectable marker. Following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, 150 plants were regenerated and grown in a glasshouse. All three promoters provided strong root expression, while the double CaMV 35S and Ubiquitin promoters also had strong leaf expression. The recombinant ketolase protein was successfully targeted to the chloroplasts and chromoplasts. Endogenous expression of carrot beta-carotene hydroxylases was up-regulated in transgenic leaves and roots, and up to 70% of total carotenoids was converted to novel ketocarotenoids, with accumulation up to 2,400 microg/g root dry weight. Astaxanthin, adonirubin, and canthaxanthin were most prevalent, followed by echinenone, adonixanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin. Our results show that carrots are suitable for biopharming ketocarotenoid production for applications to the functional food, neutraceutical and aquaculture industries.

  7. Engineering a plant community to deliver multiple ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Storkey, Jonathan; Döring, Thomas; Baddeley, John; Collins, Rosemary; Roderick, Stephen; Jones, Hannah; Watson, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The sustainable delivery of multiple ecosystem services requires the management of functionally diverse biological communities. In an agricultural context, an emphasis on food production has often led to a loss of biodiversity to the detriment of other ecosystem services such as the maintenance of soil health and pest regulation. In scenarios where multiple species can be grown together, it may be possible to better balance environmental and agronomic services through the targeted selection of companion species. We used the case study of legume-based cover crops to engineer a plant community that delivered the optimal balance of six ecosystem services: early productivity, regrowth following mowing, weed suppression, support of invertebrates, soil fertility building (measured as yield of following crop), and conservation of nutrients in the soil. An experimental species pool of 12 cultivated legume species was screened for a range of functional traits and ecosystem services at five sites across a geographical gradient in the United Kingdom. All possible species combinations were then analyzed, using a process-based model of plant competition, to identify the community that delivered the best balance of services at each site. In our system, low to intermediate levels of species richness (one to four species) that exploited functional contrasts in growth habit and phenology were identified as being optimal. The optimal solution was determined largely by the number of species and functional diversity represented by the starting species pool, emphasizing the importance of the initial selection of species for the screening experiments. The approach of using relationships between functional traits and ecosystem services to design multifunctional biological communities has the potential to inform the design of agricultural systems that better balance agronomic and environmental services and meet the current objective of European agricultural policy to maintain viable food

  8. Comparison of hecter fuel with export aviation gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, H C; Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W

    1921-01-01

    Among the fuels which will operate at compression ratios up to at least 8.0 without preignition or "pinking" is hecter fuel, whence a careful determination of its performance is of importance. For the test data presented in this report the hecter fuel used was a mixture of 30 per cent benzol and 70 per cent cyclohexane, having a low freezing point, and distilling from first drop to 90 per cent at nearly a constant temperature, about 20 degrees c. below the average distillation temperature ("mean volatility") of the x gasoline (export grade). The results of these experiments show that the power developed by hecter fuel is the same as that developed by export aviation gasoline at about 1,800 r.p.m. at all altitudes. At lower speeds differences in the power developed by the fuels become evident. Comparisons at ground level were omitted to avoid any possibility of damaging the engine by operating with open throttle on gasoline at so high a compression. The fuel consumption per unit power based on weight, not volume, averaged more than 10 per cent greater with hecter than with x gasoline. The thermal efficiency of the engine when using hecter is less than when using gasoline, particularly at higher speeds. A generalization of the difference for all altitudes and speeds being 8 per cent. A general deduction from these facts is that more hecter is exhausted unburnt. Hecter can withstand high compression pressures and temperature without preignition. (author)

  9. Economic and engineering evaluation of plant oils as a diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; LePori, W.A.; Johnson, L.A.; Griffin, R.C.; Diehl, K.C.; Moore, D.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Coble, C.G.; Lusas, E.W.; Hiler, E.A.

    1982-04-15

    The annual total yield of plant oils in the US is about 3.7 billion gallons. Diesel use by agriculture is about 2.0 billion gallons annually and is growing rapidly relative to gasoline use. Based on these amounts, plant oils could satisfy agriculture's diesel fuel requirements during the near future. However, diversion of large quantities of plant oils for such purposes would have dramatic impacts on plant oil prices and be reflected in numerous adjustments throughout agriculture and other sectors of the economy. The competitive position of sunflowers for plant oil production in Texas was analyzed. In those regions with a cotton alternative, sunflowers were not, for the most part, economically competitive. However, sunflower production is competitive with grain sorghum in certain cases. To develop a meaningful production base for oilseed crops in Texas, yields need to be improved or increases in oilseed prices relative to cotton must take place. This implies some limitations for the potential of Texas to produce large quantities of plant oils.

  10. . . . While Others Conserve Cash by Converting from Gasoline to Propane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Scott A.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1983, when the David Douglas Public Schools (Portland, Oregon) converted 30 buses to propane fuel, the district has saved $75,000 in fuel and maintenance costs. Propane is priced consistently lower than gasoline and burns cleaner. Since propane engines do not require a carburetor, there are fewer maintenance problems. (MLH)

  11. . . . While Others Conserve Cash by Converting from Gasoline to Propane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Scott A.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1983, when the David Douglas Public Schools (Portland, Oregon) converted 30 buses to propane fuel, the district has saved $75,000 in fuel and maintenance costs. Propane is priced consistently lower than gasoline and burns cleaner. Since propane engines do not require a carburetor, there are fewer maintenance problems. (MLH)

  12. Next Generation Plant Metabolic Engineering, Inspired by an Ancient Chinese Irrigation System.

    PubMed

    Fu, Rao; Martin, Cathie; Zhang, Yang

    2017-09-08

    Specialized secondary metabolites serve not only to protect plants against abiotic and biotic challenges, but have also been used extensively by humans to combat diseases. Due to the importance of medicinal plants for health, we need to find new and sustainable ways to produce their specialized metabolites. In addition to direct extraction, recent progress in metabolic engineering of plants offers alternative supply options. We argue that metabolic engineering for the production of some secondary metabolites in plants may have distinct advantages over microbial production platforms and we propose new approaches to plant metabolic engineering, inspired by an ancient Chinese irrigation system. Metabolic engineering strategies work at three levels; introducing biosynthetic genes, use of transcription factors (TFs), and improvement of metabolic flux including increasing the supply of precursors, energy and reducing power. In addition, recent progress in biotechnology can contribute to markedly better engineering, such as the use of specific promoters, and the deletion of competing branch pathways. We suggest that next generation plant metabolic engineering will improve current engineering strategies, for the purpose of producing valuable metabolites in plants, on industrial scales. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Engineering resistance to plant viruses: Present status and future prospects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant viruses cause severe crop losses across the globe. Resistant cultivars together with pesticide application are commonly used to avoid the losses caused by plant viruses. However, very limited success has been achieved at diminishing the impact of plant viruses. Use of virus resistant plant is ...

  14. Effects of ethanol-blended gasoline on air pollutant emissions from motorcycle.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-09-15

    The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on criteria air pollutant emissions was investigated in a four-stroke motorcycle. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in four percentages (3, 10, 15, and 20% v/v) and controlled at a constant research octane number, RON (95), to accurately represent commercial gasoline. CO, THC, and NOx emissions were evaluated using the Economic Commission for Europe cycle on the chassis dynamometers. The results of the ethanol-gasoline blends were compared to those of commercial unleaded gasoline with methyl tert-butyl ether as the oxygenated additive. In general, the exhaust CO and NOx emissions decreased with increasing oxygen content in fuels. In contrast, ethanol added in the gasoline did not reduce the THC emissions for a constant RON gasoline. The 15% ethanol blend had the highest emission reductions relative to the reference fuel. The high ethanol-gasoline blend ratio (20%) resulted in a less emission reduction than those of low ratio blends (<15%). This may be attributed to the changes in the combustion conditions in the carburetor engine with 20% ethanol addition. Furthermore, the influence of ethanol-gasoline blends on the reduction of exhaust emissions was observed at different driving modes, especially at 15km/h cruising speed for CO and THC and acceleration stages for NOx.

  15. Nuclear and plastid genetic engineering of plants: comparison of opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Benjamin; Zaltsman, Adi; Lacroix, Benoît; Kozlovsky, Stanislav V; Krichevsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering is one of the key technologies for crop improvement as well as an emerging approach for producing recombinant proteins in plants. Both plant nuclear and plastid genomes can be genetically modified, yet fundamental functional differences between the eukaryotic genome of the plant cell nucleus and the prokaryotic-like genome of the plastid will have an impact on key characteristics of the resulting transgenic organism. So, which genome, nuclear or plastid, to transform for the desired transgenic phenotype? In this review we compare the advantages and drawbacks of engineering plant nuclear and plastid genomes to generate transgenic plants with the traits of interest, and evaluate the pros and cons of their use for different biotechnology and basic research applications, ranging from generation of commercial crops with valuable new phenotypes to 'bioreactor' plants for large-scale production of recombinant proteins to research model plants expressing various reporter proteins.

  16. Genetic engineering of novel flower colors in floricultural plants: recent advances via transgenic approaches.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Since the first successful genetic engineering of flower color in petunia, several new techniques have been developed and applied to modify flower color not only in model plants but also in floricultural plants. A typical example is the commercial violet-flowered carnation "Moondust series" developed by Suntry Ltd. and Florigene Ltd. More recently, blue-flowered roses have been successfully produced and are expected to be commercially available in the near future. In recent years, successful modification of flower color by sophisticated regulation of flower-pigment metabolic pathways has become possible. In this chapter, we review recent advances in flower color modification by genetic engineering, especially focusing on the methodology. We have included our own recent results on successful production of flower-color-modified transgenic plants in a model plant, tobacco and an ornamental plant, gentian. Based on these results, genetic engineering of flower color for improvement of floricultural plants is discussed.

  17. Bioengineering of plant (tri)terpenoids: from metabolic engineering of plants to synthetic biology in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Moses, Tessa; Pollier, Jacob; Thevelein, Johan M; Goossens, Alain

    2013-10-01

    Terpenoids constitute a large and diverse class of natural products that serve many functions in nature. Most of the tens of thousands of the discovered terpenoids are synthesized by plants, where they function as primary metabolites involved in growth and development, or as secondary metabolites that optimize the interaction between the plant and its environment. Several plant terpenoids are economically important molecules that serve many applications as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, etc. Major challenges for the commercialization of plant-derived terpenoids include their low production levels in planta and the continuous demand of industry for novel molecules with new or superior biological activities. Here, we highlight several synthetic biology methods to enhance and diversify the production of plant terpenoids, with a foresight towards triterpenoid engineering, the least engineered class of bioactive terpenoids. Increased or cheaper production of valuable triterpenoids may be obtained by 'classic' metabolic engineering of plants or by heterologous production of the compounds in other plants or microbes. Novel triterpenoid structures can be generated through combinatorial biosynthesis or directed enzyme evolution approaches. In its ultimate form, synthetic biology may lead to the production of large amounts of plant triterpenoids in in vitro systems or custom-designed artificial biological systems. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Rising gasoline prices increase new motorcycle sales and fatalities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Hilsenrath, Peter E

    2015-12-01

    We examined whether sales of new motorcycles was a mechanism to explain the relationship between motorcycle fatalities and gasoline prices. The data came from the Motorcycle Industry Council, Energy Information Administration and Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1984-2009. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regressions estimated the effect of inflation-adjusted gasoline price on motorcycle sales and logistic regressions estimated odds ratios (ORs) between new and old motorcycle fatalities when gasoline prices increase. New motorcycle sales were positively correlated with gasoline prices (r = 0.78) and new motorcycle fatalities (r = 0.92). ARIMA analysis estimated that a US$1 increase in gasoline prices would result in 295,000 new motorcycle sales and, consequently, 233 new motorcycle fatalities. Compared to crashes on older motorcycle models, those on new motorcycles were more likely to be young riders, occur in the afternoon, in clear weather, with a large engine displacement, and without alcohol involvement. Riders on new motorcycles were more likely to be in fatal crashes relative to older motorcycles (OR 1.14, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.28) when gasoline prices increase. Our findings suggest that, in response to increasing gasoline prices, people tend to purchase new motorcycles, and this is accompanied with significantly increased crash risk. There are several policy mechanisms that can be used to lower the risk of motorcycle crash injuries through the mechanism of gas prices and motorcycle sales such as raising awareness of motorcycling risks, enhancing licensing and testing requirements, limiting motorcycle power-to-weight ratios for inexperienced riders, and developing mandatory training programs for new riders.

  19. NGL recovery being hiked by natural-gasoline recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas M, M.; Bracho, J.L.; Murray, J.E.

    1997-07-07

    Construction will be completed later this year at two compression plants operated by Lagoven, S.A., to install natural-gasoline recirculation to improve NGL recovery. The project is the result of a study of condensate-stream recirculation and absorber operations at the compression plants Tia Juana 2 (PCTJ-2) and Tia Juana 3 (PCTJ-3), offshore Lake Maracaibo in western Venezuela. The PCTJ-2 and PCTJ-3 gas compression plants have two systems: gas compression and NGL extraction. Previous analysis of the NGL extraction and fractionation processes of Lagoven determined that there are two practical and attractive alternatives for the recirculation of the condensate streams in PCTJ-2 and 3: recirculation of natural gasoline from the Ule LPG plant; recirculation of a conditioned condensate from the de-ethanizer tower of each plant. Both alternatives are discussed. Also described are fractionation capacity, and modifications for adding absorption and fractionation.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them was reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates are presented, and the engineering issues that should be reexamined are identified. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program is integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant.

  1. Genetically engineered plants with increased vegetative oil content

    DOEpatents

    Benning, Christoph

    2017-05-23

    The invention relates to genetically modified agricultural plants with increased oil content in vegetative tissues, as well as to expression systems, plant cells, seeds and vegetative tissues related thereto.

  2. Problems of the mathematical description of rocket engines as plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiforenko, B. N.

    2012-09-01

    Mathematical models of liquid-propellant, nuclear, and electric rocket engines are presented that more fully describe thrust generation than the classical models do. The optimal control of engine thrust is analyzed within the framework of Mayer's general variational problem. It is shown that the control of a rocket engine satisfying the necessary optimality conditions belongs to the boundary arc of the feasible control set between the point of maximum thrust and the point of maximum exhaust velocity

  3. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-07-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  4. Biofiltration of gasoline and ethanol-amended gasoline vapors.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marlene; Woiciechowski, Adenise L; Kozliak, Evguenii I; Paca, Jan; Soccol, Carlos R

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the projected increase in use of ethanol as a biofuel, the current study was conducted to compare the biofiltration efficiencies for plain and 25% ethanol-containing gasoline. Two biofilters were operated in a downflow mode for 7 months, one of them being compost-based whereas the other using a synthetic packing material, granulated tire rubber, inoculated with gasoline-degrading microorganisms. Inlet concentrations measured as total hydrocarbon (TH) ranged from 1.9 to 5.8 g m(-3) at a constant empty bed retention time of 6.84 min. Contrary to the expectations based on microbiological considerations, ethanol-amended gasoline was more readily biodegraded than plain hydrocarbons, with the respective steady state elimination capacities of 26-43 and 14-18 gTH m(-3) h(-1) for the compost biofilter. The efficiency of both biofilters significantly declined upon the application of higher loads of plain gasoline, yet immediately recovering when switched back to ethanol-blended gasoline. The unexpected effect of ethanol in promoting gasoline biodegradation was explained by increasing hydrocarbon partitioning into the aqueous phase, with mass transfer being rate limiting for the bulk of components. The tire rubber biofilter, after a long acclimation, surpassed the compost biofilter in performance, presumably due to the 'buffering' effect of this packing material increasing the accessibility of gasoline hydrocarbons to the biofilm. With improved substrate mass transfer, biodegradable hydrocarbons were removed in the tire rubber biofilter's first reactor stage, with most of the remaining poorly degradable smaller-size hydrocarbons being degraded in the second stage.

  5. Genetic engineering of woody plants: current and future targets in a stressful environment.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Kajita, Shinya; Osakabe, Keishi

    2011-06-01

    Abiotic stress is a major factor in limiting plant growth and productivity. Environmental degradation, such as drought and salinity stresses, will become more severe and widespread in the world. To overcome severe environmental stress, plant biotechnologies, such as genetic engineering in woody plants, need to be implemented. The adaptation of plants to environmental stress is controlled by cascades of molecular networks including cross-talk with other stress signaling mechanisms. The present review focuses on recent studies concerning genetic engineering in woody plants for the improvement of the abiotic stress responses. Furthermore, it highlights the recent advances in the understanding of molecular responses to stress. The review also summarizes the basis of a molecular mechanism for cell wall biosynthesis and the plant hormone responses to regulate tree growth and biomass in woody plants. This would facilitate better understanding of the control programs of biomass production under stressful conditions. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  6. Metabolic engineering approaches for production of biochemicals in food and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah A; Roberts, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Historically, plants are a vital source of nutrients and pharmaceuticals. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have made it possible to not only increase the concentration of desired compounds, but also introduce novel biosynthetic pathways to a variety of species, allowing for enhanced nutritional or commercial value. To improve metabolic engineering capabilities, new transformation techniques have been developed to allow for gene specific silencing strategies or stacking of multiple genes within the same region of the chromosome. The 'omics' era has provided a new resource for elucidation of uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways, enabling novel metabolic engineering approaches. These resources are now allowing for advanced metabolic engineering of plant production systems, as well as the synthesis of increasingly complex products in engineered microbial hosts. The status of current metabolic engineering efforts is highlighted for the in vitro production of paclitaxel and the in vivo production of β-carotene in Golden Rice and other food crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Engine wear and lubricating oil contamination from plant oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Darcey, C.L.; LePori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    Engine disassembly with wear measurements, and lubricating oil analysis were used to determine wear rates on a one cylinder diesel engine. Results are reported from short duration tests on the wear rates of various levels of processed sunflower oil, a 25% blend with diesel fuel, and processed cottonseed oil.

  8. Contribution of the gasoline distribution cycle to volatile organic compound emissions in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Magdaleno, M; Díaz, L; Krüger, B; León, J; Palmerín, M E; Casas, R; Melgarejo, A; López-Salinas, E

    2002-05-01

    Gasoline distribution in the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) represents an area of opportunity for the abatement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The gasoline distribution in this huge urban center encompasses several operations: (1) storage in bulk and distribution plants, (2) transportation to gasoline service stations, (3) unloading at service stations' underground tanks, and (4) gasoline dispensing. In this study, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions resulting from breathing losses in closed reservoirs, leakage, and spillage from the operations just listed were calculated using both field measurements and reported emission factors. The results show that the contribution of volatile HC emissions due to storage, distribution, and sales of gasoline is 6651 t/year, approximately 13 times higher than previously reported values. Tank truck transportation results in 53.9% of the gasoline emissions, and 31.5% of emissions are generated when loading the tank trucks. The high concentration of emissions in the gasoline transportation and loading operations by tank trucks has been ascribed to (1) highly frequent trips from distribution plant to gasoline stations, and vice versa, to cope with excessive gasoline sales per gasoline station; (2) low leakproofness of tank trucks; and (3) poor training of employees. In addition, the contribution to HC evaporative and exhaust emissions from the vehicles of the MAMC was also evaluated.

  9. NGL recovery increase through natural gasoline recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas M., M.; Bracho, J.L.; Murray, J.

    1997-12-31

    Given that the gas being processed in the compression plants Tia Juana 2 (PCTJ-2) and Tia Juana 3 (PCTJ-3) of Lagoven, S.A., an operating affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. has become learner through time, current production of natural gas liquids (NGL) and plant efficiency are significantly lower, compared to design and first obtained values. In this sense and aimed at increasing propane production, an optimization study on condensate stream recirculation and absorber installation was carried out to affect the process equilibrium constants thereby obtaining deeper extraction. Recirculation streams options were recirculation of natural gasoline obtained from the downstream fractionation process and recirculation of a conditioned, unfractionated, deethanized condensate stream. From the study, the natural gasoline recirculation scheme was determined to be the most efficient NGL recovery process. Accordingly, Lagoven, S.A. has undertaken a project to carry out this optimization scheme in PCTJ-2 and PCTJ-3. Construction stages are currently underway with completion scheduled at the end of 1997.

  10. Engineering support for magnetohydrodynamic power plant analysis and design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Marchmont, G.; Rogali, R.; Shikar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The major factors which influence the economic engineering selection of stack inlet temperatures in combined cycle MHD powerplants are identified and the range of suitable stack inlet temperatures under typical operating conditions is indicated. Engineering data and cost estimates are provided for four separately fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) system designs for HTAH system thermal capacity levels of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 MWt. An engineering survey of coal drying and pulverizing equipment for MHD powerplant application is presented as well as capital and operating cost estimates for varying degrees of coal pulverization.

  11. Lean NOx catalysis for gasoline fueled European cars

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    There is increasing interest in operating gasoline fueled passenger cars lean of the stoichiometric air/fuel (A/F) ratio to improve fuel economy. These types of engines will operate at lean A/F ratios while cruising at partial load, and return to stoichiometric or even rich conditions when more power is required. The challenge for the engine and catalyst manufacturer is to develop a system which will combine the high activity rates of a state-of-the-art three-way catalyst (TWC) with the ability to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the presence of excess oxygen. The objective is to achieve the future legislative limits (EURO III/IV) in the European Union. Recent developments in automotive pollution control catalysis show that the use of NOx adsorption materials is a suitable way to reduce NOx emissions of gasoline-fueled lean-burn engines. However, the primary task for the implementation of this technology in the European market will be to improve the catalyst`s high-temperature stability and to decrease its susceptibility to sulfur poisoning. Outlined here are results of a recent R and D program to achieve NOx reduction under lean-burn gasoline engine conditions. Model gas test results as well as engine bench data are used for discussion of the parameters which control NOx adsorption efficiency under various conditions.

  12. Recommendations to the NRC on human engineering guidelines for nuclear power plant maintainability

    SciTech Connect

    Badalamente, R.V.; Fecht, B.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Eklund, J.D.; Hartley, C.S.

    1986-03-01

    This document contains human engineering guidelines which can enhance the maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines have been derived from general human engineering design principles, criteria, and data. The guidelines may be applied to existing plants as well as to plants under construction. They apply to nuclear power plant systems, equipment and facilities, as well as to maintenance tools and equipment. The guidelines are grouped into seven categories: accessibility and workspace, physical environment, loads and forces, maintenance facilities, maintenance tools and equipment, operating equipment design, and information needs. Each chapter of the document details specific maintainability problems encountered at nuclear power plants, the safety impact of these problems, and the specific maintainability design guidelines whose application can serve to avoid these problems in new or existing plants.

  13. [Functions of plant phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and its applications for genetic engineering].

    PubMed

    Wei, Shaowei; Li, Yin

    2011-12-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) is an important ubiquitous cytosol enzyme that fixes HCO3 together with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and yields oxaloacetate that can be converted to intermediates of the citric acid cycle. In plant cells, PEPC participates in CO2 assimilation and other important metabolic pathways, and it has broad functions in different plant tissues. PEPC is also involved in the regulation of storage product synthesis and metabolism in seeds, such as affecting the metabolic fluxes from sugars/starch towards the synthesis of fatty acids or amino acids and proteins. In this review, we introduced the progress in classification, structure and regulation of PEPC in plant tissues. We discussed the potential applications of plant PEPCs in genetic engineering. The researches in functions and regulation mechanism of plant PEPCs will provide beneficial approaches to applications of plant PEPCs in high-yield crops breeding, energy crop and microbe genetic engineering.

  14. Genetic engineering for increasing fungal and bacterial disease resistance in crop plants.

    PubMed

    Wally, Owen; Punja, Zamir K

    2010-01-01

    We review the current and future potential of genetic engineering strategies used to make fungal and bacterial pathogen-resistant GM crops, illustrating different examples of the technologies and the potential benefits and short-falls of the strategies. There are well- established procedures for the production of transgenic plants with resistance towards these pathogens and considerable progress has been made using a range of new methodologies. There are no current commercially available transgenic plant species with increased resistance towards fungal and bacterial pathogens; only plants with increased resistance towards viruses are available. With an improved understanding of plant signaling pathways in response to a range of other pathogens, such as fungi, additional candidate genes for achieving resistance are being investigated. The potential for engineering plants for resistance against individual devastating diseases or for plants with resistance towards multiple pathogens is discussed in detail.

  15. [Chloroplast genetic engineering: a new approach in plant biotechnology].

    PubMed

    Su, Tao; Zhan, Ya-Guang; Han, Mei; Hao, Ai-Ping

    2005-07-01

    Chloroplast genetic engineering, offers several advantages over nuclear transformation, including high level of gene expression, increased biosafety, remedying some limitations associated with nuclear genetic transformation, such as gene silencing and the stability of transformed genes. It is now regarded as an attractive new transgenic technique and further development of biotechnology in agriculture. In this article we reviewed the characteristics, applications of chloroplast genetic engineering and its promising prospects were discussed.

  16. Genetic Engineering for Disease Resistance in Ornamental Plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This symposium is intended to facilitate communication between researchers in Hungary, Romania, and other countries who are interested in micropropagation of ornamental plants. Some of the work that has been done in the Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit that involves micropropagation is descr...

  17. Assessment of ISLOCA risk-methodology and application to a combustion engineering plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N.

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISOLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed of description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Combustion Engineering plant.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Design Requirements Document (DRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigo, H. S.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Bents, D. J.; Hatch, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    A description and the design requirements for the 200 MWe (nominal) net output MHD Engineering Test Facility (ETF) Conceptual Design, are presented. Performance requirements for the plant are identified and process conditions are indicated at interface stations between the major systems comprising the plant. Also included are the description, functions, interfaces and requirements for each of these major systems. The lastest information (1980-1981) from the MHD technology program are integrated with elements of a conventional steam electric power generating plant.

  19. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  20. Properties, performance and emissions of biofuels in blends with gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Farshad

    The emission performance of fuels and their blends in modern combustion systems have been studied with the purpose of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions, understanding of exhaust products of fuels such as gasoline, ethanol and 2,5-dimethylfuran and comparison of results. A quantitative analysis of individual hydrocarbon species from exhaust emissions of these three fuels were carried out with direct injects spark ignition (DISI) single cylinder engine. The analysis of hydrocarbon species were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) connected on-line to SI engine. During this project, novel works have been done including the set up of on-line exhaust emission measurement device for detection and quantification of individual volatile hydrocarbons. Setting of a reliable gas chromatography mass spectrometry measurement system required definition and development of a precise method. Lubricity characteristics of biofuels and gasoline were investigated using High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). Results showed great enhancing lubricity characteristics of biofuels when added to conventional gasoline. 2,5-dimenthylfuran was found to be the best among the fuels used, addition of this fuel to gasoline also showed better result compared with ethanol addition.

  1. Biological and Abiotic Transformations of Ethylene Dibromide and 1,2-Dichloroethane in Ground Water at Leaded Gasoline Spill Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tetra-ethyl lead was widely used in leaded automobile gasoline from 1923 until 1987. To prevent lead deposits from fouling the engine, 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) were added to the gasoline to act as lead scavengers. The Maximum Contaminant Levels...

  2. Biological and Abiotic Transformations of Ethylene Dibromide and 1,2-Dichloroethane in Ground Water at Leaded Gasoline Spill Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tetra-ethyl lead was widely used in leaded automobile gasoline from 1923 until 1987. To prevent lead deposits from fouling the engine, 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) were added to the gasoline to act as lead scavengers. The Maximum Contaminant Levels...

  3. Gasoline risk management: a compendium of regulations, standards, and industry practices.

    PubMed

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    This paper is part of a special series of publications regarding gasoline toxicology testing and gasoline risk management; this article covers regulations, standards, and industry practices concerning gasoline risk management. Gasoline is one of the highest volume liquid fuel products produced globally. In the U.S., gasoline production in 2013 was the highest on record (API, 2013). Regulations such as those pursuant to the Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) and many others provide the U.S. federal government with extensive authority to regulate gasoline composition, manufacture, storage, transportation and distribution practices, worker and consumer exposure, product labeling, and emissions from engines and other sources designed to operate on this fuel. The entire gasoline lifecycle-from manufacture, through distribution, to end-use-is subject to detailed, complex, and overlapping regulatory schemes intended to protect human health, welfare, and the environment. In addition to these legal requirements, industry has implemented a broad array of voluntary standards and best management practices to ensure that risks from gasoline manufacturing, distribution, and use are minimized.

  4. Plant metabolic modeling: achieving new insight into metabolism and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Baghalian, Kambiz; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Schreiber, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Models are used to represent aspects of the real world for specific purposes, and mathematical models have opened up new approaches in studying the behavior and complexity of biological systems. However, modeling is often time-consuming and requires significant computational resources for data development, data analysis, and simulation. Computational modeling has been successfully applied as an aid for metabolic engineering in microorganisms. But such model-based approaches have only recently been extended to plant metabolic engineering, mainly due to greater pathway complexity in plants and their highly compartmentalized cellular structure. Recent progress in plant systems biology and bioinformatics has begun to disentangle this complexity and facilitate the creation of efficient plant metabolic models. This review highlights several aspects of plant metabolic modeling in the context of understanding, predicting and modifying complex plant metabolism. We discuss opportunities for engineering photosynthetic carbon metabolism, sucrose synthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in leaves and oil synthesis in seeds and the application of metabolic modeling to the study of plant acclimation to the environment. The aim of the review is to offer a current perspective for plant biologists without requiring specialized knowledge of bioinformatics or systems biology. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  5. Host-plant genotypic diversity mediates the distribution of an ecosystem engineer.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Kerri M; Crutsinger, Gregory M; Sanders, Nathan J

    2007-08-01

    Ecosystem engineers affect ecological communities by physically modifying the environment. Understanding the factors determining the distribution of engineers offers a powerful predictive tool for community ecology. In this study, we examine whether the goldenrod bunch gall midge (Rhopalomyia solidaginis) functions as an ecosystem engineer in an old-field ecosystem by altering the composition of arthropod species associated with a dominant host plant, Solidago altissima. We also examine the suite of factors that could affect the distribution and abundance of this ecosystem engineer. The presence of bunch galls increased species richness and altered the structure of associated arthropod communities. The best predictors of gall abundance were host-plant genotype and plot-level genotypic diversity. We found positive, nonadditive effects of genotypic diversity on gall abundance. Our results indicate that incorporating a genetic component in studies of ecosystem engineers can help predict their distribution and abundance, and ultimately their effects on biodiversity.

  6. Potato plants with genetically engineered tropane alkaloid precursors.

    PubMed

    Küster, Nadine; Rosahl, Sabine; Dräger, Birgit

    2017-02-01

    Solanum tuberosum tropinone reductase I reduced tropinone in vivo. Suppression of tropinone reductase II strongly reduced calystegines in sprouts. Overexpression of putrescine N -methyltransferase did not alter calystegine accumulation. Calystegines are hydroxylated alkaloids formed by the tropane alkaloid pathway. They accumulate in potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanaceae) roots and sprouting tubers. Calystegines inhibit various glycosidases in vitro due to their sugar-mimic structure, but functions of calystegines in plants are not understood. Enzymes participating in or competing with calystegine biosynthesis, including putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) and tropinone reductases (TRI and TRII), were altered in their activity in potato plants by RNA interference (RNAi) and by overexpression. The genetically altered potato plants were investigated for the accumulation of calystegines and for intermediates of their biosynthesis. An increase in N-methylputrescine provided by DsPMT expression was not sufficient to increase calystegine accumulation. Overexpression and gene knockdown of StTRI proved that S. tuberosum TRI is a functional tropinone reductase in vivo, but no influence on calystegine accumulation was observed. When StTRII expression was suppressed by RNAi, calystegine formation was severely compromised in the transformed plants. Under phytochamber and green house conditions, the StTRII RNAi plants did not show phenotypic alterations. Further investigation of calystegines function in potato plants under natural conditions is enabled by the calystegine deprived StTRII RNAi plants.

  7. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  8. Gasoline Composition Regulations Affecting LUST Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990 imposed requirements on gasoline composition in the United States. Impacts to ground water are affected by the provisions that required oxygenated additives and limited benzene concentration. Reformulated and oxygenated gasoline w...

  9. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  10. Gasoline Composition Regulations Affecting LUST Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990 imposed requirements on gasoline composition in the United States. Impacts to ground water are affected by the provisions that required oxygenated additives and limited benzene concentration. Reformulated and oxygenated gasoline w...

  11. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most petroleum refineries are facing the challenge of producing gasoline, which contains the desirable properties and complies with the ever-increasing environmental regulations and health restrictions. The impact of gasoline on the environment is directly related to its composit...

  12. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most petroleum refineries are facing the challenge of producing gasoline, which contains the desirable properties and complies with the ever-increasing environmental regulations and health restrictions. The impact of gasoline on the environment is directly related to its composit...

  13. Ultra-Low Sulfur Gasoline Emissions Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understanding the effects of gasoline sulfur level on the in-use fleet is important for assessing emissions inventories and impacts of future policy decisions. Test fuels were two non-ethanol gasolines with properties typical of certification fuel.

  14. 40 CFR 80.1652 - Reporting requirements for gasoline refiners, gasoline importers, oxygenate producers, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting requirements for gasoline refiners, gasoline importers, oxygenate producers, and oxygenate importers. 80.1652 Section 80.1652... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur § 80.1652 Reporting requirements for gasoline refiners...

  15. Ecological engineering by a native leaf-cutting ant increases the performance of exotic plant species.

    PubMed

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Lescano, Natalia; Ghermandi, Luciana

    2010-05-01

    Numerous mechanisms are proposed to explain why exotic plants successfully invade natural communities. However, the positive effects of native engineers on exotic plant species have received less consideration. We tested whether the nutrient-rich soil patches created by a native ecological engineer (refuse dumps from the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lobicornis) increase the performance of exotic more than native plants. In a greenhouse experiment, individuals from several native and exotic species were planted in pots with refuse dumps (RDs) and non-nest soils (NNSs). Total plant biomass and foliar nutrient content were measured at the end of the experiment. We also estimated the cover of exotic and native plant species in external RDs from 54 field ant nests and adjacent areas. Greenhouse plants showed more biomass and foliar nutrient content in RDs than in NNS pots. Nevertheless, differences in the final mean biomass among RD and NNS plants were especially great in exotics. Accordingly, the cover of exotic plants was higher in field RDs than in adjacent, non-nest soils. Our results demonstrated that plants can benefit from the enhanced nutrient content of ant RDs, and that A. lobicornis acts as an ecosystem engineer, creating a substrate that especially increases the performance of exotics. This supports the fluctuating resource hypothesis as a mechanism to promote biological invasions, and illustrates how this hypothesis may operate in nature. Since ant nests and exotic plants are more common in disturbed than in pristine environments, the role of ant nests in promoting biological invasions might be of particular interest. Proposals including the use of engineer species to restore disturbed habitats should be planned with caution because of their potential role in promoting invasions.

  16. The interface between plant metabolic engineering and human health.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cathie

    2013-04-01

    The data on the benefits of consuming high levels of phytonutrients in fruit and vegetables to prevent or ameliorate chronic disease are very persuasive. To underpin reliable dietary recommendations and future campaigns for preventive medicine, significant fundamental research is required to define phytonutrients, their physiological effects following consumption, their mechanisms of action, the impact of the food matrix and synergistic interactions between phytonutrients. This information will set goals for biofortifying phytonutrients in crops, which can be achieved by metabolic engineering, either using natural variation or genetic engineering. Genetic engineering has potential to enrich diets significantly in phytonutrients to reduce the risk of chronic disease, even against an overall decline in the nutritional value of diets, in both the developing and developed worlds.

  17. Computers in engineering of plants for improved MTBF

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, M.N.; RajKumar, M.; Vyas, M.N.

    1998-12-31

    Since the advent of the 20th Century, the popularity of Centrifugal Pumps has resulted in it cornering about 80% share of rotating equipment in the Hydrocarbon/Chemical Industry. While this indisputable niche has led to an increase in the volume of engineering, tight project schedules has greatly reduced the available time span for pump evaluation process. This paper addresses two issues: (a) Develop a pump evaluation program in spread sheet format and how its use can effectively help in increasing MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) and (b) Evaluate the present computer technology and its application during and post engineering stage and what needs to be addressed to graduate to the next step in integrating various stages, from engineering to erection to operation and maintenance.

  18. Omics Approaches for the Engineering of Pathogen Resistant Plants.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Pagani, María A; Busi, María V; Bhadauria, Vijai

    2016-01-01

    The attack of different pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses has a negative impact on crop production. In counter such attacks, plants have developed different strategies involving the modification of gene expression, activation of several metabolic pathways and post-translational modification of proteins, which culminate into the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites implicated in plant defense responses. The recent advancement in omics techniques allows the increase coverage of plants transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes during pathogen attack, and the modulation of the response after the infection. Omics techniques also allow us to learn more about the biological cycle of the pathogens in addition to the identification of novel virulence factors in pathogens and their host targets. Both approaches become important to decipher the mechanism underlying pathogen attacks and to develop strategies for improving disease-resistant plants. In this review, we summarize some of the contribution of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and metallomics in devising the strategies to obtain plants with increased resistance to pathogens. These approaches constitute important research tools in the development of new technologies for the protection against diseases and increase plant production.

  19. Towards engineering increased pantothenate (vitamin B(5)) levels in plants.

    PubMed

    Chakauya, Ereck; Coxon, Katy M; Wei, Ma; Macdonald, Mary V; Barsby, Tina; Abell, Chris; Smith, Alison G

    2008-11-01

    Pantothenate (vitamin B(5)) is the precursor of the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety of coenzyme A and acyl-carrier protein. It is made by plants and microorganisms de novo, but is a dietary requirement for animals. The pantothenate biosynthetic pathway is well-established in bacteria, comprising four enzymic reactions catalysed by ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase (KPHMT), L: -aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase (ADC), pantothenate synthetase (PS) and ketopantoate reductase (KPR) encoded by panB, panD, panC and panE genes, respectively. In higher plants, the genes encoding the first (KPHMT) and last (PS) enzymes have been identified and characterised in several plant species. Commercially, pantothenate is chemically synthesised and used in vitamin supplements, feed additives and cosmetics. Biotransformation is an attractive alternative production system that would circumvent the expensive procedures of separating racemic intermediates. We explored the possibility of manipulating pantothenate biosynthesis in plants. Transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) lines were generated in which the E. coli KPHMT and PS genes were expressed under a strong constitutive CaMV35SS promoter. No significant change of pantothenate levels in PS transgenic lines was observed. In contrast plants expressing KPHMT had elevated pantothenate levels in leaves, flowers siliques and seed in the range of 1.5-2.5 fold increase compared to the wild type plant. Seeds contained the highest vitamin content, indicating that they might be the ideal target for production purposes.

  20. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils containing gasoline using Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) in greenhouse pots.

    PubMed

    Al-Mansoory, Asia Fadhile; Idris, Mushrifah; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Anuar, Nurina

    2015-09-02

    Greenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the phytotoxic effects on the plant Ludwigia octovalvis in order to assess its applicability for phytoremediation gasoline-contaminated soils. Using plants to degrade hydrocarbons is a challenging task. In this study, different spiked concentrations of hydrocarbons in soil (1, 2, and 3 g/kg) were tested. The results showed that the mean efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal over a 72-day culture period was rather high. The maximum removal of 79.8 % occurred for the 2 g/kg concentration, while the removal rate by the corresponding unplanted controls was only (48.6 %). The impact of gasoline on plants included visual symptoms of stress, yellowing, growth reduction, and perturbations in the developmental parameters. The dry weight and wet weight of the plant slightly increased upon exposure to gasoline until day 42. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated change to the root and stem structure in plant tissue due to the direct attachment with gasoline contaminated compared to the control sample. The population of living microorganisms in the contaminated soil was found to be able to adapt to different gasoline concentrations. The results showed that L. octovalvis and rhizobacteria in gasoline-contaminated soil have the potential to degrade organic pollutants.

  1. Engineering drought tolerance in plants: discovering and tailoring genes to unlock the future.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Taishi; Fujita, Miki; Fujita, Yasunari; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2006-04-01

    The ability of plants to tolerate drought conditions is crucial for agricultural production worldwide. Recent progress has been made in our understanding of gene expression, transcriptional regulation and signal transduction in plant responses to drought. Molecular and genomic analyses have facilitated gene discovery and enabled genetic engineering using several functional or regulatory genes to activate specific or broad pathways related to drought tolerance in plants. Several lines of evidence have indicated that molecular tailoring of genes has the potential to overcome a number of limitations in creating drought-tolerant transgenic plants. Recent studies have increased our understanding of the regulatory networks controlling the drought stress response and have led to practical approaches for engineering drought tolerance in plants.

  2. Plant Metabolic Modeling: Achieving New Insight into Metabolism and Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Baghalian, Kambiz; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Schreiber, Falk

    2014-01-01

    Models are used to represent aspects of the real world for specific purposes, and mathematical models have opened up new approaches in studying the behavior and complexity of biological systems. However, modeling is often time-consuming and requires significant computational resources for data development, data analysis, and simulation. Computational modeling has been successfully applied as an aid for metabolic engineering in microorganisms. But such model-based approaches have only recently been extended to plant metabolic engineering, mainly due to greater pathway complexity in plants and their highly compartmentalized cellular structure. Recent progress in plant systems biology and bioinformatics has begun to disentangle this complexity and facilitate the creation of efficient plant metabolic models. This review highlights several aspects of plant metabolic modeling in the context of understanding, predicting and modifying complex plant metabolism. We discuss opportunities for engineering photosynthetic carbon metabolism, sucrose synthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in leaves and oil synthesis in seeds and the application of metabolic modeling to the study of plant acclimation to the environment. The aim of the review is to offer a current perspective for plant biologists without requiring specialized knowledge of bioinformatics or systems biology. PMID:25344492

  3. Tri-State Synfuels Project Commercial Scale Coal Test: Volume 5. Kentucky stockpile tests. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; coal stockpile study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This report focuses on the compacted coal stockpile built at Uniontown, Kentucky with a 200-ton sample representative of Camp 1 coal shipped to Sasolburg, Republic of South Africa. This stockpile program had several objectives: obtain information on the changes in quality of coal over a period of one year resulting from weatering and leaching. The weathering of coal may affect the physical and chemical properties, the gasification characteristics and oxygen consumption); obtain chemical composition of rainwater leached through the pile and collected over a period of one year to assist in the environmental design of water collection system; and demonstrate construction of a stockpile that is safe from spontaneous ignition. Conclusions and design recommendationa for the long term storage of compacted coal resulted from the program. Recommendations of interest include oxidation and weathering stability, minimal leaching due to rainwater, limited impact on gasification characteristics and effective method to minimize spontaneous ignition. The tests conducted on the compacted stockpile (Section 3.0) provided observations over the one-year period on spontaneous ignition, surface and weathering, oxidation as measured by chemical, physical and gasification property changes, size degradation, acid runoff, pH of rainwater and leachate and extent of leaching. Texas Gas was responsible for constructing, maintaining and collecting site data at the stockpile (Section 4.1.1). Paul Weir Company was responsible for sampling, screening, analytical testing program and the leaching program for the stockpile over regular intervals of one to two months (Section 4.2.1). Lurgi was requested to analyze samples (Section 4.2.2) corresponding to the samples analyzed by Commercial Testing and Engineering and report on the influence of weathering on the gasification characteristics.

  4. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90 °F...

  5. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the “seasonal and geographical” volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are considered...

  6. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the “seasonal and geographical” volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are considered...

  7. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90 °F...

  8. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90 °F...

  9. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the “seasonal and geographical” volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are considered...

  10. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90 °F...

  11. 27 CFR 21.109 - Gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline. 21.109 Section 21.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Gasoline. (a) Distillation range. When 100 ml of gasoline are distilled, none shall distill below 90 °F...

  12. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the “seasonal and geographical” volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are considered...

  13. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the “seasonal and geographical” volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are considered...

  14. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  15. Kerosene Base Fuels in Small Gasoline Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    DIA. 4330 .354IA GAG 4. .235 DIA. INCONEL 601 SHEATHED ELEMENT DW 3AwL CTCCKYPE NO. !2 GWk I / 5-12- 82 CHAMPION SPARK PLUG COMPANY ’ 2-20-84 T OLEDO...1982) that emissions and specific fuel consumption certain piston designs in a CFR (Cooperative Fuel at part-load; 3600 RI, 3.5 bar SEP. Research

  16. Multifunctional gasoline additives

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, M.E.

    1983-10-18

    The reaction products of epoxides, containing from about 6 to about 20 carbon atoms, with unsubstituted alkylenediamines, N-alkyl alkylenediamines, N-alkoxyalkyl alkylenediamines and poly (ethyleneamines) are effective carburetor detergents and reduce deposits on various components of internal combustion engines. Internal epoxides containing at least one branched alkyl group afford reaction products with particularly desirable properties.

  17. AVGAS/AUTOGAS (Aviation Gasoline/Automobile Gasoline) Comparison. Winter Grade Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    simulated conditions found in a general aviation aircraft. In these tests, automobile gasoline was tested and compared with aviation gasoline. The tendency...Distribution Statement Aviation Gasoline (Avgas) Vapor Lock Document is available to the U.S. public Automobile Gasoline (Autogas) through the National... Automobile Gasolines Tested by Sun Refining 19 and Marketing Company. 5 Properties of Several Mixtures of Avgas in Regular Unleaded 28 Autogas vi LIST OF

  18. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  19. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  20. Engineering nitrogen use efficient crop plants: the current status.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chandra H; Beatty, Perrin H; Good, Allen G

    2012-12-01

    In the last 40 years the amount of synthetic nitrogen (N) applied to crops has risen drastically, resulting in significant increases in yield but with considerable impacts on the environment. A requirement for crops that require decreased N fertilizer levels has been recognized in the call for a 'Second Green Revolution' and research in the field of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) has continued to grow. This has prompted a search to identify genes that improve the NUE of crop plants, with candidate NUE genes existing in pathways relating to N uptake, assimilation, amino acid biosynthesis, C/N storage and metabolism, signalling and regulation of N metabolism and translocation, remobilization and senescence. Herein is a review of the approaches taken to determine possible NUE candidate genes, an overview of experimental study of these genes as effectors of NUE in both cereal and non-cereal plants and the processes of commercialization of enhanced NUE crop plants. Patents issued regarding increased NUE in plants as well as gene pyramiding studies are also discussed as well as future directions of NUE research. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Engineering Plant Immunity: Using CRISPR/Cas9 to Generate Virus Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Syed Shan-e-Ali; Tashkandi, Manal; Mansoor, Shahid; Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses infect many economically important crops, including wheat, cotton, maize, cassava, and other vegetables. These viruses pose a serious threat to agriculture worldwide, as decreases in cropland area per capita may cause production to fall short of that required to feed the increasing world population. Under these circumstances, conventional strategies can fail to control rapidly evolving and emerging plant viruses. Genome-engineering strategies have recently emerged as promising tools to introduce desirable traits in many eukaryotic species, including plants. Among these genome engineering technologies, the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has received special interest because of its simplicity, efficiency, and reproducibility. Recent studies have used CRISPR/Cas9 to engineer virus resistance in plants, either by directly targeting and cleaving the viral genome, or by modifying the host plant genome to introduce viral immunity. Here, we briefly describe the biology of the CRISPR/Cas9 system and plant viruses, and how different genome engineering technologies have been used to target these viruses. We further describe the main findings from recent studies of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral interference and discuss how these findings can be applied to improve global agriculture. We conclude by pinpointing the gaps in our knowledge and the outstanding questions regarding CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral immunity. PMID:27877187

  2. Engineering Plant Immunity: Using CRISPR/Cas9 to Generate Virus Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syed Shan-E-Ali; Tashkandi, Manal; Mansoor, Shahid; Mahfouz, Magdy M

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses infect many economically important crops, including wheat, cotton, maize, cassava, and other vegetables. These viruses pose a serious threat to agriculture worldwide, as decreases in cropland area per capita may cause production to fall short of that required to feed the increasing world population. Under these circumstances, conventional strategies can fail to control rapidly evolving and emerging plant viruses. Genome-engineering strategies have recently emerged as promising tools to introduce desirable traits in many eukaryotic species, including plants. Among these genome engineering technologies, the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has received special interest because of its simplicity, efficiency, and reproducibility. Recent studies have used CRISPR/Cas9 to engineer virus resistance in plants, either by directly targeting and cleaving the viral genome, or by modifying the host plant genome to introduce viral immunity. Here, we briefly describe the biology of the CRISPR/Cas9 system and plant viruses, and how different genome engineering technologies have been used to target these viruses. We further describe the main findings from recent studies of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral interference and discuss how these findings can be applied to improve global agriculture. We conclude by pinpointing the gaps in our knowledge and the outstanding questions regarding CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral immunity.

  3. 76 FR 27366 - Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plants #1 And #2, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Division. Together, the Mack Avenue Engine Plants 1 and 2 are part of an integrated production process for... Caravan Knight, Detroit, Michigan. The workers are engaged in the production of automotive engines. The...

  4. Growing Plants to Power Our Engines and Feed the World

    ScienceCinema

    Sayre Dick

    2016-07-12

    Photosynthesis uses light from the sun and carbon dioxide from the air to make chemicals that can be converted into energy-rich biofuels. Plants, however, transform less than five percent of the solar energy they capture into harvestable chemical energy. The New Mexico Consortium and Los Alamos National Laboratory are working on strategies to improve the energy yield in algae and plant systems, resulting in more fuel in our tanks and more food on our plates, without releasing additional carbon into the atmosphere.

  5. Growing Plants to Power Our Engines and Feed the World

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre Dick

    2015-12-15

    Photosynthesis uses light from the sun and carbon dioxide from the air to make chemicals that can be converted into energy-rich biofuels. Plants, however, transform less than five percent of the solar energy they capture into harvestable chemical energy. The New Mexico Consortium and Los Alamos National Laboratory are working on strategies to improve the energy yield in algae and plant systems, resulting in more fuel in our tanks and more food on our plates, without releasing additional carbon into the atmosphere.

  6. Multifunctional gasoline additives

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, M.E.

    1981-10-20

    The reaction products of glycidyl ethers, wherein the alkoxy portion contains from about 6 to about 20 carbon atoms, with alkylenediamines, n-alkyl alkylenediamines, and n-alkoxyalkyl alkylenediamines are effective carburetor detergents and reduce deposits on various components of internal combustion engines. An example is the reaction product of the glycidyl ether whose alkoxy group is a mixture of 12-14 carbon atom chains with n-tallow-1,3-propylenediamine.

  7. Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Wagner, Robert M; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for

  8. CFD Simulation of Gasoline Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Kodavasal, Janardhan; Kolodziej, Christopher P.; Ciatti, Stephen A.; Som, Sibendu

    2015-05-01

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) is a low temperature combustion (LTC) concept that has been gaining increasing interest over the recent years owing to its potential to achieve diesel-like thermal efficiencies with significantly reduced engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions compared to diesel engines. In this work, closed-cycle computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed of this combustion mode using a sector mesh in an effort to understand effects of model settings on simulation results. One goal of this work is to provide recommendations for grid resolution, combustion model, chemical kinetic mechanism, and turbulence model to accurately capture experimental combustion characteristics. Grid resolutions ranging from 0.7 mm to 0.1 mm minimum cell sizes were evaluated in conjunction with both Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) based turbulence models. Solution of chemical kinetics using the multi-zone approach is evaluated against the detailed approach of solving chemistry in every cell. The relatively small primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism (48 species) used in this study is also evaluated against a larger 312-species gasoline mechanism. Based on these studies the following model settings are chosen keeping in mind both accuracy and computation costs – 0.175 mm minimum cell size grid, RANS turbulence model, 48-species PRF mechanism, and multi-zone chemistry solution with bin limits of 5 K in temperature and 0.05 in equivalence ratio. With these settings, the performance of the CFD model is evaluated against experimental results corresponding to a low load start of injection (SOI) timing sweep. The model is then exercised to investigate the effect of SOI on combustion phasing with constant intake valve closing (IVC) conditions and fueling over a range of SOI timings to isolate the impact of SOI on charge preparation and ignition. Simulation results indicate that there is an optimum SOI

  9. Shrubs as ecosystem engineers across an environmental gradient: effects on species richness and exotic plant invasion.

    PubMed

    Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Magnoli, Susan M; Cushman, J Hall

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-engineering plants modify the physical environment and can increase species diversity and exotic species invasion. At the individual level, the effects of ecosystem engineers on other plants often become more positive in stressful environments. In this study, we investigated whether the community-level effects of ecosystem engineers also become stronger in more stressful environments. Using comparative and experimental approaches, we assessed the ability of a native shrub (Ericameria ericoides) to act as an ecosystem engineer across a stress gradient in a coastal dune in northern California, USA. We found increased coarse organic matter and lower wind speeds within shrub patches. Growth of a dominant invasive grass (Bromus diandrus) was facilitated both by aboveground shrub biomass and by growing in soil taken from shrub patches. Experimental removal of shrubs negatively affected species most associated with shrubs and positively affected species most often found outside of shrubs. Counter to the stress-gradient hypothesis, the effects of shrubs on the physical environment and individual plant growth did not increase across the established stress gradient at this site. At the community level, shrub patches increased beta diversity, and contained greater rarified richness and exotic plant cover than shrub-free patches. Shrub effects on rarified richness increased with environmental stress, but effects on exotic cover and beta diversity did not. Our study provides evidence for the community-level effects of shrubs as ecosystem engineers in this system, but shows that these effects do not necessarily become stronger in more stressful environments.

  10. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  11. Understanding and manipulating plant lipid composition: Metabolic engineering leads the way

    PubMed Central

    Napier, Johnathan A; Haslam, Richard P; Beaudoin, Frederic; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2014-01-01

    The manipulation of plant seed oil composition so as to deliver enhanced fatty acid compositions suitable for feed or fuel has long been a goal of metabolic engineers. Recent advances in our understanding of the flux of acyl-changes through different key metabolic pools such as phosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol have allowed for more targeted interventions. When combined in iterative fashion with further lipidomic analyses, significant breakthroughs in our capacity to generate plants with novel oils have been achieved. Collectively these studies, working at the interface between metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, demonstrate the positive fundamental and applied outcomes derived from such research. PMID:24809765

  12. Computer-aided drafting and design (CAD) in the Plant Engineering organization at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.T.; Knott, D.D.; Moore, M.B.

    1983-03-01

    The Plant Engineering organization at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), has been working with a CAD system for approximately 2 1/2 yr, and finds itself at a crossroads. CAD has not been a panacea to workload problems to date, and Plant Engineering commissioned a study to try to determine why and to make recommendations to management on what steps might be taken in the future. Recommendations range from making the current system more productive to enhancing it significantly with newer and more powerful graphics technology.

  13. Vacuolar compartmentalization: a second-generation approach to engineering plants for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yi Ping; Kneer, Ralf; Zhu, Yong Guan

    2004-01-01

    Engineering plants with greater metal tolerance and accumulation properties is the key to developing phytoremediators. A recent study by Won-Yong Song et al. has shown that overexpressing the yeast vacuolar transporter YCF1 increases Pb and Cd tolerance and consequently increases the accumulation of these metals in shoots of transgenic Arabidopsis plants even though expression levels of YCF1 were relatively low. This technology can be used to engineer advanced phytoremediators, increasing their ability to pump heavy metals into a safe compartment while requiring only a small amount of transporters rather than a large amount of chelating peptide material.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamics MHD Engineering Test Facility ETF 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report CDER. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The estimated plant capital cost for a coal fired 200 MWE electric generating plant with open cycle magnetohydrodynamics is divided into principal accounts based on Federal Energy Regulatory Commision account structure. Each principal account is defined and its estimated cost subdivided into identifiable and major equipment systems. The cost data sources for compiling the estimates, cost parameters, allotments, assumptions, and contingencies, are discussed. Uncertainties associated with developing the costs are quantified to show the confidence level acquired. Guidelines established in preparing the estimated costs are included. Based on an overall milestone schedule related to conventional power plant scheduling experience and starting procurement of MHD components during the preliminary design phase there is a 6 1/2-year construction period. The duration of the project from start to commercial operation is 79 months. The engineering phase of the project is 4 1/2 years; the construction duration following the start of the man power block is 37 months.

  15. 2005 Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Conference - July 10-15, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Eleanore T. Wurtzel

    2006-06-30

    The post-genomic era presents new opportunities for manipulating plant chemistry for improvement of plant traits such as disease and stress resistance and nutritional qualities. This conference will provide a setting for developing multidisciplinary collaborations needed to unravel the dynamic complexity of plant metabolic networks and advance basic and applied research in plant metabolic engineering. The conference will integrate recent advances in genomics, with metabolite and gene expression analyses. Research discussions will explore how biosynthetic pathways interact with regard to substrate competition and channeling, plasticity of biosynthetic enzymes, and investigate the localization, structure, and assembly of biosynthetic metabolons in native and nonnative environments. The meeting will develop new perspectives for plant transgenic research with regard to how transgene expression may influence cellular metabolism. Incorporation of spectroscopic approaches for metabolic profiling and flux analysis combined with mathematical modeling will contribute to the development of rational metabolic engineering strategies and lead to the development of new tools to assess temporal and subcellular changes in metabolite pools. The conference will also highlight new technologies for pathway engineering, including use of heterologous systems, directed enzyme evolution, engineering of transcription factors and application of molecular/genetic techniques for controlling biosynthetic pathways.

  16. A case-control study of lung cancer at a foundry and two engine plants.

    PubMed

    Austin, H; Delzell, E; Lally, C; Rotimi, C; Oestenstad, K

    1997-04-01

    A nested case-control study of lung cancer was conducted among workers at an iron foundry and two engine manufacturing plants whose lung cancer mortality rates were slightly higher than expected. The study included 231 lung cancer cases and 408 controls for whom complete work histories were obtained. There was no association between usual plant of employment and lung cancer mortality. The odds ratio for persons employed for 20 or more years in the foundry compared with persons employed in the engine plants was 0.90 (95% confidence interval: 0.55, 1.5). Long-term employment as an engine plant worker was associated with odds ratios slightly, but not statistically significantly, below unity. In the foundry, only usual employment in the material handling departmental group and any employment in the quality control departmental group were statistically significantly directly related to lung cancer risk. However, the number of subjects so employed was small and there was no dose-response relation between length of employment in these departmental groups and lung cancer risk. Cases were less frequently employed than were controls in engine plant machining and assembly jobs and departments. It is concluded that employment in this facility was either unrelated, or only weakly related, to lung cancer risk.

  17. Biomass recalcitrance: engineering plants and enzymes for biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Himmel, Michael E; Ding, Shi-You; Johnson, David K; Adney, William S; Nimlos, Mark R; Brady, John W; Foust, Thomas D

    2007-02-09

    Lignocellulosic biomass has long been recognized as a potential sustainable source of mixed sugars for fermentation to biofuels and other biomaterials. Several technologies have been developed during the past 80 years that allow this conversion process to occur, and the clear objective now is to make this process cost-competitive in today's markets. Here, we consider the natural resistance of plant cell walls to microbial and enzymatic deconstruction, collectively known as "biomass recalcitrance." It is this property of plants that is largely responsible for the high cost of lignocellulose conversion. To achieve sustainable energy production, it will be necessary to overcome the chemical and structural properties that have evolved in biomass to prevent its disassembly.

  18. Reliability engineering for plant design and life cycle performance

    SciTech Connect

    Elgohary, K.B.; Delgado, A.; Ostrofsky, B.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes a simplified approach to determining the probability density function (PDF) for both scheduled and unscheduled plant maintenance. Illustrative data is also provided showing the results of the approach for a specific installation. This simpler approach includes nine number sets of values generated to cover the historic data range for each equipment item including the mean, maximum, and minimum for the data elements covering failures and repairs used in calculating the availability of a system.

  19. Metabolic Engineering of Plants to Produce Precursors (Phloroglucinol and 1,2,4-butanetriol) of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-02

    01-2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-4-2008 to 30-9-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Metabolic Engineering of Plants to Produce...release d^0[^O\\\\S(%S 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES -\\ 14. ABSTRACT — The goal of this proposal was to engineer plants to produce butanetriol and... plants . The strategy was to introduce bacterial genes involved in synthesis of these chemicals in to plants . Synthesis of these precursors of

  20. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed