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Sample records for gastric bezoar treated

  1. A case of gastric perforation caused by chestnut bezoars.

    PubMed

    Okagawa, Yutaka; Takada, Kohichi; Arihara, Yohei; Kato, Junji

    A 65-year-old man was admitted under emergency to our hospital because of abdominal pain. His current medication history did not include steroids or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. He had taken an eradication agent for Helicobacter pylori, and his serum was negative for H. pylori IgG antibody. Abdominal computed tomography indicated gastric perforation;therefore, emergency surgery was performed. Two weeks later, esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a gastric ulcer on the lesser curvature of the gastric angle and bezoars. The gastric perforation was thought to be caused by the bezoars. The bezoars were successfully treated with endoscopic therapy using Coca-Cola ® . The bezoars included over 98% tannin, and the patient had frequently consumed chestnuts. We thus diagnosed a rare case of gastric perforation caused by chestnut bezoars.

  2. Importance of Second-look Endoscopy on an Empty Stomach for Finding Gastric Bezoars in Patients with Gastric Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Tanaka, Shouichi; Moritou, Yuki; Inaba, Tomoki; Higashi, Reiji; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Yunoki, Naoko; Ishikawa, Shin; Okamoto, Yuko; Kawai, Yoshinari; Kitada, Ken-Ichi; Takenaka, Ryuta; Toyokawa, Tatsuya; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

     Most gastric bezoars can be treated with endoscopic fragmentation combined with or without cola dissolution, whereas laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery is generally inevitable for small intestinal bezoars because they cause small bowel obstruction. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of gastric bezoars are necessary to prevent bezoar-induced ileus. To investigate the incidence of overlooked gastric bezoars during the initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy, we retrospectively reviewed the cases of 27 patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal bezoars. The bezoars were diagnosed using esophagogastroduodenoscopy (n=25), abdominal ultrasonography (n=1), and barium follow-through examination (n=1). Bezoars were overlooked in 9/25 patients (36.0%) during the initial endoscopy examination because the bezoars were covered with debris in the stomach. Of the 9 patients, 8 had concomitant gastric ulcers, and the other patient had gastric lymphoma. Although a computed tomography (CT) scan was performed before the second-look endoscopy in 8 of the 9 patients, the bezoars were mistaken as food debris on CT findings and were overlooked in these patients. In conclusion, gastric bezoars may not be discovered during the initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy and CT scan. In cases with debris in the stomach, second-look endoscopy is essential to detect bezoars.

  3. Gastric Bezoar Treatment by Endoscopic Fragmentation in Combination with Pepsi-Cola® Administration

    PubMed Central

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Yunoki, Naoko; Tomoda, Jun; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 86 Final Diagnosis: Gastric bezoar Symptoms: — Medication: Cola Clinical Procedure: Endoscopic fragmentation after gastric lavage with Pepsi-Cola Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual setting of medical care Background: Although bezoar dissolution by Coca-Cola® has been described in case reports and case series, to the best of our knowledge, the usefulness of other cola products such as Pepsi-Cola® has never been reported in the English literature. Case Report: An 86-year-old Taiwanese man was diagnosed with a gastric bezoar. Endoscopic fragmentation with a polypectomy snare was attempted twice but failed to remove the bezoar. Subsequently, 500 mL of Pepsi NEX Zero® was administered daily for 4 days via nasogastric tube. The bezoar was softened and successfully fragmented by the polypectomy snare and needle-knife devices on the third attempt. Conclusions: This report presents the first case of a gastric bezoar successfully treated by endoscopic fragmentation in combination with Pepsi-Cola® administration, suggesting the possible utility of cola beverages in bezoar treatment, regardless of product brands. PMID:26164451

  4. Successful treatment with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with coca cola for gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Sheng; Tung, Chun-Fang; Peng, Yen-Chun; Chow, Wei-Keung; Chang, Chi-Sen; Hu, Wei-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction that was successfully treated with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with Coca Cola. A 73-year-old diabetic woman had a history of perforated peptic ulcer and had received pyloroplasty more than 20 years previously. She had been ingesting Pho Pu Zi (Cordia dichotoma Forst. f.) as an appetizer for 1 month. She presented with epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, performed at a local hospital, showed 2 gastric bezoars in the stomach, and 1 of them impacted at the pylorus. She was referred to our emergency department for removal of the gastric bezoars that were suspected to be causing gastric outlet obstruction. All attempts at endoscopic removal using a polypectomy snare, biopsy forceps and Dormia basket failed. We then injected Coca Cola directly into the bezoar mass, followed by irrigation with Coca Cola. Follow-up endoscopy was performed the next day, which revealed that the gastric bezoars had dissolved spontaneously.

  5. Successful Emergency Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Gastric Bezoar with Gastric Pneumatosis

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Hirokazu; Ikeya, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Erika; Okada, Shuichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Gastric bezoars are rare and are usually found incidentally. They can sometimes cause severe complications, including gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) or gastric pneumatosis (GP). In cases of bezoars with GP, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been defined. We report the case of an 89-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented to our emergency room with a 2-day history of upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed no rebound tenderness or guarding, and laboratory values revealed no elevation of the serum lactate level. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a dilated stomach with significant fluid collection, GOO, and GP due to a 42 × 40 mm mass composed of fat and air densities. Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two gastric bezoars, one of which was incarcerated in the pyloric region. We used various endoscopic devices to successfully break and remove the bezoars. We used endoscopic forceps and a water jet followed by an endoscopic snare to cut the bezoars into several pieces and remove them with an endoscopic net. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed that the gastric bezoar had been completely removed. As seen in this case, endoscopic treatment may be a safe and viable option for the extraction of gastric bezoars presenting with GOO and GP. PMID:29430223

  6. Successful Emergency Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Gastric Bezoar with Gastric Pneumatosis.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hirokazu; Ikeya, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Erika; Okada, Shuichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Gastric bezoars are rare and are usually found incidentally. They can sometimes cause severe complications, including gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) or gastric pneumatosis (GP). In cases of bezoars with GP, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been defined. We report the case of an 89-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented to our emergency room with a 2-day history of upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed no rebound tenderness or guarding, and laboratory values revealed no elevation of the serum lactate level. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a dilated stomach with significant fluid collection, GOO, and GP due to a 42 × 40 mm mass composed of fat and air densities. Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two gastric bezoars, one of which was incarcerated in the pyloric region. We used various endoscopic devices to successfully break and remove the bezoars. We used endoscopic forceps and a water jet followed by an endoscopic snare to cut the bezoars into several pieces and remove them with an endoscopic net. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed that the gastric bezoar had been completely removed. As seen in this case, endoscopic treatment may be a safe and viable option for the extraction of gastric bezoars presenting with GOO and GP.

  7. Gastric Bezoar Treatment by Endoscopic Fragmentation in Combination with Pepsi-Cola® Administration.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Yunoki, Naoko; Tomoda, Jun; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-07-10

    Although bezoar dissolution by Coca-Cola® has been described in case reports and case series, to the best of our knowledge, the usefulness of other cola products such as Pepsi-Cola® has never been reported in the English literature. An 86-year-old Taiwanese man was diagnosed with a gastric bezoar. Endoscopic fragmentation with a polypectomy snare was attempted twice but failed to remove the bezoar. Subsequently, 500 mL of Pepsi NEX Zero® was administered daily for 4 days via nasogastric tube. The bezoar was softened and successfully fragmented by the polypectomy snare and needle-knife devices on the third attempt. This report presents the first case of a gastric bezoar successfully treated by endoscopic fragmentation in combination with Pepsi-Cola® administration, suggesting the possible utility of cola beverages in bezoar treatment, regardless of product brands.

  8. A case of small intestinal ileus caused by migration of gastric bezoars, which was successfully treated by dissolution therapy with cola through an ileus tube.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Omori, Masayasu; Yoshimura, Emiko; Asano, Motoi; Harada, Ryo; Toshimori, Junichi; Inoue, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Motohiro; Kobashi, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    A 60-year-old woman with a history of distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer presented with a chief complaint of epigastric pain. Duodenal ileus due to the migration of a gastric bezoar was diagnosed, and she was hospitalized. We performed endoscopic lithotripsy and injection of cola, but the bezoar migrated toward the anus. Her abdominal pain worsened the following day, and she was diagnosed with ileus induced by the gastric bezoar. After decompression with an ileus tube, 1000ml/day of cola was injected via the ileus tube, and the ileus resolved on the 5th day of therapy. Based on this experience, we believe that dissolution therapy with cola via an ileus tube is effective in the treatment of bezoar-induced small bowel ileus.

  9. Gastric Outlet Obstruction--An Unexpected Complication during Coca-Cola Therapy for a Gastric Bezoar: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Gastric bezoars are concretions of undigested material, and Coca-Cola therapy is an easy, efficacious and safe approach for bezoar treatment. Gastric outlet obstruction due to a migratory gastric bezoar during Coca-Cola therapy is an uncommon presentation and, to the best of our knowledge, no cases have been previously reported. We herein describe one such case with no known predisposing factors that recovered via the endoscopic technique. A thorough literature search was performed, which yielded eight relevant patients from seven publications, all of who developed gastrointestinal obstruction during dissolution treatment and recovered uneventfully after surgical intervention. In conclusion, this potential complication should be kept in mind in the event that alternative treatment is necessary.

  10. The tethered bezoar as a delayed complication of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Janey S A; Van Noord, Michael; Christison-Lagay, Emily

    2007-05-01

    Known complications of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass causing abdominal pain and obstructive symptoms include biliary colic, anastomotic ulcer, anastomotic stenosis, or internal hernia. This case report describes a new complication in a patient 15 months post-bypass: a bezoar at the gastrojejunal anastomosis, the nidus of which was a length of permanent suture material which had eroded through the gastric wall. We include endoscopic images of the bezoar, a review of the related gastric bypass literature, and describe the changes made in our practice as a result of this complication.

  11. Persimmon bezoar successfully treated by oral intake of Coca-Cola: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Kazuki; Ohara, Hirotaka; Naitoh, Itaru; Okumura, Fumihiro; Andoh, Tomoaki; Itoh, Takafumi; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Joh, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Background An 82-year-old male presented with a chief complaint of upper abdominal pain. Subsequently, a bezoar and a gastric ulcer were detected by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Case presentation The bezoar was dark green in color and extremely hard, having a major axis of 7 cm. After hospitalization, 500–1000 ml/day of Coca-Cola was orally administered continuously for 3 weeks. Conclusion Thereafter, the bezoar decreased in size to a major axis of 4 cm and showed a softening trend. Therefore, lithotripsy was thereafter carried out under endoscopy using forceps. PMID:19077219

  12. Persimmon bezoar successfully treated by oral intake of Coca-Cola: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuki; Ohara, Hirotaka; Naitoh, Itaru; Okumura, Fumihiro; Andoh, Tomoaki; Itoh, Takafumi; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Joh, Takashi

    2008-12-11

    An 82-year-old male presented with a chief complaint of upper abdominal pain. Subsequently, a bezoar and a gastric ulcer were detected by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The bezoar was dark green in color and extremely hard, having a major axis of 7 cm. After hospitalization, 500-1000 ml/day of Coca-Cola was orally administered continuously for 3 weeks. Thereafter, the bezoar decreased in size to a major axis of 4 cm and showed a softening trend. Therefore, lithotripsy was thereafter carried out under endoscopy using forceps.

  13. Bezoar in a Pediatric Oncology Patient Treated with Coca-Cola

    PubMed Central

    Naramore, Sara; Virojanapa, Amy; Bell, Moshe; Jhaveri, Punit N.

    2015-01-01

    A bezoar is a mass of indigestible material. Bezoars can present with a gradual onset of non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. However, bezoars can result in more serious conditions such as intestinal bleeding or obstruction. Without quick recognition, particularly in susceptible individuals, the diagnosis and treatment can be delayed. Currently resolution is achieved with enzymatic dissolution, endoscopic fragmentation or surgery. We describe, to our knowledge, the first pediatric patient with lymphoma to have had a bezoar treated with Coca-Cola. PMID:26269699

  14. Bezoar in a Pediatric Oncology Patient Treated with Coca-Cola.

    PubMed

    Naramore, Sara; Virojanapa, Amy; Bell, Moshe; Jhaveri, Punit N

    2015-01-01

    A bezoar is a mass of indigestible material. Bezoars can present with a gradual onset of non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. However, bezoars can result in more serious conditions such as intestinal bleeding or obstruction. Without quick recognition, particularly in susceptible individuals, the diagnosis and treatment can be delayed. Currently resolution is achieved with enzymatic dissolution, endoscopic fragmentation or surgery. We describe, to our knowledge, the first pediatric patient with lymphoma to have had a bezoar treated with Coca-Cola.

  15. [A Case of Intestinal Obstruction Caused by a Bezoar after Pylous-Preserving Gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Yamazato, Yuzo; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kubota, Takeshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Arita, Tomohiro; Morimura, Ryo; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Ikoma, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2017-11-01

    A 65-year-old woman with a history of pylorus-preserving gastrectomy(PPG)for early gastric cancer visited our hospital because of vomiting. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a large bezoar in the anastomotic site of the stomach. Because the bezoar was too large to be collected orally, the dissolution therapy with taking Coca-Cola®was continued. On the 3rd day after hospitalization, she felt acute abdominal pain with vomiting. Computed tomography revealed intestinal obstruction by a mass with air bubbles inside in the ileum. Emergency operation was performed under a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction due to the bezoar. The black brown bezoar sized 80×35×30mm was extracted through an ileotomy. The delayed gastric empty is considered to involve in the bezoar formation. Therefore, the appropriate education of diet and periodic endoscopic screening are necessary for patients with large amounts of gastric residues especially after PPG. In the dissolution therapy, physicians need to be careful of intestinal obstruction by a bezoar.

  16. Cellulase, Coca-Cola®, pancreatin and ursodeoxycholic acid in the dissolution of gastric bezoars: why not all together?

    PubMed

    Cerezo Ruiz, Antonio; Domínguez Jiménez, José Luis; Uceda-Vaño, Antonio

    2018-06-14

    Two cases of a chemical dissolution of gastric phytobezoars are presented. The novel approach of that management is the pharmacological mixture than completely made disappear the bezoars in patients fated to surgery removal.

  17. Review of the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal bezoars

    PubMed Central

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Okada, Hiroyuki; Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Inaba, Tomoki; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Imagawa, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    The formation of a bezoar is a relatively infrequent disorder that affects the gastrointestinal system. Bezoars are mainly classified into four types depending on the material constituting the indigestible mass of the bezoar: phytobezoars, trichobezoars, pharmacobezoars, and lactobezoars. Gastric bezoars often cause ulcerative lesions in the stomach and subsequent bleeding, whereas small intestinal bezoars present with small bowel obstruction and ileus. A number of articles have emphasized the usefulness of Coca-Cola® administration for the dissolution of phytobezoars. However, persimmon phytobezoars may be resistant to such dissolution treatment because of their harder consistency compared to other types of phytobezoars. Better understanding of the etiology and epidemiology of each type of bezoar will facilitate prompt diagnosis and management. Here we provide an overview of the prevalence, classification, predisposing factors, and manifestations of bezoars. Diagnosis and management strategies are also discussed, reviewing mainly our own case series. Recent progress in basic research regarding persimmon phytobezoars is also briefly reviewed. PMID:25901212

  18. Small-bowel obstruction secondary to bezoar impaction: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Ho, Thomas W; Koh, Dean C

    2007-05-01

    Gastrointestinal bezoar (GIB) is uncommon and is reported to occur in 4% of all admissions for small-bowel obstruction (SBO). Because of a lack of diagnostic features, it is often associated with a delay in treatment, with increased morbidity. In this article, we report our experience with managing bezoar-induced SBO and the role of early computed tomography (CT) imaging in establishing the diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed all cases of bezoar-induced SBO treated in our unit between 1999 and 2005. There were 43 patients, of whom 2 had a recurrence, giving a total of 45 episodes. The frequency of bezoar in our patients presenting with SBO was 4.3%. All patients were of Asian origin: 41 Chinese, 1 Indian, and 1 Malay. Twenty-eight (65%) patients had previous abdominal surgery of which 26 were gastric surgery. Thirty-eight (88%) patients were edentulous. Forty-one (91%) underwent serial abdominal radiography, whereas only 4 patients (9%) had either CT imaging or contrast study alone. Only 11 (24%) cases had a correct diagnosis of bezoar impaction made preoperatively by CT imaging. The diagnostic accuracy of CT imaging in our series was 65%, with six cases of misdiagnosis. Overall, CT led to a change in management of 76% (13 in 17). The median time to surgery from admission was 2 (0-10) days. There were 2 cases of ischemic bowel that necessitated bowel resection. The median length of hospital stay was 11 (5-100) days. Ten patients (22%) had postoperative complications, and there was one death. Bezoar-induced SBO is uncommon and remains a diagnostic and management challenge. It should be suspected in patients with an increased risk of formation of GIB, such as previous gastric surgery, poor dentition, and a suggestive history of increased fibre intake. We advocate that CT imaging be performed early in these at-risk patients and in patients presenting with SBO with or without a history of abdominal surgery in order to reduce unnecessary delays before appropriate

  19. A safe treatment option for esophageal bezoars

    PubMed Central

    Yaqub, Sheraz; Shafique, Muhammad; Kjæstad, Erik; Thorsen, Yngve; Lie, Erik S.; Dahl, Vegard; Bakka, Njål; Røkke, Ola

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Bezoar in the esophagus is a rare condition and associated with structural or functional abnormalities of the esophagus. Endoscopy is the main tool for diagnosis and treatment for bezoar in the esophagus. PRESENTATION OF CASE Here we present a case where an endoscopic evacuation of an esophageal bezoar was unsuccessful. We treated the bezoar through a nasogastric tube using a cocktail composed of pancreatic enzymes dissolved in Coca-Cola. DISCUSSION Endoscopy is regarded as the mainstay for the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal bezoars. However, when this approach fails, other treatment options include dissolution therapy, and surgical exploration and removal of the bezoar. Surgical removal of an esophageal bezoar is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. We advocate that dissolving therapy should be the first choice of treatment when endoscopic evacuation is not possible. CONCLUSION This is the first report describing a successful treatment of an esophageal bezoar with a cocktail of Coca-Cola and pancreatic enzymes. It is an effective, inexpensive, and worldwide available treatment and should be considered when endoscopic evacuation fails. PMID:22609703

  20. How good is cola for dissolution of gastric phytobezoars?

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom-Jae; Park, Jong-Jae; Chun, Hoon-Jai; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yeon, Jong-Eun; Jeen, Yoon-Tae; Kim, Jae-Seon; Byun, Kwan-Soo; Lee, Sang-Woo; Choi, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Duck; Ryu, Ho-Sang; Bak, Young-Tae

    2009-05-14

    To evaluate the efficacy of cola treatment for gastric phytobezoars, including diospyrobezoars. A total of 17 patients (range: 48 to 78 years) with symptomatic gastric phytobezoars treated with cola and adjuvant endoscopic therapy were reviewed. Three liters of cola lavage (10 cases) or drink (7 cases) were initially used, and then endoscopic fragmentation was done for the remnant bezoars by using a lithotripsy basket or a polypectomy snare. The overall success of dissolving a gastric phytobezoars with using three liters of cola and the clinical and endoscopic findings were compared retrospectively between four cases of complete dissolution by using only cola and 13 cases of partial dissolution with cola. After 3 L of cola lavage or drinking, a complete dissolution of bezoars was achieved in four patients (23.5%), while 13 cases (76.5%) were only partially dissolved. Phytobezoars (4 of 6 cases) were observed more frequently than diospyrobezoars (0 of 11) in the group that underwent complete dissolution (P = 0.006). Gender, symptom duration, size of bezoar and method of cola administration were not significantly different between the two groups. Twelve of 13 patients with residual bezoars were completely treated with a combination of cola and endoscopic fragmentation. The rate of complete dissolution with three liters of cola was 23.5%, but no case of diospyrobezoar was completely dissolved using this method. However, pretreatment with cola may be helpful and facilitate endoscopic fragmentation of gastric phytobezoars.

  1. How good is cola for dissolution of gastric phytobezoars?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Beom Jae; Park, Jong-Jae; Chun, Hoon Jai; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Jae Hyun; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang; Bak, Young-Tae

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of cola treatment for gastric phytobezoars, including diospyrobezoars. METHODS: A total of 17 patients (range: 48 to 78 years) with symptomatic gastric phytobezoars treated with cola and adjuvant endoscopic therapy were reviewed. Three liters of cola lavage (10 cases) or drink (7 cases) were initially used, and then endoscopic fragmentation was done for the remnant bezoars by using a lithotripsy basket or a polypectomy snare. The overall success of dissolving a gastric phytobezoars with using three liters of cola and the clinical and endoscopic findings were compared retrospectively between four cases of complete dissolution by using only cola and 13 cases of partial dissolution with cola. RESULTS: After 3 L of cola lavage or drinking, a complete dissolution of bezoars was achieved in four patients (23.5%), while 13 cases (76.5%) were only partially dissolved. Phytobezoars (4 of 6 cases) were observed more frequently than diospyrobezoars (0 of 11) in the group that underwent complete dissolution (P = 0.006). Gender, symptom duration, size of bezoar and method of cola administration were not significantly different between the two groups. Twelve of 13 patients with residual bezoars were completely treated with a combination of cola and endoscopic fragmentation. CONCLUSION: The rate of complete dissolution with three liters of cola was 23.5%, but no case of diospyrobezoar was completely dissolved using this method. However, pretreatment with cola may be helpful and facilitate endoscopic fragmentation of gastric phytobezoars. PMID:19437568

  2. Endoscopic Removal of a Giant Gastric Bezoar in a Gastric pouch Diverticulum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-15

    hair ), pharmacobezoars (medications), mid laclobezoars (milk). This is a case of a giant phytobezoar. requiring endoscopic rein oval. 1S. SUBJECT...classified into four types, depending on the material constituting the indigestible mass of the bezoar: phytobezoars (plants), trichobezoars ( hair

  3. Huge gastric diospyrobezoars successfully treated by oral intake and endoscopic injection of Coca-Cola.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y W; Han, D S; Park, Y K; Son, B K; Paik, C H; Jeon, Y C; Sohn, J H

    2006-07-01

    A diospyrobezoar is a type of phytobezoar that is considered to be harder than any other types of phytobezoars. Here, we describe a new treatment modality, which effectively and easily disrupted huge gastric diospyrobezoars. A 41-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus was admitted with lower abdominal pain and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed three huge, round diospyrobezoars in the stomach. He was made to drink two cans of Coca-Cola every 6 h. At endoscopy the next day, the bezoars were partially dissolved and turned to be softened. We performed direct endoscopic injection of Coca-Cola into each bezoar. At repeated endoscopy the next day, the bezoars were completely dissolved.

  4. Successful endoscopic treatment of gastric phytobezoar: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ugenti, Ippazio; Travaglio, Elisabetta; Lagouvardou, Elpiniki; Caputi Iambrenghi, Onofrio; Martines, Gennaro

    2017-01-01

    Gastric bezoars are a rare condition associated with situations of gastric dysmotility and prior gastric surgery, though sometimes they can present without any risk factor. We describe the first successful treatment in medical literature of a large gastric bezoar in the outpatient setting through endoscopic fragmentation. A 76-year-old man was referred to our outpatient endoscopy clinic because of dyspepsia and epigastric pain. Upper GI endoscopy with a standard endoscope revealed a 10-cm-diameter gastric phytobezoar with necrotic pressure ulcer of the angulus. We fragmentized the bezoar into smaller pieces, with complete dissolution and without any complication. The patient was then promptly discharged home with a medical therapy. Follow-up endoscopy at 6 months showed the total disappearance of any residual fibers. Different types of bezoars are described in literature, of which phyto- and trychobezoars are the most frequent. They can be absolutely asymptomatic or can arise with epigastric pain, pressure ulcer bleeding, gastrointestinal perforation or small bowel obstruction. The treatment is debated though endoscopic removal or fragmentation with the help of Coca-Cola lavages has showed the best success rate. The main experiences in literature concern hospitalized patients or describe treatment techniques which require overnight stays. An effective and rapid treatment in the outpatient setting is described in our experience, without short- or long-term complications. The endoscopic fragmentation of large gastric bezoars in the outpatient setting is safe with a good clinical course. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. The Combination Therapy of Dissolution Using Carbonated Liquid and Endoscopic Procedure for Bezoars: Pragmatical and Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Kohei; Mizuno, Ken-ichi; Shinagawa, Yoko; Kobayashi, Yuji; Abe, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yukari; Takahashi, Shunsaku; Hayashi, Kazunao; Yokoyama, Junji; Takeuchi, Manabu; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Sato, Yuichi; Terai, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Bezoars are relatively rare foreign bodies of gastrointestinal tract and often cause ileus and ulcerative lesions in the stomach and subsequent bleeding and perforation due to their size and stiffness. Therefore, the removal of bezoars is essential and recent development of devices, the endoscopic removal procedure, is often applied. However, due to their stiffness, simple endoscopic removal failed in not a few cases, and surgical removal has also been used. Recently, the efficacy of a combination therapy of endoscopic procedure and dissolution using carbonated liquid has been reported. To develop the safe and effective removal procedure, we carefully reviewed a total of 55 reported cases in this study including our 3 additional cases, successfully treated with dissolution with endoscopic fragmentation. In summary, the data showed the efficiency in the combination therapy, treating the larger size of bezoar and reducing the length of hospital stay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest pragmatical and clinical review for the combination therapy of dissolution and endoscopic treatment for bezoars. This review should help physicians to manage bezoars more efficiently. PMID:27642293

  6. A Case of a Magnesium Oxide Bezoar.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Saito, Shunsuke; Yoshioka, Masao; Urata, Haruo; Ueda, Kumiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-06

    A 75-year-old Japanese woman presented with nausea and appetite loss. Computed tomography showed a radiopaque substance in the stomach. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed bezoars in the stomach, which were endoscopically retrieved. The bezoars were mainly composed of magnesium and oxide. Although bezoar formation associated with magnesium oxide consumption is infrequently encountered, the present case indicates that pharmacobezoar should be considered among the differential diagnoses in patients who demonstrate a radiopaque mass in the digestive tract and have a history of magnesium oxide use.

  7. Obstructive Bezoars of the Small Bowel Treated with Coca-Cola Zero through a Long Intestinal Tube and Endoscopic Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Kei; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Takikawa, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    An 82-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital with abdominal fullness accompanied by lower abdominal pain. He presented with small bowel obstruction due to multiple diospyrobezoars. The bezoars were successfully removed without any surgical intervention by the administration of Coca-Cola Zero through a long intestinal tube and subsequent endoscopic manipulation. Such a combination may be the treatment of choice for small bowel obstruction due to bezoars. PMID:28943577

  8. Obstructive Bezoars of the Small Bowel Treated with Coca-Cola Zero through a Long Intestinal Tube and Endoscopic Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kei; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Takikawa, Yasuhiro

    2017-11-15

    An 82-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital with abdominal fullness accompanied by lower abdominal pain. He presented with small bowel obstruction due to multiple diospyrobezoars. The bezoars were successfully removed without any surgical intervention by the administration of Coca-Cola Zero through a long intestinal tube and subsequent endoscopic manipulation. Such a combination may be the treatment of choice for small bowel obstruction due to bezoars.

  9. Invasive fungal bezoar requiring partial cystectomy.

    PubMed

    Sundi, Debasish; Tseng, Kenneth; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Marr, Kieren A; Hyndman, Matthew Eric

    2012-02-01

    A 67-year-old man developed dysuria and position-dependent obstructive voiding symptoms after undergoing holmium laser ablation of the prostate (HOLAP) for benign prostatic hypertrophy. A large fungal (candidal) ball adherent to the bladder wall was removed by loop excision, but the bezoar recurred in 2 weeks despite systemic fluconazole and intravesical amphotericin B. A second attempt at endoscopic removal with ultrasonic lithotripsy, endoscopic graspers, and fulguration was also unsuccessful. The patient underwent open partial cystectomy to remove his invasive fungal bezoar. Convalescence was unremarkable. Urinalysis, culture, and follow-up cystoscopy after partial cystectomy demonstrated successful definitive treatment of the fungal ball. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic review: Coca-Cola can effectively dissolve gastric phytobezoars as a first-line treatment.

    PubMed

    Ladas, S D; Kamberoglou, D; Karamanolis, G; Vlachogiannakos, J; Zouboulis-Vafiadis, I

    2013-01-01

    Gastric phytobezoars represent the most common bezoars in patients with poor gastric motility. A variety of dissolution therapies and endoscopic fragmentation techniques have been evaluated as conservative treatment so as to avoid surgery. To investigate the effectiveness of Coca-Cola for gastric phytobezoars dissolution. We performed a systematic search to identify publications on gastric phytobezoars to assess the efficacy of Coca-Cola as a dissolution therapy. Diospyrobezoars, formed after persimmon ingestion, are a distinct type of phytobezoars characterized by their hard consistency. Thus, these two subgroups of bezoars were compared in terms of successful dissolution. Over a 10-year period (2002-2012), 24 papers including 46 patients have been published. In 91.3% of the cases, phytobezoar resolution with Coca-Cola administration was successful, either as a single treatment (50%) or combined with further endoscopic techniques, whereas only 4 patients underwent surgery. Phytobezoars were more likely to dissolve after initial attempt with Coca-Cola compared with diospyrobezoars (60.6% vs. 23%, P = 0.022). Coca-Cola alone is effective in gastric phytobezoar dissolution in half of the cases and, combined with additional endoscopic methods, is successful in more than 90% of them. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Small Bowel Obstruction Caused by Aloe vera Bezoars: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hong, In Taik; Cha, Jae Myung; Ki, Hye Jin; Kwak, Min Seob; Yoon, Jin Young; Shin, Hyun Phil; Jeoun, Jung Won; Choi, Sung Il

    2017-05-25

    Small bowel obstruction is a clinical condition commonly caused by postoperative adhesion, volvulus, intussusceptions, and hernia. Small bowel obstruction due to bezoars is clinically uncommon, accounting for approximately 2-4% of all obstructions. Computed tomography (CT) is a useful method in diagnosing the cause of small bowel obstruction. However, small bowel obstruction caused by bezoars may not be detected by an abdominal CT examination. Herein, we report a rare case of small bowel obstruction by Aloe vera bezoars, which were undetected by an abdominal CT. Phytobezoars should be included in the differential diagnosis of small bowel obstruction in patients with predisposing factors, such as excessive consumption of high-fiber food and diabetes.

  12. An unusual cause of small bowel obstruction in children: lentil soup bezoar

    PubMed Central

    Plataras, Christos; Sardianos, Nektarios; Vlatakis, Stephanos; Nikas, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Bezoars are an unusual cause of acute intestinal obstruction in children. Most cases are trichobezoars in adolescent girls who swallow their hair. Lactobezoars are another unusual but occasionally reported cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. Phytobezoars and food bolus bezoars are the least common types of intestinal obstruction that have been reported in children. Of the few paediatric cases that have been described, the majority involve persimmons. Moreover, all of these cases involve the ingestion of raw fibres or fruit that have not been cooked. We report a case of a girl who presented with acute ileal obstruction because of lentil soup bezoar. Given the wide use of this otherwise nutritional foodstuff, we highlight the danger from its inappropriate preparation to the health of children. This is the first reported case of intestinal obstruction caused by lentils in children and we hope to raise concern among paediatricians regarding this matter. PMID:24692381

  13. A new technique for endoscopic treatment of gastric phytobezoars: fragmentation using guidewire.

    PubMed

    Senturk, O; Hulagu, S; Celebi, A; Korkmaz, U; Duman, A E; Dindar, G; Bozkurt, N; Yilmaz, H; Ozturkler, M; Can, B; Batman, A

    2014-12-01

    Bezoars result from accumulation of indigestible materials in the gastrointestinal tract and often occur in the stomach. In this study, we evaluated the use of guidewires in patients with gastric phytobezoars (PBs) as a new method for PB removal and examined the safety of the procedure. Between February 2009 and January 2013, we analyzed data from 11 patients with gastric PBs. We fitted a transparent cap to a standard endoscope (EG450WR5, Fujinon), and a 0.025 inch guidewire was passed through the standart endoscope. PBs were surrounded by a loop in the guidewire and destroyed. After 2 weeks of treatment, patients were re-evaluated for effectiveness. PB fragmentation time was 5-11 minutes. In five patients with a history of gastric surgery, we needed an additional 16-28 minutes for removal of the fragments. In six patients additionally treated with enzymatic degradation after the breaking procedure, PBs completely disappeared within 2 weeks. There were no complications during the procedure. The guidewire and fragmentation procedure for PBs is an efficient and reliable method. When combined with enzymatic degradation, PBs can be managed quickly and effectively.

  14. Renal fungal bezoar owing to Geotrichum candidum

    PubMed Central

    Yegneswaran Prakash, Peralam; Seetaramaiah, Venkatesh K; Thomas, Joseph; Khanna, Vinay; Rao, Sugandhi P

    2012-01-01

    Geotrichum candidum is yeast like fungi that cause infections in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of renal fungal ball with Geotrichum candidum in a 27 yr. old women post-partum. This case to our knowledge is the first case of renal fungal bezoar due to Geotrichum candidum reported in India. PMID:27330935

  15. [Two cases of phytobezoars treated by adminsitration of Coca-Cola by oral route].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jai; Kang, Hyoun Goo; Park, Se Young; Yi, Chea Yong; Na, Gyoung Jun; Lee, Tae Yeong; Kim, Sang Hyun; Song, Chul Soo

    2006-12-01

    Bezoars are concretions of foreign bodies found in the gastrointestinal tract. In the past, most common method for the treatment of bezoar was surgical management. However, the current treatment methods include chemical dissolution and endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy. There were few reports on the treatment of phytobezoars by nasogastric Cola lavage. However, there was no report succeeded by oral route alone. In our two cases, phytobezoars were treated by oral administration of Coca-Cola. Our patients drank 700-800 mL of Coca-Cola daily, and after two months, complete dissolutions of bezoars were achieved. We report two cases of phytobezoars completely treated by drinking Coca-Cola.

  16. [Gastric stromal tumor treated by laparoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Alecu, L; Costan, I; Vitalariu, A; Obrocea, F; Păcuraru, Elena; Gulinescu, L

    2002-01-01

    The authors describe a 59 years old female patient, with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor located on the posterior wall of the gastric funds, who was treated successfully by laparoscopic wedge resection (with clear resection margins), through an anteriorly placed gastrotomy, thus allowing an endoscopic linear cutter Endo GIA, to excise the tumor with a cuff of normal gastric tissue. The anterior gastrotomy was performed with Ultra-Shears. Delivery of the tumor through the gastrotomy is essential for success. The operative time was 110 minutes. The tumor was diagnosed as a gastrointestinal stromal submucosal tumor (of low-grade malignancy) and immunohistochemicaly, this tumor was positive for CD 34. Posterior gastric tumor can be removed using laparoscopic surgery.

  17. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

  18. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: a review.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-12-07

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects.

  19. Acute gastric volvulus treated with laparoscopic reduction and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang-Ho; Ha, Chang-Youn; Lee, Young-Joon; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Chan; Jung, Eun-Jung; Ju, Young-Tae; Jeong, Chi-Young; Ha, Woo-Song

    2013-07-01

    Acute gastric volvulus requires emergency surgery, and a laparoscopic approach for both acute and chronic gastric volvulus was reported recently to give good results. The case of a 50-year-old patient with acute primary gastric volvulus who was treated by laparoscopic reduction and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is described here. This approach seems to be feasible and safe for not only chronic gastric volvulus, but also acute gastric volvulus.

  20. Efferent limb of gastrojejunostomy obstruction by a whole okra phytobezoar: Case report and brief review

    PubMed Central

    Zin, Thant; Maw, Myat; Pai, Dinker Ramananda; Paijan, Rosaini Binti; Kyi, Myo

    2012-01-01

    A phytobezoar is one of the intraluminal causes of gastric outlet obstruction, especially in patients with previous gastric surgery and/or gastric motility disorders. Before the proton pump inhibitor era, vagotomy, pyloroplasty, gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy were commonly performed procedures in peptic ulcer patients. One of the sequelae of gastrojejunostomy is phytobezoar formation. However, a bezoar causing gastric outlet obstruction is rare even with giant gastric bezoars. We report a rare case of gastric outlet obstruction due to a phytobezoar obstructing the efferent limb of the gastrojejunostomy site. This phytobezoar which consisted of a whole piece of okra (lady finger vegetable) was successfully removed by endoscopic snare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of okra bezoar-related gastrojejunostomy efferent limb obstruction reported in the literature. PMID:22624073

  1. Coconut matting bezoar identified by a combined analytical approach.

    PubMed Central

    Levison, D A; Crocker, P R; Boxall, T A; Randall, K J

    1986-01-01

    A rare type of bezoar composed of coconut matting was found in the stomach of a caucasian man. The exact identity of the fibres was established by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray energy spectroscopy, and microscopic infrared spectroscopy. This report illustrates the importance of these techniques for identifying the nature of foreign material. Images PMID:3950038

  2. Gastric phytobezoars may be treated by nasogastric Coca-Cola lavage.

    PubMed

    Ladas, Spiros D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Tzathas, Charalabos; Tassios, Pericles; Rokkas, Theodore; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2002-07-01

    Large gastric phytobezoars may occur in patients with gastric dysmotility disorders. Treatment options include dissolution with enzymes, endoscopic fragmentation with removal or aspiration, and surgery. We report our experience with nasogastric cola lavage therapy. Over an 8-year period, five consecutive patients were referred to our unit for endoscopic treatment of large gastric phytobezoars. They included one patient with lobectomy for lung cancer and four patients with diabetic gastroparesis. An initial attempt of endoscopic fragmentation and removal was unsuccessful. Patients were treated with 3 l of Coca-Cola nasogastric lavage over 12 h. Nasogastric lavage was very well tolerated by the patients. Complete phytobezoar dissolution was achieved in one session in all cases. There were no procedure-related complications. The dissolution of large gastric phytobezoars with cola nasogastric lavage is a safe, rapid and effective method. Patients may be treated in the medical ward, avoiding therapeutic endoscopy or surgery.

  3. A retrospective study of feline gastric lymphoma in 16 chemotherapy-treated cats.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Tanya L; Villamil, Armando; Taylor, Bonnie E; Flory, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe cases of feline gastric lymphoma with regards to signalment, clinical presentation, laboratory and ancillary study findings, response to therapy, and outcomes and to identify prognostic variables. Sixteen cats with stage I and II gastric lymphoma treated with chemotherapy were included in this study. Seventy-five percent of cats experienced remission. Overall, first remission duration was 108 days. Response to treatment was prognostic as in other types of feline lymphoma. Cats with a complete remission (CR) had longer survival times compared with cats with a partial remission (PR). Sex and treatment with a rescue protocol were found to be prognostic with castrated males having longer survivals than spayed females. Cats that received rescue chemotherapy had shorter first remission durations than those that did not. Prior treatment with steroids and stage were not found to be significant prognostic variables. This study characterizes gastric lymphoma treated with chemotherapy in cats. Further studies are needed to determine the comparative efficacy of surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments for feline gastric lymphoma.

  4. Changes in hormones and biomarkers in polycystic ovarian syndrome treated with gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Eid, George M; McCloskey, Carol; Titchner, Rebecca; Korytkowski, Mary; Gross, Debra; Grabowski, Cynthia; Wilson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Small retrospective studies have demonstrated reduction in weight and co-morbid hirsutism and diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The objective of this study was to prospectively determine clinical improvements in obese women with PCOS treated with gastric bypass and identify postoperative biomarker changes. Data were collected on obese women with PCOS undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass over 1 year. Testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone, insulin, fasting glucose, and lipid levels were obtained preoperatively at baseline, and 6 and 12 months after surgery. Testosterone was used as the primary hormonal biomarker. A physical examination for body mass index (BMI) and hirsutism, and information on menstrual pattern were collected at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Data were available for 14 women. Mean BMI decreased from 44.8±5.9 kg/m(2) at baseline to 29.2±5.9 kg/m(2) at 12 months postoperatively. Significant improvements were seen in testosterone, fasting glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride at 12 months (P<.05). At baseline, irregular menses were reported in 10 patients; all patients were experiencing regular menses 6 and 12 months after surgery. Hirsutism was present in 11 patients at baseline and only 7 patients at 12 months. Improvements in biomarkers, menstrual cycling, and hirsutism was not correlated with degree of weight change. Gastric bypass achieved significant reductions in BMI, testosterone, and markers of glucose and lipid metabolism. These data confirm reports of previous retrospective studies showing weight reduction and health improvement in women with PCOS treated with gastric bypass. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. What's the Best Way to Treat GE Junction Tumors? Approach Like Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mullen, John T; Kwak, Eunice L; Hong, Theodore S

    2016-11-01

    The debate as to the optimal classification, staging, and treatment of gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) tumors wages on, and one must acknowledge that there is no "one-size-fits-all" approach. However, in this review we are charged with defending the position that all GEJ tumors are best treated like gastric cancer. We submit that, as stated, this is not a defensible position and that a clear definition of terms is warranted. Given the rarity of squamous cell carcinoma and the dramatic rise in incidence of adenocarcinoma of the GEJ in the West, we define GEJ "tumors" to mean adenocarcinomas of the GEJ. Furthermore, on the basis of their location, pathogenesis, and biologic behavior, we submit that few would argue with the contention that Siewert type I GEJ tumors are best treated like distal esophageal cancer and that Siewert type III GEJ tumors are best treated like gastric cancer. The real debate concerns the management of Siewert type II GEJ tumors, which arise immediately at the esophagogastric junction. Thus, for the purposes of this review, we have taken the liberty of redefining the question as what's the best way to treat adenocarcinomas of the true GEJ (i.e., Siewert type II tumors), and we submit that these tumors are in fact best treated like gastric cancer. This approach ensures that patients receive those therapies needed for the locoregional and systemic control of their disease together with a surgical procedure that optimizes complete tumor and regional lymph node resection while limiting morbidity.

  6. The surgical treatment of chronic gastric atony following Roux-Y diversion for alkaline reflux gastritis

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, S.B.; Woodward, E.R.

    1989-06-01

    Symptoms of severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and frequent bezoars, as well as objective gastric retention, can occur following Roux-Y biliary diversion for alkaline reflux gastritis. Medical therapy and prokinetic drugs have proven ineffective. This review evaluates 37 patients who underwent further gastric resection from 1979 to 1987 to improve gastric emptying and resolve symptoms. Fifteen patients underwent perioperative radionuclide solid-food gastric emptying studies. Seventy-three per cent (27 of 37 patients) of the patients who underwent further gastric resection (70% to 95%) had a satisfactory postoperative response. Twenty patients were graded Visick 1 or 2 and 7 Visick-3 patients, althoughmore » much improved, still had some symptoms of gastroparesis. Twenty-seven per cent (10 of 37 patients) failed to improve and underwent completion total gastrectomy. Overall, 70% of this group had almost complete resolution of their symptoms. Three of 10 patients were considered ''failures'' due to postprandial pain in 1 and early vasomotor dumping in 2. Of the 10 patients who failed initial revisional surgery, 7 underwent a 70% to 80% subtotal gastric resection (STG) and 3 patients underwent 85% to 95% extensive resection (EXT.G.). Of the 15 patients who underwent perioperative radionuclide evaluation, a mean two-hour gastric retention of 61.4% +/- 4% (SEM) decreased to 25% +/- 4% following further gastric resection. Eight patients were in the STG group and seven patients were in the EXT.G group. Following STG, mean two-hour gastric retention of 58.2% +/- 3.5% decreased to 38% +/- 3% (p less than 0.05). In seven patients who underwent EXT.G, mean two-hour retention of 65% +/- 4% decreased to 10% +/- 2.5% (p less than 0.005). EXT.G resulted in normal gastric emptying and few late failures.« less

  7. Laparoscopic treatment of a phytobezoar in the duodenal diverticulum – Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Aydin, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Primer small intestine bezoar is seen rarely. It frequently arises from underlying small intestine pathologies (diverticle, tumor, stricture etc.). We report a very rare case of disopyrobezoar in the duodenal diverticulum, a kind of phytobezoar caused by persimmons, which was treated laparoscopically. PRESENTATION OF CASE The 47-year-old patient applied to polyclinic with complaints of epigastric tenderness, occasional distension, and acid regurgitation. In endoscopical examination, impacted bezoar was determined in the diverticulum in the duodenum. Because it is too hard, it was unable to remove endoscopically. On the abdominal tomography, a smooth-bounded non-homogeneous mass including gas and soft tissue areas in the 2nd portion of the duodenum was detected. A barium meal confirmed the presence of a 5 cm diameter diverticulum on the lateral wall of the second portion of the duodenum. It also showed an intraluminalfilling defect as well as the mottled appearance of the bezoar. Learned from history of the patient, that the patient consumed over persimmon in childhood. DISCUSSION Generally, duodenal diverticles are asymptomatic. Surgical treatment is rarely necessary because of complications such as bleeding, perforation, abdominal pain, bezoar formation. As well as using methods such as gastric lavage, enzymatic dissolution, endoscopical fragmentation in the treatment of phytobezoar, their chances of success are low because its structure is rigid. Usually, surgical intervention is required. CONCLUSION For the treatments of bezoar cases located in the small intestine, laparoscopic surgical method is a safe and feasible method in selected cases. PMID:22659120

  8. Laparoscopic treatment of a phytobezoar in the duodenal diverticulum - Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Aydin, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2012-01-01

    Primer small intestine bezoar is seen rarely. It frequently arises from underlying small intestine pathologies (diverticle, tumor, stricture etc.). We report a very rare case of disopyrobezoar in the duodenal diverticulum, a kind of phytobezoar caused by persimmons, which was treated laparoscopically. The 47-year-old patient applied to polyclinic with complaints of epigastric tenderness, occasional distension, and acid regurgitation. In endoscopical examination, impacted bezoar was determined in the diverticulum in the duodenum. Because it is too hard, it was unable to remove endoscopically. On the abdominal tomography, a smooth-bounded non-homogeneous mass including gas and soft tissue areas in the 2nd portion of the duodenum was detected. A barium meal confirmed the presence of a 5cm diameter diverticulum on the lateral wall of the second portion of the duodenum. It also showed an intraluminalfilling defect as well as the mottled appearance of the bezoar. Learned from history of the patient, that the patient consumed over persimmon in childhood. Generally, duodenal diverticles are asymptomatic. Surgical treatment is rarely necessary because of complications such as bleeding, perforation, abdominal pain, bezoar formation. As well as using methods such as gastric lavage, enzymatic dissolution, endoscopical fragmentation in the treatment of phytobezoar, their chances of success are low because its structure is rigid. Usually, surgical intervention is required. For the treatments of bezoar cases located in the small intestine, laparoscopic surgical method is a safe and feasible method in selected cases. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gastric and enteric anisakiasis successfully treated with Gastrografin therapy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Hiroki; Kuwai, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Toshiki; Miura, Ryoichi; Sumida, Yuki; Takasago, Takeshi; Miyasako, Yuki; Nishimura, Tomoyuki; Iio, Sumio; Imagawa, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Kouno, Hirotaka; Kohno, Hiroshi

    2018-03-16

    We report a case of a 59-year-old woman who was diagnosed with gastric and small intestinal anisakiasis, which was successfully treated with endoscopic extraction and Gastrografin therapy. She was admitted to our hospital with epigastric pain and vomiting one day after eating raw fish. She exhibited tenderness in the epigastrium without obvious rebound tenderness or guarding. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated segmental edema of the intestinal wall with proximal dilatation and a small number of ascites. Because enteric anisakiasis was suspected based on the patient's history of recent raw fish consumption and abdominal CT, we performed gastroscopy and confirmed that nine Anisakis larvae were attached to the gastric mucosa. All of the Anisakis larvae were extracted via endoscopy, and the patient was diagnosed with gastric and enteric anisakiasis. Additionally, in the hospital, we performed ileography twice using Gastrografin, which led to shortened hospital stay. Based on the clinical results of this case, we suggest that Gastrografin therapy is a safe, convenient, and useful method to extract enteric Anisakis larvae.

  10. A case report of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy left-side gastropexy to resolve a recurrent gastric dilatation in a dog previously treated with right-side gastropexy for gastric dilatation volvulus.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Giuseppe; Cinti, Filippo; Pietra, Marco; Capitani, Ombretta; Valentini, Simona

    2014-12-01

    A 6-year-old, large-breed, female dog was evaluated for gastric dilatation (GD). The dog was affected by GD volvulus, which had been surgically treated with gastric derotation and right incisional gastropexy. Recurrence of GD appeared 36 hours after surgery. The dilatation was immediately treated with an orogastric probe but still recurred 4 times. Therefore, a left-side gastropexy by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) was performed to prevent intermittent GD. After PEG tube placement, the patient recovered rapidly without side effects. Several techniques of gastropexy have been described as a prophylactic method for gastric dilatation volvulus, but to the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of left-sided PEG gastropexy performed in a case of canine GD recurrence after an incisional right gastropexy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of D-002, a product isolated from beeswax, on gastric symptoms of patients with osteoarthritis treated with piroxicam: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Illnait, José; Terry, Héctor; Más, Rosa; Fernández, Lilia; Carbajal, D

    2005-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are indicated for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, but often induce gastric adverse experiences (AE), including gastric ulcers and complications. Inhibitors of proton pump and H(2) antagonists are very effective for duodenal ulcer; meanwhile, cytoprotective drugs are more effective for gastric ulcer. D-002 is a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols obtained from beeswax, wherein triacontanol is the most abundant. D-002 induces anti-ulcer effects through a cytoprotective mechanism, being more effective in protecting against ethanol- and NSAID-induced ulcers. The present double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate the effects of D-002 on gastric symptoms associated to piroxicam use on patients suffering osteoarthritis. Fifty-nine patients, all taking piroxicam, 20 mg/day, were randomized to placebo or D-002 (40 or 100 mg/day) for 14 days. The primary efficacy variable was the reduction on the frequency of patients with gastric AE compared with placebo. Pain evolution was investigated to discard any influence on D-002 on the analgesic effect of piroxicam. The frequency of patients treated with D-002, 40 and 100 mg/day, reporting acidity [0 of 18 (0%) and 1 of 21 (4.8%), respectively] was lower (P < .05) than in placebo [6 of 20 (30%)]. Also, the frequency of patients treated with 100 mg/day reporting some gastric AE [5 of 21 (23.8%)] was lower (P < .05) than in placebo [13 of 20 (65.0%)]. The analgesic effect of piroxicam was unaffected with D-002. Treatment was well tolerated. Two patients discontinued from the study because of gastrointestinal AE: one in the placebo group and the other treated with D-002, 40 mg/day. Other three patients discontinued because of other AE: mildly uncontrolled hypertension (one in the placebo group, one treated with D-002, 40 mg/day) and headache (one treated with D-200, 100 mg/day). It is concluded that D-002 could be useful for

  12. Gastric carcinoma originating from the heterotopic submucosal gastric gland treated by laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Taisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hiroki; Miyamae, Mahito; Hirajima, Shoji; Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Kubota, Takeshi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Ogiso, Kiyoshi; Yagi, Nobuaki; Yanagisawa, Akio; Ando, Takashi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is derived from epithelial cells in the gastric mucosa. We reported an extremely rare case of submucosal gastric carcinoma originating from the heterotopic submucosal gastric gland (HSG) that was safely diagnosed by laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery (LECS). A 66-year-old man underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, which detected a submucosal tumor (SMT) of 1.5 cm in diameter on the lesser-anterior wall of the upper gastric body. The tumor could not be diagnosed histologically, even by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Local resection by LECS was performed to confirm a diagnosis. Pathologically, the tumor was an intra-submucosal well differentiated adenocarcinoma invading 5000 μm into the submucosal layer. The resected tumor had negative lateral and vertical margins. Based on the Japanese treatment guidelines, additional laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy was curatively performed. LECS is a less invasive and safer approach for the diagnosis of SMT, even in submucosal gastric carcinoma originating from the HSG. PMID:26306144

  13. Ghrelin fibers from lateral hypothalamus project to nucleus tractus solitaries and are involved in gastric motility regulation in cisplatin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanling; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fei; Wang, Shasha; Jin, Hong; Guo, Feifei; Xu, Luo

    2017-03-15

    Ghrelin can alleviate cancer chemotherapy-induced dyspepsia in rodents, though the neural mechanisms involved are not known. Therefore, ghrelin projections from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and its involvement in the regulation of gastric motility in cisplatin-treated rats were investigated with a multi-disciplined approach. Retrograde tracing combined with fluoro-immunohistochemical staining were used to investigate ghrelin fiber projections arising from LH and projecting to nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS). Results revealed that ghrelin fibers originating in LH project to NTS. Expression of ghrelin and its receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) in LH and NTS were detected by Western Blot. 2days after cisplatin dosing, expression of ghrelin in LH decreased while GHS-R1a in both LH and NTS increased. In electrophysiological experiments, the effects of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) microinjection in LH on neuronal discharge of gastric distension-responsive neurons in NTS and gastric motility were assessed. NMDA in LH excited most of ghrelin-responsive gastric distension (GD)-sensitive neurons in NTS and promoted gastric motility. This effect was partially blocked by ghrelin antibody in NTS. Furthermore, the excitatory effects of NMDA in cisplatin-treated rats were weaker than those in saline-treated rats. Behaviorally, cisplatin induced a significant increase of kaolin consumption and decrease of food intake. These studies reveal a decreased expression of ghrelin in LH and up-regulation of GHS-R1a in LH and NTS, which are involved in the regulation of GD neuronal discharge in NTS and gastric motility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [A Case Report of Disappearance of Gastric Metastasis of Breast Cancer Treated with Combination Therapy Consisting of Paclitaxel and Cisplatin].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tooru; Taniwaka, Koichi; Goto, Hideki; Kawamura, Shunji

    2017-04-01

    A 63-year-old postmenopausal woman was treated with combination therapy consisting of paclitaxel(PTX)and cisplatin (CDDP)for gastric metastasis of breast cancer; she achieved a complete response as revealed by pathological examination. Combination therapy with PTX and CDDP seems to be an optional treatment for gastric metastasis of breast cancer.

  15. [A Case of Gastro-Gastric Intussusception Secondary to Primary Gastric Lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyeong Ho; Kang, Sun Mi; Kim, Si Hye; Ra, Moni; Park, Byeong Kyu; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Jin Tae; Kim, Ho Gak; Ryoo, Hun Mo; Kang, Ung Rae

    2016-07-25

    In adults, most intussusceptions develop from a lesion, usually a benign or malignant neoplasm, and can occur at any site in the gastrointestinal tract. Intussusception in the proximal gastrointestinal tract is uncommon, and gastro-gastric intussusception is extremely rare. We present a case of gastro-gastric intussusception secondary to a primary gastric lymphoma. An 82-year-old female patient presented with acute onset chest pain and vomiting. Abdominal CT revealed a gastro-gastric intussusception. We performed upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, revealing a large gastric mass invaginated into the gastric lumen and distorting the distal stomach. Uncomplicated gastric reposition was achieved with endoscopy of the distal stomach. Histological evaluation of the gastric mass revealed a diffuse large B cell lymphoma that was treated with chemotherapy.

  16. An Unusual Cause of Duodenal Obstruction: Persimmon Phytobezoar.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengxian; Wang, Jing; Li, Yousheng

    2016-12-01

    Duodenal phytobezoar, an unusual cause of acute duodenal obstruction, is rarely seen. The most common cause of this type of bezoar is persimmon. It frequently arises from underlying gastrointestinal tract pathologies (gastric surgery, etc.). Here, we report the case of a 66-year-old man who had undergone distal gastrectomy with Billroth I reconstruction for gastric cancer and experienced severe epigastric discomfort, abdominal pain, and vomiting for a few days. The abdominal computed tomography scan showed a large-sized mass in the horizontal portion of the duodenum. On following endoscopic examination, a large phytobezoar was revealed in the duodenum. He was treated with endoscopic fragmentation combined with nasogastric Coca-Cola. The patient tolerated the procedure well and resumed a normal oral diet 3 days later.

  17. Mesentero-axial gastric volvulus after removal of laparoscopic adjustable gastric band.

    PubMed

    Pirmadjid, N; Pournaras, D J; Huan, S; Sujendran, V

    2017-02-01

    Despite the decreasing popularity of gastric banding, a large number of patients still have a band in situ. Although immediate postoperative complications are relatively rare, long-term complications of gastric banding are more common but are not reported to occur after band removal. We report a case of gastric volvulus and subsequent ischaemic perforation in a patient shortly after band removal, resulting in emergency laparotomy and total gastrectomy. Severe continuing pain persisting after band deflation and even gastric band removal should be treated as an emergency and urgent investigation should not be delayed.

  18. Gastric Volvulus with Segmental Necrosis Treated with Wedge Resection and Gastrogastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Merz, Alexa Elizabeth; Preston, Jennifer Francis

    2017-12-01

    Ischemic necrosis is a feared complication of acute gastric volvulus, occurring in 11% of patients presenting with the condition and responsible for mortality in 30%. In such cases, there are few well-validated options for surgical reconstruction. We present the case of a 77-year-old woman with intraabdominal mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus with segmental ischemic gastric necrosis who underwent wedge gastrectomy and hand-sewn gastrogastrostomy. She did well postoperatively and experienced no significant gastrointestinal complications. Gastric wedge resection with gastrogastrostomy presents a novel surgical intervention for a rare and highly morbid entity. We hope to add it to the repertoire of surgeons facing acute gastric volvulus complicated by segmental necrosis.

  19. Value of the prognostic nutritional index in advanced gastric cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianyi; Wang, Donghai; Mei, Ying; Jin, Hailong; Zhu, Kankai; Liu, Xiaosun; Zhang, Qing; Yu, Jiren

    2017-03-01

    The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is a useful parameter indicating the immune and nutritional status of cancer patients; this study investigated the prognostic value of the PNI in advanced gastric cancer patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed 117 advanced gastric cancer patients who met the inclusion criteria for preoperative chemotherapy and underwent surgical resection from July 2004 to December 2011. The patients were divided into PNI-high (PNI ≥ 45) and PNI-low (PNI < 45) groups. Clinicopathologic features, chemotherapy adverse events, and surgical complications were compared between the prechemotherapy PNI-high and PNI-low groups using the chi-square test. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify prognostic factors. Overall survival was better in the prechemotherapy PNI-high group than in the PNI-low group (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.237, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.271-3.393, P = 0.005), while there was no significant difference in Overall survival between the postchemotherapy PNI-high and PNI-low groups (P > 0.05). Cox regression analysis indicated that yield pathologic T (ypT), yield pathologic N (ypN) stage, and prechemotherapy PNI were independent prognostic factors (ypT: HR = 2.914, 95% CI = 1.312-6.470, P = 0.009; ypN: HR = 4.909, 95% CI = 1.764-13.660, P = 0.003; prechemotherapy PNI: HR = 1.963, 95% CI = 1.101-3.499, P = 0.022). The prechemotherapy PNI is a useful predictor of the long-term outcome of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Foam bezoar: resection of perforated terminal ileum in a 17-year-old with sickle β+ thalassemia and pica.

    PubMed

    Altepeter, Tara; Annes, John; Meller, Janet

    2011-07-01

    Children and adolescents with sickle cell disease demonstrate an increased incidence of pica. Pica involving polyurethane foam has been previously reported, but effective management of such cases remains unclear. We present the case of a 17-year-old African American adolescent girl with sickle β+ thalassemia who presented with a long history of foam rubber pica resulting in intestinal obstruction. Conservative management was unsuccessful, and the patient ultimately required operative intervention. We advocate for a low threshold for early operation in cases of foam rubber bezoar. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased susceptibility of ethanol-treated gastric mucosa to naproxen and its inhibition by DA-9601, an Artemisia asiatica extract

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tae Young; Ahn, Gook Jun; Choi, Seul Min; Ahn, Byoung Ok; Kim, Won Bae

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of DA-9601, a new gastroprotective agent, on the vulnerability of ethanol-treated rat’s stomach to naproxen (NAP). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 1 mL of 50% ethanol twice a day for 5 d and then NAP (50 mg/kg) was administered. DA-9601 was administered 1 h before NAP. Four hours after NAP, the rats were killed to examine gross injury index (mm2), histologic change and to determine mucosal levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), glutathione (GSH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). RESULTS: Pretreatment of ethanol significantly increased NAP-induced gastric lesions, as well as an increase in MDA and MPO. On the contrary, mucosal PGE2 and GSH contents were decreased dramatically by ethanol pretreatment, which were aggravated by NAP. DA-9601 significantly reduced NAP-induced gastric injury grossly and microscopically, regardless of pretreatment with ethanol. DA-9601 preserved, or rather, increased mucosal PGE2 and GSH in NAP-treated rats (P<0.05), with reduction in mucosal MDA and MPO levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that repeated alcohol consumption renders gastric mucosa more susceptible to NSAIDs though, at least in part, reduction of endogenous cytoprotectants including PGE2 and GSH, and increase in MPO activation, and that DA-9601, a new gastroprotectant, can reduce the increased vulnerability of ethanol consumers to NSAIDs-induced gastric damage via the mechanism in which PGE2 and GSH are involved. PMID:16437715

  2. Increased susceptibility of ethanol-treated gastric mucosa to naproxen and its inhibition by DA-9601, an Artemisia asiatica extract.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae Young; Ahn, Gook Jun; Choi, Seul Min; Ahn, Byoung Ok; Kim, Won Bae

    2005-12-21

    To examine the effect of DA-9601, a new gastroprotective agent, on the vulnerability of ethanol-treated rat's stomach to naproxen (NAP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 1 mL of 50% ethanol twice a day for 5 d and then NAP (50 mg/kg) was administered. DA-9601 was administered 1 h before NAP. Four hours after NAP, the rats were killed to examine gross injury index (mm2), histologic change and to determine mucosal levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), glutathione (GSH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Pretreatment of ethanol significantly increased NAP-induced gastric lesions, as well as an increase in MDA and MPO. On the contrary, mucosal PGE2 and GSH contents were decreased dramatically by ethanol pretreatment, which were aggravated by NAP. DA-9601 significantly reduced NAP-induced gastric injury grossly and microscopically, regardless of pretreatment with ethanol. DA-9601 preserved, or rather, increased mucosal PGE2 and GSH in NAP-treated rats (P<0.05), with reduction in mucosal MDA and MPO levels. These results suggest that repeated alcohol consumption renders gastric mucosa more susceptible to NSAIDs though, at least in part, reduction of endogenous cytoprotectants including PGE2 and GSH, and increase in MPO activation, and that DA-9601, a new gastroprotectant, can reduce the increased vulnerability of ethanol consumers to NSAIDs-induced gastric damage via the mechanism in which PGE2 and GSH are involved.

  3. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  4. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-01-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)–associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy. PMID:25578789

  5. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori significantly reduced gastric damage in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-treated Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Chao; Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Lien, Gi-Shih; Lou, Horng-Yuan; Hsieh, Ching-Ruey; Fang, Chia-Lang; Pan, Shiann

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori prior to usage of NSAIDs, by investigating gastric inflammatory activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, prostaglandin (PG) E2 synthesis in H pylori-infected, and H pylori-eradicated gerbils followed by administration of indomethacin and rofecoxib. METHODS: Six-week-old male gerbils were orally inoculated with H pylori. Seven weeks later, anti-H pylori triple therapy and vehicle were given to gerbils respectively and followed by oral indomethacin (2 mg/kg.d) or rofecoxib (10 mg/kg.d) for 2 wk. We examined the area of lesions, gastric inflammatory activity, PGE2 synthesis and MPO activity in the stomach. RESULTS: In indomethacin and rofecoxib-treated gerbils, the following results were obtained in H pylori-infected group vs H pylori-eradicated group respectively: hyperplasia area of the stomach (mm2): 82.4±9.2 vs 13.9±3.5 (P<0.05), 30.5±5.1 vs 1.3±0.6 (P<0.05); erosion and ulcer area (mm2): 14.4±4.9 vs 0.86±0.5 (P<0.05), 1.3±0.6 vs 0.4±0.3 (P<0.05); score of gastritis: 7.0±0.0 vs 3.6±0.5 (P<0.05), 7.0±0.0 vs 2.7±0.5 (P<0.05); MPO activity (μmol H2O2/min/g tissue): 104.7±9.2 vs 9.0±2.3 (P<0.05), 133.5±15.0 vs 2.9±0.7 (P<0.05); PGE2 synthesis (pg/mg wet weight/min): 299.2±81.5 vs 102.8±26.2 (P<0.05), 321.4±30.3 vs 11.9±4.8 (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Eradication of H pylori reduced gastric damage of NSAID-treated Mongolian gerbils. Rofecoxib caused less severe gastric damage than indomethacin in H pylori-eradicated gerbils. PMID:15609406

  6. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  7. SIMPLIFIED LAPAROSCOPIC GASTRIC BYPASS WITH GASTROJEJUNAL LINEAR MECHANICAL ANASTOMOSIS: TECHNICAL ASPECTS.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Mariano; Serra, Edgardo

    Gastric bypass is a restrictive and malabsorptive surgery. The restrictive part consists in the creation of a small gastric pouch. The gastrointestinal bypass serves as the malabsorptive element. To describe a simplified gastric bypass approach for morbid obese patients, showing our results, and also remarking the importance of this technique for reducing the learning curve. The patient is positioned in a split legs position and carefully strapped to the operating room table, with the surgeon between the patient's legs. Five trocars are inserted after pneumoperitoneum at the umbilicus. Dissection of the esophagogastric angle and lesser curvature is mandatory before the gastric pouch manufacturing. This pouch is done with two blue load staplers. Using a blue load linear stapler inserted only half way into the hole in the pouch is used to perform the gastrojejunal anastomosis and in order to create an anastomosis that is about 2 cm in length. A side-to-side jejunojejunostomy is done with a white load linear stapler. The last step of the gastric bypass consists in the cut of the jejunum between the two anastomosis with a white load linear stapler. Blue test is performed in order to detect leaks. From January 2012 to December 2015, 415 simplified RYGB were performed. Gender: 67% female and 33 % males. Average of BMI 44.7. Mean age was 42 years old. Mean operative time 79 min. 39 % of this sample had T2 diabetes. Regarding complications were observed, one fistula, one gastrojejunal stenosis and one obstruction due to a bezoar. The described technique is a simplified approach in which all the anastomosis are performed in the upper part of the abdomen, allowing the surgeons to be more systematized and avoiding them to make mistakes in the confection of the Roux-en-Y anastomosis. This simplified gastric bypass is a safe and reproducible technique. Bypass gástrico é cirurgia restritiva e malabsortiva. A parte restritiva consiste na criação de uma pequena bolsa g

  8. Anti-Gastric Ulcer Effect of Betulinic Acid in Male Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Onwuchekwa, C; Oluwole, F S

    2015-12-20

    Betulinic acid (BA) is a lupane-type triterpene that has been identified and isolated from various plant species used in ethnomedicine in various cultures across the world. This study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the anti-ulcer effect of Betulinic acid. The effect of BA on indomethacin-induced ulcer, gastric mucus secretion, gastric mucus cells count, basal and histamine-induced gastric acid secretion and levels of malondialdehyde formation were studied using dose of 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg. The results showed that BA reduced indomethacin-induced ulceration significantly and significantly increased  gastric mucus secretion in the 1.5 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg BA treated rats compared to the control rats. There was a significant increase  in the mucus cells count in all the treated groups which is in a dose- dependent manner compared to the control group. There was significant decrease  in gastric acid secretion in each of the BA treated groups compared to the control. Malondialdehyde concentration significantly decrease in all the treated groups compared to the control. The anti-gastric ulcer effect of BA may be mediated via decreasing gastric acid secretion, increasing gastric mucus secretions, increasing the number of gastric mucus cells and also by reducing the level of MDA concentration.

  9. Effect of pectin, lecithin, and antacid feed supplements (Egusin®) on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH and blood gas values in horses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of two commercial feed supplements, Egusin 250® [E-250] and Egusin SLH® [E-SLH], on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH, and blood gas values in stall-confined horses undergoing feed-deprivation. Methods Nine Thoroughbred horses were used in a three-period crossover study. For the three treatment groups, sweet feed was mixed with E-250, E-SLH, or nothing (control group) and fed twice daily. Horses were treated for 21 days, then an additional 7 days while on an alternating feed-deprivation model to induce or worsen ulcers (period one). In periods two and three, horses (n=6) were treated for an additional 7 days after feed-deprivation. Gastroscopies were performed on day -1 (n=9), day 21 (n=9), day 28 (n=9) and day 35 (n=6). Gastric juice pH was measured and gastric ulcer scores were assigned. Venous blood gas values were also measured. Results Gastric ulcers in control horses significantly decreased after 21 days, but there was no difference in ulcer scores when compared to the Egusin® treated horses. NG gastric ulcer scores significantly increased in E-250 and control horses on day 28 compared to day 21 as a result of intermittent feed-deprivation, but no treatment effect was observed. NG ulcer scores remained high in the control group but significantly decreased in the E-SLH- and E-250-treated horses by day 35. Gastric juice pH values were low and variable and no treatment effect was observed. Mean blood pCO2 values were significantly increased two hours after feeding in treated horses compared to controls, whereas mean blood TCO2 values increased in the 24 hour sample, but did not exceed 38 mmol/l. Conclusions The feed-deprivation model increased NG gastric ulcer severity in the horses. However, by day 35, Egusin® treated horses had less severe NG gastric ulcers compared to untreated control horses. After 35 days, Egusin® products tested here ameliorate the severity of gastric ulcers in

  10. Effect of pectin, lecithin, and antacid feed supplements (Egusin®) on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH and blood gas values in horses.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Michelle C; Huff, Nan K; Garza, Frank; Keowen, Michael L; Kearney, Michael T; Andrews, Frank M

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of two commercial feed supplements, Egusin 250® [E-250] and Egusin SLH® [E-SLH], on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH, and blood gas values in stall-confined horses undergoing feed-deprivation. Nine Thoroughbred horses were used in a three-period crossover study. For the three treatment groups, sweet feed was mixed with E-250, E-SLH, or nothing (control group) and fed twice daily. Horses were treated for 21 days, then an additional 7 days while on an alternating feed-deprivation model to induce or worsen ulcers (period one). In periods two and three, horses (n=6) were treated for an additional 7 days after feed-deprivation. Gastroscopies were performed on day -1 (n=9), day 21 (n=9), day 28 (n=9) and day 35 (n=6). Gastric juice pH was measured and gastric ulcer scores were assigned. Venous blood gas values were also measured. Gastric ulcers in control horses significantly decreased after 21 days, but there was no difference in ulcer scores when compared to the Egusin® treated horses. NG gastric ulcer scores significantly increased in E-250 and control horses on day 28 compared to day 21 as a result of intermittent feed-deprivation, but no treatment effect was observed. NG ulcer scores remained high in the control group but significantly decreased in the E-SLH- and E-250-treated horses by day 35. Gastric juice pH values were low and variable and no treatment effect was observed. Mean blood pCO2 values were significantly increased two hours after feeding in treated horses compared to controls, whereas mean blood TCO2 values increased in the 24 hour sample, but did not exceed 38 mmol/l. The feed-deprivation model increased NG gastric ulcer severity in the horses. However, by day 35, Egusin® treated horses had less severe NG gastric ulcers compared to untreated control horses. After 35 days, Egusin® products tested here ameliorate the severity of gastric ulcers in stall-confined horses after feed stress.

  11. Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Koji; Kushima, Ryoji; Murakami, Naoya; Kuroda, Yuuki; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Yoshio, Kotaro; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2013-10-26

    There have been sporadic reports about synchronous as well as metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Many reports have dealt with metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach. But to our knowledge, there have been no reports that document the increased incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma after primary gastric lymphoma treatment, especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The retrospective cohort study of 139 primary gastric lymphoma patients treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Mean observation period was 61.5 months (range: 3.7-124.6 months). Patients profile, characteristics of primary gastric lymphoma and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from medical records. The risk of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma was compared with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Japanese population. There were 10 (7.2%) metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma patients after treatment of primary gastric lymphomas. It was quite high risk compared with the risk of gastric carcinoma in Japanese population of 54.7/100,000. Seven patients of 10 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other 3 patients were mixed type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Four patients of 10 metachronous gastric adenocarcinomas were signet-ring cell carcinoma and two patients died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma may have a more malignant potential than sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Old age, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal change of chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were possible risk factors for metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. There was an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric lymphoma

  12. Neonatal gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Kuremu, R T; Hadley, G P; Wiersma, R

    2004-01-01

    Gastric perforation in neonates is a catastrophe associated with high morbidity. Most are due to underlying primary pathology. To review the management of gastric perforation in neonates in Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa. Retrospective study of consecutive complete data sets of neonates presenting with gastric perforation. Department of Paediatric Surgery, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of Natal, Durban, South Africa. Eight neonates treated for gastric perforation between January 1998 and April 2003. Morbidity and mortality. There was an equal number of males and females. Median birth weight was 2.0 kg with a range of 1.4 to 3.2 kg. Five of the eight neonates were premature. Primary pathologies were associated with perforation in seven of the eight neonates. Prematurity, low birth weight and pneumonia were contributing factors to the poor outcome. Sepsis was a complication in seven of the eight neonates leading to their death (88% mortality). Active perinatal management, early treatment of primary pathologies, and protection of the stomach against distension in neonates at risk are essential in the management of neonatal gastric perforation.

  13. Gastric emptying and related symptoms in patients treated with buspirone, amitriptyline or clebopride: a "real world" study by 13C-octanoic Acid Breath Test.

    PubMed

    Caviglia, Gian P; Sguazzini, Carlo; Cisarò, Fabio; Ribaldone, Davide G; Rosso, Chiara; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Smedile, Antonina; Saracco, Giorgio M; Astegiano, Marco; Pellicano, Rinaldo

    2017-12-01

    Gastric motility is a key-factor in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia (FD). 13C-octanoic Acid Breath Test (OBT) is a tool used for measuring gastric emptying time in clinical setting. We aimed to investigate the variation in FD symptoms and OBT parameters after treatment with buspirone, amitriptyline or clebopride. Between Jan-2007 and Dec-2014, we enrolled 59 patients with FD unresponsive to first-line therapy with proton pump inhibitors and/or domperidone that underwent OBT before and after 3 months of buspirone (N.=32), amitriptyline (N.=16) or clebopride (N.=11) treatment. Early satiation severity was positively correlated with gastric half emptying time (t1/2) (r=0.3789, P=0.003) and gastric lag phase (r=0.3371, P=0.011), and negatively correlated with gastric emptying coefficient (r=-0.3231, P=0.015). A reduction in t1/2 measurement in association to postprandial fullness, and early satiation severity improvement was observed (P=0.009, P=0.005 and P<0.001, respectively). Patients treated with buspirone obtained both a decrease in t1/2 (P=0.005) and an amelioration in early satiation (P=0.001). Patients under amitriptyline treatment experienced an improvement in postprandial fullness (P=0.046), whereas no variation was reported in patients treated with clebopride. Patients with FD, non-responders to first-line therapy and reporting meal-related discomfort, may benefit from buspirone or amitriptyline-based therapies.

  14. A wider view on gastric erosion: detailed evaluation of complex somatic and behavioral changes in rats treated with indomethacin at gastric ulcerogenic dose.

    PubMed

    Filaretova, L P; Bagaeva, T R; Morozova, O Y; Zelena, D

    2014-10-01

    Gastric erosion is widespread side effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. To examine the complexity of the brain-gut axis regulation, indomethacin-induced gastric erosion formation was studied in connection with somatic and behavioral changes. During a constant telemetric recording of heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion of male rats we examined the effects of 24 h fasting, indomethacin (35 mg/kg s.c.) injection, and refeeding at 4 h. Behavior was analyzed on elevated plus maze (EPM) at 24 h and somatic changes at 72 h. Gastric erosion developed 4 h after indomethacin injection, healed 72 h later contrasted by large injury in the small intestine. As classical signs of chronic stress, body and thymus weight were reduced while adrenal weight was enhanced 72 h after indomethacin injection. Fasting by itself changed all telemetrically recorded parameters with most prominent decrease in heart rate. Indomethacin induced similar diminishing effects with earliest and strongest temperature decrease. As a sign of more anxious phenotype locomotion reducing effect of indomethacin injection was detected on EPM. The EPM-induced temperature elevation was missing in indomethacin-treated animals. Fasting by itself induce somatic changes, which can make the animals more vulnerable to ulcerogenic stimuli. Development of indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal lesions happened in parallel with disturbances of heart rate, core body temperature, and chronic stress-like somatic changes as well as anxiety-like behavior. We have to be more aware of the existence of the brain-gut axis and should study changes in the whole body rather than focusing on a specific organ. elevated plus maze.

  15. Clinicopathological characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of synchronous gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Munekage, Eri; Fukudome, Ian; Maeda, Hiromichi; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Togitani, Kazuto; Takasaki, Motohiro; Yokoyama, Akihito; Kobayashi, Michiya; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2014-09-01

    Synchronous primary gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma is a rare occurrence. The aim of the present retrospective study was to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of patients with this rare condition to identify post-therapeutic prognostic factors. A PubMed and MEDLINE search was performed to identify relevant articles, using the keywords 'gastric cancer' and 'gastric malignant lymphoma', while additional articles were obtained from references within these papers. A total of 57 patients who were treated for synchronous primary gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma were included in the study. A retrospective review was performed on the clinical characteristics of this disease. The median survival time for patients in this study was 81 months and the overall 1- and 5-year survival rates after therapy were 77.6% and 69.0%, respectively. The median survival period of patients with an advanced gastric cancer was significantly shorter than for early gastric cancer (p<0.001), while the depth of gastric lymphoma invasion did not significantly affect survival time. The median survival period of patients who underwent total gastrectomy was significantly shorter than that of those who underwent distal gastrectomy (p=0.035). Gastric lymphomas were significantly larger than the gastric adenocarcinomas (6.0 vs. 2.7 cm, respectively; p=0.012). The prognosis for synchronous gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma might depend more on the behavior of the adenocarcinoma than on the lymphoma, in which case the treatment and therapeutic outcomes could depend on the adenocarcinoma status. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Irinotecan, Cisplatin, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  17. Molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, A; Rodríguez Braun, E; Pérez Fidalgo, A; Chirivella González, I

    2007-04-01

    Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is still in its infancy and the contribution of molecular biology to the development of new targeted therapies in gastric cancer is far behind other more common cancers such as breast, colon or lung. This review will focus first on the difference of two well defined types of gastric cancer: intestinal and diffuse. A discussion of the cell of origin of gastric cancer with some intriguing data implicating bone marrow derived cells will follow, and a comprehensive review of different genetic alterations detected in gastric cancer, underlining those that may have clinical, therapeutic or prognostic implications.

  18. Epacadostat and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-19

    Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Esophageal Carcinoma; Recurrent Gastric Carcinoma; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Unresectable Esophageal Carcinoma

  19. Laparoscopic Conversion of One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass to a Standard Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Amor, Imed Ben; Petrucciani, Niccolo; Kassir, Radwan; Al Munifi, Abdullah; Piche, Thierry; Debs, Tarek; Gugenheim, Jean

    2017-05-01

    One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) demonstrated results similar to traditional Roux-en-Y procedures [1-3], in terms of weight loss and resolution of obesity-related comorbidities. The main controversy regarding OAGB is the concern for an association between biliary alkaline gastritis and esophageal or gastric cancer raised by some studies [4]. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman with a BMI of 41 kg/m2 who underwent a laparoscopic OAGB in 2014. One year later, she consulted for recurrent heartburns. An upper GI endoscopy showed pouchitis and bile reflux in the esophagus. Medical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease was ineffective. We decided to convert the OAGB to a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). In this video, we show how to revise an OAGB to treat chronic bile reflux, by converting the procedure to a standard RYGB. The intervention starts by restoring the normal anatomy of the small bowel, with the resection of the gastrojejunal anastomosis, which was located at 250-cm du Treitz's ligament. Then, the gastric pouch is created. A standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is performed. The resection of the gastrojejunal anastomosis allows fashioning the Roux-en-Y limb with the classical measures. This technique allows a conversion to a standard RYGB and is effective in treating the biliary reflux.

  20. Gastrogastric Fistula: an Unusual Cause for Severe Bile Reflux Following Conversion of Sleeve Gastrectomy to One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Ashraf; Bashir, Ahmad; Nimeri, Abdelrahman

    2018-05-04

    One anastomosis gastric bypass/mini-gastric bypass (OAGB/MGB) was first described in 2001 as a safe and effective procedure. It has been gaining popularity worldwide. Multiple authors have reported the need to re-operate on patients for bile reflux. We report a patient with severe bile reflux after laparoscopic conversion of sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) to OAGB/MGB. A 33-year-old patient underwent a LSG in 2014. Postoperatively, she developed severe gastroesophageal acid reflux. In 2016, she underwent conversion of LSG to OAGB/MGB at the original institution for the treatment of her reflux symptoms. In 2017, she presented to us with epigastric pain, worsening reflux symptoms, steatorrhea, hypoproteinemia (6 g/dl), and body mass index of 25 kg/m 2 . Preoperative endoscopy revealed bile reflux, suture bezoar, and ulceration at the anastomosis. Laparoscopic exploration started by identifying the anatomy and measuring the lengths of the biliopancreatic limb (350 cm) and the common channel (450 cm). Upon dissecting the pouch, a gastrogastric fistula extending from the antrum to the pouch was encountered. This was confirmed with intraoperative endoscopy with bile refluxing to the pouch. The fistula, antrum, and part of the pouch were resected. The patient was converted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. She had an uneventful postoperative recovery. At 3 months of follow-up, her weight was stable and her steatorrhea resolved. Patients with bile reflux after OAGB/MGB need a high index of suspicion to detect unusual causes. Gastrogastric fistula is an unusual etiology of bile reflux that was never reported in the literature previously.

  1. Gastric band tubing-related complication during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ongso, Yuni F; Beh, Han N

    2017-11-01

    In the past few decades, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is one of the most common bariatric procedures performed to treat morbid obesity. Device-related complication such as connection-tubing problem is rare. Here we present a case of gastric band tubing complication during pregnancy. This case illustrates the need to maintain high index of suspicion of gastric band device-related complication during pregnancy and early referral for bariatric surgical assessment is recommended.

  2. Gastric band tubing-related complication during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Beh, Han N

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the past few decades, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is one of the most common bariatric procedures performed to treat morbid obesity. Device-related complication such as connection-tubing problem is rare. Here we present a case of gastric band tubing complication during pregnancy. This case illustrates the need to maintain high index of suspicion of gastric band device-related complication during pregnancy and early referral for bariatric surgical assessment is recommended. PMID:29218217

  3. Ligation-assisted endoscopic submucosal resection with apical mucosal incision to treat gastric subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dingguo; Lin, Qiuling; Shi, Ruiyue; Wang, Lisheng; Yao, Jun; Tian, Yanhui

    2018-06-18

     This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and feasibility of performing endoscopic submucosal resection with a ligation device (ESMR-L) after apical mucosal incision (AMI) for the treatment of gastric subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria (SET-MPs).  14 patients with gastric SET-MPs were treated by ESMR-L with AMI between December 2016 and May 2017. The complete resection rate, operation duration, and postoperative complications were collected. All patients were followed for 2 - 6 months.  The complete resection rate was 100 %, the mean tumor size was 10.71 ± 3.45 mm (7 - 18 mm), and the median operative time was 18.5 minutes. Perforation occurred in four patients, with all lesions being completely repaired endoscopically. No delayed bleeding or peritoneal signs were observed. No residual lesions or recurrence were found during the follow-up period.  AMI with ESMR-L appears to be an efficient and simple method for the histological diagnosis of gastric SET-MPs, but it carries a high perforation rate and cannot guarantee cure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Severe gastric variceal bleeding successfully treated by emergency splenic artery embolization.

    PubMed

    Sankararaman, Senthilkumar; Velayuthan, Sujithra; Vea, Romulo; Herbst, John

    2013-06-01

    Bleeding from gastric varices due to splenic vein obstruction is extremely rare in children, but it can be catastrophic. Reported herein is the case of a teenager with splenic vein thrombosis and chronic decompensated liver disease from autoimmune hepatitis who presented with massive gastric variceal bleeding. Standard medical management did not control the bleeding. Due to decompensated liver disease and continuous active bleeding, emergency partial splenic artery embolization was preferred over splenectomy or a shunt procedure. Bleeding was successfully controlled by partial splenic artery embolization by decreasing the inflow of blood into the portal system. It is concluded that emergency partial splenic artery embolization is a safer alternative life-saving procedure to manage severe gastric variceal bleeding due to splenic vein obstruction in a patient with high surgical risk. To our knowledge, only one other patient with similar management has been reported in the pediatric age group. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. [A case of gastric outlet obstruction and rectal obstruction due to metastases from breast cancer treated by gastroduodenal and colon stenting].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yoshihiro; Egawa, Chiyomi; Ishida, Tomo; Sato, Yasufumi; Kusama, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Tadayoshi; Matsushita, Katsunori; Kimura, Kei; Katsura, Yoshiteru; Nitta, Kanae; Kagawa, Yoshinori; Okishiro, Masatsugu; Takeno, Atsushi; Nakahira, Shin; Sakisaka, Hideki; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Takeda, Yutaka; Kato, Takeshi; Tamura, Shigeyuki; Takatsuka, Yuichi

    2014-11-01

    Malignant bowel obstruction often causes oral intake difficulties and decreases quality of life. In Japan, gastroduodenal stenting for malignant gastric outlet obstruction has been covered by health insurance since 2010, while colon stenting has been covered since 2012. Both approaches are useful treatments for malignant bowel obstruction. Here we report the case of a woman with gastric outlet obstruction and rectal obstruction due to breast cancer metastases who was able to eat solid food after duodenal and colon stenting. When choosing whether to perform endoscopic stenting or surgical intervention such as gastrojejunostomy, ileostomy, and colostomy for treating malignant bowel obstruction, it is important to assess the patient's general condition and prognosis as well as the obstruction position.

  6. Gene expression analysis of a Helicobacter pylori-infected and high-salt diet-treated mouse gastric tumor model: identification of CD177 as a novel prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and excessive salt intake are known as important risk factors for stomach cancer in humans. However, interactions of these two factors with gene expression profiles during gastric carcinogenesis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the global gene expression associated with stomach carcinogenesis and prognosis of human gastric cancer using a mouse model. Methods To find candidate genes involved in stomach carcinogenesis, we firstly constructed a carcinogen-induced mouse gastric tumor model combined with H. pylori infection and high-salt diet. C57BL/6J mice were given N-methyl-N-nitrosourea in their drinking water and sacrificed after 40 weeks. Animals of a combination group were inoculated with H. pylori and fed a high-salt diet. Gene expression profiles in glandular stomach of the mice were investigated by oligonucleotide microarray. Second, we examined an availability of the candidate gene as prognostic factor for human patients. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD177, one of the up-regulated genes, was performed in human advanced gastric cancer specimens to evaluate the association with prognosis. Results The multiplicity of gastric tumor in carcinogen-treated mice was significantly increased by combination of H. pylori infection and high-salt diet. In the microarray analysis, 35 and 31 more than two-fold up-regulated and down-regulated genes, respectively, were detected in the H. pylori-infection and high-salt diet combined group compared with the other groups. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant over-expression of two candidate genes including Cd177 and Reg3g. On immunohistochemical analysis of CD177 in human advanced gastric cancer specimens, over-expression was evident in 33 (60.0%) of 55 cases, significantly correlating with a favorable prognosis (P = 0.0294). Multivariate analysis including clinicopathological factors as covariates revealed high expression of CD177 to be an

  7. Perforated peptic ulcer following gastric bypass for obesity.

    PubMed

    Macgregor, A M; Pickens, N E; Thoburn, E K

    1999-03-01

    Peptic ulcer in the excluded segment of a gastric bypass performed in the management of morbid obesity has only rarely been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study is to review our experience with the condition in a series of 4300 patients who underwent gastric-restrictive surgery between 1978 and 1997. Eleven patients presented with acute perforation of a peptic ulcer in the excluded gastric segment. Nine ulcers were duodenal, one was gastric, and one patient had both gastric and duodenal perforations. The time between primary gastric-restrictive surgery and ulcer perforation varied from 20 days to 12 years. All patients presented with upper abdominal pain. The classical radiological sign of perforated peptic ulcer, free air under the diaphragm, did not occur in any patient. Nine patients were initially treated by primary closure of the perforation with subsequent definitive ulcer therapy by vagotomy, pyloroplasty, or gastrectomy. One case, initially treated elsewhere, was managed by placement of a Malecot catheter through the duodenal perforation, gastrostomy, and peritoneal drainage. One recent case remains symptom-free on H2 blockers after simple closure. There was no mortality. Six cases were previously reported in the literature with a 33 per cent mortality rate.

  8. Everolimus for Previously Treated Advanced Gastric Cancer: Results of the Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III GRANITE-1 Study

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Bai, Yu-Xian; Bang, Yung-Jue; Chung, Hyun-Cheol; Pan, Hong-Ming; Sahmoud, Tarek; Shen, Lin; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Chin, Keisho; Muro, Kei; Kim, Yeul Hong; Ferry, David; Tebbutt, Niall C.; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Smith, Heind; Costantini, Chiara; Rizvi, Syed; Lebwohl, David; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus demonstrated promising efficacy in a phase II study of pretreated advanced gastric cancer. This international, double-blind, phase III study compared everolimus efficacy and safety with that of best supportive care (BSC) in previously treated advanced gastric cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of systemic chemotherapy were randomly assigned to everolimus 10 mg/d (assignment schedule: 2:1) or matching placebo, both given with BSC. Randomization was stratified by previous chemotherapy lines (one v two) and region (Asia v rest of the world [ROW]). Treatment continued until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate, and safety. Results Six hundred fifty-six patients (median age, 62.0 years; 73.6% male) were enrolled. Median OS was 5.4 months with everolimus and 4.3 months with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.08; P = .124). Median PFS was 1.7 months and 1.4 months in the everolimus and placebo arms, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78). Common grade 3/4 adverse events included anemia, decreased appetite, and fatigue. The safety profile was similar in patients enrolled in Asia versus ROW. Conclusion Compared with BSC, everolimus did not significantly improve overall survival for advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of previous systemic chemotherapy. The safety profile observed for everolimus was consistent with that observed for everolimus in other cancers. PMID:24043745

  9. Gastric mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Fischbach, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    Gastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is the predominant entity within the primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. Helicobacter pylori represents the decisive pathogenetic factor for gastric MALT lymphoma. The goal of treating gastric MALT lymphoma should be complete cure. The first choice of treatment is H pylori eradication. Patients with histologically persistent residual lymphoma after successful H pylori eradication and normalization of endoscopic findings should be managed by a watch-and-wait strategy. Patients who do not respond to H pylori eradication should be referred for radiation or chemotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of gastric phytobezoars with Coca-Cola given via oral route: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ertuğrul, Gökhan; Coşkun, Murat; Sevinç, Mahsuni; Ertuğrul, Fisun; Toydemir, Toygar

    2012-01-01

    A 43-year-old female patient presented with a chief complaint of upper abdominal pain. As her complaints had lasted for 1 month, an upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy was performed and discovered a bezoar in the stomach. The bezoar was quite hard and light green-yellow in color. Pathological examination revealed phytobezoar. The patient was hospitalized and given oral Coca-Cola(®) Zero for seven days at a dose of 500 mL three times daily. The upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy performed at the end of 7 days showed that the phytobezoar had softened and become smaller. The phytobezoar was broken into pieces with biopsy forceps and washing was applied, so the phytobezoar pieces could pass through the pylorus. The patient was discharged after the procedure without problem.

  11. Pembrolizumab, Capecitabine, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Mismatch-Repair Deficient and Epstein-Barr Virus Positive Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-15

    Epstein-Barr Virus Positive; Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Mismatch Repair Protein Deficiency; Stage IB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer AJCC v7

  12. Acute intestinal obstruction caused by a persimmon phytobezoar after dissolution therapy with Coca-Cola.

    PubMed

    Ha, Seung Soo; Lee, Hyun Suk; Jung, Min Kyu; Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Chang Min; Kim, Sung Kook; Choi, Yong Hwan

    2007-12-01

    Bezoars are concretions or hard masses of foreign matter that are found in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent reports have demonstrated the efficacy of Coca-Cola administration for the dissolution of phytobezors. Here we report on a 73-year-old man with a very large gastric persimmon diospyrobezoar, and this caused small intestinal obstruction after partial dissolution with oral and injected Coca-Cola.

  13. Ranitidine: forgotten drug of delayed gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Veevers, Abbie E; Oxberry, Stephen G

    2017-09-01

    Delayed gastric emptying in the presence or absence of mechanical bowel obstruction can cause distressing symptoms in palliative care patients. We present two patients, both with vomiting due to delayed gastric emptying and gastric outlet obstruction secondary to pancreatic cancer, treated with subcutaneous ranitidine resulting in a symptomatic response. We hypothesise that ranitidine is a useful adjunct to standard treatment with prokinetic agents or octreotide in such patients and potentially those with proximal mechanical bowel obstruction from other malignancies with associated delayed gastric emptying. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Customization of laparoscopic gastric devascularization and splenectomy for gastric varices based on CT vascular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Nagao, Yoshihiro; Kinjo, Nao; Yoshida, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Harimoto, Norifumi; Itoh, Shinji; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastric devascularization(Lap GDS) and splenectomy (SPL) for gastric varices is technically challenging because of highly developed collateral vessels and bleeding tendency. We investigated the feasibility of customization of Lap GDS and SPL based on CT vascular anatomy. We analyzed 61 cirrhotic patients with gastric varices who underwent Lap GDS and SPL between 2006 and 2014. Lap GDS was customized according to the afferent feeding veins (left gastric vein (LGV) and/or posterior gastric vein (PGV)/short gastric vein (SGV)) and efferent drainage veins (gastrorenal shunt and/or gastrophrenic shunt, or numerous retroperitoneal veins) based on CT imaging. Thirty-four patients with efferent drainage veins suitable for balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) underwent B-RTO instead of surgical GDS, with subsequent Lap SPL. Among 27 patients with gastric varices unsuitable for B-RTO, 15 patients with PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater curvature and SPL, and 12 patients with LGV or LGV/PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater and lesser curvature and SPL. The mean operation time was 294 min and mean blood loss was 198 g. There was no mortality or severe morbidity. Gastric varices were eradicated in all 61 patients, with no bleeding or recurrence during a mean follow-up of 55.9 months. The cumulative 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 92, 82, and 64%, respectively. Lap GDS and SPL customized based on CT vascular anatomy is a safe and effective procedure for treating gastric varices.

  15. Gastric tumor from metastasis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, D; Yoshida, H; Sumida, K; Ueyama, Y; Kanematsu, S; Shoji, T; Sueoka, N; Tanaka, K; Tsubota, Y; Kon, M

    2010-09-01

    Metastatic tumours of the stomach have been reported to result from various types of cancer. Among them, gastric metastasis from breast cancer has been recognised in 0.3-18% patients (1-4). Here, a rare case of metastatic gastric tumour derived from breast carcinoma is reported. Gastric endoscopy confirmed a large, friable mass (approximately 5 cm in diameter) in the upper part of the gastric body. The mass within the stomach was difficult to distinguish from primary gastric cancer, although biopsies of this lesion revealed the characteristics of adenocarcinoma. In addition, immunohistochemistry showed the positive expression of mammaglobin. Taken together, the evidence pointed to metastasis of breast cancer to the stomach. The patient was treated with hormonal therapy (letrozole), and the size of the metastasis in the stomach was markedly reduced. Therefore, a gastric metastasis from breast cancer was diagnosed successfully using immunohistochemistry and unnecessary surgery was avoided. In conclusion, although gastric metastatic tumours derived from breast carcinoma are rare, their accurate pre-operative diagnosis and appropriate systemic treatment is essential.

  16. Treatment of gastric phytobezoars with Coca-Cola® given via oral route: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ertuğrul, Gökhan; Coşkun, Murat; Sevinç, Mahsuni; Ertuğrul, Fisun; Toydemir, Toygar

    2012-01-01

    Background A 43-year-old female patient presented with a chief complaint of upper abdominal pain. As her complaints had lasted for 1 month, an upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy was performed and discovered a bezoar in the stomach. Case presentation The bezoar was quite hard and light green-yellow in color. Pathological examination revealed phytobezoar. The patient was hospitalized and given oral Coca-Cola® Zero for seven days at a dose of 500 mL three times daily. Conclusion The upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy performed at the end of 7 days showed that the phytobezoar had softened and become smaller. The phytobezoar was broken into pieces with biopsy forceps and washing was applied, so the phytobezoar pieces could pass through the pylorus. The patient was discharged after the procedure without problem. PMID:22393302

  17. Neurokinin-1 receptor blocker CP-99 994 improved emesis induced by cisplatin via regulating the activity of gastric distention responsive neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and enhancing gastric motility in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Xu, L; Guo, F; Luo, W; Gao, S; Luan, X

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is still common in patients with cancer. It was reported that substance P mediated CINV via neurokinin-1 (NK 1 ) receptor and antagonists of NK 1 receptor has been proved useful for treating CINV but the mechanism are not fully understood. This study aimed to examine the role of NK 1 receptor blocker, CP-99 994, when administrated into dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMNV), on the cisplatin-induced emesis in rats and the possible mechanism. Rats' kaolin intake, food intake, and bodyweight were recorded every day; gastric contraction activity was recorded in conscious rats through a force transducer implanted into the stomach; gastric emptying was monitored using the phenol red method; single unit extracellular firing in the DMNV were recorded. DMNV microinjection of CP-99 994 reduced the changes of increased kaolin consumption and suppressed food intake in cisplatin-treated rats; enhanced the gastric contraction activity dose-dependently in control and cisplatin-treated rats but enhanced gastric emptying only in cisplatin-treated rats; reduced the firing rate of gastric distention inhibited (GD-I) neurons but increased the firing rate of GD excited (GD-E) neurons in the DMNV. The effects of CP-99 994 on gastric motility and neuronal activity were stronger in cisplatin-treated rats than those of control rats. Our results suggested that CP-99 994 could improve emesis induced by cisplatin by regulating gastric motility and gastric related neuronal activity in the DMNV. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [A case of Stage IV gastric cancer was successfully treated with multi combination chemotherapy with S-1].

    PubMed

    Ami, Katsunori; Gokita, Kentarou; Kawai, Yousuke; Matsunaga, Yutarou; Fujiya, Keiichi; Ohshima, Nana; Amagasa, Hidetoshi; Ganno, Hideaki; Imai, Kenichirou; Fukuda, Akira; Nagahama, Takeshi; Ando, Masayuki; Okada, Youichi; Akita, Hidetaka; Tei, Shikofumi; Yamada, Yousuke; Takagi, Mariko; Kodaka, Fumi; Arai, Kuniyoshi

    2014-11-01

    Stage IV gastric cancer has poor prognosis, and median survival time (MST) is reported to range from 6 to 13 months. We report a case of long-term survival in a Stage IV gastric cancer patient who was successfully treated with multi combination chemotherapy with S-1. A 73-year-old woman presenting with gastric cancer with pyloric stenosis and peritoneal dissemination at the sigmoid colon underwent distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy and sigmoidectomy. She received adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 and CDDP after surgery. During the twelfth administration of S-1 and CDDP, she developed an anaphylactic reaction against CDDP; therefore, only S-1 was administered for the next 6 courses. Thirty one months postgastrectomy, a left ovarian metastasis (about 4 cm) was detected by computed tomography. Two courses of S-1 and CPT-11 were administered; however, the ovarian metastasis grew to twice its initial size. She underwent hysterectomy and bilateral ovariectomy. The pathological diagnosis was metastatic tumors in the uterus and ovary(Krukenberg tumor). After the second surgery, S-1 and docetaxel therapy was initiated. A metastasis (S2, 5mm diameter) appeared in the right lung around 65 months after the gastrectomy. The patient received a total of 28 courses, up until 69 months post-gastrectomy. At present, she hopes to finish the chemotherapy and is consulting a palliative care facility. At 80 months post-gastrectomy, she has no symptoms because the lung metastasis exhibits slow growth (15 mm diameter), and is maintaining her quality of life (QOL).

  19. Gastric neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Crosby, David A; Donohoe, Claire L; Fitzgerald, Louise; Muldoon, Cian; Hayes, Brian; O'Toole, Dermot; Reynolds, John V

    2012-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are increasingly recognised, and management decisions may be difficult due to an incomplete understanding of aetiology, natural history and optimum therapy. This article presents a current understanding based on recent advances in epidemiology, classification, molecular profiling, and treatment. Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Gastric NETs may be divided into three clinical prognostic groups: type I is associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and type III lesions are gastrin-independent, have the greatest metastatic potential and poorest prognosis. There has been an increased frequency of gastric NETs reported. Management approaches have evolved in parallel with advances in endoscopic staging and surgery, as well as improved understanding of the biology and natural history of NETs. Gastric NETs present a spectrum of activity from indolent tumours to metastatic malignancy. Treatment decisions for patients must be individualised and are best managed by a multidisciplinary team approach. The current evidence base is limited to small series and efforts to treat patients within clinical networks of expertise are warranted. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Inhibition of histone/lysine acetyltransferase activity kills CoCl2-treated and hypoxia-exposed gastric cancer cells and reduces their invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Suvasmita; Das, Lopamudra; Kokate, Shrikant Babanrao; Ghosh, Nilabh; Dixit, Pragyesh; Rout, Niranjan; Singh, Shivaram P.; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Ashktorab, Hassan; Smoot, Duane T.; Swamy, Mahadeva M.; Kundu, Tapas K.; Crowe, Sheila E.; Bhattacharyya, Asima

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia enhances immortality and metastatic properties of solid tumors. Deregulation of histone acetylation has been associated with several metastatic cancers but its effect on hypoxic responses of cancer cells is not known. This study aimed at understanding the effectiveness of the hydrazinocurcumin, CTK7A, an inhibitor of p300 lysine/histone acetyltransferase (KAT/HAT) activity, in inducing apoptosis of gastric cancer cells (GCCs) exposed to cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a hypoxia-mimetic chemical, or 1% O2. Here, we show that CTK7A-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation in CoCl2-exposed and invasive gastric cancer cells (GCCs) leads to p38 MAPK-mediated Noxa expression and thereafter, mitochondrial apoptotic events. Noxa induction in normal immortalized gastric epithelial cells after CTK7A and hypoxia-exposure is remarkably less in comparison to similarly-treated GCCs. Moreover, hypoxia-exposed GCCs, which have acquired invasive properties, become apoptotic after CTK7A treatment to a significantly higher extent than normoxic cells. Thus, we show the potential of CTK7A in sensitizing hypoxic and metastatic GCCs to apoptosis induction. PMID:27890795

  1. [Current standards in the treatment of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Hacker, Ulrich; Lordick, Florian

    2015-08-01

    Endoscopic resection is established in the treatment of early gastric cancer. More advanced gastric cancer requires gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy. Perioperative chemotherapy improves overall survival in locally advanced gastric cancer representing a standard of care. Locally advanced adenocarcinomas of the esophago-gastric junction can alternatively be treated with concurrent radiochemotherapy. In metastatic disease, systemic chemotherapy improves survival, quality of life and symptom control. Trastuzumab plus chemotherapy should be used together with first-line chemotherapy in HER2 positive gastric cancer patients. Second- and third-line therapy is now well established. The anti-VEGFR2 antibody Ramucirumab improves survival in second line treatment both as a monotherapy and in combination with paclitaxel and represents a novel treatment option. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Acute Intestinal Obstruction Caused by a Persimmon Phytobezoar after Dissolution Therapy with Coca-Cola

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Seung Soo; Lee, Hyun Suk; Jung, Min Kyu; Cho, Chang Min; Kim, Sung Kook; Choi, Yong Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Bezoars are concretions or hard masses of foreign matter that are found in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent reports have demonstrated the efficacy of Coca-Cola administration for the dissolution of phytobezors. Here we report on a 73-year-old man with a very large gastric persimmon diospyrobezoar, and this caused small intestinal obstruction after partial dissolution with oral and injected Coca-Cola. PMID:18309693

  3. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  4. Effect of sea buckthorn berries and pulp in a liquid emulsion on gastric ulcer scores and gastric juice pH in horses.

    PubMed

    Huff, N K; Auer, A D; Garza, F; Keowen, M L; Kearney, M T; McMullin, R B; Andrews, F M

    2012-01-01

    Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides) are rich in vitamin C and E, carotenoids, flavonoids, fatty acids, plant sterols, lignans, and minerals. A feed supplement containing sea buckthorn berries might have efficacy in treatment and prevention of gastric ulcers in horses. To test the efficacy of a commercially available formulation of sea buckthorn berries and pulp (SeaBuck SBT Gastro-Plus) for treatment and prevention of gastric ulcers in stall-confined horses. Eight Thoroughbred and Thoroughbred-cross horses (3-10 years of age, 5 geldings and 3 mares, 380-600 kg body weight). This study was a 2-period crossover in which all horses received no treatment (untreated controls; n = 8) and treatment (SeaBuckSBT Gastro-Plus, 4 ounces [35.6 g berries and pulp], twice daily; n = 8) mixed with a pelleted complete feed (18% crude fiber; 9% starch; 14% crude protein). Horses were treated for 4 weeks followed by a 1-week (d28-d35) alternating feed-deprivation period to induce or worsen existing ulcers. Gastroscopic examinations were performed on days 0, 28, and 35. Gastric juice pH was measured and gastric ulcer number and severity scores were assigned by a masked investigator. Mean nonglandular gastric ulcer scores significantly (P < .05) increased in all horses after day 28, as a result of intermittent feed deprivation. Mean nonglandular gastric ulcer number (P = .84) and severity (P = .51) were not significantly different between SBT-treated and untreated control horses. However, mean glandular ulcer number (P = .02) and glandular ulcer severity (P = .02) were significantly lower in the SBT-treated horses compared with the untreated control at week 5. SeaBuck SBT Gastro-Plus liquid fed to horses did not show efficacy in treatment or prevention of naturally occurring nonglandular ulcers in horses; however, glandular ulcer scores were significantly lower in SBT-treated horses after feed deprivation. Thus, SBT might have efficacy in prevention of glandular ulcers in

  5. Randomized trials and quality assurance in gastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Dikken, Johan L; Cats, Annemieke; Verheij, Marcel; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2013-03-01

    A D2 lymphadenectomy can be considered standard of surgical care for advanced resectable gastric cancer. Currently, several multimodality strategies are used, including postoperative monochemotherapy in Asia, postoperative chemoradiotherapy in the United States, and perioperative chemotherapy in Europe. As the majority of gastric cancer patients are treated outside the framework of clinical trials, quality assurance programs, including referral to high-volume centers and clinical auditing are needed to improve gastric cancer care on a nationwide level. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Gastroprotective activity of ferruginol in mice and rats: effects on gastric secretion, endogenous prostaglandins and non-protein sulfhydryls.

    PubMed

    Areche, Carlos; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania; Souza-Brito, Alba R M; Barbastefano, Víctor; de Paula, Débora; Ferreira, Anderson L; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Jaime A

    2008-02-01

    The gastroprotective mechanism of the natural diterpene ferruginol was assessed in mice and rats. The involvement of gastric prostaglandins (PGE(2)), reduced glutathione, nitric oxide or capsaicin receptors was evaluated in mice either treated or untreated with indometacin, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or ruthenium red, respectively, and then orally treated with ferruginol or vehicle. Gastric lesions were induced by oral administration of ethanol. The effects of ferruginol on the parameters of gastric secretion were assessed in pylorus-ligated rats. Gastric PGE(2) content was determined in rats treated with ferruginol and/or indometacin. The reduction of gastric glutathione (GSH) content was determined in rats treated with ethanol after oral administration of ferruginol, lansoprazole or vehicle. Finally, the acute oral toxicity was assessed in mice. Indometacin reversed the gastroprotective effect of ferruginol (25 mg kg(-1)) but not NEM, ruthenium red or L-NAME. The diterpene (25 mg kg(-1)) increased the gastric juice volume and its pH value, and reduced the titrable acidity but was devoid of effect on the gastric mucus content. Ferruginol (25, 50 mg kg(-1)) increased gastric PGE(2) content in a dose-dependent manner and prevented the reduction in GSH observed due to ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. Single oral doses up to 3 g kg(-1) ferruginol did not elicit mortality or acute toxic effects in mice. Our results showed that ferruginol acted as a gastroprotective agent stimulating the gastric PGE(2) synthesis, reducing the gastric acid output and improving the antioxidant capacity of the gastric mucosa by maintaining the GSH levels.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and absorption of the anticancer agents dasatinib and GDC-0941 under various gastric conditions in dogs--reversing the effect of elevated gastric pH with betaine HCl.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jodie; Dalziel, Gena; Dean, Brian; Ware, Joseph A; Salphati, Laurent

    2013-11-04

    Changes in gastric pH can impact the dissolution and absorption of compounds presenting pH-dependent solubility. We assessed, in dogs, the effects of gastric pH-modifying agents on the oral absorption of two weakly basic anticancer drugs, dasatinib and GDC-0941. We also tested whether drug-induced hypochlorhydria could be temporarily mitigated using betaine HCl. Pretreatments with pentagastrin, famotidine, betaine HCl, or combinations of famotidine and betaine HCl were administered orally to dogs prior to drug dosing. The gastric pH was measured under each condition for up to 7 h, and the exposure of the compounds tested was calculated. The average gastric pH in fasted dogs ranged from 1.45 to 3.03. Pentagastrin or betaine HCl treatments lowered the pH and reduced its variability between dogs compared to control animals. In contrast, famotidine treatment maintained gastric pH at values close to 7 for up to 5 h, while betaine HCl transiently reduced the pH to approximately 2 in the famotidine-treated dogs. Famotidine pretreatment lowered GDC-0941 exposure by 5-fold, and decreased dasatinib measurable concentrations 30-fold, compared to the pentagastrin-treated dogs. Betaine HCl restored GDC-0941 AUC in famotidine-treated dogs to levels achieved in control animals, and increased dasatinib AUC to 1.5-fold that measured in control dogs. The results confirmed the negative impact of acid-reducing agents on the absorption of weakly basic drugs. They also suggested that betaine HCl coadministration may be a viable strategy in humans treated with acid-reducing agents in order to temporarily reduce gastric pH and restore drug exposure.

  8. Cutaneous metastasis revealing a relapse of gastric linitis: Another case.

    PubMed

    Kairouani, Mouna; Perrin, Julie; Dietemann-Barabinot, Anne; Diab, Rafiq; Ruck, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous metastasis from gastric cancer is a rare occurrence. The linitis gastric carcinoma accounts only 8.7% of all gastric cancers. We report a case of female patient who was followed for linits cancer with peritoneal metastasis treated by six cycles of chemotherapy. After seventeen months of control, the relapse of the disease revealed by occurrence of cutaneous metastatsis. Cutaneous metastasis from linit gastric is rare and the prognostic remains poor. The treatment is palliative. This rare presentation should encourage the practitioners to biopsy any suspicion skin lesion. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cutaneous metastasis revealing a relapse of gastric linitis: Another case

    PubMed Central

    Kairouani, Mouna; Perrin, Julie; Dietemann-Barabinot, Anne; Diab, Rafiq; Ruck, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cutaneous metastasis from gastric cancer is a rare occurrence. The linitis gastric carcinoma accounts only 8.7% of all gastric cancers. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of female patient who was followed for linits cancer with peritoneal metastasis treated by six cycles of chemotherapy. After seventeen months of control, the relapse of the disease revealed by occurrence of cutaneous metastatsis. DISCUSSION Cutaneous metastasis from linit gastric is rare and the prognostic remains poor. The treatment is palliative. CONCLUSION This rare presentation should encourage the practitioners to biopsy any suspicion skin lesion. PMID:23276763

  10. Gastric ulcer bleeding from a variant left gastric artery accompanied by congenital absence of the splenic artery successfully treated with coil embolization: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Masashi; Kakizaki, Satoru; Takakusaki, Satoshi; Saito, Shuichi; Yata, Yutaka; Mori, Masatomo

    2011-12-01

    Endoscopic hemostasis is a useful treatment modality for gastric ulcer bleeding. However, it is sometimes difficult to achieve hemostasis in cases with arterial bleeding, especially those complicated with vascular abnormalities. We describe a case with gastric ulcer bleeding from a variant left gastric artery accompanied by congenital absence of the splenic artery. A 50-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with dizziness and tarry stools. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed bleeding from a gastric ulcer, and endoscopic hemostasis by endoscopic clipping was carried out. Computed tomography and abdominal angiography revealed the variant left gastric artery running below the gastric ulcer. In spite of endoscopic hemostasis and medication, re-bleeding from the gastric ulcer occurred. A transcatheter coil embolization for the variant left gastric artery was performed and successfully achieved hemostasis. This case was accompanied by congenital absence of the splenic artery, which is an extremely rare condition. We herein describe this rare case and review previously reported cases.

  11. Large early gastric cancers treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection with an insulation-tipped diathermic knife.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Chao; Tiong, Cheng; Fang, Chia-Lang; Pan, Shiann; Liu, Jean-Dean; Lou, Horng-Yuan; Hsieh, Ching-Ruey; Chen, Sheng-Hsuan

    2007-03-01

    It is difficult to remove a large early gastric cancer (> or = 3 cm) in one-piece resection using conventional endoscopic mucosal resection. We tried to use an insulation-tipped (IT) diathermic knife to dissect these lesions. IT-endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was performed in four aging patients with gastric malignancy. All lesions could be removed in one-piece resection by IT-ESD, although three of them exhibited remarkable fibrosis and ulceration. Three cases experienced curative treatment with IT-ESD after the pathologic evaluation, but it was not curative in one case because the pathology showed angiolymphatic invasion. This patient refused additional surgery in consideration of existing major systemic diseases. At 3 months to 1 year of follow-up, endoscopy showed no evidence of residual cancer. IT-ESD is effective in the treatment of large early gastric cancer and is an alternative treatment for early gastric cancer patients who are at risk for major operation.

  12. Consensus on the clinical management, screening-to-treat, and surveillance of Helicobacter pylori infection to improve gastric cancer control on a nationwide scale.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Bor-Shyang; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Chiu, Cheng-Tang; Lo, Jing-Chuan; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Liou, Jyh-Ming; Wu, Chun-Ying; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Lee, Yi-Chia; Hsu, Ping-I; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chang, Wei-Lun; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2017-06-01

    Previous international consensus statements provided general policies for the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, there are geographic differences in the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori, and in the availability of medications and endoscopy. Thus, nationwide or regional consensus statements are needed to improve control of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. This consensus statement for management of H. pylori in Taiwan has three major sections: (1) optimal diagnosis and indications; (2) current treatment strategies; and (3) screening-to-treat and surveillance for control of gastric cancer. The literature review emphasized recent data for development of draft statements and determination of levels of evidence. Twenty-five Taiwan experts conducted a consensus conference, by a modified Delphi process, to modify the draft statements. Consensus, defined as an agreement of least 80% of the experts, and recommendation grade were determined by anonymous voting. There were 24 consensus statements. Section 1 has seven statements on recommendations for the diagnosis and indications for treatment of H. pylori infection. Section 2 has 10 statements that provide an updated treatment algorithm for first-line, second-line, and third-line regimens. Section 3 has seven statements regarding H. pylori eradication for reducing the risk of gastric cancer, with a cost-benefit analysis. After H. pylori eradication, the consensus highlights the use of endoscopic surveillance and/or chemoprevention to further reduce the burden of gastric cancer. This consensus statement has updated recommendations for improving the clinical management of H. pylori infection in areas such as Taiwan, which have high prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied From the Short Gastric Artery: Treatment With Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Ung Bae, E-mail: junwb73@pnuyh.co.kr; Lee, Jun Woo, E-mail: jwlee@pusan.ac.kr; Baik, Seung Kug, E-mail: skbaik9@gmail.com

    2012-12-15

    We report a case of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that was supplied by the short gastric artery. A 67-year-old woman with two nodular HCCs underwent repeated TACE. One of the nodules was supplied by the short gastric artery.

  14. Phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase expression associated with prognosis for patients with gastric cancer treated with cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byung Woog; Jeong, Ji Yun; Chae, Yee Soo; Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Yoo Jin; Choi, Jun Young; Lee, In-Kyu; Jeon, Seong Woo; Bae, Han Ik; Lee, Da Keun; Kwon, Oh-Kyoung; Chung, Ho Young; Yu, Wansik; Kim, Jong Gwang

    2012-11-01

    The present study analyzed the expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK), Fyn kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK-1) and their impact on the survival of patients with resected gastric cancer who received cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Korean patients with stage II-IV (M0) gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent a gastrectomy with D2 lymph node resection and received a combination regimen of cisplatin and S-1 were enrolled. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to determine the expression of pAMPK, Fyn kinase, and PDK-1 in operative specimens of gastric cancer. The expression was divided into two groups according to the intensity score (negative: 0 or 1+ and positive: 2+ or 3+). From January 2006 to July 2010, 73 tumor samples obtained from 74 patients were analyzed. Forty patients were included in the pAMPK-positive group, while 33 patients were included in the pAMPK-negative group. Meanwhile, positive Fyn kinase expression was observed in only 10 patients (13.7 %), and there was no or very weak PDK-1 staining. The clinicopathologic characteristics were similar between the two groups according to the expression of pAMPK. With a median follow-up duration of 26.5 months (2.6-73.2), the estimated 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival rates were 55.0 and 78.4 %, respectively. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, Lauren classification, and stage, the pAMPK-negative group was significantly associated with improved RFS (Hazard ratio = 0.459, 95 % CI 0.109-0.711, P = 0.043). A low expression of pAMPK was found to be correlated with better RFS in patients with resected gastric cancer treated with adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  15. [Comparison of CT findings between gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei-Jun; Lu, Yan-Chun; Liu, Li-Zhi; Shen, Jing-Xian; Xie, Chuan-Miao; Li, Xian; Zhang, Liang

    2008-05-01

    It is difficult to discriminate progressive gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma by CT imaging, because incrassate gastric wall, lump in gastric cavity, confined gastric cavity, intumescent lymph node, and distant metastasis can be displayed in both of them. This study was to compare the CT findings between gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma to improve diagnosis of gastric tumors, especially for gastric lymphoma. CT images of 27 patients with pathologically proved progressive gastric cancer and 25 patients with pathologically proved gastric lymphoma were reviewed. Tumor location, appearance, scope of involvement, gastric wall thickness, mucous membrane, mucosal fold, serosa membrane, necrosis, enhancement degree and uniformity, involvement of other organs, and abdominal lymph nodes were observed. White line sign was observed in 23 cases (85.2%) of gastric cancer, but not in the 25 cases of gastric lymphoma. The extent of white line sign in gastric cancers was larger in portal vein phase than in arterial phase. Enhancement degree outside the white line was higher in portal vein phase than in arterial phase in 13 cases (48.1%) of gastric cancer. The extent of involved gastric wall was smaller than 50% of the whole gastric wall in all the 27 cases of gastric cancer, while it was larger than 75% in 23 cases (85.2%) of gastric lymphoma. Gastric mucous membrane ulcer was found in all of the 27 cases (100%) of gastric cancer, while it was found in only 1 case (4.0%) of gastric lymphoma. Intumescent lymph nodes in two or more areas were found in 11 cases (40.0%) of gastric lymphoma, but not in gastric cancer. Intumescent lymph nodes in the retroperitoneal space below renal hilum were found in 8 cases (32%) of gastric lymphoma, but not in gastric cancer. There are some different CT features between gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma, such as white line sign, gastric mucous membrane ulcer, extent of involved gastric wall, location of intumescent lymph nodes surrounding the

  16. Anastomotic Complications After Ivor Lewis Esophagectomy in Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Are Related to Radiation Dose to the Gastric Fundus

    SciTech Connect

    Vande Walle, Caroline; Ceelen, Wim P., E-mail: wim.ceelen@ugent.be; Boterberg, Tom

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) is increasingly used in locally advanced esophageal cancer. Some studies have suggested that CRT results in increased surgical morbidity. We assessed the influence of CRT on anastomotic complications in a cohort of patients who underwent CRT followed by Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. Patients and Methods: Clinical and pathologic data were collected from all patients treated with neoadjuvant CRT (36 Gy combined with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin) followed by Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. On the radiotherapy (RT) planning computed tomography scans, normal tissue volumes were drawn encompassing the proximal esophageal region and the gastric fundus. Within these volumes, dose-volume histogramsmore » were analyzed to generate the total dose to 50% of the volume (D{sub 50}). We studied the ability of the D{sub 50} to predict anastomotic complications (leakage, ischemia, or stenosis). Dose limits were derived using receiver operating characteristics analysis. Results: Fifty-four patients were available for analysis. RT resulted in either T or N downstaging in 51% of patients; complete pathologic response was achieved in 11%. In-hospital mortality was 5.4%, and major morbidity occurred in 36% of patients. Anastomotic complications (AC) developed in 7 patients (13%). No significant influence of the D{sub 50} on the proximal esophagus was noted on the anastomotic complication rate. The median D{sub 50} on the gastric fundus, however, was 33 Gy in patients with AC and 18 Gy in patients without AC (p = 0.024). Using receiver operating characteristics analysis, the D{sub 50} limit on the gastric fundus was defined as 29 Gy. Conclusions: In patients undergoing neoadjuvant CRT followed by Ivor Lewis esophagectomy, the incidence of AC is related to the RT dose on the gastric fundus but not to the dose received by the proximal esophagus. When planning preoperative RT, efforts should be made to limit the median dose on the gastric fundus to 29 Gy

  17. Gastric cancer arising from the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy: a review.

    PubMed

    Takeno, Shinsuke; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Maki, Kenji; Shibata, Ryosuke; Shiwaku, Hironari; Yamana, Ippei; Yamashita, Risako; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2014-10-14

    Gastric stump carcinoma was initially reported by Balfore in 1922, and many reports of this disease have since been published. We herein review previous reports of gastric stump carcinoma with respect to epidemiology, carcinogenesis, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, Epstein-Barr virus infection, clinicopathologic characteristics and endoscopic treatment. In particular, it is noteworthy that no prognostic differences are observed between gastric stump carcinoma and primary upper third gastric cancer. In addition, endoscopic submucosal dissection has recently been used to treat gastric stump carcinoma in the early stage. In contrast, many issues concerning gastric stump carcinoma remain to be clarified, including molecular biological characteristics and the carcinogenesis of H. pylori infection. We herein review the previous pertinent literature and summarize the characteristics of gastric stump carcinoma reported to date.

  18. Cecal volvulus as a complication of gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Fakhro, Abdulla; O'Riordan, James M; Lawler, Leo P; O'Connell, P Ronan

    2009-12-01

    Surgery is an increasingly important management option for patients with obesity. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is a procedure employed to treat morbid obesity refractory to medical therapy. It works by reducing the capacity of the stomach and promoting early satiety. We report the unusual case of a 33-year-old female who presented acutely 2 years following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding with cecal volvulus and closed loop obstruction caused by displacement of the connecting tube.

  19. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach’s extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition. PMID:27200168

  20. Identifying therapeutic targets in gastric cancer: the current status and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Beiqin; Xie, Jingwu

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Our basic understanding of gastric cancer biology falls behind that of many other cancer types. Current standard treatment options for gastric cancer have not changed for the last 20 years. Thus, there is an urgent need to establish novel strategies to treat this deadly cancer. Successful clinical trials with Gleevec in CML and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have set up an example for targeted therapy of cancer. In this review, we will summarize major progress in classification, therapeutic options of gastric cancer. We will also discuss molecular mechanisms for drug resistance in gastric cancer. In addition, we will attempt to propose potential future directions in gastric cancer biology and drug targets. PMID:26373844

  1. Growth inhibitory effect of 4-phenyl butyric acid on human gastric cancer cells is associated with cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Zhu; Deng, Hong-Xia; Lou, Wen-Zhu; Sun, Xue-Yan; Song, Meng-Wan; Tao, Jing; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

    2012-01-07

    To investigate the growth effects of 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) on human gastric carcinoma cells and their mechanisms. Moderately-differentiated human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 and lowly-differentiated MGC-803 cells were treated with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 μmol/L PBA for 1-4 d. Cell proliferation was detected using the MTT colorimetric assay. Cell cycle distributions were examined using flow cytometry. The proliferation of gastric carcinoma cells was inhibited by PBA in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Flow cytometry showed that SGC-7901 cells treated with low concentrations of PBA were arrested at the G₀/G₁ phase, whereas cells treated with high concentrations of PBA were arrested at the G₂/M phase. Although MGC-803 cells treated with low concentrations of PBA were also arrested at the G₀/ G₁ phase, cells treated with high concentrations of PBA were arrested at the S phase. The growth inhibitory effect of PBA on gastric cancer cells is associated with alteration of the cell cycle. For moderately-differentiated gastric cancer cells, the cell cycle was arrested at the G₀ /G₁ and G₂/M phases. For lowly-differentiated gastric cancer cells, the cell cycle was arrested at the G₀/G₁ and S phases.

  2. Gastric dilatation-volvulus after splenic torsion in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Millis, D L; Nemzek, J; Riggs, C; Walshaw, R

    1995-08-01

    Two dogs developed gastric dilatation-volvulus 2 and 17 months, respectively, after splenectomy for treatment of splenic torsion. Splenic displacement and torsion may stretch the gastric ligaments, allowing increased mobility of the stomach. After splenectomy, an anatomic void may be created in the cranioventral part of the abdomen, contributing to the mobility of the stomach. Veterinarians treating dogs with isolated splenic torsion may wish to consider prophylactic gastropexy at splenectomy, to reduce the chance of future gastric dilatation-volvulus. Prophylactic gastropexy should be done only if the dog's hemodynamic status is stable enough to allow for performance of the additional surgery.

  3. Predictors of response to a behavioral treatment in patients with chronic gastric motility disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashed, Hani; Cutts, Teresa; Abell, Thomas; Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William; El-Gammal, Ahmed; Adl, Dima

    2002-01-01

    Chronic gastric motility disorders have proven intractable to most traditional therapies. Twenty-six patients with chronic nausea and vomiting were treated with a behavioral technique, autonomic training (AT) with directed imagery (verbal instructions), to help facilitate physiological control. After treatment, gastrointestinal symptoms decreased by >30% in 58% of the treated patients. We compared those improved patients to the 43% who did not improve significantly. No significant differences existed in baseline symptoms and autonomic measures between both groups. However, baseline measures of gastric emptying and autonomic function predicted treatment outcome. Patients who improved manifested mild to moderate delay in baseline gastric emptying measures. The percent of liquid gastric emptying at 60 mins and the sympathetic adrenergic measure of percent of change in the foot cutaneous blood flow in response to cold stress test predicted improvement in AT outcome, with clinical diagnostic values of 77% and 71%, respectively. We conclude that AT treatment can be efficacious in some patients with impaired gastric emptying and adrenergic dysfunction. More work is warranted to compare biofeedback therapy with gastric motility patients and controls in population-based studies.

  4. Gastric metastasis 14 years after mastectomy for breast lobular carcinoma: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Aurello, Paolo; D'Angelo, Francesco; Cosenza, Giulia; Petrocca, Sergio; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Ramacciato, Giovanni; Ziparo, Vincenzo

    2006-05-01

    In planning treatment of a gastric neoplasm in a patient previously treated for lobular breast carcinoma, it is important to differentiate a primary gastrointestinal tract tumor from a metastatic form. We report a case of a breast lobular carcinoma metastatic to the stomach. The patient underwent a subtotal gastrectomy for symptomatic disease. Although gastric symptoms appeared 14 years after the breast carcinoma, immunohistochemical analysis of the surgical specimen helped to establish that the gastric lesion, thought to be primary, was effectively a metastatic repetition of the breast neoplasm. To better define treatment in a gastric neoplasm patient previously treated for breast carcinoma, the preoperative diagnosis should rule out a metastatic disease. The patient described received an adjuvant chemotherapy according to breast cancer protocol after gastric resection for symptomatic disease. The patient is still alive and undergoing chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinosis.

  5. Surgical management of gastric torsion.

    PubMed

    Parks, J

    1979-05-01

    Considerable investigation has been devoted to the gastric dilatation-torsion complex. An adequate explanation of its cause has yet to be made, or a means of prevention described. We do know of its highly lethal nature, especially if not aggressively treated, of the high incidence of recurrence, and of the associated pathophysiology. As surgeons, we must approach the patient in an aggressive systematic manner. Decompression and patient stabilization must be achieved prior to definitive surgical management. The surgery planned must correct the obvious pathologic state and include procedures designed to prevent recurrence of this condition. The tube gastrostomy technique promotes gastric fixation by dense adhesion bands exceeding that attainable by gastropexy alone. The procedure is easy to perform, requires little surgical time, and does not appear to be discomforting to the patient. In addition, the tube gastrostomy acts as a convenient decompressive pathway during the postoperative period, circumventing gastric intubation or pharyngostomy tube placement should distention occur.

  6. The threatened stomach: management of the acute gastric volvulus.

    PubMed

    Light, D; Links, D; Griffin, M

    2016-05-01

    Acute presentation of gastric volvulus is a rare condition with a high mortality for acute ischaemia. This study was undertaken to investigate the acute management, diagnosis, and long-term outcomes of patients presenting with acute gastric volvulus. Cases were reviewed retrospectively from 2004 to 2014. Patients presenting as an emergency admission with acute gastric volvulus were included. Thirty-six patients were included, five of whom had previous surgery. The mean age was 71 years old. All patients presented with vomiting and chest/epigastric pain. CT was diagnostic in all 26 patients. Barium swallow was diagnostic in two/four patients. OGD was diagnostic in 9 of 20 patients. All patients had an NG tube placed, and eight patients were treated conservatively and made a full recovery. Twenty-nine patients proceeded to surgery. Nine had a laparoscopic repair with two open conversions. Four patients had gastric necrosis, and all had open surgery with resection. Three patients had a mediastinal perforation, and one patient required an additional thoracotomy. All patients with viable stomach had a hiatal repair (where appropriate), 11 had a gastropexy, and 11 had a fundoplication. Mortality for gastric necrosis/perforation was 30 %. Mean postoperative stay was 4 days for laparoscopic repair and 8 days for uncomplicated open surgery. Nine of twenty-nine had transient dysphagia postoperatively. Three of eight patients treated conservatively had an elective procedure subsequently. Acute paraoesophageal hiatus hernia requires early resuscitation and diagnosis. CT should be favoured in assessment, and an NG tube placed promptly. A conservative management may be considered safely in stable patients. Surgical management should be prompt for unstable patients. Gastric ischaemia or perforation has a mortality of 30 %. Laparoscopic repair has a shorter postoperative stay, but has a higher recurrence rate. Surgery for patients without gastric ischaemia has good long

  7. Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liwf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng, E-mail: niuxf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5 ml/100 g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100 mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3 days, and animals were euthanized 4 h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increasedmore » pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-κB expression. - Highlights: • THC decreased ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • THC inhibited the production of NO in serum and gastric tissue. • THC reduced NF-κB expression and MPO accumulation in ethanol-induced gastric tissue.« less

  8. Candidiasis, A Rare Cause of Gastric Perforation: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ukekwe, FI; Nwajiobi, C; Agbo, MO; Ebede, SO; Eni, AO

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are unusually rare causes of gastric perforation, with most cases of gastric perforation occurring as complications of peptic ulcer disease (PUD), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and gastric neoplasms. Here, we report the case of a 70-year-old Nigerian male who presented with severe epigastric pain, with no associated history of PUD, NSAIDs use or gastric neoplasm. An emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed and a gastric perforation was discovered and repaired. Histopathological examination of the gastric perforation edge biopsy revealed an intense Candida growth consisting of numerous fungal spores and hyphae invading and destroying the gastric wall. He was subsequently treated with fluconazole antifungal and discharged home after an uneventful postoperative period. PMID:26229723

  9. Candidiasis, A Rare Cause of Gastric Perforation: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Ukekwe, F I; Nwajiobi, C; Agbo, M O; Ebede, S O; Eni, A O

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are unusually rare causes of gastric perforation, with most cases of gastric perforation occurring as complications of peptic ulcer disease (PUD), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and gastric neoplasms. Here, we report the case of a 70-year-old Nigerian male who presented with severe epigastric pain, with no associated history of PUD, NSAIDs use or gastric neoplasm. An emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed and a gastric perforation was discovered and repaired. Histopathological examination of the gastric perforation edge biopsy revealed an intense Candida growth consisting of numerous fungal spores and hyphae invading and destroying the gastric wall. He was subsequently treated with fluconazole antifungal and discharged home after an uneventful postoperative period.

  10. Gastric Volvulus: A Rare Entity Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Aisha; Sheikh, Abdul Ahad E; Sheikh, Abu Baker; Perisetti, Abhilash

    2018-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare entity defined as an abnormal rotation of the stomach around itself. It is a diagnosis of exclusion; the clinical index of suspicion is always low and is mostly diagnosed on imaging or on the surgery table. When it occurs, it is an emergency due to the risk of strangulation and consequent gangrene of the stomach. Mesentero-axial (MA) gastric volvuli constitute one-third of all cases. Here, we are present an interesting case of acute MA gastric volvulus diagnosed with imaging and treated subsequently. PMID:29755908

  11. Stenosis of esophago-jejuno anastomosis after gastric surgery.

    PubMed

    Fukagawa, Takeo; Gotoda, Takuji; Oda, Ichiro; Deguchi, Yasunori; Saka, Makoto; Morita, Shinji; Katai, Hitoshi

    2010-08-01

    Stenosis of esophago-jejuno anastomosis is one of the postoperative complications of gastric surgery. This complication usually manifests with the symptom of dysphagia and is treated by endoscopic dilatation. No large-scale studies have been conducted to determine the incidence of this complication after surgery. The data of a total of 1478 consecutive patients who underwent total, proximal, or completion gastrectomy, including esophago-jejuno anastomosis, between 2000 and 2008 were analyzed retrospectively with a view to determining the incidence of anastomotic stenosis. Sixty patients (4.1%) developed stenosis of the esophago-jejuno anastomosis which needed to be treated by endoscopic balloon dilatation. The average interval between the surgery and detection of stenosis was 67.4 days (median = 58.0). Multivariate analysis identified female gender, proximal gastrectomy, use of a narrow-sized stapler, and the choice of the stapling device as significant factors influencing the risk of development of anastomotic stenosis. Esophago-jejuno anastomotic stenosis appears to be a common late postoperative complication after gastric surgery. Endoscopic examination and treatment yielded favorable outcomes in patients complaining of dysphagia after gastric surgery.

  12. Mouse models for gastric cancer: Matching models to biological questions

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Ashleigh R; O'Donoghue, Robert J J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer‐related mortality worldwide. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease, which often results in late‐stage diagnosis, at which point there are limited treatment options. Even when treated successfully, gastric cancer patients have a high risk of tumor recurrence and acquired drug resistance. It is vital to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric cancer pathogenesis to facilitate the design of new‐targeted therapies that may improve patient survival. A number of chemically and genetically engineered mouse models of gastric cancer have provided significant insight into the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to disease onset and progression. This review outlines the strengths and limitations of current mouse models of gastric cancer and their relevance to the pre‐clinical development of new therapeutics. PMID:26809278

  13. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  14. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature. PMID:23983714

  15. Location characteristics of early gastric cancer treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dae Hwan; Choi, Cheol Woong; Kim, Hyung Wook; Park, Su Bum; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Hyeong Seok; Ryu, Dae Gon

    2017-11-01

    The timely detection of early gastric cancer (EGC) is important in performing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). We attempted to determine the location characteristics of regions where EGC is frequently detected and analyzed the EGC characteristics associated with that location. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with EGC treated by ESD between November 2008 and August 2016. We retrospectively investigated and analyzed 647 EGC lesions. The patients' mean age was 66.7 ± 10.8 years. The patient population was predominantly male (77.1%, 499/647). A well-to-moderately differentiated carcinoma was observed in 97.2% of patients. The common site of carcinoma occurrence was the lower part of the stomach (the antrum and lower third of body, 89.6%). Among the stomach hemispheres, the lesser curvature side was the most frequent site of EGC (43.9%). The posterior side of EGC was more frequent than anterior side of EGC (20.4 vs. 15.6%, respectively). Submucosal invasive EGC was more frequent in the mid-to-upper parts of stomach than lower part of stomach (odds ratio 1.919; confidence interval 1.014-3.623; p = 0.045). Most EGCs that are resectable with ESD were found in the lower part and in the lesser curvature of the stomach. The submucosal invasive EGC was more frequent in the mid-to-upper part of stomach.

  16. Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors on the Gastric Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dyspeptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Paroni Sterbini, Francesco; Palladini, Alessandra; Masucci, Luca; Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Pastorino, Roberta; Ianiro, Gianluca; Bugli, Francesca; Martini, Cecilia; Ricciardi, Walter; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Cammarota, Giovanni; Posteraro, Brunella

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Besides being part of anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment regimens, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are increasingly being used to treat dyspepsia. However, little is known about the effects of PPIs on the human gastric microbiota, especially those related to H. pylori infection. The goal of this study was to characterize the stomach microbial communities in patients with dyspepsia and to investigate their relationships with PPI use and H. pylori status. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we analyzed the mucosa-associated microbial populations of 24 patients, of whom 12 were treated with the PPI omeprazole and 9 (5 treated and 4 untreated) were positive for H. pylori infection. The Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria phyla accounted for 98% of all of the sequences, with Helicobacter, Streptococcus, and Prevotella ranking among the 10 most abundant genera. H. pylori infection or PPI treatment did not significantly influence gastric microbial species composition in dyspeptic patients. Principal-coordinate analysis of weighted UniFrac distances in these communities revealed clear but significant separation according to H. pylori status only. However, in PPI-treated patients, Firmicutes, particularly Streptococcaceae, were significantly increased in relative abundance compared to those in untreated patients. Consistently, Streptococcus was also found to significantly increase in relation to PPI treatment, and this increase seemed to occur independently of H. pylori infection. Our results suggest that Streptococcus may be a key indicator of PPI-induced gastric microbial composition changes in dyspeptic patients. Whether the gastric microbiota alteration contributes to dyspepsia needs further investigation. IMPORTANCE Although PPIs have become a popular treatment choice, a growing number of dyspeptic patients may be treated unnecessarily. We found that patients treated with omeprazole showed gastric microbial communities

  17. Gastric Electrical Stimulation Decreases Gastric Distension-Induced Central Nociception Response through Direct Action on Primary Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Ouelaa, Wassila; Ghouzali, Ibtissem; Langlois, Ludovic; Fetissov, Serguei; Déchelotte, Pierre; Ducrotté, Philippe; Leroi, Anne Marie; Gourcerol, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is an effective therapy to treat patients with chronic dyspepsia refractory to medical management. However, its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Methods Gastric pain was induced by performing gastric distension (GD) in anesthetized rats. Pain response was monitored by measuring the pseudo-affective reflex (e.g., blood pressure variation), while neuronal activation was determined using c-fos immunochemistry in the central nervous system. Involvement of primary afferents was assessed by measuring phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in dorsal root ganglia. Results GES decreased blood pressure variation induced by GD, and prevented GD-induced neuronal activation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (T9–T10), the nucleus of the solitary tract and in CRF neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. This effect remained unaltered within the spinal cord when sectioning the medulla at the T5 level. Furthermore, GES prevented GD-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in dorsal root ganglia. Conclusions GES decreases GD-induced pain and/or discomfort likely through a direct modulation of gastric spinal afferents reducing central processing of visceral nociception. PMID:23284611

  18. Effects of preoperative medications on gastric pH, volume, and flora.

    PubMed Central

    Laws, H L; Bryant, J W; Palmer, M D; Boudreaux, A M; Donald, J M; Wheeler, A S

    1986-01-01

    Aspiration of acid gastric juice poses a potential threat during operations. Many anesthesiologists use a variety of agents aimed at decreasing gastric volume and/or acidity. The effect of three agents on gastric volume, pH, and flora, and the effect of cefazolin on gastric flora in morbidly obese patients were studied. Cefazolin did not sterilize the gastric lumen. Almost one-half of patients not treated with an H2 blocker had a pH below 2.5 and a gastric volume of 20 ml or more. Five had both a low pH and significant volume and, thus, the potential for lethal aspiration. Two doses of cimetidine, 300 mgm orally, or of ranitidine, 150 orally, the evening before and the morning of operation decreased gastric volume and raised pH reliably to a level that should be protective from fatal aspiration. However, gastric cultures after these drugs were positive 86% of the time with a larger variety of organisms than in the untreated stomachs. Metoclopramide failed to decrease gastric volume or raise pH. Transoperative cefazolin was used in all patients. Clinical infection was not a problem. PMID:3521506

  19. Laparoscopic gastric plication: technical report.

    PubMed

    El-Geidie, Ahmed; Gad-el-Hak, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastric plication is an emerging restrictive bariatric procedure but still lacks standardization of the technique. The aim of this study was to apply a standardized, modified 3-port approach to laparoscopic gastric plication to improve outcomes. The modified laparoscopic gastric plication technique was applied for 63 morbidly obese patients between March 2010 and January 2013. There were 9 men and 54 women, with a mean age of 34.2 years (range 20-48 years) and a mean body mass index of 38.9 kg/m(2) (range 32-65 kg/m(2)). There were no deaths, no conversion to laparotomy, no reoperation, and no readmission. Percent excess weight loss was 41%, 52%, and 60% at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. There were no major complications reported in our study, but prolonged early postoperative nausea and vomiting occurred in 3 of 63 (4.8%) patients who had been successfully treated with proton pump inhibitors and antiemetics. Our initial experience showed that the 4-bite technique starting 2 cm below the angle of His with tight calibration of the gastric tube for obese patients is feasible, effective, and well tolerated, with a low frequency of major problems. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gastric Carcinogenesis and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms: Helicobacter pylori and Novel Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen-derived free radicals that are released from activated neutrophils are one of the cytotoxic factors of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal injury. Increased cytidine deaminase activity in H. pylori-infected gastric tissues promotes the accumulation of various mutations and might promote gastric carcinogenesis. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) is delivered into gastric epithelial cells via bacterial type IV secretion system, and it causes inflammation and activation of oncogenic pathways. H. pylori infection induces epigenetic transformations, such as aberrant promoter methylation in tumor-suppressor genes. Aberrant expression of microRNAs is also reportedly linked to gastric tumorogenesis. Moreover, recent advances in molecular targeting therapies provided a new interesting weapon to treat advanced gastric cancer through anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) therapies. This updated review article highlights possible mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis including H. pylori-associated factors. PMID:25945346

  1. Prevalence of synchronous colorectal neoplasms in surgically treated gastric cancer patients and significance of screening colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akira; Koide, Naohiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Okumura, Motohiro; Ishizone, Satoshi; Suga, Tomoaki; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2014-05-01

    The existence of other primary tumors during the treatment and management of gastric cancer (GC) is an important issue. The present study investigated the prevalence and management of synchronous colorectal neoplasms (CRN) in surgically treated GC patients. Of 381 surgically treated GC patients, 332 (87.1%) underwent colonoscopy to detect CRN before surgery or within a year after surgery. CRN were synchronously observed in 140 patients (42.2%). Adenoma was observed in 131 patients (39.4%). Endoscopic resection was done in 18 patients with adenoma. Colorectal cancer (CRC) was observed in 16 patients (4.8%), superficial CRC in 13 and advanced CRC in three patients. Endoscopic resection of superficial CRC was carried out in seven patients, whereas simultaneous surgical resection of CRC was done in nine patients. CRN were more frequently observed in men. CRC was more frequently observed in GC patients with distant metastasis, albeit without significance. The overall survival of GC patients with CRN or CRC was poorer than that of patients without CRN or CRC. Synchronous CRN were commonly associated with GC and screening colonoscopy should be offered to patients with GC. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  2. Patients with Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Gastric Cancer Treated with Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy: Is Cure a Possibility?

    PubMed

    Chia, C S; You, B; Decullier, E; Vaudoyer, D; Lorimier, G; Abboud, K; Bereder, J-M; Arvieux, C; Boschetti, G; Glehen, O

    2016-06-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is an increasingly common finding in gastric carcinoma. Previously, patients were treated as terminal, and median survival was poor. The use of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in this context is still highly debatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes associated with CRS and HIPEC, and define prognostic factors for cure, if possible. All patients with gastric carcinomatosis from five French institutions who underwent combined complete CRS and HIPEC and had a minimum follow-up of 5 years were included in this study. Cure was defined as a disease-free interval of more than 5 years from the last treatment until the last follow-up. Of the 81 patients who underwent CRS and HIPEC from 1989 to 2009, 59 had a completeness of cytoreduction score (CCS) of 0 (complete macroscopic resection), and the median Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) score was 6. Mitomycin C was the most commonly used drug during HIPEC (88 %). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 18 %, with nine patients still disease-free at 5 years, for a cure rate of 11 %. All 'cured' patients had a PCI score below 7 and a CCS of 0. Factors associated with improved OS on multivariate analysis were synchronous resection (p = 0.02), a lower PCI score (p = 0.12), and the CCS (p = 0.09). The cure rate of 11 % for patients with gastric carcinomatosis who are deemed terminal emphasizes that CRS and HIPEC should be considered in highly selected patients (low disease extent and complete CRS).

  3. Phase 3 Trial of Postoperative Chemotherapy Alone Versus Chemoradiation Therapy in Stage III-IV Gastric Cancer Treated With R0 Gastrectomy and D2 Lymph Node Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Sook Ryun; Ryu, Keun Won

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To compare chemotherapy alone with chemoradiation therapy in stage III-IV(M0) gastric cancer treated with R0 gastrectomy and D2 lymph node dissection. Methods and Materials: The chemotherapy arm received 5 cycles of fluorouracil and leucovorin (FL), and the chemoradiation therapy arm received 1 cycle of FL, then radiation therapy of 45 Gy concurrently with 2 cycles of FL, followed by 2 cycles of FL. Intent-to-treat analysis and per-protocol analyses were performed. Results: Between May 6, 2002 and June 29, 2006, a total of 90 patients were enrolled. Forty-four were randomly assigned to the chemotherapy arm and 46 to the chemoradiationmore » therapy arm. Treatment was completed as planned by 93.2% of patients in the chemotherapy arm and 87.0% in the chemoradiation therapy arm. Overall intent-to-treat analysis showed that addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy significantly improved locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS) but not disease-free survival. In subgroup analysis for stage III, chemoradiation therapy significantly prolonged the 5-year LRRFS and disease-free survival rates compared with chemotherapy (93.2% vs 66.8%, P=.014; 73.5% vs 54.6%, P=.056, respectively). Conclusions: Addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy could improve the LRRFS in stage III gastric cancer treated with R0 gastrectomy and D2 lymph node dissection.« less

  4. Enhancement of Gastric Ulcer Healing and Angiogenesis by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene Mediated by Attenuated Salmonella in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ha, Xiaoqin; Peng, Junhua; Zhao, Hongbin; Deng, Zhiyun; Dong, Juzi; Fan, Hongyan; Zhao, Yong; Li, Bing; Feng, Qiangsheng; Yang, Zhihua

    2017-02-01

    The present study developed an oral hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene therapy strategy for gastric ulcers treatment. An attenuated Salmonella typhimurium that stably expressed high HGF (named as TPH) was constructed, and the antiulcerogenic effect of TPH was evaluated in a rat model of gastric ulcers that created by acetic acid subserosal injection. From day 5 after injection, TPH (1 × 10⁹ cfu), vehicle (TP, 1 × 10⁹ cfu), or sodium bicarbonate (model control) was administered orally every alternate day for three times. Then ulcer size was measured at day 21 after ulcer induction. The ulcer area in TPH-treated group was 10.56 ± 3.30 mm², which was smaller when compared with those in the TP-treated and model control groups (43.47 ± 4.18 and 56.25 ± 6.38 mm², respectively). A higher level of reepithelialization was found in TPH-treated group and the crawling length of gastric epithelial cells was significantly longer than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). The microvessel density in the ulcer granulation tissues of the TPH-treated rats was 39.9 vessels/mm², which was greater than in the TP-treated and model control rats, with a significant statistical difference. These results suggest that TPH treatment significantly accelerates the healing of gastric ulcers via stimulating proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and enhancing angiogenesis on gastric ulcer site.

  5. Enhancement of Gastric Ulcer Healing and Angiogenesis by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene Mediated by Attenuated Salmonella in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The present study developed an oral hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene therapy strategy for gastric ulcers treatment. An attenuated Salmonella typhimurium that stably expressed high HGF (named as TPH) was constructed, and the antiulcerogenic effect of TPH was evaluated in a rat model of gastric ulcers that created by acetic acid subserosal injection. From day 5 after injection, TPH (1 × 109 cfu), vehicle (TP, 1 × 109 cfu), or sodium bicarbonate (model control) was administered orally every alternate day for three times. Then ulcer size was measured at day 21 after ulcer induction. The ulcer area in TPH-treated group was 10.56 ± 3.30 mm2, which was smaller when compared with those in the TP-treated and model control groups (43.47 ± 4.18 and 56.25 ± 6.38 mm2, respectively). A higher level of reepithelialization was found in TPH-treated group and the crawling length of gastric epithelial cells was significantly longer than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). The microvessel density in the ulcer granulation tissues of the TPH-treated rats was 39.9 vessels/mm2, which was greater than in the TP-treated and model control rats, with a significant statistical difference. These results suggest that TPH treatment significantly accelerates the healing of gastric ulcers via stimulating proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and enhancing angiogenesis on gastric ulcer site. PMID:28049228

  6. Methanol leaf extract of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis (Lauraceae) enhances gastric defense against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Hanita; Nordin, Noraziah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Azizan, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohd Hashim, Najihah; Mohd Ali, Hapipah

    2017-01-01

    Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), also known as “Medang payung” by the Malay people, belongs to the Lauraceae family. In this study, methanol leaf extract of A. sesquipedalis was investigated for their acute toxicity and gastroprotective effects to reduce ulcers in rat stomachs induced by ethanol. The rats were assigned to one of five groups: normal group (group 1), ulcer group (group 2), control positive drug group (group 3) and two experimental groups treated with 150 mg/kg (group 4) and 300 mg/kg (group 5) of leaf extract. The rats were sacrificed an hour after pretreatment with extracts, and their stomach homogenates and tissues were collected for further evaluation. Macroscopic and histological analyses showed that gastric ulcers in rats pretreated with the extract were significantly reduced to an extent that it allowed leukocytes penetration of the gastric walls compared with the ulcer group. In addition, an ulcer inhibition rate of >70% was detected in rats treated with both doses of A. sesquipedalis extract, showing a notable protection of gastric layer. Severe destruction of gastric mucosa was prevented with a high production of mucus and pH gastric contents in both omeprazole-treated and extract-treated groups. Meanwhile, an increase in glycoprotein uptake was observed in pretreated rats through accumulation of magenta color in Periodic Acid Schiff staining assay. Analysis of gastric homogenate from pretreated rats showed a reduction of malondialdehyde and elevation of nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and protein concentration levels in comparison with group 2. Suppression of apoptosis in gastric tissues by upregulation of Hsp70 protein and downregulation of Bax protein was also observed in rats pretreated with extract. Consistent results of a reduction of gastric ulcer and the protection of gastric wall were obtained for rats pretreated with A. sesquipedalis extract, which showed its

  7. Methanol leaf extract of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis (Lauraceae) enhances gastric defense against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Omar, Hanita; Nordin, Noraziah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Azizan, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohd Hashim, Najihah; Mohd Ali, Hapipah

    2017-01-01

    Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), also known as "Medang payung" by the Malay people, belongs to the Lauraceae family. In this study, methanol leaf extract of A. sesquipedalis was investigated for their acute toxicity and gastroprotective effects to reduce ulcers in rat stomachs induced by ethanol. The rats were assigned to one of five groups: normal group (group 1), ulcer group (group 2), control positive drug group (group 3) and two experimental groups treated with 150 mg/kg (group 4) and 300 mg/kg (group 5) of leaf extract. The rats were sacrificed an hour after pretreatment with extracts, and their stomach homogenates and tissues were collected for further evaluation. Macroscopic and histological analyses showed that gastric ulcers in rats pretreated with the extract were significantly reduced to an extent that it allowed leukocytes penetration of the gastric walls compared with the ulcer group. In addition, an ulcer inhibition rate of >70% was detected in rats treated with both doses of A. sesquipedalis extract, showing a notable protection of gastric layer. Severe destruction of gastric mucosa was prevented with a high production of mucus and pH gastric contents in both omeprazole-treated and extract-treated groups. Meanwhile, an increase in glycoprotein uptake was observed in pretreated rats through accumulation of magenta color in Periodic Acid Schiff staining assay. Analysis of gastric homogenate from pretreated rats showed a reduction of malondialdehyde and elevation of nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and protein concentration levels in comparison with group 2. Suppression of apoptosis in gastric tissues by upregulation of Hsp70 protein and downregulation of Bax protein was also observed in rats pretreated with extract. Consistent results of a reduction of gastric ulcer and the protection of gastric wall were obtained for rats pretreated with A. sesquipedalis extract, which showed its prominent

  8. [Effects of Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil on tumor growth and cell cycle of MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells orthotopically transplanted in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yan; Wei, Pin-Kang; Li, Jun; Shi, Jun; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Lin, Hui-Ming

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil on tumor growth and cell cycle of MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells orthotopically transplanted in nude mice. One hundred and five nude mice orthotopically transplanted with MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells were randomly divided into seven groups: untreated group, normal saline-treated group, dissolvant-treated group, cyclophosphamide (CTX)-treated group and high-, medium-, and low-dose Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil-treated groups. Corresponding interventions were implemented in each group except the untreated group. The antitumor effects in vivo were evaluated. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells were determined by using flow cytometry (FCM). The ultrastructure of MKN-45 gastric cancer cells was observed by a transmission electron microscope. In the high-, medium-, and low-dose Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil-treated groups, the growth inhibition rates of gastric cancer were 57.2%, 28.0% and 5.0% respectively, and the gastric cancer cells were arrested at G(0)/G(1) phase. This antitumor effect was dose-dependent. The apoptotic cells occurred more frequently in the high-dose Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil-treated group and the CTX-treated group than those in the medium- and low-dose Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil-treated groups. The Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil is an effective composition for growth inhibition of gastric cancer, and its mechanism may be related to regulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis.

  9. [PMU therapy of recurrent gastric cancer. A case report].

    PubMed

    Ohyama, S; Yonemura, Y; Matsuki, N; Miyata, R; Noto, H; Sakuma, H; Yagi, M; Sawa, T; Ogino, S; Miyazaka, I

    1986-03-01

    A 56-year-old woman with recurrent gastric cancer treated with PMU therapy, combined CDDP 75 mg/m2 i.v. MMC 10 mg/body i.v. and UFT 400mg/body/2 alpha/day p.o., was reported. She was admitted because of cervical lymph node swelling and abdominal tumor (para-aorta lymph node swelling). She was treated two times with this therapy and induced into complete remission. The serum CEA level, more than 500 ng/ml before the treatment, was reduced to 6.7 ng/ml after treatment. She has currently been free of disease for more than four weeks. We conclude that this PMU therapy is extremely effective for indurable gastric cancer.

  10. Proton Pump Inhibitors Inhibit Pancreatic Secretion: Role of Gastric and Non-Gastric H+/K+-ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Tozzi, Marco; Giannuzzo, Andrea; Sørensen, Christiane E.; Novak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which pancreas secretes high HCO3 - has not been fully resolved. This alkaline secretion, formed in pancreatic ducts, can be achieved by transporting HCO3 - from serosa to mucosa or by moving H+ in the opposite direction. The aim of the present study was to determine whether H+/K+-ATPases are expressed and functional in human pancreatic ducts and whether proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have effect on those. Here we show that the gastric HKα1 and HKβ subunits (ATP4A; ATP4B) and non-gastric HKα2 subunits (ATP12A) of H+/K+-ATPases are expressed in human pancreatic cells. Pumps have similar localizations in duct cell monolayers (Capan-1) and human pancreas, and notably the gastric pumps are localized on the luminal membranes. In Capan-1 cells, PPIs inhibited recovery of intracellular pH from acidosis. Furthermore, in rats treated with PPIs, pancreatic secretion was inhibited but concentrations of major ions in secretion follow similar excretory curves in control and PPI treated animals. In addition to HCO3 -, pancreas also secretes K+. In conclusion, this study calls for a revision of the basic model for HCO3 - secretion. We propose that proton transport is driving secretion, and that in addition it may provide a protective pH buffer zone and K+ recirculation. Furthermore, it seems relevant to re-evaluate whether PPIs should be used in treatment therapies where pancreatic functions are already compromised. PMID:25993003

  11. Recurrence of gastric dilatation-volvulus after incisional gastropexy in a rottweiler.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Scott P; Novo, Roberto E

    2006-01-01

    An adult, castrated male rottweiler with a history of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV), which was treated 4 months previously by surgical gastric resection and incisional gastropexy, had a recurrence of clinical signs. Abdominal exploratory surgery revealed a 180 degrees -clockwise GDV, with a stretched adhesion at the original gastropexy site. The stomach was repositioned, and additional gastropexies were performed adjacent to the original gastropexy site and at the gastric fundus. The recurrence of GDV in this dog with an intact gastropexy suggested that a risk for volvulus remains after therapeutic incisional gastropexy.

  12. Selective scavenging of intra-mitochondrial superoxide corrects diclofenac-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and gastric injury: A novel gastroprotective mechanism independent of gastric acid suppression.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Somnath; De, Rudranil; Sarkar, Souvik; Siddiqui, Asim Azhar; Saha, Shubhra Jyoti; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Nag, Shiladitya; Debsharma, Subhashis; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2016-12-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat multiple inflammatory diseases and pain but severe gastric mucosal damage is the worst outcome of NSAID-therapy. Here we report that mitoTEMPO, a mitochondrially targeted superoxide (O 2 - ) scavenger protected as well as healed gastric injury induced by diclofenac (DCF), the most commonly used NSAID. Common existing therapy against gastric injury involves suppression of gastric acid secretion by proton pump inhibitors and histamine H 2 receptor antagonists; however, dyspepsia, vitamin B12 deficiency and gastric microfloral dysbalance are the major drawbacks of acid suppression. Interestingly, mitoTEMPO did not inhibit gastric acid secretion but offered gastroprotection by preventing DCF-induced generation of O 2 - due to mitochondrial respiratory chain failure and by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS)-mediated mitopathology. MitoTEMPO even restored DCF-stimulated reduced fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial depolarization and bioenergetic crisis in gastric mucosa. MitoTEMPO also prevented the activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and MOS-mediated proinflammatory signaling through NF-κB by DCF. Furthermore, mitoTEMPO when administered in rats with preformed gastric lesions expedited the healing of gastric injury and the healed stomach exhibited its normal physiology as evident from gastric acid and pepsin secretions under basal or stimulated conditions. Thus, in contrast to the existing antiulcer drugs, mitochondrially targeted O 2 - scavengers like mitoTEMPO may represent a novel class of gastroprotective molecules that does not affect gastric acid secretion and may be used in combination with DCF, keeping its anti-inflammatory action intact, while reducing its gastrodamaging effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gastric distention exacerbates ischemia in a rodent model of partial gastric devascularization.

    PubMed

    Urschel, J D; Antkowiak, J G; Takita, H

    1997-11-01

    Occult ischemia of the mobilized gastric fundus is an important etiologic factor for esophagogastric anastomotic leaks after esophagectomy. Postoperative gastric distention is another possible predisposing factor for anastomotic leakage. We hypothesized that gastric distention could worsen gastric ischemia. To test this hypothesis, gastric tissue perfusion was studied in 20 Sprague-Dawley rats. Baseline serosal gastric tissue perfusion was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry at a point 10 mm distal to the gastroesophageal junction. Perfusion was measured after left gastric artery occlusion, gastric distention to 20 cm water pressure, and combined left gastric artery occlusion and gastric distention. Gastric tissue perfusion (in tissue perfusion units, TPU) was 64.2 +/- 9.1 TPU at baseline measurement, 18.6 +/- 4.3 TPU after left gastric artery occlusion, 22.0 +/- 4.1 TPU after gastric distention, and 7.8 +/- 1.8 TPU after combined left gastric artery occlusion and gastric distention. Distention (P < 0.0001) and arterial occlusion (P < 0.0001) both reduced gastric tissue perfusion; of the two, arterial occlusion produced the greatest reduction in perfusion (P < 0.021). The combination of distention and arterial occlusion caused greater reduction in gastric perfusion than either factor alone (P < 0.0001). In this model, gastric distention exacerbated the ischemia produced by partial gastric devascularization. In clinical esophageal surgery, postoperative gastric distention may similarly potentiate the ischemic effects of gastric transposition for esophageal reconstruction.

  14. Leiomyosarcoma of the stomach treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takao; Akahoshi, Kazuya; Tomoeda, Naru; Kinoshita, Norikatsu; Kubokawa, Masaru; Yodoe, Kentaro; Hiraki, Yuka; Oya, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Ihara, Eikichi

    2018-03-02

    There have been no reports of primary leiomyosarcoma of the stomach treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). We report an extremely rare case of gastric leiomyosarcoma that was successfully treated by ESD. An asymptomatic 74-year-old female underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy for screening in December 2013. A centrally depressed submucosal tumor 10 mm in diameter was detected at the posterior wall of the upper gastric body. Follow-up esophagogastroduodenoscopy conducted 5 months later showed that the tumor diameter had increased to 15 mm. Endoscopic ultrasound revealed a hypoechoic mass located in the second to the middle of the third layer. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration demonstrated a myogenic tumor. The tumor was completely resected by ESD without complications. Immunohistopathological diagnosis of the resected specimen was gastric leiomyosarcoma derived from the muscularis mucosae, with negative lateral and vertical margins. No local recurrence or metastasis has been detected at 36 months after ESD. This is the first report of gastric leiomyosarcoma treated by ESD in the English language literature.

  15. Comparative effect of palm vitamin E and ranitidine on the healing of ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jaarin, Kamsiah; Renuvathani, M; Nafeeza, M I; Gapor, M T

    1999-01-01

    The effect of palm vitamin E on the healing of ethanol-induced gastric lesion was compared with ranitidine. Fifty-six male rats of Sprague-Dawley species (200–250 g of weight) were randomly divided into three groups (N = 14). Gastric mucosal injury was induced by orogastric tube administration of 0.5 ml 100% ethanol. Immediately after induction, Group I (k) rats was fed with a normal diet (control), group II (p) was fed palm vitamin E enriched diet (150 mg/kg food), Group III(r) was treated with ranitidine 30 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally and Group IV (p + r) was fed with palm vitamin E and treated with ranitidine 30 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally of the same dose. The rats were killed at the end of 1 week and 3 weeks of treatment or feeding. The rate of gastric healing was faster in palm vitamin E treated group compared to control and ranitidine treated groups as shown by a lower mean ulcer index. The effect was seen as early as the first week of treatment whereas ranitidine did not show any healing effect even after 3 weeks of therapy. Neither gastric acidity nor gastric mucus production are involved in gastroprotective effect of palm vitamin E. The most probable mechanism is via reducing lipid peroxidation process as shown by a significant decrease in gastric MDA PMID:10607016

  16. Clinical outcomes of gastric polyps and neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Keiko; Nonaka, Satoru; Nakajima, Takeshi; Yachida, Tatsuo; Abe, Seiichiro; Sakamoto, Taku; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Oda, Ichiro; Matsuda, Takahisa; Sekine, Shigeki; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Katai, Hitoshi; Saito, Yutaka; Hirota, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, characterized by the presence of more than 100 adenomatous polyps in the colorectum. The upper gastrointestinal tract is an extracolonic site for malignancy in patients with FAP. The frequency of death in Japanese patients with FAP because of gastric cancer is 2.8 % and that because of colon cancer is 60.6 %. Few studies have reported upper gastrointestinal diseases in patients with FAP. In the present study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with FAP diagnosed with gastric neoplasms. Patients and methods We enrolled 80 patients with FAP who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy from October 1997 to December 2011. We investigated patient characteristics, endoscopic findings of gastric lesions, treatment outcomes, and long-term courses. Results Fundic gland polyposis was observed in 51 patients (64 %) and gastric neoplasms in 22 patients (28 %), including 20 with non-invasive and 2 with invasive neoplasm. Of the 26 neoplasms, 11 were treated by endoscopic resection (ER) and 4 by surgical resection. Metachronous gastric neoplasms were observed in 7 patients (15 lesions) and treated by ER, except for in 1 patient. No patients died of gastric lesions during a median follow-up period of 6.5 years (range, 0 – 14). Conclusion Because gastric lesions including gastric cancers in patients with FAP did not cause any deaths, they can be considered to have favorable prognoses. Early detection of gastric neoplasms through an appropriate follow-up interval may have contributed to these good outcomes. PMID:28271094

  17. Helicobacter pylori Update: Gastric Cancer, Reliable Therapy, and Possible Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection contributes to development of diverse gastric and extra-gastric diseases. The infection is necessary but not sufficient for development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Its eradication would eliminate a major worldwide cause of cancer death, so there is much interest in identifying how, if, and when this can be accomplished. There are several mechanisms by which H pylori contributes to development of gastric cancer. Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of many cancers associated with inflammation, which is induced by H pylori infection, yet the bacteria also cause genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells. H pylori eradication reduces both. However, many factors must be considered in determining whether treating this bacterial infection will prevent cancer or only reduce its risk—these must be considered in designing reliable and effective eradication therapies. Furthermore, H pylori infection has been proposed to provide some benefits, such as reducing the risks of obesity or childhood asthma, although there are no convincing data to support the benefits of H pylori infections. PMID:25655557

  18. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  19. Interplay between the Gastric Bacterial Microbiota and Candida albicans during Postantibiotic Recolonization and Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Katie L.; Erb Downward, John R.; Falkowski, Nicole R.; Young, Vincent B.; Kao, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    The indigenous bacterial microbiome of the stomach, including lactobacilli, is vital in promoting colonization resistance against Candida albicans. However, there are gaps in our understanding about C. albicans gastric colonization versus disease, especially during the postantibiotic recovery phase. This study compared the gastric responses to C. albicans strains CHN1 and SC5314 in microbiome-disturbed and germfree mice to elucidate the contribution of the indigenous microbiota in C. albicans colonization versus disease and yeast-bacterium antagonism during the post-cefoperazone recolonization period. C. albicans can prevent the regrowth of Lactobacillus spp. in the stomach after cefoperazone and promote increased colonization by Enterococcus spp. Using a culture-independent analysis, the effects of oral cefoperazone on the gastric bacterial microbiota were observed to last at least 3 weeks after the cessation of the antibiotic. Disturbance of the gastric bacterial community by cefoperazone alone was not sufficient to cause gastritis, C. albicans colonization was also needed. Gastritis was not evident until after day 7 in cefoperazone-treated infected mice. In contrast, in germfree mice which lack a gastric microbiota, C. albicans induced gastric inflammation within 1 week of inoculation. Therefore, the gastric bacterial community in cefoperazone-treated mice during the first week of postantibiotic recolonization was sufficient to prevent the development of gastritis, despite being ineffective at conferring colonization resistance against C. albicans. Altogether, these data implicate a dichotomy between C. albicans colonization and gastric disease that is bacterial microbiome dependent. PMID:21986629

  20. Interplay between the gastric bacterial microbiota and Candida albicans during postantibiotic recolonization and gastritis.

    PubMed

    Mason, Katie L; Erb Downward, John R; Falkowski, Nicole R; Young, Vincent B; Kao, John Y; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2012-01-01

    The indigenous bacterial microbiome of the stomach, including lactobacilli, is vital in promoting colonization resistance against Candida albicans. However, there are gaps in our understanding about C. albicans gastric colonization versus disease, especially during the postantibiotic recovery phase. This study compared the gastric responses to C. albicans strains CHN1 and SC5314 in microbiome-disturbed and germfree mice to elucidate the contribution of the indigenous microbiota in C. albicans colonization versus disease and yeast-bacterium antagonism during the post-cefoperazone recolonization period. C. albicans can prevent the regrowth of Lactobacillus spp. in the stomach after cefoperazone and promote increased colonization by Enterococcus spp. Using a culture-independent analysis, the effects of oral cefoperazone on the gastric bacterial microbiota were observed to last at least 3 weeks after the cessation of the antibiotic. Disturbance of the gastric bacterial community by cefoperazone alone was not sufficient to cause gastritis, C. albicans colonization was also needed. Gastritis was not evident until after day 7 in cefoperazone-treated infected mice. In contrast, in germfree mice which lack a gastric microbiota, C. albicans induced gastric inflammation within 1 week of inoculation. Therefore, the gastric bacterial community in cefoperazone-treated mice during the first week of postantibiotic recolonization was sufficient to prevent the development of gastritis, despite being ineffective at conferring colonization resistance against C. albicans. Altogether, these data implicate a dichotomy between C. albicans colonization and gastric disease that is bacterial microbiome dependent.

  1. The effect of sequential therapy with lansoprazole and ecabet sodium in treating iatrogenic gastric ulcer after endoscopic submucosal dissection: a randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jang Wook; Park, Sung Jin; Kim, Jeong Wook; Chang, Sae Kyung; Han, Seung Bong

    2015-02-01

    Ecabet sodium (ES) is a new non-systemic anti-ulcer agent belonging to the category of gastroprotective agents. In this study we aimed to compare the efficacy of a combination therapy with lansoprazole (LS) followed by ES with LS alone in treating endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)-induced iatrogenic gastric ulcers. Patients diagnosed with gastric adenomas or early gastric cancer were randomly divided into either the LS group (30 mg once daily for 4 weeks; n = 45) or the LS + ES group (LS 30 mg once daily for one week followed by ES 1500 mg twice daily for 3 weeks; n = 45). Four weeks after ESD, a follow-up endoscopy was conducted to evaluate the proportions of ulcer reduction and ulcer stages in the two groups. In all, 79 patients were included in the final analyses. Both treatment modalities were well-tolerated in most patients, with a drug compliance of over 80%. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the proportions of ulcer reduction (0.9503 ± 0.1215 in the LS group vs 0.9192 ± 0.0700 in the LS + ES group, P = 0.169) or ulcer stage (P = 0.446). The prevalence of adverse events related to drugs and bleeding were also similar between the two groups. Sequential therapy with LS + ES is as effective as LS alone against ESD-induced gastric ulcers. © 2014 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Intra-gastric pressures in neonates receiving bubble CPAP.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Prashant; Gupta, Neeraj; Jain, Akanksha; Upadhyay, Pramod; Puliyel, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    To study intra-gastric pressures in neonates receiving bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) by nasopharyngeal prong. Twenty seven neonates were recruited for the study. BCPAP pressure of 6 cm water was used in all the neonates. A pressure sensor attached to orogastric tube, measured the intra-gastric pressure prior to starting BCPAP and again between 30 and 90 min of BCPAP. The clinical variables like Downe's score, oxygen saturation, venous blood gas pH, pCO(2) and abdominal girth were recorded alongside with pressure readings. BCPAP resulted in improvement (p < 0.05) in parameters of respiratory distress such as Downe's score (DS), oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) and venous blood gas parameters (pH, pCO(2)). There was no statistical significant increase in intra-gastric pressures (p = 0.834). There were no gastrointestinal complications; abdominal distention, necrotising enterocolitis or gastric perforation during the study. Nasopharyngeal BCPAP at 6 cm of water pressure is an effective modality of treating babies with respiratory distress and the present study shows that it is not associated with a significant rise in intra-gastric pressures.

  3. Effects of legumain as a potential prognostic factor on gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Liu, Qiaoling; Su, Qi; Wei, Chongyang; Lan, Bin; Wang, Jianyong; Bao, Guoqing; Yan, Fei; Yu, Ying; Peng, Baowei; Qiu, Ju; Yan, Xiangming; Zhang, Sheng; Guo, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Although legumain has been found to be a prognostic factor in both breast cancer and colorectal cancer, its effects on gastric cancer are unknown. In this study, we investigated effects of legumain on gastric cancer and the correlation between legumain expression and prognosis of gastric cancer patients. SGC7901 cells were transduced with legumain cDNA (SGC7901-hLeg) for overexpression of legumain or with legumain shRNA to knock down legumain. In vitro tumor migration was examined by wound healing assay. Furthermore, a tumorigenicity and metastasis mouse model was used to examine legumain function in vivo; asparaginyl endopeptidase inhibitor (AEPI, an inhibitor of legumain) was injected to the mice (i.p.) to evaluate its therapeutic effect. Tissue microarray analysis from 112 gastric cancer patients was performed to evaluate the association between legumain expression and the cumulative survival time. Legumain was highly expressed in gastric cancer patients and some gastric cancer cell lines. Legumain promoted gastric cell migration in vitro and promoted gastric tumor growth and metastasis in vivo, and these effects were reversed by knockdown of legumain with shRNA or treated with AEPI. In gastric cancer clinical samples, legumain expression in tumor was significantly higher than in non-tumor and was negatively associated with the cumulative survival rate. In conclusion, legumain was highly expressed in gastric adenocarcinoma; legumain promoted gastric cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Legumain expression in tumor was a poor prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients, and legumain could be a potential target molecule for gastric cancer therapy in clinic.

  4. Lymphocytic gastritis, gastric adenocarcinoma, and primary gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, A P; Wyatt, J; Jack, A S; Dixon, M F

    1994-01-01

    A series of primary gastric lymphomas and adenocarcinomas was reviewed to assess the prevalence of lymphocytic gastritis in these conditions. Lymphocytic gastritis was more prevalent in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (16 of 130 cases; 12.3%) and primary gastric lymphoma (six of 45 cases; 13.7%) than in unselected patients undergoing endoscopy (0.83-2.5%). This suggests that these two disparate gastric tumours may share an immunological dysfunction or a common pathogenesis, and this is of interest given that Helicobacter pylori is thought to have a role in the evolution of gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. PMID:7876391

  5. Protective effect of Acer mono Max. sap on water immersion restraint stress-induced gastric ulceration.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hong; Son, Hyung-U; Son, Minsik; Lee, Sang-Han

    2011-09-01

    Acer mono Max. sap (AmMs) is called 'Gol-Li-Su' or 'Go-Lo-Soe' in Korean, which means 'water beneficial to the bones'. It is reported that the sap contains several types of minerals and sugars. In particular, the calcium concentration of the sap is 36.5 times higher than that of commercial mineral water. Apart from its anti-osteoporosis effect, no reports have addressed the biological activities of AmMs against degenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether AmMs alleviates gastric ulcer-related symptoms in a stress-induced mouse model. To assess the effect of AmMs on gastric ulcer-like symptoms, we carried out a water immersion restraint (WIRE) test and found that AmMs has potential in alleviating gastric ulcers in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that the nutritional factors of the sap mitigate the gastric ulcer-related symptoms caused by stress-induced gastric lesions in mice. AmMs-treated mice exhibited a significant decrease in the ulcer index as compared to those treated with omeprazole or L-arginine. To examine one potential mechanism underlying this effect, we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to ascertain whether molecular markers were associated with the mitigation of the gastric lesions. Epithelial and/or tissue nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was assessed to determine whether or not the genes were down-regulated dose-dependently by the sap. The levels of these enzymes were found to be lower in the tissue samples treated with AmMs compared with the levels in the control samples. These findings collectively suggest that AmMs significantly protects the gastric mucosa against WIRE stress-induced gastric lesions, at least in part, by alleviating inducible NOS and/or neuronal NOS expression.

  6. Protective effect of Acer mono Max. sap on water immersion restraint stress-induced gastric ulceration

    PubMed Central

    PARK, CHUL-HONG; SON, HYUNG-U; SON, MINSIK; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2011-01-01

    Acer mono Max. sap (AmMs) is called ‘Gol-Li-Su’ or ‘Go-Lo-Soe’ in Korean, which means ‘water beneficial to the bones’. It is reported that the sap contains several types of minerals and sugars. In particular, the calcium concentration of the sap is 36.5 times higher than that of commercial mineral water. Apart from its anti-osteoporosis effect, no reports have addressed the biological activities of AmMs against degenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether AmMs alleviates gastric ulcer-related symptoms in a stress-induced mouse model. To assess the effect of AmMs on gastric ulcer-like symptoms, we carried out a water immersion restraint (WIRE) test and found that AmMs has potential in alleviating gastric ulcers in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that the nutritional factors of the sap mitigate the gastric ulcer-related symptoms caused by stress-induced gastric lesions in mice. AmMs-treated mice exhibited a significant decrease in the ulcer index as compared to those treated with omeprazole or L-arginine. To examine one potential mechanism underlying this effect, we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to ascertain whether molecular markers were associated with the mitigation of the gastric lesions. Epithelial and/or tissue nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was assessed to determine whether or not the genes were down-regulated dose-dependently by the sap. The levels of these enzymes were found to be lower in the tissue samples treated with AmMs compared with the levels in the control samples. These findings collectively suggest that AmMs significantly protects the gastric mucosa against WIRE stress-induced gastric lesions, at least in part, by alleviating inducible NOS and/or neuronal NOS expression. PMID:22977586

  7. CRS-HIPEC Prolongs Survival but is Not Curative for Patients with Peritoneal Carcinomatosis of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Boerner, T; Graichen, A; Jeiter, T; Zemann, F; Renner, P; März, L; Soeder, Y; Schlitt, H J; Piso, P; Dahlke, M H

    2016-11-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a dismal feature of gastric cancer that most often is treated by systemic palliative chemotherapy. In this retrospective matched pairs-analysis, we sought to establish whether specific patient subgroups alternatively should be offered a multimodal therapy concept, including cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and intraoperative hyperthermic chemotherapy (HIPEC). Clinical outcomes of 38 consecutive patients treated with gastrectomy, CRS and HIPEC for advanced gastric cancer with PC were compared to patients treated by palliative management (with and without gastrectomy) and to patients with advanced gastric cancer with no evidence of PC. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and multivariate Cox regression models were applied. Median survival time after gastrectomy was similar between patients receiving CRS-HIPEC and matched control patients operated for advanced gastric cancer without PC [18.1 months, confidence interval (CI) 10.1-26.0 vs. 21.8 months, CI 8.0-35.5 months], resulting in comparable 5-year survival (11.9 vs. 12.1 %). The median survival time after first diagnosis of PC for gastric cancer was 17.2 months (CI 10.1-24.2 months) in the CRS-HIPEC group compared with 11.0 months (CI 7.4-14.6 months) for those treated by gastrectomy and chemotherapy alone, resulting in a twofold increase of 2-year survival (35.8 vs. 16.9 %). We provide retrospective evidence that multimodal treatment with gastrectomy, CRS, and HIPEC is associated with improved survival for patients with PC of advanced gastric cancer compared with gastrectomy and palliative chemotherapy alone. We also show that patients treated with CRS-HIPEC have comparable survival to matched control patients without PC. However, regardless of treatment scheme, all patients subsequently recur and die of disease.

  8. Photodynamic therapy using nanoparticle loaded with indocyanine green for experimental peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Hironori; Morimoto, Yuji; Takahata, Risa; Nomura, Shinsuke; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Horiguchi, Hiroyuki; Hiraki, Shuichi; Ono, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Hiromi; Saito, Daizo; Hara, Isao; Ozeki, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Although there have been multiple advances in the development of novel anticancer agents and operative procedures, prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer remains poor, especially in patients with peritoneal metastasis. In this study, we established nanoparticles loaded with indocyanine green (ICG) derivatives: ICG loaded lactosomes (ICGm) and investigated the diagnostic and therapeutic value of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using ICGm for experimental peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. Experimental peritoneal disseminated xenografts of human gastric cancer were established in nude mice. Three weeks after intraperitoneal injection of the cancer cells, either ICGm (ICGm-treated mice) or ICG solution (ICG-treated mice) was injected through the tail vein. Forty-eight hours after injection of the photosensitizer, in vivo and ex vivo imaging was carried out. For PDT, 48 h after injection of the photosensitizer, other mice were irradiated through the abdominal wall, and the body weight and survival rate were monitored. In vivo imaging revealed that peritoneal tumors were visualized through the abdominal wall in ICGm-treated mice, whereas only non-specific fluorescence was observed in ICG-treated mice. The PDT reduced the total weight of the disseminated nodules and significantly improved weight loss and survival rate in ICGm-treated mice. In conclusion, ICGm can be used as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic nanodevice in peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. PMID:25287817

  9. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by fasted and fed human gastric fluid. II. Ex vivo gastric reduction modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kirman, Christopher R., E-mail: ckirman@summittoxi

    To extend previous models of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] reduction by gastric fluid (GF), ex vivo experiments were conducted to address data gaps and limitations identified with respect to (1) GF dilution in the model; (2) reduction of Cr(VI) in fed human GF samples; (3) the number of Cr(VI) reduction pools present in human GF under fed, fasted, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-use conditions; and (4) an appropriate form for the pH-dependence of Cr(VI) reduction rate constants. Rates and capacities of Cr(VI) reduction were characterized in gastric contents from fed and fasted volunteers, and from fasted pre-operative patients treated with PPIs.more » Reduction capacities were first estimated over a 4-h reduction period. Once reduction capacity was established, a dual-spike approach was used in speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry analyses to characterize the concentration-dependence of the 2nd order reduction rate constants. These data, when combined with previously collected data, were well described by a three-pool model (pool 1 = fast reaction with low capacity; pool 2 = slow reaction with higher capacity; pool 3 = very slow reaction with higher capacity) using pH-dependent rate constants characterized by a piecewise, log-linear relationship. These data indicate that human gastric samples, like those collected from rats and mice, contain multiple pools of reducing agents, and low concentrations of Cr(VI) (< 0.7 mg/L) are reduced more rapidly than high concentrations. The data and revised modeling results herein provide improved characterization of Cr(VI) gastric reduction kinetics, critical for Cr(VI) pharmacokinetic modeling and human health risk assessment. - Highlights: • SIDMS allows for measurement of Cr(VI) reduction rate in gastric fluid ex vivo • Human gastric fluid has three reducing pools • Cr(VI) in drinking water at < 0.7 mg/L is rapidly reduced in human gastric fluid • Reduction rate is concentration- and pH-dependent • A refined

  10. Recurrent Aspiration in a Patient With Gastric Band Undergoing Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lubit, Elana B; Fetterman, Tammy Cohen; Ying, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of a 33-year-old woman with depression and suicidal ideation, treated successfully with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the past. Since her previous course of ECT, she underwent gastric banding, a bariatric surgical procedure associated with increased risk of gastric regurgitation. Despite increasingly stringent measures to minimize the risk of regurgitation and aspiration during ECT, she had several episodes of regurgitation, the last of which precipitated an acute illness consistent with aspiration pneumonitis. We took additional precautions after each event, until she had no further episodes of regurgitation. We discuss the risk posed by the gastric band, the measures we implemented to minimize that risk, and our recommendations for assessment and management of post-gastric banding patients who present for ECT.

  11. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Maitra, Sujay; Ray, Amit; Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Malay

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature. PMID:24604987

  12. Mesenchymal stem cell-based NK4 gene therapy in nude mice bearing gastric cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yin; Cheng, Ming; Yang, Zhen; Zeng, Chun-Yan; Chen, Jiang; Xie, Yong; Luo, Shi-Wen; Zhang, Kun-He; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been recognized as promising delivery vehicles for gene therapy of tumors. Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of worldwide cancer mortality, and novel treatment modalities are urgently needed. NK4 is an antagonist of hepatocyte growth factor receptors (Met) which are often aberrantly activated in gastric cancer and thus represent a useful candidate for targeted therapies. This study investigated MSC-delivered NK4 gene therapy in nude mice bearing gastric cancer xenografts. MSCs were transduced with lentiviral vectors carrying NK4 complementary DNA or enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP). Such transduction did not change the phenotype of MSCs. Gastric cancer xenografts were established in BALB/C nude mice, and the mice were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), MSCs-GFP, Lenti-NK4, or MSCs-NK4. The tropism of MSCs toward gastric cancer cells was determined by an in vitro migration assay using MKN45 cells, GES-1 cells and human fibroblasts and their presence in tumor xenografts. Tumor growth, tumor cell apoptosis and intratumoral microvessel density of tumor tissue were measured in nude mice bearing gastric cancer xenografts treated with PBS, MSCs-GFP, Lenti-NK4, or MSCs-NK4 via tail vein injection. The results showed that MSCs migrated preferably to gastric cancer cells in vitro. Systemic MSCs-NK4 injection significantly suppressed the growth of gastric cancer xenografts. MSCs-NK4 migrated and accumulated in tumor tissues after systemic injection. The microvessel density of tumor xenografts was decreased, and tumor cellular apoptosis was significantly induced in the mice treated with MSCs-NK4 compared to control mice. These findings demonstrate that MSC-based NK4 gene therapy can obviously inhibit the growth of gastric cancer xenografts, and MSCs are a better vehicle for NK4 gene therapy than lentiviral vectors. Further studies are warranted to explore the efficacy and safety of the MSC-based NK4 gene therapy in

  13. Effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Fang, Dian-Chun; Li, Qian-Wei; Sun, Nian-Xu; Long, Qing-Lin; Sui, Jian-Feng; Gan, Lu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin level in a canine model of gastric motility disorders and the correlation between gastric emptying and plasma motilin level. METHODS: Ten healthy Mongrel dogs were divided into: experimental group of six dogs and control group of four dogs. A model of gastric motility disorders was established in the experimental group undergone truncal vagotomy combined with injection of glucagon. Gastric half-emptying time (GEt1/2) was monitored with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and the half-solid test meal was labeled with an isotope 99mTc sulfur colloid. Plasma motilin concentration was measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit. Surface gastric pacing at 1.1-1.2 times the intrinsic slow-wave frequency and a superimposed series of high frequency pulses (10-30 Hz) was performed for 45 min daily for a month in conscious dogs. RESULTS: After surgery, GEt1/2 in dogs undergone truncal vagotomy was increased significantly from 56.35 ± 2.99 min to 79.42 ± 1.91 min (P < 0.001), but surface gastric pacing markedly accelerated gastric emptying and significantly decreased GEt1/2 to 64.94 ± 1.75 min (P < 0.001) in animals undergone vagotomy. There was a significant increase of plasma level of motilin at the phase of IMCIII (interdigestive myoelectrical complex, IMCIII) in the dogs undergone bilateral truncal vagotomy (baseline vs vagotomy, 184.29 ± 9.81 pg/ml vs 242.09 ± 17.22 pg/ml; P < 0.01). But plasma motilin concentration (212.55 ± 11.20 pg/ml; P < 0.02) was decreased significantly after a long-term treatment with gastric pacing. Before gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and plasma motilin concentration of the dogs undergone vagotomy showed a positive correlation (r = 0.867, P < 0.01), but after a long-term gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and motilin level showed a negative correlation (r = -0.733, P < 0.04). CONCLUSION: Surface gastric pacing with optimal pacing parameters can improve

  14. Potential role of probiotics in the management of gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    KHODER, GHALIA; AL-MENHALI, ASMA A.; AL-YASSIR, FARAH; KARAM, SHERIF M.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal diseases characterized by a significant defect in the mucosal barrier. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and the frequent long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are major factors involved in gastric ulcer development. Acid inhibitors and antibiotics are commonly used to treat gastric ulcer. However, in the last few decades, the accumulating evidence for resistance to antibiotics and the side effects of antibiotics and acid inhibitors have drawn attention to the possible use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcer. Probiotics are live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host. Currently, the available experimental and clinical studies indicate that probiotics are promising for future applications in the management of gastric ulcers. This review aims to provide an overview of the general health benefits of probiotics on various systemic and gastrointestinal disorders with a special focus on gastric ulcer and the involved cellular and molecular mechanisms: i) Protection of gastric mucosal barrier; ii) upregulation of prostaglandins, mucus, growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines; iii) increased cell proliferation to apoptosis ratio; and iv) induction of angiogenesis. Finally, some of the available data on the possible use of probiotics in H. pylori eradication are discussed. PMID:27347010

  15. Antiulcerogenic activity of chlorogenic acid in different models of gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, André T; Santin, José Roberto; Machado, Isabel D; de Oliveira e Silva, Ana Mara; de Melo, Illana L Pereira; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Farsky, Sandra H P

    2013-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is found in many foods, including coffee, berries, potatoes, carrots, wine, apples, and various herbs, and has anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antitumoral actions. The CGA is well absorbed orally, and its effects on gastric ulcer have not been previously reported. The present manuscript evaluated the effect of oral administration of CGA on ethanol/HCl (Et/HCl) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric ulcer model in male Swiss mice. Animals were pretreated with 0.2 % carboxymethylcellulose (vehicle, p.o.), omeprazole (positive control, 30 mg/kg, p.o.), carbenoxolone (antioxidant positive control, 100 mg/kg, p.o.), or CGA (5, 25, or 50 mg/kg, p.o.). One hour later, the gastric ulcer was induced by injecting Et/HCl solution (100 μL/10 g body weight; Et 60 % + HCl 0.03 M) or piroxicam (100 mg/kg, p.o). After another hour or 4 h later, gastric tissues were collected from Et/HCl or piroxicam-treated animals, respectively, to evaluate the size of the lesion, histological alterations, secretion of gastric acid, neutrophil migration, oxidative/antioxidative enzymes, markers of lipid peroxidation, or concentrations of inflammatory mediators. CGA treatment had a gastroprotective effect in both models, reducing the percentage of lesioned area. CGA treatment did not alter the secretion of gastric action but inhibited neutrophil migration and restored the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in mice treated with Et/HCl. Additionally, CGA treatment blocked the increase of tumor necrosis factor alpha and leukotriene B4 but did not restore the reduced prostaglandin levels in the NSAID-induced ulcer. Together, the data presented herein show that CGA may be a suitable natural compound for the prevention and treatment of gastric lesions caused by a different etiology.

  16. Safe and successful endoscopic initial treatment and long-term eradication of gastric varices by endoscopic ultrasound-guided Histoacryl (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) injection.

    PubMed

    Gubler, Christoph; Bauerfeind, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Optimal endoscopic treatment of gastric varices is still not standardized nowadays. Actively bleeding varices may prohibit a successful endoscopic injection therapy of Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate). Since 2006, we have treated gastric varices by standardized endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided Histoacryl injection therapy without severe adverse events. We present a large single-center cohort over 7 years with a standardized EUS-guided sclerotherapy of all patients with gastric varices. Application was controlled by fluoroscopy to immediately detect any glue embolization. Only perforating veins located within the gastric wall were treated. In the follow up, we repeated this treatment until varices were eradicated. Utmost patients (36 of 40) were treated during or within 24 h of active bleeding. About 32.5% of patients were treated while visible bleeding. Histoacryl injection was always technically successful and only two patients suffered a minor complication. Acute bleeding was stopped in all patients. About 15% (6 of 40) of patients needed an alternative rescue treatment in the longer course. Three patients got a transjugular portosystemic shunt and another three underwent an orthotopic liver transplantation. Mean long-term survival of 60 months was excellent. Active bleeding of gastric varices can be treated successfully without the necessity of gastric rinsing with EUS-guided injection of Histoacryl.

  17. Efficacy of brown seaweed hot water extract against HCl-ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao Balaji; Sathivel, Arumugam; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2004-04-01

    Effect of pre-treatment with hot water extract of marine brown alga Sargassum polycystum C.Ag. (100 mg/kg body wt, orally for period of 15 days) on HCl-ethanol (150 mM of HCl-ethanol mixture containing 0.15 N HCl in 70% v/v ethanol given orally) induced gastric mucosal injury in rats was examined with respect to lipid peroxides, antioxidant enzyme status, acid/pepsin and glycoproteins in the gastric mucosa. The levels of lipid peroxides of gastric mucosa and volume, acidity of the gastric juice were increased with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes and glycoproteins were observed in HCl-ethanol induced rats. The rats pre-treated with seaweed extract prior to HCl-ethanol induction reversed the depleted levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the elevated levels of lipid peroxides when compared with HCl-ethanol induced rats. The levels of glycoproteins and alterations in the gastric juice were also maintained at near normal levels in rats pre-treated with seaweed extract. The rats given seaweed extract alone did not show any toxicity, which was confirmed by histopathological studies. These results suggest that the seaweed extract contains some anti-ulcer agents, which may maintain the volume/acidity of gastric juice and improve the gastric mucosa antioxidant defense system against HCl-ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

  18. Acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in an adult treated laparoscopically after endoscopic reduction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Omata, Jiro; Utsunomiya, Katsuyuki; Kajiwara, Yoshiki; Takahata, Risa; Miyasaka, Nobuo; Sugasawa, Hidekazu; Sakamoto, Naoko; Yamagishi, Yoji; Fukumura, Makiko; Kitagawa, Daiki; Konno, Mitsuhiko; Okusa, Yasushi; Murayama, Michinori

    2016-12-01

    A 43-year-old female was referred to our hospital for sudden onset of abdominal pain, fullness, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension with mild epigastric tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed massive gastric distension and plain computed tomography (CT) a markedly enlarged stomach filled with gas and fluid. A large volume of gastric contents was suctioned out via a nasogastric (NG) tube. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a grossly distended stomach with displacement of the antrum above the gastroesophageal junction, and the spleen was dislocated inferiorly. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) series showed the greater curvature to be elevated and the gastric fundus to be lower than normal. Acute mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus was diagnosed. GI endoscopy showed a distortion of the gastric anatomy with difficulty intubating the pylorus. Various endoscopic maneuvers were required to reposition the stomach, and the symptoms showed immediate and complete solution. GI fluoroscopy was performed 3 days later. Initially, most of the contrast medium accumulated in the fundus, which was drawn prominently downward, and then began flowing into the duodenum with anteflexion. Elective laparoscopic surgery was performed 1 month later. The stomach was in its normal position, but the fundus was folded posteroinferiorly. The spleen attached to the fundus was normal in size but extremely mobile. We diagnosed a wandering spleen based on the operative findings. Gastropexy was performed for the treatment of gastric volvulus and wandering spleen. The patient remained asymptomatic, and there was no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of 24 months. This report describes a rare adult case of acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen. Because delay in treatment can result in lethal complications, it is critical to provide a prompt and correct diagnosis and surgical intervention. We advocate laparoscopic surgery after endoscopic reduction because

  19. Gastric lymphoma: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, Claudio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Savio, Antonella

    2011-03-01

    The diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma is frequently difficult for the general histopathologist. During recent years there have been relevant changes in the therapeutic approach to gastric MALT lymphoma and our knowledge about its pathogenesis has greatly improved. The management of this disease actually requires a close cooperation between the histopathologist and the clinicians. The histology report of biopsies of a newly diagnosed or of an already treated case implies information of clinical and therapeutical relevance. This paper aims at giving the histopathologist a general knowledge about the state of art of this disease and its management. The diagnostic process leading to a complete and competent report is then described step by step. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. [A case of synchronous hepatocellular carcinoma successfully treated by S-1 and cisplatin (CDDP) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Oka, Tomo; Onoda, Yuji; Ohashi, Ryuichiro; Izumi, Sadanobu; Suzuka, Ichio; Shiota, Kunihiko

    2009-05-01

    Combination chemotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin(S-1/CDDP)has become the standard treatment for gastric cancer, but the effect for hepatocellular carcinoma has not become clear. We experienced a case with advanced gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma at the same time. We used S-1/CDDP as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the case and performed surgical resection of the gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. From histological examination of the resected specimen, we may be able to prove that the S-1/CDDP chemotherapy for the hepatocellular carcinoma was also effective. A 57-year-old man visited our hospital with epigastralgia. Further examinations revealed a type-3 advanced gastric cancer with bulky N2 and hepatocellular carcinoma at segment 5. The gastric cancer was thought to be too advanced for initial surgery, so we performed S-1/CDDP chemotherapy(S-1 100 mg/body/day, CDDP 20 mg/body twice/week for 2 weeks)as preoperative therapy. After remarkable shrinkage of the gastric cancer was obtained, we performed distal gastrectomy, D2+a lymph node excision, liver S5 segmentectomy and cholecystectomy. The histological examination showed remarkable denaturation and necrosis as grade 2 effectiveness in over two-thirds of the hepatocellular carcinoma area and grade 1b in gastric cancer according to the Japanese classification of gastric carcinoma. This result suggests that S-1/CDDP chemotherapy might therefore be effective as systemic therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. However, further clinical trials are required.

  1. Comparison between tocotrienol and omeprazole on gastric growth factors in stress-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Nur Azlina, Mohd Fahami; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad; Chua, Kien Hui; Kamisah, Yusof

    2017-08-28

    To investigate and compare the effects of tocotrienol and omeprazole on gastric growth factors in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS). Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven rats. The two control groups were administered vitamin-free palm oil (vehicle) and the two treatment groups were given omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or tocotrienol (60 mg/kg) by oral gavage. After 28 d of treatment, rats from one control group and both treated groups were subjected to WIRS one time for 3.5 h. Gastric lesions were measured and gastric tissues were obtained to measure vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) mRNA expression. Rats exposed to WIRS for 3.5 h demonstrated the presence of considerable ulcers in the form of gastric erosion. The lesion index in the stressed control (S) group was increased ( P < 0.001) compared to the tocotrienol treated and omeprazole treated groups. Stress led to a decrease in gastric VEGF ( P < 0.001), bFGF ( P < 0.001) and TGF-α ( P < 0.001) mRNA levels and caused an increase in EGF mRNA ( P < 0.001) that was statistically significant compared to the non-stressed control group. Although both treatment agents exerted similar ulcer reducing ability, only treatment with tocotrienol led to increased expression of VEGF ( P = 0.008), bFGF ( P = 0.001) and TGF-α ( P = 0.002) mRNA. Tocotrienol provides gastroprotective effects in WIRS-induced ulcers. Compared to omeprazole, tocotrienol exerts a similar protective effect, albeit through multiple mechanisms of protection, particularly through up-regulation of growth factors that assist in repair of gastric tissue injuries.

  2. Perioperative transfusion management in gastric cancer surgery: Analysis of the Spanish subset of the EURECCA oesophago-gastric cancer registry.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Javier; Jericó, Carlos; Miranda, Coro; Garsot, Elisenda; Luna, Alexis; Miró, Mónica; Santamaría, Maite; Artigau, Eva; Rodríguez-Santiago, Joaquín; Castro, Sandra; Feliu, Josep; Aldeano, Aurora; Olona, Carles; Momblan, Dulce; Ruiz, David; Galofré, Gonzalo; Pros, Inmaculada; García-Albéniz, Xabier; Lozano, Miguel; Pera, Manuel

    2018-05-14

    This study evaluated allogenic packed red blood cell (aPRBC) transfusion rates in patients undergoing resection for gastric cancer and the implementation of blood-saving protocols (BSP). Retrospective study of all gastric cancer patients operated on with curative intent in Catalonia and Navarra (2011-2013) and included in the Spanish subset of the EURECCA Oesophago-Gastric Cancer Registry. Hospitals with BSP were defined as those with a preoperative haemoglobin (Hb) optimisation circuit associated with restrictive transfusion strategies. Predictors of aPRBC transfusion were identified by multinomial logistic regression analysis. A total of 652 patients were included, 274 (42.0%) of which received aPRBC transfusion. Six of the 19 participating hospitals had BSP and treated 145 (22.2%) patients. Low Hb level at diagnosis (10 vs 12.4g/dL), ASA score III/IV, pT3-4, open surgery, associated visceral resection, and having being operated on in a hospital without BSP were predictors of aPRBC transfusion, while low Hb level, associated visceral resection, and non-BSP hospital remained predictors in the multivariate analysis. In case of comparable risk factors for aPRBC transfusion, there was a higher use of preoperative intravenous iron treatment (26.2% vs 13.2%) and a lower percentage of transfusions (31.7% vs 45%) in hospitals with BSP. The perioperative transfusion rate in gastric cancer was 42%. Hospitals with BSP showed a significant reduction of blood transfusions but treated only 22% of patients. Main predictors of aPRBC were low Hb level, associated visceral resection, and undergoing surgery at a hospital without BSP. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different

  4. Prophylactic effects of Clausena excavata Burum. f. leaf extract in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Albaayit, Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas; Abba, Yusuf; Abdullah, Rasedee; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2016-01-01

    Clausena excavata is a natural herb with both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been used for decades in folkloric practice for the amelioration of various ailments. In this study, the gastroprotective activity of methanolic extract of C. excavata leaves (MECE) was determined in the Sprague Dawley rat ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Rats were pretreated with a single dose of vehicle (5% Tween 20), 20 mg/mL omeprazole, 400 and 200 mg/mL of MECE dissolved in 5% Tween 20. Ulcer was induced with 5 mL/kg of ethanol and stomach tissue was obtained after 1 hour. Histological examination was done on hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and immunochemically stained gastric mucosal tissues. Prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation levels of the gastric tissue homogenates were also determined. Significantly (P<0.05) smaller ulcer areas, less intense edema, and fewer leukocytes’ infiltration were observed in MECE- and omeprazole-treated than in untreated gastric mucosa with ulcer. The gastric pH, mucus production, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase contents increased, while the lipid peroxidation content decreased as a result of MECE treatment. Bcl-2-associated X protein was underexpressed, while heat shock protein 70 and transforming growth factor-beta protein were overexpressed in the ulcerated gastric mucosa tissues treated with omeprazole and MECE. Similarly, there was a reduction in the levels of tumor necrotic factor-alpha and interleukin-6, while the level of interleukin-10 was increased. This study showed that the gastroprotective effect of MECE is achieved through inhibition of gastric juice secretion and ulcer lesion development, stimulation of mucus secretion, elevation of gastric pH, reduction of reactive oxygen species production, inhibition of apoptosis in the gastric mucosa, and modulation of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27366052

  5. Improvement of gastric motility by hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Hirako, Makoto; Misu, Naoko; Kobayashi, Yuka; Shikano, Michiko; Matsuhisa, Eriko; Kataoka, Hiromi; Sasaki, Makoto; Ohara, Hirotaka; Nakao, Haruhisa; Orito, Etsuro; Joh, Takashi

    2007-10-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). We have previously demonstrated that patients with predialysis end-stage renal disease showed a high prevalence of GI symptoms and gastric hypomotility, and that gastric hypomotility appears to be an important factor in generating GI symptoms. However, it is not clear whether impaired gastric motor function would improve after hemodialytic treatment. To examine the relationship between gastric motor function and GI symptoms in CRF patients on hemodialysis. The study was performed in 19 patients with CRF treated with hemodialysis for more than six months and in 12 matched healthy controls. GI symptom severity was quantified in all patients. Gastric motility was evaluated with cutaneously recorded electrogastrography (EGG) and gastric emptying of semi-solid meals using the (13)C-acetic acid breath test. Six patients had no symptoms, and 11 had slight GI symptoms with a total symptom score of less than 5. Compared with controls, CRF patients revealed no differences in gastric motility parameters, with the exception of a lower percentage of normogastria in EGG at fasting state. Eleven patients had normal gastric motor function (Group A), and eight showed abnormalities of either gastric myoelectrical activity or gastric emptying (Group B). There was no difference in symptom score between Group A and Group B. More than half of the patients with CRF on hemodialysis demonstrated normal gastric motility, and no or slight GI symptoms. Hemodialytic treatment may improve impaired gastric motility and reduce GI symptoms in patients with CRF.

  6. Gastric cancer-derived MSC-secreted PDGF-DD promotes gastric cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Wang, Mei; Yang, Tingting; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Zixuan; Wu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of PDGF-DD secreted by gastric cancer-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs) in human gastric cancer progression. Gastric cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with GC-MSCs in a transwell system. The growth and migration of gastric cancer cells were evaluated by cell colony formation assay and transwell migration assay, respectively. The production of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs was determined by using Luminex and ELISA. Neutralization of PDGFR-β by su16f and siRNA interference of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs was used to demonstrate the role of PDGF-DD produced by GC-MSCs in gastric cancer progression. GC-MSC conditioned medium promoted gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. Co-culture with GC-MSCs increased the phosphorylation of PDGFR-β in SGC-7901 cells. Neutralization of PDGFR-β by su16f blocked the promoting role of GC-MSC conditioned medium in gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration. Recombinant PDGF-DD duplicated the effects of GC-MSC conditioned medium on gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs abolished its effects on gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PDGF-DD secreted by GC-MSCs is capable of promoting gastric cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo. Targeting the PDGF-DD/PDGFR-β interaction between MSCs and gastric cancer cells may represent a novel strategy for gastric cancer therapy.

  7. Diversity of the Gastric Microbiota in Thoroughbred Racehorses Having Gastric Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Ho, Hungwui; Hwang, Hyeshin; Kim, Yongbaek; Han, Janet; Lee, Inhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2016-04-28

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is one of the most frequently reported diseases in thoroughbred racehorses. Although several risk factors for the development of gastric ulcers have been widely studied, investigation of microbiological factors has been limited. In this study, the presence of Helicobacter spp. and the gastric microbial communities of thoroughbred racehorses having mild to severe gastric ulcers were investigated. Although Helicobacter spp. were not detected using culture and PCR techniques from 52 gastric biopsies and 52 fecal samples, the genomic sequences of H. pylori and H. ganmani were detected using nextgeneration sequencing techniques from 2 out of 10 representative gastric samples. The gastric microbiota of horses was mainly composed of Firmicutes (50.0%), Proteobacteria (18.7%), Bacteroidetes (14.4%), and Actinobacteria (9.7%), but the proportion of each phylum varied among samples. There was no major difference in microbial composition among samples having mild to severe gastric ulcers. Using phylogenetic analysis, three distinct clusters were observed, and one cluster differed from the other two clusters in the frequency of feeding, amount of water consumption, and type of bedding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the gastric microbiota of thoroughbred racehorses having gastric ulcer and to evaluate the microbial diversity in relation to the severity of gastric ulcer and management factors. This study is important for further exploration of the gastric microbiota in racehorses and is ultimately applicable to improving animal and human health.

  8. Antral hyperplastic polyp: A rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Ozer, Ender; Rakici, Halil; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gastric polyps are usually found incidentally during upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations. These polyps are generally benign, with hyperplasia being the most common. While gastric polyps are often asymptomatic, they can cause gastric outlet obstruction. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 64 years-old female patient presented to our polyclinic with a history of approximately 2 months of weakness, occasional early nausea, vomiting after meals and epigastric pain. A polypoid lesion of approximately 25 mm in diameter was detected in the antral area of the stomach, which prolapsed through the pylorus into the duodenal bulbus, and subsequently caused gastric outlet obstruction, as revealed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy of the patient. The polyp was retrieved from the pyloric canal into the stomach with the aid of a tripod, and snare polypectomy was performed. DISCUSSION Currently, widespread use of endoscopy has led to an increase in the frequency of detecting hyperplastic polyps. While most gastric polyps are asymptomatic, they can cause iron deficiency anemia, acute pancreatitis and more commonly, gastric outlet obstruction because of their antral location. Although there are no precise principles in the treatment of asymptomatic polyps, polyps >5 mm should be removed due to the possibility of malignant transformation. CONCLUSION According to the medical evidence, polypectomy is required for gastric hyperplastic polyps because of the risks of complication and malignancy. These cases can be successfully treated endoscopically. PMID:24747755

  9. Left Gastric Artery Aneurysm: Successful Embolization with Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto, E-mail: alberto.vargas@addenbrookes.nhs.uk; Cousins, Claire; Higgins, J. Nicholas

    2008-03-15

    Patients with left gastric artery aneurysms present with hemorrhagic shock due to rupture or occasionally it is an incidental finding on abdominal CT examinations. Due to the increased morbidity and mortality from this condition, adequate diagnosis and treatment are essential. In this article we present a patient with a left gastric artery aneurysm treated with a new embolization agent, ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx)

  10. [Effects of sinensetin on proliferation and apoptosis of human gastric cancer AGS cells].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yang; Ji, Guang; Cao, Aili; Shi, Jianrong; Shi, Hailian; Xie, Jianqun; Wu, Dazheng

    2011-03-01

    To study the effects and mechanisms of sinensetin on proliferation and apoptosis of human AGS gastric cancer cells. MTT assay was used to detect the growth inhibition rates of human AGS gastric cancer cells treated with sinsesectin in different concentrations and times. The cell cycle distribution was measured by flow cytometry. The apoptosis was examined by Annexin-FITC/PI staining and DNA fragment analysis. The apoptosis morphology was observed by inverted fluorescence microscope after Hoechst 33342 staining. The protein expressions of p21 and p53 were detected by western blot. MTT assay showed that sinensetin inhibited the growth of AGS gastric cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Sinensetin blocked AGS cells in G2/ M and increased the apoptosis rates of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. DNA ladder was observed in cells treated with 60 micromol x L(-1) sinensetin for 48 h. The typical apoptotic morphological changes including cell nucleus shrinkage, chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies were observed when treated with different dose of sinensetin. Western blot showed that sinensetin increased expressions of p53 and p21 in a dose-dependent manner. Sinensetin could inhibit human AGS gastric cancer cells proliferation and induce cell cycle block in G2/M phase and apoptosis. The up regulation of p53 and p21 protein might be one of the mechanisms.

  11. Clinicopathological features of gastric metastasis from breast cancer in three cases.

    PubMed

    Koike, Kenta; Kitahara, Kenji; Higaki, Mayumi; Urata, Masako; Yamazaki, Fumio; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2014-09-01

    The common sites for metastases from breast cancer are lymph nodes, bone, lung, liver, and brain. Gastrointestinal (GI) metastasis is rarely found or diagnosed in patients with breast cancer. This report presents three cases of gastric metastasis from breast cancer. Case 1 was a 42-year-old female diagnosed with gastric metastasis after mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection for invasive lobular carcinoma of the left breast. Case 2 was a 54-year-old female who was diagnosed to have invasive lobular carcinoma of the left breast with systemic bone and gastric metastasis. Case 3 was a 54-year-old female who was diagnosed to have bilateral invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast with simultaneous bone and gastric metastasis. The immunohistochemical statuses for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, mammaglobin, and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) between the primary and gastric metastatic lesions were all well matched. All three cases were treated with systemic chemotherapy, hormone therapy or both, without surgical intervention for gastric lesions. Two patients with disseminated disease died 27 and 58 months after diagnosis of gastric metastasis, while one patient without organ metastasis is still alive at 56 months after diagnosis. It is important to make a correct diagnosis by distinguishing gastric metastasis from breast cancer in order to select the optimal initial treatment for systemic disease of breast cancer.

  12. Spontaneous Acute Mesenteroaxial Gastric Volvulus Diagnosed by Computed Tomography Scan in a Young Man.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Gaby; Afifi, Ibrahim; Ellabib, Mohamed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-04-26

    Acute gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency that requires early recognition and treatment. Acute idiopathic mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is a rare sub-type and there are few cases reported in children and there are even fewer reports in adults. We report a rare case of a 23-year-old man who presented with a 1-day history of vomiting, epigastric pain, distention, and constipation. The diagnosis for mesenteroaxial type gastric volvulus was confirmed by abdominal radiography and computed tomography. The patient was successfully treated by laparotomy with resection of the ischemic stomach wall and anastomosis. Acute spontaneous mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is rare in adults and early diagnosis is challenging due to non-specific symptoms. A missed or delayed diagnosis may result in serious complications due to gastric obstruction. A patient presenting with severe epigastric pain and clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction should be considered as a surgical emergency to rule out gastric volvulus. High index of suspicion, early diagnosis and prompt surgical management are important for favorable outcome in patients with acute spontaneous gastric volvulus.

  13. Cure with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for chronic hepatitis C virus in an individual with gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S W; Teachey, A L; Valanejad, S M; Griffin, S M; Weber, S F

    2017-10-01

    The impact of gastric bypass surgery on the pharmacokinetics of various medications has been reported. Presently, no data exist for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) in an individual with a history of gastric bypass. We report the successful cure of an individual who was treated with LDV/SOF who had a history of gastric bypass. The patient tolerated LDV/SOF well while only experiencing a minor headache. Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir treatment may still be effective in those with a history of gastric bypass surgery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Aloe vera attenuated gastric injury on indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Werawatganon, Duangporn; Rakananurak, Narisorn; Sallapant, Sasipim; Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Somanawat, Kanjana; Klaikeaw, Naruemon; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2014-12-28

    To evaluate the protective effects of Aloe vera on gastric injury in rats with indomethacin (IMN)-induced gastropathy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control, n = 6) was given distilled water (DW) orally. Group 2 (IMN, n = 6) was given oral IMN (150 mg/kg) dissolved in 5% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 (-)) at time 0 and 4 h. Group 3 (Aloe vera-treated, n = 6) was given oral Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) dissolved in DW and IMN at time 0 and 4 h. Eight hours later, the stomach was removed to determine gastric malondialdehyde (MDA), the number of interleukin (IL)-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry, and for histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 by sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. In the IMN group, serum TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA were significantly increased when compared to the control group (27.78 ± 1.52 pg/mL vs 85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL, P = 0.009; 104.55 ± 45.80 pg/mL vs 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL, and 1.74 ± 0.21 nmol/mg vs 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The mean level of TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA in the Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with the IMN group (85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL vs 35.19 ± 1.61 pg/mL, P = 0.021; 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL vs 813.56 ± 239.04 pg/mL, P = 0.025; and 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg vs 2.67 ± 0.64 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) in the gastric epithelial cells of the IMN group was significantly higher than the control group (5.01% ± 3.73% vs 30.67% ± 2.03%, P = 0.000, respectively). In contrast, Aloe vera treatment decreased the number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) significantly when compared with the IMN group (30.67% ± 2.03% vs 13.21% ± 1.10%, P = 0.000, respectively). Most rats in the IMN group developed moderate to severe gastric inflammation

  15. Dosimetric Analysis of Radiation-induced Gastric Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu; Normolle, Daniel; Pan, Charlie C.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced gastric bleeding has been poorly understood. In this study, we described dosimetric predictors for gastric bleeding after fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 139 sequential patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for intrahepatic malignancies were reviewed. Median follow-up was 7.4 months. The parameters of a Lyman normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for the occurrence of {>=}grade 3 gastric bleed, adjusted for cirrhosis, were fitted to the data. The principle of maximum likelihood was used to estimate parameters for NTCP models. Results: Sixteen of 116 evaluable patients (14%) developed gastric bleeds at amore » median time of 4.0 months (mean, 6.5 months; range, 2.1-28.3 months) following completion of RT. The median and mean maximum doses to the stomach were 61 and 63 Gy (range, 46-86 Gy), respectively, after biocorrection of each part of the 3D dose distributions to equivalent 2-Gy daily fractions. The Lyman NTCP model with parameters adjusted for cirrhosis predicted gastric bleed. Best-fit Lyman NTCP model parameters were n=0.10 and m=0.21 and with TD{sub 50} (normal) = 56 Gy and TD{sub 50} (cirrhosis) = 22 Gy. The low n value is consistent with the importance of maximum dose; a lower TD{sub 50} value for the cirrhosis patients points out their greater sensitivity. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the Lyman NTCP model has utility for predicting gastric bleeding and that the presence of cirrhosis greatly increases this risk. These findings should facilitate the design of future clinical trials involving high-dose upper abdominal radiation.« less

  16. Laparoscopic gastropexy relieves symptoms of obstructed gastric volvulus in highoperative risk patients.

    PubMed

    Yates, Robert B; Hinojosa, Marcelo W; Wright, Andrew S; Pellegrini, Carlos A; Oelschlager, Brant K

    2015-05-01

    Operative repair of obstructive gastric volvulus is challenging. In high-operative risk patients with obstructive gastric volvulus, we perform laparoscopic reduction of gastric volvulus and anterior abdominal wall sutured gastropexy. This case series reports our experience with this operation. We reviewed the charts of all patients who presented with obstructive gastric volvulus and underwent laparoscopic gastropexy between 2007 and 2013. Eleven patients underwent laparoscopic gastropexy. Median age was 83 years (50 to 92). Six patients presented with chronic obstruction; 5 presented with acute obstruction. Median postoperative hospitalization was 2 days (1 to 39). Two patients required reoperation for displaced gastrostomy tubes. At median follow-up of 3 months (2 weeks to 57 months), all patients remained free of gastric obstructive symptoms and recurrent episodes of volvulus. Only 1 patient received nutrition via gastrostomy tube. Laparoscopic gastropexy can treat obstructed gastric volvulus in highoperative risk patients. Because of associated morbidity, gastrostomy tubes should be placed selectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Probiotic Mixture VSL#3 Accelerates Gastric Ulcer Healing by Stimulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Dharmani, Poonam; De Simone, Claudio; Chadee, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effect and mechanism of probiotics on diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GI) including gastric ulcers are limited despite extensive work and promising results of this therapeutic option for other GI diseases. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which the probiotic mixture VSL#3 (a mixture of eight probiotic bacteria including Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Streptococcus species) heals acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats. VSL#3 was administered orally at low (6×109 bacteria) or high (1.2×1010 bacteria) dosages from day 3 after ulcer induction for 14 consecutive days. VSL#3 treatments significantly enhanced gastric ulcer healing in a dose-dependent manner. To assess the mechanism(s) whereby VSL#3 exerted its protective effects, we quantified the gene expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, protein and expression of stomach mucin-Muc5ac, regulatory cytokine-IL-10, COX-2 and various growth factors. Of all the components examined, only expression and protein production of VEGF was increased 332-fold on day 7 in the ulcerated tissues of animals treated with VSL#3. Predictably, animals treated with VEGF neutralizing antibody significantly delayed gastric ulcer healing in VSL#3 treated animals. This is the first report to demonstrate high efficacy of the probiotic mixture VSL#3 in enhancing gastric ulcer healing. Probiotic efficacy was effective at higher concentrations of VSL#3 by specifically increasing the expression and production of angiogenesis promoting growth factors, primarily VEGF. PMID:23484048

  18. Predictive value of CHFR and MLH1 methylation in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yazhuo; Yang, Yunsheng; Lu, Youyong; Herman, James G; Brock, Malcolm V; Zhao, Po; Guo, Mingzhou

    2015-04-01

    Gastric carcinoma (GC) has one of the highest mortality rates of cancer diseases and has a high incidence rate in China. Palliative chemotherapy is the main treatment for advanced gastric cancer. It is necessary to compare the effectiveness and toxicities of different regimens. This study explores the possibility of methylation of DNA damage repair genes serving as a prognostic and chemo-sensitive marker in human gastric cancer. The methylation status of five DNA damage repair genes (CHFR, FANCF, MGMT, MLH1, and RASSF1A) was detected by nested methylation-specific PCR in 102 paraffin-embedded gastric cancer samples. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to evaluate the association of methylation status and clinic-pathological factors. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models were employed to analyze the association of methylation status and chemo-sensitivity. The results indicate that CHFR, MLH1, RASSF1A, MGMT, and FANCF were methylated in 34.3% (35/102), 21.6% (22/102), 12.7% (13/102), 9.8% (10/102), and 0% (0/102) of samples, respectively. No association was found between methylation of CHFR, MLH1, RASSF1A, MGMT, or FANCF with gender, age, tumor size, tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage. In docetaxel-treated gastric cancer patients, resistance to docetaxel was found in CHFR unmethylated patients by Cox proportional hazards model (HR 0.243, 95% CI, 0.069-0.859, p = 0.028), and overall survival is longer in the CHFR methylated group compared with the CHFR unmethylated group (log-rank, p = 0.036). In oxaliplatin-treated gastric cancer patients, resistance to oxaliplatin was found in MLH1 methylated patients (HR 2.988, 95% CI, 1.064-8.394, p = 0.038), and overall survival was longer in the MLH1 unmethylated group compared with the MLH1 methylated group (log-rank, p = 0.046). CHFR is frequently methylated in human gastric cancer, and CHFR methylation may serve as a docetaxel-sensitive marker. MLH1 methylation was

  19. Helicobacter pylori Therapy for the Prevention of Metachronous Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Il Ju; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Kim, Young-Il; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jong Yeul; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Park, Boram; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2018-03-22

    Patients with early gastric cancers that are limited to gastric mucosa or submucosa usually have an advanced loss of mucosal glandular tissue (glandular atrophy) and are at high risk for subsequent (metachronous) development of new gastric cancer. The long-term effects of treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori on histologic improvement and the prevention of metachronous gastric cancer remain unclear. In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, we assigned 470 patients who had undergone endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer or high-grade adenoma to receive either H. pylori eradication therapy with antibiotics or placebo. Two primary outcomes were the incidence of metachronous gastric cancer detected on endoscopy performed at the 1-year follow-up or later and improvement from baseline in the grade of glandular atrophy in the gastric corpus lesser curvature at the 3-year follow-up. A total of 396 patients were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis population (194 in the treatment group and 202 in placebo group). During a median follow-up of 5.9 years, metachronous gastric cancer developed in 14 patients (7.2%) in the treatment group and in 27 patients (13.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the treatment group, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.94; P=0.03). Among the 327 patients in the subgroup that underwent histologic analysis, improvement from baseline in the atrophy grade at the gastric corpus lesser curvature was observed in 48.4% of the patients in the treatment group and in 15.0% of those in the placebo group (P<0.001). There were no serious adverse events; mild adverse events were more common in the treatment group (42.0% vs. 10.2%, P<0.001). Patients with early gastric cancer who received H. pylori treatment had lower rates of metachronous gastric cancer and more improvement from baseline in the grade of gastric corpus atrophy than patients who received placebo. (Funded by the National

  20. Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band (LAGB) Migration - Endoscopic Treatment Modalities.

    PubMed

    Klimczak, Tomasz; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Janczak, Przemysław; Jurałowicz, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Laparoscopic adjustible gastric binding (LAGB) is one of most common surgical methods of treating obesity. Gastric band migration (erosion) is a typical LAGB complication, with a frequency of about 1-4%. The aim of the study was to present the possibilities of endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of this complication. The study was carried out in the Department of Gastroenterological, Oncological and General Surgery in Łódź. Between 2008 and 2015, 450 gastric bands were implanted using the laparoscopic technique in 318 (71%) women and 132 (29%) men. In this period 7 cases of band migration were diagnosed - 3 cases in men (2.3%) and 4 cases in women (1.3%), what presents 1.56% of general number of complications. Five out of 7 eroded bands were qualified for endoscopic removal. Four out of 5 qualified eroded bands were removed using the gastric band cutting technique. In one case we used the musculo-mucosal incision technique. In order to diagnose early perforations all patients underwent control passage examinations with oral contrast (gastrografin) 3-6 hours after the procedure. All 5 out of 5 qualified eroded gastric bands were successfully removed with the endoscopic method, which gives 100% success rate in own material. Two endoscopic methods were used: 1) endoscopic gastric band cutting, 2) endoscopic musculo-mucosal incision. Endoscopy gives a possibility of instant diagnosis of gastric band migration and early minimally invasive treatment. One of our endoscopic methods of removing the bands by making several incisions of the musculo-mucosal plicae has not yet been described in professional medical literature.

  1. [Clinical analysis of 31 patients with gastric stromal tumors].

    PubMed

    Li, Junxia; Liu, Ping; Wang, Huahong; Yu, Jing; Xie, Pengyan; Liu, Xinguang

    2002-11-01

    To investigate the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of gastric stromal tumors. 31 patients with gastric stromal tumors treated from 1993, 1 - 2001, 9 were analyzed retrospectively. All cases were diagnosed by pathological and immunohistochemistry examinations. According to Levin's standard combining with Hurliman's and Goldbum's methods, the patients were classified. There are no significant difference between male and female patients. 50 - 60 years old patients have high incidence. The distribution of gastric tromal tumors is fundus > body > antrum. Diagnosis of this condition is sometimes difficult and treatment is often delayed because patients usually present with nonspecific abdominal symptoms. The main manifestations of gastric stromal tumors are upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage 61.3% (19/31), 7 patients with acute hemorrhage and 12 with chronic hemorrhage. Most of them were malignant. Abdominal malaises and/or distention 32.3% (10/31) and abdominal pain 22.6% (7/31). Gastroscopy, ultrasound gastroscopy, computed tomography, B type ultrasound and upper gastrointestinal X-ray series are helpful to diagnosis. But the final diagnosis is decided by pathological and immunohistochemistry examinations. Gastric stromal tumors exhibit consistent immunohistochemical expressions of CD(117) and/or CD(34). The operative treatment is thought of the first choice. Effect of the chemotherapy isn't satisfied. There is no standard chemotherapy for gastric stromal tumors. Gastric stromal tumor is a kind of separated submucosal tumor which is different from leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma and neurogenic tumors. Pathological and immunohistochemistry inspectations are very important to make clear diagnosis. Early diagnosis and rational treatment are the keys to improve the prognosis.

  2. Ibuprofen hepatic encephalopathy, hepatomegaly, gastric lesion and gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in rats.

    PubMed

    Ilic, Spomenko; Drmic, Domagoj; Zarkovic, Kamelija; Kolenc, Danijela; Brcic, Luka; Radic, Bozo; Djuzel, Viktor; Blagaic, Alenka Boban; Romic, Zeljko; Dzidic, Senka; Kalogjera, Livije; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2011-09-30

    Chronic ibuprofen (0.4 g/kg intraperitoneally, once daily for 4 weeks) evidenced a series of pathologies, not previously reported in ibuprofen-dosed rats, namely hepatic encephalopathy, gastric lesions, hepatomegaly, increased AST and ALT serum values with prolonged sedation/unconsciousness, and weight loss. In particular, ibuprofen toxicity was brain edema, particularly in the cerebellum, with the white matter being more affected than in gray matter. In addition, damaged and red neurons, in the absence of anti-inflammatory reaction was observed, particularly in the cerebral cortex and cerebellar nuclei, but was also present although to a lesser extent in the hippocampus, dentate nucleus and Purkinje cells. An anti-ulcer peptide shown to have no toxicity, the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419, 10 μg, 10 ng/kg) inhibited the pathology seen with ibuprofen (i) when given intraperitoneally, immediately after ibuprofen daily or (ii) when given in drinking water (0.16 μg, 0.16 ng/ml). Counteracted were all adverse effects, such as hepatic encephalopathy, the gastric lesions, hepatomegaly, increased liver serum values. In addition, BPC 157 treated rats showed no behavioral disturbances and maintained normal weight gain. Thus, apart from efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease and various wound treatments, BPC 157 was also effective when given after ibuprofen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation Between Gastric Emptying and Gastric Adaptive Relaxation Influenced by Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Orie; Saito, Chizuru

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Amino acids have many physiological activities. We report the correlation between gastric emptying and gastric adaptive relaxation using tryptophan and amino acids with a straight alkyl chain, hydroxylated chain, and branched chain. Here we sought to further clarify the correlation between gastric emptying and gastric adaptive relaxation by using other amino acids. Methods In Sprague-Dawley rats, gastric emptying was evaluated by a breath test using [1-13C] acetic acid. The expired 13CO2 pattern, Tmax, Cmax, and AUC120min values were used as evaluation items. Gastric adaptive relaxation was evaluated in a barostat experiment. Individual amino acids (1 g/kg) were administered orally 30 minutes before each breath test or barostat test. Results L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine did not influence gastric emptying. All other amino acids, ie, L-proline, L-histidine, L-cysteine, L-methionine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-asparagine, L-arginine, L-glutamine, and L-lysine significantly delayed and inhibited gastric emptying. L-Cysteine and L-aspartic acid significantly enhanced and L-methionine and L-glutamine significantly inhibited gastric adaptive relaxation. L-Phenylalanine moved the balloon toward the antrum, suggesting strong contraction of the fundus. Tmax showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.709), and Cmax and AUC120min each showed negative correlations (r = 0.613 and 0.667, respectively) with gastric adaptive relaxation. Conclusion From the above findings, it was found that a close correlation exists between gastric emptying and adaptive relaxation, suggesting that enhanced gastric adaptive relaxation inhibits gastric emptying. PMID:28335103

  4. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography comparison of gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Fu, Qiang; Dong, You-Wen; Liu, Jian-Jing; Song, Xiu-Yu; Dai, Dong; Zuo, Cong; Xu, Wen-Gui

    2016-09-14

    To compare (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) features in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. Patients with newly diagnosed gastric lymphoma or gastric carcinoma who underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment were included in this study. We reviewed and analyzed the PET/CT features of gastric wall lesions, including FDG avidity, pattern (focal/diffuse), and intensity [maximal standard uptake value: (SUVmax)]. The correlation of SUVmax with gastric clinicopathological variables was investigated by χ(2) test, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the differential diagnostic value of SUVmax-associated parameters in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. Fifty-two patients with gastric lymphoma and 73 with gastric carcinoma were included in this study. Abnormal gastric FDG accumulation was found in 49 patients (94.23%) with gastric lymphoma and 65 patients (89.04%) with gastric carcinoma. Gastric lymphoma patients predominantly presented with type I and type II lesions, whereas gastric carcinoma patients mainly had type III lesions. The SUVmax (13.39 ± 9.24 vs 8.35 ± 5.80, P < 0.001) and SUVmax/THKmax (maximal thickness) (7.96 ± 4.02 vs 4.88 ± 3.32, P < 0.001) were both higher in patients with gastric lymphoma compared with gastric carcinoma. ROC curve analysis suggested a better performance of SUVmax/THKmax in the evaluation of gastric lesions between gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma in comparison with that of SUVmax alone. PET/CT features differ between gastric lymphoma and carcinoma, which can improve PET/CT evaluation of gastric wall lesions and help differentiate gastric lymphoma from gastric carcinoma.

  5. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography comparison of gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Fu, Qiang; Dong, You-Wen; Liu, Jian-Jing; Song, Xiu-Yu; Dai, Dong; Zuo, Cong; Xu, Wen-Gui

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) features in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. METHODS Patients with newly diagnosed gastric lymphoma or gastric carcinoma who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment were included in this study. We reviewed and analyzed the PET/CT features of gastric wall lesions, including FDG avidity, pattern (focal/diffuse), and intensity [maximal standard uptake value: (SUVmax)]. The correlation of SUVmax with gastric clinicopathological variables was investigated by χ2 test, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the differential diagnostic value of SUVmax-associated parameters in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. RESULTS Fifty-two patients with gastric lymphoma and 73 with gastric carcinoma were included in this study. Abnormal gastric FDG accumulation was found in 49 patients (94.23%) with gastric lymphoma and 65 patients (89.04%) with gastric carcinoma. Gastric lymphoma patients predominantly presented with type I and type II lesions, whereas gastric carcinoma patients mainly had type III lesions. The SUVmax (13.39 ± 9.24 vs 8.35 ± 5.80, P < 0.001) and SUVmax/THKmax (maximal thickness) (7.96 ± 4.02 vs 4.88 ± 3.32, P < 0.001) were both higher in patients with gastric lymphoma compared with gastric carcinoma. ROC curve analysis suggested a better performance of SUVmax/THKmax in the evaluation of gastric lesions between gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma in comparison with that of SUVmax alone. CONCLUSION PET/CT features differ between gastric lymphoma and carcinoma, which can improve PET/CT evaluation of gastric wall lesions and help differentiate gastric lymphoma from gastric carcinoma. PMID:27678362

  6. Initial results of the oesophageal and gastric cancer registry from the Comunidad Valenciana.

    PubMed

    Escrig, Javier; Mingol, Fernando; Martí, Roberto; Puche, José; Trullenque, Ramón; Barreras, José Antonio; Asencio, Francisco; Aguiló, Javier; Navarro, José Manuel; Alberich, Carmen; Salas, Dolores; Lacueva, Francisco Javier

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the initial results of the oesophagogastric cancer registry developed for the Sociedad Valenciana de Cirugía and the Health Department of the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain). Fourteen of the 24 public hospitals belonging to the Comunidad Valenciana participated. All patients with diagnosis of oesophageal or gastric carcinomas operated from January 2013 to December 2014 were evaluated. Demographic, clinical and pathological data were analysed. Four hundred and thirty-four patients (120 oesophageal carcinomas and 314 gastric carcinomas) were included. Only two hospitals operated more than 10 patients with oesophageal cancer per year. Transthoracic oesophaguectomy was the most frequent approach (84.2%) in tumours localized within the oesophagus. A total gastrectomy was performed in 50.9% patients with gastroesophageal junction (GOJ) carcinomas. Postoperative 30-day and 90-day mortality were 8% and 11.6% in oesophageal carcinoma and 5.9 and 8.6% in gastric carcinoma. Before surgery, middle oesophagus carcinomas were treated mostly (76,5%) with chemoradiotherapy. On the contrary, lower oesophagus and GOJ carcinomas were treated preferably with chemotherapy alone (45.5 and 53.4%). Any neoadjuvant treatment was administered to 73.6% of gastric cancer patients. Half patients with oesophageal carcinoma or gastric carcinoma received no adjuvant treatment. This registry revealed that half patients with oesophageal cancer were operated in hospitals with less than 10 cases per year at the Comunidad Valenciana. Also, it detected capacity improvement for some clinical outcomes of oesophageal and gastric carcinomas. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Antral hyperplastic polyp: A rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Ozer, Ender; Rakici, Halil; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2014-01-01

    Gastric polyps are usually found incidentally during upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations. These polyps are generally benign, with hyperplasia being the most common. While gastric polyps are often asymptomatic, they can cause gastric outlet obstruction. A 64 years-old female patient presented to our polyclinic with a history of approximately 2 months of weakness, occasional early nausea, vomiting after meals and epigastric pain. A polypoid lesion of approximately 25mm in diameter was detected in the antral area of the stomach, which prolapsed through the pylorus into the duodenal bulbus, and subsequently caused gastric outlet obstruction, as revealed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy of the patient. The polyp was retrieved from the pyloric canal into the stomach with the aid of a tripod, and snare polypectomy was performed. Currently, widespread use of endoscopy has led to an increase in the frequency of detecting hyperplastic polyps. While most gastric polyps are asymptomatic, they can cause iron deficiency anemia, acute pancreatitis and more commonly, gastric outlet obstruction because of their antral location. Although there are no precise principles in the treatment of asymptomatic polyps, polyps >5mm should be removed due to the possibility of malignant transformation. According to the medical evidence, polypectomy is required for gastric hyperplastic polyps because of the risks of complication and malignancy. These cases can be successfully treated endoscopically. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospective evaluation of laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in dogs susceptible to gastric dilatation.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, Clarence A; Mahaffey, Mary B; Bement, Shannon; Canalis, Chanda

    2002-12-01

    To determine long-term outcome associated with laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in prevention of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in susceptible dogs and to evaluate use of laparoscopy to correct GDV. Prospective study. 25 client-owned large-breed dogs. 23 dogs susceptible to GDV were referred as candidates for elective gastropexy. These dogs had a history of treatment for gastric dilatation, clinical signs of gastric dilatation, or family members with gastric dilatation. Laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy was performed. One year after surgery, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to evaluate the attachment of the stomach to the abdominal wall. Two dogs with GDV were also treated with laparoscopic-assisted derotation of the stomach and gastropexy. None of the dogs developed GDV during the year after gastropexy, and all 20 dogs examined ultrasonographically had an intact attachment. Another dog was euthanatized at 11.5 months for unrelated problems. Two dogs with GDV successfully underwent laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy after the stomach was repositioned. Laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy resulted in a persisting attachment between the stomach and abdominal wall, an absence of GDV development, and few complications. Dogs with a high probability for development of GDV should be considered candidates for minimally invasive gastropexy. Carefully selected dogs with GDV can be treated laparoscopically.

  9. Gastric Tube Reconstruction with Superdrainage Using Indocyanine Green Fluorescence During Esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    KITAGAWA, HIROYUKI; NAMIKAWA, TSUTOMU; IWABU, JUN; HANAZAKI, KAZUHIRO

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of gastric tube reconstruction with superdrainage using indocyanine green fluorescence during esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. A 53-year-old man with a history of early esophageal cancer treated with endoscopic mucosal dissection experienced esophageal cancer recurrence. There was no evidence of lymph node involvement or distant metastasis on computed tomography; therefore, we performed thoracoscopic esophagectomy. After thoracoscopic esophagectomy, we created a gastric tube. When pulling up the gastric tube through the post-mediastinum route, a root of the right gastroepiploic vein was injured. We subsequently performed superdrainage to avoid congestion of the gastric tube with omental vein and pre-tracheal vein anastomosis at the neck, and confirmed venous flow using the indocyanine green fluorescence method. No postoperative anastomotic leakage was observed, and the patient was discharged 22 days after surgery. Thus, we recommend the indocyanine green fluorescence method in cases involving superdrainage during esophagectomy. PMID:28882975

  10. [AFP-producing gastric cancer and hepatoid gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y K; Zhang, X T

    2017-11-23

    AFP-producing gastric cancer(AFPGC) and hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) are two special subtypes of gastric cancer. There are both correlation and difference between them. AFPGC is usually identified as primary gastric cancer with serum AFP level more than 20 ng/ml or showed AFP positive staining by immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis of HAS is mainly dependent on the pathological character of hepatocellular carcinoma-like differentiation of gastric cancer. The morbidity of AFPGC and HAS are rather low, especially the incidence of HAS is about 1%. The prognoses of these two subtypes are poorer than that of common gastric adenocarcinoma, due to a high incidence rate of liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis. With the development of next-generation sequencing and other genomic technologies, gastric cancers, including these two rare subtypes, are now being investigated in more detail at the molecular level. Treatment remains the biggest challenge, early diagnosis and radical resection can dramatically improve patients'prognosis. Monitoring serum AFP and abdominal imaging examination during follow-up is important for early detection of liver metastasis. In combination with local treatment methods such as transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation of liver may further extend patients'survival time. Targeted therapy owes a great potential value in the future.

  11. Precordial skin burns after endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric tube cancer.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Motoshi; Yoshio, Toshiyuki; Hirasawa, Toshiaki; Ishiyama, Akiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yorimasa; Tsuchida, Tomohiro; Fujisaki, Junko; Igarashi, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is useful as a minimally invasive treatment option for early gastric cancer. ESD is also used in the management of postoperative remnant gastric cancers in the stomach and gastric tube cancers. Perforation and delayed bleeding have been the main complications of ESD reported in the management of gastric tube cancer. However, in the current literature, there is no description of precordial skin burns caused by electrical coagulation. While we treated 22 patients with gastric tube cancers by ESD from 2005 to 2014, we experienced five skin burns in four patients after ESD. We retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics of precordial skin burn as a complication of ESD. All skin burns occurred in patients reconstructed using a presternal route, whose incidence of precordial skin burn was 55.6%. In all cases, lesions were located in the upper or middle third of gastric tubes irrespective of their direction. Skin burn developed on postoperative day (POD) 1 or POD 2, taking 4-7 days to heal and was accompanied by high fever in 60% of cases. The present study suggests that when carrying out ESD for gastric tube cancer using the presternal route, it is necessary to consider the occurrence of a precordial skin burn as a possible complication. © 2015 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  12. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  13. Bleeding duodenal ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: the value of laparoscopic gastroduodenoscopy.

    PubMed

    Issa, Hussain; Al-Saif, Osama; Al-Momen, Sami; Bseiso, Bahaa; Al-Salem, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a common surgical procedure used to treat patients with morbid obesity. One of the rare, but potentially fatal complications of gastric bypass is upper gastrointestinal bleeding, which can pose diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. This report describes a 39-year-old male with morbid obesity who underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Three months postoperatively, he sustained repeated and severe upper attacks of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. He received multiple blood transfusions, and had repeated upper and lower endoscopies with no diagnostic yield. Finally, he underwent laparoscopic endoscopy which revealed a bleeding duodenal ulcer. About 5 ml of saline with adrenaline was injected, followed by electrocoagulation to seal the overlying cleft and blood vessel. He was also treated with a course of a proton pump inhibitor and given treatment for H pylori eradication with no further attacks of bleeding. Taking in consideration the difficulties in accessing the bypassed stomach endoscopically, laparoscopic endoscopy is a feasible and valuable diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in patients who had gastric bypass.

  14. Role of gastric mucosal and gastric juice cytokine concentrations in development of bisphosphonate damage to gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Thomson, A B R; Appleman, S; Keelan, M; Wallace, J L

    2003-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that the bisphosphonates (BP) vary in their damaging effect on the gastric mucosa, and endoscopy scores (erosions or erosions plus ulcers) after 1 and 2 weeks use of BP were significantly lower in H. pylori-positive versus -negative subjects. The mechanism of this damaging effect of BP and the interaction with H. pylori is unknown. As part of a separately reported study of the incidence of gastric damage after 2 weeks of treatment of healthy female postmenopausal volunteers with risedronate (5 mg/day) or alendronate (10 mg/day), gastric aspirates were taken at the time of the baseline esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), and again at 1 and 2 weeks after daily intake of a BP At the time of the third EGD, when the volunteers had been on risedronate or alendronate for 2 weeks, antral biopsies were taken from normal-appearing mucosa. Gastric juice and antral biopsies were assessed for their concentration of the cytokines interleukin-la (IL-1alpha), IL-8, IL-13, and epidermal growth factor (EGF). H. pylori, the use of BP, and development of gastric mucosal lesions had no effect on gastric mucosal concentrations of IL-1alpha, IL-13, or EGF. In contrast, the concentration of IL-8 in antral mucosal biopsies of volunteers given BP for 2 weeks was higher in the presence than in the absence of an H. pylori infection and was increased further in those who develop lesions associated with the use of BP. There was no correlation between gastric mucosal and gastric juice concentrations of IL-8. Gastric juice concentrations of IL-8 and EGF were not affected by H. pylori status, the use of BP, or the development of lesions. However, gastric juice concentrations of IL-1alpha were numerically lower in those who were negative for H. pylori with no mucosal lesions (Hp-L-), intermediate in those who were H. pylori-negative with lesions (Hp-L+), and highest in those who were positive for H. pylori and had lesions (Hp+L+). The gastric juice concentration of IL-13

  15. Successful treatment of a primary gastric plasmacytoma mimicking intractable gastric ulcer by using high-dose dexamethasone therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Da-yeong; Kim, Gee-Bum; Choi, Byung-Seok; Seo, Jun-won; Lim, Hyun-Jong; Hong, Ran; Park, Sang-Gon

    2016-03-31

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a plasma cell neoplasm that presents as a solitary lesion in soft tissue. Most extramedullary plasmacytomas involve the nasopharynx or upper respiratory tract. Primary plasmacytoma of the stomach is extremely rare. A 78-year-old Korean woman presented with epigastric pain for 3 months. She had a history of an intractable gastric ulcer despite repeated endoscopic biopsies and appropriate medical therapy for the ulcer. She underwent another endoscopy and a biopsy was performed for multiple large and deep specimens. Ultimately, primary gastric plasmacytoma was confirmed. However, she and her attendant refused standard local radiotherapy or surgical resection. She came to our emergency room 3 months later with hematemesis due to a large gastric ulcer, despite management with medication for over 3 months at a local clinic. We again recommended local radiation or surgical resection. However, as she was willing to undergo only medical therapy, she was prescribed high-dose dexamethasone. Surprisingly, her ulcer completely regressed and remission was maintained for over 1 year. We report successful treatment of a rare primary gastric plasmacytoma mimicking intractable ulcer by using high-dose dexamethasone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case successfully treated with only high-dose dexamethasone.

  16. Aloe vera attenuated gastric injury on indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Werawatganon, Duangporn; Rakananurak, Narisorn; Sallapant, Sasipim; Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Somanawat, Kanjana; Klaikeaw, Naruemon; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effects of Aloe vera on gastric injury in rats with indomethacin (IMN)-induced gastropathy. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control, n = 6) was given distilled water (DW) orally. Group 2 (IMN, n = 6) was given oral IMN (150 mg/kg) dissolved in 5% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3-) at time 0 and 4 h. Group 3 (Aloe vera-treated, n = 6) was given oral Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) dissolved in DW and IMN at time 0 and 4 h. Eight hours later, the stomach was removed to determine gastric malondialdehyde (MDA), the number of interleukin (IL)-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry, and for histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 by sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. RESULTS: In the IMN group, serum TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA were significantly increased when compared to the control group (27.78 ± 1.52 pg/mL vs 85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL, P = 0.009; 104.55 ± 45.80 pg/mL vs 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL, and 1.74 ± 0.21 nmol/mg vs 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The mean level of TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA in the Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with the IMN group (85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL vs 35.19 ± 1.61 pg/mL, P = 0.021; 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL vs 813.56 ± 239.04 pg/mL, P = 0.025; and 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg vs 2.67 ± 0.64 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) in the gastric epithelial cells of the IMN group was significantly higher than the control group (5.01% ± 3.73% vs 30.67% ± 2.03%, P = 0.000, respectively). In contrast, Aloe vera treatment decreased the number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) significantly when compared with the IMN group (30.67% ± 2.03% vs 13.21% ± 1.10%, P = 0.000, respectively). Most rats in the IMN group developed moderate to severe

  17. Wandering spleen with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in an adult male patient

    PubMed Central

    Kohda, Eiichi; Iizuka, Yuo; Nagamoto, Masashi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Norikazu; Gomi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of wandering spleen (WS) complicated with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in a male adult. A 22-year-old man who had been previously treated for Wilson disease was admitted with severe abdominal pain. Radiological findings showed WS in the midline of the pelvic area. The stomach was mesenteroaxially twisted and intestinal non-rotation was observed. Radiology results did not show any evidence of splenic or gastrointestinal (GI) infarction. Elective emergency laparoscopy confirmed WS and intestinal non-rotation; however, gastric volvulus was not observed. It was suspected that the stomach had untwisted when gastric and laparoscopic tubes were inserted. Surgery is strongly recommended for WS because of the high risk of serious complications; however, some asymptomatic adult patients are still treated conservatively, such as the patient in this study. The present case is reported with reference to the literature. PMID:24349711

  18. Wandering spleen with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in an adult male patient.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Minako; Kohda, Eiichi; Iizuka, Yuo; Nagamoto, Masashi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Norikazu; Gomi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of wandering spleen (WS) complicated with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in a male adult. A 22-year-old man who had been previously treated for Wilson disease was admitted with severe abdominal pain. Radiological findings showed WS in the midline of the pelvic area. The stomach was mesenteroaxially twisted and intestinal non-rotation was observed. Radiology results did not show any evidence of splenic or gastrointestinal (GI) infarction. Elective emergency laparoscopy confirmed WS and intestinal non-rotation; however, gastric volvulus was not observed. It was suspected that the stomach had untwisted when gastric and laparoscopic tubes were inserted. Surgery is strongly recommended for WS because of the high risk of serious complications; however, some asymptomatic adult patients are still treated conservatively, such as the patient in this study. The present case is reported with reference to the literature.

  19. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-13

    Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7

  20. Apocynin protects against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats by attenuating the upregulation of NADPH oxidases 1 and 4.

    PubMed

    El-Naga, Reem N

    2015-12-05

    Gastric ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder affecting many people all over the world. Absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) was used to induce gastric ulceration in rats. Apocynin (50 mg/kg) was given orally one hour before the administration of absolute ethanol. Omeprazole (20 mg/kg) was used as a standard. Interestingly, apocynin pre-treatment provided 93.5% gastroprotection against ethanol-induced ulceration. Biochemically, gastric mucin content was significantly increased with apocynin pre-treatment. This finding was further supported by alcian blue staining of stomach sections obtained from the different treated groups. Also, gastric juice volume and acidity were significantly reduced. Apocynin significantly ameliorated ethanol-induced oxidative stress by replenishing reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels as well as reducing elevated malondialdehyde levels in gastric tissues. Besides, ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory response was significantly decreased by apocynin pre-treatment via reducing elevated levels of pro-inflammatory markers; interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Additionally, caspase-3 tissue level was significantly reduced in apocynin pre-treated group. Interestingly, NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1) and NOX-4 up-regulation was shown to be partially involved in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric ulceration and was significantly reversed by apocynin pre-treatment. Gastroprotective properties of apocynin were confirmed by histopathological examination. It is worth mentioning that apocynin was superior in all aspects except gastric mucin content parameter where it was significantly increased by 13.5 folds in the omeprazole pre-treated group. This study was the first to show that apocynin is a promising gastroprotective agent against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration, partially via its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic effects as well as down-regulating NOX-1 and NOX-4

  1. Biochanin a gastroprotective effects in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal ulceration in rats.

    PubMed

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Salehen, NurAin; Karimian, Hamed; Zahedifard, Maryam; Shams, Keivan; Al Batran, Rami; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Khalifa, Shaden A M; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; El-Seedi, Hesham; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-01-01

    Biochanin A notable bioactive compound which is found in so many traditional medicinal plant. In vivo study was conducted to assess the protective effect of biochanin A on the gastric wall of Spraguedawley rats` stomachs. The experimental set included different animal groups. Specifically, four groups with gastric mucosal lesions were receiving either a) Ulcer control group treated with absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg), b) 20 mg/kg of omeprazole as reference group, c) 25 of biochanin A, d) 50 mg/kg of biochanin A. Histopathological sectioning followed by immunohistochemistry staining were undertaken to evaluate the influence of the different treatments on gastric wall mucosal layer. The gastric secretions were collected in the form of homogenate and exposed to superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide enzyme (NO) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein content were measured. Ulceration and patchy haemorrhage were clearly observed by light microscopy. The morphology of the gastric wall as confirmed by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent microscopic observations, exhibited sever deformity with notable thickness, oedematous and complete loss of the mucosal coverage however the biochanin-pretreated animals, similar to the omeprazole-pretreated animals, showed less damage compared to the ulcer control group. Moreover, up-regulation of Hsp70 protein and down-regulation of Bax protein were detected in the biochanin A pre-treated groups and the gastric glandular mucosa was positively stained with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining and the Leucocytes infiltration was commonly seen. Biochanin A displayed a great increase in SOD and NO levels and decreased the release of MDA. This gastroprotective effect of biochanin A could be attributed to the enhancement of cellular metabolic cycles perceived as an increase in the SOD, NO activity, and decrease in the level of MDA, and also decrease in level of Bax expression and increase the Hsp70 expression level.

  2. Biochanin A Gastroprotective Effects in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Ulceration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Salehen, NurAin; Karimian, Hamed; Zahedifard, Maryam; Shams, Keivan; Batran, Rami Al; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Khalifa, Shaden A. M.; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; El-Seedi, Hesham; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-01-01

    Background Biochanin A notable bioactive compound which is found in so many traditional medicinal plant. In vivo study was conducted to assess the protective effect of biochanin A on the gastric wall of Spraguedawley rats` stomachs. Methodology The experimental set included different animal groups. Specifically, four groups with gastric mucosal lesions were receiving either a) Ulcer control group treated with absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg), b) 20 mg/kg of omeprazole as reference group, c) 25 of biochanin A, d) 50 mg/kg of biochanin A. Histopathological sectioning followed by immunohistochemistry staining were undertaken to evaluate the influence of the different treatments on gastric wall mucosal layer. The gastric secretions were collected in the form of homogenate and exposed to superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide enzyme (NO) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein content were measured. Ulceration and patchy haemorrhage were clearly observed by light microscopy. The morphology of the gastric wall as confirmed by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent microscopic observations, exhibited sever deformity with notable thickness, oedematous and complete loss of the mucosal coverage however the biochanin-pretreated animals, similar to the omeprazole-pretreated animals, showed less damage compared to the ulcer control group. Moreover, up-regulation of Hsp70 protein and down-regulation of Bax protein were detected in the biochanin A pre-treated groups and the gastric glandular mucosa was positively stained with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining and the Leucocytes infiltration was commonly seen. Biochanin A displayed a great increase in SOD and NO levels and decreased the release of MDA. Conclusions This gastroprotective effect of biochanin A could be attributed to the enhancement of cellular metabolic cycles perceived as an increase in the SOD, NO activity, and decrease in the level of MDA, and also decrease in level of Bax expression and increase the Hsp

  3. Protective effect of chelerythrine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Feng; Hao, Ding-Jun; Fan, Ting; Huang, Hui-Min; Yao, Huan; Niu, Xiao-Feng

    2014-02-05

    The quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, chelerythrine (CHE), is of great practical and research interest because of its pronounced, widespread physiological effects, primarily antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, arising from its ability to interact with proteins and DNA. Although CHE was originally shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, its effects on acute gastric ulcer have not been previously explored. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of CHE on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in mice. Administration of CHE at doses of 1, 5 and 10mg/kg bodyweight prior to ethanol ingestion dose-dependently inhibited gastric ulcer. The gastric mucosal lesion was assessed by ulcer area, gastric juice acidity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, macroscopic and histopathological examinations. CHE significantly reduced the gastric ulcer index, myeloperoxidase activities, macroscopic and histological score in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CHE also significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) concentration, pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level in serum and gastric mucosal in the mice exposed to ethanol induced ulceration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHE markedly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in gastric mucosa of mice. It was concluded that CHE represents a potential therapeutic option to reduce the risk of gastric ulceration. In addition, acute toxicity study revealed no abnormal sign to the mice treated with CHE (15mg/kg). These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of CHE might contribute in adjusting the inflammatory cytokine by regulating the NF-κB signalling pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gastric Tube Reconstruction with Superdrainage Using Indocyanine Green Fluorescence During Esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Iwabu, Jun; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of gastric tube reconstruction with superdrainage using indocyanine green fluorescence during esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. A 53-year-old man with a history of early esophageal cancer treated with endoscopic mucosal dissection experienced esophageal cancer recurrence. There was no evidence of lymph node involvement or distant metastasis on computed tomography; therefore, we performed thoracoscopic esophagectomy. After thoracoscopic esophagectomy, we created a gastric tube. When pulling up the gastric tube through the post-mediastinum route, a root of the right gastroepiploic vein was injured. We subsequently performed superdrainage to avoid congestion of the gastric tube with omental vein and pre-tracheal vein anastomosis at the neck, and confirmed venous flow using the indocyanine green fluorescence method. No postoperative anastomotic leakage was observed, and the patient was discharged 22 days after surgery. Thus, we recommend the indocyanine green fluorescence method in cases involving superdrainage during esophagectomy. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Nilotinib Induced Recurrent Gastric Polyps: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Nancy; Ismail, Omar M; Elomri, Halima; Yassin, Mohamad A

    2017-07-14

    BACKGROUND Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently an important targeted drug class in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Imatinib was the first approved TKI for CML in 2001. Nilotinib is a second-generation TKI, approved in 2007; it inhibits BCR-ABL, PDGFR, and c-KIT, and is 30 times more potent than imatinib. Tyrosine kinase enzymes are expressed in multiple tissues and are involved in several signaling pathways; they have been shown to have several off-target side effects. CASE REPORT We report a case of an elderly male with CML and no history of gastrointestinal diseases, treated with nilotinib, and developed recurrent gastric polyps after three years of treatment. We excluded common causes of gastric polyps and therefore considered nilotinib as a probable cause of recurrent gastric polyps. CONCLUSIONS Recurrent gastric polyps could be a potential side effect of nilotinib treatment. Careful long-term monitoring of patients on TKI therapy is necessary and further long-term studies of TKI side effects are needed.

  6. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Takayuki; Matsuki, Takahiro; Oka, Masashi

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase ofmore » intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.« less

  7. Roadmap to eliminate gastric cancer with Helicobacter pylori eradication and consecutive surveillance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asaka, Masahiro; Kato, Mototsugu; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, the annual number of deaths from gastric cancer is approximately 50,000 and there has been no change over the last 50 years. So far, all efforts have been directed toward improving the detection of early gastric cancer by barium X-ray and endoscopy, since early cancer has a good prognosis, resulting in Japan having the best diagnostic capability for early gastric cancer worldwide. The 5-year survival rate of gastric cancer patients exceeds 60 % in Japan and is much higher than that in Europe and the US (20 %) because of this superior diagnosis of early gastric cancer. In February 2013, national health insurance coverage for Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy to treat H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis became available in Japan. H. pylori-associated gastritis leads to development of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric polyps. Therefore, providing treatment for gastritis is likely to substantially decrease the prevalence of both gastric and duodenal ulcers and polyps. Because treatment for H. pylori-associated gastritis, which leads to atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer, is now covered by health insurance in Japan, a strategy to eliminate gastric cancer-related deaths by taking advantage of this innovation was planned. According to this strategy, patients with gastritis will be investigated for H. pylori infection and those who are positive will receive eradication therapy followed by periodic surveillance. If this strategy is implemented, deaths from gastric cancer in Japan will decrease dramatically after 10-20 years.

  8. Antioxidant Properties and Gastroprotective Effects of 2-(Ethylthio)Benzohydrazones on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ariffin, Azhar; Abdulla, Mahmood A.; Abdullah, Zanariah

    2016-01-01

    A series of new 2-(ethylthio)benzohydrazone derivatives (1–6) were prepared and characterised by IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The newly prepared compounds were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activities using free radical scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Among them, most powerful antioxidant, compound 1 has been selected in order to illustrate anti-ulcer effect on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were respectively treated with 10% Tween 20 as ulcer control group, 20 mg/kg omeprazole as reference group, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg compound 1 as experimental animals. Macroscopically, ulcer control group showed extensive hemorrhagic lesions of gastric mucosa compared with omeprazole or compound 1. Rats pre-treated with compound 1 showed increased in gastric pH and gastric mucus. Histologically, ulcer control group showed severe damage to gastric mucosa with edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer. In immunohistochemical analysis, rats which were pre-treated with compound 1 showed up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins. In conclusion, the gastroprotective effect of compound 1 may be due to its antioxidant activity, and/or due to up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax protein in stained tissue section. PMID:27272221

  9. A double-blind comparison of clebopride and placebo in dyspepsia secondary to delayed gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Bavestrello, L; Caimi, L; Barbera, A

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-six patients suffering from dyspeptic symptoms secondary to roentgenologically demonstrated delayed gastric emptying were treated with clebopride (0.5 mg TID) or with placebo during a three-month double-blind trial. Clebopride was more effective (P less than or equal to 0.001) than placebo in reducing or relieving symptoms and roentgenological findings associated with delayed gastric emptying. No interactions of clebopride with concomitant drugs or coexisting disorders were observed, and the incidence of side effects was low. We conclude that clebopride will be beneficial in the management of patients with delayed gastric emptying.

  10. Gastric neuromuscular histology in patients with refractory gastroparesis: Relationships to etiology, gastric emptying, and response to gastric electric stimulation.

    PubMed

    Heckert, J; Thomas, R M; Parkman, H P

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the histology in gastroparesis, specifically to relate histopathology to etiology of gastroparesis (idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis), gastric emptying, and clinical response to gastric electric stimulation. Full thickness gastric body sections obtained during insertion of gastric stimulator in gastroparetics were stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin, Masson Trichrome and immunohistochemical stains for Neuron-Specific Enolase and c-Kit. In all, 145 gastroparetics (71 diabetics, 71 idiopathic, 2 post-surgical, and 1 chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction) had full thickness gastric body biopsies. A lymphocytic infiltrate was seen in the intermyenteric plexus in 22 diabetic and 23 idiopathic gastroparesis patients. Fibrosis was present in the inner circular layer in 13 diabetic and 15 idiopathics and in the outer longitudinal layer in 46 diabetic and 51 idiopathics. Diabetic gastroparesis had less ganglion cells (3.27±1.82 vs 4.81±2.81/hpf; P<.01) and less ganglia (0.90±0.44 vs 1.10±0.50/hpf; P=.01) than idiopathic gastroparesis. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) count was slightly lower in the inner circular layer in diabetic than idiopathics (2.77±1.47 vs 3.18±1.34/hpf; P=.08). Delayed gastric emptying was associated with reduced ICCs in the myenteric plexus. Global therapeutic response to gastric electric stimulation was inversely related to ganglia/hpf (R=-.22; P=.008). In diabetics, improvements in nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain were inversely related to fibrosis. Histologic assessment of full thickness gastric biopsy specimens allows correlation of histopathology to the gastroparesis disease process, its etiology, gastric emptying, and response to gastric electric stimulation treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Aldioxa improves delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance, pathophysiologic mechanisms of functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Tahara, Kayoko; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation (decreased gastric compliance) play important roles in functional dyspepsia (FD). Here we screen for a clinically used drug with an ability to improve delayed gastric emptying in rats. Oral administration of aldioxa (dihydroxyaluminum allantoinate) partially improved clonidine- or restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying. Administration of allantoin, but not aluminium hydroxide, restored the gastric emptying. Both aldioxa and allantoin inhibited clonidine binding to the α-2 adrenergic receptor, suggesting that antagonistic activity of the allantoin moiety of aldioxa on this receptor is involved in the restoration of gastric emptying activity. Aldioxa or aluminium hydroxide but not allantoin restored gastric compliance with restraint stress, suggesting that aluminium hydroxide moiety is involved in this restoration. We propose that aldioxa is a candidate drug for FD, because its safety in humans has already been confirmed and its ameliorating effect on both of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance are confirmed here. PMID:26620883

  12. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Villalta, Danilo

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms. PMID:29373557

  13. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Overview Gastric cancer has been traditionally defined by the Correa paradigm as a progression of sequential pathological events that begins with chronic inflammation [1]. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the typical explanation for why the stomach becomes chronically inflamed. Acute gastric inflammation then leads to chronic gastritis, atrophy particularly of acid-secreting parietal cells, metaplasia due to mucous neck cell expansion from trans-differentiation of zymogenic cells to dysplasia and eventually carcinoma [2]. The chapter contains an overview of gastric anatomy and physiology to set the stage for signaling pathways that play a role in gastric tumorigenesis. Finally, the major known mouse models of gastric transformation are critiqued in terms of the rationale behind their generation and contribution to our understanding of human cancer subtypes. PMID:27573785

  14. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings of gastric lymphoma: Comparisons with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Zhu, Hong; Li, Kai; Wang, Xin-Gang; Gui, Yi; Lu, Guang-Ming

    2014-10-01

    The role of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) in numerous malignant tumors, including gastric lymphoma, is well-established. However, there have been few studies with regard to the 18 F-FDG PET/CT features of gastric lymphoma. The aim of the present study was to characterize the 18 F-FDG PET/CT features of gastric lymphoma, which were compared with those of gastric cancer. Prior to treatment, 18 F-FDG PET/CT was performed on 24 patients with gastric lymphoma and 43 patients with gastric cancer. The 18 F-FDG PET/CT pattern of gastric wall lesions was classified as one of three types: Type I, diffuse thickening of the gastric wall with increased FDG uptake infiltrating more than one-third of the total stomach; type II, segmental thickening of the gastric wall with elevated FDG uptake involving less than one-third of the total stomach; and type III, local thickening of the gastric wall with focal FDG uptake. The incidence of the involvement of more than one region of the stomach was higher in the patients with gastric lymphoma than in those with gastric cancer. Gastric FDG uptake was demonstrated in 23 of the 24 patients (95.8%) with gastric lymphoma and in 40 of the 43 patients (93.0%) with gastric cancer. Gastric lymphoma predominantly presented with type I and II lesions, whereas gastric cancer mainly presented with type II and III lesions. The maximal thickness was larger and the maximal standard uptake value (SUV max ) was higher in the patients with gastric lymphoma compared with those with gastric cancer. A positive correlation between the maximal thickness and SUV max was confirmed for the gastric cancer lesions, but not for the gastric lymphoma lesions. There was no difference in the maximal thickness and SUV max of the gastric wall lesions between the patients without and with extragastric involvement, for gastric lymphoma and gastric cancer. Overall, certain differences exist in the findings between

  15. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings of gastric lymphoma: Comparisons with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    WU, JIANG; ZHU, HONG; LI, KAI; WANG, XIN-GANG; GUI, YI; LU, GUANG-MING

    2014-01-01

    The role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in numerous malignant tumors, including gastric lymphoma, is well-established. However, there have been few studies with regard to the 18F-FDG PET/CT features of gastric lymphoma. The aim of the present study was to characterize the 18F-FDG PET/CT features of gastric lymphoma, which were compared with those of gastric cancer. Prior to treatment, 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed on 24 patients with gastric lymphoma and 43 patients with gastric cancer. The 18F-FDG PET/CT pattern of gastric wall lesions was classified as one of three types: Type I, diffuse thickening of the gastric wall with increased FDG uptake infiltrating more than one-third of the total stomach; type II, segmental thickening of the gastric wall with elevated FDG uptake involving less than one-third of the total stomach; and type III, local thickening of the gastric wall with focal FDG uptake. The incidence of the involvement of more than one region of the stomach was higher in the patients with gastric lymphoma than in those with gastric cancer. Gastric FDG uptake was demonstrated in 23 of the 24 patients (95.8%) with gastric lymphoma and in 40 of the 43 patients (93.0%) with gastric cancer. Gastric lymphoma predominantly presented with type I and II lesions, whereas gastric cancer mainly presented with type II and III lesions. The maximal thickness was larger and the maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) was higher in the patients with gastric lymphoma compared with those with gastric cancer. A positive correlation between the maximal thickness and SUVmax was confirmed for the gastric cancer lesions, but not for the gastric lymphoma lesions. There was no difference in the maximal thickness and SUVmax of the gastric wall lesions between the patients without and with extragastric involvement, for gastric lymphoma and gastric cancer. Overall, certain differences exist in the findings between gastric

  16. Gastroprotective effect of esculin on ethanol-induced gastric lesion in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Wang, Yu; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Hailin; He, Zehong; Zhi, Wenbing; Liu, Fang; Niu, Xiaofeng

    2017-04-01

    The gastroprotective effect of esculin was investigated in a mouse model of ethanol-induced gastric lesion. Administration of esculin at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol ingestion led to significant gastroprotection compared with untreated mice. Gastric mucosal lesions were evaluated by macroscopic and histopathological alterations, lesion index, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Pretreatment with esculin significantly reduced macroscopic and histopathological damage, gastric lesion index, and MPO activity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, esculin significantly reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) levels, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 protein expression in gastric tissues after ethanol challenge. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines indicated that esculin pretreatment markedly suppressed the increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in ethanol-treated mice. The results demonstrate a protective effect of esculin against gastric injury and suggest that the underlying mechanism might be associated with inhibition of NF-κB activation, which subsequently reduces expression of iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  17. Anti-tumor bioactivities of curcumin on mice loaded with gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Qiao-Xia; Lin, Huan-Ping; Chang, Na

    2017-09-20

    Curcumin, a derivative from the dried rhizome of curcuma longa, has been proven to possess anti-tumor effects. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to explore the anti-tumor mechanisms of curcumin in treating gastric cancer. BALB/C mice grafted with a mouse gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (MFC) were used as the experimental model. Mice received different doses of curcumin after grafting. Tumor size was measured and tumor weight was determined after tumor inoculation. TUNEL assay and flow cytometric analysis were applied to evaluate the apoptosis of the cancer cells. Serum cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, granzyme B and perforin were detected by ELISA assay. The anti-tumor effect was determined using cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assays and in vivo tumor prevention tests. The expression of DEC1, HIF-1α, STAT3 and VEGF in tumor tissues was examined by immunostaining and analyzed using an Image J analysis system. Compared with controls, tumor growth (size and weight) was significantly inhibited by curcumin treatment (P < 0.05). The apoptotic index in gastric cancer cells was significantly increased in the curcumin treatment group. Splenocyte cells from mice treated with curcumin exhibited higher cytolytic effects on MFC cancer cells than those from mice treated with saline (P < 0.01). The expression of DEC1, HIF-1α, STAT3 and VEGF in tumor tissues was down-regulated after curcumin treatment. Our results indicate that curcumin inhibits the proliferation of gastric carcinoma by inducing the apoptosis of tumor cells, activating immune cells to secrete a large amount of cytokines, and down-regulating the DEC1, HIF-1α, VEGF and STAT3 signal transduction pathways.

  18. Vitamin C Improves Gastroparesis in Diabetic Rats: Effects on Gastric Contractile Responses and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Luisa Mota; da Silva, Rita de Cássia Melo Vilhena de Andrade Fonseca; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Beltrame, Olair Carlos; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic gastroparesis is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, which mainly affects women. Previous studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is involved in its onset and development. This study evaluated the role of vitamin C on diabetes-associated gastric dysmotility. Female rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with vehicle (water, 1 mL/kg, p.o.), vitamin C (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.), or insulin (6 IU/day, s.c.). Gastric emptying, in vitro gastric contractility, and biochemistry parameters were analyzed at the end of the treatment (i.e. 8 weeks after the diabetes induction). Vitamin C reversed the delayed gastric emptying of diabetic rats to normal levels, and avoided the changes in the contractile responses to acetylcholine (0.1 nM-1 µM), but not to 5-hydroxytryptamine (0.1 nM-1 µM), in the pylorus and fundus from diabetic rats. Moreover, the contraction evoked by KCl (40 mM) in the fundus, but not in the pylorus, was intensely increased in diabetic rats treated with vitamin C. Notably, the vitamin C reestablished the reduced glutathione levels by 77% and decreased the reactive oxygen species content by 60% in the gastric tissue from diabetic rats. Despite the effects on gastric motility, vitamin C treatment did not change the fasting glycaemia or the glycated hemoglobin of diabetic rats. Unsurprisingly, insulin treatment normalized all parameters evaluated. Vitamin C exhibited a remarkable beneficial effect on gastric emptying dysfunction in diabetic rats, which was mediated by attenuation of oxidative stress and maintenance of the cholinergic contractile responses in fundus and pylorus.

  19. Cisplatin-induced gastric dysrhythmia and emesis in dogs and possible role of gastric electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Yang, Jie; Hou, Xiaohua; Zhang, Kan; Qian, Wei; Chen, J D Z

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cisplatin on gastric myoelectrical activity and the role of gastric electrical stimulation in the treatment of cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. Seven dogs implanted with electrodes on the gastric serosa were used in a two-session study. Cisplatin was infused in both the control session and the gastric electrical stimulation session, and gastric electrical stimulation was applied in the gastric electrical stimulation session. Gastric slow waves and emesis, as well as behaviors suggestive of nausea, were recorded during each session. The results were as follows: (1) cisplatin induced vomiting and other symptoms and induced gastric dysrhythmia. The percentage of normal slow waves decreased significantly during the 2.5 h before vomiting (P=0.01) and the period of vomiting (P<0.001). (2) Gastric electrical stimulation reduced emesis and the symptoms score. The total score in the control session was higher than that in the gastric electrical stimulation session (P=0.02). However, gastric electrical stimulation had no effects on gastric dysrhythmia. It is concluded that cisplatin induces emesis and gastric dysrhythmia. Gastric electrical stimulation may play a role in relieving chemotherapy-induced emetic responses and deserves further investigation.

  20. Ocimum grastissimum extract inhibits stimulated acid secretion by carbachol and induces gastric mucus secretion.

    PubMed

    Onasanwo, S A; Omolaso, B O; Ukoha, N

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the effects of ethanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum (EEOG) on both basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion and gastric mucus secretion were investigated in Albino rats treated with the extract. Four groups of animals were used. Sub-group 1A serves as control. Animals in Group 2A, 3B and 4B were pretreated with 200 mg/kg of (E3EOG) for 1, 7 and 14 days respectively. Basal gastric effluents were collected from all the groups of animals at intervals of 10 mins for 60 mins. Thereafter, Subgroups 1A, 2A, 3A and 4A were administered with 50 micro/kg b.w. of carbachol (i.p.) intraperitonialy and effluents collected. Animals in Sub-group B were used for gastric mucus study. Carbachol stimulates gastric acid secretion in animals pretreated with the extract for 1, 7 and 14 days. 50-400 mg/kg b.w. doses of the extract significantly increase gastric mucus secretion. These results indicate the mechanism of anti-ulcer activity of the extract may be due to stimulation of gastric mucus secretion amongst pathways.

  1. Experimental studies of gastric dysfunction in motion sickness: The effect of gastric and vestibular stimulation on the vagal and splanchnic gastric efferents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niijima, A.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    The experiments were conducted in anaesthetized rats. In the first part of the experiments, the effect of CuSO4 on the afferent activity in the gastric branch of the vagus nerve was investigated. Gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution (0.04 percent and 0.08 percent) provoked an increase in afferent activity. In the second part of the experiments, the reflex effects of gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution, repetitive stimulation of the gastric vagus nerve, and caloric stimulation of the right vestibular apparatus (5-18 C water) on gastric autonomic outflow were investigated. The results of these experiments showed that these three different types of stimulation caused an inhibition in efferent activity of the gastric vagus nerve and a slight activation of the splanchnic gastric efferents. The summation of the effect of each stimulation was also observed. These results, therefore, provide evidence for a possible integrative inhibitory function of the vagal gastric center as well as an excitatory function of gastric sympathetic motoneurons in relation to motion sickness.

  2. Radiological findings of gastric adenomyoma in a neonate presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Jung Hyo; Kim, Woo Sun; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Park, Sung Hye

    2013-03-01

    Gastric adenomyoma is a rare tumour-like lesion composed of glandular components and smooth muscle bundles. We report a case of gastric adenomyoma in a 1-week-old neonate who presented with gastric outlet obstruction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest child reported with gastric adenomyoma and a unique case demonstrating radiological findings of gastric adenomyoma in a young infant. At US, the lesion was seen as an asymmetrical mass-like wall-thickening of the pylorus. Upper gastrointestinal series showed findings similar to those seen in a case of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. We suggest that gastric adenomyoma should be included in the causes of gastric outlet obstruction in neonates even though it is rare in young children.

  3. Endoscopic Evaluation of Gastric Emptying and Effect of Mosapride Citrate on Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Jung, In Su; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Lee, Hwal Youn; Lee, Sang In

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Gastric emptying has been evaluated by scintigraphy in spite of its limitations of time consumption, cost, and danger of radioisotope. Endoscopy is a simple technique, however, its validation for gastric emptying and quantification of food has not yet been investigated. The aim of our study was to assess endoscopic gastric emptying compared with scintigraphy and radiopaque markers (ROMs) studies. We also investigated the effect of a single dose of mosapride on gastric emptying. Materials and Methods Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent scintigraphy. Next day, subjects received a standard solid meal with ROMs and underwent endoscopy and simple abdomen X-ray after 3 hrs. After one week, the same procedure was repeated after ingestion of mosapride (5 mg for group 1, n = 8; 10 mg for group 2, n = 7) 15 min before the meal. Quantification of gastric residue by endoscopy was scored from 0 to 3, and the scores were added up. Results All subjects completed the study without any complication. The gastric emptying rate [T1/2 (min)] was in normal range (65.6 ± 12.6 min). Endoscopic gastric emptying was correlated significantly with gastric clearance of ROMs (r = 0.627, p = 0.012). Endoscopic gastric emptying and gastric clearance of ROMs after administration of mosapride showed significant differences in the 10 mg group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Endoscopy can evaluate gastric emptying safely and simply on an outpatient basis. A 10 mg dose of mosapride enhanced gastric emptying, assessed by both endoscopy and ROMs. PMID:20046511

  4. Migration of eroded laparoscopic adjustable gastric band causing small bowel obstruction and perforation

    PubMed Central

    Abeysekera, Ashvini; Ghosh, Simon; Hacking, Craig

    2017-01-01

    We present an unusual and rare complication caused by gastric band erosion into the stomach after band placement 15 years ago. The complication was only picked up after the band had subsequently migrated from the stomach at the site of erosion, to the distal ileum causing acute small bowel obstruction and focal perforation requiring emergency laparotomy. Abdominal pain in patients with gastric band should always be treated as serious until proven otherwise. PMID:28500263

  5. Gastro-protective effect of methanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina (del.) leaf on aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adefisayo, Modinat A; Akomolafe, Rufus O; Akinsomisoye, Stephen O; Alabi, Quadri K; Ogundipe, Olaofe L; Omole, Joseph G; Olamilosoye, Kehinde P

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of methanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf (MEVA) on aspirin induced gastric ulcer in rats. Thirty Wistar rats, 150-200 g were divided into six groups as follows: Group 1 (control) rats received 2 mL/kg of propylene glycol for 28 consecutive days. Group 2 (Ulcer Control) received 150 mg/kg/day of aspirin suspended in 3 mL of 1% carboxymethylcellulose in water orally for 3 consecutive days during which the rats were fasted for the induction of ulcer. Group 3 received cimetidine at 100 mg/kg/day orally for 28 consecutive days and thereafter treated as group 2. Groups 4, 5 and 6 received MEVA orally at 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg/day respectively for 28 consecutive days and thereafter were treated with aspirin as group 2. All the animals were sacrifice at the end of the study to determine the gastric pH, gastric acidity, gastric ulcer score, haematological indices, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels. The result showed that aspirin significantly (p < 0.05) increased gastric ulcer score and index, decreased gastric pH, gastric acidity, SOD activity, GSH level as well as increased LPO level. It induced significant necrosis of the stomach tissue. Administration of MEVA significantly (p < 0.05) increased gastric pH, but decreased gastric acid secretion and reversed alteration of haematological parameters. It also significantly (p < 0.05) increased SOD activity, GSH level and decreased LPO level. The results suggest that Vernonia amygdalina possesses gastro-protective properties against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer.

  6. [Partial stomach partitioning gastrojejunostomy in the treatment of the malignant gastric outlet obstruction].

    PubMed

    Abdel-lah-Fernández, Omar; Parreño-Manchado, Felipe Carlos; García-Plaza, Asunción; Álvarez-Delgado, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In patients with unresectable gastric cancer and outlet obstruction syndrome, gastric partitioning gastrojejunostomy is an alternative, which could avoid the drawbacks of the standard techniques. Comparison of antroduodenal stent, conventional gastrojejunostomy and gastric partitioning gastrojejunostomy. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with unresectable distal gastric cancer and gastric outlet obstruction, treated with the three different techniques over the last 12 years, comparing results based on oral tolerance and complications. An analysis was performed on the results using the Student-t test for independent variables. The 22 patients were divided in 3 groups: group I (6 cases) stent, group II (9 cases) conventional gastrojejunostomy, and group III (7 cases) gastric partitioning gastrojejunostomy, respectively. The stent allows a shorter "postoperative" stay and early onset of oral tolerance (P<0.05), however, the gastric partitioning gastrojejunostomy achieve normal diet at 15th day (P<0.05). The mortality rate was higher in the stent group (33%) compared with surgical techniques, with a morbidity of 4/6 (66.7%) in Group I, 6/9 (66.7%) Group II, and 3/7 (42%) Group III. Re-interventions: 2/6 Group I, 3/9 Group II, and 0/7 Group III. The median survival was superior in the gastric partitioning gastrojejunostomy, achieving an overall survival of 6.5 months. The gastric partitioning gastrojejunostomy for treatment of gastric outlet obstruction in unresectable advanced gastric cancer is a safe technique, allowing a more complete diet with lower morbidity and improved survival. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Distension-Induced Gastric Contraction is Attenuated in an Experimental Model of Gastric Restraint

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiao; Guo, Xiaomei; Mattar, Samer G.; Navia, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastric distension has important implications for motility and satiety. The hypothesis of this study was that distension affects the amplitude and duration of gastric contraction and that these parameters are largely mediated by efferent vagus stimulation. Methods A novel isovolumic myograph was introduced to test these hypotheses. The isovolumic myograph isolates the stomach and records the pressure generated by the gastric contraction under isovolumic conditions. Accordingly, the phasic changes of gastric contractility can be documented. A group of 12 rats were used under in vivo conditions and isolated ex vivo conditions and with two different gastric restraints (small and large) to determine the effect of degree of restraint. Results The comparison of the in vivo and ex vivo contractility provided information on the efferent vagus mediation of gastric contraction, i.e., the in vivo amplitude and duration reached maximum of 12.6 ± 2.7 mmHg and 19.8 ± 5.6 s in contrast to maximum of 5.7 ± 0.9 mmHg and 7.3 ± 1.3 s in ex vivo amplitude and duration, respectively. The comparison of gastric restraint and control groups highlights the role of distension on in vivo gastric contractility. The limitation of gastric distension by restraint drastically reduced the maximal amplitude to below 2.9 ± 0.2 mmHg. Conclusions The results show that distension-induced gastric contractility is regulated by both central nervous system and local mechanisms with the former being more substantial. Furthermore, the gastric restraint significantly attenuates gastric contractility (decreased amplitude and shortened duration of contraction) which is mediated by the efferent vagus activation. These findings have important implications for gastric motility and physiology and may improve our understanding of satiety. PMID:20706803

  8. Gastric intestinal metaplasia is associated with gastric dysplasia but is inversely correlated with esophageal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Justin M; Patrie, James T; Bleibel, Wissam; Frye, Jeanetta W; Sauer, Bryan G; Shami, Vanessa M; Stelow, Edward B; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Wang, Andrew Y

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine which clinical factors might be associated with gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) in a North American population. METHODS Pathology and endoscopy databases at an academic medical center were reviewed to identify patients with and without gastric IM on biopsies for a retrospective cohort study. Patient demographics, insurance status, and other clinical factors were reviewed. RESULTS Four hundred and sixty-eight patients with gastric IM (mean age: 61.0 years ± 14.4 years, 55.5% female) and 171 without gastric IM (mean age: 48.8 years ± 20.8 years, 55.0% female) were compared. The endoscopic appearance of atrophic gastritis correlated with finding gastric IM on histopathology (OR = 2.05, P = 0.051). Gastric IM was associated with histologic findings of chronic gastritis (OR = 2.56, P < 0.001), gastric ulcer (OR = 6.97, P = 0.015), gastric dysplasia (OR = 6.11, P = 0.038), and gastric cancer (OR = 6.53, P = 0.027). Histologic findings of Barrett’s esophagus (OR = 0.28, P = 0.003) and esophageal dysplasia (OR = 0.11, P = 0.014) were inversely associated with gastric IM. Tobacco use (OR = 1.73, P = 0.005) was associated with gastric IM. CONCLUSION Patients who smoke or have the endoscopic finding of atrophic gastritis are more likely to have gastric IM and should have screening gastric biopsies during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Patients with gastric IM are at increased risk for having gastric dysplasia and cancer, and surveillance EGD with gastric biopsies in these patients might be reasonable. PMID:28250898

  9. Gastroprotective effect of cyanidin 3-glucoside on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Ying; Xu, Hong-De; Zhao, Bing-Tian; Chang, Hyo-Ihl; Rhee, Hae-Ik

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the in vivo protective effect of cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. The experimental rats were treated with 80% ethanol after pretreatment with various doses of C3G (4 and 8 mg/kg of body weight), and the control rats received only 80% ethanol. Oral pretreatment with C3G significantly inhibited the formation of ethanol-induced gastric lesions and the elevation of the lipid peroxide level. In addition, pretreatment with C3G significantly increased the level of glutathione and the activities of radical scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, in gastric tissues. These results suggest that the gastroprotective effect of C3G removes the ethanol-induced lipid peroxides and free radicals and that it may offer a potential remedy for the treatment of gastric lesions.

  10. Sensitive and specific detection of early gastric cancer with DNA methylation analysis of gastric washes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Kim, Hyun Soo; Castoro, Ryan J; Chung, Woonbok; Estecio, Marcos R H; Kondo, Kimie; Guo, Yi; Ahmed, Saira S; Toyota, Minoru; Itoh, Fumio; Suk, Ki Tae; Cho, Mee-Yon; Shen, Lanlan; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2009-06-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is an early and frequent process in gastric carcinogenesis and could be useful for detection of gastric neoplasia. We hypothesized that methylation analysis of DNA recovered from gastric washes could be used to detect gastric cancer. We studied 51 candidate genes in 7 gastric cancer cell lines and 24 samples (training set) and identified 6 for further studies. We examined the methylation status of these genes in a test set consisting of 131 gastric neoplasias at various stages. Finally, we validated the 6 candidate genes in a different population of 40 primary gastric cancer samples and 113 nonneoplastic gastric mucosa samples. Six genes (MINT25, RORA, GDNF, ADAM23, PRDM5, MLF1) showed frequent differential methylation between gastric cancer and normal mucosa in the training, test, and validation sets. GDNF and MINT25 were most sensitive molecular markers of early stage gastric cancer, whereas PRDM5 and MLF1 were markers of a field defect. There was a close correlation (r = 0.5-0.9, P = .03-.001) between methylation levels in tumor biopsy and gastric washes. MINT25 methylation had the best sensitivity (90%), specificity (96%), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.961) in terms of tumor detection in gastric washes. These findings suggest MINT25 is a sensitive and specific marker for screening in gastric cancer. Additionally, we have developed a new method for gastric cancer detection by DNA methylation in gastric washes.

  11. Gastric cancer stem cells in gastric carcinogenesis, progression, prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Dan, Zeng; Nie, Yu-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the study of the mechanism of tumorigenesis has brought much progress to cancer treatment. However, cancer stem cell (CSC) theory has changed previous views of tumors, and has provided a new method for treatment of cancer. The discovery of CSCs and their characteristics have contributed to understanding the molecular mechanism of tumor genesis and development, resulting in a new effective strategy for cancer treatment. Gastric CSCs (GCSCs) are the basis for the onset of gastric cancer. They may be derived from gastric stem cells in gastric tissues, or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. As with other stem cells, GCSCs highly express drug-resistance genes such as aldehyde dehydrogenase and multidrug resistance, which are resistant to chemotherapy and thus form the basis of drug resistance. Many specific molecular markers such as CD44 and CD133 have been used for identification and isolation of GCSCs, diagnosis and grading of gastric cancer, and research on GCSC-targeted therapy for gastric cancer. Therefore, discussion of the recent development and advancements in GCSCs will be helpful for providing novel insight into gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833872

  12. Essential role of gastric gland mucin in preventing gastric cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Karasawa, Fumitoshi; Shiota, Akira; Goso, Yukinobu; Kobayashi, Motohiro; Sato, Yoshiko; Masumoto, Junya; Fujiwara, Maiko; Yokosawa, Shuichi; Muraki, Takashi; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Ueda, Masatsugu; Fukuda, Michiko N.; Fukuda, Minoru; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Nakayama, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Gastric gland mucin secreted from the lower portion of the gastric mucosa contains unique O-linked oligosaccharides (O-glycans) having terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (αGlcNAc). Previously, we identified human α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (α4GnT), which is responsible for the O-glycan biosynthesis and characterized αGlcNAc function in suppressing Helicobacter pylori in vitro. In the present study, we engineered A4gnt–/– mice to better understand its role in vivo. A4gnt–/– mice showed complete lack of αGlcNAc expression in gastric gland mucin. Surprisingly, all the mutant mice developed gastric adenocarcinoma through a hyperplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in the absence of H. pylori infection. Microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed upregulation of genes encoding inflammatory chemokine ligands, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors, such as Ccl2, Il-11, and Hgf in the gastric mucosa of A4gnt–/– mice. Further supporting an important role for this O-glycan in cancer progression, we also observed significantly reduced αGlcNAc in human gastric adenocarcinoma and adenoma. Our results demonstrate that the absence of αGlcNAc triggers gastric tumorigenesis through inflammation-associated pathways in vivo. Thus, αGlcNAc-terminated gastric mucin plays dual roles in preventing gastric cancer by inhibiting H. pylori infection and also suppressing tumor-promoting inflammation. PMID:22307328

  13. The effect of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Saber, Alan A; Boros, Michael J; Mancl, Tara; Elgamal, Mohamed H; Song, Susrap; Wisadrattanapong, Therawat

    2008-06-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic debilitating disorder affecting 3-5% of the US population. Treatment of this disorder is a challenge. The incidental finding of improvement of fibromyalgia following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass stimulated us to study this phenomenon. A retrospective chart review of patients with fibromyalgia who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Postoperative decrease in median of BMI from 49.4 to 29.7 was significant (p value = 0.0010). This was associated with statistically significant improvement in median of pain score (p value = 0.0010) and median points of tenderness (p value = 0.0010). Significant weight loss following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is associated with resolution or improvement of fibromyalgia. Consequently, the bariatric surgeon should be a member of the multidisciplinary team approach for treating fibromyalgia.

  14. Itopride for gastric volume, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim; Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Bilal, Rakhshanda; Awan, Safia; Abbas, Aamir

    2017-02-06

    To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo. Gastric accommodation was determined using Gastric Scintigraphy. 13 C labeled octanoic breadth test was performed to assess gastric emptying. Capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid drink was checked using satiety drinking capacity test. The intervention group comprised of 150 mg itopride. Patients in both arms were followed for 4 wk. Mean age of the recruited participant 33 years (SD = 7.6) and most of the recruited individuals, i.e ., 21 (67.7%) were males. We found that there was no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation as measured at different in volumes in the itopride and control group with the empty stomach ( P = 0.14), at 20 min ( P = 0.38), 30 min ( P = 0.30), 40 min ( P = 0.43), 50 min ( P = 0.50), 60 min ( P = 0.81), 90 min ( P = 0.25) and 120 min ( P = 0.67). Gastric emptying done on a sub sample ( n = 11) showed no significant difference ( P = 0.58) between itopride and placebo group. There was no significant improvement in the capacity to tolerate liquid in the itopride group as compared to placebo ( P = 0.51). Similarly there was no significant improvement of symptoms as assessed through a composite symptom score ( P = 0.74). The change in QT interval in itopride group was not significantly different from placebo (0.10). Our study found no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and maximum tolerated volume in patients with FD.

  15. Mechanical evaluation of a ruptured Swedish adjustable gastric band.

    PubMed

    Reijnen, Michael M P J; Naus, J H; Janssen, Ignace M C

    2004-02-01

    Leakage of a laparoscopically placed Swedish adjustable gastric band (SAGB) was observed 2 1/2 years after placement. The band was evaluated for mechanical inaccuracies by a laboratory. The ruptured SAGB was investigated microscopically and wall thicknesses were measured. An unused SAGB was tested, both empty and filled, for mechanical deformity after exposure to saline solution. A permanent transformation of the silicone rubber was found, caused by bowing of the device. 2 tears were present at the end of a kink. The mean wall thickness was within acceptable limits. Exposure of the gastric band to saline solution did not cause any sign of permanent deformity of the silicone rubber. The rupture of the gastric band did not seem to be caused by a production error. Long-term deformity, in combination with a continuous dynamic load, may increase the risk of tearing. Long-term follow up is recommended for patients treated with this device.

  16. Gastric tumours in FAP.

    PubMed

    Walton, Sarah-Jane; Frayling, Ian M; Clark, Susan K; Latchford, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Gastric cancer is not a recognised extra-colonic manifestation of FAP, except in countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer. Data regarding gastric adenomas in FAP are sparse. The aim of this study was to review the clinical characteristics of gastric tumours occurring within an FAP population from the largest European polyposis registry. All patients that developed a gastric adenoma or carcinoma were identified from a prospectively maintained registry database. The primary outcome measure was the occurrence of gastric adenoma or adenocarcinoma. Secondary outcomes included APC mutation, tumour stage, management and survival. Eight patients developed gastric cancer and 21 an adenoma (median age 52 and 44 years, respectively). Regular oesophagogastroduodenoscopy surveillance was performed in 6/8 patients who developed cancer. Half were advanced T3/4 tumours and 6/8 had nodal or metastatic spread at diagnosis. All cancer cases died within a median of 13.5 months from diagnosis. Gastric adenomas were evenly distributed: 11/21 (52%) in the distal and 10/21 (48%) proximal stomach, whereas 5/8 (63%) cancers were located proximally. An association between gastric tumour and desmoid development was observed; 7/8 (88%) cancer and 11/21 (52%) adenoma cases had a personal or family history of desmoid. It would appear from this small, retrospective study that gastric cancer is not a prominent extra-colonic feature of FAP in the Western world. It seems to present at an advanced stage with a poor prognosis. There may be an association between gastric tumour and desmoid occurrence but a large multicentre cohort is necessary to investigate this further.

  17. Endoscopic transgastric drainage of a gastric wall abscess after endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Dohi, Osamu; Dohi, Moyu; Inoue, Ken; Gen, Yasuyuki; Jo, Masayasu; Tokita, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    A 63-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for further examination because of an incidental finding of early gastric cancer. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was successfully performed for complete resection of the tumor. On the first post-ESD day, the patient suddenly complained of abdominal pain after an episode of vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed delayed perforation after ESD. The patient was conservatively treated with an intravenous proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics. On the fifth post-ESD day, CT revealed a gastric wall abscess in the gastric body. Gastroscopy revealed a gastric fistula at the edge of the post-ESD ulcer, and pus was found flowing into the stomach. An intradrainage stent and an extradrainage nasocystic catheter were successfully inserted into the abscess for endoscopic transgastric drainage. After the procedure, the clinical symptoms and laboratory test results improved quickly. Two months later, a follow-up CT scan showed no collection of pus. Consequently, the intradrainage stent was removed. Although the gastric wall abscess recurred 2 wk after stent removal, it recovered soon after endoscopic transgastric drainage. Finally, after stent removal and oral antibiotic treatment for 1 mo, no recurrence of the gastric wall abscess was found. PMID:24574787

  18. Four-year to Eight-year Results of Vagotomy and Simple Drainage for Benign Lesser Curve Gastric Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H.; Gill, A. Morton; Maclean, C.; Stedeford, R.

    1970-01-01

    The results of vagotomy and simple drainage for recurrent benign lesser curve gastric ulcer are recorded. Seventy-two consecutive cases were treated from 1962 to 1965. The follow-up is therefore from five to eight years. In only two cases did the ulcer fail to heal and remain healed. Four years after operation both these had persistent ulceration and persistent gastric retention. Both have apparently been cured by gastrojejunostomy done to improve gastric drainage. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:5451588

  19. Endoscopic gastric atrophy is strongly associated with gastric cancer development after Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Osamu; Yamaji, Yutaka; Yoshida, Shuntaro; Matsumoto, Shuhei; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Kanazawa, Takamitsu; Hata, Keisuke

    2017-05-01

    Risk factors for gastric cancer during continuous infection with Helicobacter pylori have been well documented; however, little has been reported on the risk factors for primary gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication. We conducted a retrospective, endoscopy-based, long-term, large-cohort study to clarify the risk factors for gastric cancer following H. pylori eradication. Patients who achieved successful H. pylori eradication and periodically underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy surveillance thereafter at Toyoshima Endoscopy Clinic were enrolled. The primary endpoint was the development of gastric cancer. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's proportional hazards models. Gastric cancer developed in 15 of 1232 patients. The cumulative incidence rates were 1.0 % at 2 years, 2.6 % at 5 years, and 6.8 % at 10 years. Histology showed that all gastric cancers (17 lesions) in the 15 patients were of the intestinal type, within the mucosal layer, and <20 mm in diameter. Based on univariate analysis, older age and higher endoscopic grade of gastric atrophy were significantly associated with gastric cancer development after eradication of H. pylori, and gastric ulcers were marginally associated. Multivariate analysis identified higher grade of gastric atrophy (hazard ratio 1.77; 95 % confidence interval 1.12-2.78; P = 0.01) as the only independently associated parameter. Endoscopic gastric atrophy is a major risk factor for gastric cancer development after H. pylori eradication. Further long-term studies are required to determine whether H. pylori eradication leads to regression of H. pylori-related gastritis and reduces the risk of gastric cancer.

  20. The innovative potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR06, Lactobacillus pentosus LPS01, Lactobacillus plantarum LP01, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii Subsp. delbrueckii LDD01 to restore the "gastric barrier effect" in patients chronically treated with PPI: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Del Piano, Mario; Anderloni, Andrea; Balzarini, Marco; Ballarè, Marco; Carmagnola, Stefania; Montino, Franco; Orsello, Marco; Pagliarulo, Michela; Tari, Roberto; Soattini, Liliana; Sforza, Filomena; Mogna, Luca; Mogna, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a very widespread condition. In Europe, it is estimated that about 175 million people suffer from this disease and have to chronically take drugs to increase gastric pH. The proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, and esomeprazole are the most widely used drug typology in this regard. However, the inhibition of normal gastric acid secretion has important side effects, the most important being bacterial overgrowth in the stomach and duodenum with a concentration of >10⁵ viable cells/mL. As a major consequence of this, many harmful or even pathogenic bacteria contained in some foods could survive the gastric transit and colonize either the stomach itself, the duodenum, or the gut, where they could establish acute and even chronic infections with unavoidable consequences for the host's health. In other words, the "gastric barrier effect" is strongly reduced or even disrupted. To date, there are no real strategies to deal with this widespread, although still relatively little known, problem. The aim of this study was to confirm the gastric bacterial overgrowth in long-term PPI consumers and to assess the efficacy of some probiotic bacteria, belonging to both genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, in the reduction of gastric and duodenal bacterial overgrowth, therefore partially restoring the gastric barrier effect against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. For this purpose, probiotics with a strong demonstrated inhibitory activity on gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, were tested in a human intervention trial involving a total of 30 subjects treated with PPIs for either 3 to 12 consecutive months (short-term) or >12 consecutive months (long-term). An additional 10 subjects not taking PPIs were enrolled and used as a control group representing the general population. Four selected probiotics Probiotical SpA (Novara, Italy), namely Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR06 (DSM 21981), Lactobacillus pentosus

  1. The Effect of Gastric Bypass on the Pharmacokinetics of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Giselle G.; Helsel, Joseph C.; Perel, James M.; Kozak, Gina M.; McShea, Mary C.; Hughes, Carolyn; Confer, Andrea L.; Sit, Dorothy K.; McCloskey, Carol A.; Wisner, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Morbidly obese patients frequently present with mood and anxiety disorders, which are often treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Having observed that patients treated with SRIs frequently relapse after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass surgery, the authors sought to assess whether SRI bioavailability is reduced postoperatively. Method Twelve gastric bypass candidates treated with an SRI for primary mood or anxiety disorders were studied prospectively. Timed blood samples for SRI plasma levels were drawn for pharmacokinetic studies before surgery and 1, 6, and 12 months afterward. Maximum concentration, time to maximum concentration, and area under the concentration/time curve (AUC) were determined. Results In eight of the 12 patients, AUC values 1 month after surgery dropped to an average of 54% (SD=18) of preoperative levels (range=36%–80%); in six of these patients, AUC values returned to baseline levels (or greater) by 6 months. Four patients had an exacerbation of depressive symptoms, which resolved by 12 months in three of them. Three of the four patients had a reduced AUC level at 1 month and either gained weight or failed to lose weight between 6 and 12 months. Normalization of the AUC was associated with improvement in symptom scores. Conclusions Patients taking SRIs in this study were at risk for reduced drug bioavailability 1 month after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. The authors recommend close psychiatric monitoring after surgery. PMID:22407114

  2. Effect of acute gastric dilatation on gastric myoelectic and motor activity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Solie, T N; Seim, H B; Twedt, D C

    1999-05-01

    To investigate the effects of experimentally induced acute gastric dilatation on electrical and mechanical activities of the stomach in dogs. 7 healthy dogs. Electrodes and strain-gauge force transducers were implanted on the serosal surface of the antrum and pylorus. Eight days later, baseline gastric electrical and contractile activities were recorded. The dogs were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated to maintain normocapnia while the stomach was distended (intragastric pressure, 30 mm Hg) for 180 minutes, using a thin compliant bag. Gastric electrical and contractile activities were recorded again on days 1 and 10 after dilatation. Recordings were analyzed to determine gastric slow-wave frequency, slow-wave dysrhythmia, propagation velocity of slow-waves, coupling of contractions to slow waves, motility index on the basis of relative contractile amplitudes, and onset of contractions after a standardized meal. Electrical or contractile activities were not significantly different 18 hours after acute gastric dilatation (day 1). Arrhythmias were evident before and after gastric dilatation in dogs from which food was withheld and in dogs after consumption of a meal. Variables for assessing gastric electrical and contractile activities were unaffected 18 hours after acute gastric dilatation. Analysis of results of this study indicated that altered electrical and contractile activities in dogs with short-term gastric dilatation are not likely to be secondary to the process of acute gastric dilatation.

  3. Sensitive and Specific Detection of Early Gastric Cancer Using DNA Methylation Analysis of Gastric Washes

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Kim, Hyun Soo; Castoro, Ryan J.; Chung, Woonbok; Estecio, Marcos R. H.; Kondo, Kimie; Guo, Yi; Ahmed, Saira S.; Toyota, Minoru; Itoh, Fumio; Suk, Ki Tae; Cho, Mee-Yon; Shen, Lanlan; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Aberrant DNA methylation is an early and frequent process in gastric carcinogenesis and could be useful for detection of gastric neoplasia. We hypothesized that methylation analysis of DNA recovered from gastric washes could be used to detect gastric cancer. Methods We studied 51 candidate genes in 7 gastric cancer cell lines and 24 samples (training set) and identified 6 for further studies. We examined the methylation status of these genes in a test set consisting of 131 gastric neoplasias at various stages. Finally, we validated the 6 candidate genes in a different population of 40 primary gastric cancer samples and 113 non-neoplastic gastric mucosa samples. Results 6 genes (MINT25, RORA, GDNF, ADAM23, PRDM5, MLF1) showed frequent differential methylation between gastric cancer and normal mucosa in the training, test and validation sets. GDNF and MINT25 were most sensitive molecular markers of early stage gastric cancer while PRDM5 and MLF1 were markers of a field defect. There was a close correlation (r=0.5 to 0.9, p=0.03 to 0.001) between methylation levels in tumor biopsy and gastric washes. MINT25 methylation had the best sensitivity (90%), specificity (96%), and area under the ROC curve (0.961) in terms of tumor detection in gastric washes. Conclusions These findings suggest MINT25 is a sensitive and specific marker for screening in gastric cancer. Additionally we have developed a new methodology for gastric cancer detection by DNA methylation in gastric washes. PMID:19375421

  4. Saffron Aqueous Extract Inhibits the Chemically-induced Gastric Cancer Progression in the Wistar Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bathaie, S. Zahra; Miri, Hamidreza; Mohagheghi, Mohammad-Ali; Mokhtari- Dizaji, Manijeh; Shahbazfar, Amir-Ali; Hasanzadeh, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract (SAE) on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum) and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca2+, tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen) were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner. PMID:23638290

  5. [Action mechanism of electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints for oxidative damage in rats with gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zongbao; Wang, Yadong; Liu, Qiong; Liu, Mi; Chen, Huijuan; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-06-12

    To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at stomach meridian acupoints on expression of oxidation damage factors in serum and gastric mucosal cells in rats with gastric ulcer, and to explore the mechanism of EA at stomach meridian acupoints for oxidative damage in rats with gastric ulcer. Forty clean-grade SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a stomach meridian group and a gallbladder meridian group, ten rats in each one. Except the normal group, rats in the remaining groups were applied the restraint-cold stress method to establish the model of gastric ulcer. Rats in the normal group and model group received no treatment; rats in the stomach meridian group were treated with EA at "Liangmen" (ST 21) and "Zusanli" (ST 36); rats in the gallbladder meridian group were treated with EA at "Riyue" (GB 24) and "Yanglingquan" (GB 34). The EA was given for 30 min, once a day for 7 days totally. The change of gastric mucosal morphology was observed by routine light microscope; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the expressions of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2(IL-2), interleukin-6(IL-6) in serum and gastric mucosal cells of rats. After treatment, compared with the model group, the gastric mucosal damage index was decreased in the stomach meridian group and gallbladder meridian group (both P <0.05), the expressions of MDA, TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6 in serum and gastric mucosal cells were significantly decreased in the stomach meridian group (all P <0.01), but the contents of GSH-Px in serum and gastric mucosal cells were increased significantly (both P <0.01). Compared with the gallbladder meridian group, the gastric mucosal damage index as well as the expressions of MDA,TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6 in serum and gastric mucosal cells were significantly decreased in the stomach meridian group rats ( P <0.05, P <0.01), and the contents of GSH-px in serum and

  6. Downregulation of STARD8 in gastric cancer and its involvement in gastric cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinguo; Chen, Jing; Zhi, Yu; Li, Zhenhua; Dai, Dongqiu

    2018-01-01

    Objective Rho-GTPases play a pivotal role in a wide variety of signal transduction pathways and are associated with a great number of human carcinomas. STARD8, which is a Rho-GTPase-activating protein, has been proposed as a tumor suppressor gene, but its role in gastric cancer remains elusive. In this study, we investigate the expression of STARD8 in gastric cancer and its association with gastric cancer progression. Materials and methods One normal gastric mucosa cell line for example GES1 and six human gastric cancer cell lines such as AGS, MGC803, MKN45, SGC7901, HGC27 and BGC823 were utilized to analyze STARD8 mRNA and protein levels by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. A total of 70 paired gastric tissues including corresponding nonmalignant gastric tissues and cancer tissues were utilized to analyze the protein expression of STARD8 using immunohistochemistry, and the correlation between STARD8 level and clinicopathological features was also evaluated. Results STARD8 was found to be downregulated in primary gastric cancer cells and tissues compared with the normal gastric mucosa cell line, GES1, and corresponding nonmalignant gastric tissues, while its decreased expression was significantly associated with TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and differentiation (p<0.05). Conclusion There is significantly decreased expression of STARD8 in gastric cancer cells and tissues, and its expression may contribute to gastric tumorigenesis. PMID:29849465

  7. Down-regulation of A-type potassium channel in gastric-specific DRG neurons in a rat model of functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Chen, J D Z

    2014-07-01

    Although without evidence of organic structural abnormalities, pain or discomfort is a prominent symptom of functional dyspepsia and considered to reflect visceral hypersensitivity whose underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we studied electrophysiological properties and expression of voltage-gated potassium channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a rat model of functional dyspepsia induced by neonatal gastric irritation. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups at 10-day old received 0.1% iodoacetamide (IA) or vehicle by oral gavage for 6 days and studied at adulthood. Retrograde tracer-labeled gastric-specific T8 -T12 DRG neurons were harvested for the patch-clamp study in voltage and current-clamp modes and protein expression of K(+) channel in T8 -T12 DRGs was examined by western blotting. (1) Gastric specific but not non-gastric DRG neurons showed an enhanced excitability in neonatal IA-treated rats compared to the control: depolarized resting membrane potentials, a lower current threshold for action potential (AP) activation, and an increase in the number of APs in response to current stimulation. (2) The current density of tetraethylammonium insensitive (transiently inactivating A-type current), but not the tetraethylammonium sensitive (slow-inactivating delayed rectifier K(+) currents), was significantly smaller in IA-treated rats (65.4 ± 6.9 pA/pF), compared to that of control (93.1 ± 8.3 pA/pF). (3) Protein expression of KV 4.3 was down-regulated in IA-treated rats. A-type potassium channels are significantly down-regulated in the gastric-specific DRG neurons in adult rats with mild neonatal gastric irritation, which in part contribute to the enhanced DRG neuron excitabilities that leads to the development of gastric hypersensitivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on HER-2 expression in surgically treated gastric and oesophagogastric junction carcinoma: a multicentre Italian study.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Damiano; Orsenigo, Elena; Guarneri, Giovanni; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Mazza, Elena; Albarello, Luca; Bissolati, Massimiliano; Molfino, Sarah; Staudacher, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    Predictors of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy are not available for gastric and oesophago-gastric junction carcinoma. HER-2 over-expression in breast cancer correlates with poor prognosis and high incidence of recurrence. First aim of this study was to evaluate if the HER-2 expression/amplification is predictive of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in terms of pathologic regression. Secondary aim was to evaluate if HER-2 expression varies after neoadjuvant treatment. Thirty-five patients with locally advanced gastric or oesophago-gastric junction carcinoma underwent preoperative chemotherapy and surgical resection at San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Spedali Civili of Brescia. HER-2 expression/amplification was evaluated on every biopsy at diagnosis time and on every surgical sample after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Pathologic response to chemotherapy was evaluated according to TNM classification (ypT status and ypN status) and Mandard's tumour regression grade classification. In our series 10 patients (28.6%) showed a reduction in HER-2 overexpression and in 6 of them (17.1%) HER-2 expression completely disappeared. Only three of the six patients with HER-2 disappearance had a complete pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. There was a strong correlation between HER-2 negativity on biopsy and absence of lymph node metastasis in surgical samples after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, irrespective of nodal status before chemotherapy. A direct correlation between HER-2 reduction after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pathologic regression (primary tumour and lymph nodes) in surgical samples was found. HER-2 negativity may represent a predictor of pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for gastric and oesophago-gastric junction adenocarcinoma. Neoadjuvant treatment can reduce HER-2 overexpression.

  9. Strawberry tannins inhibit IL-8 secretion in a cell model of gastric inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Marco; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Piazza, Stefano; Colombo, Elisa; Gasperotti, Mattia; Mattivi, Fulvio; De Fabiani, Emma; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we chemically profiled tannin-enriched extracts from strawberries and tested their biological properties in a cell model of gastric inflammation. The chemical and biological features of strawberry tannins after in vitro simulated gastric digestion were investigated as well. The anti-inflammatory activities of pure strawberry tannins were assayed to get mechanistic insights. Tannin-enriched extracts from strawberries inhibit IL-8 secretion in TNFα-treated human gastric epithelial cells by dampening the NF-κB signaling. In vitro simulated gastric digestion slightly affected the chemical composition and the biological properties of strawberry tannins. By using pure compounds, we found that casuarictin may act as a pure NF-κB inhibitor while agrimoniin inhibits IL-8 secretion also acting on other biological targets; in our system procyanidin B1 prevents the TNFα-induced effects without interfering with the NF-κB pathway. We conclude that strawberry tannins, even after in vitro simulated gastric digestion, exert anti-inflammatory activities at nutritionally relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori

  11. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.

  12. Efficacy of the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis in Identifying Patients at High Risk for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ban, Hiromitsu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Sahara, Shu; Otsuka, Taketo; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Furuta, Takahisa; Andoh, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer. Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, p<0.001). Kyoto gastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all p<0.001). No significant differences were noted in the rates of gastric fold hypertrophy or diffuse redness between the two groups. In a multivariate analysis, the risks for H. pylori-positive gastric cancer increased with intestinal metaplasia (odds ratio: 4.453, 95% confidence interval: 3.332-5.950, <0.001) and male sex (1.737, 1.102-2.739, p=0.017). Conclusion Making an appropriate diagnosis and detecting patients at high risk is crucial for achieving total eradication of gastric cancer. The scores of intestinal metaplasia and atrophy of the scoring system in the Kyoto gastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients.

  13. Doxycycline blocks gastric ulcer by regulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Laishram Pradeepkumar; Mishra, Amartya; Saha, Debjit; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of doxycycline on the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and oxidative stress in gastric tissues of rats following gastric injury. METHODS: Gastric ulcers were generated in rats by administration of 70% ethanol, and activity of doxycycline was tested by administration 30 min prior to ethanol. Similarly, the effect of doxycycline was tested in an indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer model. The activities and expression of MMPs were examined by zymography and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Gastric injury in rats as judged by elevated ulcer indices following exposure to ulcerogen, either indomethacin or ethanol, was reversed significantly by doxycycline. Indomethacin-induced ulcerated gastric tissues exhibited about 12-fold higher proMMP-9 activity and about 5-fold higher proMMP-3 activity as compared to control tissues. Similarly, ethanol induced about 22-fold and about 6-fold higher proMMP-9 and proMMP-3 activities, respectively, in rat gastric tissues. Both proMMP-9 and MMP-3 activities were markedly decreased by doxycycline in ulcerogen treated rat gastric tissues. In contrast, the reduced MMP-2 activity in ulcerated tissues was increased by doxycycline during ulcer prevention. On the other hand, doxycycline inhibited significantly proMMP-9, -2 and -3 activities in vitro. In addition, doxycycline reduced oxidative load in gastric tissues and scavenged H2O2 in vitro. Our results suggest a novel regulatory role of doxycycline on MMP-2 activity in addition to inhibitory action on MMP-9 and MMP-3 during prevention of gastric ulcers. CONCLUSION: This is the first demonstration of dual action of doxycycline, that is, regulation of MMP activity and reduction of oxidative stress in arresting gastric injury. PMID:21876619

  14. Protective effects of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Chang; Wu, Yong-Jie; Gao, Ming-Tang; Li, Wen-Guang; Zhao, Ning; Wang, Zeng-Lu; Bao, Chun-Jie; Yan, Zhen; Zhang, Ying-Qi

    2004-04-01

    To investigate the protective effects of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic gastric ulcers in rats and to compare the results in therapy of human gastric ulcers by different administration methods. Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was administered (initial single or continuous administration) into rats either intragastrically or intramuscularly before (induced acute gastric ulcer) or after (induced chronic gastric ulcer) the applications of inducing agents, and each animal was sacrificed to observe the protective effects of BPC 157 on gastric ulcers. Both intramuscular (im) and intragastric (ig) administration of BPC 157 could apparently reduce the ulcer area and accelerate the healing of induced ulcer in different models and the effect of im administered BPC 157 was better than that of ig. The rats treated with higher dosages (400 ng/kg, 800 ng/kg) of BPC 157 (im and ig) showed significantly less lesion (P<0.01 vs excipient or saline control), the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation varied between 45.7% and 65.6%, from all measurements except 400 ng/kg BPC 157 in pylorus ligation induced model (P<0.05), in which the inhibition rate was 54.2%. When im administered (800 ng/kg BPC 157) in three models, the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation was 65.5%, 65.6% and 59.9%, respectively, which was better than that of famotidine (its inhibition rate was 60.8%, 57.2% and 34.3%, respectively). Continuous application of BPC 157 (in chronic acetate induced gastric ulcer) could accelerate rebuilding of glandular epithelium and formation of granulation tissue (P<0.05 at 200 ng/kg and P<0.01 at 400 ng/kg and 800 ng/kg vs excipient or saline control). Both im and ig administered gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 can apparently ameliorate acute gastric ulcer in rats and antagonize the protracted effect of acetate challenge on chronic ulcer. The effect of im administration of BPC 157 is better than that of ig, and the effective dosage of the former is lower than

  15. Protective effects of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on gastric ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiao-Chang; Wu, Yong-Jie; Gao, Ming-Tang; Li, Wen-Guang; Zhao, Ning; Wang, Zeng-Lu; Bao, Chun-Jie; Yan, Zhen; Zhang, Ying-Qi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effects of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic gastric ulcers in rats and to compare the results in therapy of human gastric ulcers by different administration methods. METHODS: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was administered (initial single or continuous administration) into rats either intragastrically or intramuscularly before (induced acute gastric ulcer) or after (induced chronic gastric ulcer) the applications of inducing agents, and each animal was sacrificed to observe the protective effects of BPC 157 on gastric ulcers. RESULTS: Both intramuscular (im) and intragastric (ig) administration of BPC 157 could apparently reduce the ulcer area and accelerate the healing of induced ulcer in different models and the effect of im administered BPC 157 was better than that of ig. The rats treated with higher dosages (400 ng/kg, 800 ng/kg) of BPC 157 (im and ig) showed significantly less lesion (P < 0.01 vs excipient or saline control), the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation varied between 45.7% and 65.6%, from all measurements except 400 ng/kg BPC 157 in pylorus ligation induced model (P < 0.05), in which the inhibition rate was 54.2%. When im administered (800 ng/kg BPC 157) in three models, the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation was 65.5%, 65.6% and 59.9%, respectively, which was better than that of famotidine (its inhibition rate was 60.8%, 57.2% and 34.3%, respectively). Continuous application of BPC 157 (in chronic acetate induced gastric ulcer) could accelerate rebuilding of glandular epithelium and formation of granulation tissue (P < 0.05 at 200 ng/kg and P < 0.01 at 400 ng/kg and 800 ng/kg vs excipient or saline control). CONCLUSION: Both im and ig administered gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 can apparently ameliorate acute gastric ulcer in rats and antagonize the protracted effect of acetate challenge on chronic ulcer. The effect of im administration of BPC 157 is better than that of ig, and the

  16. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  17. Familial Gastric Cancers.

    PubMed

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W; Duda, Dan G; Hong, Theodore S; Kwak, Eunice L; Mullen, John T; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-12-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%-3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. ©AlphaMed Press.

  18. Assessment of two methods of gastric decompression for the initial management of gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Z J; Powell, L L; Hulting, K J

    2013-02-01

    To assess gastric trocarization and orogastric tubing as a means of gastric decompression for the initial management of gastric dilatation-volvulus. Retrospective review of 116 gastric dilatation-volvulus cases from June 2001 to October 2009. Decompression was performed via orogastric tubing in 31 dogs, gastric trocarization in 39 dogs and a combination of both in 46 dogs. Tubing was successful in 59 (75·5%) dogs and unsuccessful in 18 (23·4%) dogs. Trocarization was successful in 73 (86%) dogs and unsuccessful in 12 (14%) dogs. No evidence of gastric perforation was noted at surgery in dogs undergoing either technique. One dog that underwent trocarization had a splenic laceration identified at surgery that did not require treatment. Oesophageal rupture or aspiration pneumonia was not identified in any dog during hospitalization. No statistical difference was found between the method of gastric decompression and gastric compromise requiring surgical intervention or survival to discharge. Orogastric tubing and gastric trocarization are associated with low complication and high success rates. Either technique is an acceptable method for gastric decompression in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  19. Beyond gastric adenocarcinoma: Multimodality assessment of common and uncommon gastric neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Danielle M.; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Hornick, Jason L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Howard, Stephanie; Krajewski, Katherine; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Rosenthal, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in molecular biology, imaging, and treatment, gastric neoplasms remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality; gastric adenocarcinoma is the fifth most common malignancy and third most common cause of death worldwide (Brenner et al., Methods Mol Biol 472:467–477, 2009; Howson et al. Epidemiol Rev 8:1–27, 1986; Roder, Gastric Cancer 5(Suppl 1):5–11, 2002; Ferlay et al., GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2013). Because of both the frequency at which malignant gastric tumors occur as well as the worldwide impact, gastric neoplasms remain important lesions to identify and characterize on all imaging modalities. Despite the varied histologies and behaviors of these neoplasms, many have similar imaging features. Nonetheless, the treatment, management, and prognosis of gastric neoplasms vary by pathology, so it is essential for the radiologist to make every effort to differentiate between these lesions and raise the less common entities as differential diagnostic considerations when appropriate. PMID:27645897

  20. A glass of water immediately increases gastric pH in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Karamanolis, George; Theofanidou, Ioanna; Yiasemidou, Marina; Giannoulis, Evangelos; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Ladas, Spiros D

    2008-12-01

    Onset of action of antisecretory agents is of pivotal importance for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) treated "on-demand." To study the acute effect of acid-inhibiting drugs and water administration on gastric pH. A cross-over study was performed in 12 H. pylori (-), healthy subjects (6 men; mean age: 26 years). A single oral dose of the following agents was received with a wash-out period between each study: a glass of water (200 ml), antacid, ranitidine, omeprazole, esomeprazole, and rabeprazole. Gastric pH was recorded for 6 h after drug intake. Water increased gastric pH >4 in 10/12 subjects after 1 min. The time (median) needed to pH >4 was for: antacid 2 min, ranitidine 50 min, omeprazole 171 min, esomeprazole 151 min, and rabeprazole 175 min. Gastric pH >4 lasted for 3 min after water and for 12 min after antacids; it remained >4 until the end of recording in: 4/12 subjects with ranitidine, 11/12 with rabeprazole, and all with omeprazole and esomeprazole. Water and antacid immediately increased gastric pH, while PPIs showed a delayed but prolonged effect compared to ranitidine.

  1. Unusual case of small cell gastric carcinoma: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Richards, David; Davis, Daniel; Yan, Peisha; Guha, Sushovan

    2011-04-01

    Small cell carcinomas are among the most aggressive, poorly differentiated, and highly malignant of the neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Of which, small cell gastric carcinoma is a rare small cell neuroendocrine tumor. The purpose of our study was to present this case and perform a comprehensive literature review. We review a case of small cell gastric carcinoma that is particularly unusual in that it occurred in a woman from the US when the majority of cases of small cell gastric carcinoma have been reported in men from East Asia, and more specifically, from Japan. The diagnosis was made after endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated mass in the gastric cardia of Borrmann type 3. Biopsies revealed multiple small basophilic cells underlying the squamous epithelium of the esophagus and cardiac mucosa, indicating the presence of a tumor at the gastroesophageal junction. Immunostaining established the diagnosis with positive stains for chromogranin, synaptophysin, and CD56. Our patient is being treated with chemotherapy, but many different treatment regimens have been tried for small cell gastric carcinoma with variable success. Overall prognosis for small cell gastric carcinoma is dismal. Neuroendocrine tumors in general have variable clinical behaviors and prognosis is dependent on the neuroendocrine tumor type. The adoption of a standardized classification system for neuroendocrine tumors could improve the recognition of infrequently encountered neuroendocrine tumors like small cell gastric carcinoma and will enhance strategies for treatment and thus improve prognosis for patients with these rare and aggressive tumors.

  2. Itopride for gastric volume, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim; Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Bilal, Rakhshanda; Awan, Safia; Abbas, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo. Gastric accommodation was determined using Gastric Scintigraphy. 13C labeled octanoic breadth test was performed to assess gastric emptying. Capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid drink was checked using satiety drinking capacity test. The intervention group comprised of 150 mg itopride. Patients in both arms were followed for 4 wk. RESULTS Mean age of the recruited participant 33 years (SD = 7.6) and most of the recruited individuals, i.e., 21 (67.7%) were males. We found that there was no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation as measured at different in volumes in the itopride and control group with the empty stomach (P = 0.14), at 20 min (P = 0.38), 30 min (P = 0.30), 40 min (P = 0.43), 50 min (P = 0.50), 60 min (P = 0.81), 90 min (P = 0.25) and 120 min (P = 0.67). Gastric emptying done on a sub sample (n = 11) showed no significant difference (P = 0.58) between itopride and placebo group. There was no significant improvement in the capacity to tolerate liquid in the itopride group as compared to placebo (P = 0.51). Similarly there was no significant improvement of symptoms as assessed through a composite symptom score (P = 0.74). The change in QT interval in itopride group was not significantly different from placebo (0.10). CONCLUSION Our study found no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and maximum tolerated volume in patients with FD. PMID:28217377

  3. Aprepitant plus granisetron and dexamethasone for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with gastric cancer treated with S-1 plus cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Katsunobu; Fushida, Sachio; Kaji, Masahide; Takeda, Toshiya; Kinami, Shinichi; Hirono, Yasuo; Yoshimoto, Katsuhiro; Yabushita, Kazuhisa; Hirosawa, Hisashi; Takai, Yuki; Nakano, Tatsuo; Kimura, Hironobu; Yasui, Toshiaki; Tsuneda, Atsushi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a new combination antiemetic therapy comprising aprepitant, granisetron, and dexamethasone in gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy with cisplatin and S-1. Gastric cancer patients scheduled to receive their first course of chemotherapy with cisplatin (60 mg/m(2)) and S-1 (80 mg/m(2)) were treated with a new combination antiemetic therapy aprepitant, granisetron, and dexamethasone on day 1; aprepitant and dexamethasone on days 2 and 3; and dexamethasone on day 4. The patients reported vomiting, nausea, use of rescue therapy, and change in the amount of diet intake, and completed the Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLIE) questionnaire. The primary endpoint was complete response (CR; no emesis and use of no rescue antiemetics) during the overall study phase (0-120 h after cisplatin administration). The secondary endpoints included complete protection (CP; CR plus no significant nausea); change in the amount of diet intake; and the impact of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) on daily life during the overall, acute (0-24 h), and delayed (24-120 h) phases. Fifty-three patients were included. CR was achieved in 88.7, 98.1, and 88.7% of patients in the overall, acute, and delayed phases, respectively. The corresponding rates of CP were 67.9, 96.2, and 67.9%. Approximately half of the patients had some degree of anorexia. FLIE results indicated that 79.5% of patients reported "minimal or no impact of CINV on daily life". Addition of aprepitant to standard antiemetic therapy was effective in gastric cancer patients undergoing treatment with cisplatin and S-1.

  4. Deubiquitinylase USP47 Promotes RelA Phosphorylation and Survival in Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Naghavi, Lara; Schwalbe, Martin; Ghanem, Ahmed; Naumann, Michael

    2018-05-22

    Every year, gastric cancer causes around 819,000 deaths worldwide. The incidence of gastric cancer in the western world is slowly declining, but the prognosis is unpromising. In Germany, the 5-year-survival rate is around 32%, and the average life span after diagnosis is 6 to 9 months. Therapy of gastric cancer patients comprises a gastrectomy and perioperative or adjuvant chemotherapy. However, resistance of gastric cancer cells to these agents is widespread; thus, improved chemotherapeutic approaches are required. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factors are associated with anti-apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and chemoresistance, and thus, constitute attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. In immunoblots, we show that ubiquitin specific protease 47 (USP47) promotes β-transducin repeat-containing protein (βTrCP) stability and phosphorylation of RelA. Furthermore, after knockdown of USP47 by RNA interference, we analyzed in gastric cancer cell lines metabolic activity/viability in an MTT assay, and apoptotic cell death by Annexin V staining and poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, caspase 3, and caspase 8 cleavage, respectively. We found that USP47 contributes to cell viability and chemoresistance in NCI-N87 gastric carcinoma cells treated with etoposide and camptothecin. Inhibition of USP47 might be a suitable strategy to downregulate NF-κB activity, and to overcome chemoresistance in gastric cancer.

  5. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity gastric bypass discharge; Weight loss - gastric bypass discharge ... al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised ...

  6. The gastroprotective effect of pogostone from Pogostemonis Herba against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Hai-Ming; Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Zheng, Yi-Feng; Su, Zu-Qing; Zhang, Xie; Xie, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yong-Zhuo; Fu, Lu-Di; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Xiao-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Pogostemonis Herba, known as “Guang-Huo-Xiang” in Chinese, has been widely used in the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Pogostone is one of the major constituents of Pogostemonis Herba. The aim was to scientifically evaluate the possible gastroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of pogostone against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were orally treated with vehicle, lansoprazole (30 mg/kg) or pogostone (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by indomethacin. Gross evaluation, histological observation, gastric mucosal superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione content, catalase activity, malonaldehyde level and prostaglandin E2 production were performed. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, as well as terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for heat-shock protein 70, B-cell lymphoma-2 and Bax were conducted. Results indicated that rats pretreated with pogostone showed remarkable protection from the gastric mucosa damage compared to vehicle-treated rats based on the ulcer index and inhibition percentage. Histologically, oral administration of pogostone resulted in observable improvement of gastric injury, characterized by reduction of necrotic lesion, flattening of gastric mucosa and alleviation of submucosal edema with hemorrhage. Pogostone pretreatment significantly raised the depressed activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase, while reduced the elevated malonaldehyde level compared with indomethacin-induced group. Pogostone-pretreated group induced a significant increase in gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 level and obvious up-regulation of protein levels and mRNA expressions of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. Furthermore, antiapoptotic effect of pogostone was verified by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated d

  7. Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP) – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Yu, XueZhong; Wang, Zhong; Wang, HouLi; Zhao, XiangHuai; Cao, YuPing; Wang, WeiZhan; Eddleston, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Background Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine overdoses in developed countries and may be irrelevant to OP poisoning in Asia. Chinese clinical experience suggests that OP remains in the stomach for several hours or even days after ingestion. Thus, there may be reasons for doing single or multiple gastric lavages for OP poisoning. There have been no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to assess this practice of multiple lavages. Since it is currently standard therapy in China, we cannot perform a RCT of no lavage vs. a single lavage vs. multiple lavages. We will compare a single gastric lavage with three gastric lavages as the first stage to assess the role of gastric lavage in OP poisoning. Methods/Design We have designed an RCT assessing the effectiveness of multiple gastric lavages in adult OP self-poisoning patients admitted to three Chinese hospitals within 12 hrs of ingestion. Patients will be randomised to standard treatment plus either a single gastric lavage on admission or three gastric lavages at four hour intervals. The primary outcome is in-hospital mortality. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. On the basis of the historical incidence of OP at the study sites, we expect to enroll 908 patients over three years. This projected sample size provides sufficient power to evaluate the death rate; and a variety of other exposure and outcome variables, including particular OPs and ingestion time. Changes of OP level will be analyzed in order to provide some toxic kinetic data. Discussion the GLAOP study is a novel, prospective cohort study that will explore to the toxic kinetics of OP and effects

  8. Protective effects of hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Etani, Reo; Kataoka, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Taguchi, Takehito

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Radon therapy using radon (222Rn) gas is classified into two types of treatment: inhalation of radon gas and drinking water containing radon. Although short- or long-term intake of spa water is effective in increasing gastric mucosal blood flow, and spa water therapy is useful for treating chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer, the underlying mechanisms for and precise effects of radon protection against mucosal injury are unclear. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m3 for 24 h or were provided with hot spring water for 2 weeks. The activity density of 222Rn ranged from 663 Bq/l (start point of supplying) to 100 Bq/l (end point of supplying). Mice were then orally administered ethanol at three concentrations. The ulcer index (UI), an indicator of mucosal injury, increased in response to the administration of ethanol; however, treatment with either radon inhalation or hot spring water inhibited the elevation in the UI due to ethanol. Although no significant differences in antioxidative enzymes were observed between the radon-treated groups and the non-treated control groups, lipid peroxide levels were significantly lower in the stomachs of mice pre-treated with radon or hot spring water. These results suggest that hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation inhibit ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury. PMID:28498931

  9. Familial Gastric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W.; Duda, Dan G.; Hong, Theodore S.; Kwak, Eunice L.; Mullen, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Implications for Practice: Although the majority of gastric adenocarcinomas are sporadic with many of those related to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection, approximately 10% of the cases show familial aggregation, and a specific hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. This review describes the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Ultimately, a better understanding of the biology of these conditions should allow early identification and intervention as part of a multidisciplinary approach involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, and pathologists. PMID:26424758

  10. Effect on Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy against gastric cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Momoko; Asaka, Masahiro; Kato, Mototsugu; Matsushima, Rumiko; Fujimori, Kenji; Akino, Kozo; Kikuchi, Shogo; Lin, Yingsong; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2017-10-01

    In Japan, there have been approximately 50 000 deaths from gastric cancer annually for over 40 years with little variation. It has been reported that most gastric cancers in Japan are caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. H. pylori eradication therapy was approved for patients with chronic gastritis by the Japanese national health insurance scheme in February 2013 for patients with an endoscopic diagnosis of chronic gastritis is positive for H. pylori. We examined the effect on gastric cancer death rate 4 years after expansion of health insurance coverage. We conducted an epidemiological study and analyzed trends in prescription for H. pylori eradication therapy. We used the electronic medical claims database from Hokkaido, Japan to evaluate the impact of expansion of national health insurance coverage for H. pylori eradication therapy on deaths from gastric cancer. Data on deaths from gastric cancer were obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Cancer Statistics in Japan (2015). Analysis of electronic claims records was performed using the National Database, mainly focusing on Hokkaido. Prescriptions for H. pylori eradication therapy and the number of patients treated for gastric cancer were also extracted from the Hokkaido database. Approximately 1.5 million prescriptions for H. pylori eradication therapy were written annually. Gastric cancer deaths fell each year: 48 427 in 2013, 47 903 in 2014, 46 659 in 2015, and 45 509 in 2016, showing a significant decrease after expansion of insurance coverage for H. pylori eradication therapy (P<.0001). Prescriptions for H. pylori eradication therapy increased markedly after approval of the gastritis indication by the national health insurance scheme and was associated with a significant decrease in gastric cancer deaths. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Intracellular pH in Gastric and Rectal Tissue Post Cardiac Arrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Elaine M.; Steiner, Richard P.; LaManna, Joseph C.

    We directly measured pHi using the pH sensitive dye, neutral red. We defined pHi for rectal and gastric tissue in whole tissue and by layer under control and arrest conditions. Fifteen minutes of arrest was not sufficient time to alter the pHi at the rectal or gastric site. On initial inspection, the stomach may be more sensitive to ischemic changes than the rectum. Understanding the mechanism by which PCO2 generation is used to track clinical changes is vital to the early detection of tissue dysoxia in order to effectively treat and manage critically ill patients.

  12. The protective activity of Conyza blinii saponin against acute gastric ulcer induced by ethanol.

    PubMed

    Ma, Long; Liu, Jiangguang

    2014-12-02

    Conyza blinii H.Lév., is a type of natural plant. Its dried overground section is used to treat infections and inflammations in traditional Chinese medicine. Triterpenoidal saponins have a wide range of bioactivities, for instance, anti-cancer, anti-virus and anti-anaphylaxis. Conyza blinii saponin (CBS), mainly composed of triterpenoidal saponins, is the total saponin of Conyza blinii H.Lév. It has been reported that CBS also has gastric mucous membrane protection activity. This study aims to test CBS׳s protective activity of gastric׳s mucous membrane against ethanol. This investigation may lead to the development of novel drug from natural products as anti-ulcer agent, or as gastric mucous protective against chemical damage. CBS (Conyza blinii saponin) is the total saponin of Conyza blinii H.Lév., which was obtained as described previously. We tested the protective activity of CBS against ethanol-induced ulcer. Thirty six rats were grouped randomly as 'NORMAL', 'CONTROL', 'MODEL', 'LOW DOSE', 'MEDIUM DOSE' and 'HIGH DOSE'. The 'NORMAL' group were rats with no pathological model established within it. The 'CONTROL' group was administrated with colloidal bismuth subcitrate, while 'MODEL' group was not given any active agents apart from absolute ethanol in order to obtain gastric ulcer model. The three 'DOSE' groups were treated with different concentrations of CBS (5, 10, 20mg/mL) before administration followed by absolute ethanol. All rats were sacrificed after the experiment to acquire the gastric tissue. The ulcer index (UI), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured to monitor the activity of CBS. Besides, the rat gastric tissue was made to paraffin section and stained using the Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) method. The histopathology examination was carried out to examine CBS efficacy in terms of gastric mucous protection. We found that CBS had a profound protection activity against acute gastric ulcer induced by ethanol and this

  13. Does remnant gastric cancer really differ from primary gastric cancer? A systematic review of the literature by the Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Haga, Yoshio; Oba, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Remnant gastric cancer, most frequently defined as cancer detected in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for benign disease and those cases after surgery of gastric cancer at least 5 years after the primary surgery, is often reported as a tumor with poor prognosis. The Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association for Research Promotion evaluated the clinical impact of remnant gastric cancer by systematically reviewing publications focusing on molecular carcinogenesis, lymph node status, patient survival, and surgical complications. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "remnant," "stomach," and "cancer," revealing 1154 relevant reports published up to the end of December 2014. The mean interval between the initial surgery and the diagnosis of remnant gastric cancer ranged from 10 to 30 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases at the splenic hilum for remnant gastric cancer is not significantly higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer. Lymph node involvement in the jejunal mesentery is a phenomenon peculiar to remnant gastric cancer after Billroth II reconstruction. Prognosis and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates seem to be comparable to those for primary proximal gastric cancer. The crude 5-year mortality for remnant gastric cancer was 1.08 times higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, although no prospective cohort study has yet evaluated the clinical significance of remnant gastric cancer, our literature review suggests that remnant gastric cancer does not adversely affect patient prognosis and postoperative course.

  14. Novel strategy of endoscopic submucosal dissection using an insulation-tipped knife for early gastric cancer: near-side approach method

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Genki; Nonaka, Satoru; Oda, Ichiro; Abe, Seiichiro; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Nakajima, Takeshi; Saito, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using insulation-tipped knives (IT knives) to treat gastric lesions located on the greater curvature of the gastric body remains technically challenging because of the associated bleeding, control of which can be difficult and time consuming. To eliminate these difficulties, we developed a novel strategy which we have called the “near-side approach method” and assessed its utility. Patients and methods: We reviewed patients who underwent ESD for solitary early gastric cancer located on the greater curvature of the gastric body from January 2003 to September 2014. The technical results of ESD were compared between the group treated with the novel near-side approach method and the group treated with the conventional method. Results: This study included 238 patients with 238 lesions, 118 of which were removed using the near-side approach method and 120 of which were removed using the conventional method. The median procedure time was 92 minutes for the near-side approach method and 120 minutes for the conventional method. The procedure time was significantly shorter in the near-side approach method arm. Although, the procedure time required by an experienced endoscopist was not significantly different between the two groups (100 vs. 110 minutes), the near-side approach group showed significantly shorter procedure time for a less-experienced endoscopist (90 vs. 120 minutes). Conclusions: The near-side approach method appears to require less time to complete gastric ESD than the conventional method using IT knives for technically challenging lesions located on the greater curvature of the gastric body, especially if the procedure is performed by less-experienced endoscopists. PMID:26528496

  15. Outcomes of pancreatogastrostomy with gastric partition after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy with gastric partition.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Cabús, Santiago; Saavedra, David; Sampson, Jaime; Cubel, Marc; López-Boado, Miguel Ángel; Ferrer, Joana; Fernández-Cruz, Laureano

    2015-10-01

    Pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy with gastric partition (PPPD-GP) seems to be associated to a better postoperative outcome than conventional pancreaticojejunostomy in the setting of a prospective-randomized study. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the surgical outcome in a series of 129 consecutive patients. Between 2007 and June 2013, 129 patients with periampullary tumors surgically treated with PPPD-GP were retrospectively analyzed. Surgical complications (Clavien-Dindo score), as well as pancreatic and non-pancreas related complications were analyzed. Overall postoperative complication rate was 77%, although 50% of complications were graded I-II by the Clavien-Dindo classification. Incidence of clinically relevant pancreatic fistula was 18%: ISGFP type B: 12%, and type C: 6%. Other pancreas specific complications such as delayed gastric emptying and pospancreatectomy haemorrhage were 27 and 15%, respectively, similar to results published in the literature. Overall perioperative mortality rate was 4.6%. PPPD-GP results show that it is a technique with an acceptable morbidity, low mortality and pancreatic fistula rate similar to other techniques currently described of pancreaticoenteric reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Gastric cancer and family history.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-11-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Identifying individuals at high risk is important for surveillance and prevention of gastric cancer. Having first-degree relatives diagnosed with gastric cancer is a strong and consistent risk factor for gastric cancer, but the pathogenic mechanisms behind this familial aggregation are unclear. Against this background, we reviewed the risk factors for gastric cancer in those with a first-degree relative with gastric cancer, and the possible causes for familial clustering of gastric cancer including bacterial factors, inherited genetic susceptibility, environmental factors or a combination thereof. Among individuals with a family history, current or past Helicobacter pylori infection, having two or more first-degree affected relatives or female gender was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. To date, no specific single nucleotide polymorphism has been shown to be associated with familial clustering of gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is the most important strategy for preventing gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients, particularly those in their 20s and 30s. Early H. pylori eradication could prevent the progression to intestinal metaplasia and reduce the synergistic effect on gastric carcinogenesis in individuals with both H. pylori infection and a family history. Endoscopic surveillance is also expected to benefit individuals with a family history. Further large-scale, prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal time point for endoscopy in this population. Moreover, genome-wide association studies that incorporate environmental and dietary factors on a 'big data' basis will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.

  17. Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B.; Andersen, Gøran T.; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A.; Renz, Bernhard W.; Sandvik, Arne K.; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D.; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.; Chen, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptor–mediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

  18. New phytopharmaceutical agent CJ-20001 modulates stress-induced inflammatory infiltration into gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Marie; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Cho, Sung Won; Lee, Song-Jin; Cho, Il-Hwan; Song, Geun-Seog; Moon, Byoung-Seok

    2012-05-01

    CJ-20001 is a phytopharmaceutical agent and currently being investigated in a Phase II trial for the treatment of acute and chronic gastritis patients in Korea. In this study we addressed the protective effects of CJ-20001 against water immersion restraint stress (WIRS)-induced gastric injury in rats and studied the underlying mechanisms. To evaluate the protective effect of CJ-20001 on stress-induced gastric lesions, rats were exposed to water immersion restraint stress. Inflammatory infiltration into gastric mucosa was examined by immunohistochemistry and in vitro invasion assay. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines was detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Pretreatment with CJ-20001 dose-dependently attenuated the WIRS-induced gastric lesions as demonstrated by gross pathology and histology. WIRS increased infiltration of mast cells and macrophages into the gastric mucosa and submucosal layer, whereas the inflammatory infiltration was markedly inhibited by CJ-20001 administration. An in vitro cell invasion assay showed that treatment with CJ-20001 decreased the migration of macrophages. CJ-20001 suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-18, IP-10 and GRO/KC, in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-treated macrophages. These data suggest that novel phytopharmaceutical agent CJ-20001 has the potent anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition of inflammatory infiltration in psycho-physiological stress-induced gastric injury.

  19. A favorable impact of preoperative FPLC chemotherapy on patients with gastric cardia cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, X L; Wu, G X; Zhang, M D; Guo, M; Zhang, H; Sun, X F

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of preoperative chemotherapy with fluorouracili polyphase liposome composita pro orale (FPLC) on the tumour cells and the survival rate of the patients with gastric cardia cancer. Sixty patients with gastric cardia cancer were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty patients were treated with FPLC prior to surgical resection, the other 30, as controls, did not receive the preoperative chemotherapy. Pathological responses of the tumours to the FPLC chemotherapy were determined by gross and microscopic assessments of tumour size, tumour emboli, cell degeneration and necrosis. Expressions of nm23 and CD44 were detected by flow cytometry. All patients were followed up to 5 years. In the FPLC-treated patients, the tumour size (p<0. 01), the number of tumour emboli (p=0.04) and the intensity of CD44 expression (p<0.001), were significantly reduced, while cell degeneration (p<0.001), necrosis (p<0.01) and the expression of nm23 (p<0.001) were increased, when compared with those observations seen in the controls. The postoperative 5-year survival rate was 40% in the FPLC-treated group and 23% in the controls (p=0.17). Preoperative FPLC chemotherapy might improve the survival rate of patients with gastric cardia cancer by inhibiting tumour proliferative, invasive and metastatic activities, and stimulating the patient's immune system.

  20. Proximal and Overall Gastric Emptying of Solids in Patients with Reduced Gastric Volume Accommodation Compared to Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Breen, Mary; Ryks, Michael; Burton, Duane

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions such as gastric surgery and erythromycin result in displacement of solids to the distal stomach and acceleration of overall and proximal gastric emptying. The effect of non-surgical impairment of gastric accommodation on gastric emptying is unclear. Non-surgical impairment of gastric accommodation is associated with accelerated gastric emptying. Aim To compare measurements of proximal and overall gastric emptying in patients with reduced postprandial gastric volume accommodation with the emptying rates in age- and gender-matched controls with normal postprandial gastric volume accommodation. Methods We evaluated overall and proximal gastric emptying in 9 patients with impaired gastric accommodation and age-equivalent and gender-matched controls. Gastric volumes and emptying were measured using validated SPECT and dual gamma camera scintigraphy respectively. We compared group differences in overall and proximal gastric emptying t1/2 by t test. Results Patients with impaired postprandial gastric volume accommodation had greater fasting gastric volume. The proportion of food emptied from the proximal stomach immediately after meal ingestion was lower and t1/2of proximal gastric emptying correspondingly longer in the group with reduced postprandial gastric accommodation. In contrast, differences were not detected in overall gastric emptying in the two groups, and the ratio of overall to proximal gastric emptying t1/2was greater in the group with impaired volume accommodation. Conclusions Proximal stomach emptying is reduced in patients with impaired postprandial volume accommodation; this difference occurs predominantly during the time of meal ingestion. Compensatory mechanisms that result in normal overall gastric emptying require further elucidation. PMID:21327917

  1. Gastric volvulus as a complication in the recipients after adult living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shirouzu, Yasumasa; Sakurai, Koichi; Asonuma, Katsuhiro; Inomata, Yukihiro

    2010-04-01

    We report 4 adult cases of mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). All 4 recipients were female with a median age of 31 years (range, 21-69). All had undergone right lobe LDLT. Gastric volvulus developed on postoperative days (POD) 4-30, and all were successfully treated with an endoscopic correction procedure. Two of 4 needed a repeated correction procedure and 1 needed a surgical revision for the recurrent volvulus. Although this type of the complication is unusual, earlier post-transplant endoscopic intervention is useful to reverse the pyloroantral obstruction. These cases let us recognize that gastric volvulus is one of the complications after right lobe LDLT. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis in Identifying Patients at High Risk for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ban, Hiromitsu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Sahara, Shu; Otsuka, Taketo; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Furuta, Takahisa; Andoh, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer. Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, p<0.001). Kyoto gastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all p<0.001). No significant differences were noted in the rates of gastric fold hypertrophy or diffuse redness between the two groups. In a multivariate analysis, the risks for H. pylori-positive gastric cancer increased with intestinal metaplasia (odds ratio: 4.453, 95% confidence interval: 3.332-5.950, <0.001) and male sex (1.737, 1.102-2.739, p=0.017). Conclusion Making an appropriate diagnosis and detecting patients at high risk is crucial for achieving total eradication of gastric cancer. The scores of intestinal metaplasia and atrophy of the scoring system in the Kyoto gastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients. PMID:28321054

  3. Synchronized gastric electrical stimulation improves vagotomy-induced impairment in gastric accommodation via the nitrergic pathway in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Koothan, Thillai; Chen, Jiande D. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Impaired gastric accommodation and gastric dysrhythmia are common in gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. Recent studies have shown that synchronized gastric electrical stimulation (SGES) accelerates gastric emptying and enhances antral contractions in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of SGES on gastric accommodation and slow waves impaired by vagotomy in dogs. Gastric tone, compliance, and accommodation as well as slow waves with and without SGES were assessed in seven female regular dogs and seven dogs with bilateral truncal vagotomy, chronically implanted with gastric serosal electrodes and a gastric cannula. We found that 1) vagotomy impaired gastric accommodation that was normalized by SGES. The postprandial increase in gastric volume was 283.5 ± 50.6 ml in the controlled dogs, 155.2 ± 49.2 ml in the vagotomized dogs, and 304.0 ± 57.8 ml in the vagotomized dogs with SGES. The ameliorating effect of SGES was no longer observed after application of Nω-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA); 2) vagotomy did not alter gastric compliance whereas SGES improved gastric compliance in the vagotomized dogs, and the improvement was also blocked by l-NNA; and 3) vagotomy impaired antral slow wave rhythmicity in both fasting and fed states. SGES at the proximal stomach enhanced the postprandial rhythmicity and amplitude (dominant power) of the gastric slow waves in the antrum. In conclusion, SGES with appropriate parameters restores gastric accommodation and improves gastric slow waves impaired by vagotomy. The improvement in gastric accommodation with SGES is mediated via the nitrergic pathway. Combined with previously reported findings (enhanced antral contractions and accelerated gastric emptying) and findings in this study (improved gastric accommodation and slow waves), SGES may be a viable therapy for gastroparesis. PMID:19023028

  4. Corticosteroid-impairment of healing and gastric pentadecapeptide BPC-157 creams in burned mice.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Mise, S; Staresinic, M; Bedekovic, V; Zarkovic, N; Borovic, S; Gjurasin, M; Boban-Blagaic, A; Batelja, L; Rucman, R; Anic, T

    2003-06-01

    The amelioration of corticosteroid-impairment of healing by a stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC-157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M(w) 1419, currently in early clinical trials for inflammatory bowel disease) was studied in thermally injured mice. Its effects on corticosteroid impaired healing of deep partial skin thickness burns, and burn-gastric lesions were investigated. Male NMRI-Hannover mice (sacrificed at 1-3,7,14 and 21 days following burning 20% of total burn area at the back (open flame for 7s) received intraperitoneally (per kg bw) 6alpha-methylprednisolone (Depo-medrol, 1.0 or 10.0mg), or an equal volume of saline (5.0 ml), once daily, first application 30 min after injury, last 24h before sacrifice. The injury was subsequently treated by topical application of a thin layer of pentadecapeptide BPC-157 cream at three different levels a neutral cream of no treatment. Pentadecapeptide BPC-157 consistently improved given burn healing (both microscopical and tensionmetry assessment), and counteracted corticosteroid-impairment of burn healing. In burn-gastric lesions investigation of the effects of BPC showed an anti-ulcer effect of its own in burned non-corticosteroid-treated mice and potentiated the anti-ulcer effect observed in 6alpha-methylprednisolone-treated mice. Pentadecapeptide BPC-157 inhibited corticosteroid immunosuppression. In vitro, in spleenic cells assessment, animals (sacrificed at day 21) treated with 6alpha-methylprednisolone 1mg showed decreased reactivity to nitrogen in comparison with control, healthy animals, while the addition of BPC-157 (1 microg/g cream) returned cell reactivity to values noted in control healthy animals.

  5. Adjuvant chemotherapy and whole abdominal irradiation for gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kundel, Yulia; Levitt, Mark L; Oberman, Bernice; Sadezki, Siegal; Tichler, Thomas; Symon, Zvi; Catane, Raphael; Pfeffer, Raphael; Brenner, Baruch

    2008-01-01

    To analyze the efficacy and toxicity of adjuvant chemotherapy followed by whole abdominal irradiation in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer with positive lymph nodes. Between 1996 and 1999, 10 patients with node-positive gastric cancer underwent complete gross resection and were treated by postoperative chemoradiotherapy. The chemotherapy regimen consisted of 5-fluorouracil, 1000 mg/m2/day as a 96-hr continuous infusion on day 1, and cisplatin, 100 mg/m2 on day 2, every 21 days. Six courses were planned. Radiotherapy was administered 3 weeks after completion of the chemotherapy protocol as a single-fraction dose of 600 cGy in a two-field (anterior and posterior) configuration. Treatment was generally well tolerated, with no treatment-related deaths. However, 9 of the 10 patients died of recurrent disease, with a median survival of 20 months (range, 7-84). Adjuvant chemotherapy with whole abdominal irradiation for gastric cancer is safe and tolerable but has no apparent effect on patient outcome. Studies in larger series are needed to evaluate the role of the approach in this disease.

  6. Comparison of Different Muscle-Relaxant Anesthetics on Growth, Migration and Invasion of Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Aihua; Zhao, Huishan; Liu, Xiaofei; Yu, Mingwei; Chen, Jian; Jiang, Wen G

    2017-08-01

    Muscle relaxants, also known as neuromuscular blocking agents, can block nerve impulses to the muscles and are always used in surgery for general anesthesia. However, the effect of muscle-relaxant anesthetics on cell activity in gastric cancer is currently unknown. The present study aimed to examine and compare the role of three different muscle-relaxant anesthetics in gastric cancer cells. Gastric cancer cells (SGC7901 and BGC 823) were treated with a different dose of muscle-relaxant anesthetics, Rocuronium bromide (Rb), Vecuronium bromide (Vb) and Cisatracurium Besilate (CB). Using in vitro models, the effects on gastric cancer cell invasion, growth and migration of various anesthetics were subsequently investigated. We found that Rb increased the growth, invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells SGC7901 and BGC823. However, Vb and CB, as relatively mitigative anesthetics, did not significantly affect gastric cancer cell malignant phenotype at their regular blood concentration. Our results are important in selecting the type and dose of anesthetic used for surgery of gastric cancer patients. An understanding of the effect of muscle-relaxant anesthetics and their impact on tumor metastasis is critical, since it provides insight into the appropriate anesthetic strategy that could improve long-term survival in some patients with gastric cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Catastrophic Bleeding From a Marginal Ulcer After Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Sidani, Shafik; Akkary, Ehab

    2013-01-01

    Marginal ulceration at the gastrojejunal anastomosis is a common complication following Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Hemodynamically significant hemorrhagic marginal ulcers are usually treated either endoscopically or surgically. We describe a unique case of life-threatening hemorrhagic marginal ulcer eroding into the main splenic artery. This condition was initially managed with angiographic embolization, followed by surgical intervention. PMID:23743389

  8. Clinical significance of increased guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav3 expression in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Yuan; Wang, Lu-Hai; Hseu, You-Cheng; Fang, Chia-Lang; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Kumar, K J Senthil; Tai, Chein; Uen, Yih-Huei

    2012-06-01

    Although gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, little is known on the molecular process of its development and progression. This study investigates the involvement of guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav3 in tumor progression and in the prognosis of human gastric cancer. The two patient cohorts in this study consisted of 167 gastric cancer cases from 1997 through 2001, documenting pathologic and clinical factors, as well as the clinical outcomes. Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence were used to examine Vav3 expression in tumor and nontumor pairs of gastric tissues and gastric cell lines. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology was used to study the effects of Vav3 knockdown on the growth and spread of gastric cancer cells. Finally, xenograph proliferation was used to study the tumor growth. Overexpression of Vav3 was associated with the depth of invasion (P = 0.0004), nodal status (P = 0.0260), distant metastasis (P = 0.0003), stage (P = 0.0002), and vascular invasion (P = 0.0286); and correlated with poor disease-free survival (P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis shows that overexpression of Vav3 is an independent prognostic marker for gastric cancer (P = 0.033). Disrupting the expression of Vav3 using shRNA technology inhibited gastric cancer cell growth, spread, and xenograph proliferation. This study suggests that overexpression of Vav3 can be a useful marker for predicting the outcome of patients with gastric cancer and that Vav3 targeting can represent a potential modality for treating gastric cancer. 2012 AACR

  9. [Gastric perforation caused by primary gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Seok; Rou, Woo Sun; Ahn, Byung Moo; Moon, Hee Seok; Kang, Sun Hyung; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Hyun Yong; Song, Kyu-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous gastric perforation is a rare complication of gastric lymphoma that is potentially life threatening since it can progress to sepsis and multi-organ failure. Morbidity also increases due to prolonged hospitalization and delay in initiating chemotherapy. Therefore prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment is critical to improve prognosis. A 64-year-old man presented to the emergency department with severe abdominal pain. Chest X-ray showed free air below the right diaphragm. Abdominal CT scan also demonstrated free air in the peritoneal cavity with large wall defect in the lesser curvature of gastric lower body. Therefore, the patient underwent emergency operation and primary closure was done. Pathologic specimen obtained during surgery was compatible to diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Fifteen days after primary closure, the patient received subtotal gastrectomy and chemotherapy was initiated after recovery. Patient is currently being followed-up at outpatient department without any particular complications. Herein, we report a rare case of gastric lymphoma that initially presented as peritonitis because of spontaneous gastric perforation.

  10. Gastric dilatation volvulus: a retrospective study of 203 dogs with ventral midline gastropexy.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, B; Seehaus, N; Hungerbühler, S; Meyer-Lindenberg, A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the recurrence rate of gastric dilatation volvulus and the incidence of complications in subsequent coeliotomies following ventral midline gastropexy. The medical records of dogs treated for gastric dilatation volvulus by ventral midline gastropexy were retrospectively reviewed. Owners were contacted and invited to complete a questionnaire and to return to the clinic for ultrasonographic and radiographic follow-up. The questionnaire was completed by 203 owners 2 to 123 months postoperatively, 24 of whom attended the follow-up examination. Of the 203 dogs, 13 (6 · 4%) underwent subsequent ventral midline coeliotomy and none developed complications related to the gastropexy site. In 23 of the 24 re-evaluated dogs, the stomach was closely associated with the abdominal on radiography and/or ultrasound. The recurrence rate for clinical signs of gastric dilatation or gastric dilatation volvulus after ventral midline gastropexy was 6 · 4%. This study shows that the recurrence of gastric dilatation volvulus after ventral midline gastropexy is low and adhesion of the stomach to the abdominal wall is persistent in almost all dogs that were re-examined. The gastropexy site did not appear to interfere with subsequent coeliotomy. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  11. Protective effect of Holothurian intestine against indomethacin induced gastric mucosal damage in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Qiao, Xuejing; Zhang, Cuiping; Gao, Hua; Niu, Qinghui; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Zibin

    2017-06-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Holothurian intestines (HI) on NSAIDs-induced gastric mucosal damage and the possible mechanism. At first, 60 male Wistar rats were induced of gastric lesions with indomethacin (IDM, 30 mg kg-1). The rats were pretreated for 15 consecutive days with saline, sucralfate, or HI (0.4 g kg-1d-1, 0.8 g kg-1d-1 and 1.6 g kg-1d-1) prior to IDM treatment, followed by evaluations of macroscopic damage and microscopic features; and investigation of the levels of inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress parameters, gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and total hexosamine in tissues. The expression of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA in the gastric tissue were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Pathological gastric ulcer indexes, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-17, TNF-α) and lipid peroxidation were significantly decreased in HI-treated groups, whereas the levels of protective factors (TGF-β, GSH, SOD activity and PGE2) were significantly elevated especially in the group with HI 1.6 g kg-1d-1 ( P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of COX-2 mRNA decreased significantly in HI groups ( P < 0.05). The study investigates that holothurian intestines may act as a kind of marine medicine which have protective effect on IDM-induced gastric ulcer, which could be a dietary preventive agent for the prevention of gastric damage.

  12. Polysaccharide of Black cumin (Nigella sativa) modulates molecular signaling cascade of gastric ulcer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Manjegowda, Srikanta Belagihalli; Rajagopal, Harsha Mysore; Dharmesh, Shylaja Mallaiah

    2017-08-01

    Gastric ulcer is a multi-step disease and healing requires a complex process including repair and re-architecture of gastric mucosa with the involvement of molecular events. Current study was designed to understand the gastric ulcer healing mechanism of rhamnogalacturonan-I type pectic polysaccharide of black cumin (BCPP) utilizing acetic acid induced gastric ulcers in rats. BCPP fed groups at 200mg/kg b.w. for 10days showed up to 85% healing of gastric ulcers with modulation of key molecular events involved in ulcer healing process such as increase in gastric mucin content, cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). The increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2) indicated that, BCPP could induce PGE-2 synthesis by increasing ERK-2 mediated COX-2 activity. Increase in matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and decrease in MMP-9 levels in BCPP treated groups indicated differential regulation of MMP-2 and 9, an essential event required for gastric mucosal re-modulation. BCPP containing bound phenolics (26mg/g) might have also played a role in increasing speed and quality of ulcer healing by inhibiting H + , K + -ATPase and decreasing free radical mediated oxidation and cellular damages. Overall, studies showed that the polysaccharide can mediate ulcer healing by modulating signaling pathways involved in either ulcer aggravation or healing process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. [Acute gastric volvulus: late complication of Nissen fundoplication. Report of two cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Zamorano, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Gastric volvulus can be classified according to etiology as primary or secondary, according to anatomy as or mesenteroaxial, and according to onset as acute or chronic. Management of secondary gastric volvulus acute should always be surgery and the choice of surgical procedure for treatment is chosen according to etiology. Adherolysis and extraction of foreign bodies (suture, mesh, and gastric band) are important in those cases associated with previous abdominal surgery. Nissen fundoplication is a safe and effective procedure. Severe late complications of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication are extremely rare occurrences. Among the reported complications is gastric volvulus. Presentation of two cases and review of literature. Two cases of acute gastric volvulus secondary to laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication presenting with epigastric pain and nonproductive retching and treated by laparoscopy are described. Symptoms upon presentation, incidence, diagnosis, treatment and predisposing factors to gastric volvulus postfundoplication are discussed. Gastric volvulus rarely occurs as a complication of Nissen fundoplication with an incidence similar to others of late complications. The described mechanisms that originate gastric volvulus postfundoplication are related to adhesions, foreign bodies as suture (polyester), gastrostomy tubes and mesh, gastropexy and internal gastric herniation through a "transfundoplication" window. A high index of suspicion is required in those patients presenting with acute symptoms of gastric obstruction in the first year following laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Laparoscopic approach is safe with or without gastropexy, always correcting the underlying mechanisms that cause gastric volvulus.

  14. Effects of Swertia japonica extract and its main compound swertiamarin on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility in mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho

    2011-09-01

    The Swertia japonica is used clinically as a remedy for gastrointestinal symptoms in Japan. We examined the effects of a S. japonica and swertiamarin on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility in atropine-, dopamine-, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-treated mice. All three preparations inhibited reductions in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility induced by dopamine (1mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection, ip). Neither the powder, swertiamarin, nor itopride had any effect on the reductions in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility caused by 5-HT (4 mg/kg, ip). These findings suggest that the powder and swertiamarin stimulate gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility by inhibiting the dopamine D(2) receptor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of gastric remnant cancer post distal gastrectomy by endoscopic submucosal dissection using an insulation-tipped diathermic knife

    PubMed Central

    Hirasaki, Shoji; Kanzaki, Hiromitsu; Matsubara, Minoru; Fujita, Kohei; Matsumura, Shuji; Suzuki, Seiyuu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic submucosal dissection using an insulation-tipped diathermic knife (IT-ESD) for the treatment of patients with gastric remnant cancer. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach, who underwent distal gastrectomy due to gastric carcinoma, were treated with endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or ESD at Sumitomo Besshi Hospital and Shikoku Cancer Center in the 10-year period from January 1998 to December 2007, including 17 patients treated with IT-ESD. Retrospectively, patient backgrounds, the one-piece resection rate, complete resection (CR) rate, operation time, bleeding rate, and perforation rate were compared between patients treated with conventional EMR and those treated with IT-ESD. RESULTS: The CR rate (40% in the EMR group vs 82% in the IT-ESD group) was significantly higher in the IT-ESD group than in the EMR group; however, the operation time was significantly longer for the IT-ESD group (57.6 ± 31.9 min vs 21.1 ± 12.2 min). No significant differences were found in the rate of underlying cardiopulmonary disease (IT-ESD group, 12% vs EMR group, 13%), one-piece resection rate (100% vs 73%), bleeding rate (18% vs 6.7%), and perforation rate (0% vs 0%) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: IT-ESD appears to be an effective treatment for gastric remnant cancer post distal gastrectomy because of its high CR rate. It is useful for histological confirmation of successful treatment. The long-term outcome needs to be evaluated in the future. PMID:18442204

  16. Gastric cancer perforation: experience from a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Bishnu Prasad; Singh, Yogendra; Singh, Keshav Prasad; Khakurel, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer perforation can occurs in advanced stage of the disease and is often associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Peritonitis due to perforation needs emergency laparotomy and different surgical procedures can be performed for definitive treatment. Surgical procedures largely depend on the stage of the disease and general condition of the patient. This study was carried out to evaluate the outcome and role of different surgical procedures in gastric cancer perforation. Medical record of patients with gastric perforation, who were treated during ten years period, was reviewed retrospectively. Data regarding clinical presentation, surgical procedures, staging and survival of patients were obtained. Features suggestive of diffuse peritonitis were evident in all cases. The majority of the patients underwent emergency surgery except one who died during resuscitation. The majority of patients were in stage III and stage IV. Surgical procedure includes simple closure and omental patch in five patients, simple closure and gastrojejunostomy in nine patients, gastrectomy in six patients and Devine's antral exclusion in one patient. Surgical site infection was the most common (45.5%) postoperative complication. Four patients died within one month of the surgery. Three patients who underwent gastrectomy survived for one year and one patient survived for five years. Although gastric cancer perforation usually occurs in advanced stage of the disease, curative resection should be considered as far as possible.

  17. Gastric ulceration subsequent to partial invagination of the stomach in a dog with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    PubMed

    Parton, Amanda T; Volk, Susan W; Weisse, Chick

    2006-06-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION-An 8-year-old castrated male German Shepherd Dog was evaluated because of abdominal distension, retching, and vomiting. CLINICAL FINDINGS-Gastric dilatation-volvulus was suspected on the basis of the dog's signalment, history, clinical signs, and results of clinicopathologic analyses and abdominal radiography. Celiotomy was performed, and gastric dilatation-volvulus was confirmed along with splenomegaly. Gastric invagination was performed over an area of gastric necrosis. The dog was reevaluated 21 days later after an episode of collapse. Findings of physical examination and clinicopathologic analyses were suggestive of internal hemorrhage. Abdominal ultrasonography and subsequent celiotomy revealed severe gastric ulceration at the gastric invagination site, splenic torsion, and a focal splenic infarct. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME-Splenectomy and gastrectomy of the necrotic tissue were performed. The dog was discharged from the hospital, and the owner was instructed to administer gastroprotectants and feed the dog a bland diet. The dog was reported to be healthy 3.25 years after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Findings suggest that complications associated with the gastric invagination procedure include severe gastric ulceration that may require subsequent surgery. Prolonged treatment with gastroprotectants following gastric invagination surgery may be necessary to avoid gastric ulceration in dogs.

  18. Genomic dysregulation in gastric tumors.

    PubMed

    Janjigian, Yelena Y; Kelsen, David P

    2013-03-01

    Gastric cancer is among the most common human malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The different epidemiologic and histopathology of subtypes of gastric cancer are associated with different genomic patterns. Data suggests that gene expression patterns of proximal, distal gastric cancers-intestinal type, and diffuse/signet cell are well separated. This review summarizes the genetic and epigenetic changes thought to drive gastric cancer and the emerging paradigm of gastric cancer as three unique disease subtypes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Unmet needs and challenges in gastric cancer: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Lordick, Florian; Allum, William; Carneiro, Fátima; Mitry, Emmanuel; Tabernero, Josep; Tan, Patrick; Van Cutsem, Eric; van de Velde, Cornelis; Cervantes, Andrés

    2014-07-01

    Although the incidence of gastric cancer has fallen steadily in developed countries over the past 50 years, outcomes in Western countries remain poor, primarily due to the advanced stage of the disease at presentation. While earlier diagnosis would help to improve outcomes for patients with gastric cancer, better understanding of the biology of the disease is also needed, along with advances in therapy. Indeed, progress in the treatment of gastric cancer has been limited, mainly because of its genetic complexity and heterogeneity. As a result, there is an urgent need to apply precision medicine to the management of the disease in order to ensure that individuals receive the most appropriate treatment. This article suggests a number of strategies that may help to accelerate progress in treating patients with gastric cancer. Incorporation of some of these approaches could help to improve the quality of life and survival for patients diagnosed with the disease. Standardisation of care across Europe through expansion of the European Registration of Cancer Care (EURECCA) registry - a European cancer audit that aims to improve quality and decrease variation in care across the region - may also be expected to lead to improved outcomes for those suffering from this common malignancy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Overexpression of SASH1 Inhibits TGF-β1-Induced EMT in Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zong, Wei; Yu, Chen; Wang, Ping; Dong, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered to be one of the critical steps in gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. SAM- and SH3-domain containing 1 (SASH1), a member of the SLY family of signal adapter proteins, is a candidate for tumor suppression in several cancers. However, the biological role of SASH1 in gastric cancer remains largely unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of SASH1 on the biological behavior of gastric cancer cells treated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. In the current study, we provide evidence that SASH1 was lowly expressed in human gastric cancer cells, and TGF-β1 also inhibited the expression of SASH1 in TSGH cells. We found that SASH1 inhibited TGF-β1-mediated EMT in TSGH cells, as well as cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, SASH1 obviously inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt in TGF-β1-stimulated TSGH cells. In summary, our study is the first to show that overexpression of SASH1 inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT in gastric cancer cells through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These results suggest that SASH1 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  1. Effect of proton pump inhibitors on gastric juice volume, gastric pH and gastric intramucosal pH in critically ill patients : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, Olcay; Memiş, Dilek; Sut, Necdet

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of administration of a single-dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) on gastric intramucosal pH (pHi), gastric juice volume and gastric pH in critically ill patients. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included 75 patients who were divided into five groups that received the following treatment: group C (n = 15), saline 100 mL; group O (n = 15), omeprazole 20 mg; group P (n = 15), pantoprazole 40 mg; group E (n = 15), esomeprazole 20 mg; and group R (n = 15), rabeprazole 20 mg. All treatments were administered nasogastrically in 100 mL of physiological saline. Measurements of gastric pHi, gastric juice volume and gastric pH were obtained immediately before and 2, 4 and 6 hours after administration of treatments. In addition, gastric content was aspirated and its volume was recorded. Initial gastric pHi, gastric juice volume and gastric pH values were not statistically significantly different among the groups (p > 0.05). No statistically significant difference in gastric pHi was seen among the groups before or 2, 4 or 6 hours after saline or PPI administration. At hours 2, 4 and 6, gastric pH in the pantoprazole, esomeprazole and rabeprazole groups increased significantly, whereas gastric juice volume decreased significantly, compared with the omeprazole and placebo groups (p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences were seen between the pantoprazole, esomeprazole and rabeprazole groups. This is the first study to show that single-dose pantoprazole, esomeprazole and rabeprazole are associated with greater gastric pH increase and greater gastric juice volume decrease than omeprazole in critically ill patients. Our study also suggests that PPIs do not affect gastric pHi measurements in critically ill patients and can be administered during pH monitoring.

  2. Effects of omeprazole treatment on nucleoside transporter expression and adenosine uptake in rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Redzic, Zoran B; Hasan, Fuad A; Al-Sarraf, Hameed

    2009-05-01

    Increased adenosine concentration inhibits gastric acid secretion in rat via adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, whereas achlorhydria suppresses A1 and A2A receptor gene expression. This study aimed to examine the effects of omeprazole-induced achlorhydria on the expression and functional activity of nucleoside transporters in rat gastric mucosa. Wistar rats were treated for either 1 or 3 days with 0.4 mmol/kg omeprazole via gavage; controls were treated with vehicle. The expression of nucleoside transporters at the transcript level was explored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays; the functional activity of nucleoside transporters in gastric mucosa was explored by observing [3H]adenosine uptake in vitro. Gastric mucosa expressed rat equilibrative nucleoside transporter (rENT) 1 and 2, and rat concentrative nucleoside transporter (rCNT) 1, 2, and 3 at the transcript level, and the estimated values for the threshold cycles for target amplification (Ct) were 31.5 +/- 2, 28.5 +/- 2.1, 32.9 +/- 2.2, 29.1 +/- 2, and 28.9 +/- 2.5, respectively (n = 3 or 4). The Ct value for rat beta-actin was 21.9 +/- 1.8 (n = 4). In vitro uptake of [3H]adenosine by gastric mucosa samples consisted of Na+-dependent and Na+-independent components. One-day omeprazole treatment caused no change in nucleoside transporter mRNA levels or in [3H]adenosine uptake. Three-day omeprazole treatments, however, led to a 12-fold and 17-fold increase in rENT2 and rCNT1 mRNA levels, respectively. Samples taken after 3 days of treatment also took up significantly more [3H]adenosine than did samples from the corresponding control. In conclusion, the possible modification of nucleoside transport activities by changes in intraluminal acidity may have significance as part of a purinergic regulatory feedback mechanism in the control of gastric acid secretion.

  3. Comparison of the human gastric microbiota in hypochlorhydric states arising as a result of Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis, autoimmune atrophic gastritis and proton pump inhibitor use

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, Richard; Duckworth, Carrie A.; Varro, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Several conditions associated with reduced gastric acid secretion confer an altered risk of developing a gastric malignancy. Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis predisposes to gastric adenocarcinoma, autoimmune atrophic gastritis is a precursor of type I gastric neuroendocrine tumours, whereas proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use does not affect stomach cancer risk. We hypothesised that each of these conditions was associated with specific alterations in the gastric microbiota and that this influenced subsequent tumour risk. 95 patients (in groups representing normal stomach, PPI treated, H. pylori gastritis, H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and autoimmune atrophic gastritis) were selected from a cohort of 1400. RNA extracted from gastric corpus biopsies was analysed using 16S rRNA sequencing (MiSeq). Samples from normal stomachs and patients treated with PPIs demonstrated similarly high microbial diversity. Patients with autoimmune atrophic gastritis also exhibited relatively high microbial diversity, but with samples dominated by Streptococcus. H. pylori colonisation was associated with decreased microbial diversity and reduced complexity of co-occurrence networks. H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis resulted in lower bacterial abundances and diversity, whereas autoimmune atrophic gastritis resulted in greater bacterial abundance and equally high diversity compared to normal stomachs. Pathway analysis suggested that glucose-6-phospahte1-dehydrogenase and D-lactate dehydrogenase were over represented in H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis versus autoimmune atrophic gastritis, and that both these groups showed increases in fumarate reductase. Autoimmune and H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis were associated with different gastric microbial profiles. PPI treated patients showed relatively few alterations in the gastric microbiota compared to healthy subjects. PMID:29095917

  4. TUMOR SUPPRESSER GENE P53 EXPRESSION IN PREMALIGNANT LESIONS AND GASTRIC CARCINOMA - PROGNOSTIC VALUE

    PubMed Central

    Vukobrat-Bijedić, Zora; Radović, Svjetlana; Husić-Selimović, Azra; Gornjaković, Srđan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify the presence of mutated tumor suppresser gene p53 in intestinal mucosa with histologically confirmed premalignant lesions and gastric carcinoma, and assess its prognostic value. The paper presents prospective study that included 50 patients with gastric adeno-carcinoma of intestinal type that were treated at Gastroenterohepa-tology Clinic, and 50 patients with histologically confirmed chronic atrophic H. pylori positive gastritis. In the mucosa biopsy samples, we analyzed presence, frequency and severity of inflammatory-regenerative, metaplastic and dysplastic changes. We typed intestinal metaplasia immunohistochemically and confirmed the presence of p53 onco-protein in antigen positive gastric carcinoma cells, and evaluated its prognostic value. Our results suggest that H. pylori acts as an initiator of inflammatory processes in gastric mucosa, which are followed by emergence of precancerous lesions. p53 is expressed late in carcinogenesis (14%) and as such, may be considered as an indicator of transformation of premalignant into malignant lesion. PMID:17489760

  5. The predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer: A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinzhong

    2015-01-01

    To detect the clinicopathological factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer. We retrospectively evaluated the distribution of metastatic nodes in 198 patients with early gastric cancer treated in our hospital between May 2008 and January 2015, the clinicopathological factors including age, gender, tumor location, tumor size, macroscopic type, depth of invasion, histological type and venous invasion were studied, and the relationship between various parameters and lymph node metastases was analyzed. In this study, one hundred and ninety-eight patients with early gastric cancer were included, and lymph node metastasis was detected in 28 patients. Univariate analysis revealed a close relationship between tumor size, depth of invasion, histological type, venous invasion, local ulceration and lymph node metastases. Multivariate analysis revealed that the five factors were independent risk factors for lymph node metastases. The clinicopathological parameters including tumor size, depth of invasion, local ulceration, histological type and venous invasion are closely correlated with lymph node metastases, should be paid high attention in early gastric cancer patients.

  6. Pneumatosis in canine gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fischetti, Anthony J; Saunders, H Mark; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2004-01-01

    Retrospectively, 243 dogs with radiographic evidence of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) were studied for radiographic signs of pneumatosis (intramural gas), pneumoperitoneum, splenomegaly, and severity of gastric distention. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of these imaging signs as predictors of gastric wall necrosis, as determined by visual inspection at surgery or necropsy, were determined. The sensitivity and specificity of gastric pneumatosis were 14.1% and 92.7%, respectively. The prevalence of gastric wall necrosis was 26.6%. The positive and negative predictive values of gastric pneumatosis for predicting gastric necrosis were 40.9% and 74.9%, respectively. Gastric pneumatosis and pneumoperitoneum were identified together in four dogs. Pneumoperitoneum, either alone or in conjunction with pneumatosis, yielded similar results as a test for gastric necrosis. Splenomegaly and severity of gastric distention were insensitive and nonspecific for gastric wall necrosis. Splenomegaly did not predict the need for splenectomy at surgery. Although pneumatosis and pneumoperitoneum are relatively specific signs of gastric wall necrosis, the utility of these signs as a test for gastric necrosis is limited in clinical practice. The significance of pneumatosis should be taken into consideration with previous treatments for gastric decompression, as percutaneous gastric trocharization or orogastric intubation may increase the number of false-positive results.

  7. Lactobacillus fermentum Suo Attenuates HCl/Ethanol Induced Gastric Injury in Mice through Its Antioxidant Effects

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Huayi; Zhao, Xin; Qian, Yu; Sun, Peng; Zhu, Kai; Li, Jian; Sun, Baozhong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Suo (LF-Suo) on HCl/ethanol induced gastric injury in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research) mice and explain the mechanism of these effects through the molecular biology activities of LF-Suo. The studied mice were divided into four groups: healthy, injured, LF-Suo-L and LF-Suo-H group. After the LF-Suo intragastric administration, the gastric injury area was reduced compared to the injured group. The serum MOT (motilin), SP (substance P), ET (endothelin) levels of LF-Suo treated mice were lower, and SS (somatostatin), VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) levels were higher than the injured group mice. The cytokine IL-6 (interleukin 6), IL-12 (interleukin 12), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and IFN-γ (interferon-γ) serum levels were decreased after the LF-Suo treatment. The gastric tissues SOD (superoxide dismutase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), NO (nitric oxide) and activities of LF-Suo treated mice were increased and MDA (malondialdehyde) activity was decreased compared to the injured group mice. By the RT-PCR assay, LF-Suo raised the occludin, EGF (epidermal growth factor), EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), Fit-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase-1), IκB-α (inhibitor kappaB-α), nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase), eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase), Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT (catalase) mRNA or protein expressions and reduced the COX-2, NF-κB (nuclear factor kappaB), and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) expressions in gastric tissues compared to the gastric injured group mice. A high concentration (1.0 × 109 CFU/kg b.w.) of LF-Suo treatment showed stronger anti-gastric injury effects compared to a low concentration of (0.5 × 109 CFU/kg b.w.) of LF-Suo treatment. LF-Suo also showed strong survival in pH 3.0 man-made gastric juice and hydrophobic properties. These results indicate that LF-Suo has potential use

  8. The gastroprotective effect of pogostone from Pogostemonis Herba against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Hai-Ming; Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Zheng, Yi-Feng; Su, Zu-Qing; Zhang, Xie; Xie, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yong-Zhuo; Fu, Lu-Di; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Su, Zi-Ren; Huang, Xiao-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pogostemonis Herba, known as "Guang-Huo-Xiang" in Chinese, has been widely used in the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Pogostone is one of the major constituents of Pogostemonis Herba. The aim was to scientifically evaluate the possible gastroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of pogostone against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were orally treated with vehicle, lansoprazole (30 mg/kg) or pogostone (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by indomethacin. Gross evaluation, histological observation, gastric mucosal superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione content, catalase activity, malonaldehyde level and prostaglandin E2 production were performed. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, as well as terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for heat-shock protein 70, B-cell lymphoma-2 and Bax were conducted. Results indicated that rats pretreated with pogostone showed remarkable protection from the gastric mucosa damage compared to vehicle-treated rats based on the ulcer index and inhibition percentage. Histologically, oral administration of pogostone resulted in observable improvement of gastric injury, characterized by reduction of necrotic lesion, flattening of gastric mucosa and alleviation of submucosal edema with hemorrhage. Pogostone pretreatment significantly raised the depressed activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase, while reduced the elevated malonaldehyde level compared with indomethacin-induced group. Pogostone-pretreated group induced a significant increase in gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 level and obvious up-regulation of protein levels and mRNA expressions of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. Furthermore, antiapoptotic effect of pogostone was verified by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated d

  9. Splenic infarction - A rare cause of acute abdominal pain following gastric surgery: A case series.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Pinar; Kaya, Cemal; Isil, Gurhan; Bozkurt, Emre; Mihmanli, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The dissection of splenic hilar lymph nodes in gastric cancer surgery is indispensable for treating gastric cancers located in the proximal third of the stomach. Splenic vascular injury is a matter of debate resulting on time or delayed splenectomy. We aimed to share our experience and plausible mechanisms causing this complication in two case reports. Two male patients with gastric cancer were diagnosed with acute splenic infarction following gastric surgery in the early postoperative period. Both underwent emergent exploratory laparotomy. Splenectomy was performed due to splenic infarction. Because we observed this rare complication in recent patients whose surgery was performed using vessel-sealing device for splenic hilar dissection, we suggested that extensive mobilization of the surrounding tissues of splenic vascular structures hilum using the vessel sealer could be the reason. In case of acute abdominal pain radiating to left shoulder, splenic complications should be taken into consideration in gastric cancer patients performed radical gastrectomy. Meticulous dissection of splenic hilar lymph nodes should be carried out to avoid any splenic vascular injury. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-02-09

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment.

  11. MLN0264 in Previously Treated Asian Participants With Advanced Gastrointestinal Carcinoma or Metastatic or Recurrent Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma Expressing Guanylyl Cyclase C

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-08

    Advanced Gastrointestinal Carcinoma; Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Metastatic Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoma

  12. Gastric residual volume (GRV) and gastric contents measurement by refractometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; McClave, Stephen A; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Chao, You-Chen

    2007-01-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs), obtained by aspiration from a nasogastric tube, is inaccurate and cannot differentiate components of the gastric contents (gastric secretion vs delivered formula). The use of refractometry and 3 mathematical equations has been proposed as a method to calculate the formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume. In this paper, we have validated these mathematical equations so that they can be implemented in clinical practice. Each of 16 patients receiving a nasogastric tube had 50 mL of water followed by 100 mL of dietary formula (Osmolite HN, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) infused into the stomach. After mixing, gastric content was aspirated for the first Brix value (BV) measurement by refractometry. Then, 50 mL of water was infused into the stomach and a second BV was measured. The procedure of infusion of dietary formula (100 mL) and then water (50 mL) was repeated and followed by subsequent BV measurement. The same procedure was performed in an in vitro experiment. Formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume were calculated from the derived mathematical equations. The formula concentrations, GRVs, and formula volumes calculated by using refractometry and the mathematical equations were close to the true values obtained from both in vivo and in vitro validation experiments. Using this method, measurement of the BV of gastric contents is simple, reproducible, and inexpensive. Refractometry and the derived mathematical equations may be used to measure formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume, and also to serve as a tool for monitoring the gastric contents of patients receiving nasogastric feeding.

  13. Serum and gastric fluid levels of cytokines and nitrates in gastric diseases infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Mehmet, N; Refik, M; Harputluoglu, M; Ersoy, Y; Aydin, N Engin; Yildirim, B

    2004-04-01

    This case control study presents data on the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate and a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-2R (IL-2R), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor TNF-alpha in gastric fluid and serum. Patients with gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer are studied and grouped according to infection by Helicobacter pylori. The 208 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination were classified as follows; H. pylori-positive gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-negative gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-positive ulcers (n = 34), H. pylori-negative ulcers (n = 34), 43 patients with H. pylori-positive gastric cancer in addition to 33 H. pylori-negative healthy control individuals. Gastric fluids and blood samples were taken concomitantly. Cytokines and nitrite and nitrate determinations were attempted as soon as possible after collection of the samples. Nitrite and nitrate levels of serum and gastric fluids of H. pylori-positive gastritis and ulcers were higher than H. pylori-negative gastritis and ulcers. The concentrations of total nitrite and nitrate and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8) in gastric fluids and sera of H. pylori-positive gastric cancer patients were higher than H. pylori-negative control groups. IL-1 beta level was significantly elevated in gastric fluid of infected cancer patients but not in serum. Taken together, the results suggest that an increase in cytokine-NO combination in gastric mucosa previously reported by many studies is not restricted to local infected gastric tissue but also detected in gastric fluid and sera of H. pylori-positive subjects and may have an important role in the pathogenesis and development of common gastric diseases.

  14. Case of a tumor comprising gastric cancer and duodenal neuroendocrine tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Hiroaki; Miyake, Akio; Ishii, Yasuaki; Sue, Soichiro; Miwa, Haruo; Sasaki, Tomohiko; Tamura, Toshihide; Kondo, Masaaki; Maeda, Shin

    2016-01-01

    The present report describes a rare case of a tumor composed of early gastric cancer and a duodenal neuroendocrine tumor (NET). A 78-year-old woman underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a local institution for screening of the upper gastrointestinal tract which revealed a protruded tumor through the pyloric ring from the pyloric antrum. The tumor was too large to treat at the facility; consequently, she was referred to our hospital for further management. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy with tumor biopsy of the lesion revealed the diagnosis of early gastric cancer. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed with sufficient free margins in both vertical and horizontal directions. Histopathological findings showed NET confined to the submucosal layer and covered by well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical stainings showed that the two lesions existed continuously. While the possibility of a collision cancer was considered, it was suggested that the two lesions existed continuously. Finally, the tumor was diagnosed as gastric cancer composed of duodenal NET G1, with a lymphatic invasion of NET component. PMID:27688667

  15. Personalizing therapies for gastric cancer: Molecular mechanisms and novel targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Luis, Michael; Tavares, Ana; Carvalho, Liliana S; Lara-Santos, Lúcio; Araújo, António; de Mello, Ramon Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Globally, gastric cancer is the 4th most frequently diagnosed cancer and the 2nd leading cause of death from cancer, with an estimated 990000 new cases and 738000 deaths registered in 2008. In the advanced setting, standard chemotherapies protocols acquired an important role since last decades in prolong survival. Moreover, recent advances in molecular therapies provided a new interesting weapon to treat advanced gastric cancer through anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) therapies. Trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, was the first target drug in the metastatic setting that showed benefit in overall survival when in association with platinum-5-fluorouracil based chemotherapy. Further, HER2 overexpression analysis acquired a main role in predict response for trastuzumab in this field. Thus, we conducted a review that will discuss the main points concerning trastuzumab and HER2 in gastric cancer, providing a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms and novel trials involved. PMID:24151357

  16. Current molecular markers for gastric progenitor cells and gastric cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiaotan T; Gumucio, Deborah L

    2011-07-01

    Gastric stem and progenitor cells (GPC) play key roles in the homeostatic renewal of gastric glands and are instrumental in epithelial repair after injury. Until very recently, the existence of GPC could only be inferred by indirect labeling strategies. The last few years have seen significant progress in the identification of biomarkers that allow prospective identification of GPC. The analysis of these unique cell populations is providing new insights into the molecular underpinnings of gastric epithelial homeostasis and repair. Of closely related interest is the potential to identify so-called cancer stem cells, a rare subpopulation of tumor-initiating cells. Here, we review the current useful biomarkers for GPC, including: (a) those that have been demonstrated by lineage tracing to give rise to all gastric cell lineages (e.g., the villin-transgene marker as well as Lgr5); (b) those that give rise to a subset of gastric lineages (e.g., TFF2); (c) markers that recognize cryptic progenitors for metaplasia (e.g., MIST1), and (d) markers that have not yet been analyzed by lineage tracing (e.g., DCKL1/DCAMKL1, CD133/PROM1, and CD44). The study of these markers has been mostly limited to the mouse model, but the hope is that the rapid pace of recent breakthroughs in this animal model will soon lead to a greater understanding of human gastric stem cell biology and to new insights into gastric cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide.

  17. Pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastric damage: Importance of cyclooxygenase inhibition and gastric hypermotility

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the pathogenic mechanism of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric damage, focusing on the relation between cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition and various functional events. NSAIDs, such as indomethacin, at a dose that inhibits prostaglandin (PG) production, enhance gastric motility, resulting in an increase in mucosal permeability, neutrophil infiltration and oxyradical production, and eventually producing gastric lesions. These lesions are prevented by pretreatment with PGE2 and antisecretory drugs, and also via an atropine-sensitive mechanism, not related to antisecretory action. Although neither rofecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) nor SC-560 (a selective COX-1 inhibitor) alone damages the stomach, the combined administration of these drugs provokes gastric lesions. SC-560, but not rofecoxib, decreases prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and causes gastric hypermotility and an increase in mucosal permeability. COX-2 mRNA is expressed in the stomach after administration of indomethacin and SC-560 but not rofecoxib. The up-regulation of indomethacin-induced COX-2 expression is prevented by atropine at a dose that inhibits gastric hypermotility. In addition, selective COX-2 inhibitors have deleterious influences on the stomach when COX-2 is overexpressed under various conditions, including adrenalectomy, arthritis, and Helicobacter pylori-infection. In summary, gastric hypermotility plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastric damage, and the response, causally related with PG deficiency due to COX-1 inhibition, occurs prior to other pathogenic events such as increased mucosal permeability; and the ulcerogenic properties of NSAIDs require the inhibition of both COX-1 and COX-2, the inhibition of COX-1 upregulates COX-2 expression in association with gastric hypermotility, and PGs produced by COX-2 counteract the deleterious effect of COX-1 inhibition. PMID:22611307

  18. Gastric foreign body as a risk factor for gastric dilatation and volvulus in dogs.

    PubMed

    de Battisti, Anna; Toscano, Michael J; Formaggini, Luca

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate whether the presence of a gastric foreign body (gFB) is a significant risk factor for gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in dogs and to quantify the change in likelihood of developing GDV associated with the presence of a gFB. Retrospective case-control study. 118 large- or giant-breed dogs treated surgically for an episode of GDV and 342 large- or giant-breed dogs (> 12 months old) that underwent abdominal surgery for reasons other than GDV. During exploratory celiotomy, all dogs underwent palpation and visual examination of the entire gastrointestinal tract. A foreign body was defined as nondigestible or slowly digestible material palpated during gastrointestinal tract examination that was causing clinical signs or was > 10 cm in length or > 2 cm in width. The incidence of gFBs was significantly higher in the group of dogs with GDV. The presence of a gFB, age, weight, and purebred status were significant risk factors for GDV. Odds ratios were calculated for gFB (OR, 4.920), age (OR, 1.157), weight (OR, 0.958) and purebred status (OR, 4.836). Gastric foreign body was found to be a significant risk factor for GDV in dogs. The study findings suggested that a large- or giant-breed dog with a gFB was approximately 5 times as likely to develop GDV as a similar dog with no gFB. Results indicated that there was a strong correlation between gFB and GDV in dogs. However, further cohort studies are needed to determine whether there is a causal relationship between the presence of a gFB and the development of GDV in dogs.

  19. Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne: a Brazilian medicinal plant with gastric and duodenal anti-ulcer and antidiarrheal effects in experimental rodent models.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Orsi, Patricia; Bonamin, Flávia; Aparecida Severi, Juliana; Cássia Santos, Raquel; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Stasi, Luiz Claudio Di

    2012-08-30

    Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae) is a medicinal species commonly found in the Brazilian savannah. The stem bark of this medicinal plant, popularly known as "jatobá-do-cerrado", is widely used in tea form to treat gastric pain, ulcers, diarrhoea and inflammation, whereas its fruits pulp is edible. The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiarrheal and anti-ulcer effects of a methanolic extract derived from the stem bark (MHs) and diet with fruit pulp of H. stigonocarpa. The antidiarrheal action of MHs was measured against the intestinal motility and diarrhoea induced by castor oil in mice. The preventive action of MHs (50, 100, 150 and 200mg/Kg, by oral route (p.o.)) against peptic ulcers was evaluated in experimental rodent models challenged with absolute ethanol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) (200mg/Kg, p.o.) and cysteamine (200mg/Kg, p.o.). The main anti-ulcer mechanisms of action of MHs were analysed as follows: evaluation of the gastric juice parameters, assessment of mucus adherence to the gastric wall, determination of the role of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl compounds (SH), glutathione (GSH) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The healing effects from MHs (200mg/Kg) and diet with fruit pulp (10%) against gastric and duodenal ulcers induced by acetic acid were also evaluated by treating rats over 7 or 14 consecutive days of treatment. The phytochemical profile of MHs and fruit pulp indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids and condensed tannins). MHs (200mg/Kg, p.o.) displayed an antidiarrheal effect and were able to protect gastric mucosa against absolute ethanol (68% protection) and also against the injurious effect of NSAIDs (86% protection) when compared to the group treated with vehicle. These results were accompanied by the prevention of GSH depletion and an inhibition of MPO activity when compared to animals treated with vehicle (P<0.05). MHs markedly

  20. Extracellular acidosis selectively inhibits pharmacomechanical coupling induced by carbachol in strips of rat gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Daniel Maia Nogueira; Batista-Lima, Francisco José; de Carvalho, Emanuella Feitosa; Havt, Alexandre; da Silva, Moisés Tolentino Bento; Dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas

    2017-12-01

    What is the central question of this study? Acute acidosis that results from short-term exercise is involved in delayed gastric emptying in rats and the lower responsiveness of gastric fundus strips to carbachol. Does extracellular acidosis decrease responsiveness to carbachol in tissues of sedentary rats? How? What is the main finding and its importance? Extracellular acidosis inhibits cholinergic signalling in the rat gastric fundus by selectively influencing the G q/11 protein signalling pathway. Acute acidosis that results from short-term exercise delays gastric emptying in rats and decreases the responsiveness to carbachol in gastric fundus strips. The regulation of cytosolic Ca 2+ concentrations appears to be a mechanism of action of acidosis. The present study investigated the way in which acidosis interferes with gastric smooth muscle contractions. Rat gastric fundus isolated strips at pH 6.0 presented a lower magnitude of carbachol-induced contractions compared with preparations at pH 7.4. This lower magnitude was absent in carbachol-stimulated duodenum and KCl-stimulated gastric fundus strips. In Ca 2+ -free conditions, repeated contractions that were induced by carbachol progressively decreased, with no influence of extracellular pH. In fundus strips, CaCl 2 -induced contractions were lower at pH 6.0 than at pH 7.4 but only when stimulated in the combined presence of carbachol and verapamil. In contrast, verapamil-sensitive contractions that were induced by CaCl 2 in the presence of KCl did not change with pH acidification. In Ca 2+ store-depleted preparations that were treated with thapsigargin, the contractions that were induced by extracellular Ca 2+ restoration were smaller at pH 6.0 than at pH 7.4, but relaxation that was induced by SKF-96365 (an inhibitor of store-operated Ca 2+ entry) was unaltered by extracellular acidification. At pH 6.0, the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 relaxed carbachol-induced contractions less than at pH 7

  1. Increased expression of argininosuccinate synthetase protein predicts poor prognosis in human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    SHAN, YAN-SHEN; HSU, HUI-PING; LAI, MING-DERG; YEN, MENG-CHI; LUO, YI-PEY; CHEN, YI-LING

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1, also known as ASS) has been found in cancer cells and is involved in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of ASS expression in human gastric cancer and to determine the possible correlations between ASS expression and clinicopathological findings. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tissues to determine whether ASS was expressed in 11 of 11 specimens from patients with gastric cancer. The protein was localized primarily to the cytoplasm of cancer cells and normal epithelium. In the Oncomine cancer microarray database, expression of the ASS gene was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues. To investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic roles of ASS expression, we performed western blot analysis of 35 matched specimens of gastric adenocarcinomas and normal tissue obtained from patients treated at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. The ratio of relative ASS expression (expressed as the ASS/β-actin ratio) in tumor tissues to that in normal tissues was correlated with large tumor size (P=0.007) and with the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stage of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system (P=0.031). Patients whose cancer had increased the relative expression of ASS were positive for perineural invasion and had poor recurrence-free survival. In summary, ASS expression in gastric cancer was associated with a poor prognosis. Further study of mechanisms to silence the ASS gene or decrease the enzymatic activity of ASS protein has the potential to provide new treatments for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:25333458

  2. In vitro effect of carprofen and meloxicam on the conductance and permeability to mannitol and the histologic appearance of the gastric mucosa of dogs.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Merrin A; Hosgood, Giselle L; Morgan, Timothy W; Briere, Catherine A; McConnico, Rebecca S

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of carprofen and meloxicam on conductance and permeability to mannitol and on the histologic appearance of sections of canine gastric mucosa. Gastric mucosa from 6 mature mixed-breed dogs. Sections of gastric mucosa were mounted in Ussing chambers, and carprofen (40 or 400μg/mL [CAR40 and CAR400, respectively]), meloxicam (8 or 80μg/mL [MEL8 and MEL80, respectively]), or no drug (controls) was added to the bathing solution. For all sections, conductance was calculated every 15 minutes for 240 minutes and flux of mannitol was calculated for 3 consecutive 1-hour periods; histologic examination was performed after the experiment. The area under the conductance-time curve for each chamber was calculated. Values of conductance × time, flux of mannitol, and the frequency distribution of histologic findings were analyzed for treatment effects. For CAR400- and MEL80-treated sections, conductance X time was significantly higher than that for control and MEL8-treated sections. The effect of CAR40 treatment was not different from that of any other treatment. Over the three 1-hour periods, mannitol flux increased significantly in MEL80-, CAR40-, and CAR400-treated sections but not in MEL8- treated or control sections. Major histologic changes including epithelial cell sloughing were limited to the CAR400-treated sections. In the gastric mucosa of dogs, carprofen and meloxicam increased in vitro conductance and permeability to mannitol. At a concentration of 400 μg/mL, carprofen caused sloughing of epithelial cells. Carprofen and meloxicam appear to compromise gastric mucosal integrity and barrier function in dogs.

  3. Endoscopic stenting versus operative gastrojejunostomy for malignant gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Chandrasegaram, Manju D; Eslick, Guy D; Mansfield, Clare O; Liem, Han; Richardson, Mark; Ahmed, Sulman; Cox, Michael R

    2012-02-01

    Malignant gastric outlet obstruction represents a terminal stage in pancreatic cancer. Between 5% and 25% of patients with pancreatic cancer ultimately experience malignant gastric outlet obstruction. The aim in palliating patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction is to reestablish an oral intake by restoring gastrointestinal continuity. This ultimately improves their quality of life in the advanced stages of cancer. The main drawback to operative bypass is the high incidence of delayed gastric emptying, particularly in this group of patients with symptomatic obstruction. This study aimed to compare surgical gastrojejunostomy and endoscopic stenting in palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction, acknowledging the diversity and heterogeneity of patients with this presentation. This retrospective study investigated patients treated for malignant gastric outlet obstruction from December 1998 to November 2008 at Nepean Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Endoscopic duodenal stenting was performed under fluoroscopic guidance for placement of the stent. The operative patients underwent open surgical gastrojejunostomy. The outcomes assessed included time to diet, hospital length of stay (LOS), biliary drainage procedures, morbidity, and mortality. Of the 45 participants in this study, 26 underwent duodenal stenting and 19 had operative bypass. Comparing the stenting and operative patients, the median time to fluid intake was respectively 0 vs. 7 days (P < 0.001), and the time to intake of solids was 2 vs. 9 days (P = 0.004). The median total LOS was shorter in the stenting group (11 vs. 25 days; P < 0.001), as was the median postprocedure LOS (5 vs. 10 days; P = 0.07). Endoscopic stenting is preferable to operative gastrojejunostomy in terms of shorter LOS, faster return to fluids and solids, and reduced morbidity and in-hospital mortality for patients with a limited life span.

  4. Gastroprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus infusion on acute ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Sagradas, Joana; Costa, Gustavo; Figueirinha, Artur; Castel-Branco, Maria Margarida; Silvério Cabrita, António Manuel; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-09-15

    Treatment of gastric ulcers with medicinal plants is quite common in traditional medicine worldwide. Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. leaves infusion has been used in folk medicine of many tropical and subtropical regions to treat gastric disturbances. The aim of this study was to assess the potential gastroprotective activity of an essential oil-free infusion from C. citratus leaves in acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rat. The study was performed on adult male Wistar rats (234.0±22.7g) fasted for 24h but with free access to water. The extract was given orally before (prevention) or after (treatment) intragastric administration of absolute ethanol. Effects of dose (28 or 56mg/kg of body weight) and time of contact of the extract with gastric mucosa (1 or 2h) were also assessed. Animals were sacrificed, being the stomachs removed and the lesions were assessed by macroscopic observation and histopathology. C. citratus extract, given orally before or after ethanol, significantly (P<0.01) reduced gastric mucosal injury compared with control group (vehicle+ethanol). The effect does not appear to be dose-dependent. Results also suggested that the extract is more effective when the time of contact with gastric mucosa increases. The results of this assay confirm the gastroprotective activity of C. citratus extract on experimental gastric lesions induced by ethanol, contributing for the pharmacological validation of its traditional use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Linitis plastica of the bypassed stomach 7 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a case report.

    PubMed

    Haenen, Filip Wn; Gys, Ben; Moreels, Tom; Michielsen, Maartje; Gys, Tobie; Lafullarde, Thierry

    2017-12-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is currently the preferred surgical procedure to treat morbid obesity. It has proven its effects on excess weight loss and its positive effect on comorbidities. One of the main issues, however, is the post-operative evaluation of the bypassed gastric remnant. In literature, cancer of the excluded stomach after RYGB is rare. We describe the case of a 52-year-old woman with gastric linitis plastica in the bypassed stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, diagnosed by means of laparoscopy and Single-Balloon enteroscopy, and it is clinical importance. Linitis plastica of the excluded stomach after RYGB is a very rare entity. This case report shows the importance of long-term post-operative follow-up, and the importance of single-balloon enteroscopy for visualization of the bypassed stomach remnant, when other investigations remain without results. This case report is only the second report of a linitis plastica in the bypassed stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  6. Endoscopic mucosal resection for early gastric cancer. A case report.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Sporea, Ioan; Becheanu, Gabriel; Gheorghe, Liana

    2002-03-01

    European experience in endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for early gastric cancer is still relatively low, since early stomach cancer is diagnosed at a much lower rate in Europe than in Japan and generally operable patients are referred to surgery for radical resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection or mucosectomy was developed as a promising technology to diagnose and treat mucosal lesions in the esophagus, stomach and colon. In contrast to surgical resection, EMR allows "early cancers" to be removed with a minimal cost, morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a patient with hepatic cirrhosis incidentally diagnosed with an elevated-type IIa early gastric cancer. Echoendoscopy was performed in order to assess the depth of invasion into the gastric wall confirming the only mucosal involvement. We performed an EMR using "cup and suction" method. After the procedure, the patient experienced an acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding from the ulcer bed requiring argon plasma coagulation. The histopathological examination confirmed an early cancer, without involvement of muscularis mucosae. The patient has had an uneventful evolution being well at six months after the procedure

  7. Structure Features and Anti-Gastric Ulcer Effects of Inulin-Type Fructan CP-A from the Roots of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiankuan; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Zhichuan; Yang, Fengrong; Cao, Lingya; Gao, Jianping

    2017-12-18

    Radix Codonopsis has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for strengthening the immune system, improving poor gastrointestinal function, treating gastric ulcers and chronic gastritis and so on. In the present study, an inulin-type fructan CP-A was obtained from the roots of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. and its structure was confirmed by MS and NMR as (2 → 1) linked-β-d-fructofuranose. The protective effects of CP-A against ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer in rats were intensively investigated. A Lacy assay demonstrated that CP-A-treated group (50 mg/kg) showed the gastric damage level 1, which was similar to the positive control group, while the model group exhibited the gastric damage level 3. The Guth assay demonstrated that the mucosa ulcer index for CP-A groups at the doses of 50 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg significantly decreased compared with that in the model group ( p < 0.05). Meanwhile, CP-A significantly increased the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, and decreased the contents of MDA and NO, and the activity of MPO in gastric tissue in a dose-dependent manner ( p < 0.05). The present research reported for the first time that inulin-type fructan CP-A were likely the potential component in Radix Codonopsis for treatment of acute gastric ulcers.

  8. Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Persian Oak (Quercus brantii) in Experimentally Gastric Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Shahrzad; Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Amirmohammadi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) belongs the family Fagaceae, is a medicinal plant which seed flour is used to treat inflammatory and gastric ulcers by the tribes in south western Iran. The current study was done to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii seed flour for treatment of gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in Wistar rats. The hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii was tested orally at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/Kg, control group and standard drug (omperazole) on experimentally gastric ulceration. At the 3, 6, 9, and 14th days, ulcer index in mm2 and histopathological findings were evaluated. Results indicated the size of ulcers significantly reduced at 9, and 14 days after of Q. brantii extract treatment. Curative effect in the hydro-alcoholic induced gastric damage was 100% at 1000 mg/Kg and omeprazole, 99.8 % at 500 mg/Kg, and 95.4% at 250 mg/Kg after 14 days. Results of histopathological investigation showed the thickness of ulcerated mucosa was similar to the normal mucosa with 1000 mg/Kg of Q. brantii hydro-alcoholic extract after 14 days but in the groups treated by 250, and 500 mg/Kg, superficial erosions were visible in the central portion of the healed ulcers. In conclusion, the hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii had active components (tannin = 8.2%) that accelerates ulcer healing and thus supported its traditional use. PMID:25276198

  9. Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Persian Oak (Quercus brantii) in Experimentally Gastric Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Shahrzad; Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Amirmohammadi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) belongs the family Fagaceae, is a medicinal plant which seed flour is used to treat inflammatory and gastric ulcers by the tribes in south western Iran. The current study was done to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii seed flour for treatment of gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in Wistar rats. The hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii was tested orally at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/Kg, control group and standard drug (omperazole) on experimentally gastric ulceration. At the 3, 6, 9, and 14(th) days, ulcer index in mm(2) and histopathological findings were evaluated. Results indicated the size of ulcers significantly reduced at 9, and 14 days after of Q. brantii extract treatment. Curative effect in the hydro-alcoholic induced gastric damage was 100% at 1000 mg/Kg and omeprazole, 99.8 % at 500 mg/Kg, and 95.4% at 250 mg/Kg after 14 days. Results of histopathological investigation showed the thickness of ulcerated mucosa was similar to the normal mucosa with 1000 mg/Kg of Q. brantii hydro-alcoholic extract after 14 days but in the groups treated by 250, and 500 mg/Kg, superficial erosions were visible in the central portion of the healed ulcers. In conclusion, the hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii had active components (tannin = 8.2%) that accelerates ulcer healing and thus supported its traditional use.

  10. Recurrent gastric perforation as a late complication of radiotherapy for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Taiga; Noda, Takahiro; Yokoo, Masako; Ibaraki, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Radiation therapy can be used to treat Helicobacter pylori-negative or eradication-refractory extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the stomach. We report a case of gastric perforation which occurred more than 1 year after the completion of radiotherapy for H. pylori eradication-refractory gastric MALT lymphoma, and then recurred shortly afterwards. This was considered to be a late complication of radiation toxicity. Although gastric perforation due to radiotherapy has been reported very rarely in the past, even in advanced disease, this case shows that perforation can develop in patients with superficial disease and can relapse.

  11. A gastric acid secretion model.

    PubMed Central

    de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

    1993-01-01

    A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8396457

  12. Protective effects of hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Etani, Reo; Kataoka, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2017-09-01

    Radon therapy using radon (222Rn) gas is classified into two types of treatment: inhalation of radon gas and drinking water containing radon. Although short- or long-term intake of spa water is effective in increasing gastric mucosal blood flow, and spa water therapy is useful for treating chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer, the underlying mechanisms for and precise effects of radon protection against mucosal injury are unclear. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m3 for 24 h or were provided with hot spring water for 2 weeks. The activity density of 222Rn ranged from 663 Bq/l (start point of supplying) to 100 Bq/l (end point of supplying). Mice were then orally administered ethanol at three concentrations. The ulcer index (UI), an indicator of mucosal injury, increased in response to the administration of ethanol; however, treatment with either radon inhalation or hot spring water inhibited the elevation in the UI due to ethanol. Although no significant differences in antioxidative enzymes were observed between the radon-treated groups and the non-treated control groups, lipid peroxide levels were significantly lower in the stomachs of mice pre-treated with radon or hot spring water. These results suggest that hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation inhibit ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  13. Ghrelin Suppression and Fat Loss after Left Gastric Artery Embolization in Canine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bawudun, Dilmurat; Xing Yan; Liu Wenya, E-mail: wenyaliu2002@hotmail.com

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of left gastric artery embolization (LGAE) on plasma ghrelin levels, abdominal fat, and body weight in beagles. Methods: The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. Fifteen healthy adult beagles (12 male and three female animals) were randomly divided into three experimental groups: LGAE was proceeded with mixed emulsion of bleomycin A{sub 5} hydrochloride and lipiodol (group A), and polyvinyl alcohol particles (group B). Transcatheter saline injections in the left gastric artery were performed as a control. Weight and fasting plasma ghrelin levels were obtained at baseline and at weekly intervals for 8more » weeks after the procedure in all animals. All animals were scanned and measured by multidetector computed tomography at baseline and at week 8 for evaluation of abdominal fat. Results: In LGAE-treated animals, plasma ghrelin and body weight significantly decreased compared to control animals (group A: P = 0.007 and P = 0.000; group B: P = 0.004 and P = 0.000, respectively). Subcutaneous fat size was also significantly reduced (P = 0.011 and P = 0.027 for groups A and B, respectively). The decreasing percentage in ghrelin levels at week 6 (peak of recovery) of LGAE-treated animals were negatively correlated with the size of area supplied by left gastric artery (r = -0.693, P = 0.026). Conclusion: LGAE could suppress the plasma concentration of ghrelin, which results in subcutaneous fat size reduction and weight loss. Compensatory ghrelin production might occur in the remnant gastric fundus after LGAE.« less

  14. Ghrelin suppression and fat loss after left gastric artery embolization in canine model.

    PubMed

    Bawudun, Dilmurat; Xing, Yan; Liu, Wen-Ya; Huang, Yu-Jie; Ren, Wei-Xin; Ma, Mei; Xu, Xiao-Dong; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of left gastric artery embolization (LGAE) on plasma ghrelin levels, abdominal fat, and body weight in beagles. The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. Fifteen healthy adult beagles (12 male and three female animals) were randomly divided into three experimental groups: LGAE was proceeded with mixed emulsion of bleomycin A(5) hydrochloride and lipiodol (group A), and polyvinyl alcohol particles (group B). Transcatheter saline injections in the left gastric artery were performed as a control. Weight and fasting plasma ghrelin levels were obtained at baseline and at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after the procedure in all animals. All animals were scanned and measured by multidetector computed tomography at baseline and at week 8 for evaluation of abdominal fat. In LGAE-treated animals, plasma ghrelin and body weight significantly decreased compared to control animals (group A: P = 0.007 and P = 0.000; group B: P = 0.004 and P = 0.000, respectively). Subcutaneous fat size was also significantly reduced (P = 0.011 and P = 0.027 for groups A and B, respectively). The decreasing percentage in ghrelin levels at week 6 (peak of recovery) of LGAE-treated animals were negatively correlated with the size of area supplied by left gastric artery (r = -0.693, P = 0.026). LGAE could suppress the plasma concentration of ghrelin, which results in subcutaneous fat size reduction and weight loss. Compensatory ghrelin production might occur in the remnant gastric fundus after LGAE.

  15. Cytoprotective effect of American ginseng in a rat ethanol gastric ulcer model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yi-Ming; Wang, Dean-Chuan; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Chih-Yang; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2013-12-27

    Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG) is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day) supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n=8 per group): supplementation with water (vehicle) and low-dose (AG-1X), medium-dose (AG-2X) and high-dose (AG-5X) AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg). Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.

  16. The role of perioperative chewing gum on gastric fluid volume and gastric pH: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ouanes, Jean-Pierre P; Bicket, Mark C; Togioka, Brandon; Tomas, Vicente Garcia; Wu, Christopher L; Murphy, Jamie D

    2015-03-01

    To determine if preoperative gum chewing affects gastric pH and gastric fluid volume. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources included Cochrane, PubMed, and EMBASE databases from inception to June 2012 and reference lists of known relevant articles without language restriction. Randomized controlled trials in which a treatment group that chewed gum was compared to a control group that fasted were included. Relevant data, including main outcomes of gastric fluid volume and gastric pH, were extracted. Four studies involving 287 patients were included. The presence of chewing gum was associated with small but statically significant increases in gastric fluid volume (mean difference = 0.21 mL/kg; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.39; P = .03) but not in gastric pH (mean difference = 0.11 mL/kg; 95% confidence interval, -0.14 to 0.36; P = .38). Gastric fluid volume and gastric pH remained unchanged in subgroup analysis by either sugar or sugarless gum type. Chewing gum in the perioperative period causes small but statically significant increases in gastric fluid volume and no change in gastric pH. The increase in gastric fluid most likely is of no clinical significance in terms of aspiration risk for the patient. Elective surgery should not necessarily be canceled or delayed in healthy patients who accidentally chew gum preoperatively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Review article: Pathogenesis and management of gastric carcinoid tumours.

    PubMed

    Burkitt, M D; Pritchard, D M

    2006-11-01

    Gastric carcinoid tumours are rare, but are increasing in incidence. To discuss tumour pathogenesis and outline current approaches to patient management. Review of published articles following a Pubmed search. Although interest in gastric carcinoids has increased since it was recognized that they are associated with achlorhydria, to date there is no definite evidence that humans taking long-term acid suppressing medication are at increased risk. Type I tumours are associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II are associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 and hypergastrinaemia and sporadic type III carcinoids are gastrin-independent and carry the worst prognosis. Careful investigation of these patients is required, particularly to identify the tumour type, the source of hypergastrinaemia and the presence of metastases. Treatment can be directed at the source of hypergastrinaemia if type I or II tumours are still gastrin responsive and not growing autonomously. Type III tumours should be treated surgically. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoids have led to recent improvements in investigation and management. Challenges remain in identifying the genetic and environmental factors, in addition to hypergastrinaemia, that are responsible for tumour development in susceptible patients.

  18. Malignant gastric lymphoma with spontaneous perforation.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Satoko; Gen, Tokichi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-17

    Malignant gastric lymphoma, accounting only for 1% of primary gastric carcinoma, is usually a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Toyota et al reported that 37% of gastric perforations involved malignancy, generally gastric carcinoma. Fukuda et al found that less than 5% of malignant gastric lymphomas perforate. While it is relatively well known that perforations often take place during chemotherapy, they are rare in patients not receiving chemotherapy. To our knowledge, spontaneous perforation is rare in gastric malignant lymphoma, having been reported in the Japanese literature only 26 times, including this case, in the last 25 years.

  19. Effects of remifentanil on gastric tone.

    PubMed

    Walldén, Jakob; Thörn, Sven-Egron; Lindberg, Greger; Wattwil, Magnus

    2008-08-01

    Opioids are well known for impairing gastric motility. The mechanism is far from clear and there is wide interindividual variability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of remifentanil on proximal gastric tone. Healthy volunteers were studied on two occasions and proximal gastric tone was measured by a gastric barostat. On the first occasion (n=8), glucagon 1 mg IV was given as a reference for a maximal relaxation of the stomach. On the second occasion (n=9), remifentanil was given in incremental doses (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 microg/kg/min) for 15 min each, followed by a washout period of 30 min. Thereafter, remifentanil was readministered, and 10 min later glucagon 1 mg was given. Mean intragastric bag volumes were calculated for each 5-min interval. Glucagon decreased gastric tone in all subjects. Remifentanil had a marked effect on gastric tone; we found two distinct patterns of reactions with both increases and decreases in gastric tone and, during the remifentanil infusion, glucagon did not affect gastric tone. Remifentanil induced changes in gastric tone with both increases and decreases. The effect of remifentanil on gastric tone is probably dependent on the current state of the systems involved.

  20. [Multiple Salvage Radiotherapies for Metachronous Lymph Node Metastasis from Gastric Cancer Contributed to Long-Term Management of Disease].

    PubMed

    Hori, Naoto; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Kikuchi, Satoru; Kuroda, Shinji; Watanabe, Megumi; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Kagawa, Tetsuya; Kuwada, Kazuya; Kubota, Tetsushi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Nishizaki, Masahiko; Katayama, Norihisa; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2017-02-01

    A 70-year-old man who underwent gastrectomy for Stage III C gastric cancer developed lymph node(LN)metastasis posterior to the pancreatic head 3 years after the radical surgery.He was first treated with radiotherapy(RT)followed by chemotherapy.The irradiated tumor regressed completely.However, the cancer relapsed in a single para-aortic LN and he was treated with RT to the lesion followed by chemotherapy.Although it completely regressed, later, lung metastasis was observed.The lung lesions were well suppressed by switching to docetaxel; however, the cancer relapsed again in a mediastinal LN, and it was not responsive to docetaxel.The growing mediastinal lesion was irradiated again, which resulted in stable disease.The patient has been treated for 4 years and 7 months with all lesions being well-managed, and chemotherapy is being continued.Recurrent gastric cancer after surgery tends to present as multiple lesions; therefore, the principle therapy is systemic chemotherapy and RT is unlikely to be suitable.However, especially in cases of a solitary lesion that is chemo-resistant, RT could be an optimal option and contribute to long-term survival even in patients with recurrent gastric cancer.

  1. [Eleven Patients with Gastric Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy after Stent Placement for Gastric Outlet Obstruction].

    PubMed

    Endo, Shunji; Nakagawa, Tomo; Konishi, Ken; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Ohta, Katsuya; Nakashima, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Ohmori, Takeshi; Yamada, Terumasa

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic placement of self-expandable metallic stents is reportedly effective for gastric outlet obstructions due to advanced gastric cancer, and is less invasive than gastrojejunostomy. For patients who have good performance status, we administer chemotherapy after stent placement, although the safety and feasibility of this chemotherapy have not yet been discussed in full. Between 2011 and 2015, 15 patients at our institution underwent endoscopic gastroduodenal stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric cancer. Eleven of these patients were administered chemotherapy after stent placement. In our case series, we did not observe any specific adverse event caused by stent placement plus chemotherapy. Adverse events after chemotherapy included anemia of CTCAE Grade 3 in 7 patients. Stent-in-stent placement was needed in 2 patients. Neither stent migration nor perforation was observed. Therefore, chemotherapy after stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric cancer was considered safe and feasible. Stent placement is useful not only as palliative care for patients with terminal-stage disease, but also as one of the multimodal therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.

  2. Agmatine induces gastric protection against ischemic injury by reducing vascular permeability in rats

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Abeer A Al; Eter, Eman El

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of administration of agmatine (AGM) on gastric protection against ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: Three groups of rats (6/group); sham, gastric I/R injury, and gastric I/R + AGM (100 mg/kg, i.p. given 15 min prior to gastric ischemia) were recruited. Gastric injury was conducted by ligating celiac artery for 30 min and reperfusion for another 30 min. Gastric tissues were histologically studied and immunostained with angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) and Ang-2. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured in gastric tissue homogenate. To assess whether AKt/phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) mediated the effect of AGM, an additional group was pretreated with Wortmannin (WM) (inhibitor of Akt/PI3K, 15 μg/kg, i.p.), prior to ischemic injury and AGM treatment, and examined histologically and immunostained. Another set of experiments was run to study vascular permeability of the stomach using Evan’s blue dye. RESULTS: AGM markedly reduced Evan’s blue dye extravasation (3.58 ± 0.975 μg/stomach vs 1.175 ± 0.374 μg/stomach, P < 0.05), VEGF (36.87 ± 2.71 pg/100 mg protein vs 48.4 ± 6.53 pg/100 mg protein, P < 0.05) and MCP-1 tissue level (29.5 ± 7 pg/100 mg protein vs 41.17 ± 10.4 pg/100 mg protein, P < 0.01). It preserved gastric histology and reduced congestion. Ang-1 and Ang-2 immunostaining were reduced in stomach sections of AGM-treated animals. The administration of WM abolished the protective effects of AGM and extensive hemorrhage and ulcerations were seen. CONCLUSION: AGM protects the stomach against I/R injury by reducing vascular permeability and inflammation. This protection is possibly mediated by Akt/PI3K. PMID:22611311

  3. Lessons Learned From a Case of Gastric Cancer After Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Zhu, Hong; Chen, Chong-Cheng; Wen, Tian-Fu; Zhang, Wei-Han; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xin-Zu; Guo, Dong-Jiao; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nowadays, de novo malignancies have become an important cause of death after transplantation. According to the accumulation of cases with liver transplantation, the incidence of de novo gastric cancer is anticipated to increase among liver transplant recipients in the near future, especially in some East Asian countries where both liver diseases requiring liver transplantation and gastric cancer are major burdens. Unfortunately, there is limited information regarding the relationship between de novo gastric cancer and liver transplantation. Herein, we report a case of stage IIIc gastric cancer after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma, who was successfully treated by radical distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy but died 15 months later due to tumor progression. Furthermore, we extract some lessons to learn from the case and review the literatures. The incidence of de novo gastric cancer following liver transplantations is increasing and higher than the general population. Doctors should be vigilant in early detection and control the risk factors causing de novo gastric cancer after liver transplantation. Curative gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy is still the mainstay of treatment for such patients. Preoperative assessments, strict postoperative monitoring, and managements are mandatory. Limited chemotherapy could be given to the patients with high risk of recurrence. Close surveillance, early detection, and treatment of posttransplant cancers are extremely important and essential to improve the survival. PMID:26886605

  4. Downregulation of Sp1 by Minnelide leads to decrease in HSP70 and decrease in tumor burden of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Arora, Nivedita; Alsaied, Osama; Dauer, Patricia; Majumder, Kaustav; Modi, Shrey; Giri, Bhuwan; Dudeja, Vikas; Banerjee, Sulagna; Von Hoff, Daniel; Saluja, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide with poor survival rates. Even though a number of chemotherapeutic compounds have been used against this disease, stomach cancer has not been particularly sensitive to these drugs. In this study we have evaluated the effect of triptolide, a naturally derived diterpene triepoxide and its water soluble pro-drug Minnelide on several gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines both as monotherapy and in combination with CPT-11. Gastric cancer cell lines MKN28 and MKN45 were treated with varying doses of triptolide in vitro. Cell viability was measured using MTT based assay kit. Apoptotic cell death was assayed by measuring caspase activity. Effect of the triptolide pro-drug, Minnelide, was evaluated by implanting the gastric cancer cells subcutaneously in athymic nude mice. Gastric cancer cell lines MKN28 and MKN45 cells exhibited decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis when treated with varying doses of triptolide in vitro. When implanted in athymic nude mice, treatment with Minnelide reduced tumor burden in both MKN28 derived tumors as well as MKN45 derived tumors. Additionally, we also evaluated Minnelide as a single agent and in combination with CPT-11 in the NCI-N87 human gastric tumor xenograft model. Our results indicated that the combination of Minnelide with CPT-11 resulted in significantly smaller tumors compared to control. These studies are extremely encouraging as Minnelide is currently undergoing phase 1 clinical trials for gastrointestinal cancers.

  5. Case report and systematic literature review of a novel etiology of sinistral portal hypertension presenting with UGI bleeding: Left gastric artery pseudoaneurysm compressing the splenic vein treated by embolization of the pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Seifeldin; Bortman, Jared; Orosey, Molly; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2017-03-01

    A novel case is reported of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding from sinistral portal hypertension, caused by a left gastric artery (LGA) pseudoaneurysm (PA) compressing the splenic vein (SV) that was successfully treated with PA embolization. A 41-year-old man with previous medical history of recurrent, alcoholic pancreatitis presented with several episodes of hematemesis and abdominal pain for 48 hours. Physical examination revealed a soft abdomen, with no abdominal bruit, no pulsatile abdominal mass, and no stigmata of chronic liver disease. The hemoglobin declined acutely from 12.3 to 9.3 g/dL. Biochemical parameters of liver function and routine coagulation profile were entirely within normal limits. Abdominal CT revealed a 5-cm-wide peripancreatic mass compressing the stomach and constricting the SV. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed blood oozing from portal hypertensive gastropathy, small nonbleeding gastric cardial and fundal varices, gastric compression from the extrinsic mass, and no esophageal varices. MRCP and angiography showed that the mass was vascular, arose from the LGA, compressed the mid SV without SV thrombosis, and caused sinistral portal hypertension. At angiography, the PA was angioembolized and occluded. The patient has been asymptomatic with no further bleeding and a stable hemoglobin level during 8 weeks of follow-up. Literature review of the 14 reported cases of LGA PA revealed that this report of acute UGI bleeding from sinistral portal hypertension from a LGA PA constricting the SV is novel; one previously reported patient had severe anemia without acute UGI bleeding associated with sinistral portal hypertension from a LGA PA. A patient presented with UGI bleeding from sinistral portal hypertension from a LGA PA compressing the SV that was treated by angiographic obliteration of the PA which relieved the SV compression and arrested the UGI bleeding. Primary therapy for this syndrome should be addressed to obliterate the PA and not

  6. Gastric metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer, mimicking primary gastric cancer: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hoon; Son, Seung-Myoung; Choi, Young Jin

    2018-03-01

    Gastric metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer is relatively rare, commonly presented among multiple metastases, several years after primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Importantly, gastric cancer that is synchronously presented with lobular breast cancer can be misdiagnosed as primary gastric cancer; therefore, accurate differential diagnosis is required. A 39-year-old woman was visited to our hospital because of right breast mass and progressive dyspepsia. Invasive lobular carcinoma of breast was diagnosed on core needle biopsy. Gastroscopy revealed a diffuse scirrhous mass at the prepyloric antrum and diagnosed as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma on biopsy. Synchronous double primary breast and gastric cancers were considered. Detailed pathological analysis focused on immunohistochemical studies of selected antibodies, including those of estrogen receptors, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, and caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2, were studied. As a result, gastric lesion was diagnosed as metastatic gastric cancer originating from breast. Right breast conserving surgery was performed, and duodenal stent was inserted under endoscopic guidance to relieve the patient's symptoms. Systemic chemotherapy with combined administration of paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated. Forty-one months after the diagnosis, the patient is still undergoing the same therapy. No recurrent lesion has been identified in the breast and evidence of a partial remission of gastric wall thickening has been observed on follow-up studies without new metastatic lesions. Clinical suspicion, repeat endoscopic biopsy, and detailed histological analysis, including immunohistochemistry, are necessary for diagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer from the breast.

  7. Migration of eroded laparoscopic adjustable gastric band causing small bowel obstruction and perforation.

    PubMed

    Abeysekera, Ashvini; Lee, Jerry; Ghosh, Simon; Hacking, Craig

    2017-05-12

    We present an unusual and rare complication caused by gastric band erosion into the stomach after band placement 15 years ago. The complication was only picked up after the band had subsequently migrated from the stomach at the site of erosion, to the distal ileum causing acute small bowel obstruction and focal perforation requiring emergency laparotomy.Abdominal pain in patients with gastric band should always be treated as serious until proven otherwise. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Hypermethylation of the TSLC1 Gene Promoter in Primary Gastric Cancers and Gastric Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Teiichiro; Waki, Takayoshi; Jin, Zhe; Sato, Kiyoshi; Motoyama, Teiichi; Kawata, Sumio; Kimura, Wataru; Nishizuka, Satoshi; Murakami, Yoshinori

    2002-01-01

    The TSLC1 (tumor suppressor in lung cancer–1) gene is a novel tumor suppressor gene on chromosomal region 11q23.2, and is frequently inactivated by concordant promoter hypermethylation and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because LOH on 11q has also been observed frequently in other human neoplasms including gastric cancer, we investigated the promoter methylation status of TSLC1 in 10 gastric cancer cell lines and 97 primary gastric cancers, as well as the corresponding non‐cancerous gastric tissues, by bisulfite‐SSCP analysis followed by direct sequencing. Allelic status of the TSLC1 gene was also investigated in these cell lines and primary gastric cancers. The TSLC1 promoter was methylated in two gastric cancer cell lines, KATO‐III and ECC10, and in 15 out of 97 (16%) primary gastric cancers. It was not methylated in non‐cancerous gastric tissues, suggesting that this hypermethylation is a cancer‐specific alteration. KATO‐III and ECC10 cells retained two alleles of TSLC1, both of which showed hypermethylation, associated with complete loss of gene expression. Most of the primary gastric cancers with promoter methylation also retained heterozygosity at the TSLC1 locus on 11q23.2. These data indicate that bi‐allelic hypermethylation of the TSLC1 promoter and resulting gene silencing occur in a subset of primary gastric cancers. PMID:12716461

  9. Microsatellite Instability of Gastric and Colorectal Cancers as a Predictor of Synchronous Gastric or Colorectal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Beak; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-03-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) plays a crucial role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to clarify whether MSI is a useful marker for predicting synchronous gastric and colorectal neoplasms. Consecutive patients who underwent both esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy before the resection of gastric or colorectal cancers were included. MSI was analyzed using two mononucleotide and three dinucleotide markers. In total, 434 gastric cancers (372 microsatellite stability [MSS], 21 low incidence of MSI [MSI-L], and 41 high incidence of MSI [MSI-H]) and 162 colorectal cancers (138 MSS, 9 MSI-L, and 15 MSI-H) were included. Patients with MSI gastric cancer had a higher prevalence of synchronous colorectal cancer, colorectal adenoma, and gastric adenoma than those with MSS gastric cancers (4.8% vs 0.5%, p=0.023; 11.3% vs 3.2%, p=0.011; 3.2% vs 1.2%, p=0.00, respectively). The prevalence of synchronous colorectal adenomas was highest in MSI-L gastric cancers (19.0%), compared with MSI-H (7.3%) or MSS (3.2%) gastric cancers (p=0.002). In addition, there were no significant differences in the prevalence rates of synchronous colorectal adenoma among the MSI-H (13.3%), MSI-L (11.1%), and MSS (12.3%) colorectal cancers (p=0.987). The presence of MSI in gastric cancer may be a predictor of synchronous gastric and colorectal neoplasms, whereas MSI in colorectal cancer is not a predictor of synchronous colorectal adenoma.

  10. Gastric emptying 16 to 26 years after treatment of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lüdtke, F E; Bertus, M; Voth, E; Michalski, S; Lepsien, G

    1994-04-01

    Long-term follow-up was performed 16 to 26 years after conservative (group I, n = 18) and operative (group II, n = 38) treatment of 56 patients who had infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS). The study encompassed the scintigraphic determination of gastric emptying rates for solids and liquids, an interview to obtain medical history and ascertain whether a current disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract was present, and a clinical examination. Gastric emptying rates were measured on two different days for solids and liquids. The standard solid meal consisted of two scrambled eggs, two slices of toast, and 20 g of margarine. The gastric emptying rate for liquids was measured using 300 mL of apple juice. The scrambled eggs and apple juice were each marked with 2.2 MBq technetium 99m-sulphur-colloid. Two control collectives were used in this study; one group (physicians) served to create a reference curve for gastric emptying, and the other group, with the same age and gender distributions as those of the patients, served to evaluate the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints, by means of a questionnaire. There was no significant rate difference for gastric emptying between the patients treated conservatively or surgically and the controls. No association could be construed between the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms or disorders and the gastric emptying rates for solids and liquids. The results presented here substantiate that clinically relevant disturbances of stomach motility after IHPS appear to be rare.

  11. GLI1-mediated regulation of side population is responsible for drug resistance in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Beiqin; Gu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Jianfang; Liu, Bingya; Xie, Jingwu

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Chemotherapy is frequently used for gastric cancer treatment. Most patients with advanced gastric cancer eventually succumb to the disease despite some patients responded initially to chemotherapy. Thus, identifying molecular mechanisms responsible for cancer relapse following chemotherapy will help design new ways to treat gastric cancer. In this study, we revealed that the residual cancer cells following treatment with chemotherapeutic reagent cisplatin have elevated expression of hedgehog target genes GLI1, GLI2 and PTCH1, suggestive of hedgehog signaling activation. We showed that GLI1 knockdown sensitized gastric cancer cells to CDDP whereas ectopic GLI1 expression decreased the sensitivity. Further analyses indicate elevated GLI1 expression is associated with an increase in tumor sphere formation, side population and cell surface markers for putative cancer stem cells. We have evidence to support that GLI1 is critical for maintenance of putative cancer stem cells through direct regulation of ABCG2. In fact, GLI1 protein was shown to be associated with the promoter fragment of ABCG2 through a Gli-binding consensus site in gastric cancer cells. Disruption of ABCG2 function, through ectopic expression of an ABCG2 dominant negative construct or a specific ABCG2 inhibitor, increased drug sensitivity of cancer cells both in culture and in mice. The relevance of our studies to gastric cancer patient care is reflected by our discovery that high ABCG2 expression was associated with poor survival in the gastric cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy. Taken together, we have identified a molecular mechanism by which gastric cancer cells gain chemotherapy resistance. PMID:28404967

  12. Splenic infarction – A rare cause of acute abdominal pain following gastric surgery: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Pinar; Kaya, Cemal; Isil, Gurhan; Bozkurt, Emre; Mihmanli, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The dissection of splenic hilar lymph nodes in gastric cancer surgery is indispensable for treating gastric cancers located in the proximal third of the stomach. Splenic vascular injury is a matter of debate resulting on time or delayed splenectomy. We aimed to share our experience and plausible mechanisms causing this complication in two case reports. Case presentations Two male patients with gastric cancer were diagnosed with acute splenic infarction following gastric surgery in the early postoperative period. Both underwent emergent exploratory laparotomy. Splenectomy was performed due to splenic infarction. Discussion Because we observed this rare complication in recent patients whose surgery was performed using vessel-sealing device for splenic hilar dissection, we suggested that extensive mobilization of the surrounding tissues of splenic vascular structures hilum using the vessel sealer could be the reason. Conclusion In case of acute abdominal pain radiating to left shoulder, splenic complications should be taken into consideration in gastric cancer patients performed radical gastrectomy. Meticulous dissection of splenic hilar lymph nodes should be carried out to avoid any splenic vascular injury. PMID:25818369

  13. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer in Hehuang valley of China: A 10-year epidemiological study of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Su; Li, Bin; Bai, Zhen-Zhong; Wu, Jun-Qi; Xie, Da-Wei; Ma, Ying-Cai; Ma, Xu-Xiang; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Guo, Xin-Jian

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer in the Hehuang valley, China, to provide a reference for treatment and prevention of regional gastric cancer. METHODS: Between February 2003 and February 2013, the records of 2419 patients with gastric cancer were included in this study. The patient’s characteristics, histological and pathological features, as well as the dietary habits of the patients, were investigated. RESULTS: The clinical data showed that adenocarcinoma was the leading histological type of gastric cancer in this area. Characteristics of gastric cancer in different ethnic groups and age showed that the 60.55-65.50 years group showed the high incidence of gastric cancer in all ethnic groups. There were more male gastric cancer patients than female. Intestinal was the most common type of gastric cancer in the Hehuang valley. There was no significant difference in the proportion of sex in terms of Helicobacter pylori infection. The impact of dietary habits on gastric cancer showed that regular consumption of fried or grilled food, consumption of high-salt, high-fat and spicy food and drinking strong Boiled brick-tea were three important factors associated with gastric cancer in males and females. CONCLUSION: Differences existed in race, sex, and age of patients according to the epidemiology of gastric cancer in the Hehuang valley. Moreover, dietary habits was also an important factor contributing to gastric cancer. PMID:25132766

  14. Outcomes of Mini vs Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Gang; Yan, Wen-Mao; Yan, Ming; Song, Mao-Min

    2018-05-10

    Mini gastric bypass has been proved to be capable of achieving excellent metabolic results by numerous published studies. Compared to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, mini gastric bypass is a technically simpler and reversible procedure. However, comparative outcomes of the effectiveness between Mini gastric bypass and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass remain unclear. A systematic literature search was performed in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane library from inception to February 9, 2018. For assessment of method quality, NOS (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) and Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias were used for cohort study and randomized controlled trials, respectively. The meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.3 software. 10 cohort studies and 1 randomized controlled trial was included in our meta-analysis. The method quality of the 10 cohort studies was proved as high quality according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The randomized controlled trial was proved to have a low risk of bias according to Cochrane Collaboration's assessment. Patients receiving mini-gastric bypass had multiple advantageous indexes as compared with patients receiving Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Examples include: a higher 1-year EWL% (P < 0.05), higher 2-year EWL% (P < 0.05), higher type 2 diabetes mellitus remission rate, as well as a shorter operation time (P < 0.05). No significant statistical difference was observed in hypertension remission rate, mortality, leakage rate, GERD rate, or hospital stay between mini gastric bypass and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Mini gastric bypass seems to be a simpler procedure with a better weight reduction effect. This seems to also be the case regarding remission rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus when using Mini gastric bypass in comparison to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A small sample size and biased data may have influenced the stability of our results. In light of this, surgeons should treat our results in a conservative way. Larger sample size and

  15. MYC and gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    MYC is an oncogene involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth arrest, cell adhesion, metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. It has been described as a key element of several carcinogenesis processes in humans. Many studies have shown an association between MYC deregulation and gastric cancer. MYC deregulation is also seen in gastric preneoplastic lesions and thus it may have a role in early gastric carcinogenesis. Several studies have suggested that amplification is the main mechanism of MYC deregulation in gastric cancer. In the present review, we focus on the deregulation of the MYC oncogene in gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis, including its association with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and clinical applications. PMID:18932273

  16. Computed tomography findings of acute gastric volvulus.

    PubMed

    Millet, Ingrid; Orliac, Celine; Alili, Chakib; Guillon, Françoise; Taourel, Patrice

    2014-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of CT signs of gastric volvulus in both confirmed cases and control subjects. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with surgically confirmed acute gastric volvulus and 20 control subjects with gastric distension. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT images for risk factors of gastric volvulus, direct findings of gastric volvulus by assessing gastric dilatation, the presence of an antropyloric transition point, the respective position of the different stomach segments and of the greater and lesser curvatures, stenosis of the gastric segments through the oesophageal hiatus and for findings of gastric ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of each finding were calculated. The most sensitive direct signs of gastric volvulus were an antropyloric transition point without any abnormality at the transition zone and the antrum at the same level or higher than the fundus. The presence of both these two findings as diagnostic criteria of gastric volvulus had 100% sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric volvulus. There was no association between CT signs of ischemia and final bowel ischemia at pathology. CT is both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus. CT is highly reliable for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus with two findings. The two signs are gastropyloric transition zone and abnormal location of the antrum. This allows fast surgical management of this emergency.

  17. Novel approach to gastric mucosal defect repair using fresh amniotic membrane allograft in dogs (experimental study).

    PubMed

    Farghali, Haithem A; AbdElKader, Naglaa A; Khattab, Marwa S; AbuBakr, Huda O

    2017-10-18

    Gastric mucosal defect could result from several causative factors including the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Helicobacter pylori infection, gastrointestinal and spinal cord diseases, and neoplasia. This study was performed to achieve a novel simple, inexpensive, and effective surgical technique for the repair of gastric mucosal defect. Six adult male mongrel dogs were divided into two groups (three dogs each). In the control positive group (C + ve), dogs were subjected to surgical induction of gastric mucosal defect and then treated using traditional medicinal treatment for such a condition. In the amniotic membrane (AM) group, dogs were subjected to the same operation and then fresh AM allograft was applied. Clinical, endoscopic, biochemical (serum protein and lipid and pepsin activity in gastric juice), histopathological, and immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed. Regarding endoscopic examination, there was no sign of inflammatory reaction around the grafted area in the AM group compared to the C + ve group. The leukocytic infiltration in the gastric ulcer was well detected in the control group and was less observed in the AM group. In the AM group, the concentrations of both protein and lipid profiles were nearly the same as those in serum samples taken preoperatively at zero time, which indicated that the AM grafting acted the same as gastric mucosa. The re-epithelization of the gastric ulcer in the C + ve group was not yet detected at 21 days, while in the AM group it was well observed covering most of the gastric ulcer. AM accelerated the re-epithelization of the gastric ulcer. The fibrous connective tissue and the precursor of collagen (COL IA1) were poorly detected in the gastric ulcer with AM application. Using fresh AM allograft for repairing gastric mucosal defect in dogs showed great impact as a novel method to achieve optimum reconstruction of the gastric mucosal architecture and restoration of pre

  18. A novel approach for the detection of early gastric cancer: fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Zhou, Li Ya; Lin, San Ren; Li, Yuan; Chen, Mo; Geng, Qiu Ming; Li, Yu Wen

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice for early gastric cancer (EGC) screening. Gastric juice was collected from 101 participants who underwent endoscopy in the Outpatient Endoscopy Center of Peking University Third Hospital. The participants were divided into three groups: the normal mucosa or chronic non-atrophic gastritis (NM-CNAG) group (n = 35), advanced gastric cancer (AGC) group (n = 33) and EGC group (n = 33). Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis was performed in all the gastric juice samples and the maximum fluorescence intensity of the first peak (P1 FI) was measured. The mean fluorescence intensity of P1 FI of gastric juice in AGC (92.1 ± 10.7) and EGC (90.8 ± 12.0) groups was significantly higher than that in the NM-CNAG group (55.7 ± 7.5) (AGC vs NM-CNAG, P = 0.006 and EGC vs NM-CNAG, P = 0.015, respectively). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the detection of AGC and EGC were 0.681 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.553-0.810, P = 0.010) and 0.655 (95% CI 0.522-0.787, P = 0.028). With the P1 FI of ≥47.7, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting EGC were 69.7%, 57.1% and 63.2%, respectively. The enhancement of P1 FI of gastric juice occurs at the early stage of gastric cancer. Fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice may be used as a novel screening tool for the early detection of gastric cancer. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  19. Importance of brain-gut axis in the gastroprotection induced by gastric and remote preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, T; Konturek, P C; Pajdo, R; Kwiecień, S; Sliwowski, Z; Drozdowicz, D; Ptak-Belowska, A; Pawlik, M; Konturek, S J; Pawlik, W W; Hahn, G G

    2004-03-01

    and capsaicin-denervation. The IP-induced protection and hyperemia were restored by the administration of exogenous CGRP to gastric IP in capsaicin-treated animals. Gastroprotective and hyperemic actions of remote IP were markedly diminished in capsaicin-denervated rats and in those subjected to vagotomy. We conclude that brief ischemia in remote organs such as heart and liver protects gastric mucosa against gastric injury induced by I/R as effectively as gastric IP via mechanism involving both vagal and sensory nerves releasing vasodilatatory mediators such as CGRP.

  20. Gastroprotective effects of the isopropanol extract of Artemisia princeps and its gastroretentive floating tablets on gastric mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Il; Park, Sang-Wook; Lim, Jhong-Jae; Sohn, Se-Il; Shin, Ji-Su; Park, Sang Cheol; Jang, Young Pyo; Chung, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Hong-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2017-12-20

    In this study, we investigated the gastroprotective effect of an isopropanol extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia princeps (IPAP) and developed a gastroretentive floating tablet of IPAP (IPAP-FR) for maximized local gastroprotective effects. Pre-treatment with IPAP ameliorated the gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in ethanol/HCl- or indomethacin- treated rats. IPAP decreased mucosal hemorrhage of gastric ulcers induced by ethanol or indomethacin plus pyloric ligation in rats. The optimized floating tablet, IPAP-FR, floated on medium surface with more sustained eupatilin release compared to the non-floating control tablet. X-ray photographs in beagle dogs showed that IPAPFR was retained for > 2 h in the stomach. In the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer rat model, the gastric hemorrhagic lesion was improved more substantially with IPAP-FR compared to the non-floating control tablet. Based on these data, our data suggest that IPAP-FR has an improved therapeutic potential for the treatment of gastric ulcer.

  1. Microsatellite Instability of Gastric and Colorectal Cancers as a Predictor of Synchronous Gastric or Colorectal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Beak; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Microsatellite instability (MSI) plays a crucial role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to clarify whether MSI is a useful marker for predicting synchronous gastric and colorectal neoplasms. Methods Consecutive patients who underwent both esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy before the resection of gastric or colorectal cancers were included. MSI was analyzed using two mononucleotide and three dinucleotide markers. Results In total, 434 gastric cancers (372 microsatellite stability [MSS], 21 low incidence of MSI [MSI-L], and 41 high incidence of MSI [MSI-H]) and 162 colorectal cancers (138 MSS, 9 MSI-L, and 15 MSI-H) were included. Patients with MSI gastric cancer had a higher prevalence of synchronous colorectal cancer, colorectal adenoma, and gastric adenoma than those with MSS gastric cancers (4.8% vs 0.5%, p=0.023; 11.3% vs 3.2%, p=0.011; 3.2% vs 1.2%, p=0.00, respectively). The prevalence of synchronous colorectal adenomas was highest in MSI-L gastric cancers (19.0%), compared with MSI-H (7.3%) or MSS (3.2%) gastric cancers (p=0.002). In addition, there were no significant differences in the prevalence rates of synchronous colorectal adenoma among the MSI-H (13.3%), MSI-L (11.1%), and MSS (12.3%) colorectal cancers (p=0.987). Conclusions The presence of MSI in gastric cancer may be a predictor of synchronous gastric and colorectal neoplasms, whereas MSI in colorectal cancer is not a predictor of synchronous colorectal adenoma. PMID:26087787

  2. Ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (RAINBOW): a double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Hansjochen; Muro, Kei; Van Cutsem, Eric; Oh, Sang-Cheul; Bodoky, György; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Hironaka, Shuichi; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Lipatov, Oleg; Kim, Tae-You; Cunningham, David; Rougier, Philippe; Komatsu, Yoshito; Ajani, Jaffer; Emig, Michael; Carlesi, Roberto; Ferry, David; Chandrawansa, Kumari; Schwartz, Jonathan D; Ohtsu, Atsushi

    2014-10-01

    VEGFR-2 has a role in gastric cancer pathogenesis and progression. We assessed whether ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody VEGFR-2 antagonist, in combination with paclitaxel would increase overall survival in patients previously treated for advanced gastric cancer compared with placebo plus paclitaxel. This randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 3 trial was done at 170 centres in 27 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Patients aged 18 years or older with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma and disease progression on or within 4 months after first-line chemotherapy (platinum plus fluoropyrimidine with or without an anthracycline) were randomly assigned with a centralised interactive voice or web-response system in a 1:1 ratio to receive ramucirumab 8 mg/kg or placebo intravenously on days 1 and 15, plus paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. A permuted block randomisation, stratified by geographic region, time to progression on first-line therapy, and disease measurability, was used. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Efficacy analysis was by intention to treat, and safety analysis included all patients who received at least one treatment with study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01170663, and has been completed; patients who are still receiving treatment are in the extension phase. Between Dec 23, 2010, and Sept 23, 2012, 665 patients were randomly assigned to treatment-330 to ramucirumab plus paclitaxel and 335 to placebo plus paclitaxel. Overall survival was significantly longer in the ramucirumab plus paclitaxel group than in the placebo plus paclitaxel group (median 9·6 months [95% CI 8·5-10·8] vs 7·4 months [95% CI 6·3-8·4], hazard ratio 0·807 [95% CI 0·678-0·962]; p=0·017). Grade 3 or higher adverse events that occurred in more than 5% of patients in the ramucirumab plus paclitaxel group versus placebo

  3. Radiotherapy for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: long-term outcomes over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Yu; Saito, Yoshihiro; Ushijima, Hiroki; Onishi, Masahiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Kubota, Nobuko; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Maseki, Nobuo; Nishimura, Yu; Kurosumi, Masafumi

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the long-term outcomes of radiotherapy in patients with localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Twenty-seven patients with Stage I gastric MALT lymphoma were treated with radiotherapy from 1999 to 2010. The median age was 65 years (range: 31-84). Fifteen patients were Helicobacter pylori-negative. Thirteen patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy alone. The other 14 patients who had refractory or residual disease following a prior treatment received salvage radiotherapy. The median dose of the radiotherapy was 30 Gy in 20 fractions (range: 30-39.5 Gy). The median follow-up period was 121 months (range: 8-176 months). The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates for all patients were 92% and 87%, respectively. No patients died from MALT lymphoma. Three patients died of other diseases at 8, 33 and 74 months after radiotherapy (myocardial infarction, pneumonia and hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively). No cases of local recurrence were observed during the follow-up period. There were no serious late gastric, liver or kidney complications during a median follow-up period of over 10 years. Two patients remain alive with distant metastases: a lung metastasis and an abdominal lymph node metastasis at 104 months and 21 months after radiotherapy, respectively. Excellent long-term local control was observed in patients with localized gastric MALT lymphoma after radiotherapy. However, lifelong follow-up should be conducted to detect cases of late recurrence, especially distant metastases. © Oxford University Press 2017.

  4. Nutrients affecting gastric barrier.

    PubMed

    Gasbarrini, Antonio; D'Aversa, Francesca; Di Rienzo, Teresa; Franceschi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The gastric barrier could be considered an active tissue involved in many synthetic and metabolic functions, as the immunological defense, by activating mucosal immune system. Barrier integrity results from a balance between protective and aggressive endogenous factors and from their interaction with exogenous factors (steroidal or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, dietary nitrates, nitrites and/or NaCl, stress, Helicobacter pylori infection, food allergens and contaminants, metals, chemicals, radiation, smoking and alcohol intake). Nutrients represent the most important exogenous factors affecting gastric barrier because of the impact on people's everyday life. We report evidence from the literature about nutrients affecting gastric barrier and we investigate the possible effect that nutrients can play to determining or maintaining a gastric barrier dysfunction. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit (Lamiaceae), a medicinal plant protects the stomach against several gastric ulcer models.

    PubMed

    Jesus, N Z T; Falcão, H S; Lima, G R M; Caldas Filho, M R D; Sales, I R P; Gomes, I F; Santos, S G; Tavares, J F; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Batista, L M

    2013-12-12

    Hyptis suaveolens is used by the traditional population in several parts of the world to treat inflammation, gastric ulcer and infection and is used as a crude drug to relieve symptoms related with gastric ulcer or gastritis in northeaster and central region of Brazil. the standardized ethanolic extract (Hs-EtOHE) and hexanic fraction (Hs-HexF) of Hyptis suaveolens (62,5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was evaluated in several models of acute gastric ulcers. The participation of NO was evaluated by pretreatment with L-NAME and non-protein sulfyhydryls by NEM in the gastroprotective effect. Hs-EtOHE and Hs-HexF markedly reduced the gastric lesions induced by all ulcerogenic agents (HCl/ethanol, ethanol, NSAIDs and hypothermic restraint-stress). Gastric ulcerations were exacerbated by administration of NEM suggesting that the gastroprotective mechanism of action of Hs-EtOHE and Hs-HexF involves sulfhydryl groups. Ours results show that an extract of Hyptis suaveolens, administered orally to rodents, present gastro protective activity in different models of acute of gastric ulcer and give some support to the reported claims on the use of this plant as a gastro protective agent. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Using gastric juice lncRNA-ABHD11-AS1 as a novel type of biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunben; Shao, Yongfu; Zhu, Mengying; Li, Qier; Yang, Fang; Lu, Xuwen; Xu, Chunjing; Xiao, Bingxiu; Sun, Yanke; Guo, Junming

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in tumorigenesis. However, the diagnostic values of most lncRNAs are largely unknown. To investigate whether gastric juice lncRNA-ABHD11-AS1 can be a potential biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer, 173 tissue samples and 130 gastric juice from benign lesion, gastric dysplasia, gastric premalignant lesions, and gastric cancer were collected. ABHD11-AS1 levels were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, the relationships between ABHD11-AS1 levels and clinicopathological factors of patients with gastric cancer were investigated. The results showed that ABHD11-AS1 levels in gastric cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in other tissues. Its levels in gastric juice from gastric cancer patients were not only significantly higher than those from cases of normal mucosa or minimal gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and gastric ulcers but also associated with gender, tumor size, tumor stage, Lauren type, and blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. More importantly, when using gastric juice ABHD11-AS1 as a marker, the positive detection rate of early gastric cancer patients was reached to 71.4 %. Thanks to the special origin of gastric juice, these results indicate that gastric juice ABHD11-AS1 may be a potential biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer.

  7. [A case of advanced gastric cancer with carcinomatosa peritonitis effectively treated by 5-FU and low-dose CDDP therapy].

    PubMed

    Saito, E; Kunii, Y; Wada, G; Tsuchiya, S; Yamasaki, T; Sakakibara, N

    1997-07-01

    A 66-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic for appetite loss and abdominal distension in August 1995. Endoscopic study revealed an advanced gastric cancer in the upper body of her stomach. Abdominal CT study revealed massive ascites and para-aortic lymph nodal involvement. Cytological study of the ascites revealed class V. She was diagnosed to be in the terminal stage of gastric cancer with carcinomatosa peritonitis. Combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and low-dose cisplatin (CDDP) was given by continuous intravenous injection of 5-FU 500 mg/day, and intermittent intravenous injection of CDDP 30 mg/week was performed for reduction of the ascites and her complaint. Endoscopic study 6 weeks after starting chemotherapy could not find crater of the gastric cancer but only a shallow ulcerative lesion. The biopsy specimen of that lesion was group III. No ascites and over 50% reduction of the para-aortic lymph node were found by the abdominal CT study. This state persisted over 4 weeks. No myelo-suppression, renal dysfunction or any severe side effect were observed during chemotherapy. Her performance status improved from 3 to 1.

  8. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of a Gastric Vascular Malformation: An Innovative Approach to Treatment of a Rare Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Hansing, Catherine E., E-mail: catherine.e.hansing.mil@mail.mil; Marquardt, Joseph P.; Sutton, Daniel M.

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a high-flow form of a vascular malformation, which can be found anywhere in the body. While historically treated surgically, a multidisciplinary approach utilizing multiple specialties and treatment modalities is now commonly employed. In order to effectively treat an AVM, the nidus must be targeted and eradicated, which can be done via multiple approaches. We present the case of a 43-year-old male with a gastric wall AVM, which was initially incompletely treated using a percutaneous transarterial approach. The gastric AVM was noted to have dominant drainage through a gastrorenal shunt; therefore, Balloon-occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO) wasmore » utilized to eradicate the AVM nidus. This case illustrates the utility of Interventional Radiology, specifically BRTO, as another treatment option for challenging AVMs.« less

  9. Laparoscopic Conversion of One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for Chronic Bile Reflux.

    PubMed

    Facchiano, Enrico; Leuratti, Luca; Veltri, Marco; Lucchese, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) demonstrated similar results to traditional Roux-en-Y procedures. A possible concern is how to manage a chronic bile reflux when medical therapy results ineffective. Revision of the gastro-jejunal anastomosis, obtaining a Roux-en-Y reconstruction, has already been proposed, but technical details have not been elucidated yet. This video shows how to revise a 200-cm OAGB to treat chronic bile reflux, by converting the procedure to Roux-en-Y, having a short gastric pouch and a long efferent limb. A 51-year-old patient complained of recurrent heartburns 2 months after OAGB. A gastroscopy witnessed the presence of a 6-cm long gastric pouch with pouchitis and bile reflux in esophagus. Specific medications were ineffective. He underwent a revisional laparoscopic procedure. The efferent limb was measured and consisted of 650 cm. The afferent limb was then divided next to the previous gastro-jejunal anastomosis and a jejuno-jejunal anastomosis was performed distally at 70 cm on the alimentary limb. Total operative time was 50 min. The postoperative stay was uneventful and the patient was discharged in postoperative day four. At 6 months follow-up he is still free of medications without symptoms. The ideal scenario for the presented technique is the finding of a long efferent limb, in order to fashion a Roux-en-Y limb without the risk of postoperative malabsorption. To reach this goal, we suggest the measurement of the whole small bowel intra-operatively, in order to assess the length of the common channel left in place.

  10. Efficacy of ipamorelin, a ghrelin mimetic, on gastric dysmotility in a rodent model of postoperative ileus

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Tyler, Karl; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Pietra, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Background Delayed gastric emptying is a common disorder with few effective therapeutic options. The goal of this study was to investigate whether ipamorelin, a synthetic peptidomimetic that acts on the ghrelin receptor, accelerates gastric emptying in a rodent model of gastroparesis induced by abdominal surgery and intestinal manipulation. Methods Fasted adult male rats were subjected to laparotomy and intestinal manipulation. Following the surgery rats received ipamorelin (0.014–0.14 µmol/kg) or vehicle control via intravenous administration. Gastric emptying was measured by the percent of total recovered radioactivity remaining in the stomach 15 minutes after intragastric gavage of 1.5 mL of 99mTc (technicium-99m) sulfur colloid in 0.5% methylcellulose. In a separate group of rats subjected to laparotomy and intestinal manipulation, the gastric fundus was isolated and tissue segments were suspended in an organ bath to assess the effect of ipamorelin (1 µM) on gastric smooth muscle contractility induced by acetylcholine and electrical field stimulation. Results Abdominal surgery caused a delay in gastric emptying with 78% ± 5% of the meal remaining in the stomach in vehicle controls. Ipamorelin (0.014 µmol/kg intravenous) resulted in a significant acceleration (P < 0.05 vs vehicle-treated rat) of gastric emptying with 52% ± 11% of the meal remaining in the stomach compared to nonsurgical control animals with 44% ± 6%. Following abdominal surgery and intestinal manipulation, isolated preparations of gastric smooth muscle exhibited a marked inhibition of acetylcholine and electrical field stimulation-induced contractile responses, which were reversed by ipamorelin and ghrelin. Conclusion These results suggest that ipamorelin accelerates gastric emptying in a rodent model of postoperative ileus through the stimulation of gastric contractility by activating a ghrelin receptor-mediated mechanism involving cholinergic excitatory neurons. PMID:27186127

  11. Efficacy of ipamorelin, a ghrelin mimetic, on gastric dysmotility in a rodent model of postoperative ileus.

    PubMed

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Tyler, Karl; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Pietra, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying is a common disorder with few effective therapeutic options. The goal of this study was to investigate whether ipamorelin, a synthetic peptidomimetic that acts on the ghrelin receptor, accelerates gastric emptying in a rodent model of gastroparesis induced by abdominal surgery and intestinal manipulation. Fasted adult male rats were subjected to laparotomy and intestinal manipulation. Following the surgery rats received ipamorelin (0.014-0.14 µmol/kg) or vehicle control via intravenous administration. Gastric emptying was measured by the percent of total recovered radioactivity remaining in the stomach 15 minutes after intragastric gavage of 1.5 mL of (99m)Tc (technicium-99m) sulfur colloid in 0.5% methylcellulose. In a separate group of rats subjected to laparotomy and intestinal manipulation, the gastric fundus was isolated and tissue segments were suspended in an organ bath to assess the effect of ipamorelin (1 µM) on gastric smooth muscle contractility induced by acetylcholine and electrical field stimulation. Abdominal surgery caused a delay in gastric emptying with 78% ± 5% of the meal remaining in the stomach in vehicle controls. Ipamorelin (0.014 µmol/kg intravenous) resulted in a significant acceleration (P < 0.05 vs vehicle-treated rat) of gastric emptying with 52% ± 11% of the meal remaining in the stomach compared to nonsurgical control animals with 44% ± 6%. Following abdominal surgery and intestinal manipulation, isolated preparations of gastric smooth muscle exhibited a marked inhibition of acetylcholine and electrical field stimulation-induced contractile responses, which were reversed by ipamorelin and ghrelin. These results suggest that ipamorelin accelerates gastric emptying in a rodent model of postoperative ileus through the stimulation of gastric contractility by activating a ghrelin receptor-mediated mechanism involving cholinergic excitatory neurons.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide upregulated mRNA expressions of sodium bicarbonate cotransporter1, trefoil factor1 and trefoil factor2 in gastric mucosa in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, Parisa; Mard, Seyyed Ali; Nagi, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been shown to protect the gastric mucosa through several protective mechanisms but till now its effect on mRNA expression of sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBC1), trefoil factor1 (TFF1) and trefoil factor2 (TFF2) was not investigated. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of H 2 S on mRNA expression of NBC1, TFF1 and TFF2 in rat gastric mucosa in response to gastric distention. Thirty two rats were randomly assigned into four equal groups. They were control (C), distention (D), propargylglycine (PAG)-, and NaHS-treated groups. To evaluate the effect of exogenous and endogenous H 2 S on gene expression of NBC1, TFF1 and TFF2, two groups of rats were received H 2 S donor, intra-peritoneal NaHS (80 µg Kg -1 ), and PAG (50 mg kg -1 ), accompanied to stimulate the gastric acid secretion, respectively. Under general anesthesia and laparotomy, a catheter was inserted into the stomach through duodenum for instillation of isotonic saline for gastric distention. Ninety min after beginning the experiment, animals were sacrificed and the gastric mucosa was collected to determine total acid content of gastric effluents and to quantify the mRNA expression of studied genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results showed that A) gastric distention increased the level of mRNA expressions of NBC1, TFF1 and TFF2; B) these levels in NaHS-treated rats were significantly higher than those in Distention group; and C) PAG decreased the expression levels of NBC1 and TFF1. The Findings showed H 2 S upregulated gene expression of NBC1, TFF1 and TFF2 in gastric mucosa.

  13. Alteration of gene expression and DNA methylation in drug-resistant gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Osamu; Ando, Takafumi; Ohmiya, Naoki; Ishiguro, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Osamu; Miyahara, Ryoji; Hibi, Yoko; Nagai, Taku; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Goto, Hidemi

    2014-04-01

    The mechanisms of drug resistance in cancer are not fully elucidated. To study the drug resistance of gastric cancer, we analyzed gene expression and DNA methylation profiles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)- and cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant gastric cancer cells and biopsy specimens. Drug-resistant gastric cancer cells were established with culture for >10 months in a medium containing 5-FU or CDDP. Endoscopic biopsy specimens were obtained from gastric cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy with oral fluoropyrimidine S-1 and CDDP. Gene expression and DNA methylation analyses were performed using microarray, and validated using real-time PCR and pyrosequencing, respectively. Out of 17,933 genes, 541 genes commonly increased and 569 genes decreased in both 5-FU- and CDDP-resistant AGS cells. Genes with expression changed by drugs were related to GO term 'extracellular region' and 'p53 signaling pathway' in both 5-FU- and CDDP-treated cells. Expression of 15 genes including KLK13 increased and 12 genes including ETV7 decreased, in both drug-resistant cells and biopsy specimens of two patients after chemotherapy. Out of 10,365 genes evaluated with both expression microarray and methylation microarray, 74 genes were hypermethylated and downregulated, or hypomethylated and upregulated in either 5-FU-resistant or CDDP-resistant cells. Of these genes, expression of 21 genes including FSCN1, CPT1C and NOTCH3, increased from treatment with a demethylating agent. There are alterations of gene expression and DNA methylation in drug-resistant gastric cancer; they may be related to mechanisms of drug resistance and may be useful as biomarkers of gastric cancer drug sensitivity.

  14. Recurrence after radiotherapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hisashi; Iwamuro, Masaya; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hori, Keisuke; Kita, Masahide; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Tanaka, Takehiro; Kondo, Eisei; Yoshino, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old Japanese woman presented with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) in the stomach. The gastric lesions only partially improved after eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori. A fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed no fusion genes of API2-MALT1, although trisomy of chromosome 18 was identified. Radiation therapy was initiated to treat the gastric lymphoma lesions, resulting in complete remission. However, MALT lymphoma recurred in the stomach 16 months later. This case indicates that intensive follow-up is required for MALT lymphoma associated with chromosomal aberrations in order to detect early relapse.

  15. Lactobacillus plantarum B7 inhibits Helicobacter pylori growth and attenuates gastric inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sunanliganon, Chompoonut; Thong-Ngam, Duangporn; Tumwasorn, Somying; Klaikeaw, Naruemon

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the anti-Helicobacter property of Lactobacillus plantarum B7 (L. plantarum) B7 supernatants in vitro and the protective effects of L. plantarum B7 on serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), gastric malondialdehyde (MDA) level, apoptosis, and histopathology in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastric inflammation in rats. METHODS: In vitro, the inhibition of H. pylori growth was examined using L. plantarum B7 supernatants at pH 4 and pH 7 and at the concentration of 1×, 5× and 10× on plates inoculated with H. pylori. The inhibitory effect of H. pylori was interpreted by the size of the inhibition zone. In vitro, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups including group 1 (control group), group 2 (H. pylori infected group), group 3 (H. pylori infected with L. plantarum B7 106 CFUs/mL treated group) and group 4 (H. pylori infected with L. plantarum B7 1010 CFUs/mL treated group). One week after H. pylori inoculation, L. plantarum B7 106 CFUs/mL or 1010 CFUs/mL were fed once daily to group 3 and group 4, respectively, for one week. Blood and gastric samples were collected at the end of the study. RESULTS: In vitro, at intact pH 4, mean inhibitory zone diameters of 8.5 mm and 13 mm were noted at concentrations of 5× and 10× of L. plantarum B7 supernatant disks, respectively. At adjusted pH 7, L. plantarum B7 supernatants at concentrations of 5× and 10× yielded mean inhibitory zone diameters of 6.5 mm and 11 mm, respectively. In the in vitro study, in group 2, stomach histopathology revealed mild to moderate H. pylori colonization and inflammation. The level of gastric MDA and epithelial cell apoptosis were significantly increased compared with group 1. The serum TNF-α level was significant decreased in group 3 compared with group 2 (P < 0.05). In addition, L. plantarum B7 treatments resulted in a significant improvement in stomach pathology, and decreased gastric MDA level and apoptotic epithelial cells

  16. Overview of Current Concepts in Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jencks, David S; Adam, Jason D; Borum, Marie L; Koh, Joyce M; Stephen, Sindu; Doman, David B

    2018-02-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a precancerous change of the mucosa of the stomach with intestinal epithelium, and is associated with an increased risk of dysplasia and cancer. The pathogenesis to gastric cancer is proposed by the Correa hypothesis as the transition from normal gastric epithelium to invasive cancer via inflammation followed by intramucosal cancer and invasion. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia interplay, including Helicobacter pylori infection and associated genomics, host genetic factors, environmental milieu, rheumatologic disorders, diet, and intestinal microbiota. Globally, screening guidelines have been established in countries with high incidence. In the United States, no such guidelines have been developed due to lower, albeit increasing, incidence. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends a case-by-case patient assessment based upon epidemiology, genetics, and environmental risk factors. Studies have examined the use of a serologic biopsy to stratify risk based upon factors such as H pylori status and virulence factors, along with serologic markers of chronic inflammation including pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and gastrin. High-risk patients may then be advised to undergo endoscopic evaluation with mapping biopsies from the antrum (greater curvature, lesser curvature), incisura angularis, and corpus (greater curvature, lesser curvature). Surveillance guidelines have not been firmly established for patients with known gastric intestinal metaplasia, but include repeat endoscopy at intervals according to the histologic risk for malignant transformation.

  17. GASTRIC AND JEJUNAL HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUES, Rosemary Simões Nomelini; ALMEIDA, Élia Cláudia de Souza; CAMILO, Silvia Maria Perrone; TERRA-JÚNIOR, Júverson Alves; GUIMARÃES, Lucinda Calheiros; DUQUE, Ana Cristina da Rocha; ETCHEBEHERE, Renata Margarida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Morbid obesity is a multifactorial disease that increasingly is being treated by surgery. Aim: To evaluate gastric histopathological changes in obese, and to compare with patients who underwent gastrojejunal bypass and the jejunal mucosa after the surgery. Methods: This is an observational study performed at a tertiary public hospital, evaluating endoscopic biopsies from 36 preoperative patients and 35 postoperative. Results: In the preoperative group, 80.6% had chronic gastritis, which was active in 38.9% (77.1% and 20.1%, respectively, in the postoperative). The postoperative group had a significant reduction in H. pylori infection (p=0.0001). A longer length of the gastric stump and a time since surgery of more than two years were associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The jejunal mucosa was normal in 91.4% and showed slight nonspecific chronic inflammation in 8.6%. Conclusion: There was a reduction in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in the postoperative group. A longer length of the gastric stump and longer time elapsed since surgery were associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The jejunal mucosa was considered normal in an absolute majority of patients. PMID:27683773

  18. [Gastric volvulus in children: five case reports].

    PubMed

    Ksia, A; Haggui, B; Mosbahi, S; Maazoun, K; Sahnoun, L; Chahed, J; Krichene, I; Mekki, M; Belghith, M; Nouri, A

    2014-12-01

    Gastric volvulus is an abnormal rotation of all or a part of the stomach around one of its axes. It is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in children. This anomaly can be primary, due to abnormalities of the gastric ligaments, or secondary to other congenital malformations. We report on the cases of five children treated between January 1994 and December 2011, four boys and one girl, with a medium age of 7 months. Diagnosis was based on clinical features, particularly in the upper gastrointestinal Rx contrast study, which confirmed the diagnosis. Four out of the five children underwent laparoscopic surgery with fixation of the stomach. A diaphragmatic hernia was associated in one case. Antireflux surgery was performed in three cases, and a diaphragmatic defect was closed in one case. The follow-up was uneventful after a medium period of 7 years. good knowledge of this anomaly is the guarantee of early diagnosis and optimum treatment to ameliorate the prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantification and study of the L-DOPA decarboxylase expression in gastric adenocarcinoma cells treated with chemotherapeutic substances.

    PubMed

    Korbakis, Dimitrios; Fragoulis, Emmanuel G; Scorilas, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC) is an enzyme implicated in the biosynthetic pathways of the neurotransmitters dopamine and probably serotonin. DDC gene expression has been studied in numerous malignancies and the corresponding data have shown remarkable alterations in the mRNA and/or protein levels encoded by the gene. The aim of this study was to examine any modulations in the DDC mRNA levels in gastric cancer cells after their treatment with the chemotherapeutic agents 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, etoposide, cisplatin, and taxol. The sensitivity of the AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells to the antineoplastic drugs was evaluated using the MTT assay. Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed into cDNA. A highly sensitive quantitative real-time PCR methodology was developed for the quantification of DDC mRNA. GAPDH was used as a housekeeping gene. Relative quantification analysis was carried out using the comparative C T method ((Equation is included in full-text article.)). The treatment of AGS cells with several concentrations of various broadly used anticancer drugs resulted in significant modulations of the DDC mRNA levels compared with those in the untreated cells in a time-specific and drug-specific manner. Generally, DDC expression levels appeared to decrease after three time periods of exposure to the selected chemotherapeutic agents, suggesting a characteristic DDC mRNA expression profile that is possibly related to the mechanism of each drug. Our experimental data show that the DDC gene might serve as a new potential molecular biomarker predicting treatment response in gastric cancer cells.

  20. [Gastric magnetic resonance study (methods, semiotics)].

    PubMed

    Stashuk, G A

    2003-01-01

    The paper shows the potentialities of gastric study by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The methodic aspects of gastric study have been worked out. The MRI-semiotics of the unchanged and tumor-affected wall of the stomach and techniques in examining patients with gastric cancer of various sites are described. Using the developed procedure, MRI was performed in 199 patients, including 154 patients with gastric pathology and 45 control individuals who had no altered gastric wall. Great emphasis is placed on the role of MRI in the diagnosis of endophytic (diffuse) gastric cancer that is of priority value in its morphological structure. MRI was found to play a role in the diagnosis of the spread of a tumorous process both along the walls of the stomach and to its adjacent anatomic structures.

  1. Exosomes derived from human mesenchymal stem cells promote gastric cancer cell growth and migration via the activation of the Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hongbing; Ji, Runbi; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui; Chen, Yongchang; Jiang, Pengcheng; Xu, Wenrong

    2016-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a component of the tumor microenvironment and can promote the development of gastric cancer through paracrine mechanism. However, the effects of MSC‑exosomes (MSC‑ex) on gastric cancer are less clear. The present study reported that MSC‑ex promoted the proliferative and metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells ex vivo. It was found that MSC‑ex enhanced the migration and invasion of HGC‑27 cells via the induction of the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition. MSC‑ex increased the expression of mesenchymal markers and reduced the expression of epithelial markers in gastric cancer cells. MSC‑ex also enhanced the tumorigenicity of gastric cancer cells ex vivo. MSC‑ex induced the stemness of gastric cancer cells. The expression of octamer‑binding transcription factor 4, ex determining region Y‑box 2 and Lin28B significantly increased in gastric cancer cells treated with MSC‑ex. The present study further demonstrated that MSC‑ex elicited these biological effects predominantly via the activation of the protein kinase B signaling pathway. Taken together, the present findings provided novel evidence for the role of MSC‑ex in gastric cancer and a new opportunity for improving the efficiency of gastric cancer treatment by targeting MSC‑ex.

  2. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Almost all gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas. Other types of gastric cancer are gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphomas. Find evidence-based information on gastric cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  3. Unconvincing diagnosis of a rare subtype of primary gastric lymphoma with incongruent endoscopic presentation: a case of gastric schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, In Ho

    2013-12-01

    Primary gastric lymphoma is a rare gastric malignancy. Its diagnostic process is complex. Clinician may find initial diagnosis of primary gastric lymphoma unreliable, especially when it indicates the rarest subtype of gastric lymphoma, while its initial endoscopic presentation fails to raise the slightest suspicion of primary gastric lymphoma. A 53-year-old Korean man was diagnosed, by endoscopic examination, with a round submucosal tumor of the stomach. Deep endoscopic biopsy, however, confirmed CD5 positive gastric lymphoma. Surgical treatment was performed for diagnosis and treatment. Postoperative histo-logical examination confirmed gastric schwannoma. Gastric schwannoma is a spindle cell tumor, characterized by a peripheral cuff-like lymphocytic infiltration. Deep endoscopic biopsy may have been misdirected to the peripheral lymphoid cuff, failing to acquire spindle cells. The literature has been reviewed, and options for diagnostic accuracy have been suggested.

  4. Systematic alphanumeric-coded endoscopy versus chromoendoscopy for the detection of precancerous gastric lesions and early gastric cancer in subjects at average risk for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mendoza, A; Zárate-Guzmán, Á M; Galvis García, E S; Sobrino Cossío, S; Djamus Birch, J

    Gastric cancer is one of the main causes of cancer worldwide, but there is currently no global screening strategy for the disease. Endoscopy is the screening method of choice in some Asian countries, but no standardized technique has been recognized. Systematic alphanumeric-coded endoscopy can increase gastric lesion detection. The aim of the present article was to compare the usefulness of systematic alphanumeric-coded endoscopy with conventional endoscopy for the detection of premalignant lesions and early gastric cancer in subjects at average risk for gastric cancer. A cross-sectional, comparative, prospective, randomized study was conducted on patients at average risk for gastric cancer (40-50 years of age, no history of H. pylori infection, intestinal metaplasia, gastric atrophy, or gastrointestinal surgery). Before undergoing endoscopy, the patients had gastric preparation (200mg of oral acetylcysteine or 50mg of oral dimethicone). Conventional chromoendoscopy was performed with indigo carmine dye for contrast enhancement. Fifty consecutive cases (mean age 44.4 ± 3.34 years, 60% women, BMI 27.6 ± 5.82 kg/m 2 ) were evaluated. Endoscopic imaging quality was satisfactory in all the cases, with no differences between methods (p = 0.817). The detection rate of premalignant lesions and early gastric cancer was 14% (6 cases of intestinal metaplasia and one case of gastric adenocarcinoma). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 100, 95, 80, 100 and 96%, respectively, for systematic alphanumeric-coded endoscopy, and 100, 45, 20, 100, and 52%, respectively, for conventional endoscopy. Lesion detection through systematic alphanumeric-coded endoscopy was superior to that of conventional endoscopy (p = 0.003; OR = 12). Both techniques were effective, but systematic alphanumeric-coded endoscopy significantly reduced the false positive rate. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de

  5. Management of Gastric Obstruction Caused by Adjustable Gastric Band.

    PubMed

    Czeiger, David; Abu-Swis, Shadi; Shaked, Gad; Ovnat, Amnon; Sebbag, Gilbert

    2016-12-01

    Optimal adjustment of the filling volume of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is challenging and commonly performed empirically. Patients with band over-inflation and gastric obstruction arrive at the emergency department complaining of recurrent vomiting. In cases of gastric obstruction, intra-band pressure measurement may assist in determining the amount of fluid that should be removed from the band; however, our investigations have determined that intra-band pressure assessment need not play a role in the treatment of gastric band obstruction. In patients coming to the emergency department with gastric band obstruction, we measured intra-band pressure at arrival and following stepped removal of fluid, comparing the initial pressure with post-deflation pressure and measuring the volume of fluid removed. Forty-eight patients participated in the study. Forty-five patients had a low-pressure/high-volume band. Their mean baseline pressure was 54.6 ± 22.3 mmHg. The mean volume of fluid removed from the band was 1.3 ± 0.8 ml. The mean post-deflation pressure was 22.5 ± 16.3 mmHg. Nearly 30 % of patients required as little as 0.5 ml of fluid removal, and 60 % of them were free of symptoms with removal of 1 ml. Our results indicate that intra-band pressure measurement is of little value for determining the amount of fluid that should be removed for treatment of band obstruction. We suggest the removal of fluid in volumes of 0.5 ml until symptoms are relieved. Only in complicated cases, such as in patients having recurrent obstructions, should additional modalities be employed for further management guidance.

  6. Topical application of benzalkonium chloride to the stomach serosa increases gastric emptying time, acid secretion, serum gastrin and size of the mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zucoloto, S; Romanello, L M F; Garcia, S B; Sobreira, L F R; Barbosa, A J A; Troncon, L E A

    2002-11-01

    In the present study we evaluated the effects of gastric myenteric denervation using benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the time for gastric emptying, as well as gastric secretion, and mucosal epithelial cell size and population in rats. Wistar rats were treated with topical serosal application of BAC to the stomach. Control animals received saline. Ninety days after surgery, gastric emptying time, gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin levels were studied. Next, the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were removed, fixed in formalin and histologically processed for histomorphometry of the height, area and volume of the glandular portion, and volume and population of mucous, chief, parietal, G- and labelled cells. BAC animals showed a significant delay in gastric emptying and an increase in gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin levels. These animals also presented a significant reduction of myenteric neuron number, hypertrophy of parietal and chief cells, hyperplasia of G cells and an increase in the gastric mucosa area. The absence of the myenteric plexus seems to protect the stomach from the hyperplastic effects of hypergastrinemia. Gastric food stasis may act as a factor triggering morphological and functional alterations of the gastric epithelium. Although gastric food stasis is a common finding in medical practice, its physiopathological consequences are poorly understood and have not been frequently discussed in the literature.

  7. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do PMID:26566288

  8. The By-Band study: gastric bypass or adjustable gastric band surgery to treat morbid obesity: study protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial with an internal pilot phase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of severe and complex obesity is increasing worldwide and surgery may offer an effective and lasting treatment. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery are the two main surgical procedures performed. Design This open parallel-group randomised controlled trial will compare the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of gastric band (Band) versus gastric bypass (Bypass) in adults with severe and complex obesity. It has an internal pilot phase (in two centres) with integrated qualitative research to establish effective and optimal methods for recruitment. Adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 kg/m2 or more, or a BMI of 35 kg/m2 or more and other co-morbidities will be recruited. At the end of the internal pilot the study will expand into more centres if the pre-set progression criteria of numbers and rates of eligible patients screened and randomised are met and if the expected rates of retention and adherence to treatment allocation are achieved. The trial will test the joint hypotheses that Bypass is non-inferior to Band with respect to more than 50% excess weight loss and that Bypass is superior to Band with respect to health related quality of life (HRQOL, EQ-5D) at three years. Secondary outcomes include other weight loss measures, waist circumference and remission/resolution of co-morbidities; generic and symptom-specific HRQOL; nutritional blood test results; resource use; eating behaviours and adverse events. A core outcome set for reporting the results of obesity surgery will be developed and a systematic review of the evidence for sleeve gastrectomy undertaken to inform the main study design. Discussion By-Band is the first pragmatic study to compare the two most commonly performed bariatric surgical procedures for severe and complex obesity. The design will enable and empower surgeons to learn to recruit and participate in a randomised study. Early evidence shows that timely

  9. The By-Band study: gastric bypass or adjustable gastric band surgery to treat morbid obesity: study protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial with an internal pilot phase.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Chris A; Welbourn, Richard; Byrne, James; Donovan, Jenny L; Reeves, Barnaby C; Wordsworth, Sarah; Andrews, Robert; Thompson, Janice L; Roderick, Paul; Mahon, David; Noble, Hamish; Kelly, Jamie; Mazza, Graziella; Pike, Katie; Paramasivan, Sangeetha; Blencowe, Natalie; Perkins, Mary; Porter, Tanya; Blazeby, Jane M

    2014-02-11

    The prevalence of severe and complex obesity is increasing worldwide and surgery may offer an effective and lasting treatment. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery are the two main surgical procedures performed. This open parallel-group randomised controlled trial will compare the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of gastric band (Band) versus gastric bypass (Bypass) in adults with severe and complex obesity. It has an internal pilot phase (in two centres) with integrated qualitative research to establish effective and optimal methods for recruitment. Adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 kg/m2 or more, or a BMI of 35 kg/m2 or more and other co-morbidities will be recruited. At the end of the internal pilot the study will expand into more centres if the pre-set progression criteria of numbers and rates of eligible patients screened and randomised are met and if the expected rates of retention and adherence to treatment allocation are achieved. The trial will test the joint hypotheses that Bypass is non-inferior to Band with respect to more than 50% excess weight loss and that Bypass is superior to Band with respect to health related quality of life (HRQOL, EQ-5D) at three years. Secondary outcomes include other weight loss measures, waist circumference and remission/resolution of co-morbidities; generic and symptom-specific HRQOL; nutritional blood test results; resource use; eating behaviours and adverse events. A core outcome set for reporting the results of obesity surgery will be developed and a systematic review of the evidence for sleeve gastrectomy undertaken to inform the main study design. By-Band is the first pragmatic study to compare the two most commonly performed bariatric surgical procedures for severe and complex obesity. The design will enable and empower surgeons to learn to recruit and participate in a randomised study. Early evidence shows that timely recruitment is possible. Current

  10. Characterization of Gastric Microbiota in Twins.

    PubMed

    Dong, Quanjiang; Xin, Yongning; Wang, Lili; Meng, Xinying; Yu, Xinjuan; Lu, Linlin; Xuan, Shiying

    2017-02-01

    Contribution of host genetic backgrounds in the development of gastric microbiota has not been clearly defined. This study was aimed to characterize the biodiversity, structure and composition of gastric microbiota among twins. A total of four pairs of twins and eight unrelated individuals were enrolled in the study. Antral biopsies were obtained during endoscopy. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced. Sequences were analyzed for the composition, structure, and α and β diversities of gastric microbiota. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the most predominant phyla of gastric microbiota. Each individual, twins as well as unrelated individuals, harbored a microbiota of distinct composition. There was no evidence of additional similarity in the richness and evenness of gastric microbiota among co-twins as compared to unrelated individuals. Calculations of θ YC and PCoA demonstrated that the structure similarity of gastric microbial community between co-twins did not increase compared to unrelated individuals. In contrast, the structure of microbiota was altered enormously by Helicobacter pylori infection. These results suggest that host genetic backgrounds had little effect in shaping the gastric microbiota. This property of gastric microbiota could facilitate the studies discerning the role of microbiota from genetic grounds in the pathogenesis.

  11. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

  12. Prooxidant activity of norbixin in model of acute gastric ulcer induced by ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Rovani, B T; de Freitas, R B; Augusti, P R; Araldi, I C; Somacal, S; Quatrin, A; Emanuelli, T; da Rocha, M P; Bauermann, L de Freitas

    2016-07-01

    Free radicals and oxidative stress play a central role in gastric injuries caused by ethanol (EtOH). Antioxidant strategies to counteract EtOH toxicity are highly desirable. Norbixin (NBIX) is a carotenoid with antioxidant potential largely used in the food industry. This study evaluated the NBIX effects in a model of gastric ulcer induced by EtOH in rats. Male Wistar rats received NBIX doses of 0, 10, and 25 mg/kg by gavage 1 h after EtOH administration (0 or 75% solution, 1 mL/200 g of animal). The animals were euthanized 1 h after the NBIX administration, and their stomachs were removed for macroscopic and histopathological analyses, quantification of nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) groups, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, and catalase (CAT) activity determination. NBIX increased LPO in gastric mucosa and caused CAT inhibition and NPSH depletion in EtOH-treated animals. Results showed that NBIX did not protect gastric tissue against EtOH damage, and this could be associated to a prooxidant effect. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Ellagitannins from Rubus Berries for the Control of Gastric Inflammation: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sangiovanni, Enrico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Colombo, Elisa; Brunelli, Cecilia; Brembati, Laura; Trivulzio, Silvio; Gasperotti, Mattia; Mattivi, Fulvio; Bosisio, Enrica; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Ellagitannins have shown anti-inflammatory and anti-Helicobacter pylori properties; however, their anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level was not previously investigated. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of ellagitannins from Rubus berries on gastric inflammation. Ellagitannin enriched extracts (ETs) were prepared from Rubus fruticosus L. (blackberry) and Rubus idaeus L. (raspberry). The anti-inflammatory activity was tested on gastric cell line AGS stimulated by TNF-α and IL-1β for evaluating the effect on NF-kB driven transcription, nuclear translocation and IL-8 secretion. In vivo the protective effect of ellagitannins was evaluated in a rat model of ethanol-induced gastric lesions. Rats were treated orally for ten days with 20 mg/kg/day of ETs, and ethanol was given one hour before the sacrifice. Gastric mucosa was isolated and used for the determination of IL-8 release, NF-kB nuclear translocation, Trolox equivalents, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In vitro, ETs inhibited TNF-α induced NF-kB driven transcription (IC50: 0.67–1.73 µg/mL) and reduced TNF-α-induced NF-kB nuclear translocation (57%–67% at 2 µg/mL). ETs inhibited IL-8 secretion induced by TNF-α and IL-1β at low concentrations (IC50 range of 0.7–4 µg/mL). Sanguiin H-6 and lambertianin C, the major ETs present in the extracts, were found to be responsible, at least in part, for the effect of the mixtures. ETs of blackberry and raspberry decreased Ulcer Index by 88% and 75% respectively and protected from the ethanol induced oxidative stress in rats. CINC-1 (the rat homologue of IL-8) secretion in the gastric mucosa was reduced in the animals receiving blackberry and raspberry ETs. The effect of ETs on CINC-1 was associated to a decrease of NF-κB nuclear translocation in ETs treated animals. The results of the present study report for the first time the preventing effect of ETs in gastric inflammation and support for their use in dietary regimens

  14. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  15. Autophagy protects gastric mucosal epithelial cells from ethanol-induced oxidative damage via mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Weilong; Bai, Jie; Tian, Shaobo; Ma, Muyuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Yuping; Deng, Rui; Cui, Jinyuan; Li, Jinjin; Wang, Guobin; Tao, Kaixiong

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is an important cause of gastric mucosal epithelial cell injury and gastric ulcers. A number of studies have demonstrated that autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved cellular mechanism, has a protective effect on cell survival. However, it is not known whether autophagy can protect gastric mucosal epithelial cells against the toxic effects of ethanol. In the present study, gastric mucosal epithelial cells (GES-1 cells) and Wistar rats were treated with ethanol to detect the adaptive response of autophagy. Our results demonstrated that ethanol exposure induced gastric mucosal epithelial cell damage, which was accompanied by the downregulation of mTOR signaling pathway and activation of autophagy. Suppression of autophagy with pharmacological agents resulted in a significant increase of GES-1 cell apoptosis and gastric mucosa injury, suggesting that autophagy could protect cells from ethanol toxicity. Furthermore, we evaluated the cellular oxidative stress response following ethanol treatment and found that autophagy induced by ethanol inhibited generation of reactive oxygen species and degradation of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that ethanol can activate autophagy via downregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, serving as an adaptive mechanism to ameliorate oxidative damage induced by ethanol in gastric mucosal epithelial cells. Therefore, modifying autophagy may provide a therapeutic strategy against alcoholic gastric mucosa injury. Impact statement The effect and mechanism of autophagy on ethanol-induced cell damage remain controversial. In this manuscript, we report the results of our study demonstrating that autophagy can protect gastric mucosal epithelial cells against ethanol toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that ethanol can activate autophagy via downregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, serving as an adaptive mechanism to ameliorate ethanol-induced oxidative damage in

  16. Gastric Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of GES to treat patients who have: a) chronic refractory symptomatic GP; or b) morbid obesity. The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases. The GRADE approach was used to systematically and explicitly make judgments about the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. Findings As stated by the GRADE Working Group, the following definitions were used in grading the quality of the evidence in Tables 1 and 2. High Further research is very unlikely to change our confidence in the estimate of effect. Moderate Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate. Low Further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate. Very Low Any estimate of effect is very uncertain Table 1: GRADE Quality of Studies – Gastroparesis Outcome Design Quality Consistency Directness Overall Quality Reduced vomiting & nausea(1° end point) RCT(Abell et al. 2003)Case Series LowWhy?Confounders related to diabetes.Possible Type 2 error for subgroup analyses.Subjective self-reported end point.Posthoc change in primary end point analysis.No sample size justification.Concomitant prokinetic/antiemetic therapy.Same as above. Some uncertainty.Why?Only 1 RCT (with different results for FDA and publication). Some uncertainty.Why?GES originally hypothesized to correct gastric rhythms, stimulate gastric emptying and therefore eliminate symptoms.Now hypothesized to directly act on neurons to the CNS to control symptoms.Weak correlation between symptoms and gastric emptying.Unclear whether gastric emptying is still considered an end point to investigate. Low Improved gastric emptying(2° end point) Open label portion of Abell et al. 2003

  17. Iris metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-08

    Iris metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is extremely rare. Herein, it is aimed to report on a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and iris metastasis. A 65-year-old patient with the history of gastric cancer was admitted for eye pain and eye redness on his left eye. There was ciliary injection, severe +4 cells with hypopyon in the anterior chamber and a solitary, friable, yellow-white, fleshy-creamy vascularized 2 mm × 4 mm mass on the upper nasal part of the iris within the left eye. The presented patient's mass lesion in the iris fulfilled the criteria of the metastatic iris lesion's appearance. The ocular metastasis occurred during chemotherapy. Iris metastasis can masquerade as iridocyclitis with pseudohypopyon or glaucoma. In patients with a history of gastric cancer that present with an iris mass, uveitis, and high intraocular pressure, ocular metastasis of gastric cancer should be a consideration.

  18. Poncirin Induces Apoptosis in AGS Human Gastric Cancer Cells through Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway by up-Regulation of Fas Ligand.

    PubMed

    Saralamma, Venu Venkatarame Gowda; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Ho Jeong; Yumnam, Silvia; Raha, Suchismita; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-09-18

    Poncirin, a natural bitter flavanone glycoside abundantly present in many species of citrus fruits, has various biological benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The anti-cancer mechanism of Poncirin remains elusive to date. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of Poncirin in AGS human gastric cancer cells (gastric adenocarcinoma). The results revealed that Poncirin could inhibit the proliferation of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was observed Poncirin induced accumulation of sub-G1 DNA content, apoptotic cell population, apoptotic bodies, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner in AGS cells. The expression of Fas Ligand (FasL) protein was up-regulated dose dependently in Poncirin-treated AGS cells Moreover, Poncirin in AGS cells induced activation of Caspase-8 and -3, and subsequent cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Inhibitor studies' results confirm that the induction of caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in Poncirin-treated AGS cells was led by the Fas death receptor. Interestingly, Poncirin did not show any effect on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and Bak) and anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-xL) in AGS-treated cells followed by no activation in the mitochondrial apoptotic protein caspase-9. This result suggests that the mitochondrial-mediated pathway is not involved in Poncirin-induced cell death in gastric cancer. These findings suggest that Poncirin has a potential anti-cancer effect via extrinsic pathway-mediated apoptosis, possibly making it a strong therapeutic agent for human gastric cancer.

  19. Structural Diversity of Human Gastric Mucin Glycans*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chunsheng; Kenny, Diarmuid T.; Skoog, Emma C.; Padra, Médea; Adamczyk, Barbara; Vitizeva, Varvara; Thorell, Anders; Venkatakrishnan, Vignesh; Lindén, Sara K.; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2017-01-01

    The mucin O-glycosylation of 10 individuals with and without gastric disease was examined in depth in order to generate a structural map of human gastric glycosylation. In the stomach, these mucins and their O-glycosylation protect the epithelial surface from the acidic gastric juice and provide the first point of interaction for pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori, reported to cause gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. The rational of the present study was to map the O-glycosylation that the pathogen may come in contact with. An enormous diversity in glycosylation was found, which varied both between individuals and within mucins from a single individual: mucin glycan chain length ranged from 2–13 residues, each individual carried 34–103 O-glycan structures and in total over 258 structures were identified. The majority of gastric O-glycans were neutral and fucosylated. Blood group I antigens, as well as terminal α1,4-GlcNAc-like and GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAc-like (LacdiNAc-like), were common modifications of human gastric O-glycans. Furthemore, each individual carried 1–14 glycan structures that were unique for that individual. The diversity and alterations in gastric O-glycosylation broaden our understanding of the human gastric O-glycome and its implications for gastric cancer research and emphasize that the high individual variation makes it difficult to identify gastric cancer specific structures. However, despite the low number of individuals, we could verify a higher level of sialylation and sulfation on gastric O-glycans from cancerous tissue than from healthy stomachs. PMID:28461410

  20. Overview of Current Concepts in Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Jason D.; Borum, Marie L.; Koh, Joyce M.; Stephen, Sindu

    2018-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a precancerous change of the mucosa of the stomach with intestinal epithelium, and is associated with an increased risk of dysplasia and cancer. The pathogenesis to gastric cancer is proposed by the Correa hypothesis as the transition from normal gastric epithelium to invasive cancer via inflammation followed by intramucosal cancer and invasion. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia interplay, including Helicobacter pylori infection and associated genomics, host genetic factors, environmental milieu, rheumatologic disorders, diet, and intestinal microbiota. Globally, screening guidelines have been established in countries with high incidence. In the United States, no such guidelines have been developed due to lower, albeit increasing, incidence. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends a case-by-case patient assessment based upon epidemiology, genetics, and environmental risk factors. Studies have examined the use of a serologic biopsy to stratify risk based upon factors such as H pylori status and virulence factors, along with serologic markers of chronic inflammation including pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and gastrin. High-risk patients may then be advised to undergo endoscopic evaluation with mapping biopsies from the antrum (greater curvature, lesser curvature), incisura angularis, and corpus (greater curvature, lesser curvature). Surveillance guidelines have not been firmly established for patients with known gastric intestinal metaplasia, but include repeat endoscopy at intervals according to the histologic risk for malignant transformation. PMID:29606921

  1. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Neilsen, Colleen; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A

    2014-11-01

    To describe the successful management of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in a red panda. Clinical report. Red panda diagnosed with GDV. A 12-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was evaluated for acute onset inappetence, staggering, collapse, and tachypnea. Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) was diagnosed by radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and exploratory celiotomy. Torsion of the stomach was corrected and an incisional gastropexy performed to prevent recurrence. No organs were devitalized, no other abnormalities detected, and the red panda recovered fully within 72 hours. GDV should be considered as a differential diagnosis for red pandas presenting with acute onset of unspecific signs such as collapse, inappetence, and abdominal distension. GDV in red pandas can be diagnosed and successfully treated as described in dogs. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. Evidence of gastric ulcer healing activity of Maytenus robusta Reissek: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Cury, Benhur Judah; Steimbach, Viviane Miranda Bispo; Silveria, Alessandro Conrado de Oliveira; Niero, Rivaldo; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Santin, José Roberto; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2015-12-04

    Maytenus robusta Reissek (Celastraceae) is traditionally used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat gastric ulcer, as a substitute for M. ilicifolia, which is almost extinct. The gastroprotective properties of M. robusta were demonstrated previously using only preventive approaches, such as acute gastric ulcer models. However, the healing effect of M. robusta in gastric ulcers remains unclear. The current study was carried out to investigate the healing effectiveness of M. robusta hydroalcoholic extract (HEMR) from aerial parts in the acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer model and to determine its effect on cell proliferation, scavenging free radicals, and inflammatory and oxidative damage. To evaluate the healing properties of HEMR in vivo, chronic gastric ulcer was induced in rats by 80% acid acetic. Next, different groups of animals (n=6) were treated orally with vehicle (water plus 1% tween, 1 ml/kg), omeprazole (20mg/kg), or HEMR (1-10mg/kg), twice daily for 7 days. At the end of the treatment, the total ulcer area (mm(2)) was measured and a sample of gastric tissue was taken for histological and histochemical analysis. Evaluation of GSH and LOOH levels, GST, SOD, CAT and MPO activity was also performed at the site of the lesion. In parallel, radical scavenging activity, cytoprotective effect, and cell proliferation activity in fibroblasts (L929 cells) were determined by in vitro trials. The antisecretory properties were evaluated using the pylorus ligature model in rats, and the anti-Helicobacter pylori activity was determined in vitro. Acute toxicity was evaluated by relative organ weight and biochemical parameters in serum. The prokinetic properties were also evaluated in mice. Oral administration of HEMR (10mg/kg) reduced the gastric ulcer area by 53%, compared to the vehicle group (120.0 ± 8.3mm(2)), the regeneration of gastric mucosa was evidenced in histological analysis. Moreover, HEMR treatment increased gastric mucin content and reduced oxidative stress

  3. Subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Roberto; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Santoro, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Although a steady decline in the incidence and mortality rates of gastric carcinoma has been observed in the last century worldwide, the absolute number of new cases/year is increasing because of the aging of the population. So far, surgical resection with curative intent has been the only treatment providing hope for cure; therefore, gastric cancer surgery has become a specialized field in digestive surgery. Gastrectomy with lymph node (LN) dissection for cancer patients remains a challenging procedure which requires skilled, well-trained surgeons who are very familiar with the fast-evolving oncological principles of gastric cancer surgery. As a matter of fact, the extent of gastric resection and LN dissection depends on the size of the disease and gastric cancer surgery has become a patient and “disease-tailored” surgery, ranging from endoscopic resection to laparoscopic assisted gastrectomy and conventional extended multivisceral resections. LN metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients that undergo curative resection. LN dissection remains the most challenging part of the operation due to the location of LN stations around major retroperitoneal vessels and adjacent organs, which are not routinely included in the resected specimen and need to be preserved in order to avoid dangerous intra- and postoperative complications. Hence, the surgeon is the most important non-TMN prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Subtotal gastrectomy is the treatment of choice for middle and distal-third gastric cancer as it provides similar survival rates and better functional outcome compared to total gastrectomy, especially in early-stage disease with favorable prognosis. Nonetheless, the resection range for middle-third gastric cancer cases and the extent of LN dissection at early stages remains controversial. Due to the necessity of a more extended procedure at advanced stages and the trend for more conservative treatments in early gastric cancer, the

  4. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of alpha lipoic acid protect against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Asmaa M S; Abd El-Mottaleb, Nashwa A; Aamer, Hazem A

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gastric ulcer and the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in their modulation. Hence, this experimental study was designed to assess the possible protective effect of ALA against indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric ulcer in rats, as well as to determine the possible underlying mechanisms with a special focus on TNF-α, PAI-1, and iNOS. Adult male rats (n = 28) were divided into four equal groups: the control group received distilled water, the vehicle group received 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, the ulcer group received a single oral dose of IND (50 mg/kg) and the ALA-treated group received ALA (100 mg/kg) orally for 3 days before ulcer induction. Four hours after IND administration, all rats were sacrificed. The ulcer index, and gastric tissue homogenate contents of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), TNF-α, and PAI-1 were evaluated. Immunohistochemical evaluation of iNOS protein expression and histopathological examination of gastric tissue were investigated. The results revealed that ALA pretreatment significantly decreased the ulcer index, the gastric levels of MDA, TNF-α, PAI-1, and iNOS protein expression while increased the gastric levels of TAC as well as improved the histopathological appearance of gastric tissues. In conclusion, ALA ameliorated the IND-induced gastric ulceration. This could be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities via suppression of TNF-α-induced elevation of both PAI-1 level and iNOS expression in the gastric tissue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Total gastrectomy for gastric cancer: can the type of lymphadenectomy condition the long-term results?].

    PubMed

    Di Martino, N; Izzo, G; Cosenza, A; Vicenzo, L; Monaco, L; Torelli, F; Basciotti, A; Brillantino, A; Marra, A

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second tumor for frequency in the world. Surgery is still the only curative treatment. Good results in terms of long distance survival, postoperative morbidity and mortality have been achieved in the last years. The extension of lymphadenectomy is an important and discussed matter and it is not clear if lymphadenectomy may contribute to improve the surgical results. The Japanese surgeons were the first ones, in the 60's, to introduce a D2-D3 extended lymphadenectomy, but the real benefits of this technique are still being discussed. Indeed lymphonodal metastasis seem to be one of the most important prognostic factors in the gastric cancer and the level and the number of metastatic nodes are useful to predict the patients' survival. The aim of this study is to value the D2 lymphadenectomy in the patients who were treated with total gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma, comparing the results both with the D1 lymphadenectomy and the D3-D4, paying attention to the survival rates related with the lymphonodal dissection. From 1998 to 2004, we studied 87 patients with gastric cancer. Out of 78 patients treated surgically, 9 were judged unresectable. Out of 69 patients treated surgically, one died before surgery and so he was put away by this study. All the patients were treated with total gastrectomy and a GI tract reconstruction by Roux's Y termino-lateral esophageal-jejunal anastomosis. In 20 patients we also made a splenectomy. We followed the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer guidelines, according to which nodes are gathered into 16 levels and divided in 4 groups (N1-N4) depending on the cancer localization. The extension of the lymphadenectomy has been classified according to the level of the removed nods. The patients were divided into 3 groups. First group: patients undergone a total gastrectomy with D1 lymphadenectomy. Second group: patients undergone D2 lymphadenectomy. Third group: patients undergone D3 and D4 lymphadenectomy

  6. Gastric metastasis of cervix uteri carcinoma, rare cause of lower gastric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, B; Banu, E; Pocreaţă, D; Buiga, R; Rogoz, S; Pripisi, L; Cimpeanu, L; Moldovan, A; Jeder, O; Badea, A; Biris, P

    2012-01-01

    the paper presents a rare case of metachronous gastric metastasis of uterine cervix cancer, clinically manifested through severe pyloric stenosis. 49-year-old patient, operated on in January 2009, with uterine cervix cancer (Squamous cell carcinoma T2bN1M0), is hospitalized in August 2011 with pyloric stenosis: epigastric pains, abundant, stasis, late postprandial emesis, significant weight loss, stomach form visible upon abdomen inspection. Endoscopy: antral stenosis with intact gastric mucosa, and CT-scan: circumferential intramural gastric tumor, stomach dilated in the upper part, lack of cleavage between the tumor and the liver bed of the gall bladder. CEA increased to 13,78 (below 5), CA 19-9 slightly increased 29.9 (below 27). The case is considered as a second neoplasia and a D2 subtotal gastrectomy was performed, with 1 positive ganglion out of 27 on block with atypical hepatectomy of segments 4-5 for liver invasion, the final mounting being Y Roux. The histopathological examination shows a gastric metastasis of squamous carcinoma, of uterine cervix origin, the invaded perigastric ganglion having the same aspect of uterine cervix carcinoma. The post-surgery evolution was favorable, under chemo radiotherapy the patient being alive without relapse at 9 months post-surgery. In the literature there are 2 more cases of gastric metastasis of uterine cervix carcinoma, and 4 of uterine carcinoma without topographic indication, but without the histological documentation of the tumor filiation, without data related to resecability or follow-up, the case at hand being, from this perspective, the first documented resectable metachronous gastric metastasis from a cervix uteri carcinoma. Celsius.

  7. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P < 0.0001). When stratified by age, the prevalence was highest among young patients, and tended to decrease in patients aged 50 years or older. The anti-East-Asian CagA-specific antibody was negative in 99.4% of H. pylori-positive Mongolian patients. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia scores were significantly lower in Mongolian compared to Japanese H. pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001), with the exception of the intestinal

  8. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-07-21

    To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P < 0.0001). When stratified by age, the prevalence was highest among young patients, and tended to decrease in patients aged 50 years or older. The anti-East-Asian CagA-specific antibody was negative in 99.4% of H. pylori-positive Mongolian patients. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia scores were significantly lower in Mongolian compared to Japanese H. pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001), with the exception of the intestinal metaplasia score of

  9. Geraniol-a flavoring agent with multifunctional effects in protecting the gastric and duodenal mucosa.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid Moraes; Bonamin, Flavia; Dos Santos, Raquel Cássia; Périco, Larissa Lucena; Beserra, Fernando Pereira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Filho, José Maria Barbosa; da Rocha, Lucia Regina Machado; Hiruma-Lima, Clelia Akiko

    2014-04-01

    Geraniol is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol commonly used as a flavoring agent. The present study was undertaken to investigate antiulcerogenic effects of geraniol and to determine the possible mechanisms involved in this action. In the model of the ethanol-induced ulcer, treatment of rats with geraniol by oral route significantly inhibited gastric lesions by 70 % (7.50 mg/kg) to 99 % (200 mg/kg). Analysis of the gastric tissue of rats treated with geraniol (7.50 mg/kg) revealed that total glutathione content levels (GSH) increased and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) decreased in the gastric mucosa. Oral treatment with geraniol significantly decreased the number of ulcerative lesions induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury by 71 % and the duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine by 68 %. The action of geraniol was mediated by the activation of defensive mucosa-protective factors such as the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, endogenous prostaglandins, increased mucus production, increased sulfhydryl compounds, antioxidant properties and the stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release through the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV). The multifaceted gastroprotective mechanisms of geraniol represent a promising option for the treatment of gastric and duodenal mucosa injury.

  10. [Effect of manual acupuncture stimulation of "Zusanli" (ST 36) on gastric motility, and SP and motilin activities in gastric antrum and nucleus raphe magnus in gastric hyperactivity and hypoactivity rats].

    PubMed

    Yan, Chun-Chuan; Peng, Yan; Lin, Ya-Ping; Yi, Shou-Xiang; Chen, Ping; Hou, Yan-Ling; Shi, Dong-Mei

    2013-10-01

    To observe the changes of gastric motility and levels of substance P (SP) and motilin (MTL) in the gastric antrum and Nucleus Raphe Magnus (NRM) after manual acupuncture stimulation of "Zusanli" (ST 36) in gastric hyperactivity and hypoactivity rats, so as to analyze the role of NRM in acupuncture mediated adjustment of gastric motility. Fifty SD rats were randomly and equally divided into control, gastric hyperactivity (G-Hypera) model, gastric hypoactivity (G-Hypoa) model, acupuncture + G-Hypera and acupuncture + G-Hypoa groups (10 rats/group). G-Hypera model was established by intravenous (tail vein) injection of Maxolon (0.5 mL/200 g) and G-Hypoa model established by intravenous injection of Atropin (0.5 mL/200 g), respectively. After insertion of acupuncture needles into bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36), the needles were repeatedly manipulated at a frequency of about 2 Hz for 5 min. The intragastric pressure was recorded and analyzed using a physiological signal analysis system. The SP and MTL contents of gastric antrum were measured by ELISA, and SP and MTL immunoactivity of NRM was determined by immunohistochemistry. In gastric hyperactivity rats, compared with the control group, the intragastric pressure (not systolic frequency), SP and MTL contents in the gastric antrum and MTL immunoactivity of NRM were significantly increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), while SP immunoactivity of NRM was apparently decreased in the G-Hypera model group (P < 0.01). After acupuncture stimulation, the intragastric pressure, gastric SP and MTL contents, and MTL immunoactivity of NRM were all significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and SP immunoactivity of NRM was markedly up-regulated (P < 0.01) in comparison with the model group. In gastric hypoactivity rats, compared with the control group, the intragastric pressure and gastric systolic frequency, gastric SP and MTL contents, and MTL immunoactivity of NRM were significantly decreased (P < 0.05, PF < 0.01), while SP

  11. HORMONE SUBSTITUTION AFTER GASTRIC BYPASS SURGERY IN PATIENTS WITH HYPOPITUITARISM SECONDARY TO CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Peter; Winhofer, Yvonne; Smajis, Sabina; Kruschitz, Renate; Schindler, Karin; Gessl, Alois; Riedl, Michaela; Vila, Greisa; Raber, Wolfgang; Langer, Felix; Prager, Gerhard; Ludvik, Bernhard; Luger, Anton; Krebs, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are benign brain tumors presenting frequently in childhood and are treated by surgery with or without radiotherapy. About 50% of cured patients suffer from eating disorders and obesity due to hypothalamic damage, as well as hypopituitarism, necessitating subsequent hormone substitution therapy. Gastric bypass surgery has been reported to be an efficient treatment strategy for morbid hypothalamic obesity. However, so far it is unknown whether oral hormone substitution is affected by impaired intestinal drug absorption, potentially leading to severe hypopituitarism or pituitary crisis. Four morbidly obese CP patients with panhypopituitarism treated by gastric bypass surgery were included in this retrospective analysis. Dosages of hormone substitution therapy, blood concentrations of hormones, potential complications of impaired drug absorption, and anthropometric characteristics were investigated pre- and postoperatively after 6 to 14 months and 13 to 65 months. In all CP patients (3 female/1 male; baseline body mass index, 49 ± 7 kg/m(2)), gastric bypass resulted in distinct weight loss (-35 ± 27 kg). In follow-up examinations, mean daily dosage of thyroid hormone (levothyroxinebaseline 156 ± 44 μg/day versus levothyroxinefollow-up 150 ± 30 μg/day), hydrocortisone (hydrocortisonebaseline 29 ± 12 mg/day versus hydrocortisonefollow-up 26 ± 2 mg/day), growth-hormone (somatotropinbaseline 0.9 ± 0.5 mg/day versus somatotropinfollow-up 1.0 ± 0.4 mg/day), and desmopressin (desmopressinbaseline 222 ± 96 μg/day versus desmopressinfollow-up 222 ± 96 μg/day) substitution was unchanged. No patient developed adrenal insufficiency. Oral thyroid/hydrocortisone absorption testing performed in 1 patient indicated sufficient gastrointestinal drug absorption after bariatric surgery. Our preliminary results suggest that oral hormone substitution therapy is not impaired following gastric bypass operation in CP patients with morbid obesity

  12. Recent advances in photodynamic diagnosis of gastric cancer using 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Noriaki; Harada, Yoshinori; Minamikawa, Takeo; Tanaka, Hideo; Otsuji, Eigo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2016-01-21

    Photodynamic diagnosis based on 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX has been clinically applied in many fields based upon its evidenced efficacy and adequate safety. In order to establish a personalized medicine approach for treating gastric cancer patients, rapid intraoperative detection of malignant lesions has become important. Feasibility of photodynamic diagnosis using 5-aminolevulinic acid for gastric cancer patients has been investigated, especially for the detection of peritoneal dissemination and lymph node metastasis. This method enables intraoperative real-time fluorescence detection of peritoneal dissemination, exhibiting higher sensitivity than white light observation without histopathological examination. The method also enables detection of metastatic foci within excised lymph nodes, exhibiting a diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of a current molecular diagnostics technique. Although several complicating issues still need to be resolved, such as the effect of tissue autofluorescence and the insufficient depth penetration of excitation light, this simple and rapid method has the potential to become a useful diagnostic tool for gastric cancer, as well as urinary bladder cancer and glioma.

  13. Influence of hippophae rhamnoides on two appetite factors, gastric emptying and metabolic parameters, in children with functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Mantian; Qiu, Xiaoshan; Yue, Dianchao; Cai, Yongyi; Mo, Qingping

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to explore in children with functional dyspepsia the effect of hippophae rhamnoides on the levels of plasma appetite factors and on their gastrointestinal motility. A hundred and twenty children with functional dyspepsia were randomly divided into three groups: Group I (treated with hippophae rhamnoides), Group II (treated with domperidone), and Group III (treated with hippophae rhamnoides plus domperidone). The treatment lasted for eight weeks. The levels of plasma leptin (LP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were measured before and after treatment. All patients underwent a gastric emptying (GE) test by ultrasound (US) to measure the rate of postprandial gastric antrum residual, at 30min, 60min, 90min and 120min. The average value of subcutaneous fat, body fat percentage, upper arm girth and body mass index (BMI) were also measured. To compare the US with the radionuclide GE test 14 healthy adults volunteers were tested by both GE techniques. We found that the levels of LP and NPY in plasma were markedly higher after treatment in Groups I and III than in Group II. The postprandial gastric antrum remains at 60min, 90min and 120min in Groups I and III fell greatly and the thickness of skin fold (SF), body fat percentage and arm girth increased (P<0.05). The GE half emptying time of a mixed liquid-solid food measured by B US and by the radionuclide technique in the same individuals was similar (P>0.05). In conclusion, in children's functional dyspepsia, our study showed that hippophae rhamnoides increases the levels of appetite factors, leptin and neuropeptide Y, increases gastric emptying and gastrointestinal digestive function, children's growth and development.

  14. Acute Organoaxial gastric volvulus: A massive problem with a twist-case report.

    PubMed

    Al Daoud, Fadi; Daswani, Gul Sachwani; Perinjelil, Vinu; Nigam, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Gastric volvulus (GV) is a rare and life threatening condition if not treated promptly or wrongly diagnosed. The main complication of gastric volvulus is foregut obstruction. The extreme rotation can cut off blood supply to the stomach and even distal organs, which can lead to ischemia and necrosis of the affected area. We report a case of a 41yo female that complained of severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting for approximately 3days after eating a large meal. The patient didn't have any flatus or bowel movements in the last 24h. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed a dilatation of the stomach and esophageal hernia. Laparotomy confirmed an organoaxial volvulus at the level of the antrum and body of the stomach. Gastropexy was implemented and the stomach fixed to the posterior abdominal wall to prevent recurrence. GV may have a significant related morbidity and mortality rate. It can be missed easily on diagnosis. The presence of vomiting not responding to initial antiemetic treatment, as well as, the presence of a hiatal hernia on the imaging studies should trigger our thinking of gastric volvulus, regardless of the stable appearance of the patient. Chronic GV can manifests as atypical chest, abdomen and gastro intestinal symptoms. We recommend that everyone with these atypical symptoms seek medical attention to rule out GV. Early diagnosis and treatment will reduce the risk of developing chronic gastric volvulus to acute gastric volvulus. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Plug-Assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for the Treatment of Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min-Yung; Kim, Man-Deuk; Kim, Taehwan; Shin, Wonseon; Shin, Minwoo; Kim, Gyoung Min; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) to treat gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. From May 2012 to June 2014, 19 patients (11 men and 8 women, median age; 61, with history of gastric variceal hemorrhage; 17, active bleeding; 2) who underwent PARTO using a vascular plug and a gelfoam pledget were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were examined to evaluate primary (technical and clinical success, complications) and secondary (worsening of esophageal varix [EV], change in liver function) end points. Median follow-up duration was 11 months, from 6.5 to 18 months. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare laboratory data before and after the procedure. Technical success (complete occlusion of the efferent shunt and complete filling of gastric varix [GV] with a gelfoam slurry) was achieved in 18 of 19 (94.7%) patients. The embolic materials could not reach the GV in 1 patient who had endoscopic glue injection before our procedure. The clinical success rate (no recurrence of gastric variceal bleeding) was the same because the technically failed patient showed recurrent bleeding later. Acute complications included fever (n = 2), fever and hypotension (n = 2; one diagnosed adrenal insufficiency), and transient microscopic hematuria (n = 3). Ten patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; all exhibited GV improvement, except 2 without endoscopic change. Five patients exhibited aggravated EV, and 2 of them had a bleeding event. Laboratory findings were significantly improved after PARTO. PARTO is technically feasible, safe, and effective for gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension.

  16. Aspirin can elicit the recurrence of gastric ulcer induced with acetic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Zhong; Huang, Guo-Ping; Yin, Guo-Li; Zhou, Gang; Guo, Chun-Juan; Xie, Chun-Gang; Jia, Bing-Bing; Wang, Jin-Fu

    2007-01-01

    This study was supported by grants of New Ideas Capability for Backbone Teachers in Universities of Heilongjiang and of Scientific Research foundation in Qiqihar Medical College. Ulcer recurrence and poor healing may be critically important to the development of serious gastrointestinal complications in patients with long-term non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The present study is to investigate the effects of aspirin on ulcer recurrence and healing quality and to explore the mechanism. Gastric ulcers were induced with acetic acid in rats; aspirin was administrated by gavage from day 25 to day 54 after ulcer induction. The gastric juice volume, pH, gastric mucus, gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were measured. The mRNA transcription of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were analyzed with RT-PCR and protein expression with Western blot. The gastric juice volume was significantly increased in aspirin group compared with those of fasting or saline control groups (P<0.01); while the pH, mucus, GMBF and PGE(2) were significantly decreased in aspirin treated rats compared with those of other two groups (P<0.01). COX-2, evaluated with mRNA and protein expression, was significantly augmented in aspirin group compared with others. The quality of ulcer healing (QOUH) in Aspirin group was poorer than that of fasting or saline control groups. Aspirin enhance the recurrence of gastric ulcer. The inhibition of cycloxygenase, mucus secretion and mucosal blood flow may be involved. Aspirin also impair the quality of ulcer healing.

  17. Gastric Aspiration Models

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Bruce A.; Alluri, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    The procedures described below are for producing gastric aspiration pneumonitis in mice with alterations for rats and rabbits described parenthetically. We use 4 different injury vehicles delivered intratracheally to investigate the inflammatory responses to gastric aspiration: Normal saline (NS) as the injury vehicle controlNS + HCl, pH = 1.25 (acid)NS + gastric particles, pH ≈ 5.3 (part.)NS + gastric particles + HCl, pH = 1.25 (acid + part.) The volume, pH, and gastric particle concentration all affect the resulting lung injury. In mice, we generally use an injury volume of 3.6 ml/kg (rat: 1.2 ml/kg, rabbit: 2.4 ml/kg), an injury pH (for the acid-containing vehicles) of 1.25, and a gastric particulate concentration (in the particulate-containing vehicles) of 10 mg/ml (rat: 40 mg/ml). In our hands this results in a maximal, non-lethal lung injury with ≤ 10% mortality for the most injurious vehicle (i.e., acid + part.) The maximum tolerable particulate concentration needs to be determined empirically for any new strains to be used, especially in genetically-altered mice, because an altered inflammatory response may have detrimental affects on mortality. We have extensive experience utilizing these procedures in the outbred strain, CD-1, as well as many genetically-altered inbred stains on the C57BL/6 background. Choice of strain should be carefully considered, especially in terms of strain-specific immune bias, to assure proper data interpretation. The size of the mouse should be ≥ 20 g at the time of injury. Smaller mice can be attempted, if necessary, but the surgical manipulation becomes increasingly more difficult and the surgery survival rate decreases substantially. There are no size or strain cons