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Sample records for gastric variceal hemorrhage

  1. An Unusual Reason for Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage: Wandering Spleen.

    PubMed

    Köseoğlu, Hüseyin; Atalay, Roni; Büyükaşık, Naciye Şemnur; Canyiğit, Murat; Özer, Mehmet; Solakoğlu, Tevfik; Akın, Fatma Ebru; Bolat, Aylin Demirezer; Yürekli, Öykü Tayfur; Ersoy, Osman

    2015-12-01

    Wandering spleen is the displacement of the spleen due to the loss or weakening of the ligaments of the spleen and is seen very rarely with an incidence of less than 0.5 %. It can cause portal hypertension, but gastric variceal hemorrhage is a quite rare condition within the spectrum of this uncommon disease. We report a 22-year-old woman with wandering spleen presenting with life-threatening gastric variceal hemorrhage. Her diagnosis was made by computerized tomography. Endoscopic therapy was not adequate to stop the bleeding, and urgent splenectomy was performed. After surgery she has been well with no symptoms until now.

  2. [Digestive hemorrhage caused by gastric varices: usefulness of the techniques of endoscopic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Endozain Sosa, J C; Muñoz Núñez, F; Rodríguez Blanes, J A; González Murillo, M; González García, D; Berges Magaña, M; Castillo Grau, P; Presa Valle, M; Crespo Sánchez, M

    1992-08-01

    Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage secondary to gastric varices still has a high death rate. Fourteen patients were admitted to our unit with bleeding gastric varices from November 1989 to August 1991. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy obtained control of the bleeding in 92.3%; however, recurrences occurred in 33% of these cases in the first 24-48 hours, with a death rate of 50% during the second stage of the upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Total mortality rate was 21.4%. Of the fourteen patients, nine exhibited junctional varices, while five hand fundic varices. In ten of the fourteen patients, gastric varices developed during esophageal sclerotherapy. While hospitalized, it was observed that patients with gastric varices in the fundus had more recurrences and mortality, than those located next to the cardio-esophageal junction. Sclerosis of the varices only obtained temporary control of the bleeding with greater frequency of recurrences and mortality.

  3. Plug-Assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for the Treatment of Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Min-Yung; Kim, Taehwan; Shin, Wonseon; Shin, Minwoo; Kim, Gyoung Min; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) to treat gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. Materials and Methods From May 2012 to June 2014, 19 patients (11 men and 8 women, median age; 61, with history of gastric variceal hemorrhage; 17, active bleeding; 2) who underwent PARTO using a vascular plug and a gelfoam pledget were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were examined to evaluate primary (technical and clinical success, complications) and secondary (worsening of esophageal varix [EV], change in liver function) end points. Median follow-up duration was 11 months, from 6.5 to 18 months. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare laboratory data before and after the procedure. Results Technical success (complete occlusion of the efferent shunt and complete filling of gastric varix [GV] with a gelfoam slurry) was achieved in 18 of 19 (94.7%) patients. The embolic materials could not reach the GV in 1 patient who had endoscopic glue injection before our procedure. The clinical success rate (no recurrence of gastric variceal bleeding) was the same because the technically failed patient showed recurrent bleeding later. Acute complications included fever (n = 2), fever and hypotension (n = 2; one diagnosed adrenal insufficiency), and transient microscopic hematuria (n = 3). Ten patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; all exhibited GV improvement, except 2 without endoscopic change. Five patients exhibited aggravated EV, and 2 of them had a bleeding event. Laboratory findings were significantly improved after PARTO. Conclusion PARTO is technically feasible, safe, and effective for gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. PMID:26957908

  4. Plug-Assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for the Treatment of Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min-Yung; Kim, Man-Deuk; Kim, Taehwan; Shin, Wonseon; Shin, Minwoo; Kim, Gyoung Min; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) to treat gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. From May 2012 to June 2014, 19 patients (11 men and 8 women, median age; 61, with history of gastric variceal hemorrhage; 17, active bleeding; 2) who underwent PARTO using a vascular plug and a gelfoam pledget were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were examined to evaluate primary (technical and clinical success, complications) and secondary (worsening of esophageal varix [EV], change in liver function) end points. Median follow-up duration was 11 months, from 6.5 to 18 months. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare laboratory data before and after the procedure. Technical success (complete occlusion of the efferent shunt and complete filling of gastric varix [GV] with a gelfoam slurry) was achieved in 18 of 19 (94.7%) patients. The embolic materials could not reach the GV in 1 patient who had endoscopic glue injection before our procedure. The clinical success rate (no recurrence of gastric variceal bleeding) was the same because the technically failed patient showed recurrent bleeding later. Acute complications included fever (n = 2), fever and hypotension (n = 2; one diagnosed adrenal insufficiency), and transient microscopic hematuria (n = 3). Ten patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; all exhibited GV improvement, except 2 without endoscopic change. Five patients exhibited aggravated EV, and 2 of them had a bleeding event. Laboratory findings were significantly improved after PARTO. PARTO is technically feasible, safe, and effective for gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension.

  5. Can proton pump inhibitors reduce rebleeding following Histoacryl sclerotherapy for gastric variceal hemorrhage?

    PubMed

    Kim, Ka Rham; Jun, Chung Hwan; Cho, Kyu Man; Wi, Jin Woo; Park, Seon Young; Cho, Sung Bum; Lee, Wan Sik; Park, Chang Hwan; Joo, Young Eun; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in reducing rebleeding and bleeding-related death rates after endoscopic gastric variceal obliteration (GVO) using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBC). This study enrolled 341 patients who were consecutively diagnosed with and treated for bleeding gastric varices. The patients were divided into PPI and non-PPI groups, and their endoscopic findings, initial hemostasis outcomes, rebleeding and bleeding-related death rates, and treatment-related complications were analyzed. The rate of initial hemostasis was 97.1%. rebleeding occurred in 2.2% of patients within 2 weeks, 3.9% of patients within 4 weeks, 18.9% of patients within 6 months, and 27.6% of patients within 12 months of the GVO procedure. A previous history of variceal bleeding (relative risk [RR], 1.955; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.263 to 3.028; p = 0.003) and use of PPIs (RR, 0.554; 95% CI, 0.352 to 0.873; p = 0.011) were associated with rebleeding. Child-Pugh class C (RR, 10.914; 95% CI, 4.032 to 29.541; p < 0.001), failure of initial hemostasis (RR, 13.329; 95% CI, 2.795 to 63.556; p = 0.001), and the presence of red-colored concomitant esophageal varices (RR, 4.096; 95% CI, 1.320 to 12.713; p = 0.015) were associated with bleeding-related death. The prophylactic use of PPIs reduces rebleeding after GVO using NBC in patients with gastric variceal hemorrhage. However, prophylactic use of PPIs does not reduce bleeding-related death.

  6. Can proton pump inhibitors reduce rebleeding following Histoacryl sclerotherapy for gastric variceal hemorrhage?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ka Rham; Jun, Chung Hwan; Cho, Kyu Man; Wi, Jin Woo; Park, Seon Young; Cho, Sung Bum; Lee, Wan Sik; Park, Chang Hwan; Joo, Young Eun; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in reducing rebleeding and bleeding-related death rates after endoscopic gastric variceal obliteration (GVO) using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBC). Methods: This study enrolled 341 patients who were consecutively diagnosed with and treated for bleeding gastric varices. The patients were divided into PPI and non-PPI groups, and their endoscopic findings, initial hemostasis outcomes, rebleeding and bleeding-related death rates, and treatment-related complications were analyzed. Results: The rate of initial hemostasis was 97.1%. rebleeding occurred in 2.2% of patients within 2 weeks, 3.9% of patients within 4 weeks, 18.9% of patients within 6 months, and 27.6% of patients within 12 months of the GVO procedure. A previous history of variceal bleeding (relative risk [RR], 1.955; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.263 to 3.028; p = 0.003) and use of PPIs (RR, 0.554; 95% CI, 0.352 to 0.873; p = 0.011) were associated with rebleeding. Child-Pugh class C (RR, 10.914; 95% CI, 4.032 to 29.541; p < 0.001), failure of initial hemostasis (RR, 13.329; 95% CI, 2.795 to 63.556; p = 0.001), and the presence of red-colored concomitant esophageal varices (RR, 4.096; 95% CI, 1.320 to 12.713; p = 0.015) were associated with bleeding-related death. Conclusions: The prophylactic use of PPIs reduces rebleeding after GVO using NBC in patients with gastric variceal hemorrhage. However, prophylactic use of PPIs does not reduce bleeding-related death. PMID:26354053

  7. A Rare Case of Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage Secondary to Infiltrative B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Adrienne; Fernandez-Castillo, Juan; Mullins, Keith; Salgia, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Portal hypertension commonly arises in the setting of advanced liver cirrhosis and is the consequence of increased resistance within the portal vasculature. Less commonly, left-sided noncirrhotic portal hypertension can develop in a patient secondary to isolated obstruction of the splenic vein. We present a rare case of left-sided portal hypertension and isolated gastric varices in a patient with large B-cell lymphoma, who was treated with splenic artery embolization. The patient is a 73-year-old male with no previous history of liver disease, who presented with coffee ground emesis and melena. On admission to hospital, he was found to have a hemoglobin level of 3.4 g/l. Emergent esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed isolated bleeding gastric varices (IGV1 by Sarin classification) in the fundus and cardia with subsequent argon plasma coagulation injection. He was transferred to our tertiary center where work-up revealed normal liver function tests, and abdominal ultrasound showed patent hepatic/portal vasculature without cirrhosis. MRI demonstrated a large heterogeneously enhancing mass in the pancreatic tail, with invasion into the spleen and associated splenic vein thrombosis. Surgery consultation was obtained, but urgent splenectomy was not recommended. The patient instead underwent splenic artery embolization to prevent future bleeding from his known gastric varices. Pathology from a CT-guided biopsy was consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PET imaging showed uptake in the splenic hilum/pancreatic tail region with no additional metastatic involvement. He was evaluated by the Hematology Department to initiate R-CHOP chemotherapy. During his outpatient follow-up, he reported no further episodes of melena or hematemesis. To the best of our knowledge, there have only been two published case reports of large B-cell lymphoma causing upper gastrointestinal bleeding from isolated gastric varices. These cases were treated with splenectomy or chemotherapy alone

  8. Cyanoacrylate Injection Compared with Band Ligation for Acute Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jiaping; Chen, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cyanoacrylate injection (GVO) and band ligation (GVL) are effective treatments for gastric variceal hemorrhage. However, data on the optimal treatment are still controversial. Methods. For our overall analysis, relevant studies were identified from several databases. For each outcome, data were pooled using a fixed-effect or random-effects model according to the result of a heterogeneity test. Results. Seven studies were included. Compared with GVL, GVO was associated with increased likelihood of hemostasis of active bleeding (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19–4.51) and a longer gastric variceal rebleeding-free period (hazard ratio = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.24–0.56). No significant differences were observed between GVL and GVO for mortality (hazard ratio = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.43–1.02), likelihood of variceal obliteration (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.52–1.54), number of treatment sessions required for complete variceal eradication (weighted mean difference = −0.45; 95% CI = −1.14–0.23), or complications (OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.48–2.19). Conclusion. GVO may be superior to GVL for achieving hemostasis and preventing recurrence of gastric variceal rebleeding but has no advantage over GVL for mortality and complications. Additional studies are warranted to enable definitive conclusions. PMID:24868204

  9. Endovascular management of gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Saad, Wael E

    2014-11-01

    Bleeding from gastric varices is a major complication of portal hypertension. Although less common than bleeding associated with esophageal varices, gastric variceal bleeding has a higher mortality. From an endovascular perspective,transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) to decompress the portal circulation and/or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) are utilized to address bleeding gastric varices. Until recently, there was a clear medical cultural divide between the strategy of decompressing the portal circulation (TIPS creation, for example) and transvenous obliteration for the management of gastric varices. However, the practice of BRTO is gaining acceptance in the United States and its practice is spreading rapidly. Recently, the American College of Radiology has identified BRTO to be a viable alternative to TIPS in particular anatomical and clinical scenarios. However, the anatomical and clinical applications of BRTO were not defined beyond the conservative approach of resorting to BRTO in non-TIPS candidates. The article discusses the outcomes of BRTO and TIPS for the management of gastric varices individually or in combination. Definitions, endovascular technical concepts and contemporary vascular classifications of gastric variceal systems are described in order to help grasp the complexity of the hemodynamic pathology and hopefully help define the pathology better for future reporting and lay the ground for more defined stratification of patients not only based on comorbidity and hepatic reserve but on anatomy and hemodynamic classifications.

  10. Embolization of Large Gastric Varices Using Vena Cava Filter and Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Jason M.; Shah, Himanshu Stecker, Michael S.; Namyslowski, Jan

    2004-08-15

    A 40-year-old male with alcoholic cirrhosis and portal hypertension presented with acute variceal hemorrhage. Abdominal CT scan and endoscopy revealed large gastric varices. The patient underwent a TIPS procedure. Portal venography demonstrated persistent filling of the large gastric varices with associated high-flow spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Because of the large size of the varices, a Simon-Nitinol filter was used in conjunction with multiple embolization coils to enable successful occlusion of the varices.

  11. Hepatic Angiosarcoma Associated with Esophageal Variceal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Zensho; Kajihara, Mikio; Kobayashi, Yasunobu; Kanai, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Takakura, Kazuki; Yukawa, Toyokazu; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koyama, Seita; Imazu, Hiroo; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Ohata, Mitsuru; Koido, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Primary hepatic angiosarcoma is a very rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. Because patients present with no specific symptoms, the cancer can grow undetected and most cases are diagnosed too late for resection. We present the case of a 78-year-old Japanese man admitted to our hospital with massive hematemesis and melena. A total gastrectomy had previously been performed on the patient to treat gastric cancer. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy was performed to control the bleeding from varices over the anastomosis. Computed tomography revealed the presence of multiple atypical liver nodules in the enhanced image. Histological diagnosis of hepatic angiosarcoma was obtained by percutaneous ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma and acute variceal hemorrhage. PMID:27721730

  12. Isolated non-hemorrhagic cecal varices.

    PubMed

    Haddad, James D; Lacey, Brent W

    2014-11-01

    Ectopic varices (those outside of the gastro-esophageal region) are occasionally found on endoscopy in patients with portal hypertension; however they account for a small minority of all variceal bleeds. Cases of isolated cecal varices are quite rare and, when described, often present with acute hemorrhage or evidence of occult bleeding. We present the case of a 29-year-old male with a history of idiopathic portal vein thrombosis and known esophageal varices, who presented for evaluation of abdominal pain. Cecal varices were found on endoscopy, without evidence of bleeding and without varices in the remainder of the colon or rectum. Endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography were useful in confirming the diagnosis and natural history of these unusual varices. Published by Oxford University Press and the Digestive Science Publishing Co. Limited 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Endoscopic Color Doppler Ultrasonographic Evaluation of GastricVarices Secondary to Left-Sided Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Kimura, Mutsuumi; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Gastric varices that arise secondary to the splenic vein occlusion can result in gastrointestinal hemorrhaging. Endoscopic color Doppler ultrasonography (ECDUS) was performed in 16 patients with gastric varices secondary to splenic vein occlusion. This study retrospectively evaluated the role of ECDUS in the diagnosis of gastric varices secondary to splenic vein occlusion. Thirteen patients had co-existing pancreatic diseases: 8 with chronic pancreatitis, 4 with cancer of the pancreatic body or tail and 1 with severe acute pancreatitis. Of the remaining 3 patients, 1 had myeloproliferative disease, 1 had advanced gastric cancer, and the third had splenic vein occlusion due to an obscure cause. The endoscopic findings of gastric varices were: variceal form (F) classified as enlarged tortuous (F2) in 12 cases and large, coil-shaped (F3) in 4 cases, and positive for erosion or red color sign of the variceal surface in 4 cases and negative in 12 cases. ECDUS color flow images of gastric variceal flow clearly depicted a round fundal region at the center, with varices expanding to the curvatura ventriculi major of the gastric body in all 16 cases. The velocities of F3 type gastric varices were significantly higher than those of the F2 type. The wall thickness of varices positive for erosion or red color sign was significantly less than the negative cases. I conclude that ECDUS color flow images of gastric variceal flow depicted specific findings of gastric varices secondary to splenic vein occlusion at the round fundal region at the center, with varices expanding to the curvatura ventriculi major of the gastric body. PMID:26852679

  14. Computed tomographic recognition of gastric varices

    SciTech Connect

    Balthazar, E.J.; Megibow, A.; Naidich, D.; LeFleur, R.S.

    1984-06-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 13 consecutive patients with proven gastric varices were analyzed and correlated with the radiographic, angiographic, and gastroscopic evaluations. In 11 patients, CT clearly identified large (five) or smaller (six) varices located mainly along the posteromedial wall of the gastric fundus and proximal body of the stomach. Well defined rounded or tubular densities that enhanced during intravenous administration of contrast material and could not be distinguished from the gastric wall were identified. Dense, enhancing, round or tubular, intraluminal filling defects were seen in the cases where the stomach was distended with water. In seven patients, the CT examination correctly diagnosed the pathogenesis of gastric varices by identifying hepatic cirrhosis, calcific pancreatis, and carcinoma of the pancreas.

  15. MANAGEMENT OF VARICEAL HEMORRHAGE: CURRENT CONCEPTS

    PubMed Central

    COELHO, Fabricio Ferreira; PERINI, Marcos Vinícius; KRUGER, Jaime Arthur Pirola; FONSECA, Gilton Marques; de ARAÚJO, Raphael Leonardo Cunha; MAKDISSI, Fábio Ferrari; LUPINACCI, Renato Micelli; HERMAN, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The treatment of portal hypertension is complex and the the best strategy depends on the underlying disease (cirrhosis vs. schistosomiasis), patient's clinical condition and time on it is performed (during an acute episode of variceal bleeding or electively, as pre-primary, primary or secondary prophylaxis). With the advent of new pharmacological options and technical development of endoscopy and interventional radiology treatment of portal hypertension has changed in recent decades. Aim To review the strategies employed in elective and emergency treatment of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic and schistosomotic patients. Methods Survey of publications in PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, SciELO and Cochrane databases through June 2013, using the headings: portal hypertension, esophageal and gastric varices, variceal bleeding, liver cirrhosis, schistosomiasis mansoni, surgical treatment, pharmacological treatment, secondary prophylaxis, primary prophylaxis, pre-primary prophylaxis. Conclusion Pre-primary prophylaxis doesn't have specific treatment strategies; the best recommendation is treatment of the underlying disease. Primary prophylaxis should be performed in cirrhotic patients with beta-blockers or endoscopic variceal ligation. There is controversy regarding the effectiveness of primary prophylaxis in patients with schistosomiasis; when indicated, it is done with beta-blockers or endoscopic therapy in high-risk varices. Treatment of acute variceal bleeding is systematized in the literature, combination of vasoconstrictor drugs and endoscopic therapy, provided significant decline in mortality over the last decades. TIPS and surgical treatment are options as rescue therapy. Secondary prophylaxis plays a fundamental role in the reduction of recurrent bleeding, the best option in cirrhotic patients is the combination of pharmacological therapy with beta-blockers and endoscopic band ligation. TIPS or surgical treatment, are options for controlling rebleeding on

  16. Varices and Variceal Hemorrhage in Cirrhosis: A New View of an Old Problem.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Bosch, Jaime

    2015-11-01

    The management of portal hypertension in cirrhosis has evolved over time, leading to improvements in the care and survival of patients with varices and variceal hemorrhage, particularly in patients who achieve a significant reduction in portal pressure. In addition to better treatment strategies and improved therapeutic options, the issue of risk stratification has become essential to identify different patient subpopulations that require a different treatment. We now recognize that the management of varices and variceal hemorrhage must be taken in the context of other complications of cirrhosis (ascites, encephalopathy, jaundice) and that the goals of therapy should be based on the presence of such complications. Evolving knowledge of the predominant pathophysiological mechanisms at each of the stages of cirrhosis also has evolved and will continue to lead to improvements in therapy. This review focuses on the management of varices and variceal hemorrhage with respect to refinements in the risk stratification of patients with cirrhosis.

  17. Outcomes of TIPS for Treatment of Gastroesophageal Variceal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Parvinian, Ahmad; Gaba, Ron C.

    2014-01-01

    Variceal hemorrhage is a life-threatening complication of cirrhosis that requires a multidisciplinary approach to management. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure is a minimally invasive image-guided intervention used for secondary prevention of bleeding and as salvage therapy in acute hemorrhage. This review focuses on the role of TIPS in the setting of variceal hemorrhage, with emphasis on the pathophysiology and conventional management of variceal hemorrhage, current and emerging indications for TIPS creation, TIPS clinical outcomes, and the role of adjuvant embolotherapy. PMID:25177086

  18. [Treatment of recurrent hemorrhage esophageal varices in schistosomotic patients after surgery].

    PubMed

    Assef, José Cesar; de Capua Junior, Armando; Szutan, Luiz Arnaldo

    2003-01-01

    To standardize the treatment recurrent hemorrhage esophageal varices in schistosomotic patients after non decompressive surgery. We treated 45 patients with schistosomotic portal hypertension who presented recurrent hemorrhage esophageal varices. Performance of abdominal ultrasonography and arteriographic studies and two groups were defined: Group A: Nineteen patients (42.2%) with absence of spleen, occluded splenic artery and patency of left gastric artery and vein, thus characterizing splenectomy at prior operation. Group B: Twenty six patients (57.8%) with absence of spleen image, occluded splenic and left gastric artery and non-opacified left gastric vein, showing splenectomy and some type of gastroesophageal devascularization performed before. Patients of Group A were reoperated to carry out the gastroesophageal devascularization and patients of Group B were submitted to a sclerotherapy program. In Group A, one patient (5.3%) presented recurrent hemorrhage on the late postoperative period. The esophageal varices decreased in number or diameter in 14 patients (73.7%), disappeared in three (15.8%) and remained unchanged in two (10.5%), under final endoscopic evaluation. In Group B, six patients (23.1%) presented recurrent bleeding. In four patients the acute hemorrhagic event were controlled. Two patients who underwent mesocaval shunt owing to unsuccess of these methods died postoperatively. Esophageal varices disappeared in 17 patients (65.4%), decreased in number or diameter in seven (26.9%) and remained unchanged in two (7.7%) after the last endoscopic evaluation. 1) The gastroesophageal devascularization is appropriated to splenectomized patients, with patency of left gastric artery and vein. 2) A long term of esophageal varices endoscopic sclerotherapy may be an option to splenectomized patients, with occluded left gastric artery and non-opacified left gastric vein.

  19. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for the management of acute variceal hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Loffroy, Romaric; Estivalet, Louis; Cherblanc, Violaine; Favelier, Sylvain; Pottecher, Pierre; Hamza, Samia; Minello, Anne; Hillon, Patrick; Thouant, Pierre; Lefevre, Pierre-Henri; Krausé, Denis; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Acute variceal hemorrhage, a life-threatening condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach for effective therapy, is defined as visible bleeding from an esophageal or gastric varix at the time of endoscopy, the presence of large esophageal varices with recent stigmata of bleeding, or fresh blood visible in the stomach with no other source of bleeding identified. Transfusion of blood products, pharmacological treatments and early endoscopic therapy are often effective; however, if primary hemostasis cannot be obtained or if uncontrollable early rebleeding occurs, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is recommended as rescue treatment. The TIPS represents a major advance in the treatment of complications of portal hypertension. Acute variceal hemorrhage that is poorly controlled with endoscopic therapy is generally well controlled with TIPS, which has a 90% to 100% success rate. However, TIPS is associated with a mortality of 30% to 50% in such a setting. Emergency TIPS should be considered early in patients with refractory variceal bleeding once medical treatment and endoscopic sclerotherapy failure, before the clinical condition worsens. Furthermore, admission to specialized centers is mandatory in such a setting and regional protocols are essential to be organized effectively. This review article discusses initial management and then focuses on the specific role of TIPS as a primary therapy to control acute variceal hemorrhage, particularly as a rescue therapy following failure of endoscopic approaches. PMID:24115809

  20. Safety of direct endoscopic necrosectomy in patients with gastric varices

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Andrew C; Thompson, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the feasibility and safety of transgastric direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) in patients with walled-off necrosis (WON) and gastric varices. METHODS: A single center retrospective study of consecutive DEN for WON was performed from 2012 to 2015. All DEN cases with gastric fundal varices noted on endoscopy, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the admission for DEN were collected for analysis. In all cases, external urethral sphincter (EUS) with doppler was used to exclude the presence of intervening gastric varices or other vascular structures prior to 19 gauge fine-needle aspiration (FNA) needle access into the cavity. The tract was serially dilated to 20 mm and was entered with an endoscope for DEN. Pigtail stents were placed to facilitate drainage of the cavity. Procedure details were recorded. Comprehensive chart review was performed to evaluate for complications and WON recurrence. RESULTS: Fifteen patients who underwent DEN for WON had gastric varices at the time of their procedure. All patients had an INR < 1.5 and platelets > 50. Of these patients, 11 had splenic vein thrombosis and 2 had portal vein thrombosis. Two patients had isolated gastric varices, type 1 and the remaining 13 had > 5 mm gastric submucosal varices on imaging by CT, MRI or EUS. No procedures were terminated without completing the DEN for any reason. One patient had self-limited intraprocedural bleeding related to balloon dilation of the tract. Two patients experienced delayed bleeding at 2 and 5 d post-op respectively. One required no therapy or intervention and the other received 1 unit transfusion and had an EGD which revealed no active bleeding. Resolution rate of WON was 100% (after up to 2 additional DEN in one patient) and no patients required interventional radiology or surgical interventions. CONCLUSION: In patients with WON and gastric varices, DEN using EUS and doppler guidance may be performed safely. Successful resolution

  1. Endoscopic management of esophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Poza Cordon, Joaquin; Froilan Torres, Consuelo; Burgos García, Aurora; Gea Rodriguez, Francisco; Suárez de Parga, Jose Manuel

    2012-07-16

    The rupture of gastric varices results in variceal hemorrhage, which is one the most lethal complications of cirrhosis. Endoscopic therapies for varices aim to reduce variceal wall tension by obliteration of the varix. The two principal methods available for esophageal varices are endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) and band ligation (EBL). The advantages of EST are that it is cheap and easy to use, and the injection catheter fits through the working channel of a diagnostic gastroscope. Endoscopic variceal ligation obliterates varices by causing mechanical strangulation with rubber bands. The following review aims to describe the utility of EBL and EST in different situations, such as acute bleeding, primary and secondary prophylaxis.

  2. Massive Hemorrhage from Ectopic Duodenal Varices: Importance of a Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    House, Tyler; Webb, Patrick; Baarson, Chad

    2017-01-01

    Duodenal variceal bleeding is an uncommon complication of portal hypertension that can easily go unrecognized and reach mortality rates as high as 40%. Cirrhosis is the most common cause of duodenal varices. In most cases, duodenal varices occur concomitantly with esophageal varices, further complicating identification with initial endoscopy. Although many modalities have been explored with respect to management and treatment approaches, guidelines have yet to be established owing to the infrequency in which bleeding occurs from ectopic duodenal varices. We present a case of massive duodenal variceal hemorrhage that highlights the complexity of initial diagnosis and ultimately required a transesophageal intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with coil embolization for control of bleeding. PMID:28203136

  3. Intramural hemorrhage simulating gastric neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sheward, S E; Davis, M; Amparo, E G; Gogel, H K

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of benign gastric ulcer with secondary extensive intramural hemorrhage causing a radiographic appearance consistent with a large ulcerated gastric neoplasm. This is the second such case reported and the first studied with sonography and computed tomographic scan. A brief review of the literature on intramural gastric hematoma is presented.

  4. Laparoscopic splenectomy for a wandering spleen complicating gastric varices: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masanori; Miyaki, Yuichiro; Tochikubo, Junpei; Onoda, Takanobu; Shiiya, Norihiko; Wada, Hidetoshi

    2015-12-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare clinical entity, and its chronic torsion of the vascular pedicle result in splenic vein occlusion leading to gastric varices. Here, we present a case of wandering spleen complicating gastric varices in a 40-year-old female. Three-dimensional CT (3D-CT) clearly showed the disruption of the splenic vein at the origin of the vascular pedicle and collateral development of the gastric varices. The patient was electively treated with laparoscopic splenectomy. Difficulty of prediction of the splenic vein recanalization to improve the varices was the reason for the use of splenectomy versus splenopexy. The varices were successfully diminished 3 months after the surgery. After review of cases of complicating gastric varices in the literatures, splenectomy is still a secure way to treat an adult patient with wandering spleen with complicating gastric varices.

  5. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for Gastric Varices: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sonomura, Tetsuo; Sato, Morio; Kishi, Kazushi; Terada, Masaki; Shioyama, Yasukazu; Kimura, Masashi; Suzuki, Kenzo; Kutsukake, Yasumichi; Ushimi, Takashi; Tanaka, Junji; Hayashi, Seishu; Tanaka, Satoshi

    1998-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BORTO) for gastric varices. Methods: BORTO was performed in 14 patients with gastric varices due to liver cirrhosis. The gastric varices were confirmed by endoscopy, and their feeding and draining veins were identified by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and angiography. A 6 Fr Simmons-shaped balloon catheter was inserted into the gastrorenal shunt. The balloon was inflated, and 5% ethanolamine oleate iopamidol was infused slowly through the catheter. Patients were followed up with endoscopy and enhanced CT at 1 week, 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure and every 6 months thereafter. Results: The gastric varices completely disappeared in 12 of 14 patients and was partially resolved in the remaining 2 patients. Neither a recurrence nor an aggravation of gastric varices were found. No major complications were experienced. Conclusion: BORTO is a safe and effective treatment for gastric varices.

  6. Rebleeding rates following TIPS for variceal hemorrhage in the Viatorr era: TIPS alone versus TIPS with variceal embolization

    PubMed Central

    Bui, James T.; Cotler, Scott J.; Kallwitz, Eric R.; Mengin, Olga T.; Martinez, Brandon K.; Berkes, Jaime L.; Carrillo, Tami C.; Knuttinen, M. Grace; Owens, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare rebleeding rates following treatment of variceal hemorrhage with TIPS alone versus TIPS with variceal embolization in the covered stent-graft era. Methods In this retrospective study, 52 patients (M:F 29:23, median age 52 years) with hepatic cirrhosis and variceal hemorrhage underwent TIPS insertion between 2003 and 2008. Median Child–Pugh and MELD scores were 8.5 and 13.5. Generally, 10-mm diameter TIPS were created using covered stent-grafts (Viatorr; W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ). A total of 37 patients underwent TIPS alone, while 15 patients underwent TIPS with variceal embolization. The rates of rebleeding and survival were compared. Results All TIPS were technically successful. Median portosystemic pressure gradient reductions were 13 versus 11 mmHg in the embolization and non-embolization groups. There were no statistically significant differences in Child–Pugh and MELD score, or portosystemic pressure gradients between each group. A trend toward increased rebleeding was present in the non-embolization group, where 8/37 (21.6%) patients rebled while 1/15 (6.7%) patients in the TIPS with embolization group rebled (P = 0.159) during median follow-up periods of 199 and 252 days (P = 0.374). Rebleeding approached statistical significance among patients with acute hemorrhage, where 8/32 (25%) versus 0/14 (0%) rebled in the non-embolization and embolization groups (P = 0.055). A trend toward increased bleeding-related mortality was seen in the non-embolization group (P = 0.120). Conclusions TIPS alone showed a high incidence of rebleeding in this series, whereas TIPS with variceal embolization resulted in reduced recurrent hemorrhage. The efficacy of embolization during TIPS performed for variceal hemorrhage versus TIPS alone should be further compared with larger prospective randomized trials. PMID:21286346

  7. Rebleeding rates following TIPS for variceal hemorrhage in the Viatorr era: TIPS alone versus TIPS with variceal embolization.

    PubMed

    Gaba, Ron C; Bui, James T; Cotler, Scott J; Kallwitz, Eric R; Mengin, Olga T; Martinez, Brandon K; Berkes, Jaime L; Carrillo, Tami C; Knuttinen, M Grace; Owens, Charles A

    2010-08-06

    To compare rebleeding rates following treatment of variceal hemorrhage with TIPS alone versus TIPS with variceal embolization in the covered stent-graft era. In this retrospective study, 52 patients (M:F 29:23, median age 52 years) with hepatic cirrhosis and variceal hemorrhage underwent TIPS insertion between 2003 and 2008. Median Child-Pugh and MELD scores were 8.5 and 13.5. Generally, 10-mm diameter TIPS were created using covered stent-grafts (Viatorr; W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ). A total of 37 patients underwent TIPS alone, while 15 patients underwent TIPS with variceal embolization. The rates of rebleeding and survival were compared. All TIPS were technically successful. Median portosystemic pressure gradient reductions were 13 versus 11 mmHg in the embolization and non-embolization groups. There were no statistically significant differences in Child-Pugh and MELD score, or portosystemic pressure gradients between each group. A trend toward increased rebleeding was present in the non-embolization group, where 8/37 (21.6%) patients rebled while 1/15 (6.7%) patients in the TIPS with embolization group rebled (P = 0.159) during median follow-up periods of 199 and 252 days (P = 0.374). Rebleeding approached statistical significance among patients with acute hemorrhage, where 8/32 (25%) versus 0/14 (0%) rebled in the non-embolization and embolization groups (P = 0.055). A trend toward increased bleeding-related mortality was seen in the non-embolization group (P = 0.120). TIPS alone showed a high incidence of rebleeding in this series, whereas TIPS with variceal embolization resulted in reduced recurrent hemorrhage. The efficacy of embolization during TIPS performed for variceal hemorrhage versus TIPS alone should be further compared with larger prospective randomized trials.

  8. Cyanoacrylate glue in the management of gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Consolo, P; Luigiano, C; Giacobbe, G; Scaffidi, M G; Pellicano, R; Familiari, L

    2009-02-01

    Gastric varices (GV) are less common than esophageal varices, but their management represents a particular challenge. When bleeding occurs is usually severe, requiring immediate supportive intensive care and has a high mortality rate. The best management of GV is supposed to be with a multidisciplinary approach and close cooperation between gastroenterologists, interventional radiologists and the surgical team. Many studies in literature reported high success rates with intravariceal injection of cyanoacrylate in acute GV bleeding. This agent obliterates the variceal lumen by solidification within the vein and more than 80% primary obliteration rates are achieved. In comparison with other endoscopic techniques as variceal band ligation or sclerotherapy with ethanolamine oleate, alcohol and sodium tetradecyl sulphate, cyanoacrylate has shown to be more effective, with a decrease in complications and mortality rates. The cyanoacrylate has shown effective also in the secondary prophylaxis with an incidence of re-bleeding that ranges between 15% and 30%. Actually, there is no scientific evidence supporting the application of cyanoacrylate in primary prophylaxis of bleeding from GV. Significant procedural, septic and embolic complications have been reported with cyanoacrylate glue injection. In conclusion, the endoscopic treatment with cyanoacrylate of actively bleeding GV, as well as the prophylaxis of the re-bleeding, is a safe and effective procedure and should be considered as a first-line therapy, whenever available.

  9. Application of Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration to Gastric Varices Complicating Refractory Ascites

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Tetsuya; Hirota, Shozo; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Sugimoto, Koji; Fujii, Masahiko; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Izaki, Kenta; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-01-15

    We report two cases of gastric varices complicated by massive ascites that disappeared after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). The first patient had progressive gastric varices that continued to enlarge even after three episodes of esophagogastric variceal bleeding, and the second patient was admitted to our hospital because of the bleeding from gastric varices. After B-RTO procedures in both patients, significant improvement of the ascites, hepatic function reserve, and hypoalbuminemia was observed. Although further experience is needed, our experience points to the likelihood of the amelioration of ascites after B-RTO.

  10. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for recurrent fundal gastric variceal bleeding in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Danya; Chu, Jaime; Patel, Rahul; Moon, Jang; Iyer, Kishore; Arnon, Ronen

    2014-09-01

    Gastric variceal bleeding is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is a relatively new treatment used to control bleeding gastric varices that involves transvenous sclerosis of gastric varices through a spontaneous gastrorenal shunt. Here, we report on a 14-yr-old patient that underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for refractory bleeding fundal varices in the setting of esophageal varices and cirrhosis, which did not respond to medical management or endoscopic injection. This case report serves as a reminder that balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration can successfully control fundal variceal bleeding in pediatric patients and may serve as a bridge to liver transplantation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Successful endoscopic sclerotherapy for bleeding gastric varices with combined cyanoacrylate and aethoxysklerol

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bei; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Hui; Wu, Yun-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Two patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension related to hepatitis infection were admitted to Shanghai Ruijin Hospital due to recurrent melena and hematemesis. Isolated gastric varices were observed in the gastric fundus during the retroflexion of gastroscope. We carried out endoscopic sclerotherapy successfully for bleeding gastric varices with combined cyanoacrylate and aethoxysklerol, which disappeared dramatically several months after two courses of sclerotherapy for each patient. No complication and clinical signs of gastrointestinal re-bleeding were observed during the 6-mo endoscopic follow-up. CT portal angiography (CTPA) has been widely used in the assessment of variceal treatment and improves the results of endoscopic injection therapy. PMID:18567095

  12. Partial Splenic Embolization has Beneficial Effects for the Management of Gastroesophageal Variceal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Ruibo; Tong, Liquan; Zhang, Yangjing; Yue, Tongyun; Qiao, Haiquan; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Xueying

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Partial splenic embolization (PSE) is used in the management of gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage (GEVH). However, it is uncertain whether it has beneficial effects for GEVH patients in preventing variceal recurrence and variceal hemorrhage, as well as promoting overall survival (OS), when it is combined with conventional therapies. Materials and Methods: The databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google scholar, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to 11th of November, 2015. Meta-analyses were performed by using Review Manager 5.3 software for analyzing the risk of bias, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for assessing the bias of cohort studies, and GRADEprofiler software for assessing outcomes obtained from the meta-analyses. Results: A total of 1505 articles were reviewed, and 1 randomized controlled trial and 5 cohort studies with 244 participants were eligible for inclusion. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) of variceal recurrence is 0.50 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37, 0.68; P< 0.00001; I2 = 0%). The pooled HR of variceal hemorrhage is 0.24 (95% CI 0.15, 0.39; P< 0.00001; I2 = 0%). The pooled HR of OS is 0.50 (95% CI 0.33, 0.67; P< 0.00001; I2 = 0%). Meta-analyses demonstrated statistically significant superiority of combinational therapies over conventional therapies in preventing variceal recurrence and variceal hemorrhage and prolonging OS. The complications related to PSE were mild or moderate and nonfatal. Conclusions: The results indicate that PSE has beneficial effects for GEVH patients, however, future investigation with a larger number of subjects in clinical trials is warranted. PMID:27976634

  13. Endoscopic Approaches to the Treatment of Variceal Hemorrhage in Hemodialysis-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lili; Zeng, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jian; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Esophagogastric variceal hemorrhage leads to challenging situation in chronic kidney disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Aims. To determine the safety and efficacy of endoscopic approaches to patients with hemodialysis-dependent concomitant with esophagogastric varices. Methods. Medical records were reviewed from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2015, in our hospital. Five consecutive hemodialysis-dependent patients with variceal hemorrhage who underwent endoscopic treatments were retrospectively studied. Results. The median age of the patients was 54 years (range 34–67 years) and the median follow-up period was 21.3 months (range 7–134 months). All the patients received a total of three times heparin-free hemodialysis 24 hours before and no more than 24 hours and 72 hours after endoscopic treatment. They successfully had endoscopic variceal ligation, endoscopic injection sclerotherapy, and/or N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection. The short-term efficacy is satisfying and long-term follow-up showed episodes of rebleeding. Conclusions. Endoscopic approaches are the alternative options in the treatment of upper gastroenterology variceal hemorrhage in hemodialysis-dependent patients without severe complications. PMID:28105048

  14. Outcomes in variceal hemorrhage following the use of a balloon tamponade device

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, Jonathan; Stankovic, Nikola; Uber, Amy; Holmberg, Mathias J.; Sanchez, Leon D.; Wolfe, Richard E.; Chase, Maureen; Donnino, Michael W.; Cocchi, Michael N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Variceal hemorrhage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A balloon tamponade device (BTD), such as the Sengstaken-Blakemore or Minnesota tube, may be used in cases of variceal hemorrhage. While these devices may be effective at controlling acute bleeding, the effect on patient outcomes remains less clear. We sought to describe the number of patients with variceal hemorrhage and a BTD who survive to discharge, survive to one-year, and develop complications related to a BTD. Methods In this retrospective study, we identified patients at a single, tertiary care center who underwent placement of a BTD for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 2003 and 2014. Patient characteristics and outcomes were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results 34 patients with a BTD were identified. Median age was 57.5 (IQR 47–63) and 76% (26/34) were male. Approximately 59% (20/34) of patients survived to discharge, and 41% (13/32) were alive after one year. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Of those surviving to discharge, 95% (19/20) had undergone transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), while 36% (5/14) of patients who did not survive to discharge had TIPS (p < 0.01). One complication, an esophageal perforation, was identified and managed conservatively. Conclusion In this cohort of patients undergoing BTD placement for variceal hemorrhage, approximately 59% of patients were alive at discharge and 41% were alive after one year. Placement of a BTD as a temporizing measure in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage may be helpful, particularly when utilized as a bridge to more definitive therapy. PMID:28460805

  15. Outcomes in variceal hemorrhage following the use of a balloon tamponade device.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Jonathan; Stankovic, Nikola; Uber, Amy; Holmberg, Mathias J; Sanchez, Leon D; Wolfe, Richard E; Chase, Maureen; Donnino, Michael W; Cocchi, Michael N

    2017-10-01

    Variceal hemorrhage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A balloon tamponade device (BTD), such as the Sengstaken-Blakemore or Minnesota tube, may be used in cases of variceal hemorrhage. While these devices may be effective at controlling acute bleeding, the effect on patient outcomes remains less clear. We sought to describe the number of patients with variceal hemorrhage and a BTD who survive to discharge, survive to one-year, and develop complications related to a BTD. In this retrospective study, we identified patients at a single, tertiary care center who underwent placement of a BTD for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 2003 and 2014. Patient characteristics and outcomes were summarized using descriptive statistics. 34 patients with a BTD were identified. Median age was 57.5 (IQR 47-63) and 76% (26/34) were male. Approximately 59% (20/34) of patients survived to discharge, and 41% (13/32) were alive after one year. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Of those surviving to discharge, 95% (19/20) had undergone transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), while 36% (5/14) of patients who did not survive to discharge had TIPS (p<0.01). One complication, an esophageal perforation, was identified and managed conservatively. In this cohort of patients undergoing BTD placement for variceal hemorrhage, approximately 59% of patients were alive at discharge and 41% were alive after one year. Placement of a BTD as a temporizing measure in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage may be helpful, particularly when utilized as a bridge to more definitive therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment of Stomal Variceal Hemorrhage with TIPS: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Robert K.; Nemcek, Albert A.; Chrisman, Howard B.; Saker, Mark B.; Blei, Andres; Omary, Reed A.; Vogelzang, Robert L.

    2000-07-15

    We report a case in which recurrent hemorrhage from stomal varices was successfully treated by placement of a TIPS in a patient with prior colectomy for inflammatory bowel disease. Although several treatment options have been reported for this entity we believe that TIPS offers minimally invasive and definitive treatment.

  17. Long-term results of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for gastric variceal bleeding and risky gastric varices: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Hashizume, Makoto; Tomikawa, Morimasa; Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Shohei; Konishi, Kouzo; Kinjo, Nao; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2008-11-01

    Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) is a new alternative treatment for gastric varices (GVx), but the long-term efficacy is not known. We investigated the long-term effects of B-RTO on rebleeding, prevention of first bleeding, mortality and occurrence of risky esophageal varices (EVx). B-RTO was performed in 68 cirrhotic patients with GVx. Twenty patients had recent bleeding, transiently treated by endoscopic Histoacryl injection or balloon tamponade. Forty-eight patients had varices likely to bleed, but no bleeding. After B-RTO, the recurrent bleeding, occurrence of EVx and mortality over the long-term were evaluated. B-RTO was successfully performed in 63 of 68 patients (92.6%). Varices eradication was confirmed by endoscopy in 61 of 63 patients (96.6%). During follow up, GVx bleeding occurred in two patients (3.2%). The 8-year cumulative rebleeding rates of patients with bleeding and risky GVx were 14% and 0%, respectively. Risky EVx occurred in 10 patients (17%) and the cumulative occurrence rate was 22% in 8 years. The cumulative occurrence rate of risky EVx was higher in GVx with EVx (GOV2-GVx) compared to GVx without EVx (IGV1, P < 0.05). No ectopic variceal bleeding occurred. No patients died from variceal bleeding. Hepatocellular carcinoma was the only significant prognostic factor (P < 0.05). B-RTO is beneficial over the long-term, despite worsening EVx in some patients, because of excellent treatment efficacy and improved mortality. We believe that B-RTO can become a first-choice radical treatment following hemostasis for gastric variceal bleeding and prophylactic treatment for risky GVx.

  18. The application of transabdominal 3D ultrasound for the diagnosis of gastric varices: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kamezaki, Hidehiro; Kondo, Takayuki; Sekimoto, Tadashi; Shimada, Taro; Takahashi, Masanori; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using transabdominal three-dimensional (3D) colour Doppler ultrasound as a non-invasive tool to demonstrate and quantify gastric varices. A phantom study compared the 3D water flow volume data in a hose with the actual volume inside the hose at three different flow velocities. The prospective clinical study examined the reliability and reproducibility of 3D volume data for gastric varices (mild 28, moderate 26, large 8) in 62 patients. The 3D images were acquired using the colour Doppler with both convex and micro-convex probes. The phantom study showed a 12.4-17.6% difference between the 3D data and the actual volume with no difference between the two types of probes or three velocities. The detectability of gastric varices was identical between the two probes (54/62, 87.1%). However, the scanning efficiency was significantly greater for the micro-convex probe (66.9 ± 14.1%) than the convex probe (57.3 ± 14%, p=0.012). Body mass index was the only factor that had a significant relationship with the detectability of varices. The mean volume (mL) of the 3D signal was 0.82 ± 0.74 for mild varices, 5.48 ± 3.84 for moderate varices, and 10.63 ± 6.67 for large varices with significant differences between different grades. The intra-/inter-rater reliability was excellent. The method of 3D colour Doppler ultrasound is reliable and reproducible in the quantitative assessment of vascular volume and is applicable for grading gastric varices. This study may offer a practical usefulness for 3D ultrasonography as an alternative to endoscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of gastric varices with partial splenic embolization in a patient with portal vein thrombosis and a myeloproliferative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gianotti, Robert; Charles, Hearns; Hymes, Kenneth; Chandarana, Hersh; Sigal, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic options for gastric variceal bleeding in the presence of extensive portal vein thrombosis associated with a myeloproliferative disorder are limited. We report a case of a young woman who presented with gastric variceal bleeding secondary to extensive splanchnic venous thrombosis due to a Janus kinase 2 mutation associated myeloproliferative disorder that was managed effectively with partial splenic embolization. PMID:25339837

  20. Treatment of gastric varices with partial splenic embolization in a patient with portal vein thrombosis and a myeloproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Robert; Charles, Hearns; Hymes, Kenneth; Chandarana, Hersh; Sigal, Samuel

    2014-10-21

    Therapeutic options for gastric variceal bleeding in the presence of extensive portal vein thrombosis associated with a myeloproliferative disorder are limited. We report a case of a young woman who presented with gastric variceal bleeding secondary to extensive splanchnic venous thrombosis due to a Janus kinase 2 mutation associated myeloproliferative disorder that was managed effectively with partial splenic embolization.

  1. Percutaneous transhepatic obliteration and percutaneous transhepatic sclerotherapy for intractable hepatic encephalopathy and gastric varices improves the hepatic function reserve.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toru; Imai, Michitaka; Ko, Masayoshi; Sato, Hiroki; Nozawa, Yujiro; Sano, Tomoe; Iwanaga, Akito; Seki, Keiichi; Honma, Terasu; Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic obliteration (PTO) and percutaneous transhepatic sclerotherapy (PTS) are widely performed as an emergency measure in cases of variceal hemorrhage and intractable hepatic encephalopathy. The PTO/PTS technique is capable of directly blocking the blood supply in cases in which balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) is not effective, or in cases with complicated collateral flow. Although PTO/PTS is not currently the first choice due to the invasiveness of transhepatic puncture, this procedure can modify the blood flow in an antegrade manner. The present study examined the changes in hepatic function reserve following PTO/PTS for intractable hepatic encephalopathy and/or gastric varices. In total, the study included 37 patients (mean age, 61.75±12.77 years; age range, 32-88 years; male to female ratio, 23:14) with a variety of gastrorenal shunts, or B-RTO-intractable hepatic encephalopathy and gastric varices without gastrorenal shunts. The patients underwent PTO/PTS by embolizing a microcoil or injection of a sclerosing agent (5% ethanolamine oleate iopamidol). Alterations in hepatic function reserve prior to and following the procedure were compared. The patients were treated for hepatic encephalopathy in 11 patients, gastric varices in 19 patients, and both conditions in 7 patients. The results indicated that the blood ammonia level improved from 135.76±75.23 mg/dl to 88.00±42.16 and 61.81±33.75 mg/dl at 3 and 6 months after therapy, respectively. In addition, the Child-Pugh score improved from 8.48±2.01 prior to therapy to 7.70±1.84 and 7.22±2.01 at 3 and 6 months after the procedure, respectively. Although there was a concern that PTO/PTS may cause complications due to an increase in portal venous pressure (PVP) arising from shunt occlusion, no severe complications were observed. In conclusion, for patients with various gastrorenal shunts or those with B-RTO-intractable hepatic encephalopathy and gastric

  2. [Pulmonary embolism after endoscopic injection with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate for gastric varices].

    PubMed

    Robaina, Gabriela; Albertini, Ricardo; Carranza, Martín; Herrena Najum, Pablo

    Gastric varices occur in one-third of patients with portal hypertension. Bleeding from gastric varices remains a significant cause of death. Currently the first-line of treatment for gastric varices is endoscopic obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Though relatively safe, this option has several well-known complications. We report the case of a 61-year-old male patient with cryptogenic cirrhosis, who presented with fever, tachycardia and hypoxemia after endoscopic obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Radiographic findings were consistent with pulmonary embolism of the sclerosing substance. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of this complication in order to distinguish it from other similar medical conditions and prevent a delay in diagnosis.

  3. Severe gastric variceal bleeding successfully treated by emergency splenic artery embolization.

    PubMed

    Sankararaman, Senthilkumar; Velayuthan, Sujithra; Vea, Romulo; Herbst, John

    2013-06-01

    Bleeding from gastric varices due to splenic vein obstruction is extremely rare in children, but it can be catastrophic. Reported herein is the case of a teenager with splenic vein thrombosis and chronic decompensated liver disease from autoimmune hepatitis who presented with massive gastric variceal bleeding. Standard medical management did not control the bleeding. Due to decompensated liver disease and continuous active bleeding, emergency partial splenic artery embolization was preferred over splenectomy or a shunt procedure. Bleeding was successfully controlled by partial splenic artery embolization by decreasing the inflow of blood into the portal system. It is concluded that emergency partial splenic artery embolization is a safer alternative life-saving procedure to manage severe gastric variceal bleeding due to splenic vein obstruction in a patient with high surgical risk. To our knowledge, only one other patient with similar management has been reported in the pediatric age group. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Is computerised tomography better than fibreoptic gastroscopy for early detection of gastric varices?

    PubMed Central

    Kekilli, Murat; Beyazıt, Yavuz; Okten, Sarper; Tanoglu, Alpaslan; Sasmaz, Nurgul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Video endoscopic diagnosis of gastric varices is particularly limited, owing to the deep submucosal or subserosal location of the varices and the normal appearance of the overlying mucosa. Aim We present and emphasise the value of computerised tomography (CT) examination in the early detection of gastric varices (GVs). Material and methods In this retrospective study, a total of 216 consecutive patients with cirrhosis were evaluated at the Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital between September 2008 and March 2011. Results One hundred and thirty patients with cirrhosis were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the male (88 cases) patients was 59.45 ±2.42 years, and the mean age of the female (42 cases) patients was 56.29 ±1.14 years. Computerised tomography identified oesophageal varices (EVs) in 103/130 patients, and endoscopy identified EVs in 103/130 patients. Computerised tomography identified GVs in 86/130 patients, and endoscopy identified GVs in 26/130 patients. After endoscopic elastic band ligation (EBL), CT identified GVs in 22/26 patients, and endoscopy identified GVs in 7/26 patients. Conclusions Gastric varices lie in the submucosa, deeper than EVs, and distinguishing GVs from gastric rugae may be difficult with video endoscopy. This study demonstrated that CT is a sensitive method for early detection of GVs and has been used previously in the evaluation of GVs.

  5. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for variceal hemorrhage due to recurrent of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia in a liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Cura, Marco A; Postoak, Darren; Speeg, Kermit V; Vasan, Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic involvement in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) consists of vascular malformations associated with arteriovenous (AV), arterioportal, and/or portovenous shunting. Most patients with HHT have liver involvement. Symptoms, although rare, consist of cardiac failure, pulmonary hypertension, portal hypertension, portosystemic encephalopathy, cholangitis, and atypical cirrhosis. Reported treatments for symptomatic AV malformations have been associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. This report describes a case of hepatic HHT that required liver transplantation after hepatic artery embolization. Recurrent vascular malformations developed in the transplant, resulting in portal hypertension and life-threatening variceal hemorrhage that was controlled with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation.

  6. Abdominal varices mimicking an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage during technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Byrd, B.F.; Berger, D.E.; Turnbull, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    Abdominal varices consisting of a caput medusae and dilated mesenteric veins resulted in pooling of Tc-99m tagged red blood cells (RBC) within these dilated vessels in a 57-year-old man with severe Laennec's cirrhosis. The atypical radiotracer localization within the abdomen mimicked an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Clinical suspicion and careful evaluation of scintigraphic gastrointestinal bleeding studies will avoid false-positive interpretations.

  7. A case of torsion of the wandering spleen presenting as hypersplenism and gastric fundal varices.

    PubMed

    Irak, Kader; Esen, Irfan; Keskın, Murat; Emınler, Ahmet Tarık; Ayyildiz, Talat; Kaya, Ekrem; Kiyici, Murat; Gürel, Selim; Nak, Selim Giray; Gülten, Macit; Dolar, Enver

    2011-02-01

    Wandering spleen is the displacement of the spleen from its normal location due to the loss or weakening of ligaments that hold the spleen in the left upper quadrant. The possibility of torsion of the spleen is high due to the long and mobile nature of the vascular pedicle. Generally, cases are asymptomatic. Under conditions of delayed diagnosis, symptoms of splenomegaly, left portal hypertension, gastric fundal varices, and hypersplenism may present as a result of development of vascular congestion associated with chronic torsion. There are only a few cases in the literature reporting the association of wandering spleen and fundal varices. We report herein the case of a 55-year-old female who admitted to our clinic with complaints of fatigue and epigastric pain. She was determined to have gastric fundal varices and hypersplenism secondary to the development of left portal hypertension due to chronic splenic torsion.

  8. The international normalized ratio does not reflect bleeding risk in esophageal variceal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hshieh, Tammy T; Kaung, Aung; Hussain, Syed; Curry, Michael P; Sundaram, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    The international normalized ratio (INR) has not been validated as a predictor of bleeding risk in cirrhotics. The aim of this study was to determine whether elevation in the INR correlated with risk of esophageal variceal hemorrhage and whether correction of the INR prior to endoscopic therapy affects failure to control bleeding. Patient records were retrospectively reviewed from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. Cases were cirrhotics admitted to the hospital due to bleeding esophageal varices. Controls were cirrhotics with a history of non-bleeding esophageal varices admitted with ascites or encephalopathy. All variceal bleeders were treated with octreotide, antibiotics, and band ligation. Failure to control bleeding was defined according to the Baveno V criteria. We analyzed 74 cases and 74 controls. The mean INR at presentation was lower in those with bleeding varices compared to non-bleeders (1.61 vs 1.74, P = 0.03). Those with bleeding varices had higher serum sodium (136.1 vs 133.8, P = 0.02), lower hemoglobin (9.59 vs 11.0, P < 0.001), and lower total bilirubin (2.47 vs 5.50, P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression showed total bilirubin to inversely correlate with bleeding (OR = 0.74). Bleeders received a mean of 1.14 units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) prior to endoscopy (range 0-11 units). Of the 14 patients (20%) with failure to control bleeding, median INR (1.8 vs 1.5, P = 0.02) and median units of FFP transfused (2 vs 0, P = 0.01) were higher than those with hemostasis after the initial endoscopy. The INR reflects liver dysfunction, not bleeding risk. Correction of INR with FFP has little effect on hemostasis.

  9. Pitfalls in histoacryl glue injection therapy for oesophageal, gastric and ectopic varices: A review

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hillawi, Lulia; Wong, Terence; Tritto, Giovanni; Berry, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    Histoacryl glue is used increasingly for the treatment of gastric and ectopic varices, and there is experience in its use for oesophageal varices. It is an effective treatment, yet numerous reports of complications have accumulated. This review of the literature describes the technique, explores circulatory and vascular consideration unique to portal hypertension and categorises the complications into: “Embolisation”, “local venous thrombosis”, “fistulisation and extravascular injection”, “ulceration, erosion and extrusion”, and “nidus of infection”. A case is then made for standardisation of the technique and the consent process. PMID:27933134

  10. [Safety and clinical efficacy of TIPS with various stents for treatment of cirrhosis with esophageal gastric varices bleeding].

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei; Zhuge, Yuzheng; Zhang, Jianwu; Li, Zhenlei; He, Qibin; Zhang, Ming; Ni, Jingbin; Li, Yujiang; Ma, Qianyun; Peng, Chunyan

    2015-04-01

    To assess the safety and clinical efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) with various stents for treating patients with cirrhosis and esophageal gastric varices bleeding. One hundred and five patients were stratified according to stent type: bare stent group, covered stent-grafts group, combined stents group. Rates of success, shunt insufficiency, rebleeding, patient survival, and major complications were observed. The shunt insufficiency rate, rebleeding rate, and survival rate were calculated by the life tables method, the Kaplan-Meier analytical curve, and the log-rank test; a p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The overall success rate of all TIPS for treating the esophageal gastric varices bleeding was 100%. The overall shunt insufficiency rates at 6-, 12-and 24-months post-TIPS were 8%, 9% and 16%, rebleeding rates were 2%, 6% and 17%, and survival rates were 100%, 97% and 94%. The shunt insufficiency rate was 26% in the bare stent group, 14% in the covered stent-grafis group, and 5% in the combined stents group (x2=1.00, P=0.61). The rebleeding rate was 33% in the bare stent group, 7% in the covered stent-grafts group, and 3%in the combined stents group (x2=1.69, P=0.43). The survival rate was 92% in the bare stent group, 93% in the covered stent-grafts group, and 100% in the combined stents group (x2=1.91, P=0.39). The shunt insufficiency rates were higher in patients with splenectomy than in those without splenectomy (30% vs.14%; x2=4.15, P=0.04). The intraperitoneal hemorrhage rates in the covered stent-grafis group and the combined stents group were significantly lower than that in the bare stent group (0% vs 0% vs 13%; x2=8.88, P=0.01). TIPS with an 8 mm stent effectively treated and prevented esophageal gastric varices bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. Intraperitoneal hemorrhaging caused by TIPS was significantly decreased in the covered stent-grafts group and combined stents group

  11. Hemorrhagic ascites from spontaneous ectopic mesenteric varices rupture in NASH induced cirrhosis and successful outcome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Edula, Raja G R; Qureshi, Kamran; Khallafi, Hicham

    2014-07-07

    Bleeding from gastro-esophageal varices can often present as the first decompensating event in patients with cirrhosis. This can be a potentially life threatening event associated with a 15%-20% early mortality. We present a rare case of new onset ascites due to intra-abdominal hemorrhage from ruptured mesenteric varices; in a 37 years old male with newly diagnosed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced cirrhosis as the first decompensating event. The patient was successfully resuscitated with emergent evacuation of ascites for diagnosis, identification and control of bleeding mesenteric varices and eventually orthotopic liver transplantation with successful outcome. Various clinical presentations, available treatment options and outcomes of ectopic variceal bleeding are discussed in this report.

  12. The effects of cefazolin on cirrhotic patients with acute variceal hemorrhage after endoscopic interventions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huang-Wei; Wang, Jing-Houng; Tsai, Moan-Shane; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiou, Shue-Shian; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Hu, Tsung Hui; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2011-09-01

    The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines recommend that antibiotic prophylaxis should be instituted in any patient with cirrhosis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and that oral norfloxacin, intravenous ciprofloxacin, and ceftriaxone are preferable. However, the antimicrobial spectrum of the first generation of cephalosporins (cefazolin) covers a wide range of bacteria species, including community-acquired strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but their efficacy as prophylactic antibiotics in cirrhotic patients with acute hemorrhage was seldom warranted in the literature. This study aimed to explore the effects of cefazolin on the outcome of cirrhotic patients with acute variceal hemorrhage after endoscopic interventions. A cross-sectional, retrospective chart review study was conducted on cirrhotic patients with acute variceal hemorrhage who underwent endoscopic procedures in a medical center. Cirrhotic patients who did not receive antibiotics were classified as group A (n = 63) while patients who received intravenous cefazolin 1 g q8 h for 2-7 days were classified as group B (n = 50). The end points were the prevention of infection, length of hospital stay, time of rebleeding, and death. A total of 113 patients were studied (male/female: 82/31; age: 56.8 ± 13.5 years). The incidence of infection (including proven infections) and bacteremia were significantly lower in group B patients (38.1% vs. 16.0%, P = 0.010; 17.5% vs. 4.0%, P = 0.026; 9.5% vs. 0%, P = 0.033, respectively). The no prophylactic antibiotics treatment was the independent risk factor. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the source of bleeding, type of endoscopic intervention, length of hospital stay, and mortality. Actuarial probability of remaining free of early rebleeding (<7 days) was P = 0.105 by log-rank test for all cirrhosis patients and P = 0.085 for Child-Pugh class A patients

  13. Hepatic and Gastric Involvement in a Case of Systemic Sarcoidosis Presenting with Rupture of Esophageal Varices.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroaki; Ohmori, Masayasu; Iwamuro, Masaya; Tanaka, Takehiro; Wada, Nozomu; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Takaki, Akinobu; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented with massive hematemesis, caused by the rupture of esophageal varices. The laboratory investigations showed pancytopenia, and imaging tests revealed hepatosplenomegaly and ascites. A diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis was made based on biopsies of the liver, stomach, lungs, heart, and skin. Although fat deposition was predominant, non-caseating granuloma and cirrhotic changes were found in the liver. Non-caseating granuloma was also identified in a biopsy specimen from minute depressions of the gastric folds. This case illustrates the rare involvement of the digestive system in a case of systemic sarcoidosis.

  14. Splenic Artery Embolization for the Treatment of Gastric Variceal Bleeding Secondary to Splenic Vein Thrombosis Complicated by Necrotizing Pancreatitis: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Kyu; Hur, Young Hoe; Koh, Yang Seok

    2016-01-01

    Splenic vein thrombosis is a relatively common finding in pancreatitis. Gastric variceal bleeding is a life-threatening complication of splenic vein thrombosis, resulting from increased blood flow to short gastric vein. Traditionally, splenectomy is considered the treatment of choice. However, surgery in necrotizing pancreatitis is dangerous, because of severe inflammation, adhesion, and bleeding tendency. In the Warshaw operation, gastric variceal bleeding is rare, even though splenic vein is resected. Because the splenic artery is also resected, blood flow to short gastric vein is not increased problematically. Herein, we report a case of gastric variceal bleeding secondary to splenic vein thrombosis complicated by necrotizing pancreatitis successfully treated with splenic artery embolization. Splenic artery embolization could be the best treatment option for gastric variceal bleeding when splenectomy is difficult such as in case associated with severe acute pancreatitis or associated with severe adhesion or in patients with high operation risk. PMID:27891150

  15. EVS vs TIPS shunt for gastric variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ming; Qi, Xing-Shun; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Wu, Kai-Chun; Fan, Dai-Ming; Han, Guo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) vs endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy (EVS) in the management of gastric variceal (GV) bleeding in terms of variceal rebleeding, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and survival by meta-analysis. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and CNKI were searched. Studies compared TIPS with EVS in treating GV bleeding were identified and included according to our predefined inclusion criteria. Data were extracted independently by two of our authors. Studies with prospective randomized design were considered to be of high quality. Hazard ratios (HRs) or odd ratios (ORs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model when there was no inter-trial heterogeneity. Oppositely, a random-effects model was employed. RESULTS: Three studies with 220 patients who had at least one episode of GV bleeding were included in the present meta-analysis. The proportions of patients with viral cirrhosis and alcoholic cirrhosis were 39% (range 0%-78%) and 36% (range 12% to 41%), respectively. The pooled incidence of variceal rebleeding in the TIPS group was significantly lower than that in the EVS group (HR = 0.3, 0.35, 95%CI: 0.17-0.71, P = 0.004). However, the risk of the development of any degree of HE was significantly increased in the TIPS group (OR = 15.97, 95%CI: 3.61-70.68). The pooled HR of survival was 1.26 (95%CI: 0.76-2.09, P = 0.36). No inter-trial heterogeneity was observed among these analyses. CONCLUSION: The improved effect of TIPS in the prevention of GV rebleeding is associated with an increased risk of HE. There is no survival difference between the TIPS and EVS groups. Further studies are needed to evaluate the survival benefit of TIPS in cirrhotic patients with GV bleeding. PMID:24868490

  16. Treatment modalities for bleeding esophagogastric varices.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Yoshioka, Masato; Hirakata, Atsushi; Kawano, Youichi; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Ueda, Junji; Uchida, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Bleeding from esophageal varices (EVs) or gastric varices (GVs) is a catastrophic complication of chronic liver disease. In this paper, we review the management of bleeding EVs and GVs. DIAGNOSIS OF EVS AND GVS: The grading system for esophagogastric varices proposed by the Japan Society for Portal Hypertension classifies GVs into those involving the cardia (Lg-c), the fundus (Lg-f), and both the cardia and the fundus (Lg-cf). In this review, we divide GVs into 2 categories: Lg-c (cardiac varices: CVs) and Lg-cf or Lg-f (fundal varices: FVs). TREATMENT MODALITIES FOR EVS AND GVS: Treatment modalities for EVs and GVs include placement of a Sengstaken-Blakemore tube, pharmacologic therapy, surgery, interventional radiology, and endoscopic treatment. MANAGEMENT OF BLEEDING EVS AND GVS: In Japan, endoscopic treatment has recently become the therapy of choice for bleeding EVs or GVs. In other countries, especially the United States, vasoactive drugs and endoscopic treatment are routinely used to manage variceal hemorrhage. BLEEDING EVS: Endoscopic variceal ligation is useful for controlling bleeding from EVs. However, confirmation of ligation precisely at the site of bleeding is usually difficult in patients with massive variceal bleeding. The site of acute bleeding can generally be identified by means of water instillation and suction. Ligation is then performed at the bleeding point. If endoscopic hemostasis is unsuccessful, a Sengstaken-Blakemore tube is used as a temporary bridge to other treatments. Transportal obliteration is useful for blocking variceal blood flow. BLEEDING GVS: Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy with a tissue adhesive, such as N-butyl-cyanoacrylate or isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate, is effective for acute bleeding from GVs. However, bleeding from the GV injection site and rebleeding from the rupture point have been reported in patients receiving endoscopic injection sclerotherapy. If endoscopic hemostasis is unsuccessful, a Sengstaken-Blakemore tube

  17. Delayed onset pulmonary glue emboli in a ventilated patient: a rare complication following endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection for gastric variceal haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chew, Joyce Ruo Yi; Balan, Anu; Griffiths, William; Herre, Jurgen

    2014-10-15

    Cyanoacrylate injection is a recognised endoscopic treatment option for variceal haemorrhage. We describe a 34-year old man with hepatitis B cirrhosis who presented to the hospital with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage from gastric and oesophageal varices. Haemostasis was achieved via cyanoacrylate injection sclerotherapy and banding. Ten days later, the patient developed acute hypoxia and fever. His chest radiograph showed wide-spread pulmonary shadowing. A non-contrast CT scan confirmed multiple emboli of injected glue material from the varix with parenchymal changes either suggesting acute lung injury or pulmonary oedema. He gradually recovered with supportive treatment and was discharged home. On follow-up, he remained asymptomatic from a chest perspective. This case report discusses the rare complication of pulmonary embolisation of cyanoacrylate glue from variceal injection sites and the diagnostic dilemmas involved. Emphasis is placed on the importance of maintaining high index of clinical suspicion when assessing patients with possible procedure related complications.

  18. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) versus Balloon-occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO) for the Management of Gastric Varices

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Wael E. A.; Darcy, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Variceal bleeding is one of the major complications of portal hypertension. Gastric variceal bleeding is less common than esophageal variceal bleeding; however, it is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate and its management is largely uncharted due to a relatively less-established literature. In the West (United States and Europe), the primary school of management is to decompress the portal circulation utilizing the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). In the East (Japan and South Korea), the primary school of management is to address the gastric varices (GVs) specifically by sclerosing them utilizing the balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) procedure. The concept (1970s), evolution, and development (1980s–1990s) of both procedures run parallel to one another; neither is newer than the other is. The difference is that one was adopted mostly by the East (BRTO), while the other has been adopted mostly by the West (TIPS). TIPS is effective in emergently controlling bleeding for GVs even though the commonly referenced studies about managing GVs with TIPS are studies with TIPS created by bare stents. However, the results have improved with the use of stent grafts for creating TIPS. Nevertheless, TIPS cannot be tolerated by patients with poor hepatic reserve. BRTO is equally effective in controlling bleeding GVs as well as significantly reducing the GV rebleed rate. But the resultant diversion of blood flow into the portal circulation, and in turn the liver, increases the risk of developing esophageal varices and ectopic varices with their potential to bleed. Unlike TIPS, the blood diversion that occurs after BRTO improves, if not preserves, hepatic function for 6–9 months post-BRTO. The authors discuss the detailed results and critique the literature, which has evaluated and remarked on both procedures. Future research prospects and speculation as to the ideal patients for each procedure are discussed. PMID

  19. How we manage variceal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients. Key practical messages from the British Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Quraishi, Mohammed N; Khan, Faisal; Tripathi, Dhiraj

    2016-01-01

    Variceal bleeding is a serious complication of portal hypertension with high morbidity and mortality. Advances in our understanding of screening and risk stratification along with evidence-based management strategies for acute variceal bleeding as well as primary and secondary prevention have improved overall outcomes in patients with portal hypertension. The guidelines recently published by the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) and Baveno 6 consensus have aimed to enhance the standard of care in the management of varices and their complications. This concise review focuses on the key practical messages for screening and management of varices and variceal bleeding in light of these guidelines. The review also takes into account important evidence published since the BSG guidelines and Baveno 6 consensus.

  20. Endoscopic management of bleeding gastric varices with N-butyl, 2-cyanoacrylate glue injection in children with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Ujjal; Borkar, Vibhor; Yachha, Surender Kumar; Srivastava, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: In view of the paucity of literature, we carried out this audit to evaluate the safety and efficacy of N- butyl, 2-cynoacrylate glue injection therapy in secondary prophylaxis of gastric varices in children. Patients and methods: Consecutive children (≤ 18 years) with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension who presented with bleeding from gastric varices and who had undergone cyanoacrylate glue injection therapy were included. They were evaluated for safety, efficacy and complications. Their long-term outcomes and follow-up were recorded. Results: Over 11 years, 28 children with median age 13 (range, 8 to 18) years (68 % boys), underwent cyanoacrylate glue injection for bleeding gastric varices. In 25 (89 %) cases, extrahepatic portal venous obstruction was the etiology and isolated gastric varices were the source of the bleeding. Primary and secondary gastric variceal bleeding was seen in 11 (39 %) and 17 (61 %) children, respectively. A total 36 sessions with median volume of 2 (range, 1 – 5) mL of glue injections were required (2 sessions in 8 children). Hemostasis was achieved in all and 57 % had gastric variceal obliteration. Two children had early (< 1 month) rebleeding and 2 children had late rebleeding. One child had gastric ulcer. Over a median follow-up of 24 (8 – 98) months, 14 children underwent surgery (12 porto-systemic shunt), 2 were lost to follow-up, 1 died and there was no recurrence of bleeding in the remaining 11. Conclusions: Cyanoacrylate glue injection is highly effective mode of secondary prophylaxis of bleeding gastric varices in children with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Rebleeding occurred in 14 % but treatment-related complications were uncommon. However, a large controlled clinical trial is required to confirm our findings. PMID:27757413

  1. Endoscopic management of bleeding gastric varices with N-butyl, 2-cyanoacrylate glue injection in children with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Ujjal; Borkar, Vibhor; Yachha, Surender Kumar; Srivastava, Anshu

    2016-10-01

    Background and study aims: In view of the paucity of literature, we carried out this audit to evaluate the safety and efficacy of N- butyl, 2-cynoacrylate glue injection therapy in secondary prophylaxis of gastric varices in children. Patients and methods: Consecutive children (≤ 18 years) with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension who presented with bleeding from gastric varices and who had undergone cyanoacrylate glue injection therapy were included. They were evaluated for safety, efficacy and complications. Their long-term outcomes and follow-up were recorded. Results: Over 11 years, 28 children with median age 13 (range, 8 to 18) years (68 % boys), underwent cyanoacrylate glue injection for bleeding gastric varices. In 25 (89 %) cases, extrahepatic portal venous obstruction was the etiology and isolated gastric varices were the source of the bleeding. Primary and secondary gastric variceal bleeding was seen in 11 (39 %) and 17 (61 %) children, respectively. A total 36 sessions with median volume of 2 (range, 1 - 5) mL of glue injections were required (2 sessions in 8 children). Hemostasis was achieved in all and 57 % had gastric variceal obliteration. Two children had early (< 1 month) rebleeding and 2 children had late rebleeding. One child had gastric ulcer. Over a median follow-up of 24 (8 - 98) months, 14 children underwent surgery (12 porto-systemic shunt), 2 were lost to follow-up, 1 died and there was no recurrence of bleeding in the remaining 11. Conclusions: Cyanoacrylate glue injection is highly effective mode of secondary prophylaxis of bleeding gastric varices in children with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Rebleeding occurred in 14 % but treatment-related complications were uncommon. However, a large controlled clinical trial is required to confirm our findings.

  2. Endoscopic treatment of bleeding gastric varices with histoacryl (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate): a South European single center experience.

    PubMed

    Monsanto, Pedro; Almeida, Nuno; Rosa, Albano; Maçôas, Fernanda; Lérias, Clotilde; Portela, Francisco; Amaro, Pedro; Ferreira, Manuela; Gouveia, Hermano; Sofia, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopic injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is the current recommended treatment for gastric variceal bleeding. Despite the extensive worldwide use, there are still differences related to the technique, safety, and long term-results. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of cyanoacrylate in patients with gastric variceal bleeding. Between January 1998 and January 2010, 97 patients with gastric variceal bleeding underwent endoscopic treatment with a mixture of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol(TM). Ninety-one patients had cirrhosis and 6 had non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Child-Pugh score at presentation for cirrhotic patients was A-12.1 %; B-53.8 %; C-34.1 % and median MELD score at admission was 13 (3-26). Successful hemostasis, rebleeding rate and complications were reviewed. Median time of follow up was 19 months (0.5-126). A median mixture volume of 1.5 mL (0.6 to 5 mL), in 1 to 8 injections, was used, with immediate hemostasis rate of 95.9 % and early rebleeding rate of 14.4 %. One or more complications occurred in 17.5 % and were associated with the use of Sengstaken-Blakemore tube before cyanoacrylate and very early rebleeding (p < 0.05). Hospital mortality rate during initial bleeding episode was 9.3 %. Very early rebleeding was a strong and independent predictor for in-hospital mortality (p < 0.001). Long-term mortality rate was 58.8 %, in most of the cases secondary to hepatic failure. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is a rapid, easy and highly effective modality for immediate hemostasis of gastric variceal bleeding with an acceptable rebleeding rate. Patients with very early rebleeding are at higher risk of death.

  3. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate, iso-amyl-2-cyanoacrylate and hypertonic glucose with 72% chromated glycerin in gastric varices

    PubMed Central

    Elwakil, Reda; Montasser, Mohamed Fawzy; Abdelhakam, Sara M; Ibrahim, Wesam A

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate, iso-amyl-2-cyanoacrylate and a mixture of 72% chromated glycerin with hypertonic glucose solution in management of gastric varices. METHODS: Ninety patients with gastric varices presented to Endoscopy Unit of Ain Shams University Hospital were included. They were randomly allocated into three groups; each group included 30 patients treated with intravariceal sclerosant injections in biweekly sessions till complete obturation of gastric varices; Group I (n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate; Histoacryl®), Group II (iso-amyl-2-cyanoacrylate; Amcrylate®) and Group III (mixture of 72% chromated glycerin; Scleremo® with glucose solution 25%). All the procedures were performed electively without active bleeding. Recruited patients were followed up for 3 mo. RESULTS: 26% of Scleremo group had bleeding during puncture vs 3.3% in each of the other two groups with significant difference, (P < 0.05). None of Scleremo group had needle obstruction vs 13.3% in each of the other two groups with no significant difference, (P > 0.05). Rebleeding occurred in 13.3% of Histoacryl and Amcrylate groups vs 0% in Scleremo group with no significant difference. The in hospital mortality was 6.6% in both Histoacryl and Amcrylate groups, while it was 0% in Scleremo group with no significant difference. In the first and second sessions, the amount of Scleremo needed for obturation was significantly high, while the amount of Histoacryl was significantly low. Scleremo was the less costly of the two treatments. CONCLUSION: All used sclerosant substances showed efficacy and success in management of gastric varices with no significant differences except in total amount, cost and bleeding during puncture. PMID:25901221

  4. [Clinical value of acoustic radiation force impulse technique to predict esophageal and gastric varices in patients with biliary atresia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, G Y; Tang, Y; Niu, N N; Wu, H T

    2017-02-21

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI)technique in predicting esophageal and gastric varices in patients with biliary atresia after Kasai portoenterostomy. Methods: A total of 42 patients with biliary atresia after Kasai portoenterostomy were collected from September 2015 to May 2016 in Tianjin First Central Hospital.ARFI technique was used to measure the stiffness of liver and spleen, and 28 healthy children as control.According to the result of CT examination , patients with biliary atresia were divided into two groups , twenty-three patients with esophageal and gastric varices(A group) and nineteen patients without esophageal and gastric varices (B group), Comparing the difference of liver and spleen stiffness between the two groups.The ROC curve analysis was carried out to test the diagnostic power of effective parameter. Results: The ARFI value of liver (2.98±0.80) m/s and spleen (3.00±0.33) m/s of patients with biliary atresia was significantly higher than that of control group((1.10±0.16) m/s, (2.12±0.32) m/s), the differences had statistical significance (both P<0.01). Between group A and group B, the spleen ARFI value of group A(3.16±0.26) m/s was higher than group B(2.83±0.32) m/s, the difference had statistical significance (P<0.01), whereas there was no statistical difference of liver ARFI value between two group((2.93±0.65), (3.02±0.96) m/s)(P>0.05). The cut-off ARFI value of spleen to diagnose esophageal and gastric varices in biliary atresia was 3.02 m/s, and the biggest area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.81, 78.6% and 84.5%, respectively. Conclusion: ARFI can be used as a noninvasive method to predict the presence of esophageal and gastric varices in patients with biliary atresia after Kasai portoenterostomy.

  5. Open, randomized, comparative study of efficacy and safety between Haemopressin and Glypressin in treating acute esophageal varices hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rey-Heng; Lee, Po-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Hemorrhage from esophageal varices is a major consequence of liver cirrhosis. Pharmacological treatment can be started immediately by an internist to arrest acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage (EVH). Terlipressin is easy to administer and effective in treating acute EVH, with or without adjuvant endoscopic sclerotherapy, and in reducing mortality in these patients. Due to these potentials, a phase IV bioequivalence study was conducted to compare a new brand of terlipressin (Haemopressin: contains 1 mg tri-glycyl-lysin-vasopressin acetate) with one that is currently available in the market (Glypressin). All cirrhotic patients with acute EVH were randomized to receive Haemopressin (n = 19) or Glypressin (n = 22) 2mg i.v. immediately followed by 1 mg. i.v. q4h for 5 days. The demographics were similar between H-group and G-group. Successful control of acute bleeding within 24 hours was no different between the 2 groups (18/19 vs. 19/22). Failure to control bleeding within 5 days of drug administration was also no different between the 2 groups (4/19 vs. 6/22). Rebleeding events, the requirement for blood transfusions and rescued treatment were also comparative between the 2 groups. Half of the patients in either group had mild, temporary and self-limited side effects. The study confirms that administration of terlipressin, by either Haemopressin or Glypressin, is generally safe and indeed highly effective in the treatment of acute EVH.

  6. Oesophageal and gastric varices: historical aspects, classification and grading: everything in one place

    PubMed Central

    Abby Philips, Cyriac; Sahney, Amrish

    2016-01-01

    Variceal disease and its management are of the utmost importance in the treatment of portal hypertension. Current guidelines are universal for management of variceal disease in portal hypertension. Classification and grading systems are numerous and differ according to geographical location. In this exhaustive review, the historical aspects of variceal disease, its classification and the grading systems in use are discussed, with self-explanatory tables and timelines. A better and clear understanding of the evolution of portal hypertension and variceal disease is provided. PMID:27324725

  7. Acute gastric changes after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Smelley, Christopher; Specian, Robert D; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2005-03-21

    Severe intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) produces gastric pathology in about 30% of the patient population, even after the standard treatment of H2 receptor blockers or proton pump inhibitors. This study was undertaken to establish a rat model of ICH-induced gastric ulcer. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were divided into two hemorrhage groups and a sham control group. ICH was produced either by injection of 100 microl of autologous arterial blood or by injection of 4 microl saline containing 0.6 unit of bacterial collagenase VII into the right basal ganglia. Rats were sacrificed at 24, 48, 72 h, and 7 days after ICH to harvest brains and stomachs. Greater degrees of hemorrhage and brain edema were observed in collagenase-induced ICH. Motor behavior decreased significantly after 24 h in both models. The incidence of acute ulceration with destruction of the forestomach epithelium was extremely low at 8.7% in the collagenase injection model and 4.8% in the blood injection rats. Small, pinpoint hemorrhages (petechiae) were noticed in 38% of rats after blood injection and 22% after collagenase injection, in the glandular portion of the gastric mucosa with penetration of red blood cells and inflammatory cells into the gastric mucosa. Enhanced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expressions were observed in gastric tissues after ICH with more intense staining occurring at 24 and 48 h. Due to the low incidence of ulceration, ICH-induced gastric ulceration in rodents may not appropriate for evaluating the potential human risk of gastric ulceration after ICH.

  8. Variceal hemorrhage: Saudi tertiary center experience of clinical presentations, complications and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Fallatah, Hind I; Al Nahdi, Haifaa; Al Khatabi, Maan; Akbar, Hisham O; Qari, Yousif A; Sibiani, Abdul Rahman; Bazaraa, Salim

    2012-01-01

    documented in 93 (74.4%) patients. We identified hepatic encephalopathy in 31 (28.8%) patients and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in 17 (13.6%). Bleeding gastric varices was the cause of AVB in 2 patients. AVB was associated with shock in 22 patients, 13 of whom (59.1%) had Child-Pugh class C disease. RI was noted in 19 (46.3%) of 41 patients in Child-Pugh class C and 14 (19.4%) of 72 patients in Child-Pugh class B. None of the patients with Child-Pugh class A disease had RI. Emergency endoscopy was effective in controlling the bleeding, although the re-bleeding rate was still high, 12 (9.6%) during the same admission and 55 (44%) after discharge. The re-bleeding rate was higher in patients with ascites, occurring in 40/55 (72.2%). The length of hospital stay was 1-54 d with a mean of 8.7 d. Three patients had emergency surgery due to failure of endoscopic treatment and balloon tamponade. The overall long term mortality was 65%. Survival from the first attack of AVB to death was 20.38 ± 30.86 mo, while the length of follow-up for the living patients was 53.58 ± 24.94 mo. Patients with Child-Pugh score C had a higher risk of liver disease-related mortality (67.6%). RI (developed during admission) was the main factor that was associated with mortality (P = 0.045). CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with liver disease who present at the emergency unit for AVB are at an advanced stage of the disease. The outcome is poorer for patients who develop RI during hospitalization. PMID:23060972

  9. [Prevention of variceal rebleeding by TIPS combined with embolization of gastric coronary veins: a clinical controlled study].

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Chen, Shuang; Li, Xiao; Tang, Cheng-wei

    2011-07-01

    To prospectively compare the rates of gastroesophageal variceal rebleeding in patients underwent TIPS alone and TIPS combined with embolization of gastric coronary veins. According to the bleeding state within one week before the shunt placement, 122 patients with hepatic cirrhosis indicated for the secondary prevention of gastroesophageal variceal rebleeding were allocated to the shunt group (n = 44, treated with TIPS alone) and the shunt plus embolization group (n = 78, treated with TIPS combined with embolization of gastric coronary veins). All the patients were followed up for 1 year, and the 1-year cumulative rates of rebleeding, shunt patency and mortality were compared. The basic characteristics of patients in the two groups were comparable (P is more than 0.05). The 1-year cumulative re-bleeding rates were 41.5% in the shunt group and 19.5% in the shunt combined with embolization group (x2 = 6.320, P = 0.012). The differences of 1-year cumulative rates of shunt patency and mortality between the two groups were not significant (P is more than 0.05). TIPS combined with embolization of gastric coronary veins could reduce significantly the rate of rebleeding in 1 year after the shunt placement as compared with TIPS alone.

  10. Cyanoacrylate Injection Versus Band Ligation in the Endoscopic Management of Acute Gastric Variceal Bleeding: Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Studies Based on the PRISMA Statement.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Weiguang; Ren, Yutang; Bai, Yang; Liu, Side; Zhang, Qiang; Zhi, Fachao

    2015-10-01

    The evidence for optimal endoscopic management of bleeding gastric varices is lacking. The clinical outcome is controversial in trials comparing cyanoacrylate injection and band ligation. To help guide endoscopic decisions regarding acute gastric variceal bleeding, a meta-analysis was conducted.Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect were searched for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing the 2 interventions. The main outcomes evaluated in the meta-analysis were active bleeding control, blood transfusion, rebleeding, recurrence of varices, complications, and survival.Three RCTs were identified, which included 194 patients with active gastric variceal bleeding from Taiwan and Romania. Active bleeding control was achieved in 46 of 49 (93.9%) patients in the cyanoacrylate injection group, compared with 35 of 44 (79.5%) in the band ligation group (P = 0.032), for a pooled odds ratio of 4.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-17.30). Rebleeding rate was comparable in type 2 gastroesophageal varices (GOV2) between the 2 interventions (35.7% vs 34.8%, P = 0.895), but cyanoacrylate injection seemed superior for reducing rebleeding rate in type 1 gastroesophageal varices (GOV1, 26.1% vs 47.7%, P = 0.035) and type 1 isolated gastric varices (IGV1, 17.6% vs 85.7%, P = 0.015). Cyanoacrylate injection was also superior in controlling recurrence of gastric varices to band ligation (36.0% vs 66.0%, P = 0.002). There was no difference in complications or mortality between the 2 interventions. The major limitation of this meta-analysis is the small number of studies/patients included.Compared with band ligation, injection cyanocrylate have an advantage in the control of acute gastric variceal bleeding, also with lower recurrence rate and rebleeding (except GOV2). The limited amount of studies included attenuates the strength of this meta-analysis; therefore, more high-quality RCTs are needed.

  11. Prognostic factors associated with mortality in patients with gastric fundal variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Keishi; Kubokawa, Masaru; Ihara, Eikichi; Akahoshi, Kazuya; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Motomura, Kenta; Masumoto, Akihide

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the prognostic factors associated with mortality in patients with gastric fundal variceal (GFV) bleeding. METHODS In total, 42 patients were endoscopically diagnosed with GFV bleeding from January 2000 to March 2014. We retrospectively reviewed the patients' medical records and assessed their history, etiology of liver cirrhosis, disease conditions, treatment options for GFV bleeding, medications administered before and after onset of GFV bleeding, blood test results (hemoglobin, albumin, and bilirubin concentrations), and imaging results (including computed tomography and abdominal ultrasonography). We also assessed the prognostic factors associated with short-term mortality (up to 90 d) and long-term mortality in all patients. RESULTS Multivariate analysis showed that prophylactic administration of antibiotics was an independent prognostic factor associated with decreases in short-term mortality (OR = 0.08, 95%CI: 0.01-0.52) and long-term mortality (OR = 0.27, 95%CI: 0.08-0.91) in patients with GFV bleeding. In contrast, concurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and regular use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) were independent prognostic factors associated with increases in short-term mortality (HCC: OR = 15.4, 95%CI: 2.08-114.75; PPI: OR = 12.76, 95%CI: 2.13-76.52) and long-term mortality (HCC: OR = 7.89, 95%CI: 1.98-31.58; PPI: OR = 10.91, 95%CI: 2.86-41.65) in patients with GFV bleeding. The long-term overall survival rate was significantly lower in patients who regularly used PPI than in those who did not use PPI (P = 0.0074). CONCLUSION Administration of antibiotics is associated with decreased short- and long-term mortality, while concurrent HCC and regular PPI administration are associated with increased short- and long-term mortality. PMID:28210086

  12. Vascular Plug-Assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for the Treatment of Gastric Varices and Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Young Hwan; Ko, Gi-Young; Kim, Jong Woo; Ko, Heung Kyu; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate technical and clinical outcomes of vascular plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) for the treatment of gastric varices (GVs) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). From March 2012 to June 2014, 73 consecutive patients (47 men, 26 women; mean age, 59 y; range, 28-79 y) who had undergone PARTO were evaluated in a prospective multicenter study. Among 57 patients with GVs, 28 had GVs in danger of rupture, 23 had experienced recent bleeding, and 6 had active variceal bleeding. The 16 patients with HE had been treated unsuccessfully with medical therapies. Placement of the vascular plug and subsequent gelatin sponge embolization were technically successful in all 73 patients. There were no procedure-related complications. Follow-up CT obtained within 1 wk after PARTO showed complete thrombosis of GVs and portosystemic shunts in 72 of 73 patients (98.6%). Sixty patients who underwent follow-up longer than 3 mo showed complete obliteration of GVs and portosystemic shunts. There were no cases of variceal bleeding or HE at the end of follow-up (mean, 544 d). Improvement in Child-Pugh score was observed in 24 patients (40%) at 1-mo follow-up. Worsening of ascites and esophageal varices was observed in 14 (23.3%) and 16 (26.7%) patients at 3-mo follow-up. The present results of PARTO indicate that it can be rapidly performed with high technical success and durable clinical efficacy for the treatment of GVs and HE in the presence of a portosystemic shunt. Therefore, PARTO might be considered a first-line treatment in appropriate patients. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Percutaneous Trans-hepatic Obliteration for Bleeding Esophagojejunal Varices After Total Gastrectomy and Esophagojejunostomy

    SciTech Connect

    Boku, Michiko; Sugimoto, Koji; Nakamura, Tetsu; Kita, Yasufumi; Zamora, Carlos A. Sugimura, Kazuro

    2006-12-15

    A 72-year-old man who had undergone a total gastrectomy with a Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy for gastric cancer 6 years earlier presented to our hospital with massive hematemesis and melena. Endoscopic examination indicated esophageal varices with cherry-red spots and hemorrhage arising from beyond the anastomosis. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography and angiography revealed a dilated vein in the elevated jejunal limb supplying the varices. Percutaneous trans-hepatic obliteration (PTO) of the varices through the jejunal vein was performed using microcoils, ethanolamine oleate, and gelatin sponge cubes. Ten days after the procedure, endoscopic examination revealed reduction and thrombosis of the varices. We consider PTO to be an effective alternative method for treating ruptured esophagojejunal varices after total gastrectomy.

  14. Gastric variceal bleeding uncovering a rare association of CREST syndrome, primary biliary cirrhosis, nodular regenerative hyperplasia and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Riviere, Etienne; Vergniol, Julien; Reffet, Armel; Lippa, Nicolas; Le Bail, Brigitte; de Ledinghen, Victor

    2010-09-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted after the first upper gastric tract haemorrhage due to gastric variceal bleeding. A CREST syndrome associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Gougerot-Sjögren syndrome, cryoglobulinaemia and complicated with severe pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed. Liver histology found precirrhotic lesions of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH). Collagen diseases are often associated with liver test abnormalities and liver disease usually associated with CREST syndrome is PBC. NRH has been found in association with collagen diseases but also with haematological diseases or drugs or with autoimmune diseases, such as PBC. This case shows the association of PBC and NRH with porto pulmonary hypertension in CREST syndrome.

  15. Safety and efficacy of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in the management of patients with gastric and duodenal varices who are not candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, James; Trotter, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric variceal bleeding is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with portal hypertension and cirrhosis. Options are limited for patients who are not candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). Cyanoacrylate injections have been reported to be efficacious in previous case series. The aim of this retrospective study was to report our single-center experience with the safety and efficacy of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in patients who were not TIPS candidates. Electronic medical records were reviewed for 16 patients who underwent a total of 18 esophagogastroduodenoscopies for acute gastric or duodenal variceal bleeding and secondary prophylaxis of gastric varices; 14 patients had cirrhosis with an average Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score of 16, and 2 patients had noncirrhotic portal hypertension. Primary endpoints of the study included early and delayed rebleeding rate, complications, and death or liver transplantation. The rebleeding rate (early or delayed) was 7%, and no complications were found. One death was reported (unrelated to the procedure). In conclusion, 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate is a safe and effective alternative for non-TIPS candidates who present with acute gastric variceal bleeding given its low rebleeding and complication rate. PMID:27695164

  16. Usefulness of intra-procedural cone-beam computed tomography in modified balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; So, Naomi; Chapman, Ryan; McWilliams, Justin P; Loh, Christopher T; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kee, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether intra-procedural cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed during modified balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (mBRTO) can accurately determine technical success of complete variceal obliteration. METHODS: From June 2012 to December 2014, 15 patients who received CBCT during mBRTO for treatment of portal hypertensive gastric variceal bleeding were retrospectively evaluated. Three-dimensional (3D) CBCT images were performed and evaluated prior to the end of the procedure, and these were further analyzed and compared to the pre-procedure contrast-enhanced computed tomography to determine the technical success of mBRTO including: Complete occlusion/obliteration of: (1) gastrorenal shunt (GRS); (2) gastric varices; and (3) afferent feeding veins. Post-mBRTO contrast-enhanced CT was used to confirm the accuracy and diagnostic value of CBCT within 2-3 d. RESULTS: Intra-procedural 3D-CBCT images were 100% accurate in determining the technical success of mBRTO in all 15 cases. CBCT demonstrated complete occlusion/obliteration of GRS, gastric varices, collaterals and afferent feeding veins during mBRTO, which was confirmed with post-mBRTO CT. Two patients showed incomplete obliteration of gastric varices and feeding veins on CBCT, which therefore required additional gelfoam injections to complete the procedure. No patient required additional procedures or other interventions during their follow-up period (684 ± 279 d). CONCLUSION: CBCT during mBRTO appears to accurately and immediately determine the technical success of mBRTO. This may improve the technical and clinical success/outcome of mBRTO and reduce additional procedure time in the future. PMID:27158425

  17. Usefulness of intra-procedural cone-beam computed tomography in modified balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; So, Naomi; Chapman, Ryan; McWilliams, Justin P; Loh, Christopher T; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kee, Stephen T

    2016-04-28

    To evaluate whether intra-procedural cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed during modified balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (mBRTO) can accurately determine technical success of complete variceal obliteration. From June 2012 to December 2014, 15 patients who received CBCT during mBRTO for treatment of portal hypertensive gastric variceal bleeding were retrospectively evaluated. Three-dimensional (3D) CBCT images were performed and evaluated prior to the end of the procedure, and these were further analyzed and compared to the pre-procedure contrast-enhanced computed tomography to determine the technical success of mBRTO including: Complete occlusion/obliteration of: (1) gastrorenal shunt (GRS); (2) gastric varices; and (3) afferent feeding veins. Post-mBRTO contrast-enhanced CT was used to confirm the accuracy and diagnostic value of CBCT within 2-3 d. Intra-procedural 3D-CBCT images were 100% accurate in determining the technical success of mBRTO in all 15 cases. CBCT demonstrated complete occlusion/obliteration of GRS, gastric varices, collaterals and afferent feeding veins during mBRTO, which was confirmed with post-mBRTO CT. Two patients showed incomplete obliteration of gastric varices and feeding veins on CBCT, which therefore required additional gelfoam injections to complete the procedure. No patient required additional procedures or other interventions during their follow-up period (684 ± 279 d). CBCT during mBRTO appears to accurately and immediately determine the technical success of mBRTO. This may improve the technical and clinical success/outcome of mBRTO and reduce additional procedure time in the future.

  18. Esophageal Varices

    MedlinePlus

    Esophageal varices Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Esophageal varices are abnormal, enlarged veins in the tube that connects the ... often in people with serious liver diseases. Esophageal varices develop when normal blood flow to the liver ...

  19. [Surgical treatment of hemorrhage of esophageal varices secondary to thrombosis of the portal vein].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Zepeda, H; Takahashi, T; Angel Mercado, M; García-Tsao, G; Hernández-Ortiz, J

    1990-01-01

    The Sugiura Procedure (SP) was performed in 27 patients with hemorrhagic portal hypertension secondary to extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis without associated liver disease (EPVT). There were fourteen females and 13 males. Mean age was 28 +/- 14 years. The causes of EPVT were: protein C deficiency-2 cases, antithrombin III deficiency-1 case, omphalitis history-2 cases, pancreatitis history-1 case and idiopathic-21 cases. The SP was completed with two surgical stages in 14 patients and with one operation in nine. There was one operative death. One patient developed mild postoperative encephalopathy, and two patients re-bled at long-term. Actuarial survival was 82% at five and ten years. It is concluded that the SP is a good alternative for the management of hemorrhagic portal hypertension secondary to EPVT.

  20. Comparison of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt with Covered Stent and Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration in Managing Isolated Gastric Varices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kristen A.; Sauk, Steven; Korenblat, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Objective Although a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is commonly placed to manage isolated gastric varices, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) has also been used. We compare the long-term outcomes from these procedures based on our institutional experience. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective review of patients with isolated gastric varices who underwent either TIPS with a covered stent or BRTO between January 2000 and July 2013. We identified 52 consecutive patients, 27 who had received TIPS with a covered stent and 25 who had received BRTO. We compared procedural complications, re-bleeding rates, and clinical outcomes between the two groups. Results There were no significant differences in procedural complications between patients who underwent TIPS (7%) and those who underwent BRTO (12%) (p = 0.57). There were also no statistically significant differences in re-bleeding rates from gastric varices between the two groups (TIPS, 7% [2/27]; BRTO, 8% [2/25]; p = 0.94) or in developing new ascites following either procedure (TIPS, 4%; BRTO, 4%; p = 0.96); significantly more patients who underwent TIPS developed hepatic encephalopathy (22%) than did those who underwent BRTO (0%, p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in mean survival between the two groups (TIPS, 30 months; BRTO, 24 months; p = 0.16); median survival for the patients who received TIPS was 16.6 months, and for those who underwent BRTO, it was 26.6 months. Conclusion BRTO is an effective method of treating isolated gastric varices with similar outcomes and complication rates to those of TIPS with a covered stent but with a lower rate of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:28246514

  1. Gastric Mucosal Petechial Hemorrhages (Wischnewsky Lesions), Hypothermia, and Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kenneth Howard; Stoppacher, Robert

    2016-09-01

    For more than 100 years since their initial description, gastric mucosal petechial hemorrhages have been discovered at autopsy in cases where environmental hypothermia was determined to be the cause of death. Although these lesions are frequently seen in deaths caused by environmental hypothermia, they can also be seen in cases where hypothermia is not implicated; however, this has been seldom described. We present a series of autopsy cases where hypothermia has been conclusively ruled out as a cause of death, in which Wischnewsky lesions are found. In all of these cases, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was determined to be the proximate cause of death, as confirmed through clinical history, laboratory analysis, and absence of other anatomic or toxicological findings. We provide a mechanism of Wischnewsky lesion formation and how that mechanism relates to both hypothermia and ketoacidosis. Our data show that gastric mucosal petechial hemorrhages are not specific for hypothermia-related deaths, and are likely indicative of a state in which hypothermia and DKA have a common underlying pathophysiology, most likely a coagulopathy. Our data also illustrate that in autopsy cases where Wischnewsky lesions are found, DKA should be seriously considered as the underlying cause of death, particularly in the absence of indications of environmental hypothermia.

  2. Gastric angiodysplasia in a hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 patient.

    PubMed

    Ha, Minsu; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kwon, Kwang An; Hahm, Ki Baik; Kim, Mi-Jung; Kim, Dong Kyu; Lee, Young Jae; Oh, S Paul

    2012-04-21

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare autosomal-dominantly inherited disease that occurs in approximately one in 5000 to 8000 people. Clinical diagnosis of HHT is made when a person presents three of the following four criteria: family history, recurrent nosebleeds, mucocutaneous telangiectasis, and arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in the brain, lung, liver and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although epistaxis is the most common presenting symptom, AVMs affecting the lungs, brain and GI tract provoke a more serious outcome. Heterozygous mutations in endoglin, activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1; ALK1), and SMAD4, the genes involved in the transforming growth factor-β family signaling cascade, cause HHT. We report here the case of a 63 year-old male patient who presented melena and GI bleeding episodes, proven to be caused by bleeding from multiple gastric angiodysplasia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple angiodysplasia throughout the stomach. Endoscopic argon plasma coagulation was performed to control bleeding from a gastric angiodysplasia. The patient has been admitted several times with episodes of hemoptysis and hematochezia. One year ago, the patient was hospitalized due to right-sided weakness, which was caused by left basal ganglia hemorrhage as the part of HHT presentation. In family history, the patient's mother and elder sister had died, due to intracranial hemorrhage, and his eldest son has been suffered from recurrent epistaxis for 20 years. A genetic study revealed a mutation in exon 3 of ALK1 (c.199C > T; p.Arg67Trp) in the proband and his eldest son presenting epistaxis.

  3. Gastric Varices in Cirrhosis vs. Extrahepatic Portal Venous Obstruction and Response to Endoscopic N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate Injection.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Barjesh C; Varakanahalli, Shivakumar; Singh, Jatinder P; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2017-06-01

    Gastric varices (GV) are found in patients with portal hypertension. Incidence of bleeding from GV is relatively low, but is severe, and associated with higher mortality. To compare the types of GV in cirrhosis vs. extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) and the results of endoscopic N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBC, glue) injection. Four hundred and fifty-four patients undergone glue injection of GV for primary prophylaxis or control of bleeding for first episode of bleeding from GV between August 2010 and August 2015 were analyzed. Of 454 patients, 64% (n = 292) were cirrhotics and 36% (n = 162) had EHPVO. Types of GV were GOV1 in 16.4% (n = 48) of cirrhotics vs. 7.4% (n = 12) of EHPVO, GOV2 in 76.7% (n = 224) of cirrhotics vs. 53.1% (n = 86) of EHPVO, Isolated gastric Varices (IGV1) in 39.5% (n = 64) of patients with EHPVO vs. 6.8% (n = 20) cirrhotics. The patients were treated with NBC injections. The mean volume of glue injected was 2.89 ± 1.59 ml over a median of 1 session (range: 1-7). The total volume of glue required was lower in cirrhotics (2.44 ± 1.17 ml vs. 3.69 ± 1.91 ml, P < 0.05) than in EHPVO patients. One hundred and seventeen (40.1%) of cirrhotics required >1 sessions of glue injection as compared to 102 (63%) of EHPVO patients. Over mean follow up of 14.7 ± 6.46 months, rebleeding (10% vs. 13%) was similar in patients with cirrhosis and EHPVO and mortality (15.4% vs. 2.5%) was higher in cirrhotics than EHPVO. In patients with bleeding from GV, GOV2 are more common in cirrhotics and IGV1 in patients with EHPVO. Patients with EHPVO required higher total volume of glue and more glue sessions for GV obturation.

  4. Hypothermia improves oral and gastric mucosal microvascular oxygenation during hemorrhagic shock in dogs.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Christian; Schwartges, Ingo; Swertz, Meike; Beck, Christopher; Bauer, Inge; Picker, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Hypothermia is known to improve tissue function in different organs during physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hypothermia on oral and gastric mucosal microvascular oxygenation (μHbO2) and perfusion (μflow) under physiological and hemorrhagic conditions. Five dogs were repeatedly anesthetized. All animals underwent each experimental protocol (randomized cross-over design): hypothermia (34°C), hypothermia during hemorrhage, normothermia, and normothermia during hemorrhage. Microcirculatory and hemodynamic variables were recorded. Systemic (DO2) and oral mucosal (μDO2) oxygen delivery were calculated. Hypothermia increased oral μ HbO2 with no effect on gastric μHbO2. Hemorrhage reduced oral and gastric μHbO2 during normothermia (-36 ± 4% and -27 ± 7%); however, this effect was attenuated during additional hypothermia (-15 ± 5% and -11 ± 5%). The improved μ HbO2 might be based on an attenuated reduction in μ flow during hemorrhage and additional hypothermia (-51 ± 21 aU) compared to hemorrhage and normothermia (-106 ± 19 aU). μDO2 was accordingly attenuated under hypothermia during hemorrhage whereas DO2 did not change. Thus, in this study hypothermia alone improves oral μHbO2 and attenuates the effects of hemorrhage on oral and gastric μ HbO2. This effect seems to be mediated by an increased μDO2 on the basis of increased μ flow.

  5. Gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in Salmonella typhimurium-infected rats.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chen-Road; Wang, Paulus S

    2004-04-26

    Infection of Salmonella typhimurium (Salmonella typhi) can lead to various organ diseases. This research first proposed that Salmonella typhi-infection could result in gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcers that were ameliorated by ofloxacin, lysozyme chloride and several antioxidants, including exogenous glutathione (GSH), allopurinol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Male Wistar rats were given intrajejunally the live culture of Salmonella typhi [1 x 10(10) colony-forming unit (CFU)/rat] and followed by deprivation of food for 36 h. Age-matched control rats received vehicle only. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with either normal saline or a simulated gastric juice containing 100 mM HCl, 17.4 mM pepsin and 54 mM NaCl. Infection of Salmonella typhi produced an aggravation of ulcerogenic factors, including enhancing gastric acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation and hemorrhagic ulcer as well as an attenuation of mucosal GSH level. Intragastric irrigation of gastric juice caused further aggravation of these gastric biochemical parameters. This exacerbation of ulcerogenic factors was abolished by pretreatment of ofloxacin and lysozyme chloride. Antioxidants, such as reduced GSH, allopurinol and DMSO also produced significant (P<0.05) amelioration of gastric damage in Salmonella typhi-infected rats. In conclusion, infection of Salmonella typhi substantially caused gastric oxidative stress and disruption of gastric mucosal barriers, consequently resulted in gastric hemorrhagic ulcerations that were effectively ameliorated by ofloxacin, lysozyme chloride and various antioxidants.

  6. Stratifying risk in the prevention of recurrent variceal hemorrhage: Results of an individual patient meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Albillos, Agustín; Zamora, Javier; Martínez, Javier; Arroyo, David; Ahmad, Irfan; De-la-Peña, Joaquin; Garcia-Pagán, Juan-Carlos; Lo, Gin-Ho; Sarin, Shiv; Sharma, Barjesh; Abraldes, Juan G; Bosch, Jaime; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2017-10-01

    Endoscopic variceal ligation plus beta-blockers (EVL+BB) is currently recommended for variceal rebleeding prophylaxis, a recommendation that extends to all patients with cirrhosis with previous variceal bleeding irrespective of prognostic stage. Individualizing patient care is relevant, and in published studies on variceal rebleeding prophylaxis, there is a lack of information regarding response to therapy by prognostic stage. This study aimed at comparing EVL plus BB with monotherapy (EVL or BB) on all-source rebleeding and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and previous variceal bleeding stratified by cirrhosis severity (Child A versus B/C) by means of individual time-to-event patient data meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials. The study used individual data on 389 patients from three trials comparing EVL plus BB versus BB and 416 patients from four trials comparing EVL plus BB versus EVL. Compared with BB alone, EVL plus BB reduced overall rebleeding in Child A (incidence rate ratio 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.89; P = 0.025) but not in Child B/C, without differences in mortality. The effect of EVL on rebleeding was different according to Child (P for interaction <0.001). Conversely, compared with EVL, EVL plus BB reduced rebleeding in both Child A and B/C, with a significant reduction in mortality in Child B/C (incidence rate ratio 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.85; P = 0.013). Outcomes of therapies to prevent variceal rebleeding differ depending on cirrhosis severity: in patients with preserved liver function (Child A), combination therapy is recommended because it is more effective in preventing rebleeding, without modifying survival, while in patients with advanced liver failure (Child B/C), EVL alone carries an increased risk of rebleeding and death compared with combination therapy, underlining that BB is the key element of combination therapy. (Hepatology 2017;66:1219-1231). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of

  7. Pediatric gastroesophageal varices: treatment strategy and long-term results.

    PubMed

    Mitsunaga, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hideo; Kouchi, Katsunori; Hishiki, Tomoro; Saito, Takeshi; Yamada, Shin-ichi; Sato, Yoshiharu; Terui, Keita; Nakata, Mitsuyuki; Takenouchi, Ayako; Ohnuma, Naomi

    2006-12-01

    There are various treatment strategies for gastroesophageal varices in children. We studied the therapeutic value of endoscopic variceal clipping (EVC) and ligation (EVL). Four hundred ninety-nine endoscopic examinations performed between 1991 and 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. F2 and F3 varices with red color signs on follow-up endoscopy were treated with prophylactic EVC. In variceal rupture cases, EVC and EVL were used in combination. Eighty-two prophylactic EVCs were done, and variceal progression was prevented in 89.9%. However, some patients had persistent red color signs and required frequent EVC. Ten emergent procedures were done for variceal rupture, and, in 4 cases, EVL was used to arrest massive variceal bleeding. Five patients developed bleeding during follow-up cause by rupture of gastric fundal varices, which probably had been aggravated by prior treatment for esophageal varices. The control of gastroesophageal varices by routine EVC was satisfactory. However, ruptures during follow-up suggested the importance of controlling gastric fundal varices. Endoscopic variceal ligation is a simple, effective, and safe treatment tool, particularly for ruptured varices. However, it is difficult to treat gastric fundal varices with EVL; this disadvantage of EVL can be overcome by the concomitant use of EVC.

  8. Endoscopic management of esophagogastric varices in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Taura, Naota; Miuma, Satoshi; Isomoto, Hajime; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Esophagogastric varices are the most common complication in patients with portal hypertension, and endoscopy plays an important role in their diagnosis and in the prevention of acute bleeding from these structures. Recently, new modalities such as endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and narrow-band imaging have been introduced for the diagnosis of esophagogastric varices. In Japan, endoscopic therapy has become the first choice for the treatment of acutely bleeding esophageal or gastric varices. The two principal methods used to treat esophageal varices are endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) and endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). Recently, combinations of EIS plus EVL and EVL plus argon plasma coagulation were reported to be more effective than EVL or EIS alone. Additionally, endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection is superior to EIS and EVL for the treatment of acutely bleeding gastric varices. PMID:25333017

  9. An aggressive, nonshunting approach for control of bleeding esophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Wexler, M J; Miller, N; McLean, A P

    1983-10-01

    Morbidity and mortality from variceal hemorrhage can be significantly reduced. A well-defined treatment protocol which obviates delay, procrastination and excessive blood loss is essential. Early aggressive endoscopic sclerotherapy is extremely safe and effective in controlling the acute hemorrhagic event. However, technical details remain to be standardized; rebleeding can be significant and sclerosing until roentgenologic obliteration is essential. Stapled esophageal transection and coronary vein ligation are a reasonable and effective surgical approach when necessary; however, the exact timing and place of this procedure in the therapeutic schema are not yet defined. It requires further phase one studies and not more randomized control trials! It can be difficult after recent sclerotherapy and would appear to require upper gastric devascularization or perhaps percutaneous embolization if gastric varices are venographically prominent. We have recently attempted to modify the procedure in such patients by stapling across the anterior and posterior gastric walls as an alternative or addition to complete esophageal transection. This is accomplished through a small gastrotomy adjacent to the gastroesophageal junction. Shunting procedures or more extensive surgical intervention does not appear necessary, desirable or warranted at this time; however, longer follow-up study is essential.

  10. The outcome of prophylactic intravenous cefazolin and ceftriaxone in cirrhotic patients at different clinical stages of disease after endoscopic interventions for acute variceal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Kun; Wang, Jing-Houng; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Wu, Keng-Liang; Tai, Wei-Chen; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis with norfloxacin, intravenous ciprofloxacin, or ceftriaxone has been recommended for cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage but little is known about intravenous cefazolin. This study aimed to compare the outcome of intravenous cefazolin and ceftriaxone as prophylactic antibiotics among cirrhotic patients at different clinical stages, and to identify the associated risk factors. The medical records of 713 patients with acute variceal bleeding who had received endoscopic procedures from were reviewed. Three hundred and eleven patients were entered for age-matched adjustment after strict exclusion criteria. After the adjustment, a total of 102 patients were enrolled and sorted into 2 groups according to the severity of cirrhosis: group A (Child's A patients, n = 51) and group B (Child's B and C patients, n = 51). The outcomes were prevention of infection, time of rebleeding, and death. Our subgroup analysis results failed to show a significant difference in infection prevention between patients who received prophylactic cefazolin and those who received ceftriaxone among Child's A patients (93.1% vs. 90.9%, p = 0.641); however, a trend of significance in favor of ceftriaxone prophylaxis (77.8% vs. 87.5%, p = 0.072) was seen among Child's B and C patients. More rebleeding cases were observed in patients who received cefazolin than in those who received ceftriaxone among Child's B and C patients (66.7% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.011) but not in Child's A patients (32% vs. 40.9%, p = 0.376). The risk factors associated with rebleeding were history of bleeding and use of prophylactic cefazolin among Child's B and C patients. In conclusion, this study suggests that prophylactic intravenous cefazolin may not be inferior to ceftriaxone in preventing infections and reducing rebleeding among Child's A cirrhotic patients after endoscopic interventions for acute variceal bleeding. Prophylactic intravenous ceftriaxone yields

  11. MELD score for prediction of survival after emergent TIPS for acute variceal hemorrhage: derivation and validation in a 101-patient cohort.

    PubMed

    Casadaban, Leigh C; Parvinian, Ahmad; Zivin, Sean P; Lakhoo, Janesh; Minocha, Jeet; Knuttinen, M Grace; Ray, Charles E; Bui, James T; Gaba, Ron C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY: The Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score has not been derived and validated for the emergent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) population. We sought to identify predictive factors for survival among emergent TIPS patients, and to substantiate MELD for outcomes prognostication in this population. 101 patients with acute life threatening variceal hemorrhage underwent emergent TIPS (defined by failed endoscopic therapy for active bleeding, acute hemoglobin drop, ≥ 2-unit transfusion requirement, and/or vasopressor need) at between 1998-2013. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and procedure parameters were analyzed for correlation with mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression to derive the prognostic value of MELD constituents. Area under receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) curves was used to assess the capability of MELD prediction of mortality. TIPS were created 119 ± 167 h after initial bleeding events. Hemodynamic success was achieved in 90%. Median final portosystemic pressure gradient was 8 mmHg. Variceal rebleeding incidence was 21%. The four original MELD components showed significant correlation with mortality on multivariate Cox regression: baseline bilirubin (regression coefficient 0.366), creatinine (0.621), international normalized ratio (1.111), and liver disease etiology (0.808), validating the MELD system for emergent cases. No other significant predictive parameters were identified. MELD was an excellent predictor of 90-day mortality in the emergent TIPS population (AUROC = 0.842, 95% CI 0.755-0.928). Based on independent derivation of prognostic constituents and confirmation of predictive accuracy, MELD is a valid and reliable metric for risk stratification and survival projection after emergent TIPS.

  12. Hypothermia Improves Oral and Gastric Mucosal Microvascular Oxygenation during Hemorrhagic Shock in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Inge; Picker, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Hypothermia is known to improve tissue function in different organs during physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hypothermia on oral and gastric mucosal microvascular oxygenation (μHbO2) and perfusion (μflow) under physiological and hemorrhagic conditions. Five dogs were repeatedly anesthetized. All animals underwent each experimental protocol (randomized cross-over design): hypothermia (34°C), hypothermia during hemorrhage, normothermia, and normothermia during hemorrhage. Microcirculatory and hemodynamic variables were recorded. Systemic (DO2) and oral mucosal (μDO2) oxygen delivery were calculated. Hypothermia increased oral μHbO2 with no effect on gastric μHbO2. Hemorrhage reduced oral and gastric μHbO2 during normothermia (−36 ± 4% and −27 ± 7%); however, this effect was attenuated during additional hypothermia (−15 ± 5% and −11 ± 5%). The improved μHbO2 might be based on an attenuated reduction in μflow during hemorrhage and additional hypothermia (−51 ± 21 aU) compared to hemorrhage and normothermia (−106 ± 19 aU). μDO2 was accordingly attenuated under hypothermia during hemorrhage whereas DO2 did not change. Thus, in this study hypothermia alone improves oral μHbO2 and attenuates the effects of hemorrhage on oral and gastric μHbO2. This effect seems to be mediated by an increased μDO2 on the basis of increased μflow. PMID:24327826

  13. Management of rectal varices in portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Al Khalloufi, Kawtar; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O

    2015-01-01

    Rectal varices are portosystemic collaterals that form as a complication of portal hypertension, their prevalence has been reported as high as 94% in patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. The diagnosis is typically based on lower endoscopy (colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy). However, endoscopic ultrasonography has been shown to be superior to endoscopy in diagnosing rectal varices. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a better method because it allows the calculation of the velocity of blood flow in the varices and can be used to predict the bleeding risk in the varices. Although rare, bleeding from rectal varices can be life threatening. The management of patients with rectal variceal bleeding is not well established. It is important to ensure hemodynamic stability with blood transfusion and to correct any coagulopathy prior to treating the bleeding varices. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy has been reported to be more effective in the management of active bleeding from rectal varices with less rebleeding rate as compared to endoscopic band ligation. Transjugular intrahepatic portsystemic shunt alone or in combination with embolization is another method used successfully in control of bleeding. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is an emerging procedure for management of gastric varices that has also been successfully used to treat bleeding rectal varices. Surgical procedures including suture ligation and porto-caval shunts are considered when other methods have failed. PMID:26730278

  14. Multiple esophageal variceal ruptures with massive ascites due to myelofibrosis-induced portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tokai, Koichi; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio; Yamada, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    A 75-year old man had been diagnosed at 42 years of age as having polycythemia vera and had been monitored at another hospital. Progression of anemia had been recognized at about age 70, and the patient was thus referred to our center in 2008 where secondary myelofibrosis was diagnosed based on bone marrow biopsy findings. Hematemesis due to rupture of esophageal varices occurred in January and February of 2011. The bleeding was stopped by endoscopic variceal ligation. Furthermore, in March of the same year, hematemesis recurred and the patient was transported to our center. He was in irreversible hemorrhagic shock and died. The autopsy showed severe bone marrow fibrosis with mainly argyrophilic fibers, an observation consistent with myelofibrosis. The liver weighed 1856 g the spleen 1572 g, indicating marked hepatosplenomegaly. The liver and spleen both showed extramedullary hemopoiesis. Myelofibrosis is often complicated by portal hypertension and is occasionally associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to esophageal varices. A patient diagnosed as having myelofibrosis needs to be screened for esophageal/gastric varices. Myelofibrosis has a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully decide the therapeutic strategy in consideration of the patient’s concomitant conditions, treatment invasiveness and quality of life. PMID:22851873

  15. Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase attenuates nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric hemorrhages in mice.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Steven G; Nomura, Daniel K; O'Neal, Scott T; Long, Jonathan Z; Mahadevan, Anu; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Grider, John R; Lichtman, Aron H

    2011-09-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used analgesics, but can cause gastric and esophageal hemorrhages, erosion, and ulceration. The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid; eCB) system possesses several potential targets to reduce gastric inflammatory states, including cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB(1)), cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB(2)), and enzymes that regulate the eCB ligands 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anandamide; AEA). In the presented study, we tested whether 4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (JZL184), a selective inhibitor of the primary catabolic enzyme of 2-AG, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), would protect against NSAID-induced gastric damage. Food-deprived mice administered the nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor diclofenac sodium displayed gastric hemorrhages and increases in proinflammatory cytokines. JZL184, the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (positive control), or the primary constituent of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), significantly prevented diclofenac-induced gastric hemorrhages. JZL184 also increased stomach levels of 2-AG, but had no effect on AEA, arachidonic acid, or the prostaglandins E(2) and D(2). MAGL inhibition fully blocked diclofenac-induced increases in gastric levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, as well as IL-10. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of CB(1) or CB(2) revealed that the gastroprotective effects of JZL184 and THC were mediated via CB(1). The antihemorrhagic effects of JZL184 persisted with repeated administration, indicating a lack of tolerance. These data indicate that increasing 2-AG protects against gastric damage induced by NSAIDs, and its primary catabolic enzyme MAGL offers a promising target for the development of analgesic therapeutics possessing gastroprotective properties.

  16. The Outcome of Prophylactic Intravenous Cefazolin and Ceftriaxone in Cirrhotic Patients at Different Clinical Stages of Disease after Endoscopic Interventions for Acute Variceal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Kun; Wang, Jing-Houng; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Wu, Keng-Liang; Tai, Wei-Chen; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis with norfloxacin, intravenous ciprofloxacin, or ceftriaxone has been recommended for cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage but little is known about intravenous cefazolin. This study aimed to compare the outcome of intravenous cefazolin and ceftriaxone as prophylactic antibiotics among cirrhotic patients at different clinical stages, and to identify the associated risk factors. The medical records of 713 patients with acute variceal bleeding who had received endoscopic procedures from were reviewed. Three hundred and eleven patients were entered for age-matched adjustment after strict exclusion criteria. After the adjustment, a total of 102 patients were enrolled and sorted into 2 groups according to the severity of cirrhosis: group A (Child’s A patients, n = 51) and group B (Child’s B and C patients, n = 51). The outcomes were prevention of infection, time of rebleeding, and death. Our subgroup analysis results failed to show a significant difference in infection prevention between patients who received prophylactic cefazolin and those who received ceftriaxone among Child’s A patients (93.1% vs. 90.9%, p = 0.641); however, a trend of significance in favor of ceftriaxone prophylaxis (77.8% vs. 87.5%, p = 0.072) was seen among Child’s B and C patients. More rebleeding cases were observed in patients who received cefazolin than in those who received ceftriaxone among Child’s B and C patients (66.7% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.011) but not in Child’s A patients (32% vs. 40.9%, p = 0.376). The risk factors associated with rebleeding were history of bleeding and use of prophylactic cefazolin among Child’s B and C patients. In conclusion, this study suggests that prophylactic intravenous cefazolin may not be inferior to ceftriaxone in preventing infections and reducing rebleeding among Child’s A cirrhotic patients after endoscopic interventions for acute variceal bleeding. Prophylactic intravenous

  17. [Primary risk of hemorrhage due to esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients: significance of the associated endoscopic signs and hepatic functional reserve].

    PubMed

    Jmelnitzky, A; Palazzolo, A; Viola, L; Landoni, N; Morgante, P; Chopita, N; Romero, G; Giulioni, P

    1991-01-01

    Significance of endoscopic findings associated to esophageal varices (Japanese Research Society for Portal Hypertension) and hepatic dysfunction (Child-Pough classification) as predictive factors of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients is analyzed. In a cooperative prospective experience 137 cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices were examined in the period May 1987/89: 83 out of them had never bled from their varices (VENS group) while 54 recently had (VES group). A highly significative association was found between variceal size over 3 mm (grade II-III) and bleeding: 96.3% vs. 34.9% in VENS group (p = 0.01); similar association was found with regard to endoscopic detection of "red signs": 92.6% in bleeding group vs. 20.5% in VENS one (p = 0.01). "Red signs" were found on grade II-III varices in 98.5% of cases, and this association were related to variceal bleeding in 75.5%. Hepatic dysfunction was not directly related to bleeding episodes but "red signs" endoscopic detection in VENS group increased with liver function deterioration: 9.1% in Child A class, 27.3% in Child B, and 41.2% in Child C (p = 0.01). The strong association founded between bleeding and both grade II-III variceal size and "red signs" detection, suggest the possibility to identify a high risk group of cirrhotic patients candidate to prophylactic methodologies.

  18. Hemorrhagic gastric and duodenal ulcers after the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Kenichi; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio; Asabe, Shinichi; Yoshida, Toru; Nakano, Misaki; Obara, Shin; Endo, Hidehiko

    2013-11-14

    To elucidate the characteristics of hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers in a post-earthquake period within one medical district. Hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers in the Iwate Prefectural Kamaishi Hospital during the 6-mo period after the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster were reviewed retrospectively. The subjects were 27 patients who visited our hospital with a chief complaint of hematemesis or hemorrhagic stool and were diagnosed as having hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during a 6-mo period starting on March 11, 2011. This period was divided into two phases: the acute stress phase, comprising the first month after the earthquake disaster, and the chronic stress phase, from the second through the sixth month. The following items were analyzed according to these phases: age, sex, sites and number of ulcers, peptic ulcer history, status of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and degree of impact of the earthquake disaster. In the acute stress phase from 10 d to 1 mo after the disaster, the number of patients increased rapidly, with a nearly equal male-to-female ratio, and the rate of multiple ulcers was significantly higher than in the previous year (88.9% vs 25%, P < 0.005). In the chronic stress phase starting 1 mo after the earthquake disaster, the number of patients decreased to a level similar to that of the previous year. There were more male patients during this period, and many patients tended to have a solitary ulcer. All patients with duodenal ulcers found in the acute stress phase were negative for serum H. pylori antibodies, and this was significantly different from the previous year's positive rate of 75% (P < 0.05). Severe stress caused by an earthquake disaster may have affected the characteristics of hemorrhagic gastric/duodenal ulcers.

  19. Radiological score for hemorrhage in the patients with portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Wei; Wang, Yi; Cao, Ya-Juan; Xie, Min; Ding, Yi-Tao; Zhang, Ming; Yu, De-Cai

    2015-01-01

    Goal: To analyze the risk factors from radiological indices for hemorrhage in the patients with portal hypertension and weight risk factors. Method: We retrospectively analyzed all cases of portal hypertension with hepatitis B from June 2008 to June 2014 in Nanjing Drum Tower hospital. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, portal vein thrombosis, or portal hypertension with other causes, such as autoimmune hepatitis, pancreatitis, or hematological diseases were excluded. Results: Ninety-eight patients were recruited and divided into hemorrhage and non-hemorrhage groups. There were no statistical differences in clinical indexes such as age, prothrombin time, serum albumin, serum creatinine, serum sodium, hemameba, and blood platelet count. However, the differences were statistically significant in total bilirubin, hemoglobin, and liver function with the p values of 0.023, 0.000, and 0.039 respectively. For radiological indices, hemorrhage was correlated with diameter of inferior mesenteric vein (P=0.0528), posterior gastric vein (P=0.0283), and esophageal varices scores (P=0.0221). Logistic procedure was used to construct the model with stepwise selection and finally inferior mesenteric vein, posterior gastric vein, esophageal varices, and short gastric vein were enrolled into the model. These veins were scored according to the diameters and the rates of hemorrhage were increased with the score. We then validated the model with 26 patents from July 2014 to December 2014. The AUC value was 0.8849 in ROC curves for this radiological model. Conclusions: A risk model was constructed including inferior mesenteric vein, esophageal varices, posterior gastric vein, and short gastric vein. This radiological scoring model may be a valuable indicator for hemorrhage of portal hypertension. PMID:26617884

  20. Detachable endoloop vs. elastic band ligation for bleeding esophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Naga, Mazen Ibrahim; Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Foda, Ayman Ragaei; Gomaa, Mohamed Saeed; Fouad, Ayman Mohamed; Masoud, Amgad Gerges; El-din, Hazem Hossam

    2004-06-01

    Variceal bleeding is a serious complication with a mortality rate that ranges from 20% to 50%. Patients who have variceal hemorrhage usually are treated by endoscopic injection sclerotherapy or elastic band ligation to eradicate the varices. Endoloop ligation is a newly developed technique for achieving hemostasis and variceal eradication. This study compared endoloop ligation with elastic band ligation in patients with acute esophageal variceal bleeding. Fifty patients with acute esophageal variceal bleeding were recruited: 25 were treated by elastic band ligation and 25 by endoloop ligation. Although the number of patients in whom bleeding recurred during a follow-up period of 6 months was smaller in the endoloop group (12%) vs. the band group (28%), this difference was not statistically significant. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to the number of patients in whom variceal eradication was achieved, the number of treatment sessions required for variceal eradication, or the frequency of variceal recurrence. The total cost for variceal obliteration by endoloop ligation was 342 dollars per patient, whereas, the total cost of variceal eradication by elastic band ligation was 356 dollars per patient. The endoloop had certain technical advantages over band application: a better field of vision, tighter application, good results with junctional varices, and a lack of strain exerted by the device on the endoscope. Endoloop ligation is a promising new technique for management of patients with bleeding esophageal varices.

  1. Gastric injury induced by hemorrhage, local ischemia, and oxygen radical generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Perry, M.A. )

    1987-08-01

    Gastric mucosal injury caused by local intra-arterial generation of oxygen-derived free radicals was compared with gastric injury caused by 30 min of hemorrhage-induced ischemia or local ischemia. The index of injury was the loss of {sup 51}Cr-labeled red cells across the gastric mucosa. Generation of oxygen radicals in the celiac artery caused a rapid increase in mucosal blood loss during the period of radical generation, and this loss was maintained after radical production ceased. Local ischemia produced similar mucosal injury; however, this occurred after reperfusion of the stomach and not during the ischemic episode. Hemorrhage-induced ischemia produced a threefold greater mucosal blood loss than local ischemia. The results of this study indicate that (1) oxygen radicals generated enzymatically in the blood supply to the stomach cause mucosal bleeding of similar magnitude to that observed after local ischemia and (2) that gastric ischemia induced by systemic hypotension produces more severe gastric injury than the same level of local hypotension.

  2. The Role of Medical Therapy for Variceal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Abdul Q; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2015-07-01

    Acute variceal hemorrhage (AVH) is a lethal complication of portal hypertension and should be suspected in every patient with liver cirrhosis who presents with upper gastrointestinal bleed. AVH-related mortality has decreased in the last few decades from 40% to 15%-20% due to advances in the general and specific management of variceal hemorrhage. This review summarizes current management of AVH and prevention of recurrent hemorrhage with a focus on pharmacologic therapy.

  3. Gastric vascular and motor responses to anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats, in comparison to those with hemorrhagic or vasodilator-induced hypotension.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Yuhichi; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Wei; Tanida, Mamoru; Kurata, Yasutaka

    2017-01-31

    Anaphylactic shock is life-threatening, but pathophysiology of the stomach lesion remains unclear. We determined gastric hemodynamics and gastric functions during anaphylactic hypotension, as compared to hypotension induced by hemorrhage or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in anesthetized and ovalbumin-sensitized Sprague-Dawley rats. Systemic arterial pressure, portal venous pressure, and gastric arterial blood flow were measured, and gastric vascular resistance (GVR) was determined. Separately, the intragastric pressure (IGP) and gastric effluent, as a measure of gastric flux, were continuously measured. During anaphylaxis, GVR decreased only transiently at 0.5 min, followed by an increase. IGP increased markedly, while gastric flux decreased. During hemorrhage, GVR and IGP increased, while gastric flux did not change. When SNP was injected, both GVR and IGP decreased and gastric flux increased only just after injection. In conclusion, gastric vasodilatation occurs only transiently after antigen injection, and gastric motility increases, but gastric emptying deceases during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

  4. Gastric acid inhibition in the treatment of peptic ulcer hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Kevin A; Kovacs, Thomas O G; Jensen, Dennis M

    2009-12-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding from peptic ulcer disease is a common clinical event, resulting in considerable patient morbidity and significant health care costs. Inhibiting gastric acid secretion is a key component in improving clinical outcomes, including reducing rebleeding, transfusion requirements, and surgery. Raising intragastric pH promotes clot stability and reduces the influences of gastric acid and pepsin. Patients with high-risk stigmata for ulcer bleeding (arterial bleeding, nonbleeding visible vessels, and adherent clots) benefit significantly from and should receive high-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) after successful endoscopic hemostasis. For patients with low-risk stigmata (flat spots or clean ulcer base), oral PPI therapy alone is sufficient. For oozing bleeding (an intermediate risk finding), successful endoscopic hemostasis and oral PPI are recommended. Using intravenous PPIs before endoscopy appears to reduce the frequency of finding high-risk stigmata on later endoscopy, but has not been shown to improve clinical outcomes. High-dose oral PPIs may be as effective as intravenous infusion in achieving positive clinical outcomes, but this has not been documented by randomized studies and its cost-effectiveness is unclear.

  5. Management of acute variceal bleeding: emphasis on endoscopic therapy.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Andrés

    2010-05-01

    Acute variceal bleeding is one of the most serious and feared complications of patients with portal hypertension. The most common cause of portal hypertension is advanced liver disease. Patients with esophageal and gastric varices may bleed because of a progressive increase in portal pressure that causes them to grow and finally rupture. This article will review the current management strategies for acute variceal bleeding with emphasis on endoscopic therapy for the acute episode.

  6. Effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chen-Road

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing (BQC) aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: Male Wistar rats were challenged intravenously with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) to induce DM. Rats were fed with regular pellet food or BQC-containing diets. After 90 d, rats were deprived of food for 24 h. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with normal saline or simulated gastric juice. Rats were killed and gastric specimens were harvested. RESULTS: An enhancement of various gastric ulcerogenic parameters, including acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, as well as decreased glutathione levels and mucus content, were observed in DM rats. After feeding DM rats with BQC, an exacerbation of these ulcero-genic parameters was achieved. Gastric juice caused a further aggravation of these ulcerogenic parameters. Daily intragastric lysozyme chloride dose-dependently inhibited exacerbation of various ulcerogenic parameters in those BQC-fed DM rats. CONCLUSION: (1) Gastric juice could aggravate both DM and BQC-fed DM rat hemorrhagic ulcer; (2) BQC exacerbated gastric hemorrhagic ulcer in DM rats via enhancing oxidative stress and reducing defensive factors; (3) lysozyme chloride effectively protected BQC aggravated gastric damage in DM rats. PMID:16270397

  7. Risk of Bacterial Infection in Patients With Cirrhosis and Acute Variceal Hemorrhage, Based on Child-Pugh Class, and Effects of Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Puneeta; Abraldes, Juan G; Keough, Adam; Bastiampillai, Ravin; Jayakumar, Saumya; Carbonneau, Michelle; Wong, Eric; Kao, Dina; Bain, Vince G; Ma, Mang

    2015-06-01

    Antibiotics frequently are overused and are associated with serious adverse events in patients with cirrhosis. However, these drugs are recommended for all patients presenting with acute variceal hemorrhage (AVH). We investigated whether patients should be stratified for antibiotic prophylaxis based on Child-Pugh scores, to estimate risks of bacterial infection, rebleeding, and mortality, and whether antibiotics have equal effects on patients of all Child-Pugh classes. We performed a sensitivity analysis using model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores. In a retrospective study, we analyzed data from 381 adult patients with cirrhosis and AVH (70% men; mean age, 56 y), admitted from 2000 through 2009 to 2 tertiary care hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. We excluded patients with bacterial infection on the day of AVH. The association between antibiotic prophylaxis and outcomes was adjusted by liver disease severity and by a propensity score. The patients included in the study had mean MELD scores of 16, and 54% received antibiotic prophylaxis. Overall, antibiotic therapy was associated with lower risks of infection (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.74) and mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-1.29). Among patients categorized as Child-Pugh class A given antibiotics, only 2% developed infections and the mortality rate was 0.4%. Among patients categorized as Child-Pugh class B given antibiotics, 6% developed infections, compared with 14% of patients who did not receive antibiotics; antibiotics did not affect mortality. Administration of antibiotics to patients categorized as Child-Pugh class C reduced infections and mortality by approximately 50%, compared with patients who did not receive antibiotics. MELD scores were not as useful as Child-Pugh class in identifying patients at risk for infection. Based on a retrospective analysis of patients with cirrhosis and AVH, those categorized as Child

  8. A rare cause of gastro-intestinal hemorrhage in a patient with a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Cartabuke, Richard H.; Mehta, Paresh P.; El-Hayek, Kevin; Henderson, J. Michael; Burke, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    This case illustrates a rare cause of gastro-intestinal bleeding following bariatric surgery. Though it is essential to rule out common causes of variceal formation accompanied by intermittent, profuse bleeding, there should be a high degree of suspicion of this rare etiology in patients who have previously undergone alteration of their anatomy, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The case emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary medical-surgical team in evaluating and treating patients who present with complex intra-abdominal pathology. PMID:25155016

  9. A rare cause of gastro-intestinal hemorrhage in a patient with a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Cartabuke, Richard H; Mehta, Paresh P; El-Hayek, Kevin; Henderson, J Michael; Burke, Carol A

    2016-02-01

    This case illustrates a rare cause of gastro-intestinal bleeding following bariatric surgery. Though it is essential to rule out common causes of variceal formation accompanied by intermittent, profuse bleeding, there should be a high degree of suspicion of this rare etiology in patients who have previously undergone alteration of their anatomy, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The case emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary medical-surgical team in evaluating and treating patients who present with complex intra-abdominal pathology.

  10. Effect of Topical Iloprost and Nitroglycerin on Gastric Microcirculation and Barrier Function during Hemorrhagic Shock in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Truse, Richard; Hinterberg, Jonas; Schulz, Jan; Herminghaus, Anna; Weber, Andreas; Mettler-Altmann, Tabea; Bauer, Inge; Picker, Olaf; Vollmer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Topical drug application is used to avoid systemic side effects. The aim of this study was to analyze whether locally applied iloprost or nitroglycerin influence gastric mucosal perfusion, oxygenation, and barrier function during physiological and hemorrhagic conditions. In repeated experiments, 5 anesthetized dogs received iloprost, nitroglycerin, or normal saline during physiological and hemorrhagic (-20% blood volume) conditions. Macro- and microcirculatory variables were recorded continuously. Gastric barrier function was assessed via translocation of sucrose into the blood. During hemorrhage, gastric mucosal oxygenation decreased from 77 ± 4 to 37 ± 7%. This effect was attenuated by nitroglycerin (78 ± 6 to 47 ± 13%) and iloprost (82 ± 4 to 54 ± 9%). Sucrose plasma levels increased during hemorrhage from 7 ± 4 to 55 ± 15 relative amounts. This was alleviated by nitroglycerin (5 ± 8 to 29 ± 38 relative amounts). These effects were independent of systemic hemodynamic variables. During hemorrhage, topical nitroglycerin and iloprost improve regional gastric oxygenation without affecting perfusion. Nitroglycerin attenuated the shock-induced impairment of the mucosal barrier integrity. Thus, local drug application improves gastric microcirculation without compromising systemic hemodynamic variables, and it may also protect mucosal barrier function. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Melatonin pretreatment improves gastric mucosal blood flow and maintains intestinal barrier function during hemorrhagic shock in dogs.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Christian; Weber, Andreas P M; Wallenfang, Martin; Hoffmann, Till; Mettler-Altmann, Tabea; Truse, Richard; Bauer, Inge; Picker, Olaf; Mathes, Alexander M

    2017-05-01

    Melatonin improves hepatic perfusion after hemorrhagic shock and may reduce stress-induced gastric lesions. This study was designed to investigate whether pretreatment with melatonin may influence gastric mucosal microcirculatory perfusion (μflow), oxygenation (μHbO2 ), or intestinal barrier function during physiological and hemorrhagic conditions in dogs. In a randomized crossover study, five anesthetized foxhounds received melatonin 100 μg kg(-1) or vehicle (ethanol 5%) intravenously in the absence or presence of hemorrhagic shock (60 minutes, -20% blood volume). Systemic hemodynamic variables, gastric mucosal perfusion, and oxygenation were recorded continuously; intestinal barrier function was assessed intermittently via xylose absorption. During hemorrhagic shock, melatonin significantly attenuated the decrease in μflow, compared with vehicle (-19±9 vs -43±10 aU, P<.05), without influence on μHbO2 . A significant increase in xylose absorption was detected during hemorrhage in vehicle-treated dogs, compared with sham-operated animals (13±2 vs 8±1 relative amounts, P<.05); this was absent in melatonin-treated animals (6±1 relative amounts). Melatonin did not influence macrocirculation. Melatonin improves regional blood flow suggesting improved oxygen delivery in gastric mucosa during hemorrhagic shock. This could provide a mechanism for the observed protection of intestinal barrier function in dogs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation With Embolization or Obliteration for Variceal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Gaba, Ron C

    2016-03-01

    Variceal hemorrhage is a life-threatening sequela of liver cirrhosis that requires a careful and comprehensive approach to management. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation with or without variceal embolization or obliteration represents a minimally invasive image-guided intervention used for the management of varices. This review focuses on the role of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and embolization or obliteration in the setting of variceal hemorrhage, with an emphasis on the useful aspects of patient evaluation and selection, practical approaches to procedure planning and valuable elements of interventional technique, and clinical outcomes as they pertain to portal venous decompression and variceal embolotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Colonic varices demonstrated by technetium-99m red cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    1987-03-01

    Colonic varices is a rare condition, generally associated with portal hypertension, which normally presents as acute, severe, gastrointestinal blood loss. A case is presented in which the varicosities were observed serendipitously in a patient with a pancreatic tumor, in whom the bleeding was not variceal but due to two small unrelated gastric hemangiomas. The literature is reviewed and scintigraphic features described.

  14. Preventing the development of varices in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2007-01-01

    Gastroesophageal varices are a direct consequence of portal hypertension. Nonselective beta-adrenergic blockers decrease portal pressure and are effective in preventing variceal hemorrhage. However, a large multicenter placebo-controlled trial demonstrates that nonselective beta-adrenergic blockers are not effective in preventing the development of varices and are associated with a significant rate of adverse events. This therapy is, therefore, not recommended in compensated cirrhotic patients without varices at large. In this very compensated group of patients with cirrhosis (stage 1, ie, without varices and without ascites or encephalopathy) the predictive value (both for the development of varices and for the development of clinical decompensation) of a baseline hepatic venous pressure gradient greater than 10 mm Hg is confirmed, supporting this threshold level as one that defines a clinically significant portal hypertension. Importantly, reductions in hepatic venous pressure gradient >10% are associated with a significant reduction in the development of varices, a therapeutic goal that could be achieved through the use of beta-blockers or other drugs being developed for the treatment of portal hypertension.

  15. Modulation of gastric hemorrhage and ulceration by oxidative stress and histamine release in Salmonella typhimurium-infected rats.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chen-Road

    2005-01-01

    Infection with Salmonella typhimurium can produce multiple organ dysfunctions. However, document concerning with gastric hemorrhagic ulcers occur in this infectious disease is lacking. The aim was to study modulation of gastric hemorrhagic ulcer by oxidative stress and mast cell histamine in S. typhimurium-infected rats. Additionally, the protective effects of drugs, such as ofloxacin, lysozyme chloride, ketotifen, ranitidine, and several antioxidants, including exogenous glutathione (GSH), allopurinol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were evaluated. Male Wistar rats were injected intrajejunally with a live culture of S. typhimurium (1 x 10(10) colony-forming units/rat) and followed by deprivation of food for 36 h. Age-matched control rats received sterilized vehicle only. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with either normal saline or a simulated gastric juice containing 100 mM HCl, 17.4 mM pepsin and 54 mM NaCl. S. typhimurium caused aggravation of offensive factors, including enhancing gastric acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, histamine release, microvascular permeability and hemorrhagic ulcer, as well as an attenuation of defensive substances, such as mucosal GSH and mucus level. Intragastric irrigation of gastric juice caused further aggravation of these gastric biochemical parameters. This exacerbation of ulcerogenic factors was abolished by pretreatment of ofloxacin and lysozyme chloride. Antioxidants, such as reduced GSH, allopurinol and DMSO also produced significant (P < 0.05) amelioration of gastric damage in S. typhimurium infected rats. In conclusion, gastric oxidative stress and histamine play pivotal roles in the formation of hemorrhagic ulcers that were effectively ameliorated by ofloxacin, lysozyme chloride, ketotifen, ranitidine, diamine oxidase and various antioxidants in S. typhimurium-infected rats.

  16. [Digestive tract hemorrhages of cirrhotic patients. Relation between hepatic insufficiency and the hemorrhagic lesion].

    PubMed

    Franco, D; Deporte, A; Darragon, T; Bismuth, H

    1975-12-06

    The cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was studied in 85 cirrhotic patients by emergency endoscopy. In every patient, one or several lesions were observed and the site of bleeding was ascertained in 59. The two main causes were oesophago-gastric varices (46 p.cent) and acute mucosal lesions(42 p.cent). The source of bleeding appeared to be related to the degree of liver function impairment. In patients with no or moderate liver function impariment, bleeding usually originated from varices or from drug-associated mucosal erosions. Patients with severe impairment of liver function most often bled from spontaneous acute oeso-gastro-duodenal ulcerations. These ulcerations resembled what has been described in "stress" hemorrhage. Because of the relationship between liver function and the cause of hemorrhage, mortality was lower in variceal bleeders (29 p.cent) than in patients with spontaneous ulcerations (83 p.cent). In patients with severely impaired liver function, portacaval shunt was rarely indicated since hemorrhage was generally due to acute mucosal ulcerations.

  17. Antibiotic Prophylaxis Using Third Generation Cephalosporins Can Reduce the Risk of Early Rebleeding in the First Acute Gastroesophageal Variceal Hemorrhage: A Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Chung-Hwan; Park, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Wan-Sik; Joo, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun; Kim, Sei-Jong

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial infection may be a critical trigger for variceal bleeding. Antibiotic prophylaxis can prevent rebleeding in patients with acute gastroesophageal variceal bleeding (GEVB). The aim of the study was to compare prophylactic third generation cephalosporins with on-demand antibiotics for the prevention of gastroesophageal variceal rebleeding. In a prospective trial, patients with the first acute GEVB were randomly assigned to receive prophylactic antibiotics (intravenous cefotaxime 2 g q 8 hr for 7 days, prophylactic antibiotics group) or to receive the same antibiotics only when infection became evident (on-demand group). Sixty-two patients in the prophylactic group and 58 patients in the on-demand group were included for analysis. Antibiotic prophylaxis decreased infection (3.2% vs. 15.5%, p=0.026). The actuarial rebleeding rate in the prophylactic group was significantly lower than that in the ondemand group (33.9% vs. 62.1%, p=0.004). The difference of rebleeding rate was mostly due to early rebleeding within 6 weeks (4.8% vs. 20.7%, p=0.012). On multivariate analysis, antibiotic prophylaxis (relative hazard: 0.248, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.067-0.919, p=0.037) and bacterial infection (relative hazard: 3.901, 95% CI: 1.053-14.448, p=0.042) were two independent determinants of early rebleeding. In conclusion, antibiotic prophylaxis using third generation cephalosporins can prevent bacterial infection and early rebleeding in patients with the first acute GEVB. PMID:17043424

  18. Endoscopic variceal ligation caused massive bleeding due to laceration of an esophageal varicose vein with tissue glue emboli.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiu-Qing; Gu, Hua-Ying; Wu, Zhi-E; Miao, Hui-Biao; Wang, Pei-Qi; Wen, Zhuo-Fu; Wu, Bin

    2014-11-14

    Endoscopic variceal obturation of gastric varices with tissue glue is considered the first choice for management of gastric varices, and is usually safe and effective. However, there is still a low incidence of complications and some are even fatal. Here, we present a case in which endoscopic variceal ligation caused laceration of the esophageal varicose vein with tissue glue emboli and massive bleeding after 3 mo. Cessation of bleeding was achieved via variceal sclerotherapy using a cap-fitted gastroscope. Methods of recognizing an esophageal varicose vein with tissue glue plug are discussed.

  19. Results of treatment of esophageal variceal hemorrhage with endoscopic injection of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Joao Paulo; Matuguma, Sérgio Eiji; Cheng, Spencer; Herman, Paulo; Sakai, Paulo; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Maluf-Filho, Fauze

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: The results of endoscopic treatment with elastic band ligation for esophageal variceal bleeding in patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis remain poor. In comparison with treatment with elastic band ligation, we have found lower rates of rebleeding and mortality with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injections. Thus, the aim of the current study was to describe our unit’s 10 years of experience with injection of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate to control esophageal variceal ruptures in patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis. Patients and methods: A single-center, retrospective study was conducted. Sixty-three patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis had been admitted to the center with an acute episode of esophageal variceal bleeding. All were treated with injection of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. The patients were assigned to 1 of 2 groups according to their Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis scores: group I (score range, 10 through 13 points) and group II (score, 14 or 15 points). The 3 variables studied were rates of initial failure to control bleeding, failure to prevent rebleeding (secondary prophylaxis), and mortality. Patients in the 2 groups (group I, n = 50; group II, n = 13) had similar characteristics. Results: Bleeding was successfully controlled in almost 75 % of the patients during the first 5 days after treatment, with no significant differences observed between groups I and II. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with respect to mortality rate for the first 5 days after treatment. Thirty-four patients (54 %) were free of bleeding at 6 weeks after treatment, with a significant difference noted between the groups: group I, 64 %, versus group II, 15.4 % (P < 0.001). The overall mortality rate was 44.4 %, with a significant difference noted between the groups: group I, 34 %, versus group II, 84.6 % (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Endoscopic injection of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is a valid treatment

  20. Successful Treatment of Mesenteric Varices After Living Donor Liver Transplantation with Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration Via an Abdominal Wall Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osamu Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Okajima, Hideaki; Asonuma, Katsuhiro; Inomata, Yukihiro

    2010-06-15

    Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is an established treatment for gastric varices; it has been used more rarely to treat mesenteric varices. We report a 12-year-old girl who had received a living donor liver transplant and suffered melena due to ruptured mesenteric varices. We addressed treatment of the mesenteric varices by retrograde transvenous obliteration of an abdominal wall collateral vein detected by superior mesenteric arteriography.

  1. Evaluation of endoscopic secondary prophylaxis in children and adolescents with esophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Júlio Rocha; Ferreira, Alexandre Rodrigues; Fagundes, Eleonora Druve Tavares; Bittencourt, Paulo Fernando Souto; Moura, Alice Mendes; Carvalho, Simone Diniz

    2017-01-01

    - Bleeding of esophageal varices is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults with portal hypertension and there are few studies involving secondary prophylaxis in children and adolescents. - To evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic secondary prophylaxis in prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children and adolescents with esophageal varices. - This is a prospective analysis of 85 patients less than 18 years of age with or without cirrhosis, with portal hypertension. Participants underwent endoscopic secondary prophylaxis with sclerotherapy or band ligation. Eradication of varices, incidence of rebleeding, number of endoscopic sessions required for eradication, incidence of developing gastric fundus varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy were evaluated. - Band ligation was performed in 34 (40%) patients and sclerotherapy in 51 (60%) patients. Esophageal varices were eradicated in 81.2%, after a median of four endoscopic sessions. Varices relapsed in 38 (55.1%) patients. Thirty-six (42.3%) patients experienced rebleeding, and it was more prevalent in the group that received sclerotherapy. Gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy developed in 38.7% and 57.9% of patients, respectively. Patients undergoing band ligation showed lower rebleeding rates (26.5% vs 52.9%) and fewer sessions required for eradication of esophageal varices (3.5 vs 5). - Secondary prophylaxis was effective in eradicating esophageal varices and controlling new upper gastrointestinal bleeding episodes due to the rupture of esophageal varices. Band ligation seems that resulted in lower rebleeding rates and fewer sessions required to eradicate varices than did sclerotherapy.

  2. Management of Gastric Varices in the Pediatric Population with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO) Utilizing Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Foam Sclerosis with or without Partial Splenic Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, Wael E. A. Anderson, Curtis L.; Patel, Rahul S.; Schwaner, Sandra; Caldwell, Stephen; Pelletier, Shawn Angle, John Matsumoto, Alan H.; Fischman, Aaron M.

    2015-02-15

    It is unknown whether spontaneous gastrorenal shunts actually develop in the pediatric population. The minimum age documented in studies from Asia is 32 (range 32–44) years. This study describes three pediatric patients undergoing balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for bleeding gastric varices with two of the three patients undergoing combined partial splenic embolization. The first BRTO is a selective-BRTO via a surgical splenorenal shunt (15 years old) and the other two patients underwent conventional-BRTO via a spontaneous gastrorenal shunt (8 and 14 years old). The recurrent significant bleeding that they exhibited before the combined endovascular therapy did not recur for an average of 7.1 (range 1.4–14) months. In the second patient, quantitative digitally subtracted angiography was utilized to evaluate the inline portal venous flow before and after BRTO.

  3. Esophageal Varices: Symptoms and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    Esophageal varices Symptoms and causes By Mayo Clinic Staff Symptoms Esophageal varices usually don't cause signs and symptoms unless they bleed. Signs and symptoms of bleeding esophageal varices include: Vomiting and seeing significant amounts of blood ...

  4. ENDOSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY IN GASTRO-ESOPAGEAL VARICEAL BLEEDING

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Arun J.

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage is a medical emergency with high morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic therapy is the mainstay of management of bleeding varices. It requires attention to technique and the appropriate choice of therapy for a given patient at a given point in time. Subjects must be monitored continuously after initiation of therapy for control of bleeding and second line definitive therapies introduced quickly if endoscopic and pharmacologic treatment fails. PMID:26142034

  5. Bleeding varices: 1. Emergency management.

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, S S; Warren, W D; Galambos, J T; Millikan, W J

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the emergency management of bleeding varices is to stop the hemorrhage nonoperatively if possible, avoiding emergency shunt surgery, an operation that has a higher mortality than elective shunt surgery. Patients with an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage should undergo endoscopy immediately to verify the diagnosis of bleeding varices. They can then be categorized according to whether they stop bleeding spontaneously (group 1), continue to bleed slowly (group 2) or continue to bleed rapidly (group 3). Group 1 patients are discussed in the second part of this two-part series. Group 2 patients are initially treated with vasopressin given intravenously; those who fail to respond should undergo emergency angiography and receive vasopressin intra-arterially. If this fails, patients at low surgical risk should undergo urgent shunt surgery; those at high risk do better with endoscopic sclerotherapy. Group 3 patients are also given an intravenous infusion of vasopressin. Patients at low surgical risk who continue to bleed then receive tamponade with a Sengstaken--Blakemore tube. If this fails, they undergo emergency creation of an H-shaped mesocaval shunt. Patients at high surgical risk who fail to respond to vasopressin given intravenously are next treated intra-arterially. If this fails they are given either endoscopic or transhepatic sclerotherapy. PMID:7006779

  6. Endoscopic hemostasis techniques for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: A review

    PubMed Central

    Anjiki, Hajime; Kamisawa, Terumi; Sanaka, Masaki; Ishii, Taro; Kuyama, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) is an urgent disease that is often encountered in daily medical practice. Endoscopic hemostasis is currently indispensable for the treatment of UGIH. Initially, when UGIH is suspected, a cause of UGIH is presumed from the medical interview and physical findings. After ample primary treatment, urgent endoscopy is performed. Many methods of endoscopic hemostasis are in wide use, including hemoclip, injection and thermo-coagulation methods. Although UGIH develops from a wide variety of diseases, such as esophageal varices and gastric and duodenal ulcer, hemostasis is almost always possible. Identification of the causative diseases, primary treatment and characteristic features of endoscopic hemostasis are needed to allow appropriate treatment. PMID:21160691

  7. The Role of Adjuvant Acid Suppression on the Outcomes of Bleeding Esophageal Varices after Endoscopic Variceal Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Kun; Liang, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Yuan, Lan-Ting; Nguang, Seng-Howe; Wang, Jiunn-Wei; Tseng, Kuo-Lun; Ku, Ming-Kun; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Tai, Wei-Chen; Shih, Chih-Wei; Hsu, Pin-I; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2017-01-01

    The impact of adjuvant acid suppression via proton pump inhibitors or histamine-2 receptor antagonists after endoscopic variceal ligation remains uncertain. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effect of adjuvant acid suppression on the rebleeding and mortality rates in patients who received endoscopic variceal ligation and vasoconstrictor therapy for bleeding esophageal varices. Data from 1997 to 2011 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A total of 1576 cirrhotic patients aged > 18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute esophageal variceal bleeding who received endoscopic variceal ligation therapy were screened. After strict exclusion, 637 patients were recruited. The exclusion criteria included patients with gastric variceal bleeding, failure in the control of bleeding, mortality within 12 hours, and history of hepatocellular carcinoma or gastric cancer. Patients were divided into two groups: the vasoconstrictors group (n = 126) and vasoconstrictors plus acid suppression group (n = 511). We observed that the rebleeding and mortality rates were not significantly different between 2 groups during hospitalization and the 15-year follow-up period after discharge. A Charlson score ≥3 (odds ratio: 2.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.55 ~3.79, P = 0.0001), presence of hepatitis C virus (odds ratio: 1.70, 95% confidence interval: 1.15 ~2.52, P = 0.0085), and cirrhosis (odds ratio: 1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.08 ~2.66, P = 0.0229) were the independent risk factors of mortality after discharge. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that adjuvant acid suppression prescription to patients who received endoscopic variceal ligation and vasoconstrictor therapy for bleeding esophageal varices may not change the rebleeding and mortality outcomes compared to that for those who received endoscopic variceal ligation and vasoconstrictor agents without acid suppression. PMID:28118373

  8. Bleeding Duodenal Varices Successfully Treated with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (B-RTO) Assisted by CT During Arterial Portography

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurusaki, Masakatsu Sugimoto, Koji; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Izaki, Kenta; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Akasaka, Yoshinobu; Fujii, Masahiko; Hirota, Shozo; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2006-12-15

    A 60-year-old woman with massive hemorrhage from duodenal varices was transferred to our hospital for the purpose of transcatheter intervention. Although digital subtraction arterial portography could not depict the entire pathway of collateral circulation, the efferent route of the duodenal varices was clearly demonstrated on subsequent CT during arterial portography. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) of the varices was performed via the efferent vein and achieved complete thrombosis of the varices.

  9. Factors Associated With Bleeding Secondary to Rupture of Esophageal Varices in Children and Adolescents With Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Júlio R; Ferreira, Alexandre R; Fagundes, Eleonora D T; Queiroz, Thaís C N; Baptista, Regiane A N; de Araújo Moreira, Eduardo G; de Resende, Camilo B; Bittencourt, Paulo F S; Carvalho, Simone D; Neto, José A F; Penna, Francisco J

    2017-02-01

    Bleeding of esophageal varices is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in children with portal hypertension. It is important to understand the factors related with a bleeding episode to evaluate more effective primary prophylaxis. The present study aims to describe the endoscopic and laboratory findings associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) secondary to esophageal varices. A cross-sectional study with 103 children and adolescents with cirrhosis, divided into a group that had experienced an episode of upper UGIB (35 patients) and a group without a history of UGIB (68 patients), was carried out. The esophageal and gastric varices were classified, and the portal hypertensive gastropathy, laboratory findings, and Child-Pugh classification were measured. Factors observed in univariate analysis to be associated with UGIB were the presence of esophageal varices of medium caliber or larger, portal hypertensive gastropathy, presence of red spots on esophageal varices, Child-Pugh class B or C, and hypoalbuminemia (P < 0.05). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, the significant factors were the presence of red spots on esophageal varices and the presence of gastric varices. When separated the autoimmune hepatitis, nonbiliary atresia patients (all patients except the patients with biliary atresia), and biliary atresia groups the findings in the univariate analysis were the presence of esophageal varices of medium or larger caliber, presence of red spots on varices, and presence of gastric varices in the autoimmune hepatitis patients and nonbiliary atresia patients and presence of red spots on esophageal varices, presence of gastric varices, and Child-Pugh classification B or C in biliary atresia group (P < 0.05). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, no statistical significance was found for any factor analyzed in any groups. The presence of gastric varices and red spots on esophageal varices were related to episodes of UGIB

  10. Factors that Determine the Development and Progression of Gastroesophageal Varices in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert J.; Sanyal, Arun J.; Ghany, Marc G.; Lee, William M.; Reid, Andrea E.; Naishadham, Deepa; Everson, Gregory T.; Kahn, Jeffrey A.; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Szabo, Gyongyi; Morgan, Timothy R.; Everhart, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims We aimed to identify the incidence and predictors of de novo gastroesophageal variceal formation and progression in a large cohort of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and advanced fibrosis. Methods All participants in the HALT-C Trial were offered an endoscopy before treatment and again after 4 years. Patients with varices at baseline also had a endoscopy at 2 years. Baseline laboratory and clinical parameters were analyzed as predictors of de novo variceal formation and variceal progression. Results De novo varices developed in 157 of the 598 (26.2%) patients. Most of the new varices were small (76.4%) and only 1% of patients developed variceal hemorrhage. The likelihood of developing varices was associated with subject race (Hispanic > Caucasian > African American, p= 0.0005), lower baseline levels of albumin (P=0.051), and higher levels of hyaluronic acid (P< 0.001) with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve=0.70. Among 210 patients with existing gastroesophageal varices, 74 (35.2%) had variceal progression or bleeding during follow-up. Patients with a higher baseline ratios of serum aspartate /alanine aminotransferase (P=0.028) and lower platelet counts (P=0.0002) were at greatest risk of variceal progression (AUROC = 0.72). Prolonged, low-dose peginterferon α2a therapy and β-blockers did not influence the risk of developing new or enlarging varices. Conclusion Development of varices in patients with CHC is associated with patient race/ethnicity and laboratory markers of disease severity. Prolonged low dose peginterferon α2a therapy and β-blockers do not reduce the risk of variceal development nor progression. PMID:20211180

  11. Gastroprotective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in rats

    PubMed Central

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mazen M; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Fouad, Mustafa; Golbabapour, Shahram; Talaee, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Background and AimCorchorus olitorius is a medicinal plant traditionally utilized as an antifertility, anti-convulsive, and purgative agent. This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of C. olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in adult Sprague Dawley rats. MethodsThe rats were divided into seven groups according to their pretreatment: an untreated control group, an ulcer control group, a reference control group (20 mg/kg omeprazole), and four experimental groups (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract). Carboxymethyl cellulose was the vehicle for the agents. Prior to the induction of gastric ulcers with absolute ethanol, the rats in each group were pretreated orally. An hour later, the rats were sacrificed, and gastric tissues were collected to evaluate the ulcers and to measure enzymatic activity. The tissues were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. ResultsCompared with the extensive mucosal damage in the ulcer control group, gross evaluation revealed a marked protection of the gastric mucosa in the experimental groups, with significantly preserved gastric wall mucus. In these groups, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) and reduced (P < 0.05), respectively. In addition to the histologic analyses (HE and periodic acid-Schiff staining), immunohistochemistry confirmed the protection through the upregulation of Hsp70 and the downregulation of Bax proteins. The gastroprotection of the experimental groups was comparable to that of the reference control medicine omeprazole. ConclusionsOur study reports the gastroprotective property of an ethanolic extract of C. olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in rats. PMID:23611708

  12. Bleeding esophageal varices

    MedlinePlus

    ... air. This produces pressure against the bleeding veins (balloon tamponade). Once the bleeding is stopped, other varices can be treated with medicines and medical procedures to prevent future bleeding, including: Drugs called ...

  13. Lethal gastric hemorrhage from a caliber-persistent artery of the antrum - a branch of the right gastric artery

    PubMed Central

    Gurzu, S; Copotoiu, C; Molnar, C; Azamfirei, L; Jung, I

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To present a rarely diagnosed case of gastric Dieulafoy lesion. Description of case: A 62-year-old male was hospitalized with hematemesis. Laparoscopic ligature of two gastric ulcers located in the antrum was performed but the upper gastrointestinal bleeding was not stopped. The patient was transferred to another surgical clinic and he underwent an emergency abdominal laparotomy with re-suture of gastric ulcers. Considering his general condition and another recurrent bleeding, he was transferred to our hospital and a total gastrectomy of necessity was performed. The patient died four days after surgery because of sepsis. At autopsy, we identified diffuse peritonitis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and chronic pancreatitis with expanded fibrotic areas. Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed oversized tortuous vessels in the gastric submucosal layer with expansion into mucosa. Some of the vessels presented acute and/or organized thrombi with recanalization, in the others, lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques were observed. Based on these criteria, the ‘caliber-persistent artery’, also known as ‘Dieulafoy’s lesion’, was diagnosed. Conclusion: Dieulafoy’s lesion should be suspected in every case of gastrointestinal bleeding in both adults and children. PMID:25336884

  14. A Case of Hepatic Portal Venous Gas: Hypothesis of a Transient Direct Communication between a Penetrating Antral Gastric Ulcer and Mesenteric Varices

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Shamlan M.; Khandelwal, Kanika; Fiore, Joseph; Weinstock, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is a rare radiological sign that usually signifies an acute intra-abdominal process, most commonly bowel ischemia and sepsis. Few reports described an association with underlying gastric pathologies. We report a 60-year-old patient who presented with melena and chills and was discovered to have a gastric ulcer that appeared to have penetrated into a mesenteric varix. This, in turn, likely caused development of HPVG associated with fungemia. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor and bowel rest was sufficient to resolve symptoms and the HPVG. PMID:28331640

  15. Acute Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol blocks gastric hemorrhages induced by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium in mice.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Steven G; Cole, Erica C

    2013-09-05

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are among the most widely used analgesics in the world, cause gastrointestinal inflammation that is potentially life-threatening. Although inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes protect against gastropathy in fasted NSAID-treated mice, the gastroprotective effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of marijuana, have yet to be investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice were fasted, administered vehicle or Δ(9)-THC (.01-50mg/kg; oral or intraperitoneal), and then treated with the NSAID diclofenac sodium (100mg/kg, p.o.) to induce gastric lesions. In separate groups of mice, the cannabimimetic behavioral effects of Δ(9)-THC given via each route of administration were compared using a battery of tests, consisting of assessment of locomotor activity, nociception in the tail withdrawal test, catalepsy in the bar test, and hypothermia. Δ(9)-THC dose-dependently attenuated diclofenac-induced gastric hemorrhagic streaks through both p.o. and i.p. routes of administration (ED50 (95% confidence interval)=0.64 (0.26-1.55)mg/kg and 0.06 (0.01-0.34) mg/kg, respectively). Δ(9)-THC given i.p. was 2-3 orders of magnitude more potent in reducing diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers than in producing locomotor immobility, antinociception, hypothermia, and catalepsy, while the potency of ratio of p.o. Δ(9)-THC between each behavior measure was 7-18. These data indicate that the phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-THC protects against diclofenac-induced gastric inflammatory tissue damage at doses insufficient to cause common cannabinoid side effects.

  16. Acute Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol blocks gastric hemorrhages induced by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, Steven G.; Cole, Erica C.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are among the most widely used analgesics in the world, cause gastrointestinal inflammation that is potentially life-threatening. Although inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes protect against gastropathy in fasted NSAID-treated mice, the gastroprotective effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of marijuana, have yet to be investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice were fasted, administered vehicle or Δ9-THC (.01–50 mg/kg; oral or intraperitoneal), and then treated with the NSAID diclofenac sodium (100 mg/kg, p.o.) to induce gastric lesions. In separate groups of mice, the cannabimimetic behavioral effects of Δ9-THC given via each route of administration were compared using a battery of tests, consisting of assessment of locomotor activity, nociception in the tail withdrawal test, catalepsy in the bar test, and hypothermia. Δ9-THC dose-dependently attenuated diclofenac-induced gastric hemorrhagic streaks through both p.o. and i.p. routes of administration (ED50 (95% confidence interval) = 0.64 (0.26 – 1.55) mg/kg and 0.06 (0.01 – 0.34) mg/kg, respectively). Δ9-THC given i.p. was 2–3 orders of magnitude more potent in reducing diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers than in producing locomotor immobility, antinociception, hypothermia, and catalepsy, while the potency of ratio of p.o. Δ9-THC between each behavior measure was 7–18. These data indicate that the phytocannabinoid Δ9-THC protects against diclofenac-induced gastric inflammatory tissue damage at doses insufficient to cause common cannabinoid side effects. PMID:23769745

  17. Role of oxygen radicals and neutrophils in hemorrhagic shock-induced gastric mucosal injury

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The role of oxygen radicals and neutrophils was examined in ischemia-reperfusion injury to the gastric mucosa in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Gastric mucosal clearance of /sup 51/Cr-labelled red blood cells was measured during a 30 minute control period, 30 minute ischemic period, and a 60 minute reperfusion period. In untreated rats, a dramatic rise in the leakage of /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cells into the gastric lumen was observed only during the reperfusion period. Ischemia-reperfusion was also associated with the formation of both grossly visible and histologically demonstrable mucosal lesions. Pretreatment with dimethylsulfoxide or deferoxamine largely prevented gastric bleeding and gross lesion formation, indicating that the hydroxyl radical, generated by the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction, is the primary cytotoxic oxygen species involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  18. Delayed bleeding and hemorrhage of mucosal defects after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection on second-look endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shoko; Ono, Masayoshi; Nakagawa, Manabu; Shimizu, Yuichi; Kato, Mototsugu; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2016-04-01

    Although second-look endoscopy is performed within several days after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), there has been no evidence supporting the usefulness of the intervention. We investigated the relationship between delayed bleeding and hemorrhage of mucosal defects after ESD on second-look endoscopy and analyzed risk factors of active bleeding on second-look endoscopy. A total of 441 consecutive ESD cases with gastric cancer or adenoma were retrospectively analyzed. Second-look endoscopy was performed in the morning after the day of ESD. Bleeding of mucosal defects on second-look endoscopy was classified according to the Forrest classification, and active bleeding was defined as Forrest Ia or Ib. Delayed bleeding was defined as hematemesis or melena after second-look endoscopy. A total of 406 second-look endoscopies were performed, and delayed bleeding occurred in 11 patients. The incidence rate of delayed bleeding after second-look endoscopy in patients with Forrest Ia or Ib was significantly higher than that in patients with Forrest IIa, IIb or III (7.69 vs. 2.02 %, p < 0.05). Complication of a histological ulcer, large size of the resected specimen and long ESD procedure time were shown to be risk factors for hemorrhage of mucosal defects after ESD on second-look endoscopy by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis indicated that only large size of the resected specimen was a risk factor. In a specimen size of >35 mm, the odds ratio of active bleeding on second-look endoscopy was 1.9. Active bleeding of mucosal defects on second-look endoscopy is a risk factor for delayed bleeding.

  19. Colorectal variceal bleeding in patients with extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis and idiopathic portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Orozco, H; Takahashi, T; Mercado, M A; Prado-Orozco, E; Ferral, H; Hernandez-Ortiz, J; Esquivel, E

    1992-03-01

    We report three patients with colonic variceal bleeding secondary to portal hypertension, 0.5% of all cases with hemorrhagic portal hypertension studied by us in the last 16 years. One patient had idiopathic portal hypertension, and the others had extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis. Colonic varices were documented in all three cases by angiogram; large arteriovenous fistulas in the territory of the superior mesenteric artery and between the inferior mesenteric artery and hemorrhoidal veins were demonstrated in one patient. Two patients underwent colonoscopy; colonic varices were seen in only one. Two patients also had bled from esophagogastric varices. One patient underwent descending colon and sigmoid resection after failure to control bleeding with ligation of arterial supply; one patient underwent the Sugiura procedure, plus transanal ligation of hemorrhoids and rectal varices. At 3 months, 2 years, and 4 years of follow-up, the patients were in good general condition without any evidence of rebleeding.

  20. Gastric hyperplastic polyps causing upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Secemsky, Brian J; Robinson, Kenika R; Krishnan, Kumar; Matkowskyj, Kristina A; Jung, Barbara H

    2013-04-16

    Here, we report a case of a young man who presented with a significant upper gastrointestinal bleed treated by endoscopic removal of multiple hyperplastic polyps. Gastric hyperplastic polyps are a relatively uncommon cause of overt gastrointestinal bleeding. While most hyperplastic gastric polyps are asymptomatic, they may present with abdominal pain, iron deficiency anemia or gastric outlet obstruction. These polyps are associated with conditions such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis and atrophic autoimmune gastritis, which predispose the epithelium to chronic inflammation and epithelial repair. The patient presented to Northwestern Memorial Hospital in July 2011. The polyps were resected by clip-assisted snare polypectomy. Histopathologic assessment of the resected polyps demonstrated multiple, non-ulcerative hyperplastic polyps measuring 1.3-1.8 cm in size, without evidence of dysplasia or malignancy. This case describes a young adult patient with multiple, large gastric polyps causing overt gastrointestinal bleeding. This is a rare presentation in a young individual, as these polyps are typically identified in patients older than 60 years of age and less commonly, pediatric populations.

  1. Rates of recurrent variceal bleeding are low with modern esophageal banding strategies: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Branch-Elliman, Westyn; Perumalswami, Ponni; Factor, Stephanie H; Sled, Sarah M; Flamm, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Variceal bleeding has a high rate of mortality and recurrence. Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is the established standard of care for secondary prevention of variceal bleeding. To determine the long-term re-bleeding rate of an EBL protocol similar to current society guidelines. We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary care center of all patients with a history of a variceal bleed who underwent an aggressive band ligation protocol. At the time of sentinel bleed, all varices, regardless of size, were ligated. EBL was then repeated every 2 weeks until stabilization, and all visible varices were ligated. The interval between banding sessions then increased. The incidence of re-bleeding was calculated as the time between clinical stabilization after the sentinel event until data censoring, which occurred at time of re-bleed, death, transplant or loss-to-follow up. Gastric variceal bleeding was a secondary endpoint. N = 176 patients were treated with aggressive EBL, and followed for a median of 16 months (range, 3 months - 6.9 years). The 6 month incidence of re-bleeding was 2.3%, the 12 month incidence was 3.4%, and the 2 year incidence was 4.6%. Overall, aggressive EBL was well-tolerated. One patient died during follow-up secondary to a gastric variceal bleed. Aggressive EBL yields a low rate of re-bleeding when compared to standard practice. Secondary prophylaxis with aggressive EBL should be a consideration for patients following a sentinel bleeding event.

  2. Historical overview and review of current day treatment in the management of acute variceal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rajoriya, Neil; Tripathi, Dhiraj

    2014-01-01

    Variceal haemorrhage is one of the most devastating consequences of portal hypertension, with a 1-year mortality of 40%. With the passage of time, acute management strategies have developed with improved survival. The major historical treatment landmarks in the management of variceal haemorrhage can be divided into surgical, medical, endoscopic and radiological breakthroughs. We sought to provide a historical overview of the management of variceal haemorrhage and how treatment modalities over time have impacted on clinical outcomes. A PubMed search of the following terms: portal hypertension, variceal haemorrhage, gastric varices, oesophageal varices, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was performed. To complement this, Google™ was searched with the aforementioned terms. Other relevant references were identified after review of the reference lists of articles. The review of therapeutic advances was conducted divided into pre-1970s, 1970/80s, 1990s, 2000-2010 and post-2010. Also, a summary and review on the pathophysiology of portal hypertension and clinical outcomes in variceal haemorrhage was performed. Aided by the development of endoscopic therapies, medication and improved radiological interventions; the management of variceal haemorrhage has changed over recent decades with improved survival from an often-terminating event in recent past. PMID:24914369

  3. UK guidelines on the management of variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Dhiraj; Stanley, Adrian J; Hayes, Peter C; Patch, David; Millson, Charles; Mehrzad, Homoyon; Austin, Andrew; Ferguson, James W; Olliff, Simon P; Hudson, Mark; Christie, John M

    2015-01-01

    These updated guidelines on the management of variceal haemorrhage have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines which this document supersedes were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by 13 members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises elected members of the BSG liver section, representation from British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL) and Liver QuEST, a nursing representative and a patient representative. The quality of evidence and grading of recommendations was appraised using the AGREE II tool. The nature of variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with its complex range of complications makes rigid guidelines inappropriate. These guidelines deal specifically with the management of varices in patients with cirrhosis under the following subheadings: (1) primary prophylaxis; (2) acute variceal haemorrhage; (3) secondary prophylaxis of variceal haemorrhage; and (4) gastric varices. They are not designed to deal with (1) the management of the underlying liver disease; (2) the management of variceal haemorrhage in children; or (3) variceal haemorrhage from other aetiological conditions. PMID:25887380

  4. The Role of Spleen Stiffness in Determining the Severity and Bleeding Risk of Esophageal Varices in Cirrhotic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwi Young; Jin, Eun Hyo; Kim, Won; Lee, Jae Young; Woo, Hyunsik; Oh, Sohee; Seo, Ji-Yeon; Oh, Hong Sang; Chung, Kwang Hyun; Jung, Yong Jin; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Esophageal varix and its hemorrhage are serious complications of liver cirrhosis. Recent studies have focused on noninvasive prediction of esophageal varices. We attempted to evaluate the association of liver and spleen stiffness (LS and SS) as measured by acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, with the presence and severity of esophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients. We measured LS and SS, along with endoscopic examination of esophageal varices for a total of 125 cirrhotic patients at a single referral hospital in this prospective observational study. The diagnostic utility of noninvasive methods for identifying varices and their bleeding risk was compared, including LS, SS, spleen length, Child-Pugh score, and various serum fibrosis indices. Esophageal varices were present in 77 patients (61.6%). SS was significantly higher in patients with varices than in those without varices (3.58 ± 0.47 vs 3.02 ± 0.49; P < 0.001). A tendency toward increasing SS levels was observed with increasing severity of varices (no varix, 3.02 ± 0.49; F1, 3.39 ± 0.51; F2, 3.60 ± 0.42; F3, 3.85 ± 0.37; P < 0.001). SS was significantly higher in patients who experienced variceal hemorrhage than in those who did not (3.80 ± 0.36 vs 3.20 ± 0.51; P = 0.002). An optimal cut-off value of SS for high-risk varices (≥F2) or variceal hemorrhage was 3.40 m/s. SS was significantly correlated with the presence, severity, and bleeding risk of esophageal varices. Prompt endoscopic evaluation of variceal status and prophylactic measures based on the SS may be warranted for cirrhotic patients. PMID:26091449

  5. Endoscopic Management of Massive Hemorrhage 12 h Post Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Campos, Josemberg M; Moon, Rena; Teixeira, Andre; Ferraz, Alvaro A B; Ferreria, Flavio; Kumbhari, Vivek

    2015-10-01

    Acute (<24 h) staple line bleeding is not common but a known complication after bariatric surgery at a rate of 1-3%. In most cases, acute postoperative bleeding is mild and can be managed conservatively. Nonetheless, there are times when massive hemorrhage is encountered. Endoscopic treatment of these patients within 24 h of Roux-en-Y (RYGB) is controversial, due to fear of staple line dehiscence and/or perforation. Therefore, most surgeons prefer to undergo diagnostic laparoscopy for exploration and treatment. However, it has been reported that laparoscopic management of acute bleeding can be technically challenging with a high rate of morbidity as well as conversion to laparotomy. We herein present a multimedia video (6 min) demonstrating the management of acute massive hemorrhage after RYGB. A 46-year-old female with hemodynamic instability after massive hematemesis and melena underwent endoscopy. An overtube was utilized to allow removal of large blood clots which obstructed endoscopic visualization. Two bleeding points were noted, and these were successfully treated with adrenaline and endoscopic clips. The patient rapidly improved during her hospital stay and commenced oral intake on day 1. A surveillance endoscopy was performed on day 5, and no stigmata of recent bleeding was noted. She was discharged home and is progressing well. We suggest endoscopy is an appropriate first step for the investigation and management of acute intraluminal bleeding post bariatric surgery.

  6. [Bouveret's syndrome: biliary ileus manifested by acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and impaired gastric emptying].

    PubMed

    Simonek, J; Lischke, R; Drábek, J; Pafko, P

    2002-05-01

    The authors present a very rare case of impaired gastric evacuation, known as Bouveret's syndrome, caused by a large biliary concrement wedged in the duodenum as a result of the development of a cholecystoduodenal fistula in a 77-year-old man. The condition was manifested clinically by developed high ileus and subsequent haemorrhage into the upper GIT. The diagnosis was established on the background of the clinical picture, passage through the upper GIT and endoscopy. As the attempt to remove the concrement endoscopically failed, laparotomy had to be used. In the conclusion of this case-record the authors discuss the method of assessment of the correct diagnosis endoscopically and possibilities of therapeutic strategy.

  7. Management of acute variceal bleeding using hemostatic powder

    PubMed Central

    El-Mikkawy, Ahmed; Abdalla, Haitham; Mostafa, Ibrahim; Devière, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives This study aimed to test the safety and efficacy of Hemospray® for emergency control of acute variceal bleeding (AVB) due to portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. Patients and methods This single-arm, prospective trial, conducted at two hospitals in Belgium and Egypt, included patients admitted to the emergency room with hematemesis and/or melena and known or suspected liver cirrhosis. All patients received urgent hemodynamic stabilization, octreotide (50 mcg bolus then 25 mcg/hour for 24 hours) and intravenous ceftriaxone (1 g/hour). Endoscopy to confirm AVB and Hemospray® application (if indicated) was performed within six hours of admission. Patients were kept under observation for 24 hours and underwent second endoscopy and definitive therapy (band ligation and/or cyanoacrylate injection in cases of gastric varices) the next day. Results Thirty-eight patients were admitted for suspected AVB, and 30 of these had confirmed AVB (70% male; mean age 59.5 years (range, 32.0–73 years)). Child-Pugh class C liver disease was present in 53.4%. Esophageal varices were observed in 83.4% of patients, gastric varices in 10%, and duodenal varices in 6.6%. Spurting bleeding at the time of endoscopy was observed in 43.4%. One patient developed hematemesis six hours after Hemospray® application and underwent emergency endoscopic band ligation. No major adverse events or mortalities were observed during 15-day follow-up. Conclusion Hemospray® application was safe and effective at short-term follow-up for emergency treatment of AVB in cirrhotic patients. PMID:26137303

  8. [Variceal upper digestive bleeding--an ever new complication in liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Prelipcean, Cristina Cijevschi; Sporea, I; Mihai, Cătălina; Gogălniceanu, P; Drug, V L

    2007-01-01

    Variceal bleeding in liver cirrhosis is a medical emergency with a high mortality. The therapeutic options in patients with portal hypertension are: treatment of acute bleeding from varices, prevention of the first bleeding episode and prevention of rebleeding. Treatment of acute bleeding from varices includes: blood volume restitution, use of antibiotics for preventing bacterial infections, vasoactive drug therapy (terlipressin, somatostatin, vapreotide, octreotide), endoscopic band ligation for acute esophageal bleeding and endoscopic therapy with tissue adhesive (cyanoacrylate) for acute gastric variceal bleeding. Endoscopic treatments are best used in association with pharmacological therapy. In primary prophylaxis non-selective beta- blocker therapy and endoscopic band ligation are useful. Beta blockers, band ligation or both should be used for prevention of recurrent bleeding. In patients who fail endoscopic and pharmacological treatment for prevention of rebleeding TIPS and transplantation should be considered.

  9. Octreotide in variceal bleeding.

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, A K

    1994-01-01

    Bleeding from oesophageal varices has a high death rate. Injection sclerotherapy is the most appropriate treatment but facilities for this are not always available. Balloon tamponade and vasoactive therapy may be used as stop gap measures. Somatostatin and octreotide are therapeutic candidates for the treatment of variceal bleeding and there are several trials that have compared somatostatin and octreotide with other treatments for this condition. The results of these trials are summarised and discussed. A meta analysis of the group of trials of placebo or H2 antagonists v somatostatin or octreotide showed a significant advantage of somatostatin or octreotide in terms of efficacy, but no difference in mortality. The trials discussed seem to show that somatostatin and octreotide are at least as effective as other treatments, with the benefit of fewer adverse effects, and thus represent the best vasoactive agents. Additionally, they may have a role as adjuvant treatment to emergency sclerotherapy for active bleeders and this must be further investigated. PMID:8206396

  10. Severe bleeding from esophageal varices resistant to endoscopic treatment in a non cirrhotic patient with portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Caronna, Roberto; Bezzi, Mario; Schiratti, Monica; Cardi, Maurizio; Prezioso, Giampaolo; Benedetti, Michele; Papini, Federica; Mangioni, Simona; Martino, Gabriele; Chirletti, Piero

    2008-01-01

    A non cirrhotic patient with esophageal varices and portal vein thrombosis had recurrent variceal bleeding unsuccessfully controlled by endoscopy and esophageal transection. Emergency transhepatic portography confirmed the thrombosed right branch of the portal vein, while the left branch appeared angulated, shifted and stenotic. A stent was successfully implanted into the left branch and the collateral vessels along the epatoduodenal ligament disappeared. In patients with esophageal variceal hemorrhage and portal thrombosis if endoscopy fails, emergency esophageal transection or nonselective portocaval shunting are indicated. The rare patients with only partial portal thrombosis can be treated directly with stenting through an angioradiologic approach. PMID:18644135

  11. Successful Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for Gastric Varix Mainly Draining into the Pericardiophrenic Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Kageyama, Ken; Nishida, N. Matsui, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Nakamura, K.; Miki, Y.

    2012-02-15

    Two cases of gastric varices were treated by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration via the pericardiophrenic vein at our hospital, and both were successful. One case developed left hydrothorax. Gastric varices did not bled and esophageal varices were not aggravated in both cases for 24-30 months thereafter. These outcomes indicate the feasibility of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration via the pericardiophrenic vein.

  12. Comparison of fluid types for resuscitation in acute hemorrhagic shock and evaluation of gastric luminal and transcutaneous Pco2 in Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Wernick, Morena B; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Martin-Jurado, Olga; Howard, Judith; Vogler, Barbara; Vogt, Rainer; Codron, Daryl; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different fluid types for resuscitation after experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock in anesthetized chickens and to evaluate partial pressures of carbon dioxide measured in arterial blood (Paco2), with a transcutaneous monitor (TcPco2), with a gastric intraluminal monitor (GiPco2), and by end tidal measurements (Etco2) under stable conditions and after induced hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in 40 white leghorn chickens by removing 50% of blood volume by phlebotomy under general anesthesia. Birds were divided into 4 groups: untreated (control group) and treated with intravenous hetastarch (haes group), with a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hemospan group), or by autotransfusion (blood group). Respiratory rates, heart rates, and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) were compared at 8 time points (baseline [T0]; at the loss of 10% [T10%], 20% [T20%], 30% [T30%], 40% [T40%], and 50% [T50%] of blood volume; at the end of resuscitation [RES]; and at the end of anesthesia [END]). Packed cell volume (PCV) and blood hemoglobin content were compared at 6 time points (T0, T50%, RES, and 1, 3, and 7 days after induced hemorrhagic shock). Measurements of Paco2, TcPco2, GiPco2, and Etco2 were evaluated at 2 time points (T0 and T50%), and venous lactic acid concentrations were evaluated at 3 time points (T0, T50%, and END). No significant differences were found in mortality, respiratory rate, heart rate, PCV, or hemoglobin values among the 4 groups. Birds given fluid resuscitation had significantly higher SAPs after fluid administration than did birds in the control group. In all groups, PCV and hemoglobin concentrations began to rise by day 3 after phlebotomy, and baseline values were reached 7 days after blood removal. At T0, TcPco2 did not differ significantly from Paco2, but GiPco2 and Etco2 differed significantly from Paco2. After hemorrhagic shock, GiPco2 and TcPco2 differed significantly

  13. Radionuclide transit in esophageal varices

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, S.H.; Wang, S.J.; Wu, L.C.; Liu, R.S.; Tsai, Y.T.; Chiang, T.T.

    1985-05-01

    This study assessed esophageal motility in patients with esophageal varices by radionuclide transit studies. Data were acquired in list mode after an oral dose of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid in 10 ml of water in the supine position above a low-energy all-purpose collimator of a gamma camera. The condensed image (CI) superimposed with a centroid curve was also produced in each case. Twenty-five normal subjects (N) and 32 patients (pts) with esophageal varices by endoscopy (large varices in Grades IV and V in 8 and small varices in Grade III or less in 24) were studied. TMTT, RTT, RF, and RI were all significantly increased in pts as compared to N. Especially, the transit time for the middle third (6.7 +- 2.6 sec vs 3.5 +- 0.9 sec in N, rho < 0.005) had the optimal sensitivy and specificity of 88% each at the cutoff value of 4.2 sec as determined by ROC analysis. In summary, radionuclide transit disorders occur in the majority of pts with esopageal varices. The middle RTT and CI are both optimal in sensitivity and specificity for detecting the abnormalities.

  14. The inferior mesenteric vein to the left gonadal vein shunt for gastroesophageal varices and extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis after living donor liver transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Sato, Y; Yamamoto, S; Oya, H; Kokai, H; Hatakeyama, K

    2012-03-01

    This 59-year-old woman underwent living donor liver transplantation using a left lobe graft as an aid for autoimmune hepatitis in 2003. Splenectomy was also performed because of blood type incompatibility. Follow-up endoscopic and computed tomography examinations showed gastroesophageal varices with extra hepatic portal vein thrombosis in 2007 that increased (esophageal varices [EV]: locus superior [Ls], moderately enlarged, beady varices [F2], Blue varices [Cb], presence of small in number and localized red color sign [RC1] and telangiectasia [TE+], gastric varices [GV]: extension from the cardiac orifice to the fornix [Lg-cf], moderately enlarged, beady varices [F2], white varices [Cw], absence of red color sign [RC-]). Portal venous flow to the gastroesophageal varices was also confirmed from a large right gastric vein. The splenic vein was thrombosed. Blood flow to the liver graft was totally supplied from the hepatic artery. The graft was functioning well. Because these gastroesophageal varices had a high risk of variceal bleeding, we decided to proceed with a portal reconstruction of a surgical portosystemic shunt in 2008. Severe adhesions were observed around the portal vein. It was impossible to perform portal reconstruction. There were relatively fewes adhesious in the left lower side of the abdominal cavity. We decided to create an inferior mesenteric vein to left gonadal vein shunt. The portal vein pressure decreased from 31.0 to 21.5 cm H2O thereafter. The postoperative course was smooth without any complication. This patient was discharged on the postoperative day 15. Follow-up endoscopic study showed the improvement in the gastroesophageal varices (EV: Ls, F2, Cb, RC(-), GV: Lg-c, F2, Cw, RC-) at 3 months after the operation. We also comfirmed the patency of the shunt by serial computed tomography examinations.

  15. Peristomal variceal bleeding treated by coil embolization using a percutaneous transhepatic approach

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Macello José Sampaio; Pereira, Osvaldo Ignácio; Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim Maurício; Ziemiecki Junior, Enio; Cosme, Susyanne Lavor; Souza, Moisés Amâncio; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Peristomal variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension is an entity that has rarely been reported with 3%-4% risk of death. A 68-year-old woman who had undergone a palliative colostomy (colorectal carcinoma) presented with a massive hemorrhage from the colostomy conduit. Considering her oncological status with medial and right hepatic veins thrombosis due to liver metastasis invasion, an emergency transhepatic coil embolization was successfully performed. Standard treatment modality for these cases has not been established. Percutaneous transhepatic coil embolization of varices is a safe and effective choice in patients who present with life threatening bleeding and exhibit contraindications to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. PMID:26798628

  16. Peristomal variceal bleeding treated by coil embolization using a percutaneous transhepatic approach.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Macello José Sampaio; Pereira, Osvaldo Ignácio; Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim Maurício; Ziemiecki Junior, Enio; Cosme, Susyanne Lavor; Souza, Moisés Amâncio; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar

    2016-01-16

    Peristomal variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension is an entity that has rarely been reported with 3%-4% risk of death. A 68-year-old woman who had undergone a palliative colostomy (colorectal carcinoma) presented with a massive hemorrhage from the colostomy conduit. Considering her oncological status with medial and right hepatic veins thrombosis due to liver metastasis invasion, an emergency transhepatic coil embolization was successfully performed. Standard treatment modality for these cases has not been established. Percutaneous transhepatic coil embolization of varices is a safe and effective choice in patients who present with life threatening bleeding and exhibit contraindications to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

  17. Successful endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer adjacent to gastric cardia varix

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ko; Hikichi, Takuto; Nakamura, Jun; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Waragai, Yuichi; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Konno, Naoki; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 58-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and renal failure was diagnosed with esophageal varices (EVs) and a gastric cardia varix (GCV) by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The patient also exhibited early gastric cancer (EGC) in the upper gastric body adjacent to the GCV. The EVs and GCV were treated using endoscopy before endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of the EGC to prevent variceal bleeding during ESD. Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) was performed to treat the EVs. In addition, extra-variceal polidocanol injection and argon plasma coagulation (APC) were performed after EVL. Follow-up EGD two months after APC revealed that the GCV had diminished in size. Then, ESD was performed with polidocanol injection into the submucosa around the GCV to prevent bleeding. During ESD, the EGC was resected en bloc without severe bleeding. Complications were not observed after ESD. Histopathological examination of the ESD specimens indicated that the resection was curative. PMID:27477990

  18. Utility of endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of esophagogastric varices

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Jiang; Li, Bi-Min; Zheng, Xue-Lian; Shu, Xu; Zhu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has significantly improved our understanding of the complex vascular structural changes in patients with portal hypertension. At present, EUS is a useful diagnostic tool for the evaluation of esophagogastric varices (EGVs) and guidance of endoscopic therapy. Several studies have employed this new technique for the diagnosis and management of esophageal and gastric varices, respectively. In the present review, we have summarized the current status of EUS for the diagnosis and management of EGVs and clarified the clinical feasibility of this procedure. New indications for EUS can be developed in the future after adequate validation. PMID:27503152

  19. Improved Survival with the Patients with Variceal Bleed

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Praveen; Sarin, Shiv K.

    2011-01-01

    Variceal hemorrhage is a major cause of death in patients with cirrhosis. Over the past two decades new treatment modalities have been introduced in the management of acute variceal bleeding (AVB) and several recent studies have suggested that the outcome of patients with cirrhosis and AVB has improved. Improved supportive measures, combination therapy which include early use of portal pressure reducing drugs with low rates of adverse effects (somatostatin, octerotide or terlipressin) and endoscopic variceal ligation has become the first line treatment in the management of AVB. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis, early use of lactulose for prevention of hepatic encephalopathy, application of early transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic shunts (TIPS), fully covered self-expandable metallic stent in patients for AVB may be useful in those cases where balloon tamponade is considered. Early and wide availability of liver transplantation has changed the armamentarium of the clinician for patients with AVB. High hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) >20 mmHg in AVB has become a useful predictor of outcomes and more aggressive therapies with early TIPS based on HVPG measurement may be the treatment of choice to reduce mortality further. PMID:21994853

  20. Improved survival with the patients with variceal bleed.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Praveen; Sarin, Shiv K

    2011-01-01

    Variceal hemorrhage is a major cause of death in patients with cirrhosis. Over the past two decades new treatment modalities have been introduced in the management of acute variceal bleeding (AVB) and several recent studies have suggested that the outcome of patients with cirrhosis and AVB has improved. Improved supportive measures, combination therapy which include early use of portal pressure reducing drugs with low rates of adverse effects (somatostatin, octerotide or terlipressin) and endoscopic variceal ligation has become the first line treatment in the management of AVB. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis, early use of lactulose for prevention of hepatic encephalopathy, application of early transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic shunts (TIPS), fully covered self-expandable metallic stent in patients for AVB may be useful in those cases where balloon tamponade is considered. Early and wide availability of liver transplantation has changed the armamentarium of the clinician for patients with AVB. High hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) >20 mmHg in AVB has become a useful predictor of outcomes and more aggressive therapies with early TIPS based on HVPG measurement may be the treatment of choice to reduce mortality further.

  1. Emergency endoscopic variceal ligation in cirrhotic patients with blood clots in the stomach but no active bleeding or stigmata increases the risk of rebleeding

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Cheol Woong; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Wook; Park, Su Bum; Hong, Young Mi; Yoon, Ki Tae; Cho, Mong; Nam, Hyung Seok; Islam, SM Bakhtiar UI

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of emergency variceal ligation for the prevention of rebleeding in cirrhotic patients who are found on initial endoscopy to have blood clots in the stomach but no actively bleeding esophageal and gastric varices or stigmata. Methods This study included 28 cirrhotic patients who underwent emergency prophylactic EVL and 41 who underwent an elective intervention between January 2009 and June 2014. Clinical outcomes were analyzed, including the rebleeding, 6-week mortality, and rebleeding-free survival rates. Results The rebleeding rate was higher in the emergency than in the elective group (28.6% vs. 7.3%, P=0.041). Multivariate analysis showed that emergency prophylactic EVL (odds ratio [OR] = 7.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.634.8, P=0.012) and Child-Pugh score C (OR=10.6, 95% CI=1.4-80.8, P=0.022) were associated with rebleeding. In the emergency group, the gastric varices were associated with rebleeding (OR=12.0, 95% CI=1.7-83.5, P=0.012). Conclusion Emergency EVL may be associated with variceal rebleeding when blood clots are present in the stomach without active esophageal and gastric variceal bleeding or stigmata. Elective intervention should be considered as a safer strategy for preventing variceal rebleeding in this situation. PMID:28081590

  2. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of varices: focusing on the portal hemodynamics and the recent techniques.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Shozo; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kako, Yasukazu; Takaki, Haruyuki; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2017-09-05

    To evaluate the recent topics of Ballloon-occluded retrograde trasnvenous obliteration(B-RTO). We overviewed the recent scientific papers regarding B-RTO. B-RTO is a treatment method for occluding varices retrogradely using a sclerosing agent under balloon occlusion of a major draining vein. It has been recognized as an effective treatment method for gastric varices. Hepatic function reserve is improved and liver volume is increased after B-RTO. In recent years, various technical options, such as plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration, coil-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration, or foam B-RTO, have also been reported. In performing B-RTO, portal hemodynamics must be thoroughly examined radiologically. Judging the classification of the grade of collateral venous hemodynamics is important to select the appropriate embolization technique of B-RTO and to successfully occlude varices. Finally, the word "portosystemic shunt syndrome" has been proposed and the condition should be considered while selecting a treatment for gastric varices. B-RTO is effective for gastrointestinal varices and portosystemic shunts.

  3. Portal hypertension in children: High-risk varices, primary prophylaxis and consequences of bleeding.

    PubMed

    Duché, Mathieu; Ducot, Béatrice; Ackermann, Oanez; Guérin, Florent; Jacquemin, Emmanuel; Bernard, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Primary prophylaxis of bleeding is debated for children with portal hypertension because of the limited number of studies on its safety and efficacy, the lack of a known endoscopic pattern carrying a high-risk of bleeding for all causes, and the assumption that the mortality of a first bleed is low. We report our experience with these issues. From 1989 to 2014, we managed 1300 children with portal hypertension. Endoscopic features were recorded; high-risk varices were defined as: grade 3 esophageal varices, grade 2 varices with red wale markings, or gastric varices. Two hundred forty-six children bled spontaneously and 182 underwent primary prophylaxis. The results of primary prophylaxis were reviewed as well as bleed-free survival, overall survival and life-threatening complications of bleeding. High-risk varices were found in 96% of children who bled spontaneously and in 11% of children who did not bleed without primary prophylaxis (p<0.001), regardless of the cause of portal hypertension. Life-threatening complications of bleeding were recorded in 19% of children with cirrhosis and high-risk varices who bled spontaneously. Ten-year probabilities of bleed-free survival after primary prophylaxis in children with high-risk varices were 96% and 72% for non-cirrhotic causes and cirrhosis respectively. Ten-year probabilities of overall survival after primary prophylaxis were 100% and 93% in children with non-cirrhotic causes and cirrhosis respectively. In children with portal hypertension, bleeding is linked to the high-risk endoscopic pattern reported here. Primary prophylaxis of bleeding based on this pattern is fairly effective and safe. In children with liver disease, the risk of bleeding from varices in the esophagus is linked to their large size, the presence of congestion on their surface and their expansion into the stomach but not to the child's age nor to the cause of portal hypertension. Prevention of the first bleed in children with high-risk varices can

  4. [Left predominance of varices: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Cornu-Thénard, A; Maraval, M; Boivin, P; Parpex, P

    1986-01-01

    The study of 843 legs operated for major varices shows that they are equally distributed between the two lower limbs (48.6% on the right, 51.4% on the left). There is little sex-determined variation in this distribution (410 women - 184 men), the main difference being that found in men: +4.6% on the left. Other studies carried out in Europe come to much the same conclusion. Two of these studies do, however, note a much clearer predominance of left-leg varices in men (+10%). For some studies, the lack of information about the type of varices being considered has proved troublesome (for example the many isolated telangiectasis and varices) and means that it is impossible to come to any exact conclusion. Clinical quantification is therefore desirable: at least it takes into account the diameter of the varices studied.

  5. Predictors of a variceal source among patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Ahmad; Almadi, Majid; Barkun, Alan; Martel, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) require an early, tailored approach best guided by knowledge of the bleeding lesion, especially a variceal versus a nonvariceal source. OBJECTIVE: To identify, by investigating a large national registry, variables that would be predictive of a variceal origin of UGIB using clinical parameters before endoscopic evaluation. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 21 Canadian hospitals during the period from January 2004 until the end of May 2005. Consecutive charts for hospitalized patients with a primary or secondary discharge diagnosis of UGIB were reviewed. Data regarding demographics, including historical, physical examination, initial laboratory investigations, endoscopic and pharmacological therapies administered, as well as clinical outcomes, were collected. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was performed to identify clinical predictors of a variceal source of bleeding. RESULTS: The patient population included 2020 patients (mean [± SD] age 66.3±16.4 years; 38.4% female). Overall, 215 (10.6%) were found to be bleeding from upper gastrointestinal varices. Among 26 patient characteristics, variables predicting a variceal source of bleeding included history of liver disease (OR 6.36 [95% CI 3.59 to 11.3]), excessive alcohol use (OR 2.28 [95% CI 1.37 to 3.77]), hematemesis (OR 2.65 [95% CI 1.61 to 4.36]), hematochezia (OR 3.02 [95% CI 1.46 to 6.22]) and stigmata of chronic liver disease (OR 2.49 [95% CI 1.46 to 4.25]). Patients treated with antithrombotic therapy were more likely to experience other causes of hemorrhage (OR 0.44 [95% CI 0.35 to 0.78]). CONCLUSION: Presenting historical and physical examination data, and initial laboratory tests carry significant predictive ability in discriminating variceal versus nonvariceal sources of bleeding. PMID:22506257

  6. [Patient evolution in different stages of hepatic failure submitted to eradication of esophageal varices with endoscopic ligation].

    PubMed

    Estela Caldera, Elisa; Reyes Dorantes, Angel Andrés; González Ortiz, Julio Alberto

    2005-01-01

    To know the patients' progress with distinct stages of hepatic failure, according to the Child Pugh classification, who underwent esophageal varices eradication with the use of endoscopic band ligation. Descriptive, longitudinal, prospective and comparative study. CENTRE: Endoscopy Department of the Central Military Hospital, Mexico, D.F. One-hundred twenty-four patients with esophageal varices and a history of bleeding, were submitted to various band ligation sessions every 4 weeks until the varices were eradicated and control sessions every 3 months. A total of 425 endoscopy sessions were performed of which 239 were ligature applications and 187 control sessions. Eradication of varices was achieved in 100% of the patients. Of the Child A, 2/3 of them were eradicated in one session and the other 1/3 with 2 sessions. The patients of the Child B class, 66% of varices were effaced in one session, 22% in two and 12% in three sessions. In the Child C group, 50% were obliterated in two sessions, 47% with three, 2% needed 4 sessions. The follow-up period was from 4 months being the minimum and 13 months the maximum (mean of 7 months). In 15% of the patients varices recurred. None were from the Child A group. Those pertaining to the Child B group varices reappeared in 7.3% of which 2/3 required another ligation session to eradicate them once again and the other 1/3 were removed in two sessions. In the Child C group the incidence of recidivation was 28%, 43% of these needing one session to eliminate them once again, 50% two sessions and 7% three sessions for complete eradication. Rebleeding appeared in 7.7% of the sample, all of them were from the Child C class. The occurrence of congestive gastropathy before ligature was 42%, and 73% at the conclusion of the follow-up period. Congestive gastropathy developed in 11% of the Child A patients after eradication, 34% of the Child B group and 38.5% of the Child C group. The incidence of gastric varices was 21% before ligature

  7. Angiografic and pressoric changes determined by splenectomy with left gastric vein ligature in mansoni schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Fernanda Maria Fernández; Evangelista-Neto, João; Brito, Norma; Amaral, Fernando; da Fonseca-Neto, Olival Cirilo Lucena; Lacerda, Cláudio Moura

    2013-01-01

    In hepatosplenic schistosomiasis occurs diffuse hepatic fibrosis associated with venous congestion of the portal system resulting in hepatosplenomegaly. It can produce digestive hemorrhage caused by rupture of esophageal and stomach varices or peptic gastroduodenal mucosal lesions. To study the effects of splenectomy and ligature of the left gastric vein on portohepatic hemodynamics. Twenty-three patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni were studied before and about two weeks after operation through angiographic diameter of the common and proper hepatic artery, splenic artery, superior mesenteric artery, portal vein, superior mesenteric vein and left gastric vein. The pressures of the inferior vena cava and central venous pressure, free hepatic vein, the hepatic sinusoidal and occluded vein were measured. The splenectomy and ligature of the left gastric vein determined low morbidity and null mortality. It determined significant addition to the following variables: diameters of the common and proper hepatic artery; diameter of the superior mesenteric vein. It determined non significant increase on the following measurements: right atrial pressure and diameter of the superior mesenteric artery. It determined non significant decrease to the following variables: inferior vena cava pressure; free hepatic vein pressure; occluded hepatic vein pressure; sinusoidal pressure, diameter of the portal vein. Splenectomy and ligature of the left gastric vein do not determine portal hemodynamic changes capable of breaking the functional hemodinamic balance that characterizes the hepatosplenic mansoni schistosomiasis.

  8. Severe Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage from Linear Gastric Ulcers in Large Hiatal Hernias: a Large Prospective Case Series of Cameron Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M.; Ohning, Gordon V.; Kovacs, Thomas O.; Ghassemi, Kevin A.; Jutabha, Rome; Machicado, Gustavo A.; Dulai, Gareth S.; Hines, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Background and study aims Cameron ulcers are a rare but clinically significant cause of severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (SUGIH). Our aims were to describe (1) the diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of patients with Cameron ulcers causing hospitalization for SUGIH, (2) the differences between patients with occult vs. overt bleeding and (3) between patients treated surgically and medically. Patients and methods Over the past 17 years, all consecutive patients hospitalized in our two tertiary referral medical centers for severe UGIH or severe obscure GIH and entered into our large prospective databasis were screened for Cameron ulcer diagnosis. Results Cameron ulcers were diagnosed in 25 patients of 3960 patients with SUGIH (0.6%). 21 patients had follow-up (median [IQR] time of 20.4 months [8.5–31.8]). Patients were more often elderly females with chronic anemia, always had large hiatal hernias, and were usually referred for obscure SUGIH. Twelve (57.2%) patients were referred to surgery for rebleeding and recurrent blood loss while treated with high dose of proton pump inhibitors (PPI). 9 (42.8%) other patients continued PPI without any rebleeding during the follow-up. Patients with overt bleeding had significantly more prior hospitalizations for SUGIH, more often stigmata of hemorrhage on ulcers, and more red blood cell transfusions than patients with occult bleeding. However, there was no difference in rebleeding and mortality rates between the two groups. Conclusions Cameron ulcers in large hiatal hernias are an uncommon cause of SUGIH. Most of patients are referred for obscure GIH. The choice of medical vs. surgical therapy should be individualized. PMID:23616128

  9. Fatal hemoperitoneum due to bleeding from gallbladder varices in an end-stage cirrhotic patient A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pravisani, Riccardo; Bugiantella, Walter; Lorenzin, Dario; Bresadola, Vittorio; Leo, Cosimo Alex

    2016-03-10

    Gallbladder perforation with hemorrhage may be the source of massive hemoperitoneum under rare and extreme circumstances. In cirrhotic patients the bleeding may be associated with the tearing of gallbladder varices and represents a fatal complication, as reported in all the cases available in literature. The incidence of gallbladder varices in the setting of portal hypertension ranges 12-30%, although literature data are limited. We describe the case of an end-stage cirrhotic patient without portal thrombosis awaiting for orthotopic liver transplantation, who developed a fatal hemoperitoneum caused by massive bleeding from ruptured varices of both gallbladder wall and cholecystic fossa. The review of the literature was also performed. Cirrhosis, Gallbladder, Hemoperitoneum, Perforation, Portal hypertension, Varices.

  10. Association of Oesophageal Varices and Splanchnic Vein Thromboses in Patients with JAK2-Positive Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Presentation of Two Cases and Data from a Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Link, Cornelia S.; Platzbecker, Uwe; Kroschinsky, Frank; Pannach, Sven; Thiede, Christian; Platzek, Ivan; Ehninger, Gerhard; Schuler, Markus K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Oesophageal varices and gastrointestinal bleeding are common complications of liver cirrhosis. More rarely, oesophageal varices occur in patients with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension that results from thromboses of portal or splanchnic veins. Case Report We describe 2 young men who initially presented with varices as a result of portal vein thromboses. In the clinical follow-up, both were tested positive for a JAK2 mutation and consequently diagnosed with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). In an attempt to characterise the frequency of gastrointestinal complications in patients with JAK2-positive MPNs, we retrospectively analysed all known affected patients from our clinic for the diagnosis of portal vein thromboses and oesophageal varices. Strikingly, 48% of those who had received an oesophagogastroduodenoscopy had detectable oesophageal or gastric varices, and 82% of those suffered from portal or splanchnic vein thromboses. Conclusion While the association between JAK2, myeloproliferative disease and thrombotic events is well established, patients with idiopathic oesophageal varices are not regularly tested for JAK2 mutations. However, the occurrence of oesophageal varices may be the first presenting symptom of a MPN with a JAK2 mutation, and affected patients may profit from a close haematological monitoring to assure the early detection of developing MPN. PMID:23898274

  11. Diagnosis and therapy of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Biecker, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz in the absence of oesophageal, gastric or duodenal varices. The clinical presentation varies according to the intensity of bleeding from occult bleeding to melena or haematemesis and haemorrhagic shock. Causes of UGIB are peptic ulcers, Mallory-Weiss lesions, erosive gastritis, reflux oesophagitis, Dieulafoy lesions or angiodysplasia. After admission to the hospital a structured approach to the patient with acute UGIB that includes haemodynamic resuscitation and stabilization as well as pre-endoscopic risk stratification has to be done. Endoscopy offers not only the localisation of the bleeding site but also a variety of therapeutic measures like injection therapy, thermocoagulation or endoclips. Endoscopic therapy is facilitated by acid suppression with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. These drugs are highly effective but the best route of application (oral vs intravenous) and the adequate dosage are still subjects of discussion. Patients with ulcer disease are tested for Helicobacter pylori and eradication therapy should be given if it is present. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have to be discontinued if possible. If discontinuation is not possible, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in combination with PPI have the lowest bleeding risk but the incidence of cardiovascular events is increased. PMID:26558151

  12. Vesical varices and telangiectasias in a patient with ataxia telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koichi; Tsugawa, Koji; Oki, Eishin; Morio, Tomohiro; Ito, Etsuro; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    A Japanese boy with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) developed severe gross hematuria and recurrent bladder tamponade, requiring an extensive blood transfusion. He had received intermittent intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy (cumulative dose of 1.3 g) for refractory steroid-resistant and intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant severe autoimmune thrombocytopenia 3 years previously. A cystoscopy revealed multiple varices and severe telangiectasias in the bladder wall. The intensive treatment, such as repeatedly selective embolization of the vesical arteries, proved to be partially effective. Finally, a surgical cystotomy resulted in a gradual improvement in clinical symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with AT who developed refractory bladder hemorrhage caused by widespread vesical telangiectasias.

  13. Endoscopic band ligation: Beyond prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jeong-Seon; Cho, Young-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is the preferred endoscopic technique for the endoscopic treatment of acute esophageal variceal bleeding. EBL has also been used to treat nonvariceal bleeding. Recently, Han et al demonstrated that EBL can be a feasible and safe alternate technique for the management of iatrogenic gastric perforation especially in cases in which closure with endoclips is difficult. EBL is technically simpler to perform than other methods and provides a good view of the lesions under direct pressure and suction from the transparent ligation cap. EBL can be used even if the diameter of the perforation is greater than 10 mm or if there is a severe tangential angle. In this commentary, we discuss the efficacy and safety of EBL for the closure of iatrogenic gastrointestinal perforation. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of EBL for the treatment of nonvariceal bleeding. PMID:23885137

  14. Endoscopic band ligation: beyond prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jeong-Seon; Cho, Young-Seok

    2013-07-21

    Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is the preferred endoscopic technique for the endoscopic treatment of acute esophageal variceal bleeding. EBL has also been used to treat nonvariceal bleeding. Recently, Han et al demonstrated that EBL can be a feasible and safe alternate technique for the management of iatrogenic gastric perforation especially in cases in which closure with endoclips is difficult. EBL is technically simpler to perform than other methods and provides a good view of the lesions under direct pressure and suction from the transparent ligation cap. EBL can be used even if the diameter of the perforation is greater than 10 mm or if there is a severe tangential angle. In this commentary, we discuss the efficacy and safety of EBL for the closure of iatrogenic gastrointestinal perforation. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of EBL for the treatment of nonvariceal bleeding.

  15. What Does Lesion Blood Flow Tell Us About Risk Stratification and Successful Management of Non-variceal UGI Bleeding?

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Kevin A; Jensen, Dennis M

    2017-04-01

    There has been a decline in mortality associated with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage as the use of urgent endoscopy has increased. This review will examine endoscopic risk stratification of non-variceal UGI bleeding (e.g., ulcers, Dieulafoy lesions, and Mallory-Weiss tears), including the use of the Doppler endoscopic probe (DEP). Prospective studies evaluating the use of DEP in non-variceal UGI hemorrhage showed that lesions with high-risk stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH) have a higher rate of a positive DEP signal compared to those with intermediate-risk SRH. Additionally, lesions with a persistently positive DEP signal after endoscopic hemostasis were seen with high-risk SRH and had a higher 30-day rebleeding rate. Residual arterial blood flow underneath ulcers is a significant risk factor for rebleeding. However, if more endoscopic treatment is applied, clinical outcomes for patients with severe non-variceal UGI hemorrhage are improved, as documented by a recent CURE Hemostasis randomized controlled trial (RCT).

  16. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Management of Bleeding Rectal Varices.

    PubMed

    Philips, Cyriac Abby; Augustine, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Rectal variceal bleeding, though rare, can pose significant morbidity and mortality in the wake of treatment failure. Conventional treatment utilizing endoscopic glue injection might not be feasible in all cases due to poor visualization and inadvertent missing of variceal source of bleed. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided rectal variceal management is a promising and effective modality. We provide real-time images and a video of EUS-guided precision management of rectal variceal bleed using coiling and glue in a cirrhotic.

  17. Value of Adjusted Blood Requirement Index in determining failure to control bleed in patients with variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Abid, Shahab; Khalid, Abdullah B; Awan, Safia; Shah, Hasnain A; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim

    2015-03-01

    other additional Baveno IV-based criteria for failure to control bleeding were present. When ABRI was compared with other criteria for failure to control bleeding, it showed a sensitivity and specificity of 19 and 25%, respectively. This study showed that ABRI is not a useful additional tool to define failure to control bleeding after variceal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients.

  18. Argon plasma coagulation is effective for prevention of recurrent esophageal varices after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy: Single-center case-control study.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Hisanobu; Kato, Jun; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moribata, Kosaku; Shingaki, Naoki; Niwa, Toru; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ichinose, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal varices are usually treated with endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) or endoscopic band ligation (EBL). However, frequent recurrences of varices after those procedures have been problematic. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) after EIS may be effective for preventing varix recurrence and, in recent years, we have routinely carried out APC after EIS. The aim of the present study was to verify the effectiveness of APC for preventing recurrence of varices after EIS. A case-control study was carried out using a historical control cohort in a single center. The varix recurrence rate in 62 patients (34 men and 28 women, median age; 69 years) who underwent APC after EIS for hemorrhagic or risky esophageal varices (APC group) was compared with that of control patients who did not undergo APC after EIS (control group). Age-, sex-, and liver function-matched two control subjects were selected for one case subject (control group). Recurrence of varices was defined as rupture of varices or reappearance of risky varices. The 1-year and 2-year recurrence rates of the APC group were 9.7% and 11.3%, respectively. In contrast, the rates of the control group were 29.0% and 34.7%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significantly lower recurrence rate in the APC group (P = 0.013, log-rank test). No APC-related severe adverse events were observed. APC after EIS was safe and could significantly prevent recurrence of esophageal varices. Therefore, the addition of APC should be routinely carried out after EIS. © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  19. Does sclerotherapy of remnant little oesophageal varices after endoscopic ligation have impact on the reduction of recurrent varices? Prospective study.

    PubMed

    Grgov, Sasa; Stamenković, Perica

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is superior to endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) of oesophageal varices, however, EBL is associated with a higher rate of variceal recurrences. To examine whether the reduction of recurrent varices can be achieved by additional sclerotherapy of remnant little varices after ligation. Forty-eight patients with liver cirrhosis who had previously bled from oesophageal varices were examined. Endoscopic therapy was performed in order to prevent recurrent variceal bleeding. I group: in 23 patients ligation of oesophageal varices with multi band ligation device was applied (EBL group). II group: in 25 patients sclerotherapy using polydocanol or absolute alcohol was applied after reducing the size of varices using ligation (EBL and EIS group). There was no statistically significant difference between the examined groups of patients in relation to the number of sessions for variceal eradication, recurrence of variceal bleeding, deterioration of portal gastropathy and mortality in the observed period from 18.8 +/- 18.6 months (EBL group) and 22.2 +/- 26.2 months (EBL and EIS group). Variceal recurrence was verified in 21.7% of patients of the EBL group and 16% of the EBL and EIS group, but the difference was not statistically important. Several complications, such as dysphagia and chest pain, were statistically more frequent in the EBL and EIS group of patients. The combined method of ligation and extra sclerosing of remnant small oesophageal varices after ligation does not have advantage in relation to the ligation alone.

  20. [Frequency and mortality by rebleeding in cirrhotic patients treated for bleeding esophagic varices in two hospitals in Lima Peru during years 2009 to 2011].

    PubMed

    Pichilingue Reto, Catherina; Queirolo Rodriguez, Fiorella Sabrinna; Ruiz Llenque, José Jonathan; Bravo Paredes, Eduar; Guzmán Rojas, Patricia; Gallegos López, Roxana; Corzo Maldonado, Manuel Alejandro; Valdivia Roldán, Mario

    2013-01-01

    During the first 6 weeks after a variceal hemorrhage there is a 30-40% of probability of recurrence and those who rebleed 20- 30% die. Passed this period, the risk of rebleeding is of 60% and reaches a mortality of 60-70% in two years without treatment. Describe the frequency of rebleeding and mortality due to rebleeding in cirrhotic patients treated for variceal hemorrhage at Endoscopic Centers of Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru and Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza, Lima, Peru during the years 2009-2011. The study type is a transversal, periodic and retrospective one in which were included 176 cirrhotic patients older than 14 years who have bleed for esophageal varices and that have received endoscopic therapy. The instruments used were a data sheet with all the information obtained from the clinical chart of each patient, the CHILD score to assess severity of hepatic disease, endoscopic informs and phone calls. The frequency of rebleeding before 6 weeks was 32.20% (56 patients). Also, the frequency of rebleeding after that time was 22.56% (37 patients). There was a mortality rate of 5.70% (10 patients) and a mortality rate due to rebleeding of 13.33% (6 patients). Variceal hemorrhage is an important cause of mobimortality in peruvian people. The frequency of rebleeding and mortality due to rebleeding resulted slightly lower than in other countries.

  1. Scintigraphic demonstration of gastrointestinal bleeding due to mesenteric varices

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, M.E.; Coleman, R.E. )

    1990-07-01

    Mesenteric varices can appear as massive, acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The small bowel or colon may be involved, varices usually developing at sites of previous surgery or inflammation in patients with portal hypertension. Two patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and protal hypertension presented with rectal bleeding. Tc-99m RBC studies demonstrated varices and extravasation into the adjacent bowel. The varices were documented by mesenteric angiography. Characteristic features of Tc-99m labeled RBC studies can identify mesenteric varices as the cause of intestinal bleeding and localize the abnormal vessels.

  2. Direct Percutaneous Embolization of Bleeding Stomal Varices

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, Sailen G.; Castle, Erik P.; Kriegshauser, J. Scott; Huettl, Eric A.

    2010-02-15

    Stomal variceal bleeding can develop in patients with underlying cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Most patients are best treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation because this addresses the underlying problem of portal hypertension. However, some patients are not good candidates for TIPS creation because they have end-stage liver disease or encephalopathy. We describe such a patient who presented with recurrent bleeding stomal varices, which was successfully treated with percutaneous coil embolization. The patient had bleeding-free survival for 1 month before death from unrelated causes.

  3. Idiopathic colonic varices: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dina, Ion; Braticevici, Carmen Fierbinteanu

    2014-07-01

    Colonic varices represent a very rare entity, either an incidental finding at colonoscopy or discovered due to its complication, the lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The most common cause of colonic varices is portal hypertension associated with liver disease or secondary to pancreatic conditions, like chronic pancreatitis or malignancies. The incidence of colonic varices is very low, even in liver cirrhosis where the patients frequently develop varices in the upper gastrointestinal tract, but surprisingly uncommon present with varices localized in the colon. We report a case of idiopathic colonic varices, diagnosed at a routine colonoscopy performed for nespecific abdominal disturbances in a female patient without liver disease or pancreatic conditions responsible for portal hypertension development. The development of colonic varices in the absence of a certain trigger represents a major issue for practitioners due to its major complication, lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

  4. Idiopathic Colonic Varices: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dina, Ion; Braticevici, Carmen Fierbinteanu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Colonic varices represent a very rare entity, either an incidental finding at colonoscopy or discovered due to its complication, the lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The most common cause of colonic varices is portal hypertension associated with liver disease or secondary to pancreatic conditions, like chronic pancreatitis or malignancies. The incidence of colonic varices is very low, even in liver cirrhosis where the patients frequently develop varices in the upper gastrointestinal tract, but surprisingly uncommon present with varices localized in the colon. Case Presentation: We report a case of idiopathic colonic varices, diagnosed at a routine colonoscopy performed for nespecific abdominal disturbances in a female patient without liver disease or pancreatic conditions responsible for portal hypertension development. Conclusions: The development of colonic varices in the absence of a certain trigger represents a major issue for practitioners due to its major complication, lower gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25147571

  5. Duodenal varices successfully treated with cyanoacrylate injection therapy

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ahsan; Junglee, Naushad; Khan, Anwar; Sutton, Jonathon; Gasem, Jaber; Ahmed, Waqar

    2011-01-01

    Duodenal varices are a rare complication of portal hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis. Compared to oesophageal varices, they bleed less often but are also more difficult to diagnose and treat. There is no established treatment for bleeding duodenal varices and different treatment strategies have been employed with variable results. The authors present a case of 52-year-old male who was admitted with melaena. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed which identified bleeding varices in the second part of duodenum. The varices were injected with cyanoacrylate and the outcome was favourable. Subsequent endoscopies showed complete resolution of the varices. The authors conclude that cyanoacrylate injection is an effective first-line treatment for bleeding duodenal varices. PMID:22694885

  6. Fatal variceal haemorrhage after paracetamol overdose.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, J R; Losowsky, M S

    1989-01-01

    A patient is described where oesophageal varices developed and bled 13 days after a paracetamol overdose. The bleeding was unresponsive to medical management and proved fatal. There was no evidence that the patient had pre-existing liver disease. At necropsy the liver showed severe acute parenchymal necrosis but chronic lesions were absent. The portal vein and hepatic veins were patent. PMID:2583571

  7. Total volume paracentesis decreases variceal pressure, size, and variceal wall tension in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Kravetz, D; Romero, G; Argonz, J; Guevara, M; Suarez, A; Abecasis, R; Bildozola, M; Valero, J; Terg, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been suggested that ascites is a risk factor for variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients. However, no data of total volume paracentesis (TVP) effects on variceal hemodynamics has yet been published. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TVP on variceal pressure, size, and tension in cirrhotic patients. Before sclerotherapy, 18 cirrhotic patients with grade II esophageal varices were studied. The following measurements were performed on 12 patients at basal condition and after TVP: inferior vena cava pressure, esophageal pressure (EP), and intravariceal pressure (IVP) by direct punction and variceal size at endoscopy. The same measurements were performed at basal condition and 1 hour later without TVP on the other 6 patients used as a control group. Variceal pressure gradient (VPG) and variceal wall tension (WT) were calculated. Paracentesis and intra-abdominal pressure were obtained with a direct punction. No demographic differences were observed between both groups. Paracentesis produced a significant reduction of IVP (from 25.6 +/- 2.4 to 17.9 +/- 2.1 mm Hg, means +/- SEM, -30%, P < .05), VPG (from 16.6 +/- 2.4 to 10.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg, -35%, P < .05). TVP also reduced variceal size (from 9 +/- 0.3 to 5.6 + 0.4 mm, -38%, P < .05) and WT (from 75.3 +/- 11.6 to 30 +/- 4.7 mm Hg. mm, -60%, P < .05). Intra-abdominal pressure decreased from 18 +/- 2.2 to 4 +/- 0.9 mm Hg (P < .05), and IVC decreased from 15.5 +/- 2.4 to 5.7 +/- 1.5 mm Hg (P < .05). No significant differences were observed in mean arterial pressure and heart rate. The mean ascitic fluid removed was 8 +/- 0.71 L. No significant difference between measurements was observed in the control group. Our results show that TVP significantly decreases variceal pressure and tension. These results suggest that ascites removal can be useful in the treatment of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients.

  8. Risk factors for predicting early variceal rebleeding after endoscopic variceal ligation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Ji, Feng; Xu, Qin-Wei; Zhang, Mie-Qing

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical risk factors for early variceal rebleeding after endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). METHODS: 342 cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices who received elective EVL to prevent bleeding or rebleeding at our endoscopy center between January 2005 and July 2010. were included in this study. The early rebleeding cases after EVL were confirmed by clinical signs or endoscopy. A case-control study was performed comparing the patients presenting with early rebleeding with those without this complication. RESULTS: The incidence of early rebleeding after EVL was 7.60%, and the morbidity of rebleeding was 26.9%. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that four variables were independent risk factors for early rebleeding: moderate to excessive ascites [odds ratio (OR) 62.83, 95% CI: 9.39-420.56, P < 0.001], the number of bands placed (OR 17.36, 95% CI: 4.00-75.34, P < 0.001), the extent of varices (OR 15.41, 95% CI: 2.84-83.52, P = 0.002) and prothrombin time (PT) > 18 s (OR 11.35, 95% CI: 1.93-66.70, P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The early rebleeding rate after EVL is mainly affected by the volume of ascites, number of rubber bands used to ligate, severity of varices and prolonged PT. Effective measures for prevention and treatment should be adopted before and after EVL. PMID:21876624

  9. Noninvasive diagnosis of esophageal varices: is it feasible?

    PubMed

    de Franchis, Roberto

    2006-11-01

    The possibility of identifying cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices by noninvasive means is attractive, because it would allow for the restriction of the performance of screening endoscopy to patients at high risk of having varices. Over the years, several studies addressing this issue have been performed with little success. The recently proposed platelet count/spleen diameter ratio appears to be the best noninvasive predictor of esophageal varices developed so far. However, the available evidence is not yet sufficient to allow for the modification of the current policy of screening cirrhotic patients by endoscopy at the time of diagnosis to detect varices.

  10. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Management of Bleeding Rectal Varices

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Rectal variceal bleeding, though rare, can pose significant morbidity and mortality in the wake of treatment failure. Conventional treatment utilizing endoscopic glue injection might not be feasible in all cases due to poor visualization and inadvertent missing of variceal source of bleed. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided rectal variceal management is a promising and effective modality. We provide real-time images and a video of EUS-guided precision management of rectal variceal bleed using coiling and glue in a cirrhotic. PMID:28879206

  11. Secondary prophylaxis for esophageal variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Albillos, Agustín; Tejedor, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Combination therapy with beta-blockers and endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is the standard prophylaxis of esophageal variceal rebleeding in cirrhosis. Beta-blockers are the backbone of combination therapy, since their benefit extend to other complications of portal hypertension. EBL carries the risk of post-banding ulcer bleeding, which explains why overall rebleeding is reduced when beta-blockers are added to EBL, and not when EBL is added to beta-blockers. TIPS is the rescue treatment, but it could be considered as first choice in patients that first bleed while on beta-blockers, those with contraindications to beta-blockers or with refractory ascites, and those with fundal varices.

  12. Endoscopic band ligation versus pharmacological therapy for variceal bleeding in cirrhosis: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lan; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of published, full-length, randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) versus pharmacological therapy for the primary and secondary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases. Eighteen randomized clinical trials that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were further pooled into a meta-analysis. RESULTS: Among 1023 patients in 12 trials comparing EBL with beta-blockers for primary prevention, there was no significant difference in gastrointestinal bleeding (RR 0.79 [95% CI 0.61 to 1.02]), all-cause deaths (RR 1.06 [95% CI 0.86 to 1.30]) or bleeding-related deaths (RR 0.66 [95% CI 0.38 to 1.16]). There was a reduced trend toward significance in variceal bleeding with EBL compared with beta-blockers (RR 0.72 [95% CI 0.54 to 0.96]). However, variceal bleeding was not significantly different between the two groups in high-quality trials (RR 0.84 [95% CI 0.60 to 1.17]). Among 687 patients from six trials comparing EBL with beta-blockers plus isosorbide mononitrate for secondary prevention, there was no effect on either gastrointestinal bleeding (RR 0.95 [95% CI 0.65 to 1.40]) or variceal bleeding (RR 0.89 [95% CI 0.53 to 1.49]). The risk for all-cause deaths in the EBL group was significantly higher than in the medical group (RR 1.25 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.55]); however, the rate of bleeding-related deaths was unaffected (RR 1.16 [95% CI 0.68 to 1.97]). CONCLUSIONS: Both EBL and beta-blockers may be considered first-line treatments to prevent first variceal bleeding, whereas beta-blockers plus isosorbide mononitrate may be the best choice for the prevention of rebleeding. PMID:21499579

  13. Hemorrhagic Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    A stroke is a medical emergency. There are two types - ischemic and hemorrhagic. Hemorrhagic stroke is the less common type. It happens when ... an artery wall that breaks open. Symptoms of stroke are Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, ...

  14. Upper gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding treated with various endoscopic modalities

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Eunae; Jun, Chung Hwan; Choi, Sung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Chang Hwan; Rew, Jong Sun; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Hee Joon; Han, Mingui; Cho, Kyu Man

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Ectopic variceal bleeding is a rare (2–5%) but fatal gastrointestinal bleed in patients with portal hypertension. Patients with ectopic variceal bleeding manifest melena, hematochezia, or hematemesis, which require urgent managements. Definitive therapeutic modalities of ectopic varices are not yet standardized because of low incidence. Various therapeutic modalities have been applied on the basis of the experiences of experts or availability of facilities, with varying results. Patient concerns: We have encountered eight cases of gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding in five patients in the last five years. Diagnoses: All patients were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis presenting melena or hematemesis. Interventions: All patients were treated with various endoscopic modalities (endoscopic variceal obturation [EVO] with cyanoacrylate in five cases, endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) in two cases, hemoclipping in one case). Outcomes: Satisfactory hemostasis was achieved without radiologic interventions in all cases. EVO and EVL each caused one case of portal biliopathy, and EVL induced ulcer bleeding in one case. Lessons: EVO generally accomplished better results of variceal obturations than EVL or hemoclipping, without serious adverse events. EVO may be an effective modality for control of ectopic variceal bleeding without radiologic intervention or surgery. PMID:28072750

  15. Results of rubber band ligation of esophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Leszczyszyn, J; Łebski, I; Massopust, R; Skoczylas, M; Janus, W

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the results of endoscopic rubber band ligation of esophageal varices performed between 1 January 1998 and 1 November 2000 at the Department of GI Surgery of 4th Military University Hospital. Cases of 50 patients with massive upper GI variceal bleeding present on admission or with the history of such a bleeding were reviewed. A total of 85 endoscopic procedures of rubber band ligation were performed. In 9 (18%) cases ligation was performed due to massive variceal bleeding, in 1 case the complementary obliteration of stomach fundus varices with Aethoxysclerol was performed. In 10 (20%) cases in grade C of Child-Pough scale of liver failure, 3 endoscopic procedures were performed, in 15 (30%) in grade B--2 procedures, in the remaining 25 (50%) cases, also in grade B--1 procedure was performed. Procedures were conducted with Wilson-Cook Multi-Band Ligator SAEED SixShooter. In all cases with non-bleeding esophageal varices the overall good result of treatment was achieved, with collapsing of variceal columns. In 8 (88.8%) of 9 cases treated due to variceal bleeding, good hemostasis was achieved and no reintervention was necessary. In 1 case of massive variceal bleeding endoscopic treatment failed and patient eventually died. In 25 (50%) cases the complementary (1 or 2) rubber band ligations were performed. Follow-up period has ranged from 1 to 34 months. No cases of severe complications after the procedure were noted. In early period after the procedure 43 (86%) patients complained of transient, mild retrosternal pain and mild to moderate dysphagia. Endoscopic rubber band ligation is a safe and effective treatment for esophageal varices both in cases of variceal bleeding and as elective procedure.

  16. Pregnancy and delivery in women with esophageal varices due to hepatic vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Jabiry-Zieniewicz, Z; Dabrowski, F A; Suchońska, B; Kowalczyk, R; Nowacka, E; Kociszewska-Najman, B; Pietrzak, B; Malkowski, P; Wielgos, M

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the course of pregnancy, labor and mode of anesthesia in women with portal hypertension and esophageal varices induced by portal vein thrombosis. From 2000 to 2012 seven pregnant were admitted. None had liver transplantation (Ltx), the varicose have been in the 1st stage. Each of them has been consulted by the obstetrician, transplant surgeon and anesthetist. The patient condition during pregnancy, labor and postpartum period was analyzed. Pregnancy in five cases proceeded physiologically. In one threatening miscarriage was diagnosed and treated with gestagens, two patients had tocolytic. One required variceal banding twice. In three thrombocytopenia worsened, with platelet count <70 g/L (up to 59 g/L). They received platelet transfusion before delivery. In one case, significant hipoproteinemia (4.7 g/L) occurred. In a case, GDM G1 and oligohydramnios were found. All women delivered at term (37-40 Hbd). In all general anesthesia with the use of remifentanil was done. There were no fluctuations in MAP and HR. Incision to delivery time was 2.5 min. Time from opioid administration to birth was <4 min. All children were born in good condition, weight 10-90 percentile. Regional anesthesia is contraindicated in patients with thrombocytopenia. In patients with esophageal varices sudden increase in heart rate and blood pressure can cause hemorrhage. Patients with portal hypertension can deliver at term. It is a high-risk pregnancy. In this group it is desirable to shorten the second stage of labor or complete it by c-section under general anesthesia with remifentanyl which allows getting desired analgesia without complications in the newborn. Surveillance of pregnant with portal hypertension must include monitoring of liver function and coagulation disorders.

  17. Role of EUS evaluation after endoscopic eradication of esophageal varices with band ligation.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Fred Olavo Aragão Andrade; Retes, Felipe Alves; Matuguma, Sérgio Eiji; Albers, Débora Vieira; Chaves, Dalton Marques; Dos Santos, Marcos Eduardo Lera; Herman, Paulo; Chaib, Eleazar; Sakai, Paulo; Carneiro D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto; Maluf Filho, Fauze

    2016-09-01

    Variceal recurrence after endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for secondary prophylaxis is a frequent event. Some studies have reported a correlation between variceal recurrence and variceal rebleeding with the EUS features of paraesophageal vessels. A prospective observational study was conducted to correlate EUS evaluation of paraesophageal varices, azygos vein, and thoracic duct with variceal recurrence after EBL variceal eradication in patients with cirrhosis. EUS was performed before and 1 month after EBL variceal eradication. Paraesophageal varices, azygos vein, and thoracic duct maximum diameters were evaluated in predetermined anatomic stations. After EBL variceal eradication, patients were submitted to endoscopic examinations every 3 months for 1 year. We looked for EUS features that could predict variceal recurrence. Thirty patients completed a 1-year endoscopic follow-up. Seventeen patients (57%) presented variceal recurrence. There was no correlation between azygos vein and thoracic duct diameter with variceal recurrence. Larger paraesophageal varices predicted variceal recurrence in both evaluation periods. Paraesophageal varices diameters that best correlated with variceal recurrence were 6.3 mm before EBL (52.9% sensitivity, 92.3% specificity, and .749 area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC]) and 4 mm after EBL (70.6% sensitivity, 84.6% specificity, and .801 AUROC). We conclude that paraesophageal varices diameter measured by EUS predicts variceal recurrence within 1 year after EBL variceal eradication. Paraesophageal diameter after variceal eradication is a better recurrence predictor, because it has a lower cut-off parameter, higher sensitivity, and higher AUROC. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence of HCV induced—Esophageal varices in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-aty, Mahmoud; Fouad, Mahmoud; Sallam, Mohammad M.; Elgohary, Elsayed A.; Ismael, Ali; Nawara, Abdallah; Hawary, Baha; Tag-Adeen, Mohammed; Khaled, Salama

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Esophageal varices is one of the most important comorbidity related liver cirrhosis, patients usually presented with hematemesis, melena, or both, ultimately 20% is the mortality during the first attack, hence we aimed to investigate the incidence of such esophageal varices related chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in randomized Egyptian population. One thousand eighteen Egyptian patients, aged between 17 and 58 years, positive for Hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay Ab and HCV RNA-polymerase chain reaction were screened for the presence of esophageal varices. Incidence of esophageal varices was 62.3%; 635 patients, those with large Esophageal varices (LEVs) was 47.4%; 301 patients. Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score has not been significantly improved post variceal band ligation (VBL). Using 2D U/S was useful for EVs prediction. Incidence of esophageal varices in HCV Egyptian patients still high, valuable knowledge would be helpful in clinical field have been discovered by data mining computational intelligent analysis using in practical medicine to improve overall health care. PMID:28121921

  19. MULTIMODAL IMAGING IN VORTEX VEIN VARICES.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Chiara; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Pellegrini, Marco; Maiolo, Chiara; Primavera, Laura; Morara, Mariachiara; Armstrong, Grayson W; Ciardella, Antonio P

    2017-03-22

    The aim of this study is to describe the clinical presentation of vortex vein varices with multimodal imaging. The authors carried out a retrospective case series of eight patients (7 female, 1 male) with an average age of 60.2 years (min 8, max 84, median 68.5) presenting with vortex vein varices. All patients were evaluated at the Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy and at Luigi Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations, including best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment, and fundus examination. Imaging studies, including fundus color photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography were also performed. Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography and ultra-widefield indocyanine angiography using the Heidelberg Retina Angiograph and the Staurenghi 230 SLO Retina Lens were used to demonstrate the disappearance of all retinal lesions when pressure was applied to the globe. All eight cases initially presented to the emergency room. One patient presented secondary to trauma, two patients presented for suspected hemangioma, whereas the other five were referred to the authors' hospitals for suspected retinal lesions. On examination, retinal abnormalities were identified in all 8 patients, with 7 (87.5%) oculus dexter and 1 (12.5%) oculus sinister, and with 1 (12.5%) inferotemporally, 3 (37.5%) superonasally, 3 (37.5%) inferonasally, and 1 (12.5%) inferiorly. Fundus color photography showed an elevated lesion in seven patients and a nonelevated red lesion in one patient. In all patients, near-infrared reflectance imaging showed a hyporeflective lesion in the periphery of the retina. Fundus autofluorescence identified round hypofluorescent rings surrounding weakly hyperfluorescent lesions in all

  20. Embolization of Bleeding Stomal Varices by Direct Percutaneous Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Arulraj, Ramakrishnan; Mangat, Kamarjit S.; Tripathi, Dhiraj

    2011-02-15

    Stomal varices can occur in patients with stoma in the presence of portal hypertension. Suture ligation, sclerotherapy, angiographic embolization, stoma revision, beta blockade, portosystemic shunt, and liver transplantation have been described as therapeutic options for bleeding stomal varices. We report the case of a 21-year-old patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis and colectomy with ileostomy for ulcerative colitis, where stomal variceal bleeding was successfully treated by direct percutaneous embolization. We consider percutaneous embolization to be an effective way of treating acute stomal bleeding in decompensated patients while awaiting decisions regarding shunt procedures or liver transplantation.

  1. Achalasia cardia associated with esophageal varices: a therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Rao, Chalapathi; Sarwal, Rajiv; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    A 63-year-old male, chronic alcohol consumer, presented with progressively increasing dysphagia of 6 months duration. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed dilated esophagus with residue along with esophageal varices. Esophageal manometry revealed findings suggestive of classic achalasia cardia. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) examination revealed peri-esophageal collaterals as well as prominent perforators at lower end of esophagus. The co-existence of varices with achalasia is very rare and this case posed a difficult therapeutic dilemma as risk of bleeding from the varices limited the treatment options available. This case was successfully treated with EUS-guided botulinum toxin injection.

  2. Achalasia cardia associated with esophageal varices: a therapeutic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Rao, Chalapathi; Sarwal, Rajiv; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    A 63-year-old male, chronic alcohol consumer, presented with progressively increasing dysphagia of 6 months duration. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed dilated esophagus with residue along with esophageal varices. Esophageal manometry revealed findings suggestive of classic achalasia cardia. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) examination revealed peri-esophageal collaterals as well as prominent perforators at lower end of esophagus. The co-existence of varices with achalasia is very rare and this case posed a difficult therapeutic dilemma as risk of bleeding from the varices limited the treatment options available. This case was successfully treated with EUS-guided botulinum toxin injection. PMID:24714325

  3. Intrapartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Alexander, James M; Wortman, Alison C

    2013-03-01

    Intrapartum hemorrhage is a serious and sometimes life-threatening event. Several etiologies are known and include placental abruption, uterine atony, placenta accreta, and genital tract lacerations. Prompt recognition of blood loss, identification of the source of the hemorrhage, volume resuscitation, including red blood cells and blood products when required, will result in excellent maternal outcomes.

  4. Changes in Cardiac Varices and Their Clinical Significance after Eradication of Esophageal Varices by Band Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Woon; Lee, Han Ah; Park, Sang Jung; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Jae Min; Suh, Sang Jun; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jung, Young Kul; An, Hyonggin; Yim, Hyung Joon; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Yeon, Jong Eun; Lee, Hong Sik; Chun, Hoon Jai; Byun, Kwan Soo; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Cardiac varices (CVs) in patients with type 1 gastroesophageal varices (GOV1s) usually disappear with treatment for esophageal varices (EVs) by endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS). However, whether this applies to patients treated with endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for EVs remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of EVs eradication by EBL on CVs. Methods. We included cirrhotic patients whose EVs had been eradicated using EBL and excluded those who had been treated using EIS, those who had received endoscopic therapy for CVs, and those who were combined with hepatocellular carcinoma. Results. A total of 123 patients were enrolled. The age was 59.7 ± 11.7 years, and 96 patients (78.0%) were men. Thirty-eight patients (30.9%) had EVs only, while 85 (69.1%) had GOV1s. After EVs eradication, the CVs disappeared in 55 patients (64.7%). EVs recurred in 40 patients, with recurrence rates at 1, 2, and 3 years of 16.0%, 29.6%, and 35.6%, respectively, the recurrence being more frequent in patients who had undergone EBL for secondary prophylaxis and in those with persisting CVs after EVs eradication (P = 0.003). Conclusions. CVs frequently disappeared when EVs were eradicated using EBL in patients with GOV1s. Persistence of CVs after EVs eradication by EBL was associated with EVs recurrence. PMID:28116285

  5. Changes in Cardiac Varices and Their Clinical Significance after Eradication of Esophageal Varices by Band Ligation.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Woon; Seo, Yeon Seok; Lee, Han Ah; Park, Sang Jung; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Jae Min; Suh, Sang Jun; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jung, Young Kul; Kim, Ji Hoon; An, Hyonggin; Yim, Hyung Joon; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Yeon, Jong Eun; Lee, Hong Sik; Chun, Hoon Jai; Byun, Kwan Soo; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Cardiac varices (CVs) in patients with type 1 gastroesophageal varices (GOV1s) usually disappear with treatment for esophageal varices (EVs) by endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS). However, whether this applies to patients treated with endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for EVs remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of EVs eradication by EBL on CVs. Methods. We included cirrhotic patients whose EVs had been eradicated using EBL and excluded those who had been treated using EIS, those who had received endoscopic therapy for CVs, and those who were combined with hepatocellular carcinoma. Results. A total of 123 patients were enrolled. The age was 59.7 ± 11.7 years, and 96 patients (78.0%) were men. Thirty-eight patients (30.9%) had EVs only, while 85 (69.1%) had GOV1s. After EVs eradication, the CVs disappeared in 55 patients (64.7%). EVs recurred in 40 patients, with recurrence rates at 1, 2, and 3 years of 16.0%, 29.6%, and 35.6%, respectively, the recurrence being more frequent in patients who had undergone EBL for secondary prophylaxis and in those with persisting CVs after EVs eradication (P = 0.003). Conclusions. CVs frequently disappeared when EVs were eradicated using EBL in patients with GOV1s. Persistence of CVs after EVs eradication by EBL was associated with EVs recurrence.

  6. Stomal Varices: Treatment by Percutaneous Transhepatic Coil Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Hara, Akihiko; Arita, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Katsuhiko; Matsui, Norichika; Kaneyuki, Toshihiro; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    1999-11-15

    Bleeding from stomal varices in a patient with portal hypertension, uncontrolled by surgical ligation and sclerotherapy, was well controlled by percutaneous transhepatic embolization with platinum and stainless-steel coils.

  7. Prevention and treatment of variceal haemorrhage in 2017.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Felix; Berzigotti, Annalisa; Bosch, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Variceal haemorrhage is a major complication of portal hypertension that still causes high mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Improved knowledge of the pathophysiology of portal hypertension has recently led to a more comprehensive approach to prevent all the complications of this condition. Thus, optimal treatment of portal hypertension requires a strategy that takes into account the clinical stage of the disease and all the major variables that affect the risk of progression to the next stage and death. In patients with compensated liver disease, the correction of factors influencing the progression of fibrosis, in particular aetiologic factors, is now feasible in many cases and should be achieved to prevent the development or progression of gastroesophageal varices and hepatic decompensation. Once gastroesophageal varices have developed, non-selective beta-blockers remain the cornerstone of therapy. Carvedilol provides a greater decrease in portal pressure and is currently indicated as a first-choice therapy for primary prophylaxis. The treatment of acute variceal haemorrhage includes a combination of vasoactive drugs, antibiotics and endoscopic variceal band ligation. In high-risk patients, the early use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) lowers the risk of re-bleeding and improves survival. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is the choice for uncontrolled variceal bleeding; a self-expandable metal stent or balloon tamponade can be used as a bridging measure. The combination of non-selective beta-blockers and endoscopic variceal band ligation reduces the risk of recurrent variceal bleeding and improves survival. In these cases, statins seem to further improve survival. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is indicated in patients who rebleed during secondary prophylaxis.

  8. Endoscopic treatment of esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Triantos, Christos; Kalafateli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Variceal bleeding is a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension with a six-week mortality rate of approximately 20%. Patients with medium- or large-sized varices can be treated for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding using two strategies: non-selective beta-blockers (NSBBs) or endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). Both treatments are equally effective. Patients with acute variceal bleeding are critically ill patients. The available data suggest that vasoactive drugs, combined with endoscopic therapy and antibiotics, are the best treatment strategy with EVL being the endoscopic procedure of choice. In cases of uncontrolled bleeding, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents are recommended. Approximately 60% of the patients experience rebleeding, with a mortality rate of 30%. Secondary prophylaxis should start on day six following the initial bleeding episode. The combination of NSBBs and EVL is the recommended management, whereas TIPS with PTFE-covered stents are the preferred option in patients who fail endoscopic and pharmacologic treatment. Apart from injection sclerotherapy and EVL, other endoscopic procedures, including tissue adhesives, endoloops, endoscopic clipping and argon plasma coagulation, have been used in the management of esophageal varices. However, their efficacy and safety, compared to standard endoscopic treatment, remain to be further elucidated. There are safety issues accompanying endoscopic techniques with aspiration pneumonia occurring at a rate of approximately 2.5%. In conclusion, future research is needed to improve treatment strategies, including novel endoscopic techniques with better efficacy, lower cost, and fewer adverse events. PMID:25278695

  9. Subarachnoid hemorrhage

    MedlinePlus

    ... snapping feeling in the head. Other symptoms: Decreased consciousness and alertness Eye discomfort in bright light ( photophobia ) ... time, the outlook is much worse. Changes in consciousness and alertness due to a subarachnoid hemorrhage may ...

  10. [Alveolar hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Parrot, A; Fartoukh, M; Cadranel, J

    2015-04-01

    Alveolar hemorrhage occurs relatively rarely and is a therapeutic emergency because it can quickly lead to acute respiratory failure, which can be fatal. Hemoptysis associated with anemia and pulmonary infiltrates suggest the diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage, but may be absent in one third of cases including patients in respiratory distress. The diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage is based on the findings of a bronchoalveolar lavage. The causes are numerous. It is important to identify alveolar hemorrhage due to sepsis, then separate an autoimmune cause (vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, connective tissue disease and Goodpasture's syndrome) with the search for autoantibodies and biopsies from readily accessible organs, from a non-immune cause, performing echocardiography. Lung biopsy should be necessary only in exceptional cases. If the hemorrhage has an immune cause, treatment with steroids and cyclophosphamide may be started. The indications for treatment with rituximab are beginning to be established (forms that are not severe and refractory forms). The benefit of plasma exchange is unquestionable in Goodpasture's syndrome. In patients with an immune disease that can lead to an alveolar hemorrhage, removing any source of infection is the first priority.

  11. Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is a life-threatening condition, the outcome of which can be improved by intensive care. Intracranial hemorrhage may be spontaneous, precipitated by an underlying vascular malformation, induced by trauma, or related to therapeutic anticoagulation. The goals of critical care are to assess the proximate cause, minimize the risks of hemorrhage expansion through blood pressure control and correction of coagulopathy, and obliterate vascular lesions with a high risk of acute rebleeding. Simple bedside scales and interpretation of computed tomography scans assess the severity of neurological injury. Myocardial stunning and pulmonary edema related to neurological injury should be anticipated, and can usually be managed. Fever (often not from infection) is common and can be effectively treated, although therapeutic cooling has not been shown to improve outcomes after intracranial hemorrhage. Most functional and cognitive recovery takes place weeks to months after discharge; expected levels of functional independence (no disability, disability but independence with a device, dependence) may guide conversations with patient representatives. Goals of care impact mortality, with do-not-resuscitate status increasing the predicted mortality for any level of severity of intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Future directions include refining the use of bedside neuromonitoring (electroencephalogram, invasive monitors), novel approaches to reduce intracranial hemorrhage expansion, minimizing vasospasm, and refining the assessment of quality of life to guide rehabilitation and therapy. PMID:22167847

  12. Overview of the methods and therapies for the primary prevention of variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Dhiraj

    2010-08-01

    Patients with cirrhosis develop varices at a rate of 5% per year, and a third of patients with high-risk varices will bleed. The mortality associated with variceal haemorrhage is typically 20%, and still exceeds that of myocardial infarction. Current options to prevent the first variceal bleed include noncardioselective beta-blockers or variceal band ligation. In patients with medium-to-large esophageal varices, both therapies reduce the risk of bleeding by 50% or more. The choice of therapy should take into account patient choice and local availability; although for most patients drug therapy is the preferred first-line treatment. There has been recent interest in carvedilol, with promising initial data. Further studies are necessary before universal recommendation. There is no role for drug therapy in patients without varices, and the use of beta-blockers for patients with small varices is controversial.

  13. [Update on non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Lanas, Ángel

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes the main studies in the field of non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding reported in the last American Congress of Gastroenterology (Digestive Disease Week) in 2013. Some of these studies have provided new knowledge and expertise in areas of uncertainty. In this context and among other findings, it has been reported that the administration of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prior to endoscopy or the early performance of endoscopy-within 6 hours of admission in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) (or colonoscopy within 24 hours in patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding)-does not improve the prognosis of the event. It has also been reported that oral administration of a PPI after endoscopic hemostasis may produce a similar outcome to that of intravenously administered PPI in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). In the field of endoscopic therapy, the use of radiofrequency ablation for antral vascular ectasia is of interest. Regarding UGIB and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), new data confirm the risk of cardiovascular events by stopping treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) after an episode of UGIB, the increased risk of UGIB when associating gastrotoxic drugs, and the need to identify both the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks of each NSAID and coxib when prescribing these agents. Finally, there is evidence that both environmental and genetic factors are involved in individual susceptibility to gastrointestinal bleeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. SUBPERITONEAL HEMORRHAGE

    PubMed Central

    Cushman, Glenn F.

    1953-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of subperitoneal hemorrhage can be made in a substantial percentage of cases by recognition of a quite constant syndrome—provided the possibility of bleeding is considered. Progressive anemia, as indicated by repeated counts of erythrocytes in the blood or by hematocrit determinations, is confirmation of the diagnosis. The majority of patients recover spontaneously under conservative management. Surgical intervention is indicated if repeated episodes of hemorrhage occur or if the volume of circulating blood cannot be maintained by repeated transfusions of whole blood. PMID:13009511

  15. Interobserver Agreement on Endoscopic Classification of Oesophageal Varices in Children.

    PubMed

    D'Antiga, Lorenzo; Betalli, Pietro; De Angelis, Paola; Davenport, Mark; Di Giorgio, Angelo; McKiernan, Patrick J; McLin, Valerie; Ravelli, Paolo; Durmaz, Ozlem; Talbotec, Cecile; Sturm, Ekkehard; Woynarowski, Marek; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2015-08-01

    Data regarding agreement on endoscopic features of oesophageal varices in children with portal hypertension (PH) are scant. The aim of this study was to evaluate endoscopic visualisation and classification of oesophageal varices in children by several European clinicians, to build a rational basis for future multicentre trials. Endoscopic pictures of the distal oesophagus of 100 children with a clinical diagnosis of PH were distributed to 10 endoscopists. Observers were requested to classify variceal size according to a 3-degree scale (small, medium, and large, class A), a 2-degree scale (small and large, class B), and to recognise red wales (presence or absence, class Red). Overall agreement was considered fair if Fleiss and Cohen κ test was ≥0.30, good if ≥0.40, excellent if ≥0.60, and perfect if ≥0.80. Agreement between observers was fair with class A (κ = 0.34) and class B (κ = 0.38), and good with class Red (κ = 0.49). The agreement was good on presence versus absence of varices (class A = 0.53, class B = 0.48). The agreement among the observers was good in class A when endoscopic features of severe PH (medium and large sizes, red marks) were grouped and compared with mild features (absent and small varices) (κ = 0.58). Experts working in different centres show a fairly good agreement on endoscopic features of PH in children, although a better training of paediatric endoscopists may improve the agreement in grading severity of varices in this setting.

  16. EVALUATION OF PRIMARY PROPHYLAXIS WITH PROPRANOLOL AND ELASTIC BAND LIGATION IN VARICEAL BLEEDING IN CIRRHOTIC CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Júlio Rocha; Ferreira, Alexandre Rodrigues; Bittencourt, Paulo Fernando Souto; Resende, Camilo Brandão de; Fagundes, Eleonora Druve Tavares; Silva, Isabela Maria Lopes da

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of nonselective β-blocker and endoscopic procedures, such as endoscopic variceal ligation, as primary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage in cirrhotic adults was demonstrated by numerous controlled trials, but in pediatric population, few are the number of studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the primary prophylaxis with β-blocker in cirrhotic children and adolescents with portal hypertension. This is a cohort study encompassing 26 cirrhotic patients. β-blocker prophylaxis was performed with propranolol. When contraindicated the use of β-blocker, or if side effects presents, the patients were referred to endoscopic therapy with band ligation. Patients were evaluated by endoscopy, and those who had varicose veins of medium and large caliber or reddish spots, regardless of the caliber of varices, received primary prophylaxis. Of the 26 patients evaluated, 9 (34.6%) had contraindications to the use of propranolol and were referred for endoscopic prophylaxis. Six (35.3%) of the 17 patients who received β-blocker (propranolol), had bled after a median follow-up time of 1.9 years. β-blockage dosage varied from 1 mg/kg/day to 3.1 mg/kg/day and seven (41.2%) patients had the propranolol suspended due to fail of the β-blockage or adverse effects, such as drowsiness, bronchospasm and hypotension. Patients who received endoscopic prophylaxis (elastic bandage) had no bleeding during the follow-up period. All of the patients that had upper gastroinstestinal bleeding in this study were under propranolol prophylaxis. The use of propranolol showed a high number of contraindications and side effects, requiring referral to endoscopic prophylaxis. The endoscopic prophylaxis was effective in reducing episodes of bleeding.

  17. Incidence of large oesophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis: application to prophylaxis of first bleeding.

    PubMed Central

    Calès, P; Desmorat, H; Vinel, J P; Caucanas, J P; Ravaud, A; Gerin, P; Brouet, P; Pascal, J P

    1990-01-01

    Because several studies have suggested that beta blockers are effective in the prophylaxis of first variceal bleeding in cirrhosis, screening for oesophageal varices might be appropriate. We prospectively studied 84 cirrhotic patients without obvious evidence of large oesophageal varices and previous bleeding during a mean follow up of 16 months. At entry to the study 41 patients had no oesophageal varices and in 43 these were grade 1. The subsequent percentages of patients without large oesophageal varices were 74% at one year and 52% at two years. Univariate analysis showed that a longer duration of cirrhosis (p less than 0.05) and grade 1 oesophageal varices at entry (p less than 0.001) were predictive factors for the occurrence of large oesophageal varices, whereas, multivariate analysis showed that the initial size of the oesophageal varices (p less than 0.001), a high initial Child-Pugh score, and a smaller improvement in Child-Pugh score during the study were independent risk factors. Among patients with grades 0 and 1 oesophageal varices at the start of the study the proportions with large oesophageal varices at two years were 31% and 70% respectively. We have calculated that, accepting a maximum risk of first bleeding of 10% without prophylactic treatment, a patient without oesophageal varices should be screened endoscopically every other year, while a patient with grade 1 disease should benefit from one annual upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. PMID:2253916

  18. Noninvasive predictors of presence and grade of esophageal varices in viral cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Nada, Lahmidani; Samira, El Fakir; Bahija, Benyachou; Adil, Ibrahimi; Nourdine, Aqodad

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the presence and the grade of varices by non-invasive methods is likely to predict the need for prophylactic beta blockers or endoscopic variceal ligation. The factors related to the presence of varices are not well-defined. Therefore, the present study has been undertaken to determine the appropriateness of the various factors in predicting the existence and also the grade of esophageal varices. Patients with diagnosis of liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis C or B were included in a retrospective study between January 2001 and January 2010. All the patients underwent detailed clinical evaluation, appropriate investigations, imaging studies (ultrasound with Doppler) and endoscopy at our center. Five variables considered relevant to the presence and grade of varices were tested using univariate and multivariate analysis (logistic regression). Three hundred and seventy two patients with viral liver cirrhosis were included, with 192 (51.6%) males. Platelet count and abundance of ascites were significantly associated with the presence of esophageal varices. However, abundance of ascites, prothrombin time, diameter of the spleen and portal vein were significantly associated with a large varice. In multivariate analysis, platelet count inferior to 100000 was associated with presence of varices (p = 0.04) and only abundance of ascites was associated with large varice. Low Platelet count (< or equal 100000) is associated with the presence of varices in viral cirrhotic patients and abundance of ascites is correlated with the presence of large varices.

  19. Noninvasive predictors of presence and grade of esophageal varices in viral cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Nada, Lahmidani; Samira, El Fakir; Bahija, Benyachou; Adil, Ibrahimi; Nourdine, Aqodad

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the presence and the grade of varices by non-invasive methods is likely to predict the need for prophylactic beta blockers or endoscopic variceal ligation. The factors related to the presence of varices are not well-defined. Therefore, the present study has been undertaken to determine the appropriateness of the various factors in predicting the existence and also the grade of esophageal varices. Patients with diagnosis of liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis C or B were included in a retrospective study between January 2001 and January 2010. All the patients underwent detailed clinical evaluation, appropriate investigations, imaging studies (ultrasound with Doppler) and endoscopy at our center. Five variables considered relevant to the presence and grade of varices were tested using univariate and multivariate analysis (logistic regression). Three hundred and seventy two patients with viral liver cirrhosis were included, with 192 (51.6%) males. Platelet count and abundance of ascites were significantly associated with the presence of esophageal varices. However, abundance of ascites, prothrombin time, diameter of the spleen and portal vein were significantly associated with a large varice. In multivariate analysis, platelet count inferior to 100000 was associated with presence of varices (p = 0.04) and only abundance of ascites was associated with large varice. Low Platelet count (< or equal 100000) is associated with the presence of varices in viral cirrhotic patients and abundance of ascites is correlated with the presence of large varices. PMID:27386022

  20. Determination of correlation of Adjusted Blood Requirement Index with outcome in patients presenting with acute variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naheed; Zuberi, Bader Faiyaz; Hasan, Syed Riazul; Kumar, Raj; Afsar, Salahuddin

    2009-05-21

    To determine the correlation of Adjusted Blood Requirement Index (ABRI) with the 7th day outcome in patients presenting with acute variceal bleeding. All patients presenting with acute variceal hemorrhage (AVH) were included. Patients with previous band ligation, sclerotherapy, gastrointestinal or hepatic malignancies were excluded. Patients were managed as per standard protocol for AVH with terlipressin and band ligation. ABRI scores were calculated using the formula outcome of alive or expired up to the 7th day after treatment. The correlation between ABRI and mortality was estimated and a receiver operative characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted. A total of 113 patients (76 male; 37 female) were included. On assessment, 18 were in Child's Pugh Class A, 82 in Class B and 13 were in Class C. The median number of blood units transfused +/- inter-quartile range was 3.0 +/- 2.0. The median +/- inter-quartile range for ABRI was 1.3 +/- 1.1. The ROC curve of ABRI for expiry showed a significantly large area of 0.848 (P < 0.0001; 95% CI: 0.75-0.95). A significant correlation of log transformation of ABRI with an outcome of mortality was present (P < 0.0001). ABRI correlates strongly with mortality.

  1. Prevention of Portal Hypertension: from Variceal Development to Clinical Decompensation

    PubMed Central

    Vorobioff, Julio D.; Groszmann, Roberto J

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment of portal hypertension (PH) has been exclusively devoted to gastro-esophageal varices related events at different frameworks including prophylactic, emergency or preventive therapy. The goals of treatment are to avoid the first bleeding episode, stop active bleeding and prevent bleeding recurrence, respectively. The objective of pre-primary prophylaxis (PPP) is to avoid variceal development and therefore, it necessarily deals with cirrhotic patients at earlier stages of the disease. At these earlier stages, nonselective beta blocker (NSBB) have been ineffective in preventing the development of varices and other complications of PH. Therefore, treatment should not rely on NSBB. It is possible, that at these earlier stages, etiological treatment of liver disease itself could prevent the progression of PH. This review will focus mainly on early treatment of PH, because if successful, it may translate into histological-hemodynamic improvements, avoiding not only variceal development but also other PH related complications, such as ascites and porto-systemic encephalopathy (PSE). Moreover, the advent of new therapies may allow not only the prevention of the complications of PH, but also the chance of a substantial degree of regression in the cirrhotic process with the possible prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PMID:24913395

  2. Vulvar varices: an uncommon entity in surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Bell, Diana; Kane, Philip B; Liang, Sharon; Conway, Christine; Tornos, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Varicose veins in the vulvar and perivulvar area are seen in 4% of women. Most of them are secondary to pregnancy and usually regress spontaneously. Vulvar varicose veins are rare in nonpregnant women. When present, they can be seen alone, associated with leg varices or associated with venous malformations of the labia, clitoral area, or vagina with or without arteriovenous malformations on the limbs or trunk (Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome and Parkes-Weber syndrome). In some cases, vulvar varices are seen as part of the so-called "pelvic congestion syndrome." Clinically, vulvar varices may present as small isolated protrusions, mainly in the labia majora, or as large masses, involving the vulva and even the perivulvar area. The treatment of choice of vulvar varices seen during pregnancy is conservative and symptomatic. Surgical pathologists need to be aware of the existence of vulvar varicose veins and its possible presence in biopsy specimens. Vulvar varicose veins can be misdiagnosed clinically as cysts or masses mainly in the Bartholin gland area. Correct diagnosis of the lesion is important to determine appropriate therapy and to recognize the possibility of associated anatomical or pathological problems.

  3. Bleeding Duodenal: Varices Treatment by TIPS and Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E. Arthurs, Blain; Scheuerman, Christian; Sandoz, Charles; Petersosn, Scott; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wildriodo

    2008-03-15

    We describe our clinical experience in 4 patients with portal hypertension who presented with bleeding mesenteric varices originating from the superior mesenteric vein with retrograde filling of collaterals draining into the inferior vena cava. The clinical presentation, imaging findings, and potential therapeutic management are discussed.

  4. MANAGEMENT OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Claude E.

    1956-01-01

    In the past few years gastric resection has become the therapy of choice for patients with massive hemorrhage from duodenal ulcer. When this is done as an emergency procedure the ability of the surgeon is often taxed to the limit. Although sometimes easy, control is often extraordinarily difficult. Many important technical details must be considered in order to attain a successful outcome. This method of therapy has proved to be very satisfactory with patients who are in good condition for operation, and even in the poorer risks seen on ward service has resulted in a surgical mortality of only 7 per cent in all patients less than 60 years of age treated for this extremely severe type of hemorrhage. In the older age groups mortality rates still remain high. PMID:13284635

  5. A modified percutaneous transhepatic variceal embolization with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate versus endoscopic ligation in esophageal variceal bleeding management: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun Qing; Liu, Fu Li; Liang, Bo; Sun, Zi Qin; Xu, Hong Wei; Xu, Lin; Feng, Kai; Liu, Zun Chang

    2008-08-01

    Conventional percutaneous transhepatic varices embolization (PTVE) has rarely been used in recent years due to high rates of variceal recurrence and rebleeding. Herein we report a modified PTVE with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (2-OCA) in which the whole lower esophageal and peri or para-esophageal varices, the submucosal varices, and the advertitial plexus of the cardia and fundus were sufficiently obliterated. We compared this PTVE with endoscopic band ligation (EVL) in the treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, cirrhotic patients with acute or recent esophageal variceal bleeding were assigned randomly to PTVE (52 patients) or EVL (50 patients) groups. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) rebleeding, esophageal variceal rebleeding, and survival were followed-up. Computerized tomography (CT) scanning and portal venography were used to observe 2-OCA distribution. During the follow-up period (median 24 and 25 months in the PTVE and EVL groups, respectively) UGI rebleeding developed in eight patients in the PTVE group and 21 patients in EVL group (P = 0.004). Recurrent bleeding from esophageal varices occurred in three patients in the PTVE group and twelve in the EVL group (P = 0.012, relative risk 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.05-0.74). Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that the treatment was the only factor predictive of rebleeding. A Kaplan-Meier curve showed there was no significant difference between survival in the two groups (P = 0.054). With the whole lower esophageal and peri or para-esophageal varices, the submucosal varices, and the adventitial plexus of the cardia and fundus sufficiently obliterated by 2-OCA, this modified PTVE was more effective than EVL in the management of esophageal varices recurrence and rebleeding. Survival in these two groups was not significantly different, however.

  6. Early TIPS versus endoscopic therapy for secondary prophylaxis after management of acute esophageal variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Halabi, Shadi Al; Sawas, Tarek; Sadat, Besher; Jandali, Aiyah; Halabi, Hadi Al; Halabi, Fadi Al; Kapoor, Baljendra; Carey, William D

    2016-09-01

    American College of Gastroenterology and American Association for the Study of Liver Disease guidelines recommend endoscopic and pharmacologic treatment for esophageal variceal bleed. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement is reserved for cases of therapeutic failure. Several studies have suggested improved prevention of rebleeding and improved survival without excess hepatic encephalopathy in patients who receive TIPS within the first 5 days after bleeding (early TIPS). In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of early TIPS versus endoscopic therapy for secondary prophylaxis after acute esophageal variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ISI Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials that compared early TIPS to endoscopic therapy. The primary outcome was mortality at 1 year; secondary outcomes were rebleeding and hepatic encephalopathy at 1 year. Nine randomized controlled trials involving 608 cirrhotic patients were identified. Early TIPS was associated with a significant risk reduction in 1-year mortality (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.96; P = 0.03) and 1-year incidence of variceal rebleeding (RR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.20-0.40; P < 0.001) without significant heterogeneity among studies (I(2)  = 30% and 47%, respectively). No significant difference in the incidence of hepatic encephalopathy at 1 year was observed (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.72-2.56; P = 0.34); however, there was significant heterogeneity among studies (I(2)  = 68%). TIPS placed within 5 days after a major esophageal variceal hemorrhage is superior to endoscopic treatment in reducing subsequent bleeding. Early TIPS placement is also associated with superior 1-year survival without significantly increasing the incidence of hepatic encephalopathy. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. [Endoscopic treatment of gastroduodenal digestive hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Llanos, J; Valdés, E; Cofré, C; Tapia, A; Denegri, E

    1992-12-01

    Endoscopy is extremely useful for the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. At the present time, therapeutic measures are been used during the endoscopy to stop bleeding. This paper reports the experience of hospital de Talca in the endoscopic treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Thirty four patients (22 male) with bleeding not originating from esophageal or gastric varices were treated with direct absolute alcohol injection into the bleeding lesions. The procedure was successful in 31 patients. Three of the 34 patients required surgery, but only one of those successfully sclerosed (97% success). There were no complications attributable to the procedure. It is concluded that this therapeutic modality must be implemented in places were gastrointestinal endoscopy is performed.

  8. Somatostatin plus isosorbide 5-mononitrate versus somatostatin in the control of acute gastro-oesophageal variceal bleeding: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Junquera, F; Lopez-Talavera, J; Mearin, F; Saperas, E; Videla, S; Armengol, J; Esteban, R; Malagelada, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Variceal bleeding is a severe complication of portal hypertension. Somatostatin reduces portal pressure by decreasing splanchnic blood flow, and nitrates by diminishing intrahepatic resistance. Experimental studies have shown that the combination of somatostatin and nitrates has an additive effect in decreasing portal pressure.
AIM—To compare the therapeutic efficacy of either intravenous infusion of somatostatin plus oral isosorbide 5-mononitrate or somatostatin alone in gastro-oesophageal variceal bleeding associated with liver cirrhosis.
METHODS—A unicentre, double blind, placebo controlled, clinical trial was conducted. Sixty patients bleeding from oesophageal or gastric varices were randomised to receive intravenous infusion of somatostatin (250 µg/hour) plus oral isosorbide 5-mononitrate (40 mg/12 hours) (group I) or somatostatin infusion plus placebo (group II) for 72 hours.
RESULTS—The two groups of patients had similar clinical, endoscopic, and haematological characteristics. Control of bleeding was achieved in 18 out of 30 patients (60%) in group I and 26 out of 30 patients (87%) in group II (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in mean transfusion requirements between the two groups: 2.6 (2.2) v 1.8 (1.6) respectively; means (SD). Mortality and side effects were similar in the two groups, but development of ascites was higher in group I (30%) than in group II (7%) (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION—In cirrhotic patients with acute gastro-oesophageal variceal bleeding, addition of isosorbide 5-mononitrate to somatostatin does not improve therapeutic efficacy, induces more adverse effects, and should not be used.


Keywords: gastro-oesophageal bleeding; haemorrhage; portal hypertension; clinical trial; isosorbide 5-mononitrate; somatostatin PMID:10601068

  9. Postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Su, Cindy W

    2012-03-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a very common obstetric emergency with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Understanding its etiology is fundamental to effectively managing PPH in an acute setting. Active management of the third stage of labor is also a key component in its prevention. Management strategies include conservative measures (medications, uterine tamponade, and arterial embolization) as well as surgical interventions (arterial ligations, compression sutures, and hysterectomy). Creating a standardized PPH protocol and running simulation-based drills with a multidisciplinary team may also help decrease maternal morbidity and improve perinatal outcomes, although further studies are needed.

  10. Bleeding due to ectopic varices in a urinary diversion: A multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Eduardo Mariano Albers; Reyes, Alfonsi Friera; Menéndez, Ricardo Brime

    2015-01-01

    The ectopic varices in patients with portal hypertension are those that occur at any level of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, regardless of the varices that occur at the esophageal level. These ectopic varices account for 2–5% of the causes of GI bleeding varices. The risk of bleeding is quadrupled compared to the esophagogastric area, with a mortality of up to 40%. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, should be considered in cases secondary to recurrent bleeding varices. We present a case report of an urological emergency of bleeding in a urinary diversion secondary to ectopic varices successfully treated through the placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. The condition described here is rare, but important, as it can be a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. This kind of complication should be known by urologic surgeons managing patients with urinary diversions. PMID:26834901

  11. Gastric giardiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, C.; De Boni, M.; Cielo, R.; Laurino, L.; Pelosio, P.; Braidotti, P.; Viale, G.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of gastric giardiasis in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and to define the clinicopathological correlates of gastric Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: Consecutive gastric biopsy specimens (n = 15,023) from 11,085 patients, taken at Feltre City Hospital (north eastern Italy) from January 1986 to December 1991, were histologically and immunocytochemically examined for the occurrence of G lamblia trophozoites. Three gastric biopsy specimens from patients harbouring G lamblia infection, who repeated endoscopy before treatment, were also examined electron microscopically. RESULTS: Forty one patients (0.37% of the population study) harboured gastric giardiasis. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of dyspepsia, epigastric pain, or abdominal distension. Only two patients had diarrhoea at the time of investigation. Giardiasis was clinically unsuspected in all cases, although the nine patients who also had duodenal biopsies performed had concomitant intestinal giardiasis. Gastric giardiasis was invariably associated with chronic atrophic gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa and Helicobacter pylori infection were found in 32 and 37 of the 41 patients with gastric giardiasis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The invariable association of gastric giardiasis with chronic atrophic gastritis, most often showing intestinal metaplasia and H pylori infection, indicates that a decreased gastric acidity is a prerequisite for localisation of G lamblia to the gastric mucosa. Though its possible role as a gastric pathogen remains to be elucidated, these findings suggest that trophozoites should be carefully searched for when examining gastric biopsy specimens showing chronic atrophic gastritis. Images PMID:1452790

  12. Percutaneous Retrograde Sclerotherapy for Refractory Bleeding of Jejunal Varices: Direct Injection via Superficial Epigastric Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, Manabu Nakata, Waka; Isoda, Norio Yoshizawa, Mitsuyo; Sugimoto, Hideharu

    2012-02-15

    Small-bowel varices are rare and almost always occur in cases with portal hypertension. We encountered a patient with bleeding jejunal varices due to liver cirrhosis. Percutaneous retrograde sclerotherapy was performed via the superficial epigastric vein. Melena disappeared immediately after treatment. Disappearance of jejunal varices was confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. After 24 months of follow-up, no recurrent melena was observed.

  13. Invasive and noninvasive methods to diagnose portal hypertension and esophageal varices.

    PubMed

    de Franchis, Roberto; Dell'Era, Alessandra

    2014-05-01

    Assessing the presence of clinically significant portal hypertension and esophageal varices is clinically important in cirrhosis. The reference standard techniques to assess the presence of portal hypertension and varices are the measurement of the hepatic vein pressure gradient and esophagogastroduodenoscopy, respectively. Some newer methods have shown a good performance, but none has been proven precise enough to replace hepatic vein pressure gradient measurement or esophagogastroduodenoscopy for the diagnosis of portal hypertension or the presence and grade of esophageal varices.

  14. Septic Complication After Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Duodenal Variceal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Akasaka, Thai; Shibata, Toshiya Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Taura, Kojiro; Arizono, Shigeki; Shimada, Kotaro; Togashi, Kaori

    2010-12-15

    We report a 64-year-old woman with duodenal varices who underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) complicated by intraprocedural variceal rupture. The patient developed shivering and a fever higher than 40{sup o}C 3 days after the B-RTO procedure. A blood culture grew Entereobacter cloacoe. This case represents a rare septic complication of B-RTO for duodenal varices.

  15. [Surgical Removal of Migrated Coil after Embolization of Jejunal Variceal Bleeding: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhwan; Lee, Danbi; Oh, Kyunghwan; Lee, Mingee; So, Seol; Yang, Dong Hoon; Kim, Chan Wook; Gwon, Dong Il; Chung, Young Hwa

    2017-01-25

    Jejunal variceal bleeding is less common compared with esophagogastric varices in patients with portal hypertension. However, jejunal variceal bleeding can be fatal without treatment. Treatments include surgery, transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS), endoscopic sclerotherapy, percutaneous coil embolization, and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO). Percutaneous coil embolization can be considered as an alternative treatment option for those where endoscopic sclerotherapy, surgery, TIPS or BRTO are not possible. Complications of percutaneous coil embolization have been reported, including coil migration. Herein, we report a case of migration of the coil into the jejunal lumen after percutaneous coil embolization for jejunal variceal bleeding. The migrated coil was successfully removed using surgery.

  16. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  17. Symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma successfully treated with enucleation.

    PubMed

    Krasniqi, Avdyl-Selmon; Hoxha, Faton-Tatil; Bicaj, Besnik-Xhafer; Hashani, Shemsedin-Isuf; Hasimja, Shpresa-Mehmet; Kelmendi, Sadik-Mal; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije-Hasan

    2008-10-14

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumors, accounting for 2%-3% of all benign gastric tumors. They are of submucosal or extremely rare subserosal origin. Although most gastric lipomas are usually detected incidentally, they can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination, and hemorrhages. Subserosal gastric lipomas are rarely symptomatic. There is no report on treatment of subserosal gastric lipomas in the English literature. We present a case of a 50-year-old male with symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma which was successfully managed with removal, enucleation of lipoma, explorative gastrotomy and edge resection for histology check of gastric wall. The incidence of gastric lipoma, advanced diagnostic possibilities and their role in treatment modalities are discussed.

  18. Alternative Treatment for Bleeding Peristomal Varices: Percutaneous Parastomal Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Pabon-Ramos, Waleska M.; Niemeyer, Matthew M.; Dasika, Narasimham L.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To describe how peristomal varices can be successfully embolized via a percutaneous parastomal approach. Methods: The medical records of patients who underwent this procedure between December 1, 2000, and May 31, 2008, were retrospectively reviewed. Procedural details were recorded. Median fluoroscopy time and bleeding-free interval were calculated. Results: Seven patients underwent eight parastomal embolizations. The technical success rate was 88 % (one failure). All embolizations were performed with coils combined with a sclerosant, another embolizing agent, or both. Of the seven successful parastomal embolizations, there were three cases of recurrent bleeding; the median time to rebleeding was 45 days (range 26-313 days). The remaining four patients did not develop recurrent bleeding during the follow-up period; their median bleeding-free interval was 131 days (range 40-659 days). Conclusion: This case review demonstrated that percutaneous parastomal embolization is a feasible technique to treat bleeding peristomal varices.

  19. Emergency management of bleeding esophageal varices: Drugs, bands or sleep?

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Brian M; Lee, Samuel S

    2006-01-01

    Variceal bleeding is a severe complication of cirrhosis leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment of acute variceal bleeding has improved dramatically since the era of the mechanical balloon tamponade. These advances include endoscopic band ligation or sclerotherapy, and vasoactive pharmacological options such as somatostatin, octreotide, vasopressin and terlipressin. Evidence from a multitude of clinical trials and meta-analyses comparing endoscopic and pharmacological treatments suggests near equivalence in efficacy for initial hemostasis, mortality and rate of rebleeding. This raises the question of whether on-call gastroenterologists should be performing emergency endoscopic treatment in the middle of the night or start pharmacological treatment and delay endoscopy until optimal patient and working conditions the next morning. The present review analyzes the available comparative data between endoscopic and pharmacological treatment options. Although the literature cannot yet definitively answer the question posed, the authors suggest that delaying endoscopic treatment until the next morning may be the most reasonable practical approach. PMID:16550260

  20. An update on the management of acute esophageal variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Lourdes; Tandon, Puneeta; Abraldes, Juan G

    2017-01-01

    The mortality rate in acute variceal haemorrhage remains high (around 15%). Treatment is based on the combined use of vasoactive drugs, endoscopic band ligation, and prophylactic antibiotics. Effective resuscitation (haemostasis, volume management) is essential to prevent complications. Treatment failure is best managed by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Balloon tamponade or specifically designed covered oesophageal stents can be used as a bridge to definitive therapy in unstable patients. Early, pre-emptive TIPS should be the first choice in patients at high risk of treatment failure (Child-Pugh B with active bleeding or Child-Pugh C<14). This article reviews the most recent advances in the management of variceal bleeding and discusses the recent recommendations of the Baveno VI consensus conference.

  1. Bleeding oesophageal varices with long term follow up.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, R A; Johnston, G W; Odling-Smee, G W; Rodgers, H W

    1984-01-01

    Complete long term follow up was obtained in 27 children who had bled from oesophageal varices. Most presented with haematemesis or melaena at an average age of 5.2 years in the portal vein thrombosis group (20 children) and 9.5 years in the intrahepatic group (7 children). All had splenomegaly. Only 6 of 20 children with portal vein thrombosis had a possible precipitating factor. A total of 182 admissions for bleeding are reported, in 68 of which injection sclerotherapy was used to control bleeding. Control rate with injection sclerotherapy was 97%. Shunts performed below age 10 years were associated with a high thrombosis rate. A conservative approach to bleeding varices in children is recommended with transfusion, pitressin, and injection sclerotherapy. Oesophageal transection may have a role in the emergency management of the few children in whom bleeding is not controlled by injection sclerotherapy. PMID:6609683

  2. Gastric microbiome and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Kyle M; Morrow, Casey D; Smith, Phillip D

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the stomach is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. The single strongest risk factor for gastric cancer is Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastric inflammation. Among persons with H. pylori infection, strain-specific components, host immune responses, and environmental factors influence the risk for gastric disease, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach, although only a small proportion of infected persons develop the malignancy. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have uncovered a complex community of noncultivatable inhabitants of the human stomach. The interaction between these inhabitants, collectively referred to as the gastric microbiota, and H. pylori likely affects gastric immunobiology and possibly the sequelae of H. pylori infection. Thus, characterization of the gastric microbiota in subjects with and without H. pylori infection could provide new insight into gastric homeostasis and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated disease, including gastric cancer.

  3. Gastric Microbiome and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Kyle M.; Morrow, Casey D.; Smith, Phillip D.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the stomach is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. The single strongest risk factor for gastric cancer is Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastric inflammation. Among persons with H. pylori infection, strain-specific components, host immune responses, and environmental factors influence the risk for gastric disease, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach, although only a small proportion of infected persons develop the malignancy. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have uncovered a complex community of non-cultivatable inhabitants of the human stomach. The interaction between these inhabitants, collectively referred to as the gastric microbiota, and H. pylori likely impacts gastric immunobiology and possibly the sequelae of H. pylori infection. Thus, characterization of the gastric microbiota in subjects with and without H. pylori infection could provide new insight into gastric homeostasis and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated disease, including gastric cancer. PMID:24855010

  4. Transcatheter Embolotherapy with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Ectopic Varices

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Jae, Hwan Jun Jung, Hyun-Seok; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Chung, Jin Wook

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo address technical feasibility and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolotherapy with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bleeding ectopic varices.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 12 consecutive patients received transcatheter embolotherapy using NBCA for bleeding ectopic varices in our institute. Clinical and radiologic features of the endovascular procedures were comprehensively reviewed.ResultsPreprocedural computed tomography images revealed ectopic varices in the jejunum (n = 7), stoma (n = 2), rectum (n = 2), and duodenum (n = 1). The 12 procedures consisted of solitary embolotherapy (n = 8) and embolotherapy with portal decompression (main portal vein stenting in 3, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in 1). With regard to vascular access, percutaneous transhepatic access (n = 7), transsplenic access (n = 4), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (n = 1) were used. There was no failure in either the embolotherapy or the vascular accesses (technical success rate, 100 %). Two patients died within 1 month from the procedure from preexisting fatal medical conditions. Only one patient, with a large varix that had been partially embolized by using coils and NBCA, underwent rebleeding 5.5 months after the procedure. The patient was retreated with NBCA and did not undergo any bleeding afterward for a follow-up period of 2.5 months. The remaining nine patients did not experience rebleeding during the follow-up periods (range 1.5–33.2 months).ConclusionTranscatheter embolotherapy using NBCA can be a useful option for bleeding ectopic varices.

  5. Role of prophylactic antibiotics in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Tee, Hoi-Poh; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are common in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding, occurring in 20% within 48 h. Outcomes including early rebleeding and failure to control bleeding are strongly associated with bacterial infection. However, mortality from variceal bleeding is largely determined by the severity of liver disease. Besides a higher Child-Pugh score, patients with hepatocellular carcinoma are particularly susceptible to infections. Despite several hypotheses that include increased use of instruments, greater risk of aspiration pneumonia and higher bacterial translocation, it remains debatable whether variceal bleeding results in infection or vice versa but studies suggest that antibiotic prophylaxis prior to endoscopy and up to 8 h is useful in reducing bacteremia and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Aerobic gram negative bacilli of enteric origin are most commonly isolated from cultures, but more recently, gram positives and quinolone-resistant organisms are increasingly seen, even though their clinical significance is unclear. Fluoroquinolones (including ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin) used for short term (7 d) have the most robust evidence and are recommended in most expert guidelines. Short term intravenous cephalosporin (especially ceftriaxone), given in a hospital setting with prevalent quinolone-resistant organisms, has been shown in studies to be beneficial, particularly in high risk patients with advanced cirrhosis. PMID:24587656

  6. Non-invasive (and minimally invasive) diagnosis of oesophageal varices.

    PubMed

    de Franchis, Roberto

    2008-10-01

    Current guidelines recommend screening all cirrhotic patients by endoscopy, to identify patients at risk of bleeding who should undergo prophylactic treatment. However, since the prevalence of varices in cirrhotic patients is variable, universal screening would imply a large number of unnecessary endoscopies and a heavy burden for endoscopy units. In addition, compliance to screening programs may be hampered by the perceived unpleasantness of endoscopy. Predicting the presence of oesophageal varices by non-invasive means might increase compliance and would permit to restrict the performance of endoscopy to those patients with a high probability of having varices. Over the years, several studies have addressed this issue by assessing the potential of biochemical, clinical and ultrasound parameters, transient elastography, CT scanning and video capsule endoscopy. The platelet count/spleen diameter ratio, CT scanning and video capsule endoscopy have shown promising performance characteristics, although none of them is equivalent to EGD. These methods are perceived by patients as preferable to endoscopy and thus might increase adherence to screening programs. Whether this will compensate for the lower sensitivity of these alternative techniques, and ultimately improve the outcomes if more patients undergo screening, is the crucial question that will have to be answered in the future.

  7. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Upper Gastrointestinal Nonvariceal Hemorrhage: Is Empiric Embolization Warranted?

    SciTech Connect

    Arrayeh, Elnasif; Fidelman, Nicholas Gordon, Roy L.; LaBerge, Jeanne M.; Kerlan, Robert K.; Klimov, Alexander; Bloom, Allan I.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine whether transcatheter arterial embolization performed in the setting of active gastric or duodenal nonvariceal hemorrhage is efficacious when the bleeding source cannot be identified angiographically. Methods: Records of 115 adult patients who underwent visceral angiography for endoscopically documented gastric (50 patients) or duodenal (65 patients) nonvariceal hemorrhage were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to whether angiographic evidence of arterial hemorrhage was present and whether embolization was performed (group 1 = no abnormality, no embolization; group 2 = no abnormality, embolization performed [empiric embolization]; and group 3 = abnormality present, embolization performed). Thirty-day rates and duration of primary hemostasis and survival were compared.ResultsFor patients with gastric sources of hemorrhage, the rate of primary hemostasis at 30 days after embolization was greater when embolization was performed in the setting of a documented angiographic abnormality than when empiric embolization was performed (67% vs. 42%). The rate of primary hemostasis at 30 days after angiography was greater for patients with duodenal bleeding who either underwent empiric embolization (60%) or embolization in the setting of angiographically documented arterial hemorrhage (58%) compared with patients who only underwent diagnostic angiogram (33%). Patients with duodenal hemorrhage who underwent embolization were less likely to require additional invasive procedures to control rebleeding (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Empiric arterial embolization may be advantageous in patients with a duodenal source of hemorrhage but not in patients with gastric hemorrhage.

  8. Gastroprotective effect of desmosdumotin C isolated from Mitrella kentii against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhage in rats: possible involvement of glutathione, heat-shock protein-70, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity.

    PubMed

    Sidahmed, Heyam Mohamed Ali; Azizan, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah; Mohan, Syam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Hadi, A Hamid A; Ketuly, Kamal Aziz; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2013-07-19

    Mitrella kentii (M. kentii) (Bl.) Miq, is a tree-climbing liana that belongs to the family Annonaceae. The plant is rich with isoquinoline alkaloids, terpenylated dihydrochalcones and benzoic acids and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study is to assess the gastroprotective effects of desmosdumotin C (DES), a new isolated bioactive compound from M. kentii, on gastric ulcer models in rats. DES was isolated from the bark of M. kentii. Experimental rats were orally pretreated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of the isolated compound and were subsequently subjected to absolute ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer. Gross evaluation, mucus content, gastric acidity and histological gastric lesions were assessed in vivo. The effects of DES on the anti-oxidant system, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) content, nitric oxide (NO)level, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme activity, bcl-2-associated X (Bax) protein expression and Helicabacter pylori (H pylori) were also investigated. DES pre-treatment at the administered doses significantly attenuated ethanol-induced gastric ulcer; this was observed by decreased gastric ulcer area, reduced or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration compared to the ulcer control group. It was found that DES maintained glutathione (GSH) level, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased NP-SH content and NO level and inhibited COX-2 activity. The compound up regulated heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and down regulated Bax protein expression in the ulcerated tissue. DES showed interesting anti-H pylori effects. The efficacy of DES was accomplished safely without any signs of toxicity. The current study reveals that DES demonstrated gastroprotective effects which could be attributed to its antioxidant effect, activation of HSP-70 protein, intervention with COX-2 inflammatory pathway and potent anti H pylori effect.

  9. Gastroprotective effect of desmosdumotin C isolated from Mitrella kentii against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhage in rats: possible involvement of glutathione, heat-shock protein-70, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitrella kentii (M. kentii) (Bl.) Miq, is a tree-climbing liana that belongs to the family Annonaceae. The plant is rich with isoquinoline alkaloids, terpenylated dihydrochalcones and benzoic acids and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study is to assess the gastroprotective effects of desmosdumotin C (DES), a new isolated bioactive compound from M. kentii, on gastric ulcer models in rats. Methods DES was isolated from the bark of M. kentii. Experimental rats were orally pretreated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of the isolated compound and were subsequently subjected to absolute ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer. Gross evaluation, mucus content, gastric acidity and histological gastric lesions were assessed in vivo. The effects of DES on the anti-oxidant system, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) content, nitric oxide (NO)level, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme activity, bcl-2-associated X (Bax) protein expression and Helicabacter pylori (H pylori) were also investigated. Results DES pre-treatment at the administered doses significantly attenuated ethanol-induced gastric ulcer; this was observed by decreased gastric ulcer area, reduced or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration compared to the ulcer control group. It was found that DES maintained glutathione (GSH) level, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased NP-SH content and NO level and inhibited COX-2 activity. The compound up regulated heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and down regulated Bax protein expression in the ulcerated tissue. DES showed interesting anti-H pylori effects. The efficacy of DES was accomplished safely without any signs of toxicity. Conclusions The current study reveals that DES demonstrated gastroprotective effects which could be attributed to its antioxidant effect, activation of HSP-70 protein, intervention with COX-2 inflammatory pathway and potent anti H pylori effect. PMID:23866830

  10. [Non-variceal upper digestive hemorrhage: evaluation of endoscopic sclerosing treatment].

    PubMed

    Yuguero del Moral, L; López Morante, A J; Martín Lorente, J L; Ojeda Giménez, C

    1990-11-01

    We appraise the efficacy of endoscopic injection treatment in 112 patients with gastroduodenal bleeding lesion versus 78 control patients (historical group), employing adrenaline (29 patients), absolute ethanol (52 patients) o adrenaline and ethanol (31 patients) as sclerosants. We observe in the treated group a diminution in rebleeding, lower transfusional blood needs and shorter hospital staying, with high stadistic significance versus the control group (p less than 0,001). Among treated patients the larger relapsing index (29.6%) was in patients treated with adrenaline injection only, against the group treated with ethanol or adrenaline and ethanol (10.2%) (p less than 0.05). The demand of surgical treatment was not significant between both groups, except in patients with actively jet bleeding, because urgent treatment was necessary in 37.5% of endoscopically treated patients versus 88.8% in not endoscopically treated. The mortality was similar in both groups.

  11. Clinical Outcome of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage among Patients Admitted to a Government Hospital in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Gado, Ahmed S.; Ebeid, Basel A.; Abdelmohsen, Aida M.; Axon, Anthony T.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (AUGIH) is a life-threatening emergency that results in high morbidity and mortality. The mortality rate varies between 4% and 14%. The aim of the study was to determine the clinical outcome of AUGIH among patients admitted to a government hospital in Egypt. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study performed in 1000 patients presenting with AUGIH over a 7-year period between January 2004 and January 2011. Results: One thousand patients were analyzed. Fifty-four percent were male. Mean age was 52 ± 17 years. Eighty-eight percent were emergency admissions and 12% were inpatients at the time of bleeding. At presentation 68% had major comorbidity and 50% had liver disease. Seven hundred and twenty-four patients (72%) underwent endoscopy. Bleeding varices accounted for 31% of AUGIH and peptic ulcer 28%. Two hundred and thirty-two patients had endoscopically diagnosed bleeding varices or peptic ulcer with a visible vessel or active bleeding. These received endoscopic therapy. Initial hemostasis was achieved in 207 (89%). Thirteen patients (6%) had therapy at a subsequent endoscopy for further bleeding. Surgery was performed on 9 patients (0.9%) with AUGIH. Complications were reported in 70 patients (7%) mainly liver failure (4%). Six hundred and eighty-four patients (68%) were discharged improved, 162 (16%) left hospital without a diagnosis and 4 (0.4%) were referred to another facility. The overall mortality was 15%. Mortality was 24% in patients ≥60 years, 37% among inpatients, and 21% in those who had a major comorbidity. Mortality was 22% in patients who had liver disease and 9% in variceal bleeding. Conclusion: The most common cause of AUGIH was variceal in origin. Endoscopic therapy was successful in most cases. Mortality after AUGIH was particularly high among elderly patients, inpatients, and patients who had a major comorbidity, liver disease, and variceal bleeding. PMID

  12. Bleeding oesophageal varices associated with anabolic steroid use in an athlete.

    PubMed Central

    Winwood, P. J.; Robertson, D. A.; Wright, R.

    1990-01-01

    A 30 year old bodybuilder who had been taking anabolic steroids for 18 months presented with bleeding oesophageal varices. Serious liver disease secondary to anabolic steroids including peliosis hepatis, nodular hyperplasia and malignant change is well recognized. We report what is, to our knowledge, the first case of bleeding oesophageal varices associated with the use of anabolic steroids. PMID:2099434

  13. Serum type IV collagen level is predictive for esophageal varices in patients with severe alcoholic disease

    PubMed Central

    Mamori, Satoshi; Searashi, Yasuyuki; Matsushima, Masato; Hashimoto, Kenichi; Uetake, Shinichiro; Matsudaira, Hiroshi; Ito, Shuji; Nakajima, Hisato; Tajiri, Hisao

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine factors predictive for esophageal varices in severe alcoholic disease (SAD). METHODS: Abdominal ultrasonography (US) was performed on 444 patients suffering from alcoholism. Forty-four patients found to have splenomegaly and/or withering of the right liver lobe were defined as those with SAD. SAD patients were examined by upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy for the presence of esophageal varices. The existence of esophageal varices was then related to clinical variables. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (56.8%) had esophageal varices. A univariate analysis revealed a significant difference in age and type IV collagen levels between patients with and without esophageal varices. A logistic regression analysis identified type IV collagen as the only independent variable predictive for esophageal varices (P = 0.017). The area under the curve (AUC) for type IV collagen as determined by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for predicting esophageal varices was 0.78. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the level of type IV collagen has a high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of esophageal varices in SAD. PMID:18395904

  14. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  15. Ankaferd hemostat in the management of gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    Beyazit, Yavuz; Kekilli, Murat; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C; Kayacetin, Ertugrul; Basaranoglu, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding refers to any hemorrhage ascribed to the pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, extending from the mouth to the anal canal. Despite the recent improvements in the endoscopic, hemostatic and adjuvant pharmacologic techniques, the reported mortality is still around 5%-10% for peptic ulcer bleeding and about 15%-20% for variceal hemorrhages. Although endoscopic management reduces the rates of re-bleeding, surgery, and mortality in active bleeding; early recurrence ratios still occur in around 20% of the cases even with effective initial hemostatic measures. In this quest for an alternative pro-hemostatic agent for the management of GI bleedings, Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) offers a successful candidate, specifically for “difficult-to-manage” situations as evidenced by data presented in several studies. ABS is a standardized mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. It is effective in both bleeding individuals with normal hemostatic parameters and in patients with deficient primary and/or secondary hemostasis. ABS also modulates the cellular apoptotic responses to hemorrhagic stress, as well as hemostatic hemodynamic activity. Through its effects on the endothelium, blood cells, angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, vascular dynamics, and wound healing, ABS is now becoming an effective alternative hemostatic medicine for gastrointestinal bleedings that are resistant to conventional anti-hemorrhagic measurements. The aim of this review is to outline current literature experience suggesting the place of ABS in the management of GI bleeding, and potential future controlled trials in this complicated field. PMID:22046083

  16. Survival of patients with cirrhosis and acute peptic ulcer bleeding compared with variceal bleeding using current first-line therapies.

    PubMed

    Ardevol, Alba; Ibañez-Sanz, Gemma; Profitos, Joaquim; Aracil, Carles; Castellvi, Josep M; Alvarado, Edilmar; Cachero, Alba; Horta, Diana; Miñana, Josep; Gomez-Pastrana, Bárbara; Pavel, Oana; Dueñas, Eva; Casas, Meritxell; Planella, Montserrat; Castellote J, Jose; Villanueva, Candid

    2017-07-17

    The presence of cirrhosis increases the mortality of patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). Both acute variceal bleeding (AVB) and PUB are associated with substantial mortality in cirrhosis. This multicenter cohort study was performed to assess whether the mortality of cirrhotic patients with PUB is different from that of those with AVB. Patients with cirrhosis and acute gastrointestinal bleeding were consecutively included and treated with somatostatin and PPI infusion from admission and with antibiotic prophylaxis. Emergency endoscopy with endoscopic therapy was performed within the first 6-hours. 646 patients with AVB and 144 with PUB were included. There were baseline differences between groups, such as use of gastro-erosive drugs or β-blockers. Child-Pugh and MELD scores were similar. Further bleeding was more frequent in AVB-group than in those PUB-group (18% vs 10%; OR= 0.50, 95%CI= 0.29-0.88). However, mortality risk at 45-day was similar in both groups (19% in AVB-group vs 17% in PUB-group; OR= 0.85, 95% CI= 0.55-1.33, P= 0.48). Different parameters, such as Child-Pugh score, AKI, ACLF or presence of shock or bacterial infection, but not the cause of bleeding, were related to the risk of death. Only 2% of PUB-group vs 3% of AVB-group died with uncontrolled bleeding (P= 0.39), while the majority of patients in either group died from liver failure or due to other comorbidities. Using current first-line-therapy, patients with cirrhosis and acute peptic ulcer bleeding have a similar survival than those with variceal bleeding. The risk of further bleeding is higher in patients with variceal hemorrhage. However, few patients in both groups died from uncontrolled bleeding, while the cause of death was usually related to liver failure or co-morbidities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  17. Imaging of Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Heit, Jeremy J.; Iv, Michael; Wintermark, Max

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is common and is caused by diverse pathology, including trauma, hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, hemorrhagic conversion of ischemic infarction, cerebral aneurysms, cerebral arteriovenous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistula, vasculitis, and venous sinus thrombosis, among other causes. Neuroimaging is essential for the treating physician to identify the cause of hemorrhage and to understand the location and severity of hemorrhage, the risk of impending cerebral injury, and to guide often emergent patient treatment. We review CT and MRI evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage with the goal of providing a broad overview of the diverse causes and varied appearances of intracranial hemorrhage. PMID:28030895

  18. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt combined with esophagogastric variceal embolization in the treatment of a large gastrorenal shunt

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qin; Wang, Ming-Quan; Zhang, Guo-Bing; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Jian-Ming; Kong, De-Run

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) combined with stomach and esophageal variceal embolization (SEVE) in cirrhotic patients with a large gastrorenal vessel shunt (GRVS). METHODS: Eighty-one cirrhotic patients with gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) associated with a GRVS were enrolled in the study and accepted TIPS combined with SEVE (TIPS + SEVE), by which portosystemic pressure gradient (PPG), biochemical, TIPS-related complications, shunt dysfunction, rebleeding, and death were evaluated. RESULTS: The PPGs before TIPS were greater than 12 mmHg in 81 patients. TIPS + SEVE treatment caused a significant decrease in PPG (from 37.97 ± 6.36 mmHg to 28.15 ± 6.52 mmHg, t = 19.22, P < 0.001). The percentage of reduction in PPG was greater than 20% from baseline. There were no significant differences in albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, prothrombin time, or Child-Pugh score before and after operation. In all patients, rebleeding rates were 3%, 6%, 12%, 18%, and 18% at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 mo, respectively. Five patients (6.2%) were diagnosed as having hepatic encephalopathy. The rates of shunt dysfunction were 0%, 4%, 9%, 26%, and 26%, at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 mo, respectively. The cumulative survival rates in 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 mo were 100%, 100%, 95%, 90%, and 90%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results indicated that the efficacy and safety of TIPS + SEVE were satisfactory in cirrhotic patients with GVB associated with a GRVS (GVB + GRVS). PMID:27458505

  19. Gastric Duplication Cyst Presenting as Acute Abdomen: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal

    2010-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts are rare variety of gastrointestinal duplications. Sometimes they may present with complications like hemorrhage, infection, perforation, volvulus, intussusception and rarely neoplastic changes in the gastric duplication cyst. We present one and half year old male child who developed sudden abdominal distension with pain and fever for two days. Ultrasound revealed a cystic mass in the hypochondrium and epigastric regions. On exploration an infected and perforated gastric duplication cyst was found. Surgical excision of most part of cyst wall with mucosal stripping of the rest was performed. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of gastric duplication cyst. Early surgical intervention can result in good outcome. PMID:22953249

  20. Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chueh-Ling; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Shi, Hon-Yi; Tai, Wei-Chen; Liang, Chih-Ming; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acute variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis is related to high mortality and medical expenses. The purpose of present studies was to analyze the medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding among patients with cirrhosis and potential influencing clinical factors. A total of 151,863 patients with cirrhosis with International Classification of Diseases-9 codes 456.0 and 456.20 were analyzed from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2010. Time intervals were divided into three phases for analysis as T1 (1996–2000), T2 (2001–2005), and T3 (2006–2010). The endpoints were prevalence, length of hospital stay, medical expenses, and mortality rate. Our results showed that more patients were <65 years (75.6%) and of male sex (78.5%). Patients were mostly from teaching hospitals (90.8%) with high hospital volume (50.9%) and high doctor service load (51.1%). The prevalence of acute esophageal variceal bleeding and mean length of hospital stay decreased over the years (P < 0.001), but the overall medical expenses increased (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that older age, female sex, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score >1, patients from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were independent factors for longer hospital stay and higher medical expenses. Aged patients, female sex, increased CCI score, and low doctor service volume were independent factors for both in-hospital and 5-year mortality. Patients from teaching hospitals and medium to high or very high service volume hospitals were independent factors for in-hospital mortality, but not 5-year mortality. Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding increased despite the decreased prevalence rate and length of hospital stay in Taiwan. Aged patients, female sex, patients with increased CCI score from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high

  1. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs) Virus Families Arenaviruses Old World/New World ...

  2. Nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Fischbein, Nancy J; Wijman, Christine A C

    2010-11-01

    Nontraumatic (or spontaneous) intracranial hemorrhage most commonly involves the brain parenchyma and subarachnoid space. This entity accounts for at least 10% of strokes and is a leading cause of death and disability in adults. Important causes of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage include hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, aneurysms, vascular malformations, and hemorrhagic infarcts (both venous and arterial). Imaging findings in common and less common causes of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage are reviewed.

  3. Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Molina-Infante, Javier; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori in 1983, the stomach was no longer considered a sterile environment. In 2015, evolving data shows that H. pylori is not the only inhabitant of the gastric mucosa. Using culture-independent methods of analysis, a non-H. pylori microbial community has been recently observed in the human stomach, the so-called human gastric microbiota, along with H. pylori itself. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that although H. pylori may be the most relevant, it is not the only local bacterial culprit leading to gastric diseases. Further studies are warranted to offer a better picture of the role and functions of gastric microbiota and to identify the best therapeutic modulators of gut microbiota for the management of gastric diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Detection of risky esophageal varices by two-dimensional ultrasound: when to perform endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Abd Elrazek, Mohammad Ali; Mohammad Ali, Abd El razek; Mahfouz, Hamdy; Afifi, Mohamed; Nafady, Mohamed; Fathy, Abd El wahhab; El azeem, Khaled Abd; Amer, Khaled; El-shamy, Ahmed; Kenji, Uryuhara; Ghibah, A Ammar; Ghiba, Ammar; Bilasy, Shymaa; El-ansary, Nadia; Fakhry, Mohamed; Mansour, Magdy

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal varices are a consequence of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. Current guidelines recommend that all cirrhotic patients undergo screening endoscopy at diagnosis to identify patients with varices at high risk of bleeding who will benefit from primary prophylaxis. This practice increases costs, involves a degree of invasiveness and discomfort and places a heavy burden on endoscopy units. Several studies have evaluated possible noninvasive predictors of esophageal varices, but most of these studies remain controversial. The intra-abdominal portion of the esophagus in 673 patients who presented with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension was examined using standard 2-dimensional (2D) ultrasound. A direct relationship between the degree of varices observed on upper endoscopy and the intra-abdominal esophageal wall thickness was detected using 2D ultrasound. The mean thicknesses of the esophageal wall were 3.7 ± 0.5 mm (mean ± standard deviation) in normal individuals, 7.3 ± 3.3 mm in those with esophageal varices and 8.65 ± 1.98 mm in those with risky esophageal varices. The overall accuracy of 2D ultrasound was 95%. The intra-abdominal esophagus should be observed during abdominal ultrasound examination in patients with liver cirrhosis. Two-dimensional ultrasound can play an important role in screening for esophageal varices.

  5. Treatment of symptomatic pelvic varices by ovarian vein embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Capasso, Patrizio; Simons, Christine; Trotteur, Genevieve; Dondelinger, Robert F.; Henroteaux, Denis; Gaspard, Ulysse

    1997-03-15

    Purpose. Pelvic congestion syndrome is a common cause of chronic pelvic pain in women and its association with venous congestion has been described in the literature. We evaluated the potential benefits of lumboovarian vein embolization in the treatment of lower abdominal pain in patients presenting with pelvic varicosities. Methods. Nineteen patients were treated. There were 13 unilateral embolizations, 6 initial bilateral treatments and 5 treated recurrences (a total of 30 procedures). All embolizations were performed with either enbucrilate and/or macrocoils, and there was an average clinical and Doppler duplex follow-up of 15.4 months. Results. The initial technical success rate was 96.7%. There were no immediate or long-term complications. Variable symptomatic relief was observed in 73.7% of cases with complete responses in 57.9%. All 8 patients who had partial or no pain relief complained of dyspareunia. The direct relationship between varices and chronic pelvic pain was difficult to ascertain in a significant number of clinical failures. Conclusion. Transcatheter embolization of lumboovarian varices is a safe technique offering symptomatic relief of pelvic pain in the majority of cases. The presence of dyspareunia seemed to be a poor prognostic factor, indicating that other causes of pelvic pain may coexist with pelvic varicosities.

  6. [Formation of compressive bandage after sclerotherapy for lower limb varices].

    PubMed

    Zatonskikh, B Ia; Banas, N B

    2003-01-01

    Invention concerns compressive sclerotherapy as a treatment modality for lower limb varices. Technical result of investigation is the development of compressive bandage that creates and maintains adequate level of limb compression both in supine position (during bed rest) and standing or walking. Technical result is achieved by formation of two compressive layers of elastic bandage. Highly expansible elastic bandage is used for the first layer aimed for fixation and compression of latex or foam pads at injection sites to create local compression of variceal nodes. Open toe elastic stocking (I compression class) is placed over the bandage to maintain adequate compression during bed rest. The second external layer consists of elastic bandage with moderate expansion (II compression class). It is placed over the first one from toes to thigh upper third and creates optimal compression in patient's vertical position. The patient is permitted to take it off or loose exclusively in supine position, to wash or refresh foot with wet towel, to change it with a new one.

  7. Combined therapies versus monotherapies for the first variceal bleeding in patients with high-risk varices: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ming; Qi, Xingshun; Yang, Man; Han, Guohong; Fan, Daiming

    2014-03-01

    The effect of combined therapies (among non-selected beta-blockers [NSBB], endoscopic therapy, and other treatments) on the first variceal bleeding has been evaluated in several randomized controlled trials previously, and the results were controversial. We performed this meta-analysis to assess the effect of combined therapies in patients with high-risk varices without previous variceal bleeding. The Cochrane Library, The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched for eligible trials. Manual searches were also performed for additional studies. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding, variceal bleeding, mortality, and adverse events were evaluated as end-points by meta-analysis. Twelve randomized controlled trials with 1571 patients were included. Compared with the NSBB (propranolol or nadolol) or endoscopic therapy alone, all of the combined therapies did not demonstrate significant improvements in variceal bleeding, total upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and mortality. Only the combinations of isosorbide-mononitrate or spironolactone with NSBB tended to decrease the risk of variceal bleeding when compared with the use of NSBB alone (isosorbide-mononitrate plus NSBB vs NSBB: odds ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.40-1.13, P = 0.13; spironolactone plus NSBB vs NSBB: odds ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.10-1.69, P = 0.22). Adverse events were more frequently observed in the combined therapy groups. Based on the available evidences, no combined therapy can be recommended as the first-line treatment for the primary prevention of variceal bleeding currently. Further studies with large sample sizes and long-term follow up are warranted. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Rescue treatment with a modified cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Grassia, Roberto; Capone, Pietro; Iiritano, Elena; Vjero, Katerina; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Martinotti, Mario; Rozzi, Gabriele; Buffoli, Federico

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a modified cyanoacrylate [N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate associated with methacryloxysulfolane (NBCA + MS)] to treat non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NV-UGIB). METHODS In our retrospective study we took into account 579 out of 1177 patients receiving endoscopic treatment for NV-UGIB admitted to our institution from 2008 to 2015; the remaining 598 patients were treated with other treatments. Initial hemostasis was not achieved in 45 of 579 patients; early rebleeding occurred in 12 of 579 patients. Thirty-three patients were treated with modified cyanoacrylate: 27 patients had duodenal, gastric or anastomotic ulcers, 3 had post-mucosectomy bleeding, 2 had Dieulafoy’s lesions, and 1 had duodenal diverticular bleeding. RESULTS Of the 45 patients treated endoscopically without initial hemostasis or with early rebleeding, 33 (76.7%) were treated with modified cyanoacrylate glue, 16 (37.2%) underwent surgery, and 3 (7.0%) were treated with selective transarterial embolization. The mean age of patients treated with NBCA + MS (23 males and 10 females) was 74.5 years. Modified cyanoacrylate was used in 24 patients during the first endoscopy and in 9 patients experiencing rebleeding. Overall, hemostasis was achieved in 26 of 33 patients (78.8%): 19 out of 24 (79.2%) during the first endoscopy and in 7 out of 9 (77.8%) among early rebleeders. Two patients (22.2%) not responding to cyanoacrylate treatment were treated with surgery or transarterial embolization. One patient had early rebleeding after treatment with cyanoacrylate. No late rebleeding during the follow-up or complications related to the glue injection were recorded. CONCLUSION Modified cyanoacrylate solved definitively NV-UGIB after failure of conventional treatment. Some reported life-threatening adverse events with other formulations, advise to use it as last option. PMID:28082813

  9. Duodenal variceal bleed: an unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleed and a difficult diagnosis to make

    PubMed Central

    Bhagani, Shradha; Winters, Conchubhair; Moreea, Sulleman

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of recurrent upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in a man aged 57 years with primary biliary cholangitis who was ultimately diagnosed with an isolated duodenal variceal bleed, which was successfully treated with histoacryl glue injection. Duodenal varices are an uncommon presentation of portal hypertension and can result in significant GI bleeding with a high mortality. Diagnosis can be difficult and therapeutic options limited. Endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy with histoacryl glue provides an effective treatment, though endoscopists need to remain aware of and vigilant for the serious complications of this treatment option. PMID:28242804

  10. Portal hypertensive hemorrhage from a left gastroepiploic vein caput medusa in an adhesed umbilical hernia.

    PubMed

    Sze, Daniel Y; Magsamen, Karl E; McClenathan, James H; Keeffe, Emmet B; Dake, Michael D

    2005-02-01

    Caput medusa is a frequent incidental finding in patients with portal hypertension that usually represents paraumbilical vein portosystemic collateral vessels draining into body wall systemic veins. A symptomatic caput medusa was seen in a morbidly obese patient after an umbilical hernia repair, which was fed not by the left portal vein but by the left gastroepiploic vein, in a recurrent adhesed umbilical hernia that likely contained herniated omentum. Refractory hemorrhage from this caput medusa was successfully treated by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation and balloon-occluded variceal sclerosis.

  11. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Espejo Romero, H

    1991-01-01

    Gastric cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, is variable in incidence on the world. In this paper, there is a review of the epidemiology and the etiopathogenic factors of the disease: genetics, hereditary, immunologic and environmental and, also, of the so called precursor diseases: atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, gastric adenoma, gastrectomized patients, pernicious anemia and Menetrier's disease. There is an explanation about the changes of the gastric epithelium related both with the intestinal and diffuse type of adenocarcinoma; the anatomo-pathological notion of macroscopic advanced-Borrmann and early cancer-Japanese classification and the clinical and diagnostic procedures are included with the fundamentals of therapeutic management.

  12. Vascular Plug Assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (PARTO) for Gastric Varix Bleeding Patients in the Emergent Clinical Setting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehwan; Yang, Heechul; Lee, Chun Kyon; Kim, Gun Bea

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and safety of vascular plug assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) for bleeding gastric varix performed in the emergent clinical setting and describe the mid-term clinical results. From April 2012 to January 2015, emergent PARTO was tried in total 9 patients presented with active gastric varix bleeding. After initial insufficient or failure of endoscopic approach, they underwent PARTO in the emergent clinical setting. Gelatin sponge embolization of both gastrorenal (GR) shunt and gastric varix was performed after retrograde transvenous placement of a vascular plug in GR shunt. Coil assisted RTO (CARTO) was performed in one patient who had challenging GR shunt anatomy for vascular plug placement. Additional embolic materials, such as microcoils and NBCA glue-lipiodol mixture, were required in three patients to enhance complete occlusion of GR shunt or obliteration of competitive collateral vessels. Clinical success was defined as no variceal rebleeding and disappearance of gastric varix. All technical and clinical success-i.e., complete GR shunt occlusion and offending gastric varix embolization with immediate bleeding control-was achieved in all 9 patients. There was no procedure-related complication. All cases showed successful clinical outcome during mean follow up of 17 months (12-32 months), evidenced by imaging studies, endoscopy and clinical data. In 4 patients, mild worsening of esophageal varices or transient ascites was noted as portal hypertensive related change. Emergent PARTO is technically feasible and safe, with acceptable mid-term clinical results, in treating active gastric varix bleeding.

  13. Gastric suction

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric lavage; Stomach pumping; Nasogastric tube suction; Bowel obstruction - suction ... A tube is inserted through your nose or mouth, down the food pipe (esophagus), and into the stomach. Your ...

  14. Gastric sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Emmanuel; Rohewal, Upinder; Tangorra, Matthew; Abdullah, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    A 58-year-old Jamaican male presented with acute-onset, right-sided facial droop and slurred speech. He had an episode of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed on the second day of admission and endoscopy with biopsy of antral ulcer revealed gastric sarcoidosis. This case demonstrates the rare entity of gastric sarcoidosis presenting acutely with an upper GI bleed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16775918

  15. Wandering spleen as a cause of mesenteric and portal varices: a new etiology?

    PubMed

    Zarroug, Abdalla E; Hashim, Yassar; El-Youssef, Mounif; Zeidan, Moiz M; Moir, Christopher R

    2013-03-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare clinical entity characterized by spleen hypermobility due to lack or weakness of one or more splenic ligaments. We report two patients with the diagnosis of wandering spleen with portal and mesenteric varices. A 16 year-old girl presented with abdominal pain, an abdominal mass and pancytopenia. A 12 year-old girl presented with an abdominal mass only. Imaging studies revealed both patients had a viable but torsed wandering spleen in association with portal, splenic and mesenteric varices. Both were treated with splenectomy and had resolution of their symptoms. Imaging confirmed complete resolution of all varices at 30 month and 11 year follow up respectively. These cases represent the first report of a wandering spleen causing portal and mesenteric venous partial obstruction leading to varices; splenectomy resolved these findings post-operatively.

  16. Should we add beta-blockers to band ligation for secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding?

    PubMed

    Cotoras, Petre; Faúndez, Jorge; Candia, Roberto

    2017-02-23

    Cirrhotic patients who have had an episode of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices are at high risk of rebleeding, despite treatment with endoscopic variceal ligation. Adding beta-blockers could reduce this risk, but it is associated with adverse effects. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases, we identified seven systematic reviews including 21 randomized controlled trials addressing the question of this article. We extracted data, combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded the addition of beta-blockers to endoscopic variceal ligation as secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding reduces the risk of rebleeding, but probably does not lead to any difference in terms of mortality. Even though it is associated to frequent adverse effects, these would be mild and generally do not lead to discontinuation of treatment.

  17. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach's extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition.

  18. Portal vein stent placement with or without varix embolization of jejunal variceal bleeding after hepatopancreatobiliary surgery.

    PubMed

    Shim, Dong Jae; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Gi-Young; Kim, Yook; Han, Kichang; Gwon, Dong-Il; Ko, Heung-Kyu

    2017-04-01

    Background Extrahepatic portal hypertension after surgery involving the duodenum or jejunum might result in massive ectopic variceal bleeding. Purpose To report the results of portal vein stent placement with the addition of variceal embolization. Material and Methods Between January 2000 and June 2015, portal vein stent placement was attempted in 477 patients. Of these, 22 patients (age, 63 ± 10 years) with jejunal variceal bleeding caused by portal vein obstruction after surgery were included in this study. Computed tomography (CT) findings before and after treatment and the rates of technical and clinical success, complications, and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Results Stent placement was successful in 19 of 22 patients. Additional variceal embolization was performed in five cases. Clinical success, defined as the cessation of bleeding without recurrence within 1 month, was achieved in 18 of 19 patients with technical success. One patient developed recurrent bleeding 4 days after stent placement and was successfully treated with additional variceal embolization. There were no procedure-related complications. A regression of the jejunal varices was noted in 14 of 19 patients on follow-up CT scans. During the follow-up period (258 days; range, 7-1196 days), stent occlusion and recurrent bleeding occurred in six and four patients, respectively, of the 19 patients who achieved technical success. Statistical analyses revealed no significant differences regarding stent patency between benign and malignant strictures. Conclusion Percutaneous, transhepatic, portal vein stent placement with or without jejunal variceal embolization appears to be a safe and effective treatment for jejunal variceal bleeding after surgery.

  19. Percutaneous Transhepatic Embolization of Bleeding Rectal Varices Using A New Embolic And Sclerotic Mixture Augmented By Amplatzer Vascular Plug 2

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aal, Ahmed Kamel; Dawoud, Nabila; Moustafa, Amr Soliman; Hamed, Maysoon F; Saddekni, Souheil

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of 59-year-old female with non-alcoholic-steato-hepatitis (NASH) induced cirrhosis, who presented with hematochezia. The patient had a history of bleeding esophageal varices treated with endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). Colonoscopy showed large rectal varices which were the source of her lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB). Since endoscopic treatment for LGIB are limited, and because the patient had portal vein thrombosis which contraindicated transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), we performed percutaneous transhepatic embolization of her rectal varices using a new mixture of embolic and sclerotic agents, followed by Amplatzer plug 2 (AVP 2). To our knowledge, the use of this new mixture with the AVP 2 in the rectal varices treatment has not been previously published in literature. Our case provides an alternative treatment modality that can be used for rectal varices treatment, when TIPS and endoscopic management fails or is contraindicated. PMID:27761198

  20. Intestinal and Gastric Tonometry During Experimental Burn Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Continuous measurement of gut pH with near- infrared spectroscopy during hemorrhagic shock. J...Arterial blood gases and pulmonary artery catheter data were measured every 6 h. Gastric and ileal regional PCO2 (PrCO2) were measured continuously by...catheter data were measured every 6 h. Gastric and ileal regional PCO2 (PrCO2) were measured continuously by air tonometry and recorded hourly

  1. [Evaluation of gastroesophageal varices with three-dimensional visualization technology].

    PubMed

    Fang, Chihua; Wu, Tianchong; Ye, Rongqiang; Yang, Jian; Fan, Yingfang; Gu, Yang; Zeng, Ning; Liu, Xingxing

    2014-01-01

    To observe the prognostic value of Medical Image Three-dimensional (3D) Visualization System (MI-3DVS) in evaluation of the distribution and blood supply of gastroesophageal varices (EGV). 3D reconstruction was played by MI-3DVS and CT-maximum intensity projection (CT-MIP) respectively on multi slice computed tomography (MSCT) date of 51 patients with EGV from February 2010 to October 2012. The demonstration rate of collateral vessels in spleen and stomach area, EGV typing and the blood supply between the two methods were observed and compared. The demonstration rates of LGV, gastro-renal shunt, splenorenal shunt and PGV showed a high coincidence between the MI-3DVS and CT-MIP (κ = 0.882-1.000), and moderate agreements in SGV and paraesophageal varices (κ = 0.646 and 0.757). The outcome of EGV classification (MI-3DVS vs. CT-MIP) were typeIfor 31 vs. 28 cases, type II for 6 vs. 4 cases, type III for 4 vs. 4 cases and type IV for 6 vs.10 cases, the 2 methods show high agreements (weighted Kappa value of 0.848 and P < 0.01).Significant differences were found in the blood supply distribution among the four types of EGV (χ(2) = 36.647, P < 0.01); and the blood supply of the EGV tended to be a strong correlation with EGV classification (C = 0.769 and 0.744, P = 0.000). There were 12 patients with gastro-renal shunt and 5 patients with Spleno-renal shunt. MI-3DVS can explicitly determine the location, blood vessel diameter and blood supply of the EGV, which is helpful for us to grab the formation of collateral circulation completely. The 3D reconstruction of MI-3DVS has guidance and current significance in optimizing therapeutic schedule or preoperative planning.

  2. Association of Endoscopic Esophageal Variceal Ligation with Duodenal Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ze-Hao; Lin, Ai-Fang; Tang, Du-Peng; Wei, Jing-Jing; Liu, Zheng-Ji; Xin, Xiao-Mei; Pan, Yu-Feng

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency of duodenal ulcer (DU), as well as other clinical characteristics occurring after endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) of the esophagus. Descriptive study. The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China, from April 2012 to April 2013. A total of 47 patients with esophageal varices (EVr) who had also undergone EVL and gastroscopic follow-up within 3 months of the procedure was retrospectively analyzed. The status of Helicobacter pylori(Hp) infection, Child-Pugh classification, and the grades of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) were collected. Sixty EVr patients without EVL treatment, but with clinical data available, served as the control group. The frequency of DU in the EVL group (29.8%, 14/47) was higher than the control group (6.7%, 4/60) (p=0.02). Hp infection rate in EVLgroup was 19.15% (9/47), while in control group was 21.67% (13/60) (p=0.813). Hp positive rate (12.5%, 1/8) in patients exhibited new DUs after EVL was comparable to the patients without DU in the EVL group (12.1%, 4/33) (p=1.00). Patients with DU after EVL received 18.79 &plusmn;8.48 of ligating bands, while in those who did not exhibit DUs received 13.85 &plusmn;6.47 (z = -2.042, p = 0.041). Logistic regression analysis showed that the occurrence of DU was not associated with age, gender, Child-Pugh classification, or the grade of PHG (p &gt; 0.05). Esophageal EVL is associated with a higher frequency of developing DU, which is related to a larger number of applied bands but is not correlated with Hp infection status or other variables.

  3. Left Gastric Artery Aneurysm: Successful Embolization with Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto Cousins, Claire; Higgins, J. Nicholas; See, Teik Choon

    2008-03-15

    Patients with left gastric artery aneurysms present with hemorrhagic shock due to rupture or occasionally it is an incidental finding on abdominal CT examinations. Due to the increased morbidity and mortality from this condition, adequate diagnosis and treatment are essential. In this article we present a patient with a left gastric artery aneurysm treated with a new embolization agent, ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx)

  4. Endoscopic ultrasound findings predict the recurrence of esophageal varices after endoscopic band ligation: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masalaite, Laura; Valantinas, Jonas; Stanaitis, Juozas

    2015-01-01

    Variceal recurrence following endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is common. Esophageal collateral veins (ECV) are observed by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in patients with portal hypertension. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of EUS in predicting the recurrence of esophageal varices following EBL. Forty patients who had undergone EBL for eradication of varices were examined over a 12-month period to detect variceal recurrence. EUS was performed before ligation to detect and describe the type, grade, and the number of ECV. EUS findings obtained prior to EBL were compared in the variceal recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Of the 40 patients, 19 (47.5%) had variceal recurrence within 12 months of EBL. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that severe peri-ECV (p < 0.001), multiple peri-ECV (p < 0.001), and the presence of perforating veins (p < 0.014) were statistically significantly related to the variceal recurrence after EBL. Multivariate logistic regression model found that only severe peri-ECV (odds ratio [OR] = 24.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.34-253.78) and multiple peri-ECV (OR = 24.39; 95% CI: 2.34-253.78) remained as independent prognostic factors for variceal recurrence. The sensitivity and specificity of multivariate logistic regression model in predicting variceal recurrence was 89.2% and 90.5%, respectively (prognostic value (AUC) = 0.946). Recurrence rate of esophageal varices after EBL is high (47.5%). EUS can clearly depict ECV and has a value in predicting variceal recurrence after EBL; severe peri-ECV and multiple peri-ECV were significant and independent prognostic factors associated with variceal recurrence risk.

  5. Hemorrhagic Stroke in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hillis M.D., Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately half of stroke in childhood. Unlike arterial ischemic stroke, there are no consensus guidelines to assist in the evaluation and treatment of these children. We review the literature on the evaluation, treatment, etiology and neurologic outcome of hemorrhagic stroke in children. Important differences between pediatric and adult hemorrhage are highlighted, as treatment guidelines for adults may not be applicable in all cases. Needed future research and potential therapies are also discussed. PMID:17275656

  6. Use of portal pressure studies in the management of variceal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Addley, Jennifer; Tham, Tony CK; Cash, William Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Portal hypertension occurs as a complication of liver cirrhosis and complications such as variceal bleeding lead to significant demands on resources. Endoscopy is the gold standard method for screening cirrhotic patients however universal endoscopic screening may mean a lot of unnecessary procedures as the presence of oesophageal varices is variable hence a large time and cost burden on endoscopy units to carry out both screening and subsequent follow up of variceal bleeds. A less invasive method to identify those at high risk of bleeding would allow earlier prophylactic measures to be applied. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is an acceptable indirect measurement of portal hypertension and predictor of the complications of portal hypertension in adult cirrhotics. Varices develop at a HVPG of 10-12 mmHg with the appearance of other complications with HPVG > 12 mmHg. Variceal bleeding does not occur in pressures under 12 mmHg. HPVG > 20 mmHg measured early after admission is a significant prognostic indicator of failure to control bleeding varices, indeed early transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in such circumstances reduces mortality significantly. HVPG can be used to identify responders to medical therapy. Patients who do not achieve the suggested reduction targets in HVPG have a high risk of rebleeding despite endoscopic ligation and may not derive significant overall mortality benefit from endoscopic intervention alone, ultimately requiring TIPS or liver transplantation. Early HVPG measurements following a variceal bleed can help to identify those at risk of treatment failure who may benefit from early intervention with TIPS. Therefore, we suggest using HVPG measurement as the investigation of choice in those with confirmed cirrhosis in place of endoscopy for intitial variceal screening and, where indicated, a trial of B-blockade, either intravenously during the initial pressure study with assessment of response or oral therapy with

  7. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  8. [Gastric cleansing].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann Serret, Alina; Alcaraz Bravo, Judit; Carballo Alvarez, Montse; Fernández Vargas, Carmen

    2006-10-01

    Numerous cases in emergency wards are due to the ingestion of potentially toxic substances. One of the most utilized procedures under these circumstances is gastric cleansing. This procedure is a technique habitually practiced by nursing personnel but is not without its risks. Therefore, the motive of this article is to make known the indications, contraindications, related complications of gastric cleansing and its integral patient care process in order to offer quality care methods which enable their being performed in an effective and efficient manner, under the maximum security conditions with the minimum inconveniences for the patient while at the same time describing the system most commonly used by our service.

  9. [Gastric volvulus].

    PubMed

    Solórzano, J; Acosta, D; Morales, H; Vásquez, F; Mora, G; Chávez, M; Andrade, D; Joutteaux, R; Sánchez, I; García, D; Valenzuela, E

    2006-10-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare condition in pediatric population in which there is an abnormal rotation of one part of the stomach around itself. It's a surgical emergency. We report a six year old female admitted in the emergency due to upper abdominal distention, nausea without vomiting, physical exam revealed upper abdominal distention and abdominal tenderness, no bowel sounds. Laparotomy was performed and a gastric volvulus with occlusive vascular involvement was found. In the post operative period she required a second laparotomy due to adhesions in small bowel.

  10. [Gastric lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Ruskoné-Fourmestraux, A

    1997-04-15

    The stomach is the most common site involved in primary gastrointestinal lymphoma. Gastric lymphoma originates from the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue so called MALT. It comprises a group of distinctive clinicopathological entities which are important to take in account for clinical behavior. In recent years, new diagnostic tools and modern modes of treatment have improved their overall prognosis. One of the most exciting recent discoveries is the hypothesis that an infection by a bacterium. Helicobacter pylori has a decisive role in gastric lymphoma.

  11. Right ovarian vein drainage variant: is there a relationship with pelvic varices?

    PubMed

    Koc, Zafer; Ulusan, Serife; Oguzkurt, Levent

    2006-09-01

    To correlate right ovarian vein (ROV) variations that drain into the right renal vein (RRV) with the presence of pelvic varices. Routine abdominal multidetector-row computed tomography scans of 324 women were analyzed for the presence and type of ROV variations in this retrospective study. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: those with ROV variations and those without such variations. The diameters of the subjects' ROV, left ovarian vein (LOV), and parauterine veins were measured. Pelvic varices and the presence and degree of ovarian vein reflux were noted and compared between the 2 groups. The chi2-test and the Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analysis. Thirty-two (9.9%) of 324 women studied exhibited ROV variant that drained into the right renal vein, and the remaining subjects (90.1%) exhibited a normal pattern of ROV drainage that flowed directly into the inferior vena cava. Pelvic varices were identified in 59 (18%) of the subjects. Reflux was not observed in any patient without pelvic varices. Fifty-seven of 59 women exhibited ovarian vein reflux. In 56 of those 57 individuals, reflux occurred only in the LOV, and in 1 subject, reflux was noted predominantly in the ROV. No significant relationship between the presence of an ROV that drained into the right renal vein and pelvic varices was noted. Although right-sided pelvic varices associated with right ovarian vein drainage variations are rare, anatomic variations of the right ovarian vein are not. This study did not find an association between the presence of right ovarian vein and pelvic varices.

  12. Anti-inflammatory drugs and variceal bleeding: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    De Ledinghen, V; Heresbach, D; Fourdan, O; Bernard, P; Liebaert-Bories, M; Nousbaum, J; Gourlaouen, A; Becker, M; Ribard, D; Ingrand, P; Silvain, C; Beauchant, M

    1999-01-01

    Background—Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can have severe gastrointestinal effects and cause peptic ulcers to bleed. Acute bleeding from oesophageal varices is a major complication of cirrhosis of the liver. 
Aims—To investigate the role, using a case-control study, of NSAIDs in first bleeding episodes associated with oesophageal or cardial varices in cirrhotic patients. 
Patients/Methods—A structured interview was conducted of 125cirrhotic patients with bleeding mainly related to oesophageal varices and 75 cirrhotic controls with oesophageal varices who had never bled. 
Results—Cirrhotic patients who were admitted for bleeding related to portal hypertension were more likely to have used NSAIDs during the week before the index day (31 of 125 (25%)) than the cirrhotic controls (eight of 75 (11%); odds ratio = 2.8, p = 0.016). Use of aspirin alone or combined with other NSAIDs was also more prevalent in the cases (21 of 125 (17%)) than in the controls (three of 75 (4%); odds ratio = 4.9, p = 0.007). Logistic regression analysis showed that NSAID use (p = 0.022, odds ratio = 2.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.8 to 4.7) and variceal size (p<0.001, odds ratio = 4.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.4 to 11.5) were the only variables independently associated with the risk of bleeding. 
Conclusions—Aspirin, used alone or combined with other NSAIDs, was associated with a first variceal bleeding episode in patients with cirrhosis. Given the life threatening nature of this complication, the possible benefit of this treatment should be weighed against the risk shown here. No firm conclusions could be drawn on non-aspirin NSAIDs used alone. 

 Keywords: portal hypertension; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; variceal bleeding; aspirin; cirrhosis PMID:9895389

  13. Clinical Results of the Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) for the Treatment of Variceal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Woo; Joo, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun; Kim, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Sei-Jong

    2000-01-01

    Background Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has been popularized for the treatment of refractory variceal bleeding. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and long-term effect of TIPS in the treatment of variceal bleeding that is not controlled with pharmacological and endoscopic treatment. Methods Thirty-six patients who underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) due to refractory variceal bleeding were included in the study. The effectiveness of portal decompression and bleeding control was evaluated. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to analyse the degree of varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) before TIPS procedure and one to three weeks after TIPS. Angiography was performed in surviving patients, if bleeding recurred, or if ultrasonography or endoscopy suggested stent dysfunction. Results TIPS were successfully placed in 36 of 38 patients (94.6%). TIPS achieved hemostasis of variceal bleeding in 34 patients (94.4%). Portal venous pressure decreased from an initial average of 28.7±7.9 to 23.2±9.4 mmHg after TIPS (p < 0.05). The portosystemic pressure gradient was significantly decreased from 15.5±6.3 to 7.8±4.1 mmHg (p < 0.01). The degree of esophagogastric varices and PHG was significantly improved after TIPS. The total length of follow-up was from one day to 54 months (mean: 355 days). The actuarial probability of survival was 83% at one year and 74% at two years. Overall, 16 episodes of stent dysfunction were diagnosed during follow-up. Stent revision by means of angioplasty was successfully performed in 14 of these episodes. Conclusion TIPS is an effective and reliable nonoperative means of lowering portal pressure. This procedure has proved useful in the management of acute variceal bleeding refractory to endoscopic treatment. Surveillance by ultrasonography, endoscopy, and angiographic intervention is useful for the maintenance of shunt patency. PMID:11242805

  14. Early endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: associations with recurrent bleeding, surgery, and length of hospital stay.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G S; Chak, A; Way, L E; Hammar, P J; Harper, D L; Rosenthal, G E

    1999-02-01

    The impact of upper endoscopy in patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage treated in community practice is unknown. Thus we examined the effectiveness of endoscopy performed within 24 hours of admission (early endoscopy). Medical records of 909 consecutive hospitalized patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage who underwent endoscopy at 13 hospitals in a large metropolitan area were reviewed. We evaluated unadjusted and severity-adjusted associations of early endoscopy with recurrent bleeding or surgery to control hemorrhage, length of hospital stay, and associations of endoscopic therapy in patients with bleeding ulcers or varices. Early endoscopy was performed in 64% of patients and compared with delayed endoscopy and was associated with clinically significant reductions in adjusted risk of recurrent bleeding or surgery (odds ratio [OR] 0.70: 95% CI [0.44, 1.13]) and a 31% decrease in adjusted length of stay (95% CI: [24%, 37%]). In patients at high risk for recurrent bleeding, the use of early endoscopic therapy to control hemorrhage was associated with reductions in recurrent bleeding or surgery (OR 0.21: 95% CI [0.10, 0.47]) and length of stay (-31%: 95% CI [-44%, -14%). In this study of community-based practice, the routine use of endoscopy, and in selected cases endoscopic therapy, performed early in the clinical course of patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage was associated with reductions in length of stay and, possibly, the risk of recurrent bleeding and surgery.

  15. [Portal hypertension in pediatrics: II: Hemorrhagic complications].

    PubMed

    Costaguta, Alejandro; Alvarez, Fernando

    2010-08-01

    Bleeding from esophageal varices is the most severe complication of portal hypertension, and should be managed in specially trained centers. Vasoactive drugs, mainly octreotide, plus endoscopic treatment are able to control bleeding in 90% of the cases. Rescue treatments like TIPS and surgery should be immediately available for those who do not stop bleeding or have varices difficult to manage.

  16. Propranolol associated with endoscopic band ligation reduces recurrence of esophageal varices for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding: a randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Danielle Queiroz; Lenz, Luciano; Correia, Lucianna Motta; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Azevedo; de Paulo, Gustavo Andrade; Ferrari, Angelo Paulo; Della Libera, Ermelindo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the recurrence of esophageal varices (EVs) after endoscopic band ligation (EBL) associated with propranolol (PP) versus EBL alone. Sixty-six cirrhotic outpatients (EBL group, n=32 and EBL+PP group, n=34) with high-risk EVs without previous bleeding were studied. The primary outcome was recurrence of EV. The secondary outcomes were EV eradication, bleeding before EV eradication, mortality, and adverse events. Demographic characteristics and the initial endoscopic findings were similar. EV eradication was achieved in all patients. Three patients presented gastrointestinal bleeding before variceal eradication, two in the EBL group and one in the EBL+PP group (P=0.13). Six patients died (liver failure), two in the EBL group and four in the EBL+PP group (P=0.27). Twelve (38%) patients in the EBL group and three (9%) patients in the EBL+PP group had variceal recurrence. The risk of recurrence of EVs after eradication was significantly higher among patients in the EBL group (P=0.003). EBL alone and EBL+PP were effective in the primary prophylaxis of bleeding from EVs in cirrhotic patients (EV eradication, bleeding before EV eradication, mortality, and adverse events were similar in both groups). However, variceal recurrence was lower in the EBL+PP group than band ligation alone.

  17. Clinical results after coil embolization of the ovarian vein in patients with primary and recurrent lower-limb varices with respect to vulval varices.

    PubMed

    Castenmiller, P H; de Leur, K; de Jong, T E A M; van der Laan, L

    2013-08-01

    To study the effect of coil embolization of the insufficient ovarian vein (IOV) on varices of the lower limb (VLL). From December 2005 until May 2008, we selected all patients with phlebograms that were performed in our hospital to confirm the diagnosis of insufficiency of the ovarian vein. The CEAP (clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological elements) classification was used to classify the lower-limb venous disease in each patient. All patients with suspected IOV in combination with VLL underwent a phlebography. If IOV was found, coil embolization of the ovarian vein(s) was performed. IOV was found in 43 of 44 patients (98%). After coil embolization of the ovarian vein(s), VLL disappeared in five patients (12%) without any further treatment. Improvement in CEAP classification was measured in 13 patients (31%). In 21 (88%) of 24 patients with vulval varices, coil embolization of the ovarian vein(s) resulted in disappearance of vulval varices. In only 31% of the patients with IOV in combination with VLL, phlebography and coil embolization of the ovarian vein(s) did improve CEAP classification. However, coil embolization of the ovarian vein resulted in disappearance of the vulval varices in 88% of the patients.

  18. Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: an endoscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Papazian, A; Braillon, A; Dupas, J L; Sevenet, F; Capron, J P

    1986-01-01

    The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100 patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis, and 300 control patients without signs of liver disease or portal hypertension. This endoscopic pattern was observed in 94 of the patients with cirrhosis, whereas oesophageal varices were seen in 78 only. In contrast, only one patient of the control group had this aspect. Moreover, this sign was also found in seven of eight patients with non cirrhotic portal hypertension, but was seen neither in 100 patients with chronic alcoholism but without liver disease, nor in 10 cirrhotic patients with end-to-side portacaval shunts. These endoscopic changes might be because of mucosal and/or submucosal oedema and congestion highlighting the normal areae gastricae pattern and related to raised portal pressure. We conclude that the mosaic pattern of the gastric mucosa is a sensible and specific sign for diagnosis of portal hypertension, whatever the cause. Images Figure PMID:3781334

  19. Hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Pigott, David C

    2005-10-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management of patients with suspected or confirmed viral hemorrhagic fever infection. The focus is on clinical management based on case series from naturally occuring outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever infection as well as imported cases of viral hemorrhagic fever encountered in industrialized nations. The potential risk of bioterrorism involving these agents is discussed as well as emergency department and critical care management of isolated cases or larger outbreaks. Important aspects of management, including recognition of infected patients, isolation and decontamination procedures, as well as available vaccines and therapies are emphasized.

  20. Respiratory function after injection sclerotherapy of oesophageal varices.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, T; Lovett, M C; Campbell, I T; Makin, C; Davies, J; Jenkins, S A; Baxter, J N

    1994-01-01

    Arterial oxygen tension (Pao2), carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), and vital capacity were measured preoperatively and one day postoperatively in patients with chronic hepatic cirrhosis having elective oesophageal injection sclerotherapy under general anaesthesia. The results were compared with the same measurements made in patients with chronic cirrhosis anaesthetised and scheduled to have injection sclerotherapy under general anaesthesia but who, because of variceal obliteration, only had an oesophagogastroscopy. In the injected group PaO2 decreased by 9.3 (3.0) mm Hg (1.2 (0.4) kPa) (mean (SEM)) (p < 0.02) but in the controls did not change. The difference between the two groups was significant (p < 0.02). Vital capacity decreased by 0.39 (0.08) litres (BTPS) (p < 0.01) after injection sclerotherapy but in the controls did not change. Again the difference between the two groups was significant (p < 0.02). In the injected group there was a significant correlation between the change in PaO2 and the percentage change in vital capacity (r = 0.787, p < 0.01) but no such relation was seen in control subjects. These results suggest that oesophageal injection sclerotherapy is associated with a restrictive defect in respiratory function one day after the injection caused, possibly, by sclerosant embolising to the lung. PMID:7959205

  1. Guilty as charged: bugs and drugs in gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Sontag, S J

    1997-08-01

    Gastric ulcer disease remains a cause of hemorrhage, perforation, outlet obstruction, and death. Recent advances in the understanding of peptic ulcer disease indicate that infection with Helicobacter pylori and ingestion of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the cause of almost all gastric and duodenal ulcers. Our therapy, therefore, is in a state of transition: the old acid-suppressive temporary therapy that allows frequent ulcer recurrences and complications is being replaced by curative therapies. The old therapy, by reducing gastric acid secretion or enhancing gastric mucosal defenses, inhibited the cofactors needed for ulcer development. Acid suppression relieved symptoms and healed ulcers, while defense enhancers, such as prostaglandin analogs healed and prevented acute NSAID-induced gastric ulcers. These benefits were maintained, however, only as long as acid-reducing agents or mucosal defense enhancers were continued. On the other hand, curative therapies (such as eradicating H. pylori infection and/or stopping the use of NSAIDs) eliminate the causes of ulcer. Curative combination regimens consisting of antibiotics, ranitidine bismuth citrate, bismuth, and proton pump inhibitors have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. These new regimens can cure benign gastric ulcer. Unfortunately, we cannot always determine which gastric ulcers are benign, and concern about gastric cancer remains. All gastric ulcers therefore still require biopsy and histological examination. With new treatment regimens, the time may be rapidly approaching when ulcer disease will be "history."

  2. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Bariatric surgery - gastric bypass - discharge; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity ... Gloy VL, Briel M, Bhatt DL, et al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic ...

  3. Cirrhosis with ascites: Is the presence of hemorrhagic ascites an indicator of poor prognosis?

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Hakan; Akdoğan, Meral; Suna, Nuretdin; Öztaş, Erkin; Kuzu, Ufuk B; Bilge, Zülfükar; Aydınlı, Onur; Taşkıran, İsmail

    2016-07-01

    Hemorrhagic ascites in patients with cirrhosis is described as a RBC (Red Blood cell) > 50,000/mm³ and leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Positive red blood cells at a level of less than 50,000/mm³ (10,000-50,000) may be encountered in the ascites but it is not known whether this is clinically significant or not. This study aimed to examine the outcome of hemorrhagic ascites in patients with advanced cirrhosis. Data from 329 cirrhotic patients with ascites who received paracentesis at least once due to ascites was retrospectively analyzed from the period of 2007-2013 from the Türkiye Yüksek İhtisas Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology. Patients were divided according to the number of RBC, with greater than 10,000/mm³ being described as hemorrhagic ascites, and less than 10,000/mm³ described as the normal or control group. Patient data included: number of accepted intensive unit service stays, acute kidney injury (AKI), hepatic encephalopathy (HES), model for end-liver disease (MELD) score, Child Pugh score (CPS), degree of esophageal varices, spleen size and mortality rates. Patients were defined as having hemorrhagic ascites with a RBC count greater than 10,000/mm³ in 118 (35.9%) patients and as a non-hemorrhagic ascites group with less than 10,000/mm³ in 211 (64.1%) patients. The hemorrhagic ascites group had advanced liver disease symptoms compared to the control group. Meld score in the hemorrhagic group was statistically higher than in the control group (21.5±8.3 vs. 17.3±6.6; p value: 0.001). The median value of bilirubin was 5.9 (0.45-33) in the hemorrhagic ascites group and 4.01 (0.39-33) in the non-hemorrhagic group (p value: 0.001). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, hemorrhagic ascites was also an independent predictor of mortality (HR 2.7 1.4-6.3), with other mortality indicators being HCC (HR 3.1 1.5-6.4) and HRS (HR 2.6 1.2-5.5). Patients with hemorrhagic ascites had higher HRS, SBP and admissions to the intensive

  4. Tracheal varices caused by mediastinal compression of a large intrathoracic goiter: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    LUCCHINI, R.; SANTOPRETE, S.; TRIOLA, R.; POLISTENA, A.; MONACELLI, M.; AVENIA, S.; SANGUINETTI, A.; PUMA, F.; AVENIA, N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tracheal varices are a rare condition but they can be an important source of massive or recurrent haemoptysis. Usually they are related to increased pressure in the pulmonary veins. Mediastinal goiter is often associated to compressive effects on the surrounding structures, including mediastinal vessels with potential superior vena cava syndrome. Case report We describe a case, not previously reported in literature, of mediastinal goiter with hemoptysis as first clinical manifestation. Bleeding was attributed to a superior vena cava syndrome associated to a tracheal fragile mucosa with an easily bleeding intramural nodule which was diagnosed as tracheal varices after total thyroidectomy. The nodule in fact disappeared together with the venous hypertensive signs after venous decompression of the mediastinum. Conclusions Compressive symptoms including tracheal varices, related to mediastinal goiter, can be treated surgically by total thyroidectomy via cervicotomy and when required with associated median sternotomy. PMID:25827666

  5. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biological pro...

  6. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  7. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  8. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers.

  9. Ectopic Varices in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Short- and Long-Term Outcomes of Percutaneous Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Macedo, Thanila A. Andrews, James C.; Kamath, Patrick S.

    2005-04-15

    To evaluate the results of percutaneous management of ectopic varices, a retrospective review was carried out of 14 patients (9 men, 5 women; mean age 58 years) who between 1992 and 2001 underwent interventional radiological techniques for management of bleeding ectopic varices. A history of prior abdominal surgery was present in 12 of 14 patients. The interval between the surgery and percutaneous intervention ranged from 2 to 38 years. Transhepatic portal venography confirmed ectopic varices to be the source of portal hypertension-related gastrointestinal bleeding. Embolization of the ectopic varices was performed by a transhepatic approach with coil embolization of the veins draining into the ectopic varices. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was performed in the standard fashion. Eighteen procedures (12 primary coil embolizations, 1 primary TIPS, 2 re-embolizations, 3 secondary TIPS) were performed in 13 patients. One patient was not a candidate for percutaneous treatment. All interventions but one (re-embolization) were technically successful. In 2 of 18 interventions, re-bleeding occurred within 72 hr (both embolization patients). Recurrent bleeding (23 days to 27 months after initial intervention) was identified in 9 procedures (8 coil embolizations, 1 TIPS due to biliary fistula). One patient had TIPS revision because of ultrasound surveillance findings. New encephalopathy developed in 2 of 4 TIPS patients. Percutaneous coil embolization is a simple and safe treatment for bleeding ectopic varices; however, recurrent bleeding is frequent and reintervention often required. TIPS can offer good control of bleeding at the expense of a more complex procedure and associated risk of encephalopathy.

  10. Results of modified Sugiura operation in variceal bleeding in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Haciyanli, Mehmet; Genc, Hudai; Halici, Hakan; Kumkumoglu, Yusuf; Gur, Ozlem S; Ozturk, Tuncay

    2003-01-01

    Esophageal variceal bleeding is a major complication of portal hypertension and the optimal therapeutic modality for each individual patient differs. We reviewed the results of modified Sugiura procedure in patients with variceal bleeding of esophagus. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 13 patients who were subjected to modified Sugiura procedure (transabdominal esophagogastric devascularization + esophageal stapled transection + splenectomy) for bleeding esophageal varices between 1996 and 2001. Three patients disappeared from routine follow-up and were excluded from the study. Survival, rebleeding and encephalopathy were evaluated. The mean age was 46 (18-56). The etiology of portal hypertension was cirrhosis of liver in six (60%) and portal vein thrombosis in four (40%). One patient had Child-Pugh's Class A, two had Class B and three had Class C cirrhosis. Previous variceal bleeding were confirmed by endoscopy in all patients who had recurrent variceal bleeding despite treatment with beta-blockers (three patients) or endoscopic sclerotherapy +/- band ligation (seven patients). Two were subjected to emergency surgery while the remaining eight were operated on electively. No postoperative mortality was seen. The bleeders were stopped immediately in the emergent cases. During a mean follow-up of 27 (4-53) months, one (10%) patient suffered from encephalopathy and one (10%) from rebleeding at 20th and 28th months after the operation respectively. Three (30%) patients with Child C cirrhosis died due to bleeding (one) and hepatic failure (two) at 4, 25, and 28 months after the surgery. The prognoses of other patients are well at the present time. In our small number of patients, modified Sugiura procedure was found to be a safe and effective procedure for urgent and long-term control of bleeding varices in patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis and noncirrhotic etiology. The outcomes are encouraging in noncirrhotic patients and cirrhotic patients

  11. Comparison between endoscopic sclerotherapy and band ligation for hemostasis of acute variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Gustavo Oliveira; Maluf-Filho, Fauze; Matuguma, Sérgio Eiji; Hondo, Fábio Yuji; Ide, Edson; Melo, Jeane Martins; Cheng, Spencer; Sakai, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare band ligation (BL) with endoscopic sclerotherapy (SCL) in patients admitted to an emergency unit for esophageal variceal rupture. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, single-center study without crossover was conducted. After endoscopic diagnosis of esophageal variceal rupture, patients were randomized into groups for SCL or BL treatment. Sclerotherapy was performed by ethanolamine oleate intravascular injection both above and below the rupture point, with a maximum volume of 20 mL. For BL patients, banding at the rupture point was attempted, followed by ligation of all variceal tissue of the distal esophagus. Primary outcomes for both groups were initial failure of bleeding control (5 d), early re-bleeding (5 d to 6 wk), and complications, including mortality. From May 2005 to May 2007, 100 patients with variceal bleeding were enrolled in the study: 50 SCL and 50 BL patients. No differences between groups were observed across gender, age, Child-Pugh status, presence of shock at admission, mean hemoglobin levels, and variceal size. RESULTS: No differences were found between groups for bleeding control, early re-bleeding rates, complications, or mortality. After 6 wk, 36 (80%) SCL and 33 (77%) EBL patients were alive and free of bleeding. A statistically significant association between Child-Pugh status and mortality was found, with 16% mortality in Child A and B patients and 84% mortality in Child C patients (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Despite the limited number of patients included, our results suggest that SCL and BL are equally efficient for the control of acute variceal bleeding. PMID:21772940

  12. Antiviral therapy delays esophageal variceal bleeding in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang-Zheng; Cheng, Liu-Fang; Li, Qing-Shan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Jun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of antiviral therapy with nucleoside analogs in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis and esophageal varices. METHODS: Eligible patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and esophageal varices who consulted two tertiary hospitals in Beijing, China, the Chinese Second Artillery General Hospital and Chinese PLA General Hospital, were enrolled in the study from January 2005 to December 2009. Of 117 patients, 79 received treatment with different nucleoside analogs and 38 served as controls. Bleeding rate, change in variceal grade and non-bleeding duration were analyzed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify factors related to esophageal variceal bleeding. RESULTS: The bleeding rate was decreased in the antiviral group compared to the control group (29.1% vs 65.8%, P < 0.001). Antiviral therapy was an independent factor related to esophageal bleeding in multivariate analysis (HR = 11.3, P < 0.001). The mean increase in variceal grade per year was lower in the antiviral group (1.0 ± 1.3 vs 1.7 ± 1.2, P = 0.003). Non-bleeding duration in the antiviral group was prolonged in the Kaplan-Meier model. Viral load rebound was observed in 3 cases in the lamivudine group and in 1 case in the adefovir group, all of whom experienced bleeding. Entecavir and adefovir resulted in lower bleeding rates (17.2% and 28.6%, respectively) than the control (P < 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively), whereas lamivudine (53.3%) did not (P = 0.531). CONCLUSION: Antiviral therapy delays the progression of esophageal varices and reduces bleeding risk in HBV-related cirrhosis, however, high-resistance agents tend to be ineffective for long-term treatment. PMID:24187460

  13. Comparison of hepatic venous pressure gradient and endoscopic grading of esophageal varices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, EunJi; Kim, Yong Jae; Goo, Dong Erk; Yang, Seung Boo; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jang, Jae Young; Jeong, Soung Won

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the correlation between the hepatic venous pressure gradient and the endoscopic grade of esophageal varices. METHODS: From September 2009 to March 2013, a total of 176 measurements of hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) were done in 146 patients. Each transjugular HVPG was measured twice, first using an end whole catheter (EH-HVPG), and then using a balloon catheter (B-HVPG). The HVPG was compared with the endoscopic grade of esophageal varices (according to the general rules for recording endoscopic findings of esophagogastric varices), which was recorded within a month of the measurement of HVPG. RESULTS: The study included 110 men and 36 women, with a mean age of 56.1 years (range, 43-76 years). The technical success rate of the pressure measurements was 100% and there were no complication related to the procedures. Mean HVPG was 15.3 mmHg as measured using the end hole catheter method and 16.5 mmHg as measured using the balloon catheter method. Mean HVPG (both EH-HVPG and B-HVPG) was not significantly different among patients with different characteristics, including sex and comorbid factors, except for cases with hepatocellular carcinoma (B-HVPG, P = 0.01; EH-HVPG, P = 0.02). Portal hypertension (> 12 mmHg HVPG) occurred in 66% of patients according to EH-HVPG and 83% of patients according to B-HVGP, and significantly correlated with Child’s status (B-HVPG, P < 0.000; EH-HVGP, P < 0.000) and esophageal varies observed upon endoscopy (EH-HVGP, P = 0.003; B-HVGP, P = 0.006). One hundred and thirty-five endoscopies were performed, of which 15 showed normal findings, 27 showed grade 1 endoscopic esophageal varices, 49 showed grade 2 varices, and 44 showed grade 3 varices. When comparing endoscopic esophageal variceal grades and HVPG using univariate analysis, the P value was 0.004 for EH-HVPG and 0.002 for B-HVPG. CONCLUSION: Both EH-HVPG and B-HVPG showed a positive correlation with the endoscopic grade of esophageal varices, with B

  14. Neurogenic claudication without spinal stenosis arising as a result of lumbar epidural varices.

    PubMed

    Dabasia, H; Rahim, N; Marshall, R

    2012-09-01

    Neurogenic claudication is most frequently observed in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. We describe a patient with lumbar epidural varices secondary to obstruction of the inferior vena cava by pathological lymph nodes presenting with this syndrome. Following a diagnosis of follicular lymphoma, successful chemotherapy led to the resolution of the varices and the symptoms of neurogenic claudication. The lumbar epidural venous plexus may have an important role in the pathogenesis of spinal stenosis. Although rare, epidural venous engorgement can induce neurogenic claudication without spinal stenosis. Further investigations should be directed at identifying an underlying cause.

  15. Complete Esophageal Obstruction after Endoscopic Variceal Band Ligation in a Patient with a Sliding Hiatal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Munthir; Abdel-Aziz, Yousef; Awadh, Hesham; Shah, Nihar

    2017-01-01

    Complete esophageal obstruction is a rare complication of endoscopic variceal banding, with only 6 cases in the English literature since the introduction of endoscopic variceal banding in 1986. We report a case of complete esophageal obstruction following esophageal banding due to entrapment of part of a sliding hiatal hernia. To our knowledge, our case is one of few with esophageal obstruction post-banding, and the first associated with a hiatal hernia. We recommend caution when performing esophageal banding on patients with a hiatal hernia. PMID:28144613

  16. Diagnostic non-invasive model of large risky esophageal varices in cirrhotic hepatitis C virus patients

    PubMed Central

    Elalfy, Hatem; Elsherbiny, Walid; Abdel Rahman, Ashraf; Elhammady, Dina; Shaltout, Shaker Wagih; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; El Deek, Bassem

    2016-01-01

    AIM To build a diagnostic non-invasive model for screening of large varices in cirrhotic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. METHODS This study was conducted on 124 post-HCV cirrhotic patients presenting to the clinics of the Endemic Medicine Department at Mansoura University Hospital for evaluation before HCV antiviral therapy: 78 were Child A and 46 were Child B (score ≤ 8). Inclusion criteria for patients enrolled in this study was presence of cirrhotic HCV (diagnosed by either biopsy or fulfillment of clinical basis). Exclusion criteria consisted of patients with other etiologies of liver cirrhosis, e.g., hepatitis B virus and patients with high MELD score on transplant list. All patients were subjected to full medical record, full basic investigations, endoscopy, and computed tomography (CT), and then divided into groups with no varices, small varices, or large risky varices. In addition, values of Fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4), aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and platelet count/splenic diameter ratio (PC/SD) were also calculated. RESULTS Detection of large varies is a multi-factorial process, affected by many variables. Choosing binary logistic regression, dependent factors were either large or small varices while independent factors included CT variables such coronary vein diameter, portal vein (PV) diameter, lieno-renal shunt and other laboratory non-invasive variables namely FIB-4, APRI, and platelet count/splenic diameter. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to determine the accuracy of non-invasive parameters for predicting the presence of large esophageal varices and the area under the ROC curve for each one of these parameters was obtained. A model was established and the best model for prediction of large risky esophageal varices used both PC/SD and PV diameter (75% accuracy), while the logistic model equation was shown to be (PV diameter × -0.256) plus (PC/SD × -0.006) plus (8.155). Values nearing 2 or more denote

  17. Platelet Count to Spleen Diameter Ratio for the Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Varices in Liver Cirrhosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Runhua; Deng, Han; Xie, Chune; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Platelet count to spleen diameter ratio (PSR) was studied extensively as a noninvasive method of diagnosis for varices. The present study aimed to systematically assess the performance of PSR in the diagnosis of varices. PubMed, EMBASE, and article references were searched. The summary receiver operating characteristic curves (AUSROCs), sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio were calculated. The heterogeneity, quality, and publication bias of studies were evaluated. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed. A total of 49 papers were included. The AUSROCs of PSR for any varices and high-risk varices were 0.8719 and 0.8132, respectively. The summary sensitivities of PSR for any varices and high-risk varices were 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The summary specificities of PSR for any varices and high-risk varices were 0.78 and 0.67, respectively. The AUSROC of PSR for any varices at the threshold of 909 was 0.8867. The AUSROC of PSR for any varices in viral liver cirrhosis was 0.8675. The overall quality of studies was moderate. Significant heterogeneity and publication bias existed in the study. In conclusion, PSR can be used to identify varices in liver cirrhosis. PSR had a high sensitivity in viral liver cirrhosis. PMID:28270848

  18. [Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Prospective analysis of 741 cases].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, F; Cifuentes, C; Mavares, J; Voso, J; Monasterios, W; Hinestrosa, H; Quiros, E

    1993-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics and clinical outcome of patients with upper digestive bleeding. Between April 1987 and May 1993, 741 patients, 517 men and 224 women, with a mean age of 50.48 years (range, 12 to 94) were admitted to the emergency department with this diagnosis. The chief complaint was tarry stool (88.4%). A total of 717 patients underwent endoscopic examination within a mean time of 17.2 hours of arrival at the emergency department. Duodenal ulcers were found in 216 (35.9%) patients, gastric ulcer in 240 (32.4%), gastritis in 74 (10%), esophageal varices in 38 (5.1%), and other causes in 121 patients (16.5%). 478 required blood transfusion (range of 1 to 15 blood units transfused). 80.4% of patients who died necessitated transfusion versus 62.5% of the patients who had a satisfactory outcome. A total of 672 cases (92%) were managed with medical therapy. In 90 cases (12.2%) endoscopic injection treatment with 75% alcohol was performed. 60 patients (8.18%) had surgical therapy, 81.7% of whom underwent emergency operation to arrest bleeding. The global mortality was 10.6% (78 of 741 patients), compared to 18.3% in patients who were operated. The highest mortality occurred in patients with esophageal varices. We conclude that peptic ulcer is still the mayor cause of upper digestive bleeding. The high mortality found in patients who required surgical therapy creates the need to select those patients who may get benefits of alternate therapies which may improve the outcome.

  19. Prevalence of gastric lesions in racing Alaskan sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Davis, M S; Willard, M D; Nelson, S L; Mandsager, R E; McKiernan, B S; Mansell, J K; Lehenbauer, T W

    2003-01-01

    Human and equine athletes are reported to have a high prevalence of gastric disease, and anecdotal evidence suggests a similar phenomenon applies to racing sled dogs. To investigate the prevalence of gastric disease in racing sled dogs, we conducted 2 gastroscopy studies on dogs competing in the annual Iditarod Sled Dog Race. A pilot study of dogs that were either dropped from the 2000 Iditarod Sled Dog Race because of illness or that finished the race indicated that, approximately 5 days after competing, 10 of 28 dogs (35%) had endoscopic evidence of gastric ulceration, erosion, or hemorrhage. The next year, an endoscopic study of 73 dogs participating in the 2001 Iditarod race was performed in order to evaluate a larger population of dogs. Data from 70 of these dogs could be used; 34 (48.5%) had ulceration, erosion, gastric hemorrhage, or some combination of these findings. When this group of 70 dogs was compared retrospectively to a control group of 87 dogs presented to the Texas A&M University (TAMU) Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, the Iditarod sled dogs had a significantly higher prevalence (P = .049) of gastric lesions. These findings suggest that, similar to athletes of other species, elite canine athletes have an increased prevalence of gastric disease compared to the canine population at large.

  20. [Incidence and predictive factors of iron deficiency anemia after acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding without portal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Planella de Rubinat, Montserrat; Teixidó Amorós, Montserrat; Ballester Clau, Raquel; Trujillano Cabello, Javier; Ibarz Escuer, Mercedes; Reñé Espinet, Josep Maria

    2015-11-01

    There are few studies on iron deficiency anemia (IDA) after non-variceal acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients without portal hypertension. To define the incidence of IDA after UGIB, to characterize the predictive factors for IDA and to design algorithms that could help physicians identify those patients who could benefit from iron therapy. We registered 391 patients with UGIB between April 2007 and May 2009. Patients with portal hypertension and those with clinical or/and biological conditions that could affect the ferrokinetic pattern were excluded. Blood analyses were performed, including ferric parameters upon admission, on the 5th day, and on the 30th day after the hemorrhage episode. We used a multiple logistic regression model and a classification and regression tree model. A total of 124 patients were included, of which 76 (61.3%) developed IDA 30 days after UGIB. The predictive variables were age >75 years (P=.037; OR 3.9; 95% CI: 1.3-11.6), initial urea level >80mg/dL (P=.027; OR 2.9; 95% CI: 1.1-7.6), initial ferritin level ≤65ng/dL (P=.002; OR 7.6; 95% CI: 2.9-18.5), initial hemoglobin level ≤100g/L (P=.003; OR 3.2; 95% CI: 1.3-8.0), hemoglobin level on the 5th day ≤100g/L (P<.001; OR 14.9; 95% CI: 3.6-61.1) and the value of the transferrin saturation index on the 5th day <10% (p<0.001; OR 7.2; 95% CI: 2.6-20.3). Most patients with UGIB developed IDA 30 days after the episode. Identification of the predictive factors for IDA may help to establish guidelines for the administration of iron therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  1. Gastric Mucosal Energy Metabolism and “Stress Ulceration,”

    PubMed Central

    Menguy, Rene; Masters, Y. F.

    1974-01-01

    Acute gastric erosions following hemorrhagic shock (stress ulceration) have been attributed to gastric hyperacidity, altered gastric secretion of mucus and an abnormal permeability of the gastric mucosa to H+. This report aims at presenting evidence supporting an alternate hypothesis: the event linking shock-induced gastric mucosal ischemia to mucosal necrosis is a deficit in gastric mucosal energy metabolism. Our experimental procedure consisted of harvesting the stomachs of rats and rabbits by “stop-freeze” (liquid N2) at different intervals after the induction of hemorrhagic shock. Levels of adenosine-phosphates and of glycolytic intermediates in gastric mucosa were measured. We studied the changes in the levels of these substrates produced by shock as well as by factors capable, when combined with shock, of rendering the gastric mucosa more vulnerable to stress ulceration. The influence of shock and of these modifying factors were evaluated by comparison with data from appropriately designed control experiments. In parallel experiments we examined the frequency of stress ulceration (gross and microscopic) under these same standard conditions. There have emerged from these studies a number of observations all based upon data with the highest statistical significance. The data are consonant with the hypothesis stated above: an energy deficit severe enough to cause cellular necrosis is the event linking shock-induced gastric mucosal ischemia and stress ulceration. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2. PMID:4278107

  2. Rockall risk score in predicting 30 days non-variceal upper gastrointestinal rebleeding in a Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Lip, H T; Heah, H T; Huei, T J; Premaa, S; Sarojah, A

    2016-10-01

    the aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of Rockall score in predicting outcomes of 30 days rebleeding, mortality and need for surgical intervention of bleeding gastric and duodenal ulcers. this is a retrospective cohort study of all the emergency endoscopies performed in Hospital sultan Ismail from January 2009 to October 2014 for indications of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIb). Data was extracted from hospital's electronic database and only non-variceal bleeds were included. Rockall score was calculated and outcomes of 30 days rebleeding, mortality and need for surgery was recorded. For each outcome, calibration was done using the Goodness-of-fit tests and discriminative ability was reflected by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROc). A total of 1323 patients were included with a male preponderance of 64%. the overall rates of rebleeding were 11.2%, mortality rate of 8.7% and need for surgery was 2%. Low AUROc values for rebleeding (0.63), mortality (0.58) and surgery (0.67) showed poor discriminative ability of Rockall score. the Goodness-of-fit test also revealed that the scoring system was poorly calibrated in outcomes of rebleeding (p <0.001), mortality (p = 0.001) and surgery (p = 0.038) with p-value <0.05. Patients with high risk (scores ≥8) displayed highest rebleeding and mortality rates of 20% respectively in comparison to the moderate (score 3-7) and low (score ≤2) risk groups. Rockall score has a poor discriminative ability and is poorly calibrated for rebleeding, mortality and need for surgery in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, it is the best tool we have now to stratify patients into risk groups.

  3. Successful Management of Lip and Oral Venous Varices by Photocoagulation with Nd:YAG Laser.

    PubMed

    Migliari, Dante; Vieira, Rodrigo R; Nakajima, Edgar K; Azevedo, Luciane H

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of photocoagulation with Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of lip and oral venous varices. Sixteen consecutive patients (eight men and eight women, mean age 56 years) diagnosed as having either lip or oral venous varices, were examined and treated with a noncontact Nd:YAG laser. As lesions were small (less than 1 cm), round or oval in shape, flat, dark to blue in color and symptomless, patients sought for treatment either for esthetic reason, bleeding or cancerophobia-related concern. All but one lesion were successfully treated with only one irradiation exposure. Healing was completed in about 2 to 4 weeks; none of the patients experienced complications or recurrence. Pain was out of any major concern during immediate follow-up. Although photocoagulation with Nd:YAG laser did not outperform the effectiveness observed with diode laser (data shown in a previous study),(17) it proved to be safe and effective for the treatment of lip and oral varices, with consistent results. Most of patients with oral and lip varices only need some clinical advice regarding the their nature of their lesions. Yet, for those who seek treatment for this conditions, the use Nd:YAG laser is an option as it yields satisfactory outcomes.

  4. Thrombelastographic changes and early rebleeding in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Chau, T; Chan, Y; Patch, D; Tokunaga, S; Greenslade, L; Burroughs, A

    1998-01-01

    Background—Routine coagulation tests do not necessarily reflect haemostasis in vivo in cirrhotic patients, particularly those who have bleeding varices. Thrombelastography (TEG) can provide a global assessment of haemostatic function from initial clot formation to clot dissolution. 
Aim—To evaluate TEG changes in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding and their association with early rebleeding. 
Patients/Methods—Twenty cirrhotic patients with active variceal bleeding had serial TEG and routine coagulation tests daily for seven days. The TEG variables before the day of rebleeding (n = 6) were compared with those of patients without rebleeding (n =14). 
Results—Baseline characteristics of the rebleeding and non-rebleeding groups were comparable apart from a higher incidence of uncontrolled infection on the day of rebleeding in the rebleeding group (p = 0.007). The patients in the rebleeding group were more hypocoagulable before the day of rebleeding as shown by longer r (42 v 24 mm, p<0.001) and k (48 v 13 mm, p<0.001) and smaller a (12 v 38°, p<0.001) compared with the mean of daily results of the non-rebleeding group. Routine coagulation tests, however, showed no significant differences between the two groups. 
Conclusion—The results of serial TEG measurements suggest that hypocoagulability may be associated with early rebleeding in cirrhotic patients. 

 Keywords: thrombelastography; variceal bleeding; early rebleeding; cirrhosis PMID:10189856

  5. Chronology of histological changes after band ligation of esophageal varices in humans.

    PubMed

    Polski, J M; Brunt, E M; Saeed, Z A

    2001-05-01

    While the histological effects of endoscopic sclerotherapy in humans have been extensively described, the effects of endoscopic ligation have been reported in only two cases. The purpose of this study was to reconstruct the chronological sequence of histological changes after ligation of esophageal varices. Autopsy specimens from six patients who received ligation of varices from nine hours to 22 months ante-mortem were evaluated for gross and microscopic changes. Early after ligation, the appearance was that of a polyp with its base compressed by the band. Variceal thrombosis was seen on day 2. Varying degrees of ischemic necrosis of the polyp were present on days 0-5. If the bands did not remain in situ for two days (premature loss), necrosis of the polyp and dilated variceal vessels were seen. On day 22, superficial ulcers were observed. After complete healing, fibrosis was seen in the submucosa. The changes seen in the present study are similar to those described in animals. The delay in ulcer healing, compared with the gross changes reported during follow-up endoscopic examinations, may be related to the severity of the underlying illness and the compromised immune status of patients in the present series.

  6. Management of non variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: position statement of the Catalan Society of Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    García-Iglesias, Pilar; Botargues, Josep-Maria; Feu Caballé, Faust; Villanueva Sánchez, Càndid; Calvet Calvo, Xavier; Brullet Benedi, Enric; Cánovas Moreno, Gabriel; Fort Martorell, Esther; Gallach Montero, Marta; Gené Tous, Emili; Hidalgo Rosas, José-Manuel; Lago Macía, Amelia; Nieto Rodríguez, Ana; Papo Berger, Michel; Planella de Rubinat, Montserrat; Saló Rich, Joan; Campo Fernández de Los Ríos, Rafel

    2017-01-18

    In recent years there have been advances in the management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding that have helped reduce rebleeding and mortality. This document positioning of the Catalan Society of Digestologia is an update of evidence-based recommendations on management of gastrointestinal bleeding peptic ulcer.

  7. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  8. Acral Hemorrhagic Darier Disease.

    PubMed

    Flores-Terry, M Á; García-Arpa, M; Llamas-Velasco, M; Mendoza-Chaparro, C; Ramos-Rodríguez, C

    2017-09-01

    Darier disease is an autosomal-dominant inherited condition caused by mutation of a gene, which produces a protein involved in calcium channel regulation. The disease has a variety of manifestations and lacks consistent genotype-phenotype correlations. Acral hemorrhagic Darier disease causes macules, papules, vesicles and/or hemorrhagic blisters on the extremities. Other classic signs of the disease may be present in the same patient or relatives. Histopathology reveals dyskeratosis and suprabasal acantholysis with hemorrhagic lacunae. We report 3 new cases of this type of Darier disease triggered by injuries. Response to retinoid therapy was good. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Jaffer A; Lee, Jeeyun; Sano, Takeshi; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Fan, Daiming; Song, Shumei

    2017-06-01

    Gastric cancers, with gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) as the most common histological type, impose a considerable global health burden. Although the screening strategies for early detection have been shown to be successful in Japan and South Korea, they are either not implemented or not feasible in most of the world, leading to late diagnosis in most patients. Helicobacter pylori infection contributes to the development of many endemic GACs, and pre-emptive eradication or early treatment of this bacterial infection might provide effective primary prevention. GACs are phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous. Localized (clinical stage I) GAC is best treated either endoscopically or with limited surgical resection, but clinical stage II or stage III tumours require multidisciplinary adjunctive approaches in addition to surgery. Although GAC is highly treatable in its early stages, advanced (clinical stage IV) GAC has a median survival of just ∼9-10 months. However, detailed molecular and immune profiling of GAC is yielding promise; early studies with immune checkpoint inhibitors suggest that GAC is amenable to immune modulation. Molecular studies have yielded a vast quantity of new information for potential exploitation. Nevertheless, advances against GACs have lagged compared with other tumours of similar incidence, and more research is necessary to overcome the obstacles to prolong survival.

  10. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... was first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, ...

  11. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: beyond aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Marder, Carrie P; Narla, Vinod; Fink, James R; Tozer Fink, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) typically prompts a search for an underlying ruptured saccular aneurysm, which is the most common nontraumatic cause. Depending on the clinical presentation and pattern of SAH, the differential diagnosis may include a diverse group of causes other than aneurysm rupture. For the purposes of this review, we classify SAH into three main patterns, defined by the distribution of blood on unenhanced CT: diffuse, perimesencephalic, and convexal. The epicenter of the hemorrhage further refines the differential diagnosis and guides subsequent imaging. Additionally, we review multiple clinical conditions that can simulate the appearance of SAH on CT or MRI, an imaging artifact known as pseudo-SAH.

  12. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    AD-A<m 761 KOREA UNIV SEOUL COLL OF MEDICINE KOREAN HEM0RRHA6IC FEVER.(U) MAR 80 H W LEE UNCLASSIFIED ICFI F/6 6/5 DAM017-79-6-9<*55 NL...I» > I,,iu. •Uli ••-. SUMMARY There were 364 hospitalized cases of Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) in 1979 in Korea . Lee et al...STANDARDS-1963-A ?H "LEVEtf® AD <o KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC F EVER A D A 09 47 Final Report HO WANG LEE, M. D. March 1980 i MIL. IIB«I . Mm k iw

  13. Usefulness of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in the Management of Bleeding Ectopic Varices in Cirrhotic Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, V.; Joly, L.; Perreault, P.; Bouchard, L.; Lafortune, M.; Pomier-Layrargues, G.

    2006-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in the control of bleeding from ectopic varices. Methods. From 1995 to 2004, 24 cirrhotic patients, bleeding from ectopic varices, mean age 54.5 years (range 15-76 years), were treated by TIPS. The etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholic in 13 patients and nonalcoholic in 11 patients. The location of the varices was duodenal (n = 5), stomal (n = 8), ileocolic (n = 6), anorectal (n = 3), umbilical (n = 1), and peritoneal (n 1). Results. TIPS controlled the bleeding in all patients and induced a decrease in the portacaval gradient from 19.7 {+-} 5.4 to 6.4 {+-} 3.1 mmHg. Postoperative complications included self-limited intra-abdominal bleeding (n = 2), self-limited hemobilia (n = 1), acute thrombosis of the shunt (n = 1), and bile leak treated by a covered stent (n = 1). Median follow-up was 592 days (range 28-2482 days). Rebleeding occurred in 6 patients. In 2 cases rebleeding was observed despite a post-TIPS portacaval gradient lower than 12 mmHg and was controlled by variceal embolization; 1 patient underwent surgical portacaval shunt and never rebled; in 3 patients rebleeding was related to TIPS stenosis and treated with shunt dilatation with addition of a new stent. The cumulative rate of rebleeding was 23% and 31% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. One- and 2-year survival rates were 80% and 76%, respectively. Conclusion. The present series demonstrates that bleeding from ectopic varices, a challenging clinical problem, can be managed safely by TIPS placement with low rebleeding and good survival rates.

  14. Platelet count/spleen diameter ratio to predict esophageal varices in Mexican patients with hepatic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Cervantes-Guevara, Gabino; Chávez-Sánchez, Manuela; Dávalos-Cobián, Carlos; Ornelas-Cázares, Susana; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv; Chávez-Tostado, Mariana; Ramírez-Campos, Kenia Militzi; Ramírez-Arce, Anaís Del Rocío; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde

    2014-02-28

    To validate whether the platelet count/spleen size ratio can be used to predict the presence of esophageal varices in Mexican patients with hepatic cirrhosis. This was an analytical cross-sectional study to validate the diagnostic test for hepatic cirrhosis and was performed between February 2010 and December 2011. Patients with a diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis were included and stratified using their Child-Pugh score. Biochemical parameters were evaluated, and ultrasound was used to measure the longest diameter of the spleen. The platelet count/spleen diameter ratio was calculated and analyzed to determine whether it can predict the presence of esophageal varices. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was used as the gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were determined, with the cutoff points determined by receiver-operating characteristic curves. A total of 91 patients were included. The mean age was 53.75 ± 12 years; 50 (54.9%) were men, and 41 (45.0%) women. The etiology of cirrhosis included alcohol in 48 (52.7%), virally induced in 24 (26.3%), alcoholism plus hepatitis C virus in three (3.2%), cryptogenic in nine (9.8%), and primary biliary cirrhosis in seven (7.6%). Esophageal varices were present in 73 (80.2%) patients. Child-Pugh classification, 17 (18.6%) patients were classified as class A, 37 (40.6%) as class B, and 37 (40.6%) as class C. The platelet count/spleen diameter ratio to detect esophageal varices independent of the grade showed using a cutoff value of ≤ 884.3, had 84% sensitivity, 70% specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 94% and 40%, respectively. Our results suggest that the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio may be a useful tool for detecting esophageal varices in patients with hepatic cirrhosis.

  15. Platelet count/spleen diameter ratio to predict esophageal varices in Mexican patients with hepatic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Cervantes-Guevara, Gabino; Chávez-Sánchez, Manuela; Dávalos-Cobián, Carlos; Ornelas-Cázares, Susana; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv; Chávez-Tostado, Mariana; Ramírez-Campos, Kenia Militzi; Ramírez-Arce, Anaís del Rocío; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To validate whether the platelet count/spleen size ratio can be used to predict the presence of esophageal varices in Mexican patients with hepatic cirrhosis. METHODS: This was an analytical cross-sectional study to validate the diagnostic test for hepatic cirrhosis and was performed between February 2010 and December 2011. Patients with a diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis were included and stratified using their Child-Pugh score. Biochemical parameters were evaluated, and ultrasound was used to measure the longest diameter of the spleen. The platelet count/spleen diameter ratio was calculated and analyzed to determine whether it can predict the presence of esophageal varices. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was used as the gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were determined, with the cutoff points determined by receiver-operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: A total of 91 patients were included. The mean age was 53.75 ± 12 years; 50 (54.9%) were men, and 41 (45.0%) women. The etiology of cirrhosis included alcohol in 48 (52.7%), virally induced in 24 (26.3%), alcoholism plus hepatitis C virus in three (3.2%), cryptogenic in nine (9.8%), and primary biliary cirrhosis in seven (7.6%). Esophageal varices were present in 73 (80.2%) patients. Child-Pugh classification, 17 (18.6%) patients were classified as class A, 37 (40.6%) as class B, and 37 (40.6%) as class C. The platelet count/spleen diameter ratio to detect esophageal varices independent of the grade showed using a cutoff value of ≤ 884.3, had 84% sensitivity, 70% specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 94% and 40%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio may be a useful tool for detecting esophageal varices in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:24616574

  16. [Endoscopic rubber band ligation in treatment of esophageal varices bleeding. Personal experience].

    PubMed

    Geraci, G; Arnone, E; Lo Nigro, C; Sciuto, A; Modica, G; Sciumè, C

    2011-03-01

    Bleeding esophageal varices is the most serious complication of the portal hypertension, and the greater cause of dead (25% of the patients). The survival after esophageal varices bleeding depends in wide part from the swiftness and effectiveness of hemostasis and from the degree of functional liver reserve. Aim of our manuscript is to report our experience about hemostasis bleeding esophageal varices with endoscopic rubber band ligation. From January 1999 to January 2008 we performed 302 esofagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS) for esophageal varices bleeding (M: F ratio = 1.4:1, mean age 56.4 years, 62% of cases with HCV-related cirrhosis, 29% alcoholic cirrhosis and 9% cryptogenic cirrhosis; 20% suffered from chronic renal failure, 15% diabetes mellitus, 10% hepatocellular carcinoma on cirrhosis, 5% systemic encephalopathy and 1% AIDS). RESULTS; All patients were treated within 6 hours after the first reported episode of haematemesis and all received beta-blocker therapy after the episode. In the first phase of our experience were used rechargeable elastic ligator and then multibyte, even in combination with polidocanol sclerotherapy (8%) or injection of cyanoacrylate (5%). The best results were achieved with band ligation, in terms of primitive haemostasis, rebleeding, (3%), intraoperative mortality (1%) and 6 weeks mortality (1%). To date, no single method applicable to all patients with bleeding esophageal varices, but endoscopic rubber band ligation is currently considered the first-line treatment of proper multidisciplinary approach to the patient, both during the acute event than prevention of rebleeding, because it is an effective, safe and repeatable, in experienced hands.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of abdominal ultrasound in the screening of esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sort, Pau; Muelas, Magdalena; Isava, Alvaro; Llaó, Jordina; Porta, Francesc; Puig, Ignasi; Domínguez-Curell, Claudia; Esteve, Enrique; Yanguas, Carles; Vida, Francesc

    2014-12-01

    Abdominal ultrasound (US) may provide data on the presence of esophageal varices in cirrhosis. We assess the diagnostic accuracy of this procedure. Retrospective recording of clinical data was carried out in cirrhotic patients who underwent abdominal US and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We compared patients with and without large varices and assessed the value of US in predicting the presence of these lesions as well as other significant variables. Of the 353 patients included, 123 (35%) had esophageal varices. The presence of US signs of portal hypertension independently predicted the existence of esophageal varices with a sensitivity of 87.9%, a specificity of 34.9%, a positive predictive value of 40.6%, and a negative predictive value of 85.1%, which could increase to 91.5% if the patient presented plasma albumin and platelet concentrations above the mean values (3.1 g/dl and 122×10 cells/l, respectively). Plasma albumin and platelet concentrations were the two other variables with independent predictive capacity. Applying these selection criteria, up to 30% of screening endoscopies may not be necessary, and up to 43% in patients with compensated cirrhosis. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, however, US does not have predictive capacity. The results obtained are comparable with those reported for transient elastography. Abdominal US is a highly reliable technique for detecting patients with a low risk of presenting esophageal varices. Its use may avoid up to 43% of screening endoscopies in patients with compensated cirrhosis. The results obtained are similar to those observed using transient elastography.

  18. Second prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients with a high HVPG.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingyan; Wang, Guangchuan; Zhao, Lianhui; Wu, Zhe; Zhang, Wenxing; Zhang, Chunqing

    2016-12-01

    The hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) could be used to stratify patients in different risk groups. No studies have reported the role of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement in a subgroup of patients with a high HVPG (≥20 mmHg) for secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. This study was designed to evaluate the benefit of TIPS in cirrhotic patients with a high HVPG (≥20 mmHg) for rebleeding and survival. We included 46 cirrhotic patients with a history of variceal bleeding and a high HVPG (≥20 mmHg) admitted to our hospital between January 2013 and June 2014 (TIPS group). Patients were matched by Child-Pugh scores to patients in our historical cohort hospitalized for prophylaxis of variceal rebleeding between April 2011 and December 2012 (propranolol + EVL group). The end points included time to significant rebleeding from portal hypertensive sources, 1-year survival, and time to the occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The 1-year actuarial probability of remaining free of variceal rebleeding was significantly higher in the TIPS group than in the propranolol + EVL group (85% vs. 54%, p = 0.01). The 1-year survival rates were not different between the two groups (85% vs. 89%, p = 0.591). The 1-year actuarial probability of remaining free of HE was significantly lower in the TIPS group than in the propranolol + EVL group (67% vs. 91%, p = 0.003). TIPS was more effective than propranolol + EVL in preventing variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patients with a high HVPG (≥20 mmHg). During the limited follow-up, survival was similar in the two groups.

  19. Hemorrhage risk with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) insertion at the main portal vein bifurcation with stent grafts.

    PubMed

    Griffin, A S; Preece, S R; Ronald, J; Smith, T P; Suhocki, P V; Kim, C Y

    2017-08-23

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of major hemorrhage after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) insertion using a stent graft at the main portal vein bifurcation. TIPS insertion using stent grafts was performed in 215 patients due to non-variceal hemorrhage indications. There were 137 men and 78 women, with a mean age of 57 years±10.6 (SD) (range: 19-90 years). Based on retrospective review of portal venograms, TIPS inserted within 5mm from the portal vein bifurcation were considered "bifurcation TIPS", while those inserted 2cm or greater from the bifurcation were considered intrahepatic. Suspicion for acute major periprocedural hemorrhage were categorized as low, moderate, and high, based on the number of signs of hemorrhage. Of 215 TIPS inserted for purposes other than hemorrhage, the TIPS was inserted at the portal bifurcation in 41 patients (29 men, 12 women; mean age, 55.9±11.7 (SD); range: 26-79 years) and intrahepatic in 62 patients (37 men, 25 women; mean age, 57.6±10.6 (SD), range: 34-82 years), whereas 112 were indeterminate in location. No active extravasations were identified on post-TIPS portal venograms. Suspicion for acute major hemorrhage was moderate or high in 3/41 (7%) of patients in the TIPS bifurcation group compared to 5/62 (8%) in the intrahepatic TIPS group (P>0.99). There were no significant differences in 30-day mortality rates (1/41 [2%] and 3/62 [5%] respectively; P> 0.99). No deaths or interventions were attributed to acute hemorrhage. TIPS insertion at the portal bifurcation with stent grafts did not incur an elevated risk of hemorrhagic complications. Copyright © 2017 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Presentation of the patient with recurrent varices after surgery (REVAS).

    PubMed

    Perrin, Michel R; Labropoulos, Nicos; Leon, Luis R

    2006-02-01

    To identify in patients with recurrent varices after surgery (REVAS) the clinical, etiologic, anatomic, and pathophysiologic patterns according to the CEAP classification, as well as the site, source, causes of recurrence, and contributory factors by using the REVAS classification. Centers from eight countries enrolled patients with superficial vein reflux that had had a previous operation. A physical examination and a duplex ultrasound scan were performed at the first visit. This was repeated between 2 to 8 weeks after by the same physician and by another physician within the same time frame. The perforator, deep, and superficial veins systems as well as their accessories and tributaries were examined. A form based on the CEAP and the REVAS classification was used and the data were entered in a customized database. Fourteen institutions enrolled 170 patients (199 lower limbs) in 1 year. Their mean age was 56 years, and 69% were women. Most of them had undergone one surgical procedure before enrollment (76.6%). Most had varicose veins and swelling (70.9%), and the rest had skin damage (29.1%). More than 90% had primary etiology. The saphenofemoral junction (47.2%) and leg perforators (54.7%) were the areas most often involved by recurrent reflux. Reflux in deep veins was detected in 27.4%. Class 2 (varicose veins) alone was present in 24.6% of limbs, two classes were present in 43%, and three in 24%. Neovascularization was as frequent as technical failure (20% vs 19%); both were seen in 17%. In 35%, the cause was uncertain or unknown. When recurrence occurred at a different site, development of reflux in new sites was found in 32% of limbs. Of the contributing factors, family history and lifestyle had the highest prevalence. Women had significantly more procedures than men, despite a clear trend toward more severe disease in the latter. Most patients were symptomatic with several clinical forms of presentation. The REVAS classification, together with CEAP, gives

  1. Hemorrhagic Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chris Y; Riangwiwat, Tanawan; Nakamoto, Beau K

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) may be associated with viral triggers, including both infections and vaccinations. We present a case of a healthy immunocompetent 33-year-old woman who developed a hemorrhagic LETM 2 weeks after seasonal influenza vaccination. Hemorrhagic LETM has not to our knowledge been reported after influenza vaccination. It may represent a forme fruste variant of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis.

  2. Gastric siderosis: patterns and significance.

    PubMed

    Marginean, Esmeralda C; Bennick, Michael; Cyczk, Jan; Robert, Marie E; Jain, Dhanpat

    2006-04-01

    iron medication was present in 2 (n = 11, 0.4%) patients with pattern A, in all patients with pattern B (n = 4, 100%), and in none of patients with pattern C (n=3, 0%). Varying degrees of mucosal inflammation were noted in patients with pattern A cases, and 2 had evidence of active Helicobacter pylori infection. Of the 3 cases with known hemochromatosis, only one gastric biopsy showed pattern C GS (1+). In conclusion, gastric mucosal siderosis is relatively uncommon (3%) but is important to look for as it may lead to a diagnosis of hemochromatosis in some cases. Three patterns are recognized: A) a "nonspecific" stromal cell predominant pattern, which may be associated with gastric inflammation, possibly prior mucosal hemorrhages or iron medications; B) extracellular coarse clumps of crystalline iron deposition associated with oral iron medications, mild gastritis, and reactive gastropathy type changes ("Iron-pill gastritis"); and C) gastric glandular siderosis, which may be associated with systemic iron overload/hemochromatosis.

  3. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever (Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    RD-RI55 255 KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL 11 SYNDROME (HFRS))(U) KOREA UNIV SEOUL DEPT OF MICROBIOLOGY H U LEE RUG 83 DRMDi...the first time in Korea (4,13). WHO has recently adapted to call Korean hemorrhagic fever and clinically similar diseases with a different name, HFRS...AD_______ I •. KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC FEVER • (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME (HFRS)) I Final Report 0 In HO WANG LEE, M.D. August 1983 Supported by U.S

  4. Hemorrhage and Hemorrhagic Shock in Swine: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    C, Seufert RM, Kahne FW, Basing M (1977): Experimental gastric sympathectomy - an effective prophylaxis of gastric stress lesions. Ann Surg 186:762... Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 62:822-824. Merritt AM, Brooks FP (1970): Basal and histamine induced gastric secretion in the conscious miniature pig

  5. Clinical review: Hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Reines, H David; Wulf-Gutierrez, Marian E

    2004-01-01

    This review addresses the pathophysiology and treatment of hemorrhagic shock – a condition produced by rapid and significant loss of intravascular volume, which may lead sequentially to hemodynamic instability, decreases in oxygen delivery, decreased tissue perfusion, cellular hypoxia, organ damage, and death. Hemorrhagic shock can be rapidly fatal. The primary goals are to stop the bleeding and to restore circulating blood volume. Resuscitation may well depend on the estimated severity of hemorrhage. It now appears that patients with moderate hypotension from bleeding may benefit by delaying massive fluid resuscitation until they reach a definitive care facility. On the other hand, the use of intravenous fluids, crystalloids or colloids, and blood products can be life saving in those patients who are in severe hemorrhagic shock. The optimal method of resuscitation has not been clearly established. A hemoglobin level of 7–8 g/dl appears to be an appropriate threshold for transfusion in critically ill patients with no evidence of tissue hypoxia. However, maintaining a higher hemoglobin level of 10 g/dl is a reasonable goal in actively bleeding patients, the elderly, or individuals who are at risk for myocardial infarction. Moreover, hemoglobin concentration should not be the only therapeutic guide in actively bleeding patients. Instead, therapy should be aimed at restoring intravascular volume and adequate hemodynamic parameters. PMID:15469601

  6. Major obstetric hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Frederic J; Van de Velde, Marc

    2008-03-01

    Major obstetric hemorrhage remains the leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide, and is associated with a high rate of substandard care. A well-defined and multidisciplinary approach that aims to act quickly and avoid omissions or conflicting strategies is key. The most common etiologies of hemorrhage are abruptio placenta, placenta previa/accreta, uterine rupture in the antepartum period and retained placenta, uterine atony, and genital-tract trauma in the postpartum period. Basic treatment of postpartum hemorrhage relies on manual removal of the placenta or manual exploration of the uterus plus bladder emptying and oxytocin administration. If this does not arrest bleeding, or if there is any suspicion of genital-tract trauma, examination of the vagina and cervix with appropriate valves and analgesia/anesthesia must follow quickly. Postpartum uterine atony resistant to oxytocin must be treated with prostaglandin within 15 to 30 minutes; uterine balloon tamponade can be also useful at this stage. Aggressive transfusion therapy and resuscitation are mandatory in major obstetric hemorrhage. Specific invasive treatment must be considered within no more than 30 to 60 minutes, if previous measures have failed -- and even earlier in some particular etiologies. The two main options are radiologic embolization and surgical artery ligations. Recombinant factor VIIa may also be considered, but should not delay the performance of a life-saving procedure such as embolization or surgery. Hysterectomy must be implemented when all other interventions have failed.

  7. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) occurred for the first time in Korea , 1951, although it had previously been known to both the Japanese and Russians...After Korean war, the disease has been fixed in the areas of DMZ as an endemic one, and from 100 to 400 cases have been being reportee every year

  8. Vascular Plug Assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (PARTO) for Gastric Varix Bleeding Patients in the Emergent Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Heechul; Lee, Chun Kyon; Kim, Gun Bea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the technical feasibility and safety of vascular plug assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) for bleeding gastric varix performed in the emergent clinical setting and describe the mid-term clinical results. Materials and Methods From April 2012 to January 2015, emergent PARTO was tried in total 9 patients presented with active gastric varix bleeding. After initial insufficient or failure of endoscopic approach, they underwent PARTO in the emergent clinical setting. Gelatin sponge embolization of both gastrorenal (GR) shunt and gastric varix was performed after retrograde transvenous placement of a vascular plug in GR shunt. Coil assisted RTO (CARTO) was performed in one patient who had challenging GR shunt anatomy for vascular plug placement. Additional embolic materials, such as microcoils and NBCA glue-lipiodol mixture, were required in three patients to enhance complete occlusion of GR shunt or obliteration of competitive collateral vessels. Clinical success was defined as no variceal rebleeding and disappearance of gastric varix. Results All technical and clinical success–i.e., complete GR shunt occlusion and offending gastric varix embolization with immediate bleeding control–was achieved in all 9 patients. There was no procedure-related complication. All cases showed successful clinical outcome during mean follow up of 17 months (12–32 months), evidenced by imaging studies, endoscopy and clinical data. In 4 patients, mild worsening of esophageal varices or transient ascites was noted as portal hypertensive related change. Conclusion Emergent PARTO is technically feasible and safe, with acceptable mid-term clinical results, in treating active gastric varix bleeding. PMID:27189294

  9. "Downhill" Esophageal Varices due to Dialysis Catheter-Induced Superior Vena Caval Occlusion: A Rare Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Nayudu, Suresh Kumar; Dev, Anil; Kanneganti, Kalyan

    2013-01-01

    "Downhill" varices are a rare cause of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Rarely these varices are reported in patients receiving hemodialysis as a complication of chronic dialysis vascular access. We present a case of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in an individual with end-stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed "downhill" varices in the upper third of the esophagus without any active bleeding at the time of the procedure. An angiogram was performed disclosing superior vena caval occlusion, which was treated with balloon angioplasty. Gastroenterologists should have a high index of suspicion for these rare "downhill" varices when dealing with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving hemodialysis and manage it appropriately using endoscopic, radiological, and surgical interventions.

  10. Life-Threatening Bleeding from Peristomal Varices after Cystoprostatectomy: Multimodal Approach in a Cirrhotic, Encephalopathic Patient with Severe Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Staubli, Sergej E. L.; Gramann, Tobias; Schwab, Christoph; Semela, David; Hechelhammer, Lukas; Engeler, Daniel S.; Abt, Dominik; Mordasini, Livio

    2015-01-01

    The bleeding of peristomal varices due to a portosystemic shunt is rare but potentially life-threatening in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension. The scarce case reports in the literature recommend transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to prevent further bleeding. We report on a 72-year-old man who was referred to our hospital because of life-threatening bleeding from peristomal varices, three years after radical cystoprostatectomy for invasive bladder cancer. CT imaging showed liver cirrhosis with a prominent portosystemic shunt leading to massively enlarged peristomal varices. TIPS was taken into consideration, but not possible due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Medical therapy with lactulose and the nonselective beta-blocker carvedilol was initiated to treat HE and portal hypertension. In a second step, the portosystemic shunt was percutaneously embolized. Here, we present a multimodal approach to treat intractable bleeding from peristomal varices in a patient with ileal conduit urinary diversion, not suitable for TIPS. PMID:25709851

  11. Chronic Gastric Ischemia Leading to Gastric Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Lundsmith, Emma; Zheng, Matthew; McCue, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and hypertension presented with 3 months of diffuse abdominal pain that worsened with meals, weight loss, and dysphagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography revealed findings consistent with chronic gastric ischemia secondary to atherosclerosis. Gastric ischemia eventually led to perforation. We discuss causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of gastric ischemia, an underdiagnosed and potentially fatal condition that requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28119945

  12. Hemostatic Mechanisms, Independent of Platelet Aggregation, Arrest Gastric Mucosal Bleeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittle, Brendan J. R.; Kauffman, Gordon L.; Moncada, Salvador

    1986-08-01

    Platelet adhesion, aggregation, and subsequent plug formation play a major role in the control of cutaneous and vascular hemostasis. Little is known, however, about the hemostatic processes in gastric mucosal tissue. A method for evaluating bleeding from a standard incision in the gastric mucosa of the rat, rabbit, and dog has therefore been developed. By using pharmacological agents that interfere with platelet aggregation and blood coagulation, the mechanism of gastric hemostasis has been compared to that in the vasculature, using the rat mesenteric artery. Intravenous infusion of prostacyclin (0.5 μ g\\cdot kg-1\\cdot min-1), which inhibits platelet aggregation directly, or administration of the thromboxane synthase inhibitor 1-benzylimidazole (50 mg\\cdot kg-1) significantly prolonged bleeding in the mesenteric artery yet failed to alter gastric mucosal bleeding. In contrast, a low dose of heparin (100 units\\cdot kg-1), which interferes with the clotting process, had no effect on mesenteric bleeding but substantially prolonged bleeding from the gastric mucosa. These findings suggest that, unlike in the skin or vasculature, platelet aggregation plays a minimal role in the initial hemostatic events in the gastric mucosa and that the arrest of gastric hemorrhage is brought about largely by processes primarily involving the coagulation system.

  13. Assessment of variceal pressure by continuous non-invasive endoscopic registration: a placebo controlled evaluation of the effect of terlipressin and octreotide.

    PubMed Central

    Nevens, F; Van Steenbergen, W; Yap, S H; Fevery, J

    1996-01-01

    Octreotide has been proposed for the treatment of variceal bleeding. The effects on portal pressure, however, have been variable in published studies. As bleeding is more directly related to pressure in the varices, this study investigated the effect on variceal pressure of octreotide and terlipressin, a vasoactive drug with a well established effect. Variceal pressure was measured during four to eight minutes by a continuous non-invasive endoscopic registration method. Thirty patients in whom a stable variceal pressure recording had been obtained during at least one minute, were randomised to receive either 2 mg terlipressin, 50 micrograms octreotide or an identical volume of saline, as a single intravenous injection given over 60 seconds. For the final analysis three patients had to be excluded because of lack of a satisfactory recording. There were no significant clinical differences between the three groups of patients. Placebo administration did not induce significant changes, but a mean decrease in variceal pressure of -27% was noted with terlipressin, starting from two minutes onwards. Variceal pressure changes after injection of octreotide were variable and the mean change in pressure did not reach statistical significance. Seven of 10 patients showed a temporary increase in variceal pressure. In conclusion, terlipressin induces a significant and progressive decrease in variceal pressure but inconsistent variations of variceal pressure changes were seen after octreotide administration. This is probably related to its effect on central venous pressure. This study also shows that continuous variceal pressure recording with the non-invasive endoscopic registration technique detects in an accurate way the effect of vasoactive drugs on variceal pressure, because placebo injection did not produce significant changes. PMID:8566840

  14. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) versus laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) plus preoperative endoscopic varices ligation (EVL) in the treatment of recurrent variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Wu, Zhong; Wu, Junchao; Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Wang, Mingjun; Yang, Zhengguo; Peng, Bing; Zhou, Zongguang

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare elective transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) plus preoperative endoscopic varices ligation (EVL) in their efficacy in preventing recurrent bleeding and improving the long-term liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Between January 2009 and March 2012, we enrolled 83 patients (55 with TIPS, defined as the TIPS group, and 28 with LS plus preoperative EVL, defined as the LS group) with portal hypertension and a history of gastroesophageal variceal bleeding resulting from liver cirrhosis. The clinical characteristics, perioperative outcomes, and follow-up were recorded. No significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups with respect to the patients' characteristics and preoperative variables. Within 30 days after surgery, one patient in the TIPS group died of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, whereas no patient in the LS group died. Complications occurred in 14 patients in the TIPS group, which included rebleeding, encephalopathy, ascites, bleeding from a pseudoaneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta, and pulmonary infection, compared with 5 patients in the LS group, which included pulmonary effusion, pancreatic leakage, and portal vein thrombosis. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 months in the TIPS group and 12.3 months in the LS group, the actuarial survival was 85.5 % in the TIPS group versus 100 % in the LS group. The long-term complications included rebleeding and encephalopathy in the TIPS group. LS plus EVL was superior to TIPS in the prevention of gastroesophageal variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patients. This treatment was associated with a low rate of portosystemic encephalopathy and improvements in the long-term liver function.

  15. Gastric stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Ovali, Gülgün Yilmaz; Tarhan, Serdar; Serter, Selim; Pabuşçu, Yüksel

    2005-06-01

    Gastric stromal tumors are rare neoplasms of the stomach. In this report we present a gastric stromal tumor with an exophytic growth pattern, and describe magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography findings.

  16. Management of Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hinson, Holly E.; Ziai, Wendy C.

    2011-01-01

    Brain hemorrhage is the most fatal form of stroke and has the highest morbidity of any stroke subtype. Intraventricular extension of hemorrhage (IVH) is a particularly poor prognostic sign, with expected mortality between 50% and 80%. IVH is a significant and independent contributor to morbidity and mortality, yet therapy directed at ameliorating intraventricular clot has been limited. Conventional therapy centers on managing hypertension and intracranial pressure while correcting coagulopathy and avoiding complications such as rebleeding and hydrocephalus. Surgical therapy alone has not changed the natural history of the disease significantly. However, fibrinolysis in combination with extraventricular drainage shows promise as a technique to reduce intraventricular clot volume and to manage the concomitant complications of IVH. PMID:20425231

  17. [Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Chiriac, A; Poeată, I; Baldauf, J; Schroeder, H W

    2010-01-01

    Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is a neurosurgical emergency characterized by the extravasation of blood into the spaces covering the central nervous system that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The leading cause of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, which accounts for about 80 percent of cases and has a high rate of death and complications. The management of aneurysmal SAH has changed significantly over the past few years. This change is mostly due to the demonstration of the superiority of early diagnosis, surgical clipping or endovascular embolization of ruptured aneurysms. This superiority derives from the relative safety of early aneurysm occlusion and the major threat of early rebleeding (approximately 25% in three weeks after SAH).

  18. Spinal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Migrated from Traumatic Intracranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jin; Koh, Eun Jung

    2016-01-01

    Very rarely, spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SSAH) can occur without any direct spinal injury in patients with traumatic intracranial SAH. A-59-year-old male with traumatic intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) presented with pain and numbness in his buttock and thigh two days after trauma. Pain and numbness rapidly worsened and perianal numbness and voiding difficulty began on the next day. Magnetic resonance imaging showed intraspinal hemorrhage in the lumbosacral region. The cauda equina was displaced and compressed. Emergent laminectomy and drainage of hemorrhage were performed and SSAH was found intraoperatively. The symptoms were relieved immediately after the surgery. Patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage who present with delayed pain or neurological deficits should be evaluated for intraspinal hemorrhage promptly, even when the patients had no history of direct spinal injury and had no apparent symptoms related to the spinal injury in the initial period of trauma. PMID:27857928

  19. Management of gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Hilsden, R. J.; Shaffer, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a common problem that requires prompt recognition and management to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. Management goals are stabilization of the patient with vigorous fluid resuscitation followed by investigation and definitive treatment of the bleeding source. Endoscopy is often the initial diagnostic test and allows therapeutic measures to be performed at the same time. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8563510

  20. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Medicine Seoul, Korea * S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SUM ARY Urban rats captured in Seoul and four nearby Korean cities were found to have...rattus, urban Korean cities, 1980. . . . 15 Table 2. Isolation of Hantaan virus from antigen-positive wild house rats, Korea , 1980 .... ........... .. 16...Figures Figure 1. Map of Seoul City, South Korea and metropolitan area showing locations of urban Korean hemorrhagic fever cases, andRattu s positive

  1. Upper non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding - review the effectiveness of endoscopic hemostasis methods

    PubMed Central

    Szura, Mirosław; Pasternak, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Upper non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding is a condition that requires immediate medical intervention and has a high associated mortality rate (exceeding 10%). The vast majority of upper gastrointestinal bleeding cases are due to peptic ulcers. Helicobacter pylori infection, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin are the main risk factors for peptic ulcer disease. Endoscopic therapy has generally been recommended as the first-line treatment for upper gastrointestinal bleeding as it has been shown to reduce recurrent bleeding, the need for surgery and mortality. Early endoscopy (within 24 h of hospital admission) has a greater impact than delayed endoscopy on the length of hospital stay and requirement for blood transfusion. This paper aims to review and compare the efficacy of the types of endoscopic hemostasis most commonly used to control non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding by pooling data from the literature. PMID:26421105

  2. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    53 INTRODUCTION During the Korean War more than 3,200 United Nations troops in Korea devel6ped a rare hemorrhagic fever which attracted...patients in the Republic of Korea . Year Korean Korean US Total civilian soldiers soldiers 1951 ...... 627 827 1952 .... 833 833 1953 ... ... 455 455...0 RI m HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME ( KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC FEVER) ANNUAL SUMMARY REPORT HO WANG LEE, M.D. June 30, 1988 Door., Supported by U.S

  3. Selective shunt in the management of variceal bleeding in the era of liver transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J M; Gilmore, G T; Hooks, M A; Galloway, J R; Dodson, T F; Hood, M M; Kutner, M H; Boyer, T D

    1992-01-01

    This study reports the Emory experience with 147 distal splenorenal shunts (DSRS) and 110 orthotopic liver transplants (OLT) between January 1987 and December 1991. The purpose was to clarify which patients with variceal bleeding should be treated by DSRS versus OLT. Distal splenorenal shunts were selected for patients with adequate or good liver function. Orthotopic liver transplant was offered to patients with end-stage liver disease who fulfilled other selection criteria. The DSRS group comprised 71 Child's A, 70 Child's B, and 6 Child's C patients. The mean galactose elimination capacity for all DSRS patients was 330 +/- 98 mg/minute, which was significantly (p less than 0.01) above the galactose elimination capacity of 237 +/- 82 mg/minute in the OLT group. Survival analysis for the DSRS group showed 91% 1-year and 77% 3-year survival, which was better than the 74% 1-year and 60% 3-year survivals in the OLT group. Variceal bleeding as a major component of end-stage disease leading to OLT had significantly (p less than 0.05) poorer survival (50%) at 1 year compared with patients without variceal bleeding (80%). Hepatic function was maintained after DSRS, as measured by serum albumin and prothrombin time, but galactose elimination capacity decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) to 298 +/- 97 mg/minute. Quality of life, measured by a self-assessment questionnaire, was not significantly different in the DSRS and OLT groups. Hospital charges were significantly higher for OLT (median, $113,733) compared with DSRS ($32,674). These data support a role for selective shunt in the management of patients with variceal bleeding who require surgery and have good hepatic function. Transplantation should be reserved for patients with end-stage liver disease. A thorough evaluation, including tests of liver function, help in selection of the most appropriate therapeutic approach. PMID:1417174

  4. Adjusted blood requirement index as indicator of failure to control acute variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Duvnjak, Marko; Barsić, Neven; Tomasić, Vedran; Virović Jukić, Lucija; Lerotić, Ivan; Pavić, Tajana

    2006-06-01

    To estimate the clinical value of adjusted blood requirement index (ABRI) in relation to other criteria for failure of variceal bleeding control proposed at Baveno consensus workshops and to evaluate ABRI as an early predictor of occurrence of other Baveno criteria and identification of possible predictors of unfavorable ABRI. We retrospectively analyzed the data on 60 patients admitted to the hospital due to acute variceal bleeding. Number of treatment failures according to Baveno II-III and Baveno IV definitions and criteria was compared. We tested the ABRI's predictability of other Baveno IV and Baveno II-III criteria. Logistic regression analysis was performed to ascertain independent variables that predict ABRI> or =0.75. Failure to control variceal bleeding occurred in 40 of 60 patients according to Baveno II-III criteria, and in 35 of 60 patients according to Baveno IV criteria. Excluding the criterion of "transfusion of 2 units of blood or more (over and above the previous transfusions)" and ABRI criterion, failure to control variceal bleeding was observed in 17 and 14 of 60 patients, respectively. Congruence of ABRI with other criteria was present in about two-thirds of the cases. ABRI> or =0.75 was associated with increased risk of positive other Baveno criteria, particularly modified Baveno II-III (odds ratio [OR] 4.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-15.05) and Baveno IV without ABRI (OR 4.37; 95% CI, 1.04-18.28). Independent predictors of ABRI> or =0.75 identified in logistic regression analysis were male sex (P<0.001) and higher hematocrit values (P=0.004). We found low congruence between ABRI and other Baveno criteria and the incidence of treatment failure in our study was higher than the previously reported frequencies of early rebleeding. It seems that criteria related to the quantity of blood transfusions are not reliable indicators of treatment failure.

  5. Adjusted Blood Requirement Index as Indicator of Failure to Control Acute Variceal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Duvnjak, Marko; Baršić, Neven; Tomašić, Vedran; Virović Jukić, Lucija; Lerotić, Ivan; Pavić, Tajana

    2006-01-01

    Aim To estimate the clinical value of adjusted blood requirement index (ABRI) in relation to other criteria for failure of variceal bleeding control proposed at Baveno consensus workshops and to evaluate ABRI as an early predictor of occurrence of other Baveno criteria and identification of possible predictors of unfavorable ABRI. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the data on 60 patients admitted to the hospital due to acute variceal bleeding. Number of treatment failures according to Baveno II-III and Baveno IV definitions and criteria was compared. We tested the ABRI’s predictability of other Baveno IV and Baveno II-III criteria. Logistic regression analysis was performed to ascertain independent variables that predict ABRI≥0.75. Results Failure to control variceal bleeding occurred in 40 of 60 patients according to Baveno II-III criteria, and in 35 of 60 patients according to Baveno IV criteria. Excluding the criterion of “transfusion of 2 units of blood or more (over and above the previous transfusions)” and ABRI criterion, failure to control variceal bleeding was observed in 17 and 14 of 60 patients, respectively. Congruence of ABRI with other criteria was present in about two-thirds of the cases. ABRI≥0.75 was associated with increased risk of positive other Baveno criteria, particularly modified Baveno II-III (odds ratio [OR] 4.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-15.05) and Baveno IV without ABRI (OR 4.37; 95% CI, 1.04-18.28). Independent predictors of ABRI≥0.75 identified in logistic regression analysis were male sex (P<0.001) and higher hematocrit values (P=0.004). Conclusion We found low congruence between ABRI and other Baveno criteria and the incidence of treatment failure in our study was higher than the previously reported frequencies of early rebleeding. It seems that criteria related to the quantity of blood transfusions are not reliable indicators of treatment failure. PMID:16758517

  6. Clinical, endoscopic and endoscopic ultrasound features of duodenal varices: A report of 10 cases

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Chaudhary, Vinita; Sharma, Ravi; Singh, Kartar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Duodenal varices (DV) although an uncommon cause, are an important cause due to the severe nature of the bleed and associated adverse outcome. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with DV seen at our institution over past 4 years. Results: A total of 10 patients (nine males; mean age was 35.8 ± 7.68 years) with DV were studied. Five patients had underlying cirrhosis and five had DV because of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (four patients had extra-hepatic portal venous obstruction and one patient had non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis). Five patients presented with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed, whereas in the remaining five patients DV were detected on endoscopy performed for evaluation of portal hypertension. Endoscopy revealed submucosal lesion in nine patients, whereas in one patient an initial endoscopic diagnosis of Dieulafoy's lesion was made. However endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) could clearly identify DV in all patients. Of five patients presenting with upper GI bleed, three had the esophageal varices eradicated and two presented 1st time with bleed form DV and did not have esophagogastric varices. All patients with acute upper GI bleed were initially treated with intravenous terlipressin followed by glue (n-butyl cyanoacrylate) injection in 4/5 patients with one patient refusing further endoscopic therapy. The variceal obliteration was documented by EUS in all these four patients and there has been no recurrence of bleed in these four patients over a follow-up period of 4-46 months. The five non-bleeding DV were already on beta- blockers and the same were continued. Two of these five patients succumbed to progressive liver failure with none of these five patients having GI bleed on follow-up. Conclusion: EUS is a useful investigational modality for evaluating patients with DV and endoscopic injection of glue is an effective therapy for controlling and preventing recurrence of bleed from DV. PMID:24949411

  7. Effect of teprenone on gastric mucosal injury induced by Helicobacter pylori in rats.

    PubMed

    Saita, H; Murakami, M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of gastric mucus against Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal injury, measuring intramucosal mucus and the surface hydrophobicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats' stomachs were exposed to H. pylori suspension (1 x 10(5) ml) plus 1 ml of urea solution (400 mg/dl) with gastric ischemia (withdrawal of 3 ml of blood) for 60 min, 60 min after pretreatment with teprenone (CAS 6809-52-5) (50 mg/rat, intragastric). The control rats were treated in the same manner without pretreatment with teprenone. A high concentration of intragastric ammonia was generated 60 min after administration of H. pylori plus urea in both the control and the teprenone-pretreated rats. A reduction in transmucosal potential difference, formation of hemorrhagic gastric lesions, and impairment in both intramucosal mucus and surface hydrophobicity were observed in the corpus of the control rats. However, the pretreatment with teprenone prevented such a reduction in potential difference and the development of gastric lesions against ammonia through the preservation of gastric mucus. The preservation of gastric mucus might protect gastric mucosa against attacks by H. pylori, suggesting that the mechanism of H. pylori-associated gastric injury is associated with the decrease in gastric mucus.

  8. Efficacy of ankaferd blood stopper application on non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Gungor, Gokhan; Goktepe, M Hakan; Biyik, Murat; Polat, Ilker; Tuna, Tuncer; Ataseven, Huseyin; Demir, Ali

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively assess the hemostatic efficacy of the endoscopic topical use of ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) in active non-variceal upper gastrointestinal system (GIS) bleeding. METHODS: Endoscopy was performed on 220 patients under suspiciency of GIS bleeding. Patients with active non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) with a spurting or oozing type were included. Firstly, 8-10 cc of isotonic saline was sprayed to bleeding lesions. Then, 8 cc of ABS was applied on lesions in which bleeding continued after isotonic saline application. The other endoscopic therapeutic methods were applied on the lesions in which the bleeding did not stop after ABS. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients had an active NVUGIB with a spurting or oozing type and 193 patients were excluded from the study since they did not have non-variceal active bleeding. 8 cc of ABS was sprayed on to the lesions of 26 patients whose bleeding continued after isotonic saline and in 19 of them, bleeding stopped after ABS. Other endoscopic treatment methods were applied to the remaining patients and the bleeding was stopped with these interventions in 6 of 7 patients. CONCLUSION: ABS is an effective method on NVUGIB, particularly on young patients with no coagulopathy. ABS may be considered as part of a combination treatment with other endoscopic methods. PMID:23293725

  9. Prediction of oesophageal varices in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis by non-invasive markers

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lili; Li, Hanwei; Han, Jun; Zhang, Weihui

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Preliminary data suggested that non-invasive methods could be useful to assess presence of oesophageal varices (OV) in liver cirrhosis. The primary objectives were to investigate non-invasive markers for diagnosing and grading OV in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Material and methods This study included a total of 106 consecutive treatment-naive patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Results of physical examination, blood tests, and abdominal ultrasound scan (USS) were measured. Performance of non-invasive markers for OV was expressed as sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV), accuracy, and area under the curve (AUC). Results Oesophageal varices were found in 54 (50.9%) and large OV in 28 of the 106 patients. Variables found to differ significantly between patients with any grade or large and without OV included increased spleen length, increased portal vein diameter, low platelet count, and low levels of albumin or low γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP) values. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed that spleen length (cutoff = 156.0) had AUC 0.753 (95% CI: 0.657–0.849), and high NPV (82.1%) to exclude any grade OV. Large OV could be excluded with NPV 70.6% by spleen length. Conclusions Predictive risk factors that use readily available laboratory results and ultrasound scan results may reliably identify esophageal varices in patients with PBC. PMID:28261290

  10. High-resolution Manometry Findings in Patients After Sclerotherapy for Esophageal Varices

    PubMed Central

    Herbella, Fernando A M; Colleoni, Ramiro; Bot, Luiz; Vicentine, Fernando P P; Patti, Marco G

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic therapy for esophageal varices may lead to esophageal dysmotility. High-resolution manometry is probably the more adequate tool to measure esophageal motility in these patients. This study aimed to evaluate esophageal motility using high resolution manometry following eradication of esophageal varices by endoscopic sclerotherapy. Methods We studied 21 patients (11 women, age 52 [45–59] years). All patients underwent eradication of esophageal varices with endoscopic sclerotherapy and subsequent high resolution manometry. Results A significant percentage of defective lower esophageal sphincter (basal pressure 14.3 [8.0–20.0] mmHg; 43% hypertonic) and hypocontractility (distal esophageal amplitude 50 [31–64] mmHg; proximal esophageal amplitude 40 [31–61] mmHg; distal contractile integral 617 [403–920] mmHg · sec · cm; 48% ineffective) was noticed. Lower sphincter basal pressure and esophageal amplitude correlated inversely with the number of sessions (P < 0.001). No manometric parameter correlated with symptoms or interval between last endoscopy and manometry. Conclusions Esophageal motility after endoscopic sclerotherapy is characterized by: (1) defective lower sphincter and (2) defective and hypotensive peristalsis. Esophageal dysmotility is associated to an increased number of endoscopic sessions, but manometric parameters do not predict symptoms. PMID:26554823

  11. Somatostatin v placebo in bleeding oesophageal varices: randomised trial and meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Gøtzsche, P. C.; Gjørup, I.; Bonnén, H.; Brahe, N. E.; Becker, U.; Burcharth, F.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study whether somatostatin or its derivative octreotide is more effective than placebo for treating bleeding oesophageal varices. METHODS--Randomised, double blind trial and meta-analysis with blinded analysis of data and writing of manuscripts. SETTING--Departments of medical and surgical gastroenterology in Copenhagen. SUBJECTS--Patients suspected of bleeding from oesophageal varices and of having cirrhosis of the liver. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Survival, number of blood transfusions, and use of Sengstaken-Blakemore tube. RESULTS--86 patients were randomised; in each group 16 died within six weeks (95% confidence interval for difference in mortality--19% to 22%). There were no differences between those treated with somatostatin or placebo in median number of blood transfusions (8 v 5, P = 0.07, 0 to 4 transfusions) or in numbers of patients who needed balloon tamponade (16 v 13, P = 0.54, -11% to 28%). In a meta-analysis of three trials involving 290 patients somatostatin had no effect on survival compared with placebo (P = 0.59, odds ratio 1.16; 0.67 to 2.01). For blood transfusions and use of balloon tamponade there was heterogeneity between the trials with no convincing evidence in favour of somatostatin. No placebo controlled trials have been performed with octreotide. CONCLUSION--Within the limited power of this study and meta-analysis we were unable to show a clinical benefit of somatostatin in the emergency treatment of bleeding oesophageal varices. PMID:7787594

  12. Evaluation of embolization for periuterine varices involving chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Flavio Meirelles; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Rosa-e-Silva, Julio Cesar; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto; de Castro-Afonso, Luis Henrique; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Abud, Daniel Giansante

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical response and success rate after periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome and to report the safety of endovascular treatment and its rate of complications. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome in our department from January 2012 to November 2015. Data were analyzed based on patient background, imaging findings, embolized veins, rate of complications, and clinical response as indicated by the visual analog pain scale. RESULTS: We performed periuterine varices embolization in 22 patients during the study, four of which required a second embolization. Seventeen patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the first embolization and three patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the second embolization. Minor complications were observed in our patients, such as postural hypotension, postoperative pain, and venous perforation during the procedure, without clinical repercussion. CONCLUSION: Periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome appears to be an effective and safe technique. PMID:28076514

  13. [Involvement of splenic hemangioma and rectal varices in a patient with klippel: trenaunay syndrome].

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Jung; Jee, Sam Ryong; Park, Kwan Sik; Ryu, Choong Heon; Seo, Hyo Rim; Ha, Seoung In; Lee, Sang Heon; Ok, Kyung Sun

    2011-09-25

    Klippel - Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is characterized by a cutaneous vascular nevus of the involved extremity, bone and soft tissue hypertrophy of the extremity and venous malformations. We present a case of KTS with splenic hemangiomas and rectal varices. A 29-year-old woman was referred for intermittent hematochezia for several years. She had history with a number of operations for cutaneous and soft tissue hamangiomas since the age of one year old and for increased circumference of her left thigh during the last few months. Abdominal CT revealed multiple hemangiomas in the spleen, fusiform aneurysmal dilatation of the deep veins and soft tissue hemangiomas. There was no evidence of hepatosplenomegaly or liver cirrhosis. Colonoscopy revealed hemangiomatous involvement in the rectum. There were rectal varices without evidence of active bleeding. Upon venography of the left leg, we also found infiltrative dilated superficial veins in the subcutaneous tissue and aneurysmal dilatation of the deep veins. The patient was finally diagnosed with KTS, and treated with oral iron supplementation only, which has been tolerable to date. Intervention or surgery is not required. When gastrointestinal varices or hemangiomatous mucosal changes are detected in a young patient without definite underlying cause, KTS should be considered.

  14. Hemorrhagic Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chris Y.; Riangwiwat, Tanawan

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) may be associated with viral triggers, including both infections and vaccinations. We present a case of a healthy immunocompetent 33-year-old woman who developed a hemorrhagic LETM 2 weeks after seasonal influenza vaccination. Hemorrhagic LETM has not to our knowledge been reported after influenza vaccination. It may represent a forme fruste variant of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. PMID:27847660

  15. [Gastric and intestinal bezoars].

    PubMed

    Larbi, Noureddine; Kaâbi, Samarra; Ben Salah, Khiareddine

    2003-12-01

    The authors report a retrospective study of 10 cases of gastric and small bowel bezoars. There was one gastric trichobezoar diagnosed by an abdominal mass and 9 small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoars. All patients underwent surgery: the gastric trichobezoar was removed through a gastrotomy; small bowel bezoars were treated either by enterotomy (n = 3), fragmentation (n = 5) or bowel resection (n = 1). Non operative treatment is efficient in gastric phytobezoars. Surgery is advisable for trichobezoars and small bowel bezoars. Prevention is main and patients who have gastric surgery must be alarmed from consumption of cactus in our country Tunisia.

  16. Inhibitory effects of DA-9601 on ethanol-induced gastrohemorrhagic lesions and gastric xanthine oxidase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Huh, Keun; Kwon, Tae Hyup; Shin, Uk Sup; Kim, Won Bae; Ahn, Byoung Ok; Oh, Tae Young; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2003-10-01

    The exposure of gastric mucosa to ethanol produces pathological changes such as inflammatory process, hemorrhagic erosions, even acute ulcers. The gastric mucosal lesions accompanied by a significant decrease of gastric blood flow and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) implicate a role of xanthine oxidase in ethanol-induced gastric hemorrhagic erosions. DA-9601, a novel antipeptic formulation of extracts of Artemisia asiatica Nakai, was studied for its inhibitory effect on gastric xanthine oxidase activity and type conversion of the enzyme that has a profound role in free radical generation. Intubation of absolute ethanol (4 g/kg) significantly induced gastrohemorrhagic lesions and lipid peroxidation in the rat stomach. Oral administration of DA-9601 at 40 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions and lipid peroxidation, which was proportional to the inhibitory effect of DA-9601 on alcohol-induced xanthine oxidase-type conversion and enzyme activity. The results suggest that alcohol-induced gastric mucosal damage may be, in part, due to the increased activity of xanthine oxidase and type conversion rate of the enzyme and that the preventive effect of DA-9601 on gastrohemorrhagic lesions would result from its inhibitory action against xanthine oxidase and oxidative stress in alcohol-treated rats.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is a disorder that results in ...

  18. Treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Raya, Amanda K; Diringer, Michael N

    2014-10-01

    Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysm rupture presents with sudden severe headache. Initial treatment focuses on airway management, blood pressure control, and extraventricular drain for hydrocephalus. After identifying the aneurysm, they may be clipped surgically or endovascularly coiled. Nimodipine is administered to maintain a euvolemic state and prevent delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Patients may receive anticonvulsants. Monitoring includes serial neurologic assessments, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography perfusion, and angiographic studies. Treatment includes augmentation of blood pressure and cardiac output, cerebral angioplasty, and intra-arterial infusions of vasodilators. Although early mortality is high, about one half of survivors recover with little disability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) occurred for the first time in Korea , 1951, although it had previously been known to both the Japanese and Russians...After Korean war, the disease has been fixed in the areas of DMZ as an endemic one, and from 100 to 300 cases have been reported every year. The aims...but in 1971 affected the middle districts and in 1972 invaded the southern parts of South Korea . The number of patients and the areas of KHF in 1972

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of beta-blockers vs endoscopic surveillance in patients with cirrhosis and small varices

    PubMed Central

    Di Pascoli, Lorenza; Buja, Alessandra; Bolognesi, Massimo; Montagnese, Sara; Gatta, Angelo; Gregori, Dario; Merkel, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the most cost-effectiveness strategy for preventing variceal growth and bleeding in patients with cirrhosis and small esophageal varices. METHODS: A stochastic analysis based on decision trees was performed to compare the cost-effectiveness of beta-blockers therapy starting from a diagnosis of small varices (Strategy 1) with that of endoscopic surveillance followed by beta-blockers treatment when large varices are demonstrated (Strategy 2), for preventing variceal growth, bleeding and death in patients with cirrhosis and small esophageal varices. The basic nodes of the tree were gastrointestinal endoscopy, inpatient admission and treatment for bleeding, as required. All estimates were performed using a Monte Carlo microsimulation technique, consisting in simulating observations from known probability distributions depicted in the model. Eight-hundred-thousand simulations were performed to obtain the final estimates. All estimates were then subjected to Monte Carlo Probabilistic sensitivity analysis, to assess the impact of the variability of such estimates on the outcome distributions. RESULTS: The event rate (considered as progression of varices or bleeding or death) in Strategy 1 [24.09% (95%CI: 14.89%-33.29%)] was significantly lower than in Strategy 2 [60.00% (95%CI: 48.91%-71.08%)]. The mean cost (up to the first event) associated with Strategy 1 [823 £ (95%CI: 106 £-2036 £)] was not significantly different from that of Strategy 2 [799 £ (95%CI: 0 £-3498 £)]. The cost-effectiveness ratio with respect to this endpoint was equal to 50.26 £ (95%CI: -504.37 £-604.89 £) per event avoided over the four-year follow-up. When bleeding episodes/deaths in subjects whose varices had grown were included, the mean cost associated with Strategy 1 was 1028 £ (95%CI: 122 £-2581 £), while 1699 £ (95%CI: 171 £-4674 £) in Strategy 2. CONCLUSION: Beta-blocker therapy turn out to be more effective and less expensive than endoscopic surveillance for

  1. Safety and efficacy of angiographic occlusion of duodenal varices as an alternative to TIPS: review of 32 cases.

    PubMed

    Copelan, Alexander; Chehab, Monzer; Dixit, Purushottam; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/RATIONALE OF STUDY: Analyze safety and efficacy of angiographic-occlusion-with-sclerotherapy/embolotherapy-without-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt (TIPS) for duodenal varices. Although TIPS is considered the best intermediate-to-long term therapy after failed endoscopic therapy for bleeding varices, the options are not well-defined when TIPS is relatively contraindicated, with scant data on alternative therapies due to relative rarity of duodenal varices. Prior cases were identified by computerized literature search, supplemented by one illustrative case. Favorable clinical outcome after angiography defined as no rebleeding during follow-up, without major procedural complications. Thirty-two cases of duodenal varices treated by angiographic-occlusion-with-sclerotherapy/embolotherapy- without-TIPS were analyzed. Patients averaged 59.5 ± 12.2 years old (female = 59%). Patients presented with melena-16, hematemesis & melena-5, large varices-5, growing varices-2, ruptured varices-1, and other- 3. Twenty-nine patients had cirrhosis; etiologies included: alcoholism-11, hepatitis C-11, primary biliary cirrhosis- 3, hepatitis B-2, Budd-Chiari-1, and idiopathic-1. Three patients did not have cirrhosis, including hepatic metastases from rectal cancer-1, Wilson's disease-1, and chronic liver dysfunction-1. Thirty-one patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy before therapeutic angiography, including fifteen undergoing endoscopic variceal therapy. Therapeutic angiographic techniques included balloon-occluded retrograde-transvenous-obliteration (BRTO) with sclerotherapy and/or embolization-21, DBOE (double-balloon-occluded-embolotherapy)-5, and other-6. Twenty-eight patients (87.5%; 95%-confidence interval: 69-100%) had favorable clinical outcomes after therapeutic angiography. Three patients were therapeutic failures: rebleeding at 0, 5, or 10 days after therapy. One major complication (Enterobacter sepsis) and one minor complication occurred

  2. Fibrinolytic activity in gastric venous blood. A comparison between normal and diseased stomachs.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, T E; Hadley, H; Irving, M H

    1979-03-01

    The fibrinolytic activity of blood draining from the stomachs of patients with gastroduodenal disease has been compared with the fibrinolytic activity of blood in the systemic venous circulation and with the blood draining from normal stomachs. Gastric venous blood from normal and diseased stomachs contains greater amounts of plasminogen activator than simultaneously sampled systemic venous blood. However, gastric venous fibrinolytic activity does not differ between the normal and diseased stomachs and thus indicates that increased gastric venous fibrinolysis is not just a characteristic of the diseased stomach. The studies suggest that stress may cause activation of the fibrinolytic system in gastric venous blood with the release of small amounts of free plasmin. It is postulated that local fibrinolysis may play a part in potentiating gastric hemorrhage.

  3. A multicentre randomised trial comparing octreotide and injection sclerotherapy in the management and outcome of acute variceal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, S; Shields, R; Davies, M; Elias, E; Turnbull, A; Bassendine, M; James, O; Iredale, J; Vyas, S; Arthur, M; Kingsnorth, A; Sutton, R

    1997-01-01

    Background—Few studies have compared vasoactive drugs with endoscopic sclerotherapy in the control of acute variceal haemorrhage. Octreotide is widely used for this purpose, but its value remains undetermined. 
Aims—To compare octreotide with endoscopic sclerotherapy for acute variceal haemorrhage. 
Patients—Consecutive patients with acute variceal haemorrhage. 
Methods—Patients were randomised at endoscopy to receive either a 48 hour intravenous infusion of 50 µg/h octreotide (n=73), or emergency sclerotherapy (n=77). 
Results—Overall control of bleeding and mortality was not significantly different between octreotide (85%, 62 patients) and sclerotherapy (82%, 63 patients) over the 48 hour trial period (relative risk of rebleeding 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 1.82), irrespective of Child's grading or active bleeding at endoscopy. One major complication was observed in the sclerotherapy group (aspiration) and two in the octreotide group (pulmonary oedema, severe paralytic ileus). During 60 days of follow up there was an overall trend towards an increased mortality in the octreotide group which was not statistically significant (relative risk of dying at 60 days 1.91, 95% CI 0.97 to 3.78, p=0.06). 
Conclusions—The results of this study indicate that intravenous octreotide is as effective as injection sclerotherapy in the control of acute variceal bleeding, but further controlled trials are necessary to evaluate the safety of this treatment. 

 Keywords: variceal haemorrhage; octreotide; injection sclerotherapy PMID:9391254

  4. A case of liver cirrhosis due to hepatits C virus infection complicating giant anorectal varices treated with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Imai, Yukinori; Takaya, Hiroaki; Nakazawa, Manabu; Chikayama, Taku; Ando, Satsuki; Mizuno, Yoshie; Sugawara, Kayoko; Nakamura, Yuuka; Saitoh, Eiko; Hamaoka, Kazuhiro; Motoya, Daisuke; Fujimori, Kenji; Inao, Mie; Nakayama, Nobuaki; Nagoshi, Sumiko; Mochida, Satoshi

    2011-02-01

    A 73-year-old man with liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus infection was admitted to our hospital because of massive bleeding from external varices. Colonoscopic examination revealed that giant anorectal varices had developed between the anus and rectal ampulla, and had ruptured at the perianal site. On three-dimensional computed tomography imaging, the feeding and drainage vessels of the varices were identified as the inferior mesenteric vein and right inferior hemorrhoidal vein, respectively. Endoscopic therapies were not employed for the bleeding varices, because the blood flow volume of the feeding vessel was extremely large. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) was therefore carried out through the drainage vessels. The variceal blood flow disappeared after B-RTO therapy, and the varices decreased in size with thrombus formation verified by colonoscopy. Bleeding from the external varices also ceased. B-RTO therapy may be an effective approach for giant anorectal varices presenting as a complication in liver cirrhosis patients in whom the main drainage vessels can be determined.

  5. Gastric cancer: Basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Molina-Castro, Silvia; Pereira-Marques, Joana; Figueiredo, Ceu; Machado, Jose C; Varon, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most incident and deadliest malignancies in the world. Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease and the end point of a long and multistep process, which results from the stepwise accumulation of numerous (epi)genetic alterations, leading to dysregulation of oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways. Gastric cancer stem cells have emerged as fundamental players in cancer development and as contributors to gastric cancer heterogeneity. For this special issue, we will report last year's update on the gastric cancer molecular classification, and in particular address the gastric cancer groups who could benefit from immune checkpoint therapy. We will also review the latest advances on gastric cancer stem cells, their properties as gastric cancer markers and therapeutic targets, and associated signaling pathways. The understanding of the molecular basis underlying gastric cancer heterogeneity and of the role played by gastric cancer stem cells in cancer development and heterogeneity is of major significance, not only for identifying novel targets for cancer prevention and treatment, but also for clinical management and patient stratification for targeted therapies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [A case of peritoneal seeding from a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma with direct invasion into the stomach causing gastrointestinal hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hee; Eun, Jong Ryul; Moon, Hee Jung; Oh, Hee Ju; Kim, Yong Kil; Jang, Byung Ik; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Lee, Heun Ju

    2009-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rarely invades the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It occurs in 0.7% to 2% of clinical HCC cases. Moreover, gastric invasion with GI hemorrhage via peritoneal seeding is very rare. We report the case of 67-year-old woman who had a history of HCC rupture and was admitted due to left upper quadrant abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with three omental metastatic masses and underwent hepatic segmentectomy and omental tumorectomy. Two months later, the patient had massive melena, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed very large ulcerated friable mass on the gastric body. The histology was consistent with the diagnosis of metastatic HCC. The patient died from persistent GI hemorrhage 93 days after the admission. This case illustrates the very rare event of peritoneal seeding of a ruptured HCC causing direct invasion of the stomach, followed by GI hemorrhage.

  7. [Fluid resuscitation in hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Roessler, M; Bode, K; Bauer, M

    2014-10-01

    How fluid resuscitation has to be performed for acute hemorrhage situations is still controversially discussed. Although the forced administration of crystalloids and colloids has been and still is practiced, nowadays there are good arguments that a cautious infusion of crystalloids may be initially sufficient. Saline should no longer be used for fluid resuscitation. The main argument for cautious fluid resuscitation is that no large prospective randomized clinical trials exist which have provided evidence of improved survival when fluid resuscitation is applied in an aggressive manner. The explanation that no positive effect has so far been observed is that fluid resuscitation is thought to boost bleeding by increasing blood pressure and dilutional coagulopathy. Nevertheless, national and international guidelines recommend that fluid resuscitation should be applied at the latest when hemorrhage causes hemodynamic instability. Consideration should be given to the fact that damage control resuscitation per se will neither improve already reduced tissue perfusion nor hemostasis. In acute and possibly rapidly progressing hypovolemic shock, colloids can be used. The third and fourth generations of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) are safe and effective if used correctly and within prescribed limits. If fluid resuscitation is applied with ongoing re-evaluation of the parameters which determine oxygen supply, it should be possible to keep fluid resuscitation restricted without causing undesirable side effects and also to administer a sufficient quantity so that survival of patients is ensured.

  8. Argentine hemorrhagic fever vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Ana; Saavedra, Maria; Mariani, Mauricio; Gamboa, Graciela; Maiza, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), an acute disease caused by Junin virus (JUNV, Arenaviridae), has been an important issue to public health in Argentina since the early 1950s. The field rodent Calomys musculinus is JUNV natural reservoir and human disease is a consequence of contact with infected rodents. A steady extention of AHF endemic area is being observed since the first reports of the disease. Important achievements have been made in: (a) improvement of methods for the etiological diagnosis; (b) implementation and validation of therapeutical measures; (c) development of vaccines to protect against AHF. Reference is made to different research strategies used to obtain anti-AHF vaccines in the past and anti-arenaviral diseases in the present. Information is updated on features and field performance of Candid #1 vaccine, a live attenuted vaccine currently used to prevent AHF. This vaccine was developed through a joint international effort that envisioned it as an orphan drug. With transferred technology, Argentine government was committed to be Candid #1 manufacturer and to register this vaccine as a novel medical product under the Argentine regulatory authority. Candid #1 vaccine is the first one used to control an arenaviral hemorrhagic fever, the first live viral vaccine to be manufactured and registered in Argentina, reaching its target population through governmental effort.

  9. Protective effect of Calotropis procera latex extracts on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rat.

    PubMed

    Bharti, S; Wahane, V D; Kumar, V L

    2010-02-03

    Calotropis procera is a wild growing plant with multifarious medicinal properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dried latex (DL) of Calotropis procera and its methanol extract (MeDL) against gastric ulcers induced in rats. Aqueous suspension of DL (20 and 100mg/kg) and MeDL (10 and 50mg/kg) were given orally to 36h fasted rats and ulcers were induced by ethanol, pyloric ligation and aspirin. Parameters like ulcer score and levels of oxidative stress markers were measured in all the models. The effect on gastric hemorrhage and tissue histology was studied in ethanol model and on acidity, pH and volume of gastric secretion was evaluated in pyloric ligation model. The protective effect of DL and MeDL was compared with that of standard anti-ulcer drug famotidine (20 mg/kg). DL and MeDL produced 85-95% inhibition of gastric mucosal damage in ethanol model and 70-80% inhibition in aspirin model. The protective effect of these extracts was associated with marked reduction in gastric hemorrhage, maintenance of tissue integrity and normalization of levels of oxidative stress markers like glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and superoxide dismutase. Like famotidine, DL and MeDL decreased the gastric acidity from 376.17+/-21.47 mequiv./l to 163.88+/-6.86 and 201.48+/-8.86 mequiv./l respectively in pyloric ligation model. These extracts increased the gastric pH without affording any protection to gastric mucosa in this model. The latex of Calotropis procera has the therapeutic potential to relieve gastric hyperacidity and to prevent gastric ulceration induced by necrotizing agents. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The fundamental hemodynamic mechanism underlying gastric "stress ulceration" in cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, R W; Bulkley, G B; Hamilton, S R; Morris, J B; Haglund, U H; Meilahn, J E

    1987-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic ulceration of the gastric mucosa is seen frequently in patients with hypovolemic or cardiogenic shock. Although such lesions clearly are related to regional gastric ischemia, little attention has been directed at the underlying mechanism(s) mediating the ischemia itself. To this end, anesthetized pigs were subjected to sustained cardiogenic shock (mild hemorrhage and pericardial tamponade) such that cardiac output was reduced to 38 +/- 1% of the baseline level for 4 hours, followed by release of the tamponade, reinfusion of the shed blood, and resuscitation for 2 hours. During the period of shock, there was profound regional gastric ischemia, resulting from severe and disproportionate gastric vasoconstriction. "Blinded" gross and microscopic evaluation of the stomachs removed after the experiment revealed severe mucosal ischemic necrosis, hemorrhage, and ulceration, whereas sham-operated pigs showed no lesions. The characteristics of this model therefore mimic the essential features of the gastric "stress ulceration" syndrome. Prior confirmed total alpha-adrenergic blockade with phenoxybenzamine failed to alter these features significantly. In contrast, prior ablation of the renin-angiotensin axis, whether by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with teprotide or by bilateral nephrectomy, significantly and substantially ameliorated the ischemia, vasospasm, and mucosal injury. In this model of cardiogenic shock, acute gastric mucosal "stress ulceration" is caused by a disproportionately severe regional gastric ischemia resulting from selective splanchnic vasospasm that is unaffected by sympathetic blockade but abolished by prior ablation of the renin-angiotensin axis. Like nonocclusive small bowel ischemia, ischemic colitis, and the "shock liver" syndrome, gastric "stress ulceration" is yet another component of the multiple splanchnic organ failure syndrome that appears to be mediated primarily by the remarkable sensitivity of the splanchnic

  11. Balloon-Occluded Antegrade Transvenous Sclerotherapy to Treat Rectal Varices: A Direct Puncture Approach to the Superior Rectal Vein Through the Greater Sciatic Foramen Under CT Fluoroscopy Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Yasuyuki Kariya, Shuji Nakatani, Miyuki Yoshida, Rie Kono, Yumiko Kan, Naoki Ueno, Yutaka Komemushi, Atsushi Tanigawa, Noboru

    2015-10-15

    Rectal varices occur in 44.5 % of patients with ectopic varices caused by portal hypertension, and 48.6 % of these patients are untreated and followed by observation. However, bleeding occurs in 38 % and shock leading to death in 5 % of such patients. Two patients, an 80-year-old woman undergoing treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) and a 63-year-old man with class C hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), in whom balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy was performed to treat rectal varices are reported. A catheter was inserted by directly puncturing the rectal vein percutaneously through the greater sciatic foramen under computed tomographic fluoroscopy guidance. In both cases, the rectal varices were successfully treated without any significant complications, with no bleeding from rectal varices after embolization.

  12. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for the treatment of achalasia in a patient with esophageal varices. A case report.

    PubMed

    Shen, Naning; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoyin; Yao, Liping; Xie, Huahong; Zhang, Hongbo

    2017-06-01

    Achalasia is very uncommon, and rarely does achalasia co-exist with esophageal varices. We present a 62-year-old woman who was diagnosed with both achalasia and esophageal varices in December 2014 and had a past history of hematemesis. The patient's achalasia symptoms' Eckardt score was 9, and her hepatic function was Child-Pugh grade A6. After comprehensive assessment of the patient's health and discussion of the pros and cons of various therapies for achalasia, the patient underwent a peroral endoscopic myotomy. She was symptom-free after the operation and had no recurrence of achalasia symptoms at 20-month follow-up. No adverse events were reported. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia with esophageal varices has not been previously reported in the English literature.

  13. Digestive and urologic hemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke: Data from a Chinese stroke center.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong; Wang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Xin; Song, Haiqing; Qiao, Yuchen; Liu, Jia

    2017-02-01

    Objective Intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is considered the most effective treatment method for AIS; however, it is associated with a risk of hemorrhage. We analyzed the risk factors for digestive and urologic hemorrhage during rt-PA therapy. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients with AIS who underwent intravenous thrombolysis with rt-PA during a 5-year period in a Chinese stroke center. Data on the demographics, medical history, laboratory test results, and clinical outcomes were collected. Results 338 patients with AIS were eligible and included. Logistic regression multivariate analysis showed that gastric catheter was significantly correlated with digestive hemorrhage, while age and urinary catheter were significantly correlated with urologic hemorrhage. Most hemorrhagic events were associated with catheterization after 1 to 24 hours of rt-PA therapy. Conclusions In summary, gastric and urinary catheters were correlated with digestive and urologic hemorrhage in patients with AIS undergoing rt-PA therapy. Well-designed controlled studies with large samples are required to confirm our findings.

  14. Gastric syphilis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Novis, Camila Freitas Lobo; Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    Gastric syphilis is an uncommon extracutaneous manifestation of syphilis, occurring in less than 1% of patients, presenting nonspecific clinical manifestations. In general, it occurs on secondary stage. The critical point is the recognition of the syphilitic gastric involvement, without which there may be incorrect diagnosis of malignancy of the digestive tract. In this report, a case of secondary syphilis with gastric involvement that had complete remission with benzathine penicillin will be described. PMID:27828649

  15. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever (Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    AD-Ai55 228 KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL in. SYNDROME (HFRS))(U) KOREA UNIV SEOUL DEPT OF MICROBIOLOGY H W LEE JUL 84...INTRODUCTION During the Korean War, more than 2,400 United Nations troops stationed in the 38th Parallel in Korea developed a rare disease which had not... Korean hemorrhagic fever patients in urban areas of Seoul. Korean J. Virol. 10: 1-6, 1980. 8. Lee, H. W. New epidemiological findings of HFRS in Korea . J

  16. Gastrin and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, Helge L.; Sagatun, Liv; Mjønes, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer although occurring in reduced frequency is still an important disease, partly because of the bad prognosis when occurring in western countries. This decline in occurrence may mainly be due to the reduced prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, which is the most important cause of gastric cancer. There exist many different pathological classifications of gastric carcinomas, but the most useful seems to be the one by Lauren into intestinal and diffuse types since these types seldom transform into the other and also have different epidemiology. During the nearly 30 years that have passed since the groundbreaking description of Hp as the cause of gastritis and gastric cancer, a continuous search for the mechanism by which Hp infection causes gastric cancer has been done. Interestingly, it is mainly atrophic gastritis of the oxyntic mucosa that predisposes to gastric cancer possibly by inducing hypoacidity and hypergastrinemia. There are many arguments in favor of an important role of gastrin and its target cell, the enterochromaffin-like cell, in gastric carcinogenesis. The role of gastrin in gastric carcinogenesis implies caution in the long-term treatment with inhibitors of gastric acid secretion inducing secondary hypergastrinemia, in a common disease like gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:28144230

  17. The effects of 6% hydroxyethyl starch-hypertonic saline in resuscitation of dogs with hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Barros, João M P; do Nascimento, Paulo; Marinello, João Luiz P; Braz, Leandro G; Carvalho, Lídia R; Vane, Luiz A; Castiglia, Yara M M; Braz, José R C

    2011-02-01

    Hemodynamic and global oxygen transport variables have failed to reflect splanchnic hypoperfusion, resulting in a failure to recognize inadequately treated hemorrhagic shock. Volemic expansion after fluid resuscitation is essential to improve global and regional oxygen in hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that, in contrast to conventional plasma expanders, the smaller volemic expansion from 7.5 NaCl/6% hydroxyethyl starch (HHES) solution administration in hemorrhagic shock may provide lesser systemic oxygen delivery and gastric perfusion. We used hemorrhaged dogs to compare intravascular volume expansion and the early systemic oxygenation and gastric perfusion effects of fixed fluid bolus administration, which are usually used in clinical situations with severe hemorrhage, of HHES, lactated Ringer (LR), and 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions. Thirty dogs were bled (30 mL · kg(-1)) to hold mean arterial blood pressure at 40 to 50 mm Hg over 45 minutes and were resuscitated in 3 groups: LR (n = 10) at 3:1 ratio to shed blood; HES (mean molecular weight 130 kDa, degree of substitution 0.4) (n = 10) at 1:1 to shed blood; and HHES (n = 10), 4 mL · kg(-1). Intravascular volume expansion (Evans blue and hemoglobin dilution), hemodynamic, systemic oxygenation, venous-to-arterial CO(2) gradient (Pv-aCO(2)), and gastric intramucosal-arterial PCO(2) gradient (PCO(2) gap) variables were measured at baseline, after 45 minutes of hemorrhage, and 5, 45, and 90 minutes after fluid resuscitation. HHES increased blood volume because of the high volume expansion efficiency, but intravascular volume expansion with this solution was the smallest of the solutions (P < 0.05). All 3 solutions induced a similar hemodynamic performance but HHES showed lower mixed venous PO(2) and higher systemic oxygenation extraction, Pv-aCO(2), and PCO(2) gap than LR and HES (P < 0.05). In dogs submitted to pressure-guided hemorrhagic shock and fixed-volume resuscitation, the smaller intravascular

  18. [Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Kellner, P; Stoevesandt, D; Soukup, J; Bucher, M; Raspé, C

    2012-09-01

    Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a severe and acute life-threatening cerebrovascular disease. Approximately 80% of all acute non-traumatic SAHs are the result of a ruptured cerebrovascular aneurysm. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment a high morbidity and mortality still exists. Apart from the primary cerebral damage there are also secondary complications, such as vasospasm, rebleeding, hydrocephalus, cerebral edema or hydrocephalus. For an appropriate therapy an understanding of the extensive pathophysiology, the options in diagnostics and therapy and the complications of the disease are essential. Anesthesiologists are decisively involved in the therapy of the primary and secondary damages and subsequently in the outcome as well. This article provides an overview of the perioperative and intensive care management of patients with SAH.

  19. Neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mracsko, Eva; Veltkamp, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a particularly severe type of stroke for which no specific treatment has been established yet. Although preclinical models of ICH have substantial methodological limitations, important insight into the pathophysiology has been gained. Mounting evidence suggests an important contribution of inflammatory mechanisms to brain damage and potential repair. Neuroinflammation evoked by intracerebral blood involves the activation of resident microglia, the infiltration of systemic immune cells and the production of cytokines, chemokines, extracellular proteases and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies focused on innate immunity including microglia, monocytes and granulocytes. More recently, the role of adaptive immune cells has received increasing attention. Little is currently known about the interactions among different immune cell populations in the setting of ICH. Nevertheless, immunomodulatory strategies are already being explored in ICH. To improve the chances of translation from preclinical models to patients, a better characterization of the neuroinflammation in patients is desirable. PMID:25477782

  20. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ali; Ahmad, Bakhtiar; Ahmed, Zahoor; Al-Quliti, Khalid W.

    2015-01-01

    Ruptured cerebral aneurysm is the most common cause of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Rarely cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) may present initially as acute SAH, and clinically mimics aneurysmal bleed. We report 2 cases of CVST who presented with severe headache associated with neck pain and focal seizures. Non-contrast brain CT showed SAH, involving the sulci of the convexity of hemisphere (cSAH) without involving the basal cisterns. Both patients received treatment with anticoagulants and improved. Awareness of this unusual presentation of CVST is important for early diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the inclusion of vascular neuroimaging like MRI with venography or CT venography in the diagnostic workup of SAH, especially in a patient with strong clinical suspicion of CVST or in a patient where neuroimaging showed cSAH. PMID:25630784

  1. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Racsa, Lori D.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Olinger, Gene G.; Hensley, Lisa E.

    2016-01-01

    There are 4 families of viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), including Filoviridae. Ebola virus is one virus within the family Filoviridae and the cause of the current outbreak of VHF in West Africa. VHF-endemic areas are found throughout the world, yet traditional diagnosis of VHF has been performed in large reference laboratories centered in Europe and the United States. The large amount of capital needed, as well as highly trained and skilled personnel, has limited the availability of diagnostics in endemic areas except in conjunction with governmental and nongovernmental entities. However, rapid diagnosis of VHF is essential to efforts that will limit outbreaks. In addition, increased global travel suggests VHF diagnoses may be made outside of the endemic areas. Thus, understanding how to diagnose VHF is imperative for laboratories worldwide. This article reviews traditional and current diagnostic modalities for VHF. PMID:26354968

  2. Hospital-level balloon tamponade use is associated with increased mortality for all patients presenting with acute variceal haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Elliot B; Ezaz, Ghideon; Patwardhan, Vilas; Mellinger, Jessica; Bonder, Alan; Curry, Michael; Saini, Sameer D

    2017-08-24

    Balloon tamponade (BT) can bridge patients to salvage therapy for uncontrollable acute variceal haemorrhage (AVH). However, data are limited regarding the reasons for, rate of and outcomes associated with Balloon tamponade use. First, we performed an single-centre cohort study of all patients (N = 139) with oesophageal acute variceal haemorrhage from 01/2009 to 10/2015. Associations between Balloon tamponade use and adherence to four quality metrics (endoscopy within 12 hours, band-ligation, pre-endoscopy antibiotics and octreotide) were evaluated. Second, we analysed the National Inpatient Sample (2005-2011) to determine the association between in-hospital mortality for patients and their hospital's Balloon tamponade-utilization to acute variceal haemorrhage volume ratio. In the national cohort, 5.5% of 140 521 acute variceal haemorrhage admissions required Balloon tamponade utilization. Adjusting for patient- and hospital-level confounders, the rate of Balloon tamponade use per acute variceal haemorrhage managed at any given hospital was associated with increased mortality for all-comers with acute variceal haemorrhage. Compared to the lowest tertile, acute variceal haemorrhage admissions in the highest Balloon tamponade utilizers were associated with increased mortality of (OR1.17 95%CI (1.01-1.37). In the single-centre cohort, 14 (10.1%) patients required Balloon tamponade. Balloon tamponade utilization was significantly associated with alcohol abuse (50.4% vs 21.4%, P = .04), hepatocellular carcinoma (35.7% vs 8.8%, P = .01), higher median model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (26.3vs15.5, P = .002) and active bleeding during endoscopy (64.3% vs 27.5%, P = .01). Failure to provide all quality metrics was associated with a higher model for end-stage liver disease-adjusted risk of Balloon tamponade use: OR 16.7 95% CI(4.17-100.0, P < .0001). Balloon tamponade use is associated with severity of bleeding but may also implicate deficits in

  3. Hemostasis in Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Deepak; Dua, Dharti; Torbey, Michel T.

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality throughout the world with no proven effective treatment. Majority of hematoma expansion occur within 4 h after symptom onset and is associated with early deterioration and poor clinical outcome. There is a vital role of ultra-early hemostatic therapy in ICH to limit hematoma expansion. Patients at risk for hematoma expansion are with underlying hemostatic abnormalities. Treatment strategy should include appropriate intervention based on the history of use of antithrombotic use or an underlying coagulopathy in patients with ICH. For antiplatelet-associated ICH, recommendation is to discontinue antiplatelet agent and transfuse platelets to those who will undergo neurosurgical procedure with moderate quality of evidence. For vitamin K antagonist-associated ICH, administration of 3-factor or 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) rather than fresh frozen plasma to patients with INR >1.4 is strongly recommended. For patients with novel oral anticoagulant-associated ICH, administering activated charcoal to those who present within 2 h of ingestion is recommended. Idarucizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment against dabigatran (direct thrombin inhibitor) is approved by FDA for emergency situations. Administer activated PCC (50 U/kg) or 4-factor PCC (50 U/kg) to patients with ICH associated with direct thrombin inhibitors (DTI) if idarucizumab is not available or if the hemorrhage is associated with a DTI other than dabigatran. For factor Xa inhibitor-associated ICH, administration of 4-factor PCC or aPCC is preferred over recombinant FVIIa because of the lower risk of adverse thrombotic events. PMID:28360881

  4. PillCam ESO versus esophagogastroduodenoscopy in esophageal variceal screening: A decision analysis.

    PubMed

    White, Christopher M; Kilgore, Meredith L

    2009-01-01

    PillCam ESO has been evaluated as a possible strategy to screen patients with cirrhosis for esophageal varices, but current guidelines recommend patients undergo screening with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), as it is currently the gold standard. Although recent data have suggested that PillCam ESO may be an acceptable alternative for screening, there is limited data on its cost-effectiveness compared with other screening modalities. This study was performed to compare the cost-effectiveness of PillCam ESO versus EGD for esophageal variceal screening. Markov models were constructed to compare 2 screening strategies: PillCam ESO versus EGD. In each arm, patients were followed for a time horizon of 15 years in 1-year transition intervals. All variables, transition probabilities, and costs were derived from the medical literature, and sensitivity analyses were performed on the different variables in the model. Base-case analysis shows that PillCam ESO is associated with an average expected cost of $22,589 and an average expected effectiveness measure of 12.81 life-years. EGD is associated with an average expected cost of $23,083 and an average expected effectiveness measure of 12.67 life-years. PillCam ESO was found to dominate EGD as a screening strategy for patients with cirrhosis. Sensitivity analyses found several variables within the model to have influential effects on the results. PillCam ESO is the dominant strategy for screening patients with cirrhosis for esophageal varices. However, based on a small difference in costs and effectiveness between each strategy, the results would suggest that PillCam ESO and EGD are essentially equivalent strategies.

  5. Liver stiffness predicts variceal bleeding in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with compensated cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Merchante, Nicolás; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Téllez, Francisco; Merino, Dolores; Ríos-Villegas, Maria José; Ojeda-Burgos, Guillermo; Omar, Mohamed; Macías, Juan; Rivero, Antonio; Pérez-Pérez, Monserrat; Raffo, Miguel; López-Montesinos, Inmaculada; Márquez-Solero, Manuel; Gómez-Vidal, Maria Amparo; Pineda, Juan A

    2017-02-20

    A liver stiffness below 21 kPa has a high negative predictive value to exclude the presence of esophageal varices at risk of bleeding in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients. Consequently, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) for the screening of esophageal varices could be avoided in these patients. However, this strategy has not been widely accepted due to concerns about its safety. To assess the ability of liver stiffness to predict the risk of portal hypertensive gastrointestinal bleeding (PHGB) in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with compensated cirrhosis. Prospective study of 446 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with a new diagnosis of cirrhosis and no previous decompensation. All patients underwent a UGE for the screening of esophageal varices at entry in the cohort before November 2009. From this date, UGE was not recommended in patients with liver stiffness below 21 kPa. The time from diagnosis of cirrhosis to the emergence of PHGB was evaluated. After a median (quartile1-quartile3) follow-up of 49 (25-68) months, 15 (3.4%, 95% confidence interval 1.7-5%) patients developed a first PHGB episode. In all cases, baseline liver stiffness was at least 21 kPa. Thus, the negative predictive value of a liver stiffness below 21 kPa to predict PHGB during follow-up was 100%. At the time of the bleeding episode, liver stiffness was above this threshold in all patients. Liver stiffness identifies HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with compensated cirrhosis with a very low risk of PHGB. In fact, no individual with liver stiffness below 21 kPa developed this outcome. Our results confirm that UGE can be safely spared in patients with liver stiffness below 21 kPa.

  6. Self-Expanding Metal Stent (SEMS): an innovative rescue therapy for refractory acute variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Changela, Kinesh; Ona, Mel A; Anand, Sury; Duddempudi, Sushil

    2014-12-01

    Acute variceal bleeding (AVB) is a life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis or less commonly splenic vein thrombosis. Pharmacological and endoscopic interventions are cornerstones in the management of variceal bleeding but may fail in 10 - 15 % of patients. Rescue therapy with balloon tamponade (BT) or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) may be required to control refractory acute variceal bleeding effectively but with some limitations. The self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) is a covered, removable tool that can be deployed in the lower esophagus under endoscopic guidance as a rescue therapy to achieve hemostasis for refractory AVB. To evaluate the technical feasibility, efficacy, and safety of SEMS as a rescue therapy for AVB. In this review article, we have performed an extensive literature search summarizing case reports and case series describing SEMS as a rescue therapy for AVB. Indications, features, technique, deployment, success rate, limitations, and complications are discussed. At present, 103 cases have been described in the literature. Studies have reported 97.08 % technical success rates in deployment of SEMS. Most of the stents were intact for 4 - 14 days with no major complications reported. Stent extraction had a success rate of 100 %. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 96 % of cases with only 3.12 % found to have rebleeding after placement of SEMS. Stent migration, which was the most common complication, was observed in 21 % of patients. SEMS is a safe and effective alternative approach as a rescue therapy for refractory AVB.

  7. Low skeletal muscle mass predicts early mortality in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ishizu, Yoji; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Kuzuya, Teiji; Honda, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi

    2017-10-01

    Low skeletal muscle mass adversely affects outcomes in cirrhotic patients; however, its affect in patients with acute variceal bleeding remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low skeletal muscle mass on outcomes in patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding. We evaluated 122 patients to identify factors associated with two outcomes: failure to control bleeding, defined as either rebleeding or death within 5 d, and 6-wk mortality. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated by calculating the psoas muscle area at the third lumbar vertebra on computed tomographic images. Forty-two patients had low skeletal muscle mass. Fifteen patients had failure to control bleeding and 32 patients died within 6 wk. Six of the patients with low skeletal muscle mass and nine without low skeletal muscle mass had failure to control bleeding; these proportions did not differ significantly (P = 0.628). Fifteen of the patients (35.7%) with low skeletal muscle mass died within 6 wk; this proportion was marginally higher than the 17 (21.3%) without low skeletal muscle mass who died within 6 wk (P = 0.084). On multivariate analysis, presence of low skeletal muscle mass (odds ratio [OR], 4.69; P = 0.024), nonalcoholic etiology (OR, 10.3; P = 0.024), higher international normalized ratio of prothrombin time (OR, 41.4; P < 0.001), and rebleeding within 6 wk (OR, 27; P < 0.001) were associated with 6-wk mortality. Low skeletal muscle mass is an independent predictor of 6-wk mortality in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Systemic Mastocytosis Complicated by Non-Cirrhotic Portal Hypertension and Variceal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Thomas R.; Hung, Adelina; Mohanty, Arpan

    2017-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by extracutaneous involvement of at least one organ. Although rare, infiltration of inflammatory mast cells within the portal vein may lead to obstruction of the sinusoids resulting in non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. We present a patient with known history of systemic mastocytosis with bone marrow involvement presenting with new-onset esophageal variceal bleeding. Although systemic mastocytosis is uncommon, the subsequent development of hepatic involvement and non-cirrhotic portal hypertension are discussed. Further highlighted is a lack of organization guidelines and the potential for gastrointestinal and hepatic screening of mastocytosis patients with known extracutaneous involvement. PMID:28286795

  9. Adrenal pseudomasses due to varices: angiographic-CT-MRI-pathologic correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, T.M.; Gross, B.H.; Glazer, G.M. Williams, D.M.

    1985-08-01

    Periadrenal and adrenal portosystemic collaterals are a recently reported cause of adrenal pseudotumor on computed tomography (CT). Nine patients with this left adrenal pseudotumor illustrate its typical position and appearance on CT, angiography, CT-angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The anatomic basis for variceal adrenal pseudotumors is the left inferior phrenic vein, which passes immediately anterior to the left adrenal gland and which serves as a collateral pathway from splenic to left renal vein in portal hypertension. Thus, unlike previously described adrenal pseudotumors, these venous collaterals are not anatomically distinguishable from the adrenal gland on CT. Bolus dynamic CT is usually diagnostic, but in equivocal cases, MRI may prove useful.

  10. Modelling Factors Causing Mortality in Oesophageal VaricesPatients in King Abdul Aziz University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bahlas, Sami

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to reach a model defining factors precipitating short survival in patients with oesophageal varices and improving the understanding of such factors. Models would help to prioritize the clinical goals and intervention for saving the lives of patients. Methods Retrospective analysis of all patients admitted to King Abdul Aziz University Hospital who had been diagnosed with oesophageal varices. The patients’ demographics, disease history, physical examination, viral infections, parasitic infections, blood pictures, cancer biomarkers, liver enzymes and bleeding details were collected, tested for correlation with mortality to formulate a model. Results A total of 148 patients were included in this study. 37 clinical variables were studied only 15 factors were found to have a statistical significance. These factors were PT (RC=0.17338 P-value 0.00011), APTT (RC=0.07916, P-value 0.00002), haemoglobin level (RC=-0.44748, P-value <0.0001), WBC (RC = 0.22255, P-value 0.00001), serum albumin level (RC=-0.12953, P-value 0.00001), serum creatinine (RC=0.01483, P-value 0.00002), at least one incidence of encephalopathy (RC=1.80500, P-value 0.00014), total bilirubin (RC=0.01371, P-value 0.00016), direct bilirubin (RC=0.01298, P-value 0.00357, serum AST (RC=0.00914, P-value 0.00462), presence of at least bleeding event (RC=1.03373, P-value 0.00613), ascites grade I (RC=-1.57435, P-value 0.00967), SBP (RC=1.47216, P-value 0.01581), platelets count (RC=0.00398, P-value 0.03476) and oesophageal varices (RC = -1.42139, P-value 0.03673). Only 5 factors were likely to affect the mortality status. These factors were encephalopathy, spontaneous SBP, bleeding, ascites and grade of oesophageal varices. Six models were then formulated. Conclusion These models should be retested in larger study groups to test their reliability in order to use them as surrogate end point in future clinical studies. PMID:22224185

  11. Comparison of Vascular Plugs and Pushable Coils for Variceal Embolization After TIPS.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Ammar; Esparaz, Anthony M; Tapper, Elliot B; Brook, Olga R; Grunwald, Douglas; Malik, Raza; Ahmed, Muneeb

    2017-03-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) with variceal embolization is routinely performed to treat variceal bleeding. Embolization using vascular plugs is reported, but outcomes are not known. Outcomes and material costs of embolization using vascular plugs and coils are compared. A single center's medical records of TIPS procedures (May 2003-December 2014) with variceal embolization were reviewed. Twenty patients with vascular plug embolization (age [± SD], 50 ± 10 years; seven men and 13 women; median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease [MELD], 20; interquartile range [IQR], 14-23) were compared with an age-, sex-, and MELD-matched cohort who underwent coil embolization (age, 50 ± 9 years; seven men and 13 women; median MELD, 17; IQR, 15-19; p = 0.52). Procedure details, primary outcome (rebleeding), secondary outcome (mortality), and costs were compared. Vascular plug use was associated with a lower fluoroscopy time (49.05 minutes [IQR, 36-62] vs 68 minutes [IQR, 49-76]; p = 0.006) and total procedure time (255 minutes [IQR, 205-290] for vascular plugs vs 275 minutes [IQR, 230-330]; p = 0.05). Total volume of contrast agent used was similar (180 mL [IQR, 155-234] for vascular plugs vs 210 mL [IQR, 185-261]; p = 0.14). In patients with at least a 30-day follow-up, rebleeding rates (2/17 [12%] for vascular plugs vs 4/15 [27%]; p = 0.40) and mortality (2/17 [12%] for vascular plugs vs 4/15 [27%]; p = 0.66) were similar. Per procedure, vascular plugs cost significantly more than coils ($1292 ± $676 vs $228 ± $292, p < 0.0001). The use of vascular plugs or coils has similar outcomes for variceal embolization after TIPS. The advantages of vascular plug use (i.e., reduced fluoroscopy or procedure time) may be offset by increased material cost, a trade-off that merits further study given current cost concerns in health care.

  12. Covered TIPS for secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xingshun; Tian, Yulong; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Haitao; Han, Guohong; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: In the era of bare stents, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is the second-line choice of therapy for the prevention of variceal rebleeding in liver cirrhosis. In the era of covered stents, the role of TIPS should be re-evaluated. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the outcomes of covered TIPS versus the traditional first-line therapy (i.e, drug plus endoscopic therapy) for the prevention of variceal rebleeding in liver cirrhosis. Methods: All relevant randomized controlled trials were searched via the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P values were calculated for the cumulative risk and overall risk, respectively. Heterogeneity among studies was also calculated. Results: Three of 111 retrieved papers were eligible. Among them, the proportion of patients who were switched from drug plus endoscopic therapy to TIPS was 16% to 25%. The risk of bias was relatively low in all included randomized controlled trials. Meta-analyses demonstrated that the covered TIPS group had a similar overall survival (HR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.55–1.28, P = 0.41; OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.59–1.69, P = 0.99), a significantly lower risk of variceal rebleeding (HR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.18–0.48, P < 0.00001; OR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.12–0.46, P < 0.0001), and a similar risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.72–2.53, P = 0.36; OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.54–3.04, P = 0.57). In most of meta-analyses, the heterogeneity among studies was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Compared with drug plus endoscopic therapy, covered TIPS had a significant benefit of preventing from variceal rebleeding, but did not increase the overall survival or risk of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:27977618

  13. Nuclear factor-kappaB inhibition by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate attenuates gastric ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    El Eter, Eman; Hagar, Hanan H; Al-Tuwaijiri, Ali; Arafa, Maha

    2005-06-01

    Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a potent antioxidant and an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). The present study examined the impact of PDTC preconditioning on gastric protection in response to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to the rat stomach. Male Wistar rats were recruited and divided into 3 groups (n = 7). One group was subjected to gastric ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 1 hour. The second group of rats was preconditioned with PDTC (200 mg/kg body mass i.v.) 15 min prior to ischemia and before reperfusion. The third group of rats was sham-operated and served as the control group. Gastric I/R injury increased serum lactate dehydrogenase level, vascular permeability of gastric mucosa (as indicated by Evans blue dye extravasation) and gastric content of inflammatory cytokine; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Moreover, oxidative stress was increased as indicated by elevated lipid peroxides formation (measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and depleted reduced glutathione in gastric tissues. NF-kappaB translocation was also detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Microscopically, gastric tissues subjected to I/R injury showed ulceration, hemorrhages, and neutrophil infiltration. Immunohistochemical studies of gastric sections revealed increased expression of p53 and Bcl-2 proteins. PDTC pretreatment reduced Evans blue extravasation, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, gastric TNF-alpha levels, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content, and increased gastric glutathione content. Moreover, PDTC pretreatment abolished p53 expression and inhibited NF-kappaB translocation. Finally, histopathological changes were nearly restored by PDTC pretreatment. These results clearly demonstrate that NF-kappaB activation and pro-apoptotic protein p53 induction are involved in gastric I/R injury. PDTC protects against gastric I/R injury by an antioxidant, NF-kappaB inhibition, and by reduction of pro

  14. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-31

    36 DISTRIBUTION LIST. .................... 40 INTRODUCTION During the Korean War more than 3,200 United Nations troops in Korea developed a rare...hemorrhagic fever, a situa- tion that attracted worldwide attention (1). Since then it has been known as Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) in Korea . This...Kyunggido and Kangwondo, northern parts of South Korea . All of the 97 HFRS patients among Korean soldiers occurred in Kyunggido, Kangwondo and Seoul

  15. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-23

    13 Table 5. Monthly incidence of HFRS among Korean in the Republic of Korea , 1966-1985 . . . . . . . 14 A Table 6. Incidence of HFRS by...GRANT SUPPORT .. ........ 57.... 5 INTRODUCTION During the Korean War more than 3,000 United Nations .00 troops in Korea developed a rare hemorrhagic...8217;.-.* * S.’ . " 10 ... Table 1. Hospitalized cases of Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome patients in the Republic of Korea Year US Korean Korean

  16. Analysis of Hemorrhage Volumes After Angiogram-Negative Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Bray, David P; Ellis, Jason A; Lavine, Sean D; Meyers, Philip M; Connolly, E Sander

    2016-10-01

    Antiplatelet medication use is associated with worsened outcome after angiogram-negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It has been hypothesized that these worsened outcomes may be the result of an association between antiplatelet medication use and increased hemorrhage volumes after angiogram-negative SAH. To test this hypothesis, we performed volumetric analysis of computed tomography (CT)-defined hemorrhage after angiogram-negative SAH. This was a retrospective analysis of patients presenting with nontraumatic, angiogram-negative SAH in the Columbia University Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Outcomes database between 2000 and 2013. SAH volumes on admission head CT scans were measured using the MIPAV software package, version 7.20 in a semiautomated fashion. A total of 108 presenting CT scans from patients with angiogram-negative SAH were analyzed. The mean hemorrhage volume was 14.3 mL in the patients with a history of antiplatelet medication use, compared with 6.8 mL in those with no history of antiplatelet use. This difference was found to be significant (P = 0.0029). Antiplatelet medication use is associated with increased SAH volumes in patients with angiogram-negative SAH. Increased hemorrhage volumes may contribute to poor outcomes in this patient population. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endoscopic microwave coagulation therapy of postoperative hemorrhage from a stapled anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Umano, Yasukazu; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Inoue, Masaya; Shono, Yoshiharu; Oku, Yoshimasa; Tanishima, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Takeshi; Tabuse, Katsuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    We experienced three cases of postoperative hemorrhage from a stapled gastrointestinal anastomosis, and established endoscopic microwave coagulation therapy (EMCT) with a cylinder-type electrode. We were able to treat postoperative hemorrhage over the entire circumference of stapled anastomosis successfully. Two patients had undergone a lower third thoracic esophagogastrectomy through a left thoraco-abdominal approach for gastric cancer in the cardia, while the other case had undergone Billroth I gastrectomy. They each had fresh bleeding from the stapled anastomosis after the operation. Emergency endoscopic examination was immediately performed. Endoscopy revealed bleeding on the suture line. We performed hemostasis endoscopically with microwave coagulation therapy safely. They were discharged from the hospital without complications such as leakage and stenosis. Since EMCT with the cylinder-type electrode can coagulate shallowly and widely, it is very effective for hemorrhage from a stapled anastomosis.

  18. Treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic gastritis with prednisolone: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Xie, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Hong; Chen, Yi; Ren, Zheng-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced gastritis is an infrequent cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. It is a serious complication arising from radiation therapy, and the standard treatment method has not been established. The initial injury is characteristically acute inflammation of gastric mucosa. We presented a 46-year-old male patient with hemorrhagic gastritis induced by external radiotherapy for metastatic retroperitoneal lymph node of hepatocellular carcinoma. The endoscopic examination showed diffuse edematous hyperemicmucosa with telangiectasias in the whole muscosa of the stomach and duodenal bulb. Multiple hemorrhagic patches with active oozing were found over the antrum. Anti-secretary therapy was initiated for hemostasis, but melena still occurred off and on. Finally, he was successfully treated by prednisolone therapy. We therefore strongly argue in favor of perdnisolone therapy to effectively treat patients with radiation-induced hemorrhagic gastritis. PMID:23326152

  19. Pediatric primary gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Harris, G J; Laszewski, M J

    1992-04-01

    Primary gastric lymphoma in the pediatric population is rare. We have described a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Burkitt's type) manifested as a gastric mass. Despite its rarity in children, this tumor should be treated aggressively, since long-term survival has been reported.

  20. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation and Hemorrhage

    MedlinePlus

    ... moderately, but avoid strenuous activities such as heavy weightlifting that can cause acute spikes in blood pressure ... to cause brain hemorrhages among patients without prior history of high blood pressure, including cases pre-existing ...

  1. [Postpartum hemorrhage--an update].

    PubMed

    Gogarten, Wiebke

    2011-07-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage remains a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. The incidence of postpartum hemorrhage appears to be increasing in developed countries due to an increased number of placenta accreta or percreta after previous Cesarean deliveries. The initial therapy of postpartum hemorrhage consists of uterotonic drugs and inspection of the uterine cavum. At the same time, optimization of the clotting potential should be initiated early. Tranexamic acid may be considered as a first line choice, followed by fibrinogen if necessary. If bleeding continues, fresh frozen plasma and packed red cells should be ordered in a ratio of 1:1, as this ratio has been shown to improve survival in trauma victims. All labor and delivery suites should have standard operating procedures for the management of postpartum hemorrhage in place with regular drills.

  2. Pathogenesis of arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Moraz, Marie-Laurence; Kunz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses belong to the most devastating emerging human diseases and represent serious public health problems. Arenavirus VHFs in humans are acute diseases characterized by fever and, in severe cases, different degrees of hemorrhages associated with a shock syndrome in the terminal stage. Over the past years, much has been learned about the pathogenesis of arenaviruses at the cellular level, in particular their ability to subvert the host cell's innate antiviral defenses. Clinical studies and novel animal models have provided important new information about the interaction of hemorrhagic arenaviruses with the host's adaptive immune system, in particular virus-induced immunosuppression, and have provided the first hints towards an understanding of the terminal hemorrhagic shock syndrome. The scope of this article is to review our current knowledge on arenavirus VHF pathogenesis with an emphasis on recent developments.

  3. Cerebral hemorrhage in monozygotic twins with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: case report and hemorrhagic risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rattani, Abbas; Dewan, Michael C; Hannig, Vickie; Naftel, Robert P; Wellons, John C; Jordan, Lori C

    2017-08-01

    The authors present a case of monozygotic twins with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) who experienced cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) hemorrhage at a very young age. The clinical variables influencing HHT-related AVM rupture are discussed, and questions surrounding the timing of screening and intervention are explored. This is only the second known case of monozygotic HHT twins published in the medical literature, and the youngest pair of first-degree relatives to experience AVM-related cerebral hemorrhage. Evidence guiding the screening and management of familial HHT is lacking, and cases such as this underscore the need for objective and validated protocols.

  4. Obesity and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yongning; Qiao, Liang

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is an important public health problem worldwide. It increases the risk of many chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Meanwhile, obesity is a major risk factor for several types of cancer including gastric cancer. Possible mechanisms linking obesity with gastric cancer may include obesity associated gastro-oesophageal reflux, insulin resistance, altered levels of adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, and an abnormally increased blood level of insulin-like growth factor (IGF). Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-recognized risk factor for peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Recent studies have revealed an increased prevalence of H. pylori infection in obese patients, providing another clue for the increased incidence of gastric cancer in obese population. If this connection can be confirmed in animal models and a large cohort of patients, then eradicating H. pylori together with life style modification in obese individuals may help prevent the development of gastric cancer in the increasingly obese population.

  5. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  6. Hemorrhagic complications in dermatologic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bunick, Christopher G.; Aasi, Sumaira Z.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize, manage, and, most importantly, prevent hemorrhagic complications is critical to performing dermatologic procedures that have safe and high quality outcomes. This article reviews the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors and patient dynamics that are central to preventing such an adverse outcome. Specifically, the role that anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, hypertension, and other medical conditions play in the development of postoperative hemorrhage are discussed. In addition, this article provides practical guidelines on managing bleeding during and after surgery. PMID:22515669

  7. Liver stiffness as a predictor of esophageal varices requiring therapy in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Juan A; Recio, Eva; Camacho, Angela; Macías, Juan; Almodóvar, Carmen; González-Serrano, Mercedes; Merino, Dolores; Tellez, Francisco; Ríos, Maria José; Rivero, Antonio

    2009-08-01

    Liver stiffness (LS) measured by transient elastometry is associated with portal pressure in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-monoinfected patients and could predict the presence of esophageal varices in these subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of LS to predict esophageal varices requiring preventive therapy for bleeding in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. One hundred two HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with liver cirrhosis (LS >or= 14 kPa) underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) examination. The diagnostic performance of LS for esophageal varices requiring therapy (>or=F2 or F1 with red signs or Child-Pugh-Turcotte class C) was assessed by receiver operating receptor characteristic curves. Nineteen patients (19%) harbored varices requiring therapy. LS in patients with and without varices needing treatment was 48 (33-71) kPa and 32 (18-48) kPa (P = 0.004). The area under the receptor operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval) of LS for the occurrence of varices that should be treated was 0.71 (0.60 to 0.82). There was no cutoff level of LS with good positive predictive value for the presence of varices requiring therapy, but LS of 21 kPa had a negative predictive value of 100%. Twenty-six percent of patients with LS measurement and UGE showed LS <21 KPa. LS is higher in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with cirrhosis who show esophageal varices requiring therapy than in those who do not. A cutoff value of LS of 21 kPa could be useful to identify patients with very low probability of varices at risk for bleeding. UGE for screening could be spared in these patients until LS increases above 21 kPa.

  8. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature. PMID:23983714

  9. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, Duane J.

    1998-01-01

    Dengue fever, a very old disease, has reemerged in the past 20 years with an expanded geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased epidemic activity, the development of hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple serotypes), and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in new geographic regions. In 1998 this mosquito-borne disease is the most important tropical infectious disease after malaria, with an estimated 100 million cases of dengue fever, 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 25,000 deaths annually. The reasons for this resurgence and emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the waning years of the 20th century are complex and not fully understood, but demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure changes in the past 30 years have contributed greatly. This paper reviews the changing epidemiology of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever by geographic region, the natural history and transmission cycles, clinical diagnosis of both dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, serologic and virologic laboratory diagnoses, pathogenesis, surveillance, prevention, and control. A major challenge for public health officials in all tropical areas of the world is to devleop and implement sustainable prevention and control programs that will reverse the trend of emergent dengue hemorrhagic fever. PMID:9665979

  10. First-line endoscopic treatment with OTSC in patients with high-risk non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: preliminary experience in 40 cases.

    PubMed

    Manno, Mauro; Mangiafico, Santi; Caruso, Angelo; Barbera, Carmelo; Bertani, Helga; Mirante, Vincenzo G; Pigò, Flavia; Amardeep, Khanna; Conigliaro, Rita

    2016-05-01

    The over-the-scope clip (OTSC; Ovesco, Tübingen, Germany) is a novel endoscopic clipping device designed for tissue approximation. The device has been used in the closure of fistulas and perforations. We hereby report a series of patients with high-risk non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) lesions in whom OTSCs were used as first-line endoscopic treatment. We prospectively collected and retrospectively analysed data over a period of 12 months from October 2013 to November 2014 from all consecutive patients who underwent emergency endoscopy for acute severe high-risk NVUGIB and were treated with OTSC as primary first-line therapy. We included forty consecutive patients with mean age 69 years (range 25-94 years). All patients were treated with the non-traumatic version of the OTSC system (23 with the 11 mm version and 17 with the 12 mm version). Indications for OTSC treatment included gastric ulcer with large vessel (Forrest IIa) (n = 8, 20 %), duodenal ulcer (Forrest Ib) (n = 7, 18 %), duodenal ulcer with large vessel (Forrest IIa) (n = 6, 15 %), Dieulafoy's lesion (n = 6, 15 %) and other secondary indications (n = 13, 32 %). Technical success and primary haemostasis were achieved in all patients (100 %). No re-bleeding, need for surgical or radiological embolization treatment or other complications were observed during the follow-up period of 30 days. We conclude OTSC placement as a first-line endoscopic treatment seems to be effective, safe and easy to perform and should be considered in patients with high-risk NVUGIB lesions.

  11. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening and medical emergency that can be caused by numerous disorders and presents with hemoptysis, anemia, and diffuse alveolar infiltrates. Early bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is usually required to confirm the diagnosis and rule out infection. Most cases of DAH are caused by capillaritis associated with systemic autoimmune diseases such as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus, but DAH may also result from coagulation disorders, drugs, inhaled toxins, or transplantation. The diagnosis of DAH relies on clinical suspicion combined with laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings. Early recognition is crucial, because prompt diagnosis and treatment is necessary for survival. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents remain the gold standard. In patients with DAH, biopsy of involved sites can help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. This article aims to provide a general review of the causes and clinical presentation of DAH and to recommend a diagnostic approach and a management plan for the most common causes. PMID:23678356

  12. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Management

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Yup; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. To improve the devastating course of ICH, various clinical trials for medical and surgical interventions have been conducted in the last 10 years. Recent large-scale clinical trials have reported that early intensive blood pressure reduction can be a safe and feasible strategy for ICH, and have suggested a safe target range for systolic blood pressure. While new medical therapies associated with warfarin and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants have been developed to treat ICH, recent trials have not been able to demonstrate the overall beneficial effects of surgical intervention on mortality and functional outcomes. However, some patients with ICH may benefit from surgical management in specific clinical contexts and/or at specific times. Furthermore, clinical trials for minimally invasive surgical evacuation methods are ongoing and may provide positive evidence. Upon understanding the current guidelines for the management of ICH, clinicians can administer appropriate treatment and attempt to improve the clinical outcome of ICH. The purpose of this review is to help in the decision-making of the medical and surgical management of ICH. PMID:28178413

  13. Splenic Arterial Embolization in the Treatment of Severe Portal Hypertension Due to Pancreatic Diseases: The Primary Experience in 14 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qi Xiong, Bin Zheng, ChuanSheng Liang, Ming Han, Ping

    2016-03-15

    ObjectiveThis retrospective study reports our experience using splenic arterial particle embolization and coil embolization for the treatment of sinistral portal hypertension (SPH) in patients with and without gastric bleeding.MethodsFrom August 2009 to May 2012, 14 patients with SPH due to pancreatic disease were diagnosed and treated with splenic arterial embolization. Two different embolization strategies were applied; either combined distal splenic bed particle embolization and proximal splenic artery coil embolization in the same procedure for acute hemorrhage (1-step) or interval staged distal embolization and proximal embolization in the stable patient (2-step). The patients were clinically followed.ResultsIn 14 patients, splenic arterial embolization was successful. The one-step method was performed in three patients suffering from massive gastric bleeding, and the bleeding was relieved after embolization. The two-step method was used in 11 patients, who had chronic gastric variceal bleeding or gastric varices only. The gastric varices disappeared in the enhanced CT scan and the patients had no gastric bleeding during follow-up.ConclusionsSplenic arterial embolization, particularly the two-step method, proved feasible and effective for the treatment of SPH patients with gastric varices or gastric variceal bleeding.

  14. Ganoderma lucidum Pharmacopuncture for the Treatment of Acute Gastric Ulcers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Heung; Jang, Kyung-Jun; kim, Cheol-Hong; Lee, Yoo-Hwan; Lee, Soo-Jung; kim, Bum-Hoi; Yoon, Hyun-Min

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the stomach and duodenum. The basic physiopathology of a gastric ulcer results from an imbalance between some endogenous aggressive and cytoprotective factors. This study examined whether Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP) would provide protection against acute gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 8 rats each: normal, control, normal saline (NP) and GLP groups. The experimental acute gastric ulcer was induced by using an EtOH/HCl solution and the normal group received the same amount of normal saline instead of ethanol. The NP and the GLP groups were treated once with injections of saline and GLP, respectively. Two local acupoints were used: CV12 (中脘) which is the alarm point of the Stomach Meridian, and ST36 (足三里), which is the sea point of the Stomach Meridian. The stomachs from the rats in each group were collected and analyzed for gross appearance and histology. Also, immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1 was performed. Results: Histological observations of the gastric lesions in the control group showed comparatively extensive damage of the gastric mucosa and necrotic lesions had penetrated deeply into the mucosa. The lesions were long, hemorrhagic, and confined to the glandular portions. The lesions were measured microscopically by using the clear depth of penetration into the gastric mucosal surface. The length and the width of the ulcer were measured and the inhibition percentage was calculated. Wound healing of the acute gastric ulcer was promoted by using GLP, and significant alterations of indices in gastric mucosa were observed. Such protection was shown by gross appearance, histology and immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1. Conclusion: These results suggest that GLP administered at CV12 and ST36 can provide significant protection to the gastric mucosa against an ethanol-induced acute

  15. [Empirical study in the relation of gastric mucosal lesion with gastric emptying and gastric acid secretion].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-feng; Xue, Ying-wei

    2008-09-01

    To study the precise cause and the specific procedure about gastric mucosal lesion in rats with water immersion-restraint stress(WRS). One hundred and forty-four Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups randomly: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I group. There were 16 rats in each group. A, B and C groups underwent gastric emptying determination. Emptying rate of gastric fluid was determined with radiate nuclide (99m)Tc. D, E and F groups underwent gastric acid secretion determination after cleaning gastric contents and pylorus ligation. G, H and I groups underwent gastric acid secretion determination after pylorus ligation without cleaning gastric contents. Gastric mucosal lesion ulcer index(UI) was evaluated. The relationship between of gastric mucosal lesion and gastric emptying rate and gastric acid secretion were examined. Gastric emptying rate decreased obviously when the WRS time was prolonged. There were significant differences among B (WRS 2 h), C group (WRS 4 h) and A group (controlled group) (P<0.01). There was also significant difference between B and C group (P<0.01).The rats' gastric acid secretion was inhibited significantly. The differences among E (WRS 2 h), F (WRS 4 h) and D groups (controlled group) were significant (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between F and E groups (P>0.05). The gastric mucosal lesions were aggravated with time of stress. Gastric contents cleaning could effectively prevent gastric mucosal lesions originated by stress .The operation had no influence on this test. There were significant gastric mucosal lesion UI in B and C groups compared with A group (P<0.01). The difference between B and C group was significant (P<0.01).There were no gastric mucosal lesions in A, D, E, F and G groups. However, There was significant difference between I and F group (P<0.01). No significant difference were found among A, D, E, F and G groups (P>0.05). There were significant difference between H and B group and also between I and C group

  16. Cyanoacrylate injection versus band ligation for bleeding from cardiac varices along the lesser curvature of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Jung; Kim, Yong Kwon; Seo, Yeon Seok; Park, Seung Woon; Lee, Han Ah; Kim, Tae Hyung; Suh, Sang Jun; Jung, Young Kul; Kim, Ji Hoon; An, Hyunggin; Yim, Hyung Joon; Jang, Jae Young; Yeon, Jong Eun; Byun, Kwan Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Practice guidelines recommend endoscopic band ligation (EBL) and endoscopic variceal obturation (EVO) for bleeding from esophageal varices and fundal varices, respectively. However, the optimal treatment for bleeding from cardiac varices along the lesser curvature of the stomach (GOV1) remains undefined. This retrospective study compared the efficacy between EBL and EVO for bleeding from GOV1. Methods Patients treated by EBL or EVO via cyanoacrylate injection for bleeding from GOV1 were enrolled. Patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma or treated with endoscopic injection sclerotherapy were excluded. Results The study included 91 patients treated for bleeding from GOV1. The mean age was 56.3±10.9 years (mean±SD), and 78 of them (85.7%) were men. Overall, 51 and 40 patients were treated with EBL and EVO, respectively. A trend for a higher hemostasis rate was noted in the EVO group (100%) than in the EBL group (82.6%, P=0.078). Varices rebled in 15 patients during follow-up. The rebleeding rate was significantly higher in the EBL group than in the EVO group (P=0.004). During follow-up, 13 patients died (11 in the EBL group and 2 in the EVO group); the survival rate was marginally significant between two groups (P=0.050). The rebleeding-free survival rate was significantly higher in the EVO group than in the EBL group (P=0.001). Conclusion Compared to EBL, EVO offered significantly lower rebleeding rates, significantly higher rebleeding-free survival rates, and a trend for higher hemostasis and survival rates. EVO appears to be the better therapeutic option for bleeding from GOV1. PMID:28081588

  17. Cyanoacrylate injection versus band ligation for bleeding from cardiac varices along the lesser curvature of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Jung; Kim, Yong Kwon; Seo, Yeon Seok; Park, Seung Woon; Lee, Han Ah; Kim, Tae Hyung; Suh, Sang Jun; Jung, Young Kul; Kim, Ji Hoon; An, Hyunggin; Yim, Hyung Joon; Jang, Jae Young; Yeon, Jong Eun; Byun, Kwan Soo

    2016-12-01

    Practice guidelines recommend endoscopic band ligation (EBL) and endoscopic variceal obturation (EVO) for bleeding from esophageal varices and fundal varices, respectively. However, the optimal treatment for bleeding from cardiac varices along the lesser curvature of the stomach (GOV1) remains undefined. This retrospective study compared the efficacy between EBL and EVO for bleeding from GOV1. Patients treated by EBL or EVO via cyanoacrylate injection for bleeding from GOV1 were enrolled. Patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma or treated with endoscopic injection sclerotherapy were excluded. The study included 91 patients treated for bleeding from GOV1. The mean age was 56.3±10.9 years (mean±SD), and 78 of them (85.7%) were men. Overall, 51 and 40 patients were treated with EBL and EVO, respectively. A trend for a higher hemostasis rate was noted in the EVO group (100%) than in the EBL group (82.6%, P=0.078). Varices rebled in 15 patients during follow-up. The rebleeding rate was significantly higher in the EBL group than in the EVO group (P=0.004). During follow-up, 13 patients died (11 in the EBL group and 2 in the EVO group); the survival rate was marginally significant between two groups (P=0.050). The rebleeding-free survival rate was significantly higher in the EVO group than in the EBL group (P=0.001). Compared to EBL, EVO offered significantly lower rebleeding rates, significantly higher rebleeding-free survival rates, and a trend for higher hemostasis and survival rates. EVO appears to be the better therapeutic option for bleeding from GOV1.

  18. Genetics of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Strand, Matthew S; Lockhart, Albert Craig; Fields, Ryan C

    2017-04-01

    Gastric cancer represents a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide despite a declining incidence. New molecular classification schemes developed from genomic and molecular analyses of gastric cancer have provided a framework for understanding this heterogenous disease, and early findings suggest these classifications will be relevant for designing and implementing new targeted therapies. The success of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in breast cancer and melanoma, respectively, has not been duplicated in gastric cancer, but trastuzumab and ramucirumab have demonstrated efficacy in select populations. New markers that predict therapeutic response are needed to improve patient selection for both targeted and immunotherapies.

  19. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome. PMID:25272066

  20. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Stanlies

    2015-07-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome.

  1. Obstetric hemorrhage: A global review.

    PubMed

    Goffman, Dena; Nathan, Lisa; Chazotte, Cynthia

    2016-03-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage remains the number one cause of maternal death globally despite the fact that it is largely a preventable and most often a treatable condition. While the global problem is appreciated, some may not realize that in the United States postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of mortality and unfortunately, the incidence is on the rise. In New York, obstetric hemorrhage is the second leading cause of maternal mortality in the state. National data suggests that hemorrhage is disproportionally overrepresented as a contributor to severe maternal morbidity and we suspect as we explore further this will be true in New York State as well. Given the persistent and significant contribution to maternal mortality, it may be useful to analyze the persistence of this largely preventable cause of death within the framework of the historic "Three Delays" model of maternal mortality. The ongoing national and statewide problem with postpartum hemorrhage will be reviewed in this context of delays in an effort to inform potential solutions.

  2. Regression of esophageal varices and splenomegaly in two patients with hepatitis-C-related liver cirrhosis after interferon and ribavirin combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Jae; Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Na, Soo-Young; Choi, Eun Kwang; Boo, Sun Jin; Jeong, Seung Uk; Song, Hyung Joo; Kim, Heung Up; Kim, Bong Soo; Song, Byung-Cheol

    2016-09-01

    Some recent studies have found regression of liver cirrhosis after antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis, but there have been no reports of complete regression of esophageal varices after interferon/peg-interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. We describe two cases of complete regression of esophageal varices and splenomegaly after interferon-alpha and ribavirin combination therapy in patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. Esophageal varices and splenomegaly regressed after 3 and 8 years of sustained virologic responses in cases 1 and 2, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that complications of liver cirrhosis, such as esophageal varices and splenomegaly, can regress after antiviral therapy in patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis.

  3. Gastric Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... much you can eat or by reducing the absorption of nutrients, or both. Gastric bypass and other ... you can eat at one sitting and reducing absorption of nutrients. The surgeon cuts across the top ...

  4. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  5. Dermatoglyphs and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zivanović-Posilović, Gordana; Milicić, Jasna; Bozicević, Dubravko

    2003-06-01

    Gastric cancer is very common malignant disease, etiology of which is still unknown. Some studies consider that it is caused by a joint activity of both genetic and environmental factors. Digito-palmar dermatoglyphs were already used to determine hereditary base of some malignant diseases (breast, lung and colorectal cancer) and it was the reason for investigations of the correlation of their quantity features at patients with gastric cancer (36 males and 32 females) and the control groups of phenotypically healthy persons (50 males and 50 females). By performing statistical data processing of the multivariate and univariate analysis, as well as of discriminant ones, it was possible to prove the existence of heterogeneity between the investigated groups. Higher incidence of gastric cancer and the blood group A could be confirmed, as well. From the obtained findings can be concluded, that the results of quantitative analysis of digitopalmar dermatoglyphs affirm the existence of genetic predisposition for development of gastric cancer.

  6. Diet after gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric banding surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after banding; Weight loss - diet after banding ... al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised ...

  7. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  8. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... your legs to help prevent blood clots from forming. You will receive shots of medicine to prevent ... diversion with duodenal switch Dumping syndrome References Buchwald H. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In: Buchwald ...

  9. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  10. Familial Gastric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W.; Duda, Dan G.; Hong, Theodore S.; Kwak, Eunice L.; Mullen, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Implications for Practice: Although the majority of gastric adenocarcinomas are sporadic with many of those related to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection, approximately 10% of the cases show familial aggregation, and a specific hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. This review describes the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Ultimately, a better understanding of the biology of these conditions should allow early identification and intervention as part of a multidisciplinary approach involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, and pathologists. PMID:26424758

  11. Reactionary Hemorrhage in Gynecological Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mc Laren, Glenda; Khalil, Akram

    2008-01-01

    Background: Bleeding is a major complication in contemporary gynecological surgery. We discusses this rare, albeit potentially serious, unexpected complication. The authors mean by “reactionary,” hemorrhage that occurs within the first 24 hours after surgery. More or less, all gynecological surgeons have had to deal with this situation at some stage of their career. The seriousness of this complication stems from the fact that often the surgeon is not in the immediate vicinity to promptly step in and treat the patient. Nevertheless, the key to successful management is prompt diagnosis, immediate resuscitation, and operative intervention. Methods: By using the collective hospital database, we reviewed 719 patient records. The authors operated on these patients between November 1990 and March 2007 (inclusive) in one hospital, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, the main teaching hospital in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The procedures performed in the 719 patients comprised 476 vaginal hysterectomies and 243 laparoscopic hysterectomies. Both public and private patients were included. The objective of the review was to establish the incidence of postoperative reactionary hemorrhage following the initial operation, as defined by the number of patients returning to the operating theatre (OT) because of postoperative hemorrhage within 24 hours of the initial hysterectomy. Results: Of the 719 patients, 6 experienced reactionary postoperative hemorrhage, 3 each in the vaginal hysterectomy and laparoscopic hysterectomy groups. That would make the incidence of postoperative reactionary hemorrhage 0.6% in the vaginal hysterectomy and 1.2% in the laparoscopic hysterectomy group. None of these 6 patients had any preoperative hemorrhagica diatheses. There was neither ureteric, bladder, intestinal, nor any other injuries in the whole series. No long-term complications or mortalities occurred. Conclusion: Reactionary postoperative hemorrhage is a rare, albeit serious

  12. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) [PDF – 2 pages] Virus Ecology Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) Information for Specific Groups ... Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Outbreak Distribution Map Resources Virus Ecology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  13. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... 03-13T18:30:42+00:00 PH and Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) Print PH and HHT Brochure ( ... done for me? My doctor says I have Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia. What exactly does that mean? Hereditary ...

  14. Subconjunctival Hemorrhage (Broken Blood Vessel in Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    Subconjunctival hemorrhage (broken blood vessel in eye) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A subconjunctival hemorrhage (sub-kun-JUNK-tih-vul HEM-uh-ruj) occurs when a tiny blood vessel breaks just underneath the clear surface of your ...

  15. Ebola and marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Amy L; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T

    2010-03-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses cause a severe viral hemorrhagic fever disease mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Although outbreaks are sporadic, there is the potential for filoviruses to spread to other continents unintentionally because of air travel or intentionally because of bioterrorism. This article discusses the natural history, epidemiology, and clinical presentation of patients infected with Ebola and Marburg viruses. Clinicians in the United States should be aware of the symptoms of these viral infections in humans and know the appropriate procedures for contacting local, state, and national reference laboratories in the event of a suspected case of filoviral hemorrhagic fever.

  16. Growing Hemorrhagic Choroidal Fissure Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Gelal, Fazıl; Gurkan, Gokhan; Feran, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal fissure cysts are often incidentally discovered. They are usually asymptomatic. The authors report a case of growing and hemorrhagic choroidal fissure cyst which was treated surgically. A 22-year-old female presented with headache. Cranial MRI showed a left-sided choroidal fissure cyst. Follow-up MRI showed that the size of the cyst had increased gradually. Twenty months later, the patient was admitted to our emergency department with severe headache. MRI and CT showed an intracystic hematoma. Although such cysts usually have a benign course without symptoms and progression, they may rarely present with intracystic hemorrhage, enlargement of the cyst and increasing symptomatology. PMID:26962426

  17. [Infratentorial hemorrhage following supratentorial surgery].

    PubMed

    Tomii, M; Nakajima, M; Ikeuchi, S; Ogawa, T; Abe, T

    1999-10-01

    Hemorrhage in regions remote from the site of initial intracranial operations is rare, but does occur. We report three cases of cerebellar hemorrhage that developed after supratentorial surgery, all of which had similar clinical findings and CT images. The first case was a 37-year-old man with a craniopharyngioma in the suprasellar lesion. Partial removal of the tumor was performed through frontal craniotomy and the translaminaterminals approach. A large quantity of cerebospinal fluid (CSF) was suctioned from the third ventricle during the operation, resulting in marked brain shrinkage. The second and third cases were 34- and 51-year-old women with unruptured right middle cerebral aneurysms. Clipping of the aneurysms through the pterional approach was performed in both cases. In the second case, CSF was suctioned in large quantity from the carotid and prechiasmal cistern at the operation, resulting in marked brain shrinkage. In the third case, however, only a small volume of CSF was suctioned from the carotid and prechiasmal cistern during the operation, and no marked brain shrinkage was observed. CT scan showed that the hematomas were located mainly in the subdural or the subarachnoid spaces over the cerebellar hemisphere and partially extending into the cerebellar cortex. The mechanism of cerebellar hemorrhage in these series of patients was thought to be multifactorial. The possible etiology for cerebellar hemorrhage in the three cases presented was examined, including the role of CSF suction during surgery and disturbance of venous circulation in the posterior fossa. Suction of the CSF may cause intracranial hypotension. Further reduction of intracranial pressure leads to an increased transluminal venous pressure. There was no episode of hypertension or disturbed blood coagulation during or after the operation. The preoperative angiogram also revealed no abnormality at the region of the posterior fossa. Neuroimaging of infratentorial hemorrhage after

  18. [Sheehan's syndrome after obstetric hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Ramos-López, L; Pons-Canosa, V; Juncal-Díaz, J L; Núñez-Centeno, M B

    2014-12-01

    Sheehan's syndrome is described as panhypopituitarism secondary to a pituitary hypoperfusion during or just after obstetric hemorrhage. Advances in obstetric care make this syndrome quite unusual, but some cases are reported in underdeveloped countries. Clinical presentation may change depending on the severity of the hormone deficiencies. The diagnosis is clinical, but abnormalities are observed in the magnetic resonance in up to 70% of patients. We present a case of a woman with hypotension, hypothermia and edemas in relation to a previous massive postpartum hemorrhage. Failure in lactation was the clue to the diagnosis. A review of its main features, its diagnosis and treatment in the current literature is also presented.

  19. Color-coded Doppler evaluation of cholecystic varices in portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kainberger, F M; Vergesslich, K A; Eilenberger, M; Poeltner, S; Ponhold, W

    1990-01-01

    A 11-year-old white girl presented with a diagnosis of thrombosis of the portal vein after newborn septicemia. Duplex sonography revealed significant narrowing of the portal vein and its right and left branches. A Doppler signal could only be obtained in certain short segments of the portal vein and indicated hepatopetal flow. Color-coded Doppler sonography showed extensive varicose veins in the gallbladder with a bigger draining vessel running to the porta hepatis. Documentation of varices like those in the gallbladder wall confirms the diagnosis of portal hypertension and may increase the sensitivity of Doppler sonography. Color mapping has the potential to detect unexpected flow and to analyze blood flow to better advantage.

  20. Esophagogastric devascularization and transection for bleeding esophageal varices: first case presentation.

    PubMed

    Manzano-Trovamala, F J; Guttierrez, R L; Marquez, G M; Garcia, R A; Christen, J J; Guerrero, M G

    1996-08-01

    We present the first case of esophagogastric devascularization and esophagogastric transection using a stapler through laparoscopic surgery. The procedure was performed in a 71-year-old diabetic woman with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh B class), portal hypertension, bleeding grade III esophageal varices, and a previous bleeding episode. The surgical technique was carried out without problems, and the patient had an excellent postoperative condition. Esophagogastric devascularization with esophageal transection using a stapler through laparoscopic surgery is a feasible technique that accomplishes the same and all objectives of the open procedure. Operative time in both methods is the same, whereas surgical trauma, inmunologic depletion, amount of transfused blood, pain, use of analgesics, and hospital stay are reduced in the laparoscopic technique.

  1. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  2. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Woo Keun; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  3. Fatal Hemorrhagic Shock and Acetate Solutions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    trauma victims occur within 1 hourvOf injury and are due to rapid hemorrhage or CNS trauma . We developed a rapid hemorrhage model in unanesthetized swine...UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGErmUen Data Enteed) q g ABSTRACT One-half of deaths among trauma victims occur within 1 hour of injury and...are due to rapid hemorrhage or CNS trauma . We developed a rapid hemorrhage model in unanesthetized swine to simulate human exsanguination. We compared

  4. Curcumin-induced histone acetylation inhibition improves stress-induced gastric ulcer disease in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Zhou, Renmin; Hu, Guorui; Liu, Zhifeng; Jin, Yu; Yang, Guang; Li, Mei; Lin, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin is known to possess anti‑inflammatory properties. Despite the fact that curcumin is known to be a strong inhibitor of H+, K+‑ATPase activity, the mechanism underlying the curcumin‑induced inhibition of the transcription of the H+, K+‑ATPase α subunit in gastric mucosal parietal cells remains unclear. The present study investigated the possible mechanism by which curcumin inhibits stomach H+, K+‑ATPase activity during the acute phase of gastric ulcer disease. A rat model of stress‑induced gastric ulcers was produced, in which the anti‑ulcer effects of curcumin were examined. Curcumin‑induced inhibition of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter via histone acetylation, was verified using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The results showed that curcumin improved stress‑induced gastric ulcer disease in rats, as demonstrated by increased pH values and reduced gastric mucosal hemorrhage and ulcer index. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in the level of histone H3 acetylation at the site of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter and in the expression of the gastric H+,K+‑ATPase α subunit gene and protein. In conclusion, curcumin downregulated the acetylation of histone H3 at the site of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter gene, thereby inhibiting the transcription and expression of the H+, K+‑ATPase gene. Curcumin was shown to have a preventive and therapeutic effect in gastric ulcer disease.

  5. Potential precipitating factors of esophageal variceal bleeding: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Chih; Hou, Ming-Chih; Chang, Chen-Jung; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Valsalva maneuver-associated activities such as straining during defecation, vomiting, and cough are believed to cause abrupt increase in variceal pressure. Whether these actions can precipitate rupture of esophageal varices (EV) is unknown. The association of EV bleeding with these activities and other potential risk factors such as ingestion of alcohol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was investigated. Between January 2003 and May 2009, 240 patients with liver cirrhosis and acute EV bleeding (group A) and 240 matched patients with Child-Pugh's class and moderate size EV without bleeding (group B) were included. Each patient was questioned regarding constipation, vomiting, cough, and other potential risk factors in the week prior to index bleeding (group A) or endoscopy (group B) using a standard questionnaire. Group A had more patients with constipation (n=44 vs. n=16, P<0.001) and higher constipation scores (0.79 ± 1.67 vs. 0.25 ± 0.92, P<0.001) than group B. Group A also had more patients with vomiting (n=60 vs. n=33, P=0.002) and higher vomiting scores (3.0 ± 0.86 vs. 1.85 ± 0.87, P<0.001). No difference in cough existed between the two groups (n=77 group A vs. n=73 group B); however, group A had higher cough scores (5.08 ± 2.70 vs. 3.19 ± 2.23, P<0.001). Group A had more patients with excessive alcohol consumption in the week preceding inclusion in the study (n=58 vs. n=5, P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, constipation score and vomiting score and alcohol consumption were independent determinants of first EV bleeding. Constipation, vomiting, severe coughing, and excessive consumption of alcohol may precipitate rupture of EV. A prospective cohort study is required to clarify the causal relationship between potential precipitating factors and EV bleeding.

  6. TIPS versus endoscopic therapy for variceal rebleeding in cirrhosis: A meta-analysis update.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Hui; Li, Hui; Zhang, Heng; Zheng, Dan; Sun, Chen-Ming; Wu, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Endoscopic therapy (ET) is most common method for preventing variceal bleeding in cirrhosis, but the outcomes are not perfect. Recently, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is introduced into clinical practice. However, the beneficial effects of TIPS compared to ET on cirrhotic patients is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of TIPS with those of the most frequently used ET for prevention of variceal rebleeding (VRB) in liver cirrhosis. The Pub-Med, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to February 2017. The primary study outcomes included the incidence of VRB, all-cause mortality, bleeding-related death, and the incidence of post-treatment hepatic encephalopathy (PTE). The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled for dichotomous variables. Subgroup analyses were performed. Twenty-four studies were eligible and they included 1120 subjects treated with TIPS and 1065 subjects treated with ET. Although there was no significant difference in survival and PTE, TIPS was superior to ET in decreasing the incidence of VRB (OR=0.27; 95% CI, 0.19-0.39, P<0.00001), and decreasing the incidence of bleeding-related death (OR=0.21; 95% CI, 0.13-0.32, P<0.00001). Subgroup analysis found a lower mortality (OR=0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-0.97; P=0.04) without any increased incidence of PTE (OR=1.37; 95% CI, 0.75-2.50; P=0.31) in the studies of a greater proportion (≥40%) of patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis receiving TIPS, and TIPS with covered stent did not increase the risk of PTE compared to ET (OR=1.52, 95% CI =0.82-2.80, P=0.18). It was concluded that TIPS with covered stent might be considered the preferred choice of therapy in patients with severe liver disease for secondary prophylaxis.

  7. CT demonstration of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, D.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1983-08-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with subsequent adrenal insufficiency is a recognized complication of anticoagulant therapy. Because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific, the antemortem diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage has been a difficult clinical problem. Computed tomography (CT) provides detailed images of the adrenal glands that are not possible with conventional imaging methods. The CT findings of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient are reported.

  8. Seizures and CNS hemorrhage: spontaneous intracerebral and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Emily; Choi, H Alex; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Claassen, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures frequently complicate acute brain injury particularly central nervous system hemorrhages and both have been associated with poor outcome. No randomized controlled trials have been conducted to guide decisions on seizure prophylaxis or treatment. The magnitude of additional injury from nonconvulsive seizures remains controversial and some argue that these epileptiform patterns primarily represent surrogate markers of severely injured brain. The deleterious effects of seizures on brain recovering from a recent injury have to be weighed against the deleterious effects of antiepileptic medications when making decisions on prophylaxis and treatment. Currently seizure prophylaxis is not generally recommended for patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). However, short-term prophylaxis (during the acute critical illness) is commonly instituted for patients in whom seizures would likely lead to additional injury such as herniation or rebleeding. ICH or aSAH patients with seizures at the onset of their hemorrhage, patients with ICH in close proximity to the cortical surface, and aSAH patients with a poor clinical grade (poor neurologic examination and/or thick cisternal blood) are at high risk of seizures, especially nonconvulsive, and are frequently kept on short-term prophylaxis. Convulsive seizures occur in 7% to 17% of patients with spontaneous ICH and in between 6% and 26% of those with aneurysmal aSAH. These should be treated as soon as possible regardless of the underlying causative factors. Nonconvulsive seizures are seen in about 20% of patients with ICH and in 8% to 18% of those with aSAH. It is controversial how aggressively to treat nonconvulsive seizures. Convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures are frequent after central nervous system hemorrhage and treatment is controversial, particularly for nonconvulsive seizures. Randomized controlled trials need to be

  9. Gastric cancer and trastuzumab: first biologic therapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunturu, Krishna S.; Woo, Yanghee; Beaubier, Nike; Remotti, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains difficult to cure and has a poor overall prognosis. Chemotherapy and multimodality therapy has shown some benefit in the treatment of gastric cancer. Current therapies for gastric cancer have their limitations; thus, we are in need of newer treatment options including targeted therapies. Here, we review the biologic therapy with trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ gastric cancer. PMID:23450234

  10. A review on gastric diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The gastric fundal diverticulae are rare. They can present with variable symptoms. We are enclosing a literature review on gastric fundal diverticulum. Lessons have emerged which may help in the management of this rare condition in future. PMID:22257431

  11. Postanesthetic hemorrhagic myelopathy or myelomalacia.

    PubMed

    Trim, C M

    1997-04-01

    Hemorrhagic myelopathy or myelomalacia is an uncommon cause of failure to stand after general anesthesia. Affected horses are usually young and have been anesthetized for relatively short times in dorsal recumbency. Clinical signs involve the hind limbs and include loss of deep pain perception. Etiology of this condition is not known. Differentiation from other forms of neuropathy and myopathy is important to the prognosis.

  12. Under Pressure: Intraluminal Filling Pressures of Postpartum Hemorrhage Tamponade Balloons

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Kathleen M.; Racusin, Diana A.; Belfort, Michael A.; Dildy, Gary A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Uterine tamponade by fluid-filled balloons is now an accepted method of controlling postpartum hemorrhage. Available tamponade balloons vary in design and material, which affects the filling attributes and volume at which they rupture. We aimed to characterize the filling capacity and pressure-volume relationship of various tamponade balloons. Study Design Balloons were filled with water ex vivo. Intraluminal pressure was measured incrementally (every 10 mL for the Foley balloons and every 50 mL for all other balloons). Balloons were filled until they ruptured or until 5,000 mL was reached. Results The Foley balloons had higher intraluminal pressures than the larger-volume balloons. The intraluminal pressure of the Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (gastric balloon) was initially high, but it decreased until shortly before rupture occurred. The Bakri intraluminal pressure steadily increased until rupture occurred at 2,850 mL. The condom catheter, BT-Cath, and ebb all had low intraluminal pressures. Both the BT-Cath and the ebb remained unruptured at 5,000 mL. Conclusion In the setting of acute hemorrhage, expeditious management is critical. Balloons that have a low intraluminal pressure-volume ratio may fill more rapidly, more easily, and to greater volumes. We found that the BT-Cath, the ebb, and the condom catheter all had low intraluminal pressures throughout filling. PMID:28497006

  13. Under Pressure: Intraluminal Filling Pressures of Postpartum Hemorrhage Tamponade Balloons.

    PubMed

    Antony, Kathleen M; Racusin, Diana A; Belfort, Michael A; Dildy, Gary A

    2017-04-01

    Objective Uterine tamponade by fluid-filled balloons is now an accepted method of controlling postpartum hemorrhage. Available tamponade balloons vary in design and material, which affects the filling attributes and volume at which they rupture. We aimed to characterize the filling capacity and pressure-volume relationship of various tamponade balloons. Study Design Balloons were filled with water ex vivo. Intraluminal pressure was measured incrementally (every 10 mL for the Foley balloons and every 50 mL for all other balloons). Balloons were filled until they ruptured or until 5,000 mL was reached. Results The Foley balloons had higher intraluminal pressures than the larger-volume balloons. The intraluminal pressure of the Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (gastric balloon) was initially high, but it decreased until shortly before rupture occurred. The Bakri intraluminal pressure steadily increased until rupture occurred at 2,850 mL. The condom catheter, BT-Cath, and ebb all had low intraluminal pressures. Both the BT-Cath and the ebb remained unruptured at 5,000 mL. Conclusion In the setting of acute hemorrhage, expeditious management is critical. Balloons that have a low intraluminal pressure-volume ratio may fill more rapidly, more easily, and to greater volumes. We found that the BT-Cath, the ebb, and the condom catheter all had low intraluminal pressures throughout filling.

  14. Primary gastric lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Al-Akwaa, Ahmad M; Siddiqui, Neelam; Al-Mofleh, Ibrahim A

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this review is to describe the various aspects of primary gastric lymphoma and the treatment options currently available. METHODS: After a systematic search of Pubmed, Medscape and MDconsult, we reviewed and retrieved literature regarding gastric lymphoma. RESULTS: Primary gastric lymphoma is rare however, the incidence of this malignancy is increasing. Chronic gastritis secondary to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been considered a major predisposing factor for MALT lymphoma. Immune histochemical marker studies and molecular biology utilizing polymerase chain reaction have facilitated appropriate diagnosis and abolished the need for diagnostic surgical resection. Advances in imaging techniques including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS) have helped evaluation of tumor extension and invasion. The clinical course and prognosis of this disease is dependent on histopathological sub-type and stage at the time of diagnosis. Controversy remains regarding the best treatment for early stages of this disease. Chemotherapy, surgery and combination have been studied and shared almost comparable results with survival rate of 70%-90%. However, chemotherapy possesses the advantage of preserving gastric anatomy. Radiotherapy alone has been tried and showed good results. Stage IIIE, IVE disease treatment is solely by chemotherapy and surgical resection has been a remote consideration. CONCLUSION: We conclude that methods of diagnosis and staging of the primary gastric lymphoma have dramatically improved. The modalities of treatment are many and probably chemotherapy is superior because of high success rate, preservation of stomach and tolerable complications. PMID:14695759

  15. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  16. Drugs and gastric damage.

    PubMed

    Cooke, A R

    1976-01-01

    The effects of aspirin, salicylate formulations and substitutes, smoking (nicotine), indomethacin, corticosteroids, phenylbutazone, ethanol, caffeine and reserpine on the gastric mucosa are discussed. The damaging effects of the drugs are considered in terms of the gastric mucosal barrier, gastric erosions, microbleeding and haematemesis and melaena and finally whether they cause peptic ulcer. There is suggestive evidence that unbuffered aspirin is a cause of haematemesis and melaena and of gastric ulcer but the incidence rates for hospital admission are low, being 10 to 15 per 100,000 heavy users per year. Aspirin in solution as acetylsalicylate buffered to maintain a neutral pH protects against gastric damage. Newer aspirin substitutes (mefenamic acid, fenoprofen, naproxen, tolmetin and ibuprofen) appear to cause less faecal blood loss than aspirin but their long-term effects have not been fully evaluated. Smoking is definitely associated with peptic ucler but the mechanism is unknown. Corticosteroids are probably not ulcerogenic despite clinical bias that they are. Indomethacin and phenylbutazone may be ulcerogenic but there is insufficient evidence to make firm judgements. Ethanol, caffeine and reserpine, on available evidence, are probably not ulcerogenic.

  17. Familial perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage is characterized by an accumulation of a limited amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage, predominantly around the midbrain, and a lack of blood in the brain parenchyma or ventricular system. It represents 5% of all spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. In spite of extensive investigation, understanding of the mechanisms leading to perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remains incompletely defined. A growing body of evidence has supported a familial predisposition for non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case presentation A 39-year-old Caucasian man presented with sudden onset headache associated with diplopia. His computed tomography scan revealed perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. A cerebral angiogram showed no apparent source of bleeding. He was treated conservatively and discharged after 1 week without any neurological deficits. The older brother of the first case, a 44-year-old Caucasian man, presented 1.5 years later with acute onset of headache and his computed tomography scan also showed perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was discharged home with normal neurological examination 1 week later. Follow-up angiograms did not reveal any source of bleeding in either patient. Conclusions We report the cases of two siblings with perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, which may further suggest a familial predisposition of non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and may also point out the possible higher risk of perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the first-degree relatives of patients with perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25416614

  18. Isolated intraventricular hemorrhage after spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Guryildirim, Melike; Jhaveri, Miral D

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage after spinal surgery is a rare but dreaded complication. The most commonly described form of intracranial hemorrhage after spinal surgery is remote cerebellar hemorrhage (i.e. anatomically distant from the surgical site) (Brockmann MA, Groden C. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage: a review. The Cerebellum 2006;5:64-8); however subdural, subarachnoid, and intraventricular hemorrhage can also occur in combination or isolated (Kaloostian PE, Kim JE, Bydon A, Sciubba DM, Wolinsky JP, Gokaslan ZL, Witham TF. Intracranial hemorrhage after spine surgery. J Neurosurg Spine 2013;19:370-80; Khalatbari MR, Khalatbari J, Moharamzad Y. Intracranial hemorrhage following lumbar spine surgery. Eur Spine J 2012;21:2092-96). Isolated intraventricular hemorrhage after spinal surgery is extremely rare; to our knowledge, there are only two cases reported in the literature (Kaloostian PE, Kim JE, Bydon A, Sciubba DM, Wolinsky JP, Gokaslan ZL, Witham TF. Intracranial hemorrhage after spine surgery. J Neurosurg Spine 2013;19:370-80; Khalatbari MR, Khalatbari J, Moharamzad Y. Intracranial hemorrhage following lumbar spine surgery. Eur Spine J 2012;21:2092-96). Here, we present a 76-year-old female patient who developed isolated intraventricular hemorrhage after spinal surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Carvedilol for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients with haemodynamic non-response to propranolol.

    PubMed

    Reiberger, Thomas; Ulbrich, Gregor; Ferlitsch, Arnulf; Payer, Berit Anna; Schwabl, Philipp; Pinter, Matthias; Heinisch, Birgit B; Trauner, Michael; Kramer, Ludwig; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus

    2013-11-01

    Non-selective β-blockers or endoscopic band ligation (EBL) are recommended for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in patients with oesophageal varices. Additional α-adrenergic blockade (as by carvedilol) may increase the number of patients with haemodynamic response (reduction in hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) of ≥ 20% or to values <12 mm Hg). Patients with oesophageal varices undergoing measurement of HVPG before and under propranolol treatment (80-160 mg/day) were included. HVPG responders were kept on propranolol (PROP group), while non-responders were placed on carvedilol (6.25-50 mg/day). Carvedilol responders continued treatment (CARV group), while non-responders to carvedilol underwent EBL. The primary aim was to assess haemodynamic response rates to carvedilol in propranolol non-responders. 36% (37/104) of patients showed a HVPG response to propranolol. Among the propranolol non-responders 56% (38/67) eventually achieved a haemodynamic response with carvedilol, while 44% (29/67) patients were finally treated with EBL. The decrease in HVPG was significantly greater with carvedilol (median 12.5 mg/day) than with propranolol (median 100 mg/day): -19 ± 10% versus -12 ± 11% (p<0.001). During a 2 year follow-up bleeding rates for PROP were 11% versus CARV 5% versus EBL 25% (p=0.0429). Fewer episodes of hepatic decompensation (PROP 38%/CARV 26% vs EBL 55%; p=0.0789) and significantly lower mortality (PROP 14%/CARV 11% vs EBL 31%; p=0.0455) were observed in haemodynamic responders compared to the EBL group. Carvedilol leads to a significantly greater decrease in HVPG than propranolol. Using carvedilol for primary prophylaxis a substantial proportion of non-responders to propranolol can achieve a haemodynamic response, which is associated with improved outcome with regard to prevention of variceal bleeding, hepatic decompensation and death.

  20. An Unusual Case of Gastrointestinal Bleeding from Isolated Gallbladder Varices in a Patient with Pancreatic Cancer Complicated by Portal Biliopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kubachev, Kubach; Abdullaev, Elbrus; Zarkua, Nonna; Abdullaev, Abakar; Fokin, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Portal biliopathy is the complex of abnormalities of extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts, cystic duct, and gallbladder, arising as a result of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction and noncirrhotic portal fibrosis, which can be caused by coagulopathies, tumors, inflammation, postoperative complications, dehydration, and neonatal umbilical vein catheterization. We report a case of a 55-year-old male patient with the history of pancreatic cancer and cholecystoenteric anastomosis presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding from gallbladder varices via the anastomosis. PMID:27800195

  1. Can transient elastography, Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score predict esophageal varices in HCV-related cirrhotic patients?

    PubMed

    Hassan, Eman M; Omran, Dalia A; El Beshlawey, Mohamad L; Abdo, Mahmoud; El Askary, Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    Gastroesophageal varices are present in approximately 50% of patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate liver stiffness measurement (LSM), Fib-4, Forns Index and Lok Score as noninvasive predictors of esophageal varices (EV). This prospective study included 65 patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. All patients underwent routine laboratory tests, transient elastograhy (TE) and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were calculated. The diagnostic performances of these methods were assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and receiver operating characteristic curves. All predictors (LSM, FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score) demonstrated statistically significant correlation with the presence and the grade of EV. TE could diagnose EV at a cutoff value of 18.2kPa. Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score could diagnose EV at cutoff values of 2.8, 6.61 and 0.63, respectively. For prediction of large varices (grade 2, 3), LSM showed the highest accuracy (80%) with a cutoff of 22.4kPa and AUROC of 0.801. Its sensitivity was 84%, specificity 72%, PPV 84% and NPV 72%. The diagnostic accuracies of FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were 70%, 70% and76%, respectively, at cutoffs of 3.3, 6.9 and 0.7, respectively. For diagnosis of large esophageal varices, adding TE to each of the other diagnostic indices (serum fibrosis scores) increased their sensitivities with little decrease in their specificities. Moreover, this combination decreased the LR- in all tests. Noninvasive predictors can restrict endoscopic screening. This is very important as non invasiveness is now a major goal in hepatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Melatonin in Hemorrhagic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-Jian; Wu, Cheng; Niu, Huan-Jiang; Wang, Kun; Mo, Lian-Jie; Shao, An-Wen; Dixon, Brandon J; Zhang, Jian-Min; Yang, Shu-Xu; Wang, Yi-Rong

    2017-01-28

    Hemorrhagic stroke which consists of subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage is a dominant cause of death and disability worldwide. Although great efforts have been made, the physiological mechanisms of these diseases are not fully understood and effective pharmacological interventions are still lacking. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland, is a broad-spectrum antioxidant and potent free radical scavenger. More importantly, there is extensive evidence demonstrating that melatonin confers neuroprotective effects in experimental models of hemorrhagic stroke. Multiple molecular mechanisms such as antioxidant, anti-apoptosis, and anti-inflammation, contribute to melatonin-mediated neuroprotection against brain injury after hemorrhagic stroke. This review article aims to summarize current knowledge regarding the beneficial effects of melatonin in experimental models of hemorrhagic stroke and explores the underlying mechanisms. We propose that melatonin is a promising neuroprotective candidate that is worthy of further evaluation for its potential therapeutic applications in hemorrhagic stroke.

  3. Gastric epithelioid haemangioendothelioma.

    PubMed

    Tavares, A B; Almeida, A G; Viveiros, F A; Cidade, C N; Barbosa, J M

    2011-05-10

    Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare tumour of vascular origin, characterised by celular proliferation, endotelial, epitelioid or hystiocitoid. It may develop in any organ, but it is more common in lung and liver. Surgery is the recommended treatment; however, in case of a potentially benign situation, an expectant attitude should be adopted. The case reports a 71-year-old female who underwent a laparotomy for a colonic adenocarcinoma. During surgery, a polypoid lesion in the dependency of the gastric wall was found incidentally, which was removed. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of EHE. Gastric vascular neoplasms represent about 0.9-3.3% of all gastric tumours. Usually have a good prognosis, but due to the borderline biological behaviour of these tumours, it is important to have a detailed clinical evaluation at follow-up of these patients.

  4. Noise and gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Tomei, F; Papaleo, B; Baccolo, T P; Persechino, B; Spanò, G; Rosati, M V

    1994-09-01

    In view of the increasing incidence of diseases such as gastritis and ulcers in workers exposed to noise, we assessed whether noise does in fact affect gastric secretion. Then, considering the conflicting findings published on the effects of noise on gastric secretion, we also investigated whether the response was related to differences in baseline secretion, and whether it was further modified by a hydroalcoholic meal. We studied 50 dyspeptic subjects engaged in various types of work but not occupationally exposed to noise. They were exposed to a "pink noise" stimulus of 95 dB administered through earphones, lasting 15 minutes. Gastric secretion sometimes remained unchanged, sometimes increased, or sometimes even decreased in relation to the baseline hydrochloric acid secretion. The hydroalcoholic meal did not generally modify the effects of noise. These findings might help explain the differences in previous reports on this question.

  5. Invasive and non-invasive techniques for detecting portal hypertension and predicting variceal bleeding in cirrhosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Zardi, Enrico Maria; Di Matteo, Francesco Maria; Pacella, Claudio Maurizio; Sanyal, Arun J

    2014-02-01

    Portal hypertension is a severe syndrome that may derive from pre-sinusoidal, sinusoidal, and post-sinusoidal causes. As a consequence, several complications (i.e. ascites, oesophageal varices) may develop. In sinusoidal portal hypertension, hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is a reliable method for defining the grade of portal pressure, establishing the effectiveness of the treatment, and predicting the occurrence of complications; however, some questions exist regarding its ability to discriminate bleeding from non-bleeding varices in cirrhotic patients. Other imaging techniques (transient elastography, endoscopy, endosonography, and duplex Doppler sonography) for assessing causes and complications of portal hypertensive syndrome are available and may be valuable for the management of these patients. In this review, we evaluate invasive and non-invasive techniques currently employed to obtain a clinical prediction of deadly complications, such as variceal bleeding in patients affected by sinusoidal portal hypertension, in order to create a diagnostic algorithm to manage them. Again, HVPG appears to be the reference standard to evaluate portal hypertension and monitor the response to treatment, but its ability to predict several complications and support management decisions might be further improved through the diagnostic combination with other imaging techniques.

  6. INVASIVE AND NON-INVASIVE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING PORTAL HYPERTENSION AND PREDICTING VARICEAL BLEEDING IN CIRRHOSIS: A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Zardi, Enrico Maria; Di Matteo, Francesco Maria; Pacella, Claudio Maurizio; Sanyal, Arun J

    2016-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a severe syndrome that may derive from pre-sinusoidal, sinusoidal and post-sinusoidal causes. As a consequence, several complications (i.e., ascites, oesophageal varices) may develop. In sinusoidal portal hypertension, hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is a reliable method for defining the grade of portal pressure, establishing the effectiveness of the treatment and predicting the occurrence of complications; however, some questions exist regarding its ability to discriminate bleeding from nonbleeding varices in cirrhotic patients. Other imaging techniques (transient elastography, endoscopy, endosonography and duplex Doppler sonography) for assessing causes and complications of portal hypertensive syndrome are available and may be valuable for the management of these patients. In this review, we evaluate invasive and non-invasive techniques currently employed to obtain a clinical prediction of deadly complications, such as variceal bleeding in patients affected by sinusoidal portal hypertension, in order to create a diagnostic algorithm to manage them. Again, HVPG appears to be the reference standard to evaluate portal hypertension and monitor the response to treatment, but its ability to predict several complications and support management decisions might be further improved through the diagnostic combination with other imaging techniques. PMID:24328372

  7. Use of early-TIPS for high-risk variceal bleeding: results of a post-RCT surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Di Pascoli, Marco; Caca, Karel; Laleman, Wim; Bureau, Cristophe; Appenrodt, Beate; Luca, Angelo; Zipprich, Alexander; Abraldes, Juan G; Nevens, Frederik; Vinel, Jean Pierre; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Bosch, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    In a recent randomized international clinical trial (RCT) in high-risk cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding, the early use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was associated with marked and significant reductions in both treatment failure and mortality. The aim of this study was to confirm these results in clinical practice in the same centers of the RCT study. We retrospectively reviewed patients admitted for acute variceal bleeding and high risk of treatment failure (Child C <14 or Child B plus active bleeding), treated with early-TIPS (n=45) or drugs+endoscopic therapy (ET) (n=30). Patients treated with early-TIPS had a much lower incidence of failure to control bleeding or rebleeding than patients receiving drug+ET (3 vs. 15; p <0.001). The 1-year actuarial probability of remaining free of this composite end point was 93% vs. 53% (p <0.001). The same was observed in mortality (1-year actuarial survival was 86% vs. 70% respectively; p=0.056). Actuarial curves of failure to control bleeding+rebleeding and of survival were well within the confidence intervals of those observed in the RCT. This study supports the early use of TIPS in patients with cirrhosis and a high-risk variceal bleeding. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (2015, Nanchang, China).

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu; Li, Zhao Shen

    2016-02-01

    Acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ANVUGIB) is one of the most common medical emergencies in China and worldwide. In 2009, we published the "Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding" for the patients in China; however, during the past years numerous studies on the diagnosis and treatment of ANVUGIB have been conducted, and the management of ANVUGIB needs to be updated. The guidelines were updated after the databases including PubMed, Embase and CNKI were searched to retrieve the clinical trials on the management of ANVUGIB. The clinical trials were evaluated for high-quality evidence, and the advances in definitions, diagnosis, etiology, severity evaluation, treatment and prognosis of ANVUGIB were carefully reviewed, the recommendations were then proposed. After several rounds of discussions and revisions among the national experts of digestive endoscopy, gastroenterology, radiology and intensive care, the 2015 version of "Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding" was successfully developed by the Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine, National Medical Journal of China, Chinese Journal of Digestion and Chinese Journal of Digestive Endoscopy. It shall be noted that although much progress has been made, the clinical management of ANVUGIB still needs further improvement and refinement, and high-quality randomized trials are required in the future. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-02-21

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright.

  10. Two forensic autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a comparison of postmortem computed tomography and autopsy findings.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hasegawa, Iwao; Hoshino, Norio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-05-01

    In this report, we describe two autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (Case 1: gastric ulcer, Case 2: aortoduodenal fistula). Postmortem computed tomography (CT) images from both cases revealed pooling of gastric fluid, which contained high attenuation areas, although these images also mirrored the different sources of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Fluid collection was observed in the small intestine for both cases, although the high attenuation areas were only remarkable in Case 2. The autopsy in Case 1 revealed a peptic ulcer, with small vessels exposed on the surface of the ulcer. Melena was also observed throughout the intestine, although clotting was only observed inside the stomach. The autopsy in Case 2 revealed diffuse massive clotting from the stomach to the upper portion of the ileum, which was due to a primary aortoduodenal fistula. Given our autopsy findings, the extent of the high attenuation areas in the digestive tract during postmortem CT scanning may be correlated with the speed of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage before death. Carefully evaluating the radiodensity of the gastrointestinal contents during postmortem CT scanning may indicate the primary site of the hemorrhage before the autopsy, thereby facilitating the accurate identification of the cause of death during forensic autopsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced