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Sample records for gastriques sporadiques aspect

  1. Leiomyoblastome gastrique: à propos de trois cas

    PubMed Central

    Moujahid, Mountassir; Ennafaa, Issam; EL Rhari, Ahmed; Serghini, Issam; Chekoura, Khalid; Tahiri, Moulay Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Le leiomyoblastome gastrique est une tumeur musculaire rare qui touche essentiellement l'adulte. Son développement est souvent exogastrique. Le diagnostic positif repose sur l'histologie et le traitement est basé sur la chirurgie. Nous rapportons trois cas de leiomyoblastome gastrique colligés dans le service de chirurgie générale au 5ème Hôpital Militaire. L’âge moyen des patients est de 47 ans; le motif de consultation était représenté par une hémorragie digestive et l'imagerie médicale a posé le diagnostic de masse tumorale dans tous les cas. Le traitement chirurgical consistait en une gastrectomie partielle et le compte rendu anatomopathologique a confirmé le leiomyoblastome gastrique dans les trois cas. Le siège de la tumeur a été posé par la fibroscopie oeso gastroduodénale, le traitement était chirurgical et les suites post opératoires étaient simples avec un contrôle par des fibroscopies répétitives sans aucun signe de récidive. Le leiomyoblastome gastrique est une tumeur rare. L’écho endoscopie joue un rôle primordial dans le diagnostic positif ainsi que dans l’évaluation de l'extension pariétale de ces tumeurs. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical. PMID:26090000

  2. Le volvulus gastrique idiopathique aigu: à propos d'une nouvelle observation

    PubMed Central

    Abdelilah, Mouhsine; Jihad, Anzaoui; Rachid, Bouchentouf

    2013-01-01

    Le volvulus gastrique est une rotation anormale de l'estomac autour de son axe. La forme aiguë constitue une urgence chirurgicale. Le diagnostic est souvent retardé en raison d'une symptomatologie fréquemment non spécifique. Des signes respiratoires tels la dyspnée et le hoquet peuvent révéler cette pathologie. Les auteurs rapportent une nouvelle observation de volvulus gastrique aigu chez un adolescent de 17 ans, diagnostiqué par la tomodensitométrie, et confirmé par une intervention chirurgicale. Le traitement est chirurgical et consiste à détordre et fixer l'estomac pour prévenir la récidive. PMID:23503200

  3. Léiomyosarcome gastrique simulant une tumeur du hile splénique: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Tarchouli, Mohamed; Bounaim, Ahmed; Ratbi, Moulay Brahim; Belhamidi, Mohamed Said; Bensal, Abdelhak; Aitidir, Badr; Boudhas, Adil; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Sair, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Depuis la découverte de leur phénotype particulier, les tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales représentent les tumeurs mésenchymateuses les plus fréquentes du tractus digestif et ne sont plus confondues avec les vrais léiomyosarcomes gastriques devenant ainsi exceptionnellement rencontrés dans la pratique médicale. Nous rapportons le cas d'une jeune femme de 32 ans admise pour une masse douloureuse de l'hypochondre gauche et chez qui le bilan radiologique objectivait une volumineuse tumeur occupant le hile splénique. Une résection monobloc emportant la masse, la rate, le grand épiploon et une collerette de la paroi gastrique a été effectuée et l'examen histologique a confirmé le diagnostic d'un léiomyosarcome gastrique. Il est extrêmement important de différencier les autres tumeurs mésenchymateuses du tractus digestif des léiomyosarcomes gastriques dont l'exérèse chirurgicale complète reste, jusqu’à présent, le seul traitement à visée curative. PMID:26526400

  4. Résection laparoscopique d'une duplication gastrique chez l'adulte: traitement avec succès pour une pathologie rare

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Omar; Hssine, Hiba Ben; Noomen, Faouzi; Jabra, Sadok Ben; Korbi, Ibtissem; Abdelmoula, Ali; Trimech, Mayada; Mansour, Wafa Ben; Faiez, Boughanmi; Khlifa, Mohamed Ben; Rabah, Hatem; Mahmoudi, Ammar; Nasr, Mohamed; Zouari, Khadija; Saffar, Hammouda; Hamdi, Abdel Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Les duplications de l'appareil digestif sont les malformations congénitales rares qui peuvent toucher tout l'appareil digestive depuis la bouche jusqu’ à l'anus. Certaines duplications sont asymptomatiques et sont diagnostiqués dans la plupart des cas pendant l'enfance. La prise en charge de la duplication gastrique est essentiellement chirurgicale. Le traitement de choix est l'exérèse complète de la duplication gastrique. Les auteurs rapportent un cas inhabituel de duplication gastrique complètement reséquée par laparoscopie. A notre connaissance, ceci est le premier cas d'une duplication gastrique traitée avec succès par laparoscopie dans la littérature Tunisienne. La Résection laparoscopique peut être ajoutée à l'arsenal thérapeutique dans le traitement chirurgical de duplications du tube digestif. PMID:26889326

  5. Tumeur du sein révélée par une métastase gastrique découverte fortuitement

    PubMed Central

    Moussaoui, Aziz El; Assi, Fadi; Bental, Abdeslam

    2016-01-01

    Les métastases gastriques du cancer du sein sont rares, et leur découverte reste difficile, devant la symptomatologie qui est souvent non spécifique ou même absente. Nous rapportons une observation originale d'un carcinome canalaire du sein révélé par une métastase gastrique découverte de façon fortuite. PMID:28154673

  6. Epidémiologie du cancer gastrique: expérience d'un centre hospitalier marocain

    PubMed Central

    Mellouki, Ihsane; laazar, Nawal; Benyachou, Bahija; Aqodad, Nouredine; Ibrahimi, Adil

    2014-01-01

    Le cancer de l'estomac est représenté essentiellement par Les adénocarcinomes gastriques, ces derniers demeurent l'une des dix premières causes mondiales de mortalité avec un pronostic qui est péjoratif. Son incidence reste variable à travers le monde, elle est caractérisée par une importante disparité géographique. Le but de notre travail est de décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques de l'adénocarcinome gastrique dans notre contexte à travers une étude rétrospective, observationnelle étalée sur une période de 10 ans (Janvier 2001- Janvier 2011), incluant tous les malades admis au service d'hépato-gastroentérologie du CHU Hassan II de Fès pour prise en charge d'un adénocarcinome gastrique. Durant cette période, 343 patients étaient admis pour prise en charge d'une tumeur gastrique, dont 170 patients avaient un adénocarcinome gastrique (49.5%). L’âge moyen de ces patients était de 58±13.4 ans [16 ans-0 ans]. Dans 43.7% des cas, les patients provenaient de la région de Fès, souvent du milieu rurale. On note une nette prédominance masculine, avec une différence significative entre les 2 sexes (p < ;0.05). Les patients âgés de moins de 60ans représentaient la tranche d’âge prédominante (63%) par rapports aux patients âgés de plus de 60ans (p = 0.02). 61% des patients consultaient dans un délai allant de 1 mois à 6 mois, 30.4% des patients étaient tabagiques, ce facteur avait une relation statistiquement significative avec l'adénocarcinome gastrique (p = 0.02). la non consommation de l'alcool est inversement liée et de façon significative à l'apparition de l'adénocarcinome gastrique (p = 0.03) dans notre contexte. L'infection par Hélicobacter pylori n’était mentionnée que chez peu de malades. Les formes métastatiques au moment du diagnostic dépassaient 50% avec un taux de décès au cours de l'hospitalisation de 2.6%. Sur le plan endoscopique, la localisation antropylorique, et la forme ulc

  7. Volvulus gastrique aigu sur éventration diaphragmatique de l'adulte: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Alpha Oumar; Thiam, Ousmane; Seck, Mamadou; Cissé, Mamadou; Kâ, Ousmane; Dieng, Madieng; Touré, Cheikh Tidiane

    2015-01-01

    Le volvulus gastrique aigu sur éventration diaphragmatique est une affection rare et une urgence diagnostique et thérapeutique. Sa présentation clinique est peu spécifique et la tomodensitométrie abdominale permet de confirmer le diagnostic. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient de 22 ans qui présentaitun syndrome occlusif et une voussure épigastrique. A la radiographie de l'Abdomen Sans Préparation, on notait 2 niveaux hydro-aériques sous la coupole diaphragmatique gauche qui était surélevée. Une dévolvulation et une gastrectomie atypique ont été réalisées devant un volvulus gastrique aigu avec nécrose du fundus mis en évidence à la laparotomie. Les suites opératoires ont été simples. PMID:26161223

  8. ASPECT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Able to deploy within one hour of notification, EPA's Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) is the nation’s only airborne real-time chemical and radiological detection, infrared and photographic imagery platform.

  9. Métastases mammaires d’un adénocarcinome gastrique associées à une grossesse de 32 semaines d’aménorrhée: à propos d’un cas rare

    PubMed Central

    Jayi, Sofia; Fatemi, Hind; Laabadi, Kamilia; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Laamarti, Afaf; Melhouf, My Abdelilah

    2013-01-01

    Les métastases mammaires ne représentent que 0,4 à 2% des tumeurs malignes du sein. L’origine gastrique est exceptionnellement rapportée. Encore plus rare est l’association des métastases mammaires et ovariennes provenant de l’estomac. De par leur rareté et la non spécificité des signes cliniques et radiologiques, les métastases mammaires peuvent être confondues avec un cancer primitif et être à l’origine d’un traitement mutilant non approprié. Nous rapportons le cas d’un adénocarcinome gastrique métastatique au niveau mammaire et ovarien chez une patiente jeune de 32 ans et enceinte de 32 Semaines d’aménorrhée, qui est à notre connaissance le premier cas rapporté au cours de la grossesse. A travers notre cas, nous soulignons les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de cette entité très rare, dont la connaissance est nécessaire afin d’éviter les erreurs diagnostic et les prise en charge non adaptée qui peut suivre. PMID:24255722

  10. Radio-chimiothérapie adjuvante des adénocarcinomes gastriques: à propos de 34 cas et d'une revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    James, Laurianne; Dossou, Sepos; Bellfiq, Sarah; Irigo, Joëlle; Ogandaga, Etienne; Mouden, Karima; Loughmari, Saïda; Filali, Dounia; El Majjaoui, Sanaa; Kebdani, Tayeb; Ahid, Samir; Benjafaar, Nourredine

    2014-01-01

    Notre étude consistera en l’évaluation du pronostic des patients porteurs d'un adénocarcinome gastrique opérés et traités par radio-chimiothérapie adjuvante en technique conformationnelle. Entre Janvier 2007 et Décembre 2011, 34 patients ont reçu après une chirurgie radicale (R0 ou R1), un à trois cycles de 5-Fluoro-uracile associé à de l'Elvorine en adjuvant, suivi d'une radio-chimiothérapie selon le même protocole à la dose de 45Gy, puis de deux cycles de chimiothérapie à un mois d'intervalle après la radio-chimiothérapie concomitante. Dans le groupe d’étude, il y avait 34 patients d’âge médian 50 ans (47-58), avec un sexe ratio (H/F) de 2,4. Une chirurgie de type R1 a été réalisée dans 26,5% des cas, et 53% des patients étaient de stade III-IV. Le rapport nombres de ganglions positifs, sur nombre de ganglions prélevés étaient > 0,4 dans 26,5% des cas. Durant le traitement mené à terme, une neutropénie de grade III a été observée chez quatre patients, avec des troubles digestifs (nausées, vomissement, ou diarrhée) de grade I/II dans la majorité des cas. Après un suivi médian de 20 mois, 70,6% des patients étaient en survie sans rechute, et 29,4% ont présenté une récidive métastatique; la survie globale à 5 ans était de 35,4% et la survie sans progression de 58,7%. La radio-chimiothérapie concomitante postopératoire pourrait être un régime efficace et sûre chez les patients ayant bénéficié d'une gastrectomie à visée curative dans le cancer de l'estomac localement avancé. PMID:25709728

  11. Ectopia cordis thoracique sporadique: description clinique d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Lubala, Toni Kasole; Mutombo, Augustin Mulangu; Katamea, Tina; Lubala, Nina; Munkana, Arthur Ndundula; Kabuya, Maguy Sangaji; Monga, Joséphine Kalenga; Luboya, Oscar Numbi

    2012-01-01

    Nous décrivons un cas d'ectopia cordis, une malformation cardiaque congénitale extrêmement rare dans laquelle le coeur est partiellement ou complètement situé en dehors des limites de la cage thoracique. Dans le cas que nous décrivons, elle est thoracique et isolée. Ce cas a été diagnostiqué en salle de naissance au Katanga, au sud de la République Démocratique du Congo. Il s'agit du premier cas documenté chez un nouveau-né Congolais. PMID:23346276

  12. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  13. Measuring Aspects of Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1976-01-01

    A group test measuring five aspects of morality in children is presented. The aspects are: resistance to temptation, stage of moral judgment, confession after transgression, reaction of fear or guilt, and severity of punishment for transgression. (Editor)

  14. Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajfel, Henri

    1969-01-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of a contribution to a symposium on the "Biosocial Aspects of Race," held in London, September, 1968; symposium was published in the "Journal of Biosocial Science," Supplement No. 1, July, 1969. (RJ)

  15. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  16. Requirements Engineering and Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yijun; Niu, Nan; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Mylopoulos, John; Easterbrook, Steve; Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio

    A fundamental problem with requirements engineering (RE) is to validate that a design does satisfy stakeholder requirements. Some requirements can be fulfilled locally by designed modules, where others must be accommodated globally by multiple modules together. These global requirements often crosscut with other local requirements and as such lead to scattered concerns. We explore the possibility of borrowing concepts from aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to tackle these problems in early requirements. In order to validate the design against such early aspects, we propose a framework to trace them into coding and testing aspects. We demonstrate the approach using an open-source e-commerce platform. In the conclusion of this work, we reflect on the lessons learnt from the case study on how to fit RE and AOP research together.

  17. Organisational aspects of care.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-04

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses.

  18. Global aspects of monsoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, T.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments are studied in three areas of monsoon research: (1) global aspects of the monsoon onset, (2) the orographic influence of the Tibetan Plateau on the summer monsoon circulations, and (3) tropical 40 to 50 day oscillations. Reference was made only to those studies that are primarily based on FGGE Level IIIb data. A brief summary is given.

  19. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  20. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  1. The January Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Glenn F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The January aspect of college administration refers to the Roman god Janus, who was capable of looking forward and backward simultaneously. It is applied to academic deans who must look toward both administrative superiors and subordinates, and the same two-directional interface is imposed on presidents, department chairmen, professors, and…

  2. Sociological Aspects of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers treat the sociological aspects of deafness. Included are "Individuals Being Deaf and Blind and Living with a Well Hearing Society" by A. Marx (German Federal Republic), "A Deaf Man's Experiences in a Hearing World" by A. B. Simon(U.S.A.), "Problem of Text Books and School Appliances for Vocational…

  3. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  4. Subduction modelling with ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cédric; Spakman, Wim; Quinquis, Matthieu; Buiter, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion) is a promising new code designed for modelling thermal convection in the mantle (Kronbichler et al. 2012). The code uses state-of-the-art numerical methods, such as high performance solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. It builds on tried-and-well-tested libraries and works with plug-ins allowing easy extension to fine-tune it to the user's specific needs. We make use of the promising features of ASPECT, especially Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), for modelling lithosphere subduction in 2D and 3D geometries. The AMR allows for mesh refinement where needed and mesh coarsening in regions less important to the parameters under investigation. In the context of subduction, this amounts to having very small grid cells at material interfaces and larger cells in more uniform mantle regions. As lithosphere subduction modelling is not standard to ASPECT, we explore the necessary adaptive grid refinement and test ASPECT with widely accepted benchmarks. We showcase examples of mechanical and thermo-mechanical oceanic subduction in which we vary the number of materials making up the overriding and subducting plates as well as the rheology (from linear viscous to more complicated rheologies). Both 2D and 3D geometries are used, as ASPECT easily extends to three dimensions (Kronbichler et al. 2012). Based on these models, we discuss the advection of compositional fields coupled to material properties and the ability of AMR to trace the slab's path through the mantle. Kronbichler, M., T. Heister and W. Bangerth (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29.

  5. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    PubMed Central

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  6. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  7. Aspects of B physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  8. Chiral models: Geometrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    1987-02-01

    Two-dimensional classical chiral models of field theory are considered, the main attention being paid on geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of these models is that the interaction is inserted not by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the manifold. These models are in many respects analogous to non-Abelian gauge theories and as became clear recently, they are also important for the superstring theory which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.

  9. Ceramics with decorative aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara

    2009-08-01

    The last decades brought the development of bone china techniques used for producing the decorative articles. These products can be glazed with a transparent and thin glaze layer, even with more special (decorative) ones which gives new aesthetic aspect. The present article presents the results obtained after the studies performed for matte glazes for decorative bone china. As microcrystalization agent were used zinc oxide; the content of this oxide bring some changes of the basic glaze thus the chemical composition must be adjusted as the fluxes would present the desired properties after the heating process.

  10. Aspects of Gond astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh

    2013-03-01

    The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment on other aspects of their life as culled from our encounters with different members of the Gond community.

  11. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    PubMed

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  12. Palliative sedation: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Miccinesi, Guido; Caraceni, Augusto; Maltoni, Marco

    2017-07-12

    Palliative sedation (PS), the medical act of decreasing a patient's awareness to relieve otherwise intractable suffering, is considered by some commentators to be controversial because of its consequences on residual survival and/or quality of life, and to be inappropriate for treating pure existential suffering. We will argue that PS must be always proportional, i.e. controlling refractory symptoms while keeping the loss of personal values (communication, affective relationships, care relationship) as low as possible, and that imminence of death is necessary too, from an ethical point of view, if a deep and continuous sedation (DCS) is proposed. Moreover, in case of pure existential suffering DCS should only be considered after repeated trials of respite sedation. The use of progressive consent and advance care planning to share the decision with the patient and to involve the family in the decision process as much as the patient desires is another ethical aspect to be pursued. Producing, implementing and sustaining guidelines at the higher scientific and professional level promise to help in improving both clinical and ethical aspects of the practice of PS.

  13. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  14. Geometrical aspects of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Leinaas, Jon Magne; Myrheim, Jan; Ovrum, Eirik

    2006-07-15

    We study geometrical aspects of entanglement, with the Hilbert-Schmidt norm defining the metric on the set of density matrices. We focus first on the simplest case of two two-level systems and show that a 'relativistic' formulation leads to a complete analysis of the question of separability. Our approach is based on Schmidt decomposition of density matrices for a composite system and nonunitary transformations to a standard form. The positivity of the density matrices is crucial for the method to work. A similar approach works to some extent in higher dimensions, but is a less powerful tool. We further present a numerical method for examining separability and illustrate the method by a numerical study of bound entanglement in a composite system of two three-level systems.

  15. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  16. Psychiatric Aspects of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Onyike, Chiadi U

    2016-04-01

    The psychiatric aspects of dementia are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to distress, disability, and care burden, and, thus, are of increasing interest to practicing neurologists. This article examines how psychiatric disorders are entwined with dementia and describes the predictive, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications of the psychiatric symptoms of dementia. Psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and schizophrenia, are associated with higher risk for late-life dementia. Psychiatric phenomena also define phenotypes such as frontotemporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, cause distress, and amplify dementia-related disabilities. Management requires a multidisciplinary team, a problem-solving stance, programs of care, and pharmacologic management. Recent innovations include model programs that provide structured problem-solving interventions and tailored in-home care. There is new appreciation of the complexity of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and dementia as well as the significance of this relationship for treatment, community services, and research.

  17. Psychiatric Aspects of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Onyike, Chiadi U.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review: The psychiatric aspects of dementia are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to distress, disability, and care burden, and, thus, are of increasing interest to practicing neurologists. This article examines how psychiatric disorders are entwined with dementia and describes the predictive, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications of the psychiatric symptoms of dementia. Recent Findings: Psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and schizophrenia, are associated with higher risk for late-life dementia. Psychiatric phenomena also define phenotypes such as frontotemporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, cause distress, and amplify dementia-related disabilities. Management requires a multidisciplinary team, a problem-solving stance, programs of care, and pharmacologic management. Recent innovations include model programs that provide structured problem-solving interventions and tailored in-home care. Summary: There is new appreciation of the complexity of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and dementia as well as the significance of this relationship for treatment, community services, and research. PMID:27042910

  18. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  19. Historical aspects of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    “Anxiety” is a key term for behavioral, psychoanalytic, neuroendocrine, and psychopharmacological observations and theories. Commenting on its historical aspects is difficult, since history is properly a study of primary data. Unfortunately, much clinical anecdote does not correspond to factual records of a long time ago. Even reports of objective studies may suffer from allegiance effects. This essay therefore primarily reflects the personal impact of others' work against the background of my experiences, clinical and scientific. These lead me to question the assumption that “anxiety”, as it exists in syndromal disturbances, is simply the quantitative extreme of the normal “anxiety” that occurs during the anticipation of danger. An alternative view that emphasizes dysfunctions of distinct evolved adaptive alarm systems is presented. PMID:22033777

  20. Sprirtual aspects of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Prasinos, S

    1992-03-01

    This article addresses the relevance of spirituality to psychology and psychotherapy. It argues that spiritual experience is phenomenologically legitimate and worthy of study, especially by students of mental health. It utilizes Fox's (1985) definition of spirituality as "unitive experience" to show that spiritual experience is often present, overtly or covertly, within the ritual of psychotherapy. The paper argues that the therapist's adoption of an empathic posture is essentially a spiritual position. This position consists of a sense of peace, eternity, forgiveness, faith, love, truth, and God. These aspects are part of an integrated spiritual gestalt which is, though generally unacknowledged, fundamental to the communal healing process of psychotherapy. The paper concludes by asserting that greater involvement with the unitive (as opposed to the disunitive) represents a positive paradigmatic shift for psychology and humanity.

  1. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Souza, Camila Ribeiro; Maia, Polyana Mendes; Siqueira, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. A utilização de robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos tem sido cada vez mais frequente na atualidade, o que permite a emergência de inúmeras questões bioéticas nesse âmbito. Apresentar revisão sobre os aspectos éticos dos usos de robôs em cirurgia. Realizou-se revisão nas bases de dados Pubmed, SciELO e Lilacs cruzando-se os descritores "bioética", "cirurgia", "ética", "laparoscopia" e "robótica". Do total de citações obtidas, selecionou-se 17 artigos, os quais foram utilizados para a elaboração do artigo. Ele contém breve apresentação sobre a robótica, sua inserção na saúde e os aspectos bioéticos da utilização dos robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos. A cirurgia robótica é uma realidade, hoje, em muitas unidades hospitalares, o que torna essencial a reflexão bioética sobre as relações entre profissionais da saúde, autômatos e pacientes.

  2. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions.

  3. Aspects of quantum cosmology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, D. N.

    Quantum mechanics may be formulated as Sensible Quantum Mechanics (SQM) so that it contains nothing probabilistic, except, in a certain frequency sense, conscious perceptions. Sets of these perceptions can be deterministically realized with measures given by expectation values of positive-operator-valued awareness operators in a quantum state of the universe which never jumps or collapses. Ratios of the measures for these sets of perceptions can be interpreted as frequency-type probabilities for many actually existing sets rather than as propensities for potentialities to be actualized, so there is nothing indeterministic in SQM. These frequency-type probabilities generally cannot be given by the ordinary quantum "probabilities" for a single set of alternatives. Probabilism, or ascribing probabilities to unconscious aspects of the world, may be seen to be an aethemamorphic myth. No fundamental correlation or equivalence is postulated between different perceptions, so SQM, a variant of Everett's "many-worlds" framework, is a "many-perceptions" framework but not a "many-minds" framework. Different detailed SQM theories may be tested against experienced perceptions by the typicalities (defined herein) they predict for these perceptions. One may adopt the Conditional Aesthemic Principle: among the set of all conscious perceptions, our perceptions are likely to be typical.

  4. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  5. [Liver transplantation. Experimental aspects].

    PubMed

    Duca, S

    1981-01-01

    Following an overview of the data published in the specialized literature in connection with liver transplantation the author presents original experimental studies in this field. One of the first aspects considered is the stage of obtaining the graft of liver tissue. The selective perfusion was used, in situ, of the dog liver, and conditions were achieved which were similar to those obtained in other methods of graft preparation. Two washing solutions were used: a simple one, currently used in the practice, and another one which was enriched with various substrates. Biochemical parameters of tissue sampled by bioptic puncture have demonstrated that the first solution induces a lowering of the glycogen contents of hepatocytes, and this alters the biological qualities or the graft. The fact is stressed that the obtention of the hepatic tissue for grafting should be considered in fact as an in situ conservation. With regard to the liver transplantation proper it is shown that the author has performed the sector heterotopic procedure in the rat. Vascular anastomoses have been made with histoacryl-N-blau by the method of prosthesis with lost tubing. Problems raised by the vascular re-connection of the auxilliary hepatic tissue, and those related to the space where this tissue should be placed are also discussed in detail. The survival time was not longer than 30 hours.

  6. Electrical aspects of rainout

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  7. Theoretical Aspect of Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Václav, Štefan; Jurko, Jozef; Božek, Pavol; Lecký, Šimon

    2016-09-01

    Assembly plays a decisive role in global production in terms of its share in the total costs of the products assembled and in terms of the number of people working in the field. The author of (1) indicates that the percentage of the workers in assembly out of the total number of the workers in manufacturing in the U.S.A. ranged from 26.3% (bicycles) to 45.6% (automobiles), while the cost of the product assembly represented typically more than 50% of the total costs. Despite the above-mentioned importance of assembly in the industry, the discontinuous production processes have not been paid adequate attention until recently. It was sufficient to manufacture parts and then an operative reasonably and inexpensively assembled each product manually. The authors of this paper would like to emphasise "the method of a systemic approach" which focuses upon identifying the key activities to meet the objective. Harmonious interrelations of the activities are often a source of greater profit than in a system where some activities are of the top level while the others are neglected (2). The aim of this paper is to describe theoretical aspects of all the typical activities of the assembly system.

  8. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  9. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-08

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  10. [Psychosomatic aspects of obesity].

    PubMed

    Herpertz, S; Saller, B

    2001-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are widespread in industrial countries and are considered to be serious health problems in these countries. Population-based studies in Germany have shown that between 12 and 18 % of the adult population is obese. Overweight and obesity are accompanied by a large spectrum of health disorders and extreme psychosocial burdens. Besides the hereditary disposition, the life style including both intra- and inter-individual aspects determines the complex etiology of obesity. Within the collective sample of the obese, one sub-sample is the "psychogenic obese" i. e. in which psychiatric disorders lead to a change in both eating and exercise behavior, the result then being a continuous positive energy reserve in the form of overweight and obesity. The paper describes the psychosocial problems of obese persons; especially the controverse question with regard to psychiatric morbidity in general and eating disorders in particular are emphasized. The results of past, mainly behavioral oriented treatment concepts are presented and various concepts beyond single school orientation are discussed. Finally, the problems with psychiatric psychological diagnostics in those obese patients with the request for surgical weight reduction within the context of insurance coverage and the surgeons are presented.

  11. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  12. Aspects of cosmological relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, M.

    1999-07-01

    The author reviews cosmological relativity, a new special theory of relativity that was recently developed for cosmology, and discusses in detail some of its aspects. He recalls that in this theory it is assumed that gravitation is negligible. Under this assumption, the receding velocities of galaxies and the distances between them in the Hubble expansion are united into a four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold, similarly to space and time in ordinary special relativity. The Hubble law is assumed and is written in an invariant way that enables one to derive a four-dimensional transformation which is similar to the Lorentz transformation. The parameter in the new transformation is the ratio between the cosmic time to the Hubble time. Accordingly, the new transformation relates physical quantities at different cosmic times in the limit of weak or negligible gravitation. The transformation is then applied to the problem of the expansion of the universe at the very early stage when gravity was negligible and thus the transformation is applicable. New applications of the theory are presented. The author shows that there is no need to assume the existence of galaxy dark matter; the Tully-Fisher law is derived from the theory. A completely new picture of the expanding universe is thus obtained and compared to the FRW one.

  13. Immunological aspects of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Woollard, Kevin J

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in several countries. The underlying process is atherosclerosis, a slowly progressing chronic disorder that can lead to intravascular thrombosis. There is overwhelming evidence for the underlying importance of our immune system in atherosclerosis. Monocytes, which comprise part of the innate immune system, can be recruited to inflamed endothelium and this recruitment has been shown to be proportional to the extent of atherosclerotic disease. Monocytes undergo migration into the vasculature, they differentiate into macrophage phenotypes, which are highly phagocytic and can scavenge modified lipids, leading to foam cell formation and development of the lipid-rich atheroma core. This increased influx leads to a highly inflammatory environment and along with other immune cells can increase the risk in the development of the unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. The present review provides an overview and description of the immunological aspect of innate and adaptive immune cell subsets in atherosclerosis, by defining their interaction with the vascular environment, modified lipids and other cellular exchanges. There is a particular focus on monocytes and macrophages, but shorter descriptions of dendritic cells, lymphocyte populations, neutrophils, mast cells and platelets are also included.

  14. [Ptosis surgery. Current aspects].

    PubMed

    Hintschich, C

    2012-05-01

    Ptosis can be congenital but is more commonly an acquired condition occurring in particular as involutional forms. In addition to the aesthetic aspects ptosis mostly also leads to functional problems. Congenital ptosis in particular carries a high risk of amblyopia in childhood, therefore competent and close-knit pediatric ophthalmological treatment is important. Correction of ptosis is surgical and direct or indirect procedures are available depending on the conditions. Transcutaneous levator surgery has proven to be the universally applicable method for ptosis of all degrees of severity and can be combined with other corrective measures, such as temporal canthopexy or blepharoplasty, particularly for eyelids of elderly patients. In cases of severely impaired levator function and poor Bell phenomenon the indirect frontalis suspension method can be used. Congenital ptosis in childhood should be surgically treated at an early stage because of a substantial risk of amblyopia even if the central visual axis is still clear. The results of ptosis surgery are generally good and serious complications are rare.

  15. Computational Aspects of Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannakakis, Mihalis

    Equilibria play a central role in game theory and economics. They characterize the possible outcomes in the interaction of rational, optimizing agents: In a game between rational players that want to optimize their payoffs, the only solutions in which no player has any incentive to switch his strategy are the Nash equilibria. Price equilibria in markets give the prices that allow the market to clear (demand matches supply) while the traders optimize their preferences (utilities). Fundamental theorems of Nash [34] and Arrow-Debreu [2] established the existence of the respective equilibria (under suitable conditions in the market case). The proofs in both cases use a fixed point theorem (relying ultimately on a compactness argument), and are non-constructive, i.e., do not yield an algorithm for constructing an equilibrium. We would clearly like to compute these predicted outcomes. This has led to extensive research since the 60’s in the game theory and mathematical economics literature, with the development of several methods for computation of equilibria, and more generally fixed points. More recently, equilibria problems have been studied intensively in the computer science community, from the point of view of modern computation theory. While we still do not know definitely whether equilibria can be computed in general efficiently or not, these investigations have led to a better understanding of the computational complexity of equilibria, the various issues involved, and the relationship with other open problems in computation. In this talk we will discuss some of these aspects and our current understanding of the relevant problems. We outline below the main points and explain some of the related issues.

  16. Aspects of flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    In this thesis, we study three main aspects of flux compactifications: (1) classify supergravity solutions from flux compactification; (2) construct flux-deformed geometry and 4D low-energy theory to describe these flux vacua; and (3) study 4D particle phenomenology and cosmology of flux vacua. In the first part, we review G-structure, the basic tool to study supersymmetric flux solutions, and some typical solutions obtained in heterotic, type IIA and type IIB string theories. Then we present a comprehensive classification of supersymmetric vacua of M-theory compactification on 7D manifolds with general four-form fluxes. We analyze the cases where the resulting four-dimensional vacua have N = 1, 2, 3, 4 supersymmetry and the internal space allows for SU(2)-, SU(3)- or G 2-structures. In particular, we find for N = 2 supersymmetry, that the external space-time is Minkowski and the base manifold of the internal space is conformally Kahler for SU(2) structures, while for SU(3) structures the internal space has to be Einstein-Sasaki and no internal fluxes are allowed. Moreover, we provide a new vacuum with N = 1 supersymmetry and SU(3) structure, where all fluxes are non-zero and the first order differential equations are solved. In the second part, we simply review the methods used to construct one subclass of fluxed-deformed geometry or the so-called "twisted manifold", and the associated 4D effective theory describing these flux vacua. Then by employing (generalized) Scherk-Schwarz reduction, we construct the geometric twisting for Calabi-Yau manifolds of Voisin-Borcea type (K 3 x T2)/ Z2 and study the superpotential in a type IIA orientifold based on this geometry. The twists modify the direct product by fibering the K 3 over T2 while preserving the Z2 involution. As an important application, the Voisin-Borcea class contains T6/( Z2 x Z2 ), the usual setting for intersecting D6 brane model building. Past work in this context considered only those twists inherited

  17. [Benzodiazepines and forensic aspects].

    PubMed

    Michel, L; Lang, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Adverse effects of benzodiazepines are well known since the first one was used in 1958 (chlordiazepoxide). The literature collects study-cases or rarely controlled studies concerning side effects or paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines. They mostly described drowsiness and behavioral disinhibition, including increased well-being feeling but also hostility, rage access with feeling of invulnerability, serious crimes and sometimes homicides. Delusional, manic, confusional or depressive states are also pointed out. Rate for aggressive behaviour is 0.3 to 0.7% but distinction should be done between accidental or "idiosyncratic" reaction and voluntary sought disinhibition, clearly more frequent. No benzodiazepine has any specificity for these adverse effects but pharmacology, doses, associated drugs (or alcohol) and psychopathology interact to produce hazardous psychic states. Pharmacology: GABA induces a decrease in serotonin compound and vigilance. Pharmacokinetic: first dose effect or over-dose effect, short half-life, lipophily, affinity, digestive absorption, active metabolites interact. Psychopathology: age, alcohol association, psychological status (high initial level of hostility, impulsivity, frustration, personality disorder and depressive status). External conditions: chronic illness, affective and professional frustrations, physical or psychic exhaustion contribute also. Some benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, diazepam, clorazepate, triazolam, alprazolam, lorazepam, for example) are more often concerned for pharmacokinetics characteristics but also prescription habits. Forensic aspects should be considered in case of homicide. Especially, reality of benzodiazepines consumption and awareness of the potential paradoxical reaction should be precisely evaluated. Special focus on voluntary induced disinhibition has to be done for forensic considerations. Relationship but also crime facilitations are sometimes consciously sought. Some benzodiazepines have already

  18. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  19. Aspect-Oriented Design with Reusable Aspect Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Jörg; Al Abed, Wisam; Fleurey, Franck; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Klein, Jacques

    The idea behind Aspect-Oriented Modeling (AOM) is to apply aspect-oriented techniques to (software) models with the aim of modularizing crosscutting concerns. This can be done within different modeling notations, at different levels of abstraction, and at different moments during the software development process. This paper demonstrates the applicability of AOM during the software design phase by presenting parts of an aspect-oriented design of a crisis management system. The design solution proposed in this paper is based on the Reusable Aspect Models (RAM) approach, which allows a modeler to express the structure and behavior of a complex system using class, state and sequence diagrams encapsulated in several aspect models. The paper describes how the model of the "create mission" functionality of the server backend can be decomposed into 23 inter-dependent aspect models. The presentation of the design is followed by a discussion on the lessons learned from the case study. Next, RAM is compared to 8 other AOM approaches according to 6 criteria: language, concern composition, asymmetric and symmetric composition, maturity, and tool support. To conclude the paper, a discussion section points out the features of RAM that specifically support reuse.

  20. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  1. Sexual Aspects of Multilateral Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Joan M.; Constantine, Larry L.

    1971-01-01

    This study involved a variety of data gathering techniques focusing on almost every aspect of multilateral marriages. Specific topics covered included sex as motivation, group sex, sleeping arrangements, cohesion, sexual problems, jealousy, roles and sex differences. (Author/CG)

  2. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  3. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  4. A Digital Solar Aspect Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1961-01-01

    The solar aspect sensor described herein performs the analog-to-digital conversion of data optically. To accomplish this, it uses a binary "Gray code" light mask to produce a digital indication, in vehicle-fixed coordinates, of the elevation and azimuth angles of incident light from the sun. This digital solar aspect sensor system, in Explorer X, provided measurements of both elevation and azimuth angles to +/- 2 degrees at a distance of over 140,000 statute miles.

  5. Dynamic aspects of musical imagery.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-04-01

    Auditory imagery can represent many aspects of music, such as the starting pitches of a tune or the instrument that typically plays it. In this paper, I concentrate on more dynamic, or time-sensitive aspects of musical imagery, as demonstrated in two recently published studies. The first was a behavioral study that examined the ability to make emotional judgments about both heard and imagined music in real time. The second was a neuroimaging study on the neural correlates of anticipating an upcoming tune, after hearing a cue tune. That study found activation of several sequence-learning brain areas, some of which varied with the vividness of the anticipated musical memory. Both studies speak to the ways in which musical imagery allows us to judge temporally changing aspects of the represented musical experience. These judgments can be quite precise, despite the complexity of generating the rich internal representations of imagery. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Supersymmetric chiral models: Geometrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    1989-03-01

    We consider classical supersymmetric chiral models of field theory and focus our attention on the geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of such models is that the interaction is not introduced by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the target manifold. In many aspects these models are analogous to gauge theories and, as became clear recently, they are also important for superstring theory, which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.

  7. Ethical aspects of clinical chemistry.

    PubMed Central

    BenGershôm, E

    1983-01-01

    The work performed by the clinical chemist may deeply affect the decisions of the doctor and the well-being of the patient. Yet in contrast to the doctor and to the nurse the clinical chemist usually has no personal relationship with the patient. Being encumbered by much technology and anonymity is itself a reason for scrutinising his involvement in issues of health care ethics. This is an attempt at clarifying some major aspects: the relationship of his professional ethics to medical ethics as a whole, his ethical obligations to the patient and to society, and other aspects. PMID:6199500

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ATOMIC DISASTER

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Edward C.

    1954-01-01

    Increasing attention to the psychological aspects of atomic disaster will help improve the ability of the citizens of this country to withstand attack and survive as a free people. Since an enemy may be expected to exploit any internal weaknesses it can find, preparation must be made against the onslaught. The ability to deal effectively with any situation, even the most awesome, depends on knowledge of what to expect, and there is no reason to believe that facts about atomic disaster are an exception to this time proven truth. The psychological aspects need to be considered from two points of view, namely, the effect on masses of people and on individuals. PMID:13182616

  9. [Scientometric aspects of medical eponyms].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2014-09-07

    Eponyms, scientific concepts named after persons, have a long tradition in medical sciences. Their emergence and use are rather instructive from the aspects of scientometrics, as well. Using a medical sample it is shown that although references to publications giving origin to the eponyms inevitably get obliterated, their citation rate is still many times higher than that of other publications of the same age.

  10. Behavioral Aspects of Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Patricia

    This paper examines the behavioral aspects of marijuana use. The focus of the study was to investigate the attitudes and practices toward drugs by users and non-users and the relationship of these attitudes and practices to selected psychosocial factors. A survey instrument in the form of an anonymous questionnaire was developed and administered…

  11. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  12. LEGAL ASPECTS OF STUDENT TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWALLS, FRED

    THE LEGAL POSITION OF STUDENT TEACHERS WAS STUDIED. A SURVEY OF STATUTES, ATTORNEY GENERALS' OPINIONS, AND CASE LAWS IN 10 STATES WAS CONDUCTED. THE LEGAL ASPECTS OF STUDENT TEACHING SURVEYED WERE (1) THE LIABILITY FOR PUPIL INJURY, (2) THE AUTHORITY TO REGULATE PUPIL CONDUCT, AND (3) THE LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY OF PUBLIC SCHOOL CORPORATIONS AND OF…

  13. Aspects of Spirituality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP…

  14. Mathematical Aspects of Electoral Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, M. M.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we consider some mathematical aspects of electoral systems. Sometimes the results from elections seem paradoxical although they are mathematically correct. These cases are known as electoral paradoxes. A number of paradoxes of proportional and majoritarian electoral systems are considered.

  15. Aspects and the Overlap Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marilyn M.; Levine, Leonard P.

    1984-01-01

    Presents system for automatic handling of ordered sets, states based on these sets, and differing points of view regarding Universe of Discourse. Aspects are represented by new logical "overlap" function with examples taken from Ranganathan's horse and carriage parable and several books involving four main concepts (history, geography,…

  16. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  17. Additional aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    An up-to-date review of the varying aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication is presented.. Some recent work on elastohydrodynamic lubrication of materials of low elastic modulus as well as on hydrodynamic lubrication is included. Both these topics are applicable for contacts with any ellipticity parameter (ranging from a circular contact to a line contact).

  18. Gender Aspects of Human Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Ghada

    2008-01-01

    The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…

  19. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  20. Aspects of preheating after inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Patrick Bradley

    2002-12-01

    We review several aspects of preheating after inflation. Topics covered include the structure of bosonic parametric resonance in conformal theories, the parametric excitation of fermions both with and without expansion of the universe, and tachyonic preheating at the end of supersymmetric hybrid inflation.

  1. Gender Aspects of Human Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Ghada

    2008-01-01

    The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…

  2. Neurologic aspects of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Harold W; Murtaugh, Reed; Fernandez, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Neurologic aspects of drug abuse vary. This article explains the general nature of drug abuse, identifies the physiologic effects of certain drugs, and briefly describes the neurobiology of addiction. This article also reviews available treatment options for those addicted to substances of abuse, and clarifies common misconceptions, including the differences between tolerance, abuse, and addiction.

  3. Aspects of Spirituality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP…

  4. TWO ASPECT MARKERS IN MANDARIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WANG, WILLIAM S-Y.

    TWO ASPECT MARKERS IN MANDARIN CHINESE ARE STUDIED WITHIN THE GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR. THEY ARE COMMONLY REPRESENTED AS "-LE," INDICATING COMPLETION OF ACTION, AND "-GUO," INDICATING THAT AN ACTION HAS TAKEN PLACE AT LEAST ONCE. THE PROBLEM INVOLVES SEVERAL SEEMING IRREGULARITIES IN THE FORMATION OF…

  5. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  6. Pragmatic Aspects of Scalar Modifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pragmatic aspects of scalar modifiers from the standpoint of the interface between semantics and pragmatics, focusing on (i) the (non) parallelism between the truth-conditional scalar modifiers and the non-truth-conditional scalar modifiers, (ii) the compositionality and dimensionality of non-truth-conditional…

  7. Theoretical Aspects of Speech Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Kenneth N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper on speech production in children and youth with hearing impairments summarizes theoretical aspects, including the speech production process, sound sources in the vocal tract, vowel production, and consonant production. Examples of spectra for several classes of vowel and consonant sounds in simple syllables are given. (DB)

  8. The psychological aspects of rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Tasman, Abel-Jan

    2010-08-01

    Literature on the psychological aspects of rhinoplasty is sparse compared with publications on methods and instrumentation. Understanding the psychological aspects of rhinoplasty and, more importantly, recognizing the patient who may have an unfavorable postoperative course regardless of the objective outcome is of fundamental importance to the surgeon. Several profiles of patients with a high risk of postoperative dissatisfaction have been described and the important role of body dysmorphic disorder and its treatment has been stressed. Still, these criteria can be insufficient when facing the individual patient, as reliable screening instruments for clinical practice have not been developed and the question when not to operate is subject to controversy. The role of computer imaging as a safeguard in preoperative counseling has been highlighted. The surgeon must rely on instinct and experience to avoid overlooking any signs of psychological imbalance in the patient that may herald adversity. Archetypes described in the literature should be recognized and computer imaging should be used during the preoperative consultation.

  9. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    PubMed Central

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914

  10. Environmental aspects of congenital scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Yu, Xin; Shen, Jianxiong

    2015-04-01

    Growing evidence has proved that many aspects of our lifestyle and the environment contribute to the development of congenital disease. Congenital spinal deformities are due to anomalous development of the vertebrae including failure of formation and segmentation during embryogenesis. The causes of congenital scoliosis have not been fully identified. A variety of factors are implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. Previous studies have demonstrated that both genetics and environmental factors are implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. However, no specific cause for congenital scoliosis has been identified. In our review, we focus on the environmental factors for the development of congenital scoliosis. Various maternal exposures during pregnancy including hypoxia, alcohol use, vitamin deficiency, valproic acid, boric acid, and hyperthermia have been observed to be associated with the occurrence of congenital scoliosis. This review describes the major environmental contributors of congenital scoliosis with an emphasis on treatment aspects associated with environmental disposition in congenital scoliosis.

  11. Thermodynamic aspects of therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Vanlandingham, Sean C; Kurz, Michael C; Wang, Henry E

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is an important treatment for post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Despite its widespread practice, only limited data describe the thermodynamic aspects of heat transfer during TH. This paper reviews the principles of human body heat balance and provides a conceptual model for characterizing heat exchange during TH. The model may provide a framework for computer simulation for improving training in or clinical methods of TH.

  12. Legal aspects of satellite teleconferencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The application of satellite communications for teleconferencing purposes is discussed. The legal framework within which such a system or series of systems could be developed is considered. The analysis is based on: (1) satellite teleconferencing regulation, (2) the options available for such a system, (3) regulatory alternatives, and (4) ownership and management aspects. The system is designed to provide a capability for professional education, remote medical diagnosis, business conferences, and computer techniques.

  13. [Economic aspects of health telematics].

    PubMed

    Lux, A

    2005-06-01

    The economic aspects of the health telematics must be considered from two points of view. The administrative applications are suitable as start-applications, because their data structures and processes are well known, and the calculation of the individual monetary effects have a solid empirical basis. However, only the medical applications will exhaust the real potential of health telematics and only these applications will justify the political and financial effort involved.

  14. Aspects of future CIM solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Werner

    Due to the complexity of the data quality and quantity used in CAD/CAM systems, integrated CIM (computer-integrated manufacturing) with suitable data banks is required. Suggestions and studies in progress on modern interfaces and hardware satisfying these requirements are discussed, including user aspects such as 'open' CAD/CAM systems, localized-centralized workstations, and data management. The state of the art with regard to internationally cooperative aircraft construction is considered along with trends and future developments.

  15. Aspects of spirituality concerning illness.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, René; Tiesinga, Lucas J; Jochemsen, Henk; Jochemasen, Henk; Post, Doeke

    2007-12-01

    The spiritual dimension of illness, health and care may be seen as a unique aspect in addition to the physical, mental and social dimension. This contribution describes experiences of patients, nurses and hospital chaplains in relation to the spiritual aspects of being ill. Qualitative research was performed with the design of a focus group study, consisting of 13 focus groups with a total of 67 participants. A purposive sample was used comprising patients, nurses and hospital chaplains working in oncology, cardiology and neurology in different institutions and regions in the Netherlands. The qualitative analysis consisted of open coding and the determining of topics, followed by the subsequent attachment of substantial dimensions and characteristic fragments. Data were analysed by using the computer program KWALITAN. Spirituality play various roles in patients lives during their illness. There is a wide range of topics that may have an individual effect on patients. Despite differences in emphasis, the topics play a role in different patient categories. Although the spiritual topics seem to manifest themselves more clearly in long-term care relationships, they may also play a role during brief admittance periods (such as treatment decisions). The spiritual topics that arise from this study offer caregivers a framework for signalling the spiritual needs of patients. The question is not whether spirituality is a relevant focus area in care, but how and to what degree it plays a role with individual patients. Follow up research should aim at further exploration of spiritual aspects in care, the relationship between spirituality and health and at effective training of caregivers.

  16. Practical Aspects of Nonlinear Optimization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-19

    14. E. Levitan and B . Polyak, "Constrained Minimization Methods", USSR Comp. Math. and Math. Physics 6, 1, (1966). 15. J. May, "Solving Nonlinear...AD-AIO 858 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB F/G 12/1 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION.U) JUN 81 R B HOLMES, J W TOLLESON...dj, l<j< m , (2) with the understanding the Q so defined has a non-empty interior (is "solid"). No qualitative assumptions on the objective - i

  17. Nutritional aspects related to endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Gabriela; Schor, Eduardo; Kopelman, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This literature review analyzed the evidence on nutritional aspects related to the pathogenesis and progression of endometriosis. Diets deficient in nutrients result in changes in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and promote epigenetic abnormalities, that may be involved in the genesis and progression of the disease. Foods rich in omega 3 with anti-inflammatory effects, supplementation with N-acetylcysteine, vitamin D and resveratrol, in addition to the increased consumption of fruits, vegetables (preferably organic) and whole grains exert a protective effect, reducing the risk of development and possible regression of disease. Dietary re-education seems to be a promising tool in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis.

  18. Mechanical engineering aspects of TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Citrolo, J.C.

    1983-04-01

    This paper briefly presents the principles which characterize a tokamak and discusses the mechanical aspects of TFTR, particularly the toroidal field coils and the vacuum chamber, in the context of being key components common to all tokamaks. The mechanical loads on these items as well as other design requirements are considered and the solutions to these requirements as executed in TFTR are presented. Future technological developments beyond the scope of TFTR, which are necessary to bring the tokamak concept to a full fusion-power system, are also presented. Additional methods of plasma heating, current drive, and first wall designs are examples of items in this category.

  19. Systemic aspects of biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Arber, Werner

    2009-11-01

    In recent years molecular mechanisms and natural strategies have been explored that spontaneously generate genetic variations at low rates without seriously affecting genetic stability at the level of populations. Thereby acquired knowledge suggests systemic aspects of evolutionary interdependences both in the past and in future evolutionary developments. The natural strategy of DNA acquisition by horizontal gene transfer interconnects different branches of the tree of evolution at random times. This makes in principle the entire global gene pool of the biosphere available to any kinds of living beings for their further evolutionary development. The relevance of this knowledge for risk assessments of genetically engineered organisms is discussed.

  20. Immunological aspects of cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zitvogel, Laurence; Apetoh, Lionel; Ghiringhelli, François; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the innate and adaptive immune systems make a crucial contribution to the antitumour effects of conventional chemotherapy-based and radiotherapy-based cancer treatments. Moreover, the molecular and cellular bases of the immunogenicity of cell death that is induced by cytotoxic agents are being progressively unravelled, challenging the guidelines that currently govern the development of anticancer drugs. Here, we review the immunological aspects of conventional cancer treatments and propose that future successes in the fight against cancer will rely on the development and clinical application of combined chemo- and immunotherapies.

  1. Technical aspects of abdominal stomas.

    PubMed

    Link, Brian A; Kropp, Bradley; Frimberger, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Continent urinary diversion has gained increasing popularity in the pediatric population during the last few decades. In adults, continent diversions are usually needed to replace a bladder after cystectomy for invasive carcinoma. Subsequently, the creation of functional and cosmetically hidden urinary and cecal abdominal stomas has become an integral part of many urinary reconstructive procedures. These techniques, originally developed for pediatric urinary reconstruction have gained increasing popularity for adult patients in need of a continence procedure. In the current manuscript, we review the technical aspects of site selection, mucocutaneous anastomosis, cosmetic appearance, and management of associated complications.

  2. Nutritional Aspects of Dysphagia Management.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, C; Brito-de la Fuente, E; Clavé, P; Costa, A; Assegehegn, G

    This chapter describes the nutritional aspects of dysphagia management by starting with the definition of these two conditions (dysphagia and malnutrition) that share three main clinical characteristics: (a) their prevalence is very high, (b) they can lead to severe complications, and (c) they are frequently underrecognized and neglected conditions. From an anatomical standpoint, dysphagia can result from oropharyngeal and/or esophageal causes; from a pathophysiological perspective, dysphagia can be caused by organic or structural diseases (either benign or malignant) or diseases causing impaired physiology (mainly motility and/or perception disorders). This chapter gathers up-to-date information on the screening and diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia, the consequences of dysphagia (aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration), and on the nutritional management of dysphagic patients. Concerning this last topic, this chapter reviews the rheological aspects of swallowing and dysphagia (including shear and elongational flows) and its influence on the characteristics of the enteral nutrition for dysphagia management (solid/semisolid foods and thickened liquids; ready-to-use oral nutritional supplements and thickening powders), with special focus on the real characteristics of the bolus after mixing with human saliva. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethical aspects on rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Luis A; Galindo, Gilberto Cely

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss several of the most relevant subjects related to ethics on Rare Diseases. Some general aspects are discussed such as the socio-psychological problems that confront the patients and their families that finally lead to marginalization and exclusion of patients affected by these diseases from the health programs, even in wealthy countries. Then we address problems related to diagnosis and some ethical aspects of newborn screening, prenatal, pre-implantation diagnosis and reference centers, as well as some conditions that should be met by the persons and institutions performing such tasks. Alternatives of solutions for the most critical situations are proposed. Subsequently the orphan drugs subject is discussed not only from the availability point of view, prizes, industrial practices, and purchasing power in developed and developing societies. The research related to rare disease in children and other especially vulnerable conditions, the need for informed consent, review boards or ethics comities, confidentiality of the information, biobanks and pharmacogenetics are discussed.

  4. Mechanical aspects of CO₂ angiography.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Ivan; Rossi, Pier Luca; Feliciani, Giacomo; Pisani, Luca; Zannoli, Sebastiano; Zannoli, Romano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify some physical-mechanical aspects involved in the carbon dioxide angiography procedure (CO₂ angiography), with a particular attention to a possible damage of the vascular wall. CO₂ angiography is widely used on patients with iodine intolerance. The injection of a gaseous element, in most cases manually performed, requires a long training period. Automatic systems allow better control of the injection and the study of the mechanical behaviour of the gas. CO₂ injections have been studied by using manual and automatic systems. Pressures, flows and jet shapes have been monitored by using a cardiovascular mock. Photographic images of liquid and gaseous jet have been recorded in different conditions, and the vascular pressure rises during injection have been monitored. The shape of the liquid jet during the catheter washing phase is straight in the catheter direction and there is no jet during gas injection. Gas bubbles are suddenly formed at the catheter's hole and move upwards: buoyancy is the only governing phenomenon and no bubbles fragmentation is detected. The pressure rise in the vessel depends on the injection pressure and volume and in some cases of manual injection it may double the basal vascular pressure values. CO₂ angiography is a powerful and safe procedure which diffusion will certainly increase, although some aspects related to gas injection and chamber filling are not jet well known. The use of an automatic system permits better results, shorter training period and limitation of vascular wall damage risk.

  5. Terminological aspects of data elements

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, R.A. ); Kenworthey, W.H. Jr. ); Schuldt, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The creation and display of data comprise a process that involves a sequence of steps requiring both semantic and systems analysis. An essential early step in this process is the choice, definition, and naming of data element concepts and is followed by the specification of other needed data element concept attributes. The attributes and the values of data element concept remain associated with them from their birth as a concept to a generic data element that serves as a template for final application. Terminology is, therefore, centrally important to the entire data creation process. Smooth mapping from natural language to a database is a critical aspect of database, and consequently, it requires terminology standardization from the outset of database work. In this paper the semantic aspects of data elements are analyzed and discussed. Seven kinds of data element concept information are considered and those that require terminological development and standardization are identified. The four terminological components of a data element are the hierarchical type of a concept, functional dependencies, schematas showing conceptual structures, and definition statements. These constitute the conventional role of terminology in database design. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Tularaemia: clinical aspects in Europe.

    PubMed

    Maurin, Max; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-01-01

    Tularaemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium. Typically, human and animal infections are caused by F tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A) strains mainly in Canada and USA, and F tularensis subspecies holarctica (type B) strains throughout the northern hemisphere, including Europe. In the past, the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of tularaemia reported in the English medical literature were mainly those that had been reported in the USA, where the disease was first described. Tularaemia has markedly changed in the past decade, and a large number of studies have provided novel data for the disease characteristics in Europe. In this Review we aim to emphasise the specific and variable aspects of tularaemia in different European countries. In particular, two natural lifecycles of F tularensis have been described in this continent, although not fully characterised, which are associated with different modes of transmission, clinical features, and public health burdens of tularaemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  8. Scaling Aspects of Lymphocyte Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Perelson, Alan S.; Wiegel, Frederik W.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the long lived pool of B and T cells that recirculate through blood, tissues and the lymphatic system of an animal with body mass M. We derive scaling rules (allometric relations) for: (1) the rate of production of mature lymphocytes; (2) the accumulation of lymphocytes in the tissues; (3) the flux of lymphocytes through the lymphatic system; (4) the number of lymph nodes, (5) the number of lymphocytes per clone within a lymph node, and (6) the total number of lymphocytes within a lymph node. Mass-dependent aspects of immune learning and of the immunological self are shown to be not very significant. Our treatment is somewhat heuristic and aims at a combination of immunological data with recent progress in biological scaling. PMID:19084024

  9. Biomedical aspects of artificial gravity.

    PubMed

    Vil-Viliams, I F; Kotovskaya, A R; Shipov, A A

    1997-07-01

    Artificial gravity (AG) is the basic challenge for space biology and medicine. The importance of this problem is associated with the fact that duration of the space missions will become progressively longer, but the presently available countermeasures do not provide reason enough to predict the human health safety during space missions of any duration. The creation of AG could be an efficient method for removing the negative effects of microgravity. Two principle methods of generating AG, rotation of space system (SS) and building of short arm centrifuge (SAC), have been proposed. The purpose of the present work is to review the biomedical aspects of AG in the context of its use in long-term space missions.

  10. Ethical aspects of personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Bendelow, Gillian

    2010-11-01

    To review recent literature around the controversial diagnosis of personality disorder, and to assess the ethical aspects of its status as a medical disorder. The diagnostic currency of personality disorder as a psychiatric/medical disorder has a longstanding history of ethical and social challenges through critiques of the medicalization of deviance. More recently controversies by reflexive physicians around the inclusion of the category in the forthcoming revisions of International Classification of Diseases and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classifications reflect the problems of value-laden criteria, with the diagnostic category being severely challenged from within psychiatry as well as from without. The clinical diagnostic criteria for extremely value-laden psychiatric conditions such as personality disorder need to be analyzed through the lens of values-based medicine, as well as through clinical evidence, as the propensity for political and sociolegal appropriation of the categories can render their clinical and diagnostic value meaningless.

  11. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  12. [Clinical aspects of witchcraft delusions].

    PubMed

    Pashkovskiĭ, V E

    2005-01-01

    To distinguish clinical variants and to specify nosologic entity of witchcraft delusions, 69 patients (10 males, aged 15-72 years) have been examined. It was found that witchcraft delusions exist in passive and active forms. In a passive form, the patient is sure that unknown (mystic) power damaged him/her; in an active form the patient, possessing a gift for unusual abilities, can influence the others (bewitches, heals, etc). Five clinical syndromes, in the structure of which the above delusions were found, namely, paranoiac-hypochondriac, hallucination-paranoid, depressive-paranoid, paraphrenic and delirious, were identified. Psychoses of schizophrenia spectrum were diagnosed in 52 patients, organic--in 8, alcoholic--in 7 and recurrent depressive disorder--in 2. Clinical significance of witchcraft delusions is closely related to its social aspect. Being combined with ideas of persecution, poisoning and damage, it results in the brutal forms of delusions defense and may be considered as an unfavorable prognostic trait.

  13. Social aspects in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    1999-01-01

    In-vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive techniques have become common practice in many countries today, regulated by established legislation, regulations or by committee-set ethical standards. The rapid evolution and progress of these techniques have revealed certain social issues that have to be addressed. The traditional heterosexual couple, nowadays, is not considered by many as the only 'IVF appropriate patient' since deviations from this pattern (single mother, lesbians) have also gained access to these treatments. Genetic material donation, age limitation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, surrogacy and cloning are interpreted differently in the various countries, as their definition and application are influenced by social factors, religion and law. Financial and emotional stresses are also often described in infertile couples. Information as deduced from the world literature regarding IVF regulation, as well as about the existing religious, cultural and social behaviours towards these new technologies, is presented in this article in relation to the social aspects of assisted reproduction.

  14. Sensory aspects of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed.

  15. Psychiatric Aspects of Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, G.; Desousa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Surgical transplantation of human organs from deceased as well as living donors to sick and dying patients began after the Second World War. Over the past 50 years the transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells has become a worldwide practice which has extended, and greatly enhanced the quality of hundreds of thousands of lives. The field of transplantation medicine provides an important chance for liaison between psychiatric professionals and other transplant physicians and surgeons. The discrepancy between the ever-increasing demand for organs but the decreasing supply makes it important to evaluate and prioritize individuals who are in dire need of the organ. However, this also gives rise to certain ethical questions. The following paper discusses various psychiatric aspects of organ transplantation in general. PMID:25013589

  16. Optical Coherence Tomography: Technical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution, noninvasive, 3D imaging technique with great potential in both clinical and fundamental research applications in many areas. Owing to its exceptionally high spatial resolution and velocity sensitivity, the functional extension of OCT techniques can simultaneously provide tissue structure, blood perfusion, birefringence, and other physiological information and it has great potential for basic biomedical research and clinical medicine. OCT has the far-reaching potential to be a quantitative imaging technique that could impact many, as yet unexplored, areas and should therefore be considered a vital measurement tool. In this chapter, we will first discuss the principle of operation and then the practical aspects of the OCT system; we will also provide detailed discussion on different OCT schemes and its functional extensions.

  17. Physico - chemical aspects of electrocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.U.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this article various important physico-chemical aspects of electrocatalysis and photo-electrocatalysis are discussed. The adiabaticity and nonadiabaticity calculations in terms of transmission coefficient have been correlated to the extent of electrocatalytic effect of various electrode materials. Chemisorption model of one electron approximation is utilized for understanding the mechanism of electrocatalysis. Electrocatalysis of oxygen evolution reaction on pervoskite is explained in terms of d -character of transition metals. Modified Anderson model of resonance tunneling has been utilized to explain the electrocatalytic effect of modified electrode. A model of electrocatalysis using the concept of multiple sites is given. A model of electrocatalysis in the presence of metal adsorbate on semiconducting electrodes are given in terms of both catalytic absorption and Schottky barrier concepts.

  18. Evolutionary Aspects of Enzyme Dynamics*

    PubMed Central

    Klinman, Judith P.; Kohen, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The role of evolutionary pressure on the chemical step catalyzed by enzymes is somewhat enigmatic, in part because chemistry is not rate-limiting for many optimized systems. Herein, we present studies that examine various aspects of the evolutionary relationship between protein dynamics and the chemical step in two paradigmatic enzyme families, dihydrofolate reductases and alcohol dehydrogenases. Molecular details of both convergent and divergent evolution are beginning to emerge. The findings suggest that protein dynamics across an entire enzyme can play a role in adaptation to differing physiological conditions. The growing tool kit of kinetics, kinetic isotope effects, molecular biology, biophysics, and bioinformatics provides means to link evolutionary changes in structure-dynamics function to the vibrational and conformational states of each protein. PMID:25210031

  19. Discriminatory aspects of medical screening.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, M A

    1986-10-01

    Presently, there are few legal restrictions on the use of medical screening of workers. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) requires that certain medical tests be performed when workers will be exposed to specific toxic substances. The OSH Act does not, however, prohibit the use of any medical screening measure nor does it indicate what actions an employer may or may not take as a result of such information. (A notable exception is the medical removal provision of the Lead Standard). This paper discusses that protection afforded under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. This paper will demonstrate that the law has, in general, failed to take into account the discriminatory aspects of medical screening.

  20. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  1. Mental health aspects of disasters.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Disaster preparations and responses are incomplete without addressing the mental health aspects of disasters. Unpleasant mental states can be a natural and even adaptive human response following a disaster; however, disasters also can contribute to the development of mental illnesses and substance use disorders or exacerbate existing disorders for disaster survivors, response personnel, and even families and close contacts of survivors and responders. Disaster-related psychopathology can mimic or negatively affect other disaster-related illnesses and can impair health professionals and others who must respond to catastrophic events; however, disasters also can encourage tremendous human coping, perseverance, and resilience and can even enhance personal and collective feelings of purpose, connection, and meaning. Integrating mental health promotion and care into disaster planning and response has the potential to mitigate psychiatric and medical consequences of a disaster and may preserve the mission readiness of disaster response personnel and promote healing among communities traumatized by disaster.

  2. [New aspects of tuberculosis therapy].

    PubMed

    Haegi, V

    1975-02-22

    The introduction of ethambutol and rifampicin has modified the therapy of tuberculosis. Therapy in hospitals or sanatoria can be shortened, and intermittent regimens (once or twice weekly under supervision) are possible. Better knowledge of the side effects of particular drugs, particularly rifampicin, (such as allergic reactions in intermittent administration and reduced effect of oral contraceptives) has been gained. Instead of mere supervision, preventive chemotherapy is given in many cases such as in recently discovered fibrotic lesions and in high risk cases (silicosis, treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents)minadequate treatment may lead to functional impairment such as fibrosis and cor pulmonale. These aspects are discussed and the resultant guidelines for the treatment of tuberculosis are presented.

  3. Ergonomical aspects of anaesthetic practice

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra Rao, RS

    2016-01-01

    Anaesthesiologist's service begins as a general physician, goes on as an investigator cum data analyser leading to the architectural planning of a forthcoming surgical event, but only after articulately convincing the subject along with his kith and kin. In the era of rapid developments in the field of medicine which includes relevant developments in anaesthetic care, an adequate work environment has to be provided to the anaesthesia team so that all anaesthetic procedures can be carried out safely and efficiently and an optimal workflow can be established in the operating room environment. Such ecological state demands an updated knowledge and ergonomics to aid him. Unfortunately, ergonomics is an area of anaesthesia that has received little attention and should be addressed through more education and training for workplace well-ness. Hence, an attempt is made to discuss few aspects on ergonomics for the interface between anaesthesiologist-machine-patient systems regarded as human-machine-system. PMID:27212716

  4. Epidemiological aspects of heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Tao, Ziqi; Wei, Peng; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of mortality in heart patients following stroke, rheumatic heart disease and myocardial infarctions. Approximately 80% of individuals succumb to CVDs, due to poor living conditions in low and middle income families and malnutrition. Infectious diseases, human immunodeficiency, tuberculosis, malaria, high blood pressure or hypertension, obesity and overweight, and nutritional disorders including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, high salt and sugar intake, as well as other factors are responsible for CVDs and CHDs in young as well as elderly individuals. The focus of the present review are recent epidemiological aspects of CVD and CHD as well as the usefulness of a Mediterranean diet for heart patients and the prevention of heart diseases. PMID:27602082

  5. Technical aspects of fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Groenier, W.S.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a brief description of fuel reprocessing and some present developments which show the reliability of nuclear energy as a long-term supply. The following topics are discussed: technical reasons for reprocessing; economic reasons for reprocessing; past experience; justification for advanced reprocessing R and D; technical aspects of current reprocessing development. The present developments are mainly directed at the reprocessing of breeder reactor fuels but there are also many applications to light-water reactor fuel reprocessing. These new developments involve totally remote operation, and maintenance. To demonstrate this advanced reprocessing concept, pilot-scale demonstration facilities are planned with commercial application occurring sometime after the year 2000. (ATT)

  6. Psychosocial aspects of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    De Niet, J E; Naiman, D I

    2011-12-01

    Rates of childhood obesity are increasing at alarming rates worldwide. This is especially alarming as obesity is associated with many physical and psychological consequences. A great number of studies indicate that obese children have an impaired psychological well-being (e.g., depression, self-esteem, and quality of life) compared to their non-overweight peers. There has been an overwhelming amount of research conducted in this area over the past few decades, and as such, this paper provides a summarized overview of the vast trove of available information on the psychosocial aspects of childhood obesity. In this paper we provide a summarized overview of: 1) psychosocial aspects that contribute to the onset of childhood obesity; 2) psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity; and 3) familial-based lifestyle behavior modification interventions for treating childhood obesity and its treatment success. Although it seems obvious that obese children and adolescents would likely be at higher risk for psychological problems, the mediating factors in the relationship between psychological problems and obesity are still not well established. Obesity is a complex disorder with an equally complex etiology, and is thus associated with complex behaviors and outcomes that make it difficult to study in children. It has been indicated that family-based lifestyle interventions can improve psychological well-being in obese children; however, not all children profit from these interventions. Interventions aimed at improving treatment results need further investigation. For example, interventions targeted specifically at groups that tend to be less successful in weight-loss programs and interventions providing long-term support to these individuals are recommended.

  7. Self-Consciousness and Aspects of Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Jonathan M.; Briggs, Stephen R.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between public and private self-consciousness and social and personal aspects of identity. Public self-consciousness correlated more strongly with social than with personal aspects of identity, and private self-consciousness correlated more strongly with personal than with social aspects. Discusses implications for…

  8. Neuroendocrine aspects of catamenial epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Samba Reddy, Doodipala

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the neuroendocrinological aspects of catamenial epilepsy, a menstrual cycle-related seizure disorder in women with epilepsy. Catamenial epilepsy is a multifaceted neuroendocrine condition in which seizures are clustered around specific points in the menstrual cycle, most often around perimenstrual or periovulatory period. Three types of catamenial seizures (perimenstrual, periovulatory and inadequate luteal) have been identified. The molecular pathophysiology of catamenial epilepsy remains unclear. Cyclical changes in the circulating levels of estrogens and progesterone (P) play a central role in the development of catamenial epilepsy. Endogenous neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone (AP) and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) that modulate seizure susceptibility could play a critical role in catamenial epilepsy. In addition, plasticity in GABA-A receptor subunits could play a role in the enhanced seizure susceptibility in catamenial epilepsy. P-derived neurosteroids such as AP and THDOC potentiate synaptic GABA-A receptor function and also activate extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors in the hippocampus and thus may represent endogenous regulators of catamenial seizure susceptibility. Experimental studies have shown that neurosteroids confer greater seizure protection in animal models of catamenial epilepsy, especially without evident tolerance to their actions during chronic therapy. In the recently completed NIH-sponsored, placebo controlled Phase 3 clinical trial, P therapy proved to be beneficial only in women with perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy but not in non-catamenial subjects. Neurosteroid analogs with favorable profile may be useful in the treatment of catamenial epilepsy. PMID:22579656

  9. Theoretical aspects of pollutant stress.

    PubMed

    Ballach, H J

    1998-01-01

    Symptoms of tree damage observed in Europe and overseas are often described as premature senescence. However, our own experiments with fumigated poplars have shown that the term premature senescence is misleading if undue emphasis is placed on features common to both normal and premature senescence. Consequently, the term should be replaced by a concrete description of the stress symptom noted, e.g. premature leaf loss or premature starch degradation. Such stress symptoms are usually unspecific - just like the mechanisms of stress avoidance or stress tolerance themselves. A stress model taking account of ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects is presented; it is shown that the different stress phases are influenced by various factors, e.g. the photosynthetic capacity of the leaves. The stress reactions displayed by fumigated poplars serve as illustrations for this model. Different species of the genus Populus can be classified as more or less pure C-strategists. It is postulated that this group of plants, in particular, is disturbed by various stress parameters, such as air pollutants, if shoot growth or metabolite transport is impaired.

  10. [Multiple sclerosis: current immunological aspects].

    PubMed

    Cuevas-García, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory, chronic and degenerative condition of the central nervous system, and represents the first cause of disability in young adults. In Mexico, 11 to 20 out of every 100 000 people suffer from this disease. The causes of multiple sclerosis remain unknown, but several theories have been proposed: the interaction of environmental factors, viral infectious factors and genetic and immune susceptibility of each individual patient, which induce an autoimmune response and promote neuronal/axonal degeneration. In this review, the immune reaction main components and neurodegeneration present in multiple sclerosis are analyzed, as well as the inflammatory cascade associated with demyelination. Available treatments' main purpose is to modulate aspects related to the adaptive immune response (B and T cells). The therapeutic challenge will be antigen-specific immune-tolerance induction, for example, with the use of tolerance protocols with peptides or DNA or nanoparticles vaccines. Future therapies should aim to control innate components (microglia, macrophages, astrocytes) and to promote remyelination. To optimize the treatment, a combined therapeutic approach targeting the control of inflammatory and neurodegenerative components of the disease and monitoring of biomarkers will be necessary.

  11. Key aspects of coronal heating

    PubMed Central

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2015-01-01

    We highlight 10 key aspects of coronal heating that must be understood before we can consider the problem to be solved. (1) All coronal heating is impulsive. (2) The details of coronal heating matter. (3) The corona is filled with elemental magnetic stands. (4) The corona is densely populated with current sheets. (5) The strands must reconnect to prevent an infinite build-up of stress. (6) Nanoflares repeat with different frequencies. (7) What is the characteristic magnitude of energy release? (8) What causes the collective behaviour responsible for loops? (9) What are the onset conditions for energy release? (10) Chromospheric nanoflares are not a primary source of coronal plasma. Significant progress in solving the coronal heating problem will require coordination of approaches: observational studies, field-aligned hydrodynamic simulations, large-scale and localized three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and possibly also kinetic simulations. There is a unique value to each of these approaches, and the community must strive to coordinate better. PMID:25897094

  12. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Andrea De; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2016-08-24

    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  13. [RATIONAL ASPECTS OF BACTERIOPHAGES USE].

    PubMed

    Vakarina, A A; Kataeva, L V; Karpukhina, N F

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of existing aspects of bacteriophage use and study features of their lytic activity by using various techniques. Effect of monophages and associated bacteriophages (staphylococci, piopolyvalent and piocombined, intestiphage, pneumonia klebsiella and polyvalent klebsiella produced by "Microgen") was studied with 380 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 279 cultures of Klebsiella pneumoniae in liquid and solid nutrient media. From patients with intestinal disorder, sensitivity was analyzed to 184 strains of Salmonella genus bacteria 18 serological variants to salmonella bacteriophages, 137 strains of Escherichia coli (lactose-negative, hemolytic), as well as some members of OKA groups (21 serovars) to coli-proteic and piopolyvalent bacteriophages. Lytic ability of the piobacteriophage against Klebsiella and Proteus genus bacteria was determined. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to staphylococcus bacteriophage in 71.6% of cases and to piobacteriophage--in 86.15% of cases. A 100% lytic ability of salmonella bacteriophage against Salmonella spp. was established. Sensitivity of E. coli of various serogroups to coli-proteic and piobacteriophage was 66 - 100%. Klebsiella, Proteus genus bacteria were sensitive to piobacteriophage in only 35% and 43.15% of cases, respectively. A more rational use of bacteriophages is necessary: development of a technique, evaluation of sensitivity of bacteria to bacteriophage, introduction of corrections into their production (expansion of bacteriophage spectra, determination and indication of their concentration in accompanying documents).

  14. Theoretical aspects of heterogeneous catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Santen, R. A.

    Quantum chemical aspects of chemical bonding to metal surfaces are discussed. It is demonstrated that a Frontier Orbital Theory of chemisorption can be developed in which the group orbital local density of states at the Fermi level replaces the HOMO and LUMO interactions familiar in organic or organo-metallic chemistry. This appears to be a useful tool to describe elementary reactions at metal surfaces. Dissociation of the H2 molecule and hydrogen atom recombination is analysed in detail. Symmetry considerations can be applied. It is shown that the interaction with antisymmetric group orbitais lowers the activation energies. Such orbitais are also available at s-valence electron metal surfaces as long as the molecule interacts in bridging coordination sites. One finds that the interaction with metal d-valence electrons stabilizes coordination in the atop position. The relative contribution to bonding of metal s and d-valence electrons differs significantly for the transition metals. It is not only a function of metal-electron occupation, number, but also of the row in the periodic system in which the metal is placed. This information is used to explain the different hydrogenolysis behaviour of Ni and Pt.

  15. Aspects of Malpractice in Prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2017-06-09

    Crowns, fixed partial dentures, and removable dentures are the popular prosthetic dental restorations in current dental practice. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of the mouth, particularly in advanced and complex cases, requires careful planning, adequate clinical skills, and exacting technical standards. While a successful outcome is the ultimate goal for any prosthodontic treatment, complications, injuries, dissatisfaction, and/or failure may occur. When such events develop as a result of negligence or violation of standards of care, they are considered under the term of malpractice and may incur ethical and medico-legal implications. This paper reviews and highlights some aspects of malpractice in prosthodontics. The current state of prosthodontic malpractice on a global level will also be evaluated. Standards of prosthodontic care, current literature of prosthodontic malpractice, where and how prosthodontic malpractice occurs, and recommendations for the future are presented. A thorough understanding of what is quality prosthodontic care and what disrupts this care can be a useful guard against professional litigation and may protect patients from poor quality of dental prosthetic care. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Psychological aspects of peacekeeping operations

    PubMed Central

    Raju, M. S. V. K.

    2014-01-01

    Peacekeeping operations are but one aspect of the systems of peace that have evolved over the past seven decades in a world that is riven with violence of all kinds. With the end of cold war in the late eighties of the last century we have come to see much intrastate violence, in addition to usual interstate hostilities and war, arising out of religious, political, ethnic and economic differences between people. In the changed scenario peacekeeping operations have become complex politico-military-humanitarian efforts. A soldier, trained for conventional military operations, is obliged to participate in the unconventional operations of waging peace in alien lands often in volatile and violent situations and in the process he stands to get exposed to widely variable demands for adjustment that have the potential to bring to the fore many maladaptive responses. Peacekeeping operations also have the potential to offer opportunities for growth and resilience. India is a major player in peacekeeping activities for well over sixty years all over the world. It is necessary for the commanders and mental health professionals to understand the multifarious factors that impinge on the peacekeeping soldier's mind and the emerging patterns of responses thereof for effective management trained manpower and fulfillment of mission objectives PMID:25788805

  17. Geometrical aspects of quantum spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Pei -Ming

    1996-05-11

    Various geometrical aspects of quantum spaces are presented showing the possibility of building physics on quantum spaces. In the first chapter the authors give the motivations for studying noncommutative geometry and also review the definition of a Hopf algebra and some general features of the differential geometry on quantum groups and quantum planes. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 the noncommutative version of differential calculus, integration and complex structure are established for the quantum sphere S12 and the quantum complex projective space CP{sub q}(N), on which there are quantum group symmetries that are represented nonlinearly, and are respected by all the aforementioned structures. The braiding of Sq2 and CPq(N) is also described. In Chapter 4 the quantum projective geometry over the quantum projective space CPq(N) is developed. Collinearity conditions, coplanarity conditions, intersections and anharmonic ratios is described. In Chapter 5 an algebraic formulation of Reimannian geometry on quantum spaces is presented where Riemannian metric, distance, Laplacian, connection, and curvature have their quantum counterparts. This attempt is also extended to complex manifolds. Examples include the quantum sphere, the complex quantum projective space and the two-sheeted space. The quantum group of general coordinate transformations on some quantum spaces is also given.

  18. [Legal aspects of ritual circumcision].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, M; Schott, G E; Rascher, W; Bender, A W

    2009-12-01

    Female circumcision (genital mutilation) is a criminal violation of human rights under German law. Even with consent of the person to be circumcised and/or her legal representative this procedure must not be carried out since a consent to female circumcision is unethical and therefore void. As much consent as there is on female circumcision the legal situation with ritual male circumcision is very unclear. In practice and unnoticed by the public male circumcision is carried out - be it for medical or ritual reasons - without deeper-going reflexions on the clearness of the medical indication or the legal situation with ritual circumcision. From the medical aspect there are big differences between female and male circumcision but also certain parallels. Various reasons, partly founded in prejudice and misinformation, make people refrain from regarding circumcision of boys also as illegal. Contrary to the prevailing opinion male circumcision also represents a bodily harm which a doctor can only carry out after a preoperative interview and with the consent of the affected person. Since ritual male circumcision does not serve the wellbeing of a child it is not possible for the parents to give their consent to the circumcision in lieu of the child. Male circumcision is only permitted if the child has given his consent and is thus only legally permitted if the child has reached an age at which he is mature enough to understand the meaning and extent of such an action which is hardly the case before he has completed his 16 (th) year.

  19. Juvenile onset spondyloarthropathies: therapeutic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Vargas, R

    2002-01-01

    Juvenile onset spondyloarthropathy (SpA) is a term that refers to a group of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 associated inflammatory disorders affecting children under the age of 16 years, producing a continuum of clinical symptoms through adulthood. This disease is characterised by enthesopathy and arthropathy affecting the joints of the lower extremities and seronegativity for IgM rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies. Children usually present with undifferentiated SpA and progress to differentiated forms over time. Except for the prevalence of some clinical features at onset, the pathogenic and clinical aspects of juvenile onset SpAs resemble those of the adult disease. Thus application of the same or similar therapeutic measures for both juvenile and adult onset SpAs seems logical. Current treatments for juvenile onset SpA provide symptomatic improvement, but do not alter disease progression. The increased expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in synovial tissue of patients with adult and juvenile onset SpA and its correlation with infiltration of inflammatory mediators into the synovia suggest a significant pathogenic role of this cytokine. Clinical trials of anti-TNFα antibody (infliximab) therapy in patients with adult onset SpA have demonstrated significant clinical improvement in inflammatory pain, function, disease activity, and quality of life in correlation with histological and immunohistochemical evidence of modulation of synovial inflammatory processes. These promising findings suggest that anti-TNFα therapy may confer similar benefits in patients with juvenile onset SpA. PMID:12381509

  20. [Psychophysiologic aspects of occupational flying].

    PubMed

    Lapa, V V

    1993-01-01

    The paper deals with advanced research on psychophysiology of flying activity to solve a triune task: to humanize the character and means of labour, to maintain a high level of working capacity and to develop professionally important psychophysiological features of flying personnel. The solution of the first task is associated with consecutive realization of the principle of actualization, an increase of psychophysiological capabilities of a man with the use of technical means in designing aeronautical engineering. Assurance of high functional reliability of flying personnel requires the development of the methods to evaluate and predict the state of psychophysiologic reserves during flying activities; the refinement of the norms of flight load on the basis of determining the quantitative interactions between a complexity level of flight assignments and a degree of decrease in reserve capabilities; the search for means and methods of correcting functional state directly in flight and accelerated recovery of performance postflight. The solution of psychophysiologic aspects of the professional reliability of pilot should be the development of a flight capabilities theory and theory-based improvement of estimation methods, development of methods and technical means for their improvements.

  1. Fibromyalgia: clinical and occupational aspects.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein Jr, Milton; Goldenfum, Marco Aurélio; Siena, César Augusto Fávaro

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome commonly observed in daily medical practice and its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. As it is characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain associated with several symptoms, FM may be confused with several other rheumatic and nonrheumatic diseases when they course with pictures of diffuse pain and chronic fatigue. FM treatment should be multidisciplinary, individualized, count on active participation of the patient, and based on combined pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities. It is found both in work and non-work settings, and there is no scientific evidence in the literature showing that FM might be caused by occupation. FM seldom leads to incapacity to work. In cases where pain or fatigue do not respond to appropriate treatment, reaching significant levels, a short period away from work can be considered. As FM is a relevant subject, this review article was based on exploratory, qualitative, and bibliographic investigation, aiming to study the main clinical and occupational aspects of FM, emphasizing the theoretical-conceptual background and the experience of specialists.

  2. [Clinical aspects of corneal burns].

    PubMed

    Borderie, V

    2004-12-01

    Clinical aspects and prognosis of corneal burns mainly depend on the agent responsible for the trauma. The most severe burns are caustic burns, which should be classified as burns caused by basic agents, associated with deep and prolonged injuries, and burns caused by acidic agents, associated with more superficial injuries. At the acute stage, caustic burns induce epithelial defects, corneal edema, and ischemic necrosis of the limbus, conjunctiva, iris and ciliary body. At the early stage, reepithelialization occurs and is often associated with corneal vascularization and stromal infiltrates, followed by corneal scar formation. At the chronic stage, the following complications are possible: corneal scars, limbal stem cell insufficiency, lachrymal insufficiency, irregular astigmatism, ocular surface fibrosis, cataract, glaucoma, decreased intraocular pressure, and ocular atrophy. The Ropper-Hall classification is based on the extent of limbal ischemia. Thermal burns induce epithelial defects at the acute stage, with the more severe forms giving the same complications as caustic burns. Radiation-related burns can be caused by ultraviolet radiations (acute epithelial keratitis, pterygium, droplet-like keratitis), microwaves, infrared radiations, ionizing radiations or, laser radiations. Electrical burns are often a result of torture and give corneal stroma opacification.

  3. Some Aspects of PDC Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poláčik, Ján; Pospíšil, Jiří

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, aspects of pulsed direct current (PDC) water splitting are described. Electrolysis is a simple and well-known method to produce hydrogen. The efficiency is relatively low in normal conditions using conventional DC. PDC in electrolysis brings about many advantages. It increases efficiency of hydrogen production, and performance of the electrolyser may be smoothly controlled without compromising efficiency of the process. In our approach, ultra-short pulses are applied. This method enhances efficiency of electrical energy in the process of decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen. Efficiency depends on frequency, shape and width of the electrical pulses. Experiments proved that efficiency was increased by 2 to 8 per cent. One of the prospects of PDC electrolysis producing hydrogen is in increase of efficiency of energy storage efficiency in the hydrogen. There are strong efforts to make the electrical grid more efficient and balanced in terms of production by installing electricity storage units. Using hydrogen as a fuel decreases air pollution and amount of carbon dioxide emissions in the air. In addition to energy storage, hydrogen is also important in transportation and chemical industry.

  4. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials.

  5. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters

    PubMed Central

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

  6. Acne vulgaris--psychosomatic aspects.

    PubMed

    Niemeier, Volker; Kupfer, Jörg; Gieler, Uwe

    2006-12-01

    More than a cosmetic nuisance, acne can produce anxiety, depression, and other psychological problems that affect patients' lives in ways comparable to life-threatening or disabling diseases. Emotional problems due to the disease should be taken seriously and included in the treatment plan. A purely dermatological therapy by itself may not achieve its purpose. Even mild to moderate disease can be associated with significant depression and suicidal ideation, and psychologic change does not necessarily correlate with disease severity. Acne patients suffer particularly under social limitations and reduced quality of life. Psychological comorbidities in acne are probably greater than generally assumed. Attention should be paid to psychosomatic aspects especially if depressive-anxious disorders are suspected, particularly with evidence of suicidal tendencies, body dysmorphic disorders, or also in disrupted compliance.Therefore, patients who report particularly high emotional distress or dysmorphic tendencies due to the disease should be treated, if possible, by interdisciplinary therapy. The dermatologist should have some knowledge of the basics of psychotherapy and psychopharmacology, which sometimes must be combined with systemic and topical treatment of acne in conjunction with basic psychosomatic treatment.

  7. Biological aspects of gender disorders.

    PubMed

    Corsello, S M; Di Donna, V; Senes, P; Luotto, V; Ricciato, M P; Paragliola, R M; Pontecorvi, A

    2011-12-01

    The scientific community is very interested in the biological aspects of gender disorders and sexual orientation. There are different levels to define an individual's sex: chromosomal, gonadic, and phenotypic sex. Concerning the psychological sex, men and women are different by virtue of their own gender identity, which means they recognize themselves as belonging to a determinate sex. They are different also as a result of their own role identity, a set of behaviors, tendencies, and cognitive and emotional attitudes, commonly defined as "male" and "female". Transsexuality is a disorder characterized by the development of a gender identity opposed to phenotypic sex, whereas homosexuality is not a disturbance of gender identity but only of sexual attraction, expressing sexual orientation towards people of the same sex. We started from a critical review of literature on genetic and hormonal mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation. We re-examined the neuro-anatomic and functional differences between men and women, with special reference to their role in psychosexual differentiation and to their possible implication in the genesis of homosexuality and identity gender disorders. Homosexuality and transsexuality are conditions without a well defined etiology. Although the influence of educational and environmental factors in humans is undeniable, it seems that organic neurohormonal prenatal and postnatal factors might contribute in a determinant way in the development of these two conditions. This "organicistic neurohormal theory" might find support in the study of particular situations in which the human fetus is exposed to an abnormal hormonal environment in utero.

  8. Aspects in grinding of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.J.; Huh, Y.H.; Yoon, K.J. . Materials Evaluation Center); Ogawa, Tomeyoshi . Machining Group)

    1994-09-01

    Aspects in the grinding of ceramics have been investigated. Si[sub 3]N[sub 4], ZrO[sub 2], SiC, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] were ground with resin-bonded diamond wheels of grit numbers ranging from 80 to 800. Microstructural observations of ground surfaces show that grinding occurs predominantly by flow mode in Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] and ZrO[sub 2], and by fracture and grain pullout in SiC and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. The measurement of grinding force shows that grinding resistances in Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] and ZrO[sub 2] are significantly larger than those in SiC and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. As the grit number of the grinding wheel increases, maximum surface roughness significantly decreases in Si[sub 3]N[sub 4], ZrO[sub 2], and SiC, but it apparently does not change in Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. This unexpected result in Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] is discussed in terms of the observed grinding mode and microstructure.

  9. Emerging therapeutic aspects in oncology

    PubMed Central

    MacEwan, David J

    2013-01-01

    Cancer remains a peculiarly stubborn disease to treat. Some forms of cancer have seen tremendous advances in the effectiveness of their treatments, whereas other forms have remained resistant to pharmacological control. This lack of hope for success is in part due to the types of drugs that are used in the clinic, and the targeted biological system being based purely on cellular growth rates. However, recent drugs designed to affect specific signalling pathways or proteins have been showing much success. Thanks to the ingenuity of pharmacologists in understanding and targeting these processes, there have been real improvements in treatment. Here we are presented with some of the research into such critical systems that have to be understood, so that they can be conquered. We will also look at the challenges facing cancer pharmacologists and what the field may present to us all in the future. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8 PMID:23889318

  10. Global Aspects of Radiation Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winicour, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    The gravitational radiation memory effect produces a net displacement of test particles. The proposed sources lead to E mode memory, as characterized by an even parity polarization pattern. Although odd parity, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory which produces a net momentum ``kick'' of charged test particles. A global null cone treatment shows that electromagnetic E mode memory requires unbounded charges and no physically realistic source produces B mode memory. A compelling theoretical aspect of E mode gravitational radiation memory is related to the supertranslations in the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) asymptotic symmetry group. For a stationary system, supertranslations can be eliminated and the BMS group reduced to the Poincare group, for which angular momentum is well-defined. However, for a stationary to stationary transition, the two Poincare groups obtained at early and late times differ by a supertranslation if the gravitational radiation has nonzero E mode memory. This suggests a distinctly general relativistic mechanism for angular momentum loss and presents a ripe problem for the numerical simulation of high spin black hole binaries. Supported by NSF grant PHY-1201276 to the University of Pittsburgh.

  11. Flower senescence: some molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Shahri, Waseem; Tahir, Inayatullah

    2014-02-01

    Some molecular aspects of flower senescence have been reviewed. The isolation, identification and characterization of different genes from various flowers (mainly from petals) associated with senescence have been discussed. The isolated genes were divided into different groups. A large proportion of genes have been found to be upregulated during flower senescence while some genes were also found to be downregulated indicating that there exists a complex interplay between the expression patterns of various genes. The genes involved in petal expansion are found to be upregulated during normal flower development from anthesis to open flower stage, but XTH (Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase hydrolase) is found to be involved in petal expansion as well as abscission. Cysteine proteases or the genes encoding cysteine proteases (assigned a central role in protein degradation) have been identified from various flower systems, but no cysteine protease has been identified from senescing Mirabilis jalapa flowers. In addition to proteases, the genes encoding ubiquitin (exhibiting proteasomal degradation by 26S proteasomes) have also been identified suggesting the two alternate pathways for protein degradation. Genes encoding specific nucleases have also been identified, but they displayed an early increase in transcript abundance before the senescence symptoms become evident and characterize the involvement of PCD during flower senescence. A range of transcription factors are described and their possible role in flower senescence has been discussed. A detailed description of genes involved in ethylene synthesis and the components involved in ethylene signaling have been presented.

  12. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.

  13. Hemodynamic aspects of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Ken; Sato, Mika; Satoh, Yuichi; Watahiki, Yasuhito; Kondoh, Yasushi; Sugawara, Maki; Box, Georgia; Wright, David; Leung, Sumie; Yuya, Hiromichi; Shimosegawa, Eku

    2002-11-01

    Neuroradiological functional imaging techniques demonstrate the patterns of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism that are thought to be useful in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from other dementing disorders. Besides the distribution patterns of perfusion or energy metabolism, vascular transit time (VTT), vascular reactivity (VR), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), which can be measured with positron emission tomography (PET), provide hemodynamic aspects of brain pathophysiology. In order to evaluate the hemodynamic features of AD, PET studies were carried out in 20 patients with probable AD and 20 patients with vascular dementia (VaD). The PET findings were not included in their diagnostic process of AD. Using oxygen-15-labeled compounds, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)), OEF, cerebral blood volume, and VTT were measured quantitatively during resting state. To evaluate VR, CBF was also measured during CO(2) inhalation. There was a significant increase in OEF in and around the parietotemporal cortices, but both VTT and VR were well preserved in patients with AD. By contrast, VR was markedly depressed and VTT was mildly prolonged in patients with VaD. Thus, from the hemodynamic point of view, the preservation of vascular reserve may be a distinct difference between AD and VaD. Furthermore, this indicates a hemodynamic integrity of the vasculature in the level of arterioles in AD.

  14. Clinical aspects of phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Borysowski, Jan; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Pawełczyk, Zdzisław; Rogóż, Paweł; Kłak, Marlena; Wojtasik, Elżbieta; Górski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Phage therapy (PT) is a unique method of treatment of bacterial infections using bacteriophages (phages)-viruses that specifically kill bacteria, including their antibiotic-resistant strains. Over the last decade a marked increase in interest in the therapeutic use of phages has been observed, which has resulted from a substantial rise in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of bacteria, coupled with an inadequate number of new antibiotics. The first, and so far the only, center of PT in the European Union is the Phage Therapy Unit (PTU) established at the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wrocław, Poland in 2005. This center continues the rich tradition of PT in Poland, which dates from the early 1920s. The main objective of this chapter is to present a detailed retrospective analysis of the results of PT of 153 patients with a wide range of infections resistant to antibiotic therapy admitted for treatment at the PTU between January 2008 and December 2010. Analysis includes the evaluation of both the efficacy and the safety of PT. In general, data suggest that PT can provide good clinical results in a significant cohort of patients with otherwise untreatable chronic bacterial infections and is essentially well tolerated. In addition, the whole complex procedure employed to obtain and characterize therapeutic phage preparations, as well as ethical aspects of PT, is discussed.

  15. Electrical Aspects of Impinging Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yu-Chien

    This dissertation examines the use of electric fields as one mechanism for controlling combustion as flames are partially extinguished when impinging on nearby surfaces. Electrical aspects of flames, specifically, the production of chemi-ions in hydrocarbon flames and the use of convective flows driven by these ions, have been investigated in a wide range of applications in prior work but despite this fairly comprehensive effort to study electrical aspects of combustion, relatively little research has focused on electrical phenomena near flame extinguishment, nor for flames near impingement surfaces. Electrical impinging flames have complex properties under global influences of ion-driven winds and flow field disturbances from the impingement surface. Challenges of measurements when an electric field is applied in the system have limited an understanding of changes to the flame behavior and species concentrations caused by the field. This research initially characterizes the ability of high voltage power supplies to respond on sufficiently short time scales to permit real time electrical flame actuation. The study then characterizes the influence of an electric field on the impinging flame shape, ion current and flow field of the thermal plume associated with the flame. The more significant further examinations can be separated into two parts: 1) the potential for using electric fields to control the release of carbon monoxide (CO) from surface-impinging flames, and 2) an investigation of controlling electrically the heat transfer to a plate on which the flame impinges. Carbon monoxide (CO) results from the incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels and, while CO can be desirable in some syngas processes, it is usually a dangerous emission from forest fires, gas heaters, gas stoves, or furnaces where insufficient oxygen in the core reaction does not fully oxidize the fuel to carbon dioxide and water. Determining how carbon monoxide is released and how heat transfer

  16. Glare Design Aspects and Philosophies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeeren, C. A. J. R.; Beumler, Th.; de Kanter, J. L. C. G.; van der Jagt, O. C.; Out, B. C. L.

    2003-07-01

    The very nature of Glare is its crack bridging mechanism, which provides superior damage tolerance properties. Depending on the property, Glare shows either monolithic metal or composite behaviour, which challenges the definition of strength justification and certification procedures. Airworthiness regulations have to be interpreted for Glare in order to guarantee the same level of safety as obtained for aircraft structures made of other materials and to take at the same time benefit of its particular properties. Cut-outs are highly fatigue sensitive due to the stress concentrations they cause. In aircraft fuselages these cut-outs are quite large in the case of the windows and doors. The stress level may be increased through the application of Glare in the doubler packages, due to the improved fatigue behaviour compared to conventional aluminium. Glare also presents the possibility of tailoring the material to the load, i.e. fibres aligned with the load, e.g., a 45 degree orientation. FE analysis defined the total doubler package and a test programme was run to confirm the behaviour of the material and to predict the crack behaviour of the Glare door corner. Some aspects of the detailed design of aircraft structures in Glare, the design of splices and riveted joints are discussed. In order to apply Glare in very large fuselage panels, a splice concept was developed, which allows a number of longitudinal splices to be cured in the same curing cycle as the basic material. Through the introduction of this splicing concept, the width of a panel is no longer limited to the maximum width of the aluminium sheet. Internal local reinforcements (doublers) can be integrated into the panel during lay-up. A discussion on the design of riveted joints in Glare is held.

  17. Regulatory aspects of clinical xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2015-11-01

    Xenotransplantation attracted interest from regulatory authorities, particularly after the demonstration of pig-to-human transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (1996). This added to the risk of a product, resulting in a Guidance of the US Food and Drug Administration (2003). This addresses the full flow chart in product manufacturing, starting with the designated pathogen-free status of the source animal; and special aspects regarding the recipient like informed consent and monitoring for infectious pathogens. Also archiving of records from the donor and recipient, as well as storage of samples is described. The European Medicines Agency issued a Guideline on xenogeneic cell therapy products (2009). Cell-based medicinal products are subject to specific regulations and directives, which apply also to xenogeneic products: the xenotransplant guidances/guidelines are an addition to these regulations. Noteworthy, acellular products like heart valves and decellularized cornea are not considered a cell therapy product, but rather a medical device with its own regulation. WHO issued relevant documents, especially about safety, and the International Xenotransplantation Association published consensus documents, a.o., addressing preclinical efficacy requirements before entering clinical trials. This manuscript presents an overview of the regulatory framework, with special focus on cell therapy products necause these are expected to reach the market first (i.e., pancreatic islets, hepatocytes and cellularized cornea); major illustrations are from the European situation. Albeit being complex, the regulation of xenotransplant products does not form a block in product development, but rather supports the introduction of efficacious and safe products to meet the medical need. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the “tip of the iceberg” of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

  19. Aspects of topological string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Paul L. H.

    Two aspects of the topological string and its applications are considered in this thesis. Firstly, non-perturbative contributions to the OSV conjecture relating four-dimensional extremal black holes and the closed topological string partition function are studied. A new technique is formulated for encapsulating these contributions for the case of a Calabi-Yau manifold constructed by fibering two line bundle over a torus, with the unexpected property that the resulting non-perturbative completion of the topological string partition function is such that the black hole partition function is equal to a product of a chiral and an anti-chiral function. This new approach is considered both in the context of the requirement of background independence for the topological string, and for more general Calabi-Yau manifolds. Secondly, this thesis provides a microscopic derivation of the open topological string holomorphic anomaly equations proposed by Walcher in arXiv:0705.4098 under the assumption that open string moduli do not contribute. In doing so, however, new anomalies are found for compact Calabi-Yau manifolds when the disk one-point functions (string to boundary amplitudes) are non-zero. These new anomalies introduce coupling to wrong moduli (complex structure moduli in A-model and Kahler moduli in B-model), and spoil the recursive structure of the holomorphic anomaly equations. For vanishing disk one-point functions, the open string holomorphic anomaly equations can be integrated to solve for amplitudes recursively, using a Feynman diagram approach, for which a proof is presented.

  20. Pharmacotherapeutic Aspects of Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi

    2004-01-01

    produced by any drug depend upon rates of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of the drug; space flight-induced changes in blood flow and the function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, or kidneys may alter these processes. Another important aspect of clinical efficacy of medications in space is the stability of pharmaceuticals. As the U.S. space program is moving toward extended Space Shuttle flights and beyond, to space station missions and planetary explorations, understanding how space flight affects organ systems and clinical pharmacology is necessary to optimize pharmacotherapeutics in space and ensure adequate safety and health of crewmembers.

  1. Flying High: The Aeromedical Aspects of Marihuana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A summary of the discussions from the Civil Aeromedical Institute Symposium on aeromedical aspects of marihuana is presented. The invited panel...discussed the legal aspects of marihuana use and aviation, the experiences of military aviation, and the acute and chronic effects of the drug. For civil...aviation, the panel proposed a 12-16 hour period between marihuana use and work in aviation, no radical changes in FAA policy towards marihuana use, and additional research on aeromedical aspects of marihuana .

  2. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Smolen, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE.

  3. Effect of particle aspect ratio in magnetorheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morillas, Jose R.; Carreón-González, Elizabeth; de Vicente, Juan

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the aspect ratio of the dispersed particles in magnetorheology. Two systems are studied: conventional magnetorheological fluids prepared by dispersion of nickel nanowires, and inverse ferrofluids prepared by dispersion of glass fibers in a ferrofluid. In both cases the apparent yield stress is found to increase with aspect ratio in contradiction to available models in the literature. Experimental observations demonstrate that the particle volume fraction within the aggregates initially increases with increasing the aspect ratio of the dispersed particles. When the aspect ratio is further raised, a gel-like percolating structure forms inhibiting the formation of elongated clusters in the field direction.

  4. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Sherrill, Andrew M.; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Magliano, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments. PMID:26496364

  5. Food irradiation facilities: Requirements and technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittendorfer, Josef

    2016-12-01

    This survey presents some aspects and requirement for food irradiation facilities. Topics like radiation source, dose ranges and dose rate are discussed, together with logistics and operational considerations

  6. Legal aspects of abortion practice.

    PubMed

    Goldman, E B

    1986-03-01

    Focusing on the legal aspects of abortion, this chapter considers the development of constitutional law on the right to abortion, rights for adults and minors, conscience clauses, and abortion and malpractice issues. In 1973 the US Supreme Court in the cases of Roe v. Wade held that the right of privacy grounded in the concept of personal liberty guaranteed by the 9th and 14th amendment to the US Constitution included a woman's right to decide whether or not to have an abortion. The cases held unconstitutional any statute that prohibited abortion and statutes that imposed such stringent requirements on abortion as to make abortion unavailable. The Court recognized the state's interest in protecting maternal health and preserving the life of the fetus but said that a woman's right to privacy was a paramount fundamental right and could be interfered with only if the state could show a compelling interest. The Court analyzed the right to abortion based on different stages of pregnancy. During the 1st trimester, a woman has a virtually unfettered right to have an abortion free from interference by state or federal government; the decision is between the woman and her physician. Due to the fact that abortions during the 2nd trimester are more dangerous to the health of the mother, the state can regulate the abortion procedure so long as the regulations are limited to preservation and protection of maternal health. Thus, the state can establish licensing requirements for facilities in which the procedure is to be performed as well as requirements concerning reporting and record keeping. During the 3rd trimester, the viability of the fetus allows the state's compelling interest in the protection of fetal life to be dominant over the mother's right to privacy. During this trimester, the state may, but is not required to, proscribe abortion except where necessary to preserve the life or health of the mother. During the 1973-83 period, numerous attempts were made to chip

  7. Neuro magnetic stimulation: Engineering aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mutawaly, Nafia

    . The motor responses of the thenar muscle were then recorded. The study results show that the biphasic stimulating pulse is more effective than the monophasic pulse, as has been concluded by other researchers. However, the effective stimulating point, or virtual cathode of the coil, was found to be not simply 3 to 4 cm from the coil center as had been reported. In fact, the study shows that the site of the virtual cathode is affected by the current amplitude and the degree of inhomogeneity of the tissues surrounding the nerve. Furthermore, reversing the coil current direction results in a different level of stimulation but does not affect the virtual cathode position. In summary, the research presented in this thesis covers theoretical concepts, experimental aspects, and human studies related to neuro magnetic stimulation. The results of the experiment and the study are consistent with the theoretical analysis. The proposed coil design is novel and offers promise for a better coil system for magnetic nerve stimulation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  8. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Poda, G A

    1983-01-01

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry.

  9. Preliminary Aspects of Language Course Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Program and/or course evaluation is a process in which different types of data are collected systematically in order to study the virtues and weaknesses of a language instruction program. Program evaluation is, in fact, one of the essential aspects of any curriculum. It is a kind of quality control in which various aspects of an instructional…

  10. Preliminary Aspects of Language Course Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Program and /or course evaluation is a process in which different types of data are collected systematically in order to study the virtues and weaknesses of a language instruction program. Program evaluation is, in fact, one of the essential aspects of any curriculum. It is a kind of quality control in which various aspects of an instructional…

  11. Preliminary Aspects of Language Course Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Program and /or course evaluation is a process in which different types of data are collected systematically in order to study the virtues and weaknesses of a language instruction program. Program evaluation is, in fact, one of the essential aspects of any curriculum. It is a kind of quality control in which various aspects of an instructional…

  12. [Legal aspects of psychiatry in Soviet legislation].

    PubMed

    Babayan, E A

    1977-01-01

    The Author examines and describes in detail the normative and organizational aspects of forensic-psychiatric services in the URSS. Both criminal expert opinions and civil aspects are described. The problem of civil rights of mentally ill persons are discussed together with education and training of the experts employed in institutions and by the courts.

  13. Environmental Aspects, Objectives and Targets Identification Process

    SciTech Connect

    R. Green

    2002-07-29

    The purpose of this report is to document the environmental aspects and associated environmental impacts of the Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) scope of work, evaluate the significance of those environmental aspects based on established criteria, and establish environmental objectives and targets for specific environmental aspects. This report is intended to be used by environmental staff in the evaluation of BSC work packages during the annual risk-based planning process. This report shall be fully reviewed and revised annually during the annual work planning process to reflect changes in BSC operations, facilities, and scope of work. Planned BSC work will be evaluated to determine if the work is covered by a previously defined activity, product or service (see Table 2); if work activities require redefinition or addition of a new activity; and if the significant evaluation for each environment aspect is still valid based on scope of planned work. New workscope initiated during the fiscal year through the Baseline Change Proposal process (i.e., not as part of the annual work plan) also will be reviewed for new environmental aspects and determination of whether the new workscope would change the significance rating of any environmental aspect. If a new environmental aspect is identified in a new work activity, product, or service but the aspect is not determined to be significant (see Section 4), then this report can be changed through an interim change notice (ICN). This report can be changed five times through an ICN before a full revision is required. However, if new workscope causes an environmental aspect to be graded as significant using the evaluation process in Section 4, this report shall be revised though a full review and revision.

  14. Energy Aspects of Green Buildings - International Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2016-12-01

    At present, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main environmental priorities globally, and implementation of sustainability aspects in the construction industry, including energy aspects, is of major importance for long-term environmental development, as buildings have a long life cycle and require many resources both for construction and operation periods. The aim of the research is to analyse energy aspects of green buildings. The results of research show that the construction of green buildings can significantly result in energy savings and has other benefits for different market participants. Future research directions have been identified as well.

  15. Developmental Aspects of Sexuality and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Donald; Valdez, Hilary

    1973-01-01

    Personality traits (aspects of aggression and sexuality) were measured for 70 Anglo-American and 70 Mexican-American children. Discussion concerns differences between the groups and developmental patterns. (DP)

  16. Some Legal Aspects of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Casimir J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This article explores some legal aspects of public and private education, as well as several Amendments to the Constitution and their relationships to higher education: the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments. (Author)

  17. [Communication in health care - legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Mina, András

    2016-04-24

    This paper is focusing on the legal aspects of communication in health care, especially on doctor-patient relationship, responsibility for information, communication of adverse events, and legal declarations.

  18. Aspects of prehistoric astronomy in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Kameswara

    2005-12-01

    Some archeoastronomical aspects regarding the development of observational astronomy in India during prehistoric times are described. A plea is made for the preservation of megalithic monuments of possible astronomical significance.

  19. Some Legal Aspects of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Casimir J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This article explores some legal aspects of public and private education, as well as several Amendments to the Constitution and their relationships to higher education: the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments. (Author)

  20. Multiple sclerosis: Experimental and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinberg, L.; Raine, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the experimental and clinical aspects of multiple sclerosis. Specifically discussed are - Association of Epstein Barr Virus with pathology of central nervous system; immunology of viruses; and immunosuppression.

  1. Critiquing the ethical aspects of a study.

    PubMed

    Pat, F

    1995-09-01

    The task of critiquing the ethical aspects of a study is complicated by convention. Research reports are written in a standardised way that may lead to ethical issues being ignored or mentioned only in passing ( 1 ). This can leave room for author and reader to make vastly different assumptions. The reader of a research paper must leant to recognise aspects of the research process which may be in conflict with accepted research ethics.

  2. Technical aspects of ileoanal pouch surgery.

    PubMed

    Carne, Peter W G; Pemberton, John H

    2004-02-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the surgical procedure of choice for chronic ulcerative colitis. Since the initial description of the technique, various modifications have facilitated its evolution into a safe operation with excellent long-term outcomes. However, some aspects of the operation remain contentious. Our aim is to describe the technical aspects of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and review the current literature in the areas of controversy.

  3. Approaches to high aspect ratio triangulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posenau, M.-A.

    1993-01-01

    In aerospace computational fluid dynamics calculations, high aspect ratio, or stretched, triangulations are necessary to adequately resolve the features of a viscous flow around bodies. In this paper, we explore alternatives to the Delaunay triangulation which can be used to generate high aspect ratio triangulations of point sets. The method is based on a variation of the lifting map concept which derives Delaunay triangulations from convex hull calculations.

  4. Financial and Cost Aspects of Other Transactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-24

    0ort 0 ..... ... s.. FINANCIAL AND COST ASPECTS OF OTHER TRANSACTIONS Report Number 98-191 August 24, 1998 Office of the Inspector General...Audit Report on Financial and Cost Aspects of Other Transactions (Report No. 98-191) We are providing this final report for review and comment. This... transactions ." The second audit report will discuss the review of costs charged to the agreements by the "other transaction " participant(s). "Other

  5. GCS plan for software aspects of certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shagnea, Anita M.; Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) research project being sponsored by NASA to evaluate the failure processes of software, standard industry software development procedures are being employed. To ensure that these procedures are authentic, the guidelines outlined in the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA/DO-178A document entitled, software considerations in airborne systems and equipment certification, were adopted. A major aspect of these guidelines is proper documentation. As such, this report, the plan for software aspects of certification, was produced in accordance with DO-178A. An overview is given of the GCS research project, including the goals of the project, project organization, and project schedules. It also specifies the plans for all aspects of the project which relate to the certification of the GCS implementations developed under a NASA contract. These plans include decisions made regarding the software specification, accuracy requirements, configuration management, implementation development and verification, and the development of the GCS simulator.

  6. Nutritional Aspects of Treatment in Epileptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    SOLTANI, Danesh; GHAFFAR POUR, Majid; TAFAKHORI, Abbas; SARRAF, Payam; BITARAFAN, Sama

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by interruption of normal neuronal functions that is manifested by behavioral disorders, changing of awareness level, and presence of some sensory, autonomic and motor symptoms or signs. It is resulted from many different causes. Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are considered to manage epileptic attacks. Some of them change metabolism and absorption of many nutrients. Therefore, epileptic patients may be in higher risk of nutrient deficiency and its unwelcome effects. In the present paper, we intend to review the relationship between nutrition and epilepsy in two aspects. In one aspect we discuss the nutritional status in epileptic patients, the causes of nutritional deficiencies and the way of compensation of the nutrient deficiencies. It will guide these patients to have a healthy life. In another aspect we explain the role of some nutrients and specific diets in management of epileptic attacks. It can help to better control of epileptic attacks in these patients. PMID:27375750

  7. Nutritional Aspects of Treatment in Epileptic Patients.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Danesh; Ghaffar Pour, Majid; Tafakhori, Abbas; Sarraf, Payam; Bitarafan, Sama

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by interruption of normal neuronal functions that is manifested by behavioral disorders, changing of awareness level, and presence of some sensory, autonomic and motor symptoms or signs. It is resulted from many different causes. Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are considered to manage epileptic attacks. Some of them change metabolism and absorption of many nutrients. Therefore, epileptic patients may be in higher risk of nutrient deficiency and its unwelcome effects. In the present paper, we intend to review the relationship between nutrition and epilepsy in two aspects. In one aspect we discuss the nutritional status in epileptic patients, the causes of nutritional deficiencies and the way of compensation of the nutrient deficiencies. It will guide these patients to have a healthy life. In another aspect we explain the role of some nutrients and specific diets in management of epileptic attacks. It can help to better control of epileptic attacks in these patients.

  8. Algorithms for high aspect ratio oriented triangulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posenau, Mary-Anne K.

    1995-01-01

    Grid generation plays an integral part in the solution of computational fluid dynamics problems for aerodynamics applications. A major difficulty with standard structured grid generation, which produces quadrilateral (or hexahedral) elements with implicit connectivity, has been the requirement for a great deal of human intervention in developing grids around complex configurations. This has led to investigations into unstructured grids with explicit connectivities, which are primarily composed of triangular (or tetrahedral) elements, although other subdivisions of convex cells may be used. The existence of large gradients in the solution of aerodynamic problems may be exploited to reduce the computational effort by using high aspect ratio elements in high gradient regions. However, the heuristic approaches currently in use do not adequately address this need for high aspect ratio unstructured grids. High aspect ratio triangulations very often produce the large angles that are to be avoided. Point generation techniques based on contour or front generation are judged to be the most promising in terms of being able to handle complicated multiple body objects, with this technique lending itself well to adaptivity. The eventual goal encompasses several phases: first, a partitioning phase, in which the Voronoi diagram of a set of points and line segments (the input set) will be generated to partition the input domain; second, a contour generation phase in which body-conforming contours are used to subdivide the partition further as well as introduce the foundation for aspect ratio control, and; third, a Steiner triangulation phase in which points are added to the partition to enable triangulation while controlling angle bounds and aspect ratio. This provides a combination of the advancing front/contour techniques and refinement. By using a front, aspect ratio can be better controlled. By using refinement, bounds on angles can be maintained, while attempting to minimize

  9. [Genetically modified organisms (GMO): toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Ludwicki, J K

    1998-01-01

    The genetically modified organisms (GMO) are one of the major public concerns partially due to the activity of the non-governmental organizations which believe that public opinion must be duly informed on what leaves the laboratories and enters the environment or is proposed as food. This article discusses some major toxicological and nutritional aspects of GMO designed as food for humans. The range of current use of GMOs, potential hazards for humans, safety assessment, allergenic concerns, and some aspects of the use of marker genes are discussed in regard to human safety. The need for relevant regulations is stressed.

  10. Laboratory Modeling of Aspects of Large Fires,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-30

    7 -7 g~L AD-A153 152 DNA-TR- 84-18 LABORATORY MODELING OF ASPECTS OF LARGE FIRES G.F. Carrier "URARY F.E. Fendell b DVSO R.D. Fleeter N. Got L.M...I1I TITLE (include Socurty Olassihicarion) LABORATORY MODELING OF ASPECTS OF LARGE FIRES 12. PERSONAL AUrHoR(S G.F. Carrier F.E. Fendell R.D. Fleeter N...Motorbuch Verlag.___ Caidin, M. (1960). A Torch to the Enemy: the Fire Raid on Tokyo. New York, NY: Ballantine. Carrier, G. F., Fendell , F. E., and

  11. Demographic Aspects of the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiser, Clyde V.

    1970-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Conference on "Demographic Aspects of the Black Community," held in 1969, and organized by the Milbank Memorial Fund. The Conference was held with the belief that knowledge of demographic characteristics and trends of the black community is essential to better understanding of various problems of the…

  12. Nuclear aspects of few-baryon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, B.F.

    1993-10-01

    Recent progress in understanding the bound state properties of the trinucleons and the alpha particle in terms of a hadron picture of the nucleus is reviewed. The role of three-body forces and meson exchange currents is examined. novel aspects of few-body hypernuclei as well as unresolved issues in this S {ne} O sector are summarized.

  13. An Underdiscussed Aspect of Chomsky (1959)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Barry Eshkol

    2007-01-01

    Chomsky's (1959) review of Skinner's (1957) "Verbal Behavior" has been influential and attributed with a role in the cognitive revolution. However, while counter reviews from within behavior analysis have noted that Chomsky misunderstood the subject matter, certain aspects of his scholarship have been underdiscussed. This includes several…

  14. Economic Aspects of a Resource Discovery Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, Leah; Oppenheim, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Explores economic aspects of a resource discovery network (RDN) in the United Kingdom consisting of a center and eight sub-based hubs using Ithink Analyst, a modeling software package. Results suggest that with a combination of sponsorship and subscription income a RDN could succeed without grant funding within 10 years of its launch. (Author/LRW)

  15. Aspects of Tutor and Writing Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidin, M. Arifin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between aspects of tutor and the students' basic writing outcomes of the Elementary School Teacher Education at the Distance Learning Program Unit, Open University of Palu. This is ex post facto correlation with the population research of 387 people and the total sample of 100 people. This…

  16. Education for All Aspects of the Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Education for all aspects of the industry (AAI) is a strategy that is being advocated by education reformers to combine learning and experience, integrate vocational and academic education, develop more interdisciplinary instruction, and forge more links between schools, business, and the community. A study examined AAI from the perspective of the…

  17. Aspects of the Syntax of Indonesian Teochew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Anne Elise

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to provide a description of some aspects of the syntax of Indonesian Teochew, a Southern Min Chinese language spoken in Indonesian. This dissertation examines two dialects of Indonesian Teochew: Jambi Teochew, which is spoken in Jambi City, Sumatra, and Pontianak Teochew, which is spoken in Pontianak, West…

  18. Aspects of Teacher Accountability in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Carroll L.

    The term "accountability" involves more than the recent demand by the public that schools justify the academic levels achieved by their students. Such aspects of accountability as teacher certification, school accreditation, educational evaluation, and student testing have existed for years. The New Mexico State Department of Education…

  19. Economic Aspects of a Resource Discovery Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, Leah; Oppenheim, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Explores economic aspects of a resource discovery network (RDN) in the United Kingdom consisting of a center and eight sub-based hubs using Ithink Analyst, a modeling software package. Results suggest that with a combination of sponsorship and subscription income a RDN could succeed without grant funding within 10 years of its launch. (Author/LRW)

  20. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Learning: Physics and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleg, Yavoruk

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…

  1. Social Aspects of Bioenergy Sustainability Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Luchner, Sarah; Johnson, Kristen; Lindauer, Alicia; McKinnon, Taryn; Broad, Max

    2013-05-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office held a workshop on “Social Aspects of Bioenergy” on April 24, 2012, in Washington, D.C., and convened a webinar on this topic on May 8, 2012. The findings and recommendations from the workshop and webinar are compiled in this report.

  2. Legal Aspects of Organizing a Library Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlile, Huntington; Burkley, John H.

    1980-01-01

    Three aspects of a library network are discussed: (1) legal structure, (2) membership, and (3) governance. An ideal network organization, from a legal viewpoint, is outlined. Also discussed are these types of network organizational structures: government networks, quasi-government networks, nonprofit membership corporations, and unincorporated…

  3. Developmental Aspects of Scientific Reasoning: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Harold J.; Cox, William F., Jr.

    Two experiments investigated developmental aspects of the two components of scientific reasoning: induction and deduction. In the first experiment, 98 subjects, ages 5 through 11, inductively identified four silhouetted pictures by removing, one at a time and in any sequence, as few covering pieces as possible. Results indicated that: (a) the…

  4. On virial analysis at low aspect ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Bongard, Michael W.; Barr, Jayson L.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Reusch, Joshua A.; Thome, Kathreen E.

    2016-07-28

    The validity of virial analysis to infer global MHD equilibrium poloidal beta βp and internal inductance ℓi from external magnetics measurements is examined for low aspect ratio configurations with A < 2. Numerical equilibrium studies at varied aspect ratio are utilized to validate the technique at finite aspect ratio. The effect of applying high-A approximations to low-A experimental data is quantified and demonstrates significant over-estimation of stored energy (factors of 2–10) in spherical tokamak geometry. Experimental approximations to equilibrium-dependent volume integral terms in the analysis are evaluated at low-A. Highly paramagnetic configurations are found to be inadequately represented through the virial mean radius parameter RT. Alternate formulations for inferring βp and ℓi that are independent of RT to avoid this difficulty are presented for the static isotropic limit. Lastly, these formulations are suitable for fast estimation of tokamak stored energy components at low aspect ratio using virial analysis.

  5. Objective reality, causality and the aspect experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, D. T.

    1980-08-01

    It is argued that, in the framework of Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics objective reality and causality in the strict sense are consistent with the outcome of atomic cascade photon correlation experiments, provided this outcome is not altered by the Aspect experimental modification.

  6. On virial analysis at low aspect ratio

    DOE PAGES

    Bongard, Michael W.; Barr, Jayson L.; Fonck, Raymond J.; ...

    2016-07-28

    The validity of virial analysis to infer global MHD equilibrium poloidal beta βp and internal inductance ℓi from external magnetics measurements is examined for low aspect ratio configurations with A < 2. Numerical equilibrium studies at varied aspect ratio are utilized to validate the technique at finite aspect ratio. The effect of applying high-A approximations to low-A experimental data is quantified and demonstrates significant over-estimation of stored energy (factors of 2–10) in spherical tokamak geometry. Experimental approximations to equilibrium-dependent volume integral terms in the analysis are evaluated at low-A. Highly paramagnetic configurations are found to be inadequately represented through themore » virial mean radius parameter RT. Alternate formulations for inferring βp and ℓi that are independent of RT to avoid this difficulty are presented for the static isotropic limit. Lastly, these formulations are suitable for fast estimation of tokamak stored energy components at low aspect ratio using virial analysis.« less

  7. On virial analysis at low aspect ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Bongard, Michael W.; Barr, Jayson L.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Reusch, Joshua A.; Thome, Kathreen E.

    2016-07-28

    The validity of virial analysis to infer global MHD equilibrium poloidal beta βp and internal inductance ℓi from external magnetics measurements is examined for low aspect ratio configurations with A < 2. Numerical equilibrium studies at varied aspect ratio are utilized to validate the technique at finite aspect ratio. The effect of applying high-A approximations to low-A experimental data is quantified and demonstrates significant over-estimation of stored energy (factors of 2–10) in spherical tokamak geometry. Experimental approximations to equilibrium-dependent volume integral terms in the analysis are evaluated at low-A. Highly paramagnetic configurations are found to be inadequately represented through the virial mean radius parameter RT. Alternate formulations for inferring βp and ℓi that are independent of RT to avoid this difficulty are presented for the static isotropic limit. Lastly, these formulations are suitable for fast estimation of tokamak stored energy components at low aspect ratio using virial analysis.

  8. An Underdiscussed Aspect of Chomsky (1959)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Barry Eshkol

    2007-01-01

    Chomsky's (1959) review of Skinner's (1957) "Verbal Behavior" has been influential and attributed with a role in the cognitive revolution. However, while counter reviews from within behavior analysis have noted that Chomsky misunderstood the subject matter, certain aspects of his scholarship have been underdiscussed. This includes several…

  9. Clustering aspects of nuclear structure and reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, R.R.; Rae, W.D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Some aspects of clustering phenomena in nuclear structure and reactions are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the relationship between cluster-like states and shape-isomeric states which arise as a result of shell effects in deformed potentials. Some recent evidence in favor of this connection is presented and discussed. 50 refs., 17 figs.

  10. Aspects of a Modern Business Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Business Education.

    A collection of six papers by New York business educators deals with criteria for judging the completeness and effectiveness of a business education program. The curriculum, recruitment, program promotion, image, and other aspects of a comprehensive high school program are outlined by C. Irene Schindler. Karen R. Gillespie of New York University…

  11. Oedipus in Gethsemane: archetypal aspects of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Frey-Wehrlin, C T

    1992-04-01

    In the history of depth psychology, we often come upon the theme of 'father-son' relationships, which, although initially positive, ultimately become destructive. I submit that repressed homosexual aspects may be responsible for this turn of events and illustrate this hypothesis with archetypal motifs found in Greek and Judaeo-Christian culture.

  12. Psychosomatic Aspects of Cancer: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John B.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested in this literature review on the psychosomatic aspects of cancer that psychoanalytic interpretations which focused on intrapsychic elements have given way to considerations of rehabilitation and assistance with the complex emotional reactions of patients and their families to terminal illness and death. (Author/DB)

  13. Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge in German Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary-Sundquist, Colleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on second language vocabulary acquisition has shown that learning to use a new word is not a simple matter of making a form-meaning connection. Knowing a word instead requires mastery of as many as nine different aspects of vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 2001). The current study uses data from five beginning-level textbooks of…

  14. Teaching the Legal Aspects of Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Jules

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the basic business communication course is the ideal course in which to discuss the legal aspects of business communication. Reviews some of the most important legal considerations: contract communications, credit and collections communication, employment communication, and other interpersonal communication. (SR)

  15. Aspects of Bangime Phonology, Morphology, and Morphosyntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantgan, Abbie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation provides a description of aspects of the phonology, morphology, and morphosyntax of Bangime. Bangime is a language isolate spoken in the Dogon language speaking area of Central Eastern Mali. Although the Bangande, the speakers of Bangime, self-identify with the Dogon, their language bears practically no resemblance to the…

  16. Psychological Aspects of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcoxon, Barbara R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the psychological aspects (femininity, masculinity, and androgyny), attitudes, self-esteem, and social competence exhibited by female college athletes participating in elected individual and team sports. For the purpose of this research the following hypotheses were tested: The social costs of…

  17. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KEITH, PAT M.; SMITH, LOUIS M.

    THE DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF SOCIOPSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL DESIGN WERE INVESTIGATED BY FOCUSING ON THE IMPACT OF A UNIQUELY DESIGNED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING, THE KENSINGTON SCHOOL. AN ATTEMPT WAS MADE TO SYNTHESIZE ROLE THEORY, DECISION MAKING THEORY, SOCIAL SYSTEM THEORY, AND SUCH PROBLEM AREAS AS STAFF PEER GROUPS, EDUCATIONAL…

  18. Medical Aspects of Harsh Environments. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Edema agudo del pulmon [Acute mountain sickness: Acute edema of the lungs]. An Fac Med (Lima). 1955;38:244. 9. Hurtado A. Pathological aspects of life...recommendations for career dose lim- its, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and gender. The ca- reer

  19. Instructional Aspects of Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieters, Jules M., Ed.

    This collection contains three papers addressing the instructional aspects of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS): (1) "Some Experiences with Two Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Teaching Computer Programming: Proust and the LISP-Tutor" (van den Berg, Merrienboer, and Maaswinkel); (2) "Some Issues on the Construction of Cooperative…

  20. Verb Aspect, Event Structure, and Coreferential Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Todd R.; Rohde, Hannah; Kehler, Andrew; Crutchley, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    We used an off-line story continuation task and an online ERP reading task to investigate coreferential processing following sentences that portrayed transfer-of-possession events as either ongoing or completed, using imperfective and perfective verb aspect (e.g., Amanda was shifting/shifted some poker chips to Scott). The story continuation task…

  1. Selected aspects of the human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Marco; O'Toole, Paul W; de Vos, Willem M; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2017-10-06

    The gut microbiota represents a highly complex assembly of microbes, which interact with each other and with their host. These interactions have various implications in terms of health and disease, and this multi-author review issue will address a number of selected aspects pertaining to gut microbiota research.

  2. Aspects of Teacher Accountability in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Carroll L.

    The term "accountability" involves more than the recent demand by the public that schools justify the academic levels achieved by their students. Such aspects of accountability as teacher certification, school accreditation, educational evaluation, and student testing have existed for years. The New Mexico State Department of Education…

  3. Instructional Aspects of Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieters, Jules M., Ed.

    This collection contains three papers addressing the instructional aspects of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS): (1) "Some Experiences with Two Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Teaching Computer Programming: Proust and the LISP-Tutor" (van den Berg, Merrienboer, and Maaswinkel); (2) "Some Issues on the Construction of Cooperative…

  4. Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge in German Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary-Sundquist, Colleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on second language vocabulary acquisition has shown that learning to use a new word is not a simple matter of making a form-meaning connection. Knowing a word instead requires mastery of as many as nine different aspects of vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 2001). The current study uses data from five beginning-level textbooks of…

  5. Psychological Aspects of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcoxon, Barbara R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the psychological aspects (femininity, masculinity, and androgyny), attitudes, self-esteem, and social competence exhibited by female college athletes participating in elected individual and team sports. For the purpose of this research the following hypotheses were tested: The social costs of…

  6. Students' perceptions of aspects affecting seminar learning.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, A; Jaarsma, A D C; Wolfhagen, H A P; van Beukelen, P; Scherpbier, A J J A

    2012-01-01

    Many medical and veterinary schools have curricula in which they use seminars of approximately 25 students to achieve their learning goals. There is not much research on seminar learning. To explore students' views regarding aspects that affect seminar learning. Twenty-four second-year students of a 3-year bachelor curriculum participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. The sessions were audio-taped and transcribed. Two researchers independently coded the data using qualitative methods. An iterative process of data reduction resulted in emerging aspects. The participating students were asked to comment on the preliminary results. Course schedule, coherence and alignment of the different educational methods, the amount and type of seminar questions and the amount and clarity of the preparation materials affected seminar learning. Also, the didactic approach and facilitating methods used by the teachers, the group composition, size and atmosphere, the amount of active student participation and interaction and assessment influenced seminar learning according to students. Most aspects that affect seminar learning are consistent with aspects affecting small group learning. Course schedule and alignment seem to have a stronger impact on seminar learning.

  7. Emphasize the Nontechnical Aspects of Office Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Walter A.

    1979-01-01

    Stating that employers consider the nontechnical aspects of office work to be as important as work competence, the author lists 12 nontechnical qualities that business teachers should place greater emphasis on, such as new terminology, new devices, communication skills, decision making, personal and professional characteristics, responsibility,…

  8. Aspects of Bangime Phonology, Morphology, and Morphosyntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantgan, Abbie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation provides a description of aspects of the phonology, morphology, and morphosyntax of Bangime. Bangime is a language isolate spoken in the Dogon language speaking area of Central Eastern Mali. Although the Bangande, the speakers of Bangime, self-identify with the Dogon, their language bears practically no resemblance to the…

  9. Various aspects of sustainability analysis in Georgia

    Treesearch

    C. J. Cieszewski; M. Zasada; B. E. Borders; R. Lowe; M. L. Clutter; R. F. Daniels; R. Izlar

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 the Georgia Traditional Industries Program (TIP) sponsored a cooperative study at the D.B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, to analyze the long-term sustainability of the fiber supply in Georgia. The subject of this study is relevant to a diverse array of disciplines, and it offers the opportunity to explore various aspects of...

  10. The biopsychosocial aspects of unwanted teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Suzanne J

    Unwanted teenage pregnancy is a major health problem in Wales and perioperative nurses are frequently involved in caring for teenagers undergoing surgical termination of pregnancy. By providing such adolescents with holistic care--by taking into account both biological and psychological aspects of health--nurses can help reduce an adolescent's anxiety and pain.

  11. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  12. Satellite sound broadcast research aspect in CRL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hase, Yoshihiro; Kondo, Kimio; Ohmori, Shingo

    1990-01-01

    Researches on Satellite Sound Broadcasting Services (SSBS) have become active in the past few years. Activities of the Consultative Committee for International Radio (CCIR) and the World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC), especially about digital systems proposed in the CCIR report, are briefly reviewed. The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) future plan of SSBS research, stressing propagation rather than communications aspects, is described.

  13. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    LANL

    2008-05-12

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  14. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2016-07-12

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  15. Product Aspect Clustering by Incorporating Background Knowledge for Opinion Mining.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiheng; Zhao, Yanyan; Qin, Bing; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Product aspect recognition is a key task in fine-grained opinion mining. Current methods primarily focus on the extraction of aspects from the product reviews. However, it is also important to cluster synonymous extracted aspects into the same category. In this paper, we focus on the problem of product aspect clustering. The primary challenge is to properly cluster and generalize aspects that have similar meanings but different representations. To address this problem, we learn two types of background knowledge for each extracted aspect based on two types of effective aspect relations: relevant aspect relations and irrelevant aspect relations, which describe two different types of relationships between two aspects. Based on these two types of relationships, we can assign many relevant and irrelevant aspects into two different sets as the background knowledge to describe each product aspect. To obtain abundant background knowledge for each product aspect, we can enrich the available information with background knowledge from the Web. Then, we design a hierarchical clustering algorithm to cluster these aspects into different groups, in which aspect similarity is computed using the relevant and irrelevant aspect sets for each product aspect. Experimental results obtained in both camera and mobile phone domains demonstrate that the proposed product aspect clustering method based on two types of background knowledge performs better than the baseline approach without the use of background knowledge. Moreover, the experimental results also indicate that expanding the available background knowledge using the Web is feasible.

  16. Product Aspect Clustering by Incorporating Background Knowledge for Opinion Mining

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiheng; Zhao, Yanyan; Qin, Bing; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Product aspect recognition is a key task in fine-grained opinion mining. Current methods primarily focus on the extraction of aspects from the product reviews. However, it is also important to cluster synonymous extracted aspects into the same category. In this paper, we focus on the problem of product aspect clustering. The primary challenge is to properly cluster and generalize aspects that have similar meanings but different representations. To address this problem, we learn two types of background knowledge for each extracted aspect based on two types of effective aspect relations: relevant aspect relations and irrelevant aspect relations, which describe two different types of relationships between two aspects. Based on these two types of relationships, we can assign many relevant and irrelevant aspects into two different sets as the background knowledge to describe each product aspect. To obtain abundant background knowledge for each product aspect, we can enrich the available information with background knowledge from the Web. Then, we design a hierarchical clustering algorithm to cluster these aspects into different groups, in which aspect similarity is computed using the relevant and irrelevant aspect sets for each product aspect. Experimental results obtained in both camera and mobile phone domains demonstrate that the proposed product aspect clustering method based on two types of background knowledge performs better than the baseline approach without the use of background knowledge. Moreover, the experimental results also indicate that expanding the available background knowledge using the Web is feasible. PMID:27561001

  17. Radiological and microscopic aspects of the denticles.

    PubMed

    Deva, V; Mogoantă, L; Manolea, H; Pancă, Oana Adina; Vătu, Mihaela; Vătăman, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we have realized a study on 43 patients on which the retro-alveolar radiological exam has shown the existence of a calcareous structure within the pulp chamber having in view a better knowledge of this structure and its etiology, way of forming and pathological implications. For 16 of the patients the radiological exam was supplemented by a microscopic examination. Radiologically, the denticles were noticed more often in the pulp chamber of the molars. The examination of the histological samples has evidenced aspects such as the size, shape and structure of the denticles. The concentric disposition of the tissue elements shows that in the formation of a denticle there is a "center" around which a conjunctive substance avid of calcium salts is deposited. The microscopic aspects noticed on large denticles allowed us to sustain the hypothesis that in a large pulp chamber many denticles form simultaneously and grow up and merge generating a large-sized unique calcareous structure.

  18. Environmental aspects of solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Strojan, C.L.

    1980-09-01

    Solar energy technologies have environmental effects, and these may be positive or negative compared with current ways of producing energy. In this respect, solar energy technologies are no different from other energy systems. Where solar energy technologies differ is that no unresolvable technological problems (e.g., CO/sub 2/ emissions) or sociopolitical barriers (e.g., waste disposal, catastrophic accidents) have been identified. This report reviews some of the environmental aspects of solar energy technologies and ongoing research designed to identify and resolve potential environmental concerns. It is important to continue research and assessment of environmental aspects of solar energy to ensure that unanticipated problems do not arise. It is also important that the knowledge gained through such environmental research be incorporated into technology development programs and policy initiatives.

  19. Aspect-Oriented Monitoring of C Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; VanWyk, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents current work on extending ASPECTC with state machines, resulting in a framework for aspect-oriented monitoring of C programs. Such a framework can be used for testing purposes, or it can be part of a fault protection strategy. The long term goal is to explore the synergy between the fields of runtime verification, focused on program monitoring, and aspect-oriented programming, focused on more general program development issues. The work is inspired by the observation that most work in this direction has been done for JAVA, partly due to the lack of easily accessible extensible compiler frameworks for C. The work is performed using the SILVER extensible attribute grammar compiler framework, in which C has been defined as a host language. Our work consists of extending C with ASPECTC, and subsequently to extend ASPECTC with state machines.

  20. Materials aspects of world energy needs

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Plenary session papers presented by participants from both developed and developing countries contributed to the information base on materials and energy outlook, international cooperation, economic aspects, and environmental considerations and established the theme for the subsequent workshop sessions. Workshops on ten major aspects of materials-energy interrelationships provided the opportunity of open and informal discussion of critical issues in each area and the development of reasonable consensus on problems and potential solutions. A separate abstract for each of the 10 plenary-session papers, the 10 workshop reports, and the 4 selected papers will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). The brief issue summaries (preprints) will appear individually (total of 75) only in the DOE Energy Data Base.

  1. Health-Related Aspects of Milk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Davoodi, Seyed Hossein; Shahbazi, Roghiyeh; Esmaeili, Saeideh; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Mortazavian, AmirMohamamd; Jazayeri, Sahar; Taslimi, Aghdas

    2016-01-01

    Milk is an important component of a balanced diet and contains numerous valuable constituents. Considerable acclaimed health benefits of milk are related to its proteins, not only for their nutritive value but also for their biological properties. Scientific evidence suggests that anticarcinogenic activities, antihypertensive properties, immune system modulation, and other metabolic features of milk, are affiliated with its proteins (intact proteins or its derivatives). In this article, the main health-related aspects of milk proteins, such as anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, anticariogenic, antihypertensive, and hypocholesterolemic effects are reviewed. Collectively, the findings indicate the effectiveness of milk proteins on reduction of risk factors for cancer, cardiovascular diseases and overall improvement of health aspects. PMID:27980594

  2. The many aspects of neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Frieman, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    In mid-November, over seventy physicists gathered at Fermilab for an informal workshop on the Many Aspects of Neutrino Physics, which dovetailed with and also helped lay the groundwork for the succeeding more narrowly focused conference on Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillations. The workshop indeed covered many of the interrelated aspects of neutrino physics: 17 keV neutrinos (experiments, theoretical models, and astrophysical constraints), neutrino properties (double beta decay experiments, neutrino magnetic moments), neutrinos from/as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in cosmology and astrophysics, atmospheric neutrinos, and solar neutrinos. In the following, I provide a brief and thoroughly biased account of only some of the many interesting developments discussed at the workshop.

  3. Practical aspects of high resolution esophageal manometry.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de León San Juan, Antonio; Ciriza de Los Ríos, Constanza; Pérez de la Serna Bueno, Julio; Canga Rodríguez-Valcárcel, Fernando; Estremera Arévalo, Fermín; García Sánchez, Raquel; Huamán Ríos, José Walter; Pérez Fernández, María Teresa; Santander Vaquero, Cecilio; Serra Pueyo, Jordi; Sevilla Mantilla, Concepción; Barba Orozco, Elisabeth; Bosque López, María José; Casabona Francés, Sergio; Carrión Bolorino, Silvia; Castillo Grau, Pilar; Delgado Aros, Silvia; Domínguez Carbajo, Ana Belén; Fernández Orcajo, Pilar; García-Lledó, Javier; Gigantó Tomé, Froilán; Iglesias Picazo, Rosa; Lacima Vidal, Gloria; López López, Pilar; Llabrés Rosselló, Magdalena; Mas Mercader, Pilar; Mego Silva, Marianela; Mendarte Barrenetxea, María Usua; Miliani Molina, Carlos; Oreja Arrayago, Milagros; Sánchez Ceballos, Francisco; Sánchez Prudencio, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    High resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) is currently under development as can be seen in the various Chicago classifications. In order to standardize criteria in certain practical aspects with limited scientific evidence, the First National Meeting for Consensus in High Resolution Manometry of the Spanish Digestive Motility Group took place, bringing together a wide group of experts. The proposals were based on a prior survey composed of 47 questions, an exhaustive review of the available literature and the experience of the participants. Methodological aspects relating to the poorly defined analysis criteria of certain new high resolution parameters were discussed, as well as other issues previously overlooked such as spontaneous activity or secondary waves. Final conclusions were drawn with practical applications.

  4. A low aspect ratio tokamak transmutation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L. J.; Wu, Y. C.; Xiao, B. J.; Xu, Q.; Huang, Q. Y.; Wu, B.; Chen, Y. X.; Xu, W. N.; Chen, Y. P.; Liu, X. P.

    2000-03-01

    A low aspect ratio tokamak transmutation system is proposed as an alternative application of fusion energy on the basis of a review of previous studies. This system includes: (1) a low aspect ratio tokamak as fusion neutron driver, (2) a radioactivity-clean nuclear power system as blanket, and (3) a novel concept of liquid metal centre conductor post as part of the toroidal field coils. In the conceptual design, a driver of 100 MW fusion power under 1 MW/m2 neutron wall loading can transmute the amount of high level waste (including minor actinides and fission products) produced by ten standard pressurized water reactors of 1 GW electrical power output. Meanwhile, the system can produce tritium on a self-sustaining basis and an output of about 2 GW of electrical energy. After 30 years of operation, the biological hazard potential level of the whole system will decrease by two orders of magnitude.

  5. Design of an ultrasmall aspect ratio concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ying; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    The concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) can be employed to improve the efficiency of solar cells and reduce the system cost of power generation, which is the primary part of the CPV system. Based on the demands for the concentrators to have an ultrathin and ultralight design, a design of ultrasmall aspect ratio concentrators is proposed. The concentrator is formed by a lens array and a freeform reflector to precisely control the light. The solar cell is placed at the side of the concentrator, which greatly reduces the overall thickness of the concentrator. The design can reduce the aspect ratio of concentrator by a considerable amount. The freeform reflector can shape the light beam and achieve a uniform distribution of light energy.

  6. Analytical aspects of hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Engen, John R.; Wales, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    The analytical aspects of measuring hydrogen exchange by mass spectrometry are reviewed. The nature of analytical selectivity in hydrogen exchange is described followed by review of the analytical tools required to accomplish fragmentation, separation, and the mass spectrometry measurements under restrictive exchange quench conditions. In contrast to analytical quantitation that relies on measurements of peak intensity or area, quantitation in hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry depends on measuring a mass change with respect to an undeuterated or deuterated control, resulting in a value between zero and the maximum amount of deuterium that could be incorporated. Reliable quantitation is a function of experimental fidelity and to achieve high measurement reproducibility, a large number of experimental variables must be controlled during sample preparation and analysis. The method also reports on important qualitative aspects of the sample, including conformational heterogeneity and population dynamics. PMID:26048552

  7. [Psychosocial aspects of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    de Moura, L; Jacquemin, A

    1991-04-01

    Psychosocial aspects which arise with regard to people directly or indirectly involved with AIDS: patients, relatives and professional staff, are studied. The results show that the population assisted in the Ribeirão Preto region is predominantly young, male and drug-addicted. The patients with "positive" results show reactions similar to those described by Kluber-Ross (1977) for terminal patients. The behavior observed in relatives forms a continuum which varies from the negation of the illness to the overprotection of the patient. For the professionals, perplexity is the most common reaction when they face a population which is different from that with which they are used to dealing. Finally, the data acquired indicate that the psychologist can help the professionals to deal with the reactions of the patients by integrating them into their organic and emotional aspects.

  8. Aspect-Oriented Monitoring of C Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; VanWyk, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents current work on extending ASPECTC with state machines, resulting in a framework for aspect-oriented monitoring of C programs. Such a framework can be used for testing purposes, or it can be part of a fault protection strategy. The long term goal is to explore the synergy between the fields of runtime verification, focused on program monitoring, and aspect-oriented programming, focused on more general program development issues. The work is inspired by the observation that most work in this direction has been done for JAVA, partly due to the lack of easily accessible extensible compiler frameworks for C. The work is performed using the SILVER extensible attribute grammar compiler framework, in which C has been defined as a host language. Our work consists of extending C with ASPECTC, and subsequently to extend ASPECTC with state machines.

  9. Method for nanomachining high aspect ratio structures

    DOEpatents

    Yun, Wenbing; Spence, John; Padmore, Howard A.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Howells, Malcolm R.

    2004-11-09

    A nanomachining method for producing high-aspect ratio precise nanostructures. The method begins by irradiating a wafer with an energetic charged-particle beam. Next, a layer of patterning material is deposited on one side of the wafer and a layer of etch stop or metal plating base is coated on the other side of the wafer. A desired pattern is generated in the patterning material on the top surface of the irradiated wafer using conventional electron-beam lithography techniques. Lastly, the wafer is placed in an appropriate chemical solution that produces a directional etch of the wafer only in the area from which the resist has been removed by the patterning process. The high mechanical strength of the wafer materials compared to the organic resists used in conventional lithography techniques with allows the transfer of the precise patterns into structures with aspect ratios much larger than those previously achievable.

  10. [Toxic polyneuropathies in shoe factories: preventive aspects].

    PubMed

    Carapella, C

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was carried out concerning 19 shoe factories of Marches province, where 32 cases of polyneuropathy, upon 1264 workmen, have been verified. After examination of qualitative and quantitative risk factors the following conclusions can be deduced. Under the etiological aspect the syndrome can be attributed to poisoning caused by environmental pollutions and thus relating to aliphatic hydrocarbons (exane-cicloexane). Under the quantitative aspect the tecnopatic risk has a multifactorial origin which can be summarised as follows: 1) lack of poor efficiency of environmental purification systems; 2) lack of hygienic-environmental elements; 3) lack of sanitary precautions; 4) poor work organization. A strong preventive therapy is necessary to avoid or at least to reduce the polyneuretic tecnopathy incidence.

  11. Aspects of computer vision in surgical endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodin, Vincent; Ayache, Alain; Berreni, N.

    1993-09-01

    This work is related to a project of medical robotics applied to surgical endoscopy, led in collaboration with Doctor Berreni from the Saint Roch nursing-home in Perpignan, France). After taking what Doctor Berreni advises, two aspects of endoscopic color image processing have been brought out: (1) The help to the diagnosis by the automatic detection of the sick areas after a learning phase. (2) The 3D reconstruction of the analyzed cavity by using a zoom.

  12. [Phytic acid: nutritional aspects and analytical implications].

    PubMed

    Martínez Domínguez, Beatriz; Ibáñez Gómez, M Victoria; Rincón León, Francisco

    2002-09-01

    This review provides a current summary of the literature concerning various aspects of phytic acid. These include data relative to its chemical structure and physicochemical properties, its occurrence in numerous cereals and legumes, and its role in plants. In addition, the nutritional significance of phytate with regard to its protein and mineral binding abilities, its health benefits and the methods commonly used for the analysis of phytate are discussed.

  13. Secondary metabolites in bryophytes: an ecological aspect.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chun-Feng; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2009-03-01

    Bryophytes frequently grow in an unfavorable environment as the earliest land plants, and inevitably biosynthesize secondary metabolites against biotic or abiotic stress. They not only defend against the plant competition, microbial attack, and insect or animal predation, but also function in UV protection, drought tolerance, and freezing survival. This review covers the ecological aspect of secondary metabolites in bryophytes and is taxonomically presented according to the ecological significances.

  14. Aspects of coherent states of nonlinear algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreecharan, T.; Chaitanya, K. V. S. Shiv

    2010-12-01

    Various aspects of coherent states of nonlinear su(2) and su(1, 1) algebras are studied. It is shown that the nonlinear su(1, 1) Barut-Girardello and Perelomov coherent states are related by a Laplace transform. We then concentrate on the derivation and analysis of the statistical and geometrical properties of these states. The Berry's phase for the nonlinear coherent states is also derived.

  15. Some aspects of holographic W-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Theisen, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    We use the Chern-Simons formulation of higher spin theories in three dimensions to study aspects of holographic W-gravity. Concepts which were useful in studies of pure bulk gravity theories, such as the Fefferman-Graham gauge and the residual gauge transformations, which induce Weyl transformations in the boundary theory and their higher spin generalizations, are reformulated in the Chern-Simons language. Flat connections that correspond to conformal and lightcone gauges in the boundary theory are considered.

  16. Psychological aspects of aeronautical flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, E. M.; Nagel, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Attention is given to the class of ground based devices which have been used by scientists, engineers, and test pilots to evaluate current or future aircraft systems. The characteristics of a flight simulator and its major subsystems are considered, taking into account simulator cockpits, visual scene attachments, aspects of visual attachment fidelity, simulator motion systems, motion system fidelity, and simulation computer systems. Questions related to psychological research and simulation are examined. Simulator validity criteria are discussed along with problems of subsystem fidelity.

  17. Associative Memory Biological and Mathematical Aspects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-29

    was unable to store new information in long term memory. Yet previous long term memory (stored prior to the surgery) remained intact [II]. Thus...theories, IWO describing the hippocampus as a source encoder necessary for long term storage received i credibility. ""𔃽 ."-’ 9...W-0199 15 ASSOCIATIVE MEORY BIOLOGICAL AND MTHEATICL ASPECTS 1/1(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST F TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB "EGGERS 29 DEC 8? TR-799 ESO-TR

  18. Biophysical Aspects of Cyclodextrin Interaction with Paraoxon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-19

    Institute of Chemical Defense ATTN: MCMR-CDR-I 3100 Ricketts Point Road Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5400 USAMRICD-P13-018 9...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Rapid communication Received: 9 August 2013 Revised: 14 November 2013 Accepted: 18 November... 2013 Published online in Wiley Online Library: 19 December 2013 (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/mrc.4036Biophysical aspects of cyclodextrin

  19. What is Aspect-Oriented Programming, Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the Advanced Separation of Concerns workshop at OOPSLA 2000 in Minneapolis, Dan Friedman and I wrote a paper that argued that the distinguishing characteristic of Aspect-Oriented Programming systems (qua programming systems) is that they provide quantification and obliviousness. In this paper, I expand on the themes of our Minneapolis workshop paper, respond to some of the comments we've received on that paper, and provide a computational formalization of the notion of quantification.

  20. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, D.; Ambrosino, G.; de Vries, P.; Felici, F.; Kim, S. H.; Jackson, G.; Kallenbach, A.; Kolemen, E.; Lister, J.; Moreau, D.; Pironti, A.; Raupp, G.; Sauter, O.; Schuster, E.; Snipes, J.; Treutterer, W.; Walker, M.; Welander, A.; Winter, A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-02-01

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g., current profile regulation, tearing mode (TM) suppression), control mathematics (e.g., algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g., methods for management of highly subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  1. Psychological aspects of aeronautical flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, E. M.; Nagel, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Attention is given to the class of ground based devices which have been used by scientists, engineers, and test pilots to evaluate current or future aircraft systems. The characteristics of a flight simulator and its major subsystems are considered, taking into account simulator cockpits, visual scene attachments, aspects of visual attachment fidelity, simulator motion systems, motion system fidelity, and simulation computer systems. Questions related to psychological research and simulation are examined. Simulator validity criteria are discussed along with problems of subsystem fidelity.

  2. [Ritual washing, another aspect of care].

    PubMed

    Brisse, Joëlle; Ghoul, Abderrahman; Samoun, Ary

    2011-12-01

    After death, mortuary staff attend to the deceased and his or her family until the deceased leaves the institution. Washing, dressing, presentation of the body and dealing with requests for information form part of this aspect of care. Religious practices, such as the ritual washing of the body may be requested by the family. As with all forms of care given to the deceased, staff facilitate the carrying out of such practices.

  3. Hidden aspects of the anaesthesia chart.

    PubMed

    Papantoniou, Bill

    2007-10-01

    Anaesthesia is a complex task operating in an uncertain environment. Part of the problem is that many of the technologies developed to assist the anaesthesiologist hinder rather than help, because of increased complexity. We conducted an analysis of the domain in view of redesigning the anaesthesia chart as a digital artefact. We used an ethnographic approach that uncovered aspects of the anaesthesiologist's practice, as well as the fact that the chart was not used as a tool, because of its legal status.

  4. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    DOE PAGES

    Humphreys, David; Ambrosino, G.; de Vries, Peter; ...

    2015-02-12

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily formore » ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g. current profile regulation, tearing mode suppression (TM)), control mathematics (e.g. algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g. methods for management of highly-subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Finally, issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.« less

  5. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, David; Ambrosino, G.; Felici, Federico; Kim, Sun H.; Jackson, Gary; Kallenbach, A.; Kolemen, Egemen; Lister, J.; Moreau, D.; Pironti, A.; Sauter, O.; Schuster, E.; Snipes, J.; Treutterer, W.; Walker, M.; Welander, A.; Winter, A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-02-12

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g. current profile regulation, tearing mode suppression (TM)), control mathematics (e.g. algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g. methods for management of highly-subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Finally, issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  6. [Symptomatic bladder calculi: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects].

    PubMed

    Rabii, R; Fekak, H; Moufid, K; Mezz Our, H; Joual, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2003-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 50 years old woman who consulted with bilateral lumbar pain and urinary infections. Intravenous Urography (IVU) showed bilateral renal and bladder stones. Treatment was by upper polary nephrectomy in the left kidney. Removing all urinary and bladder stone. We then the removed surgically renal stones in the right kidney. Using this case as an we discuss the diagnosis and therapeutic aspects of the hydrocalyx.

  7. Rational and irrational aspects of countertransference.

    PubMed

    Ellis, A

    2001-08-01

    Countertransference in therapy stems from biological tendencies and social learning influences that involve mild or heavy prejudiced thinking, feeling, and behaving. Several reasons are given why it is almost inevitable and has both beneficial and destructive aspects-not either/or but both/and. It is hypothesized that therapists can well make good use of countertransference if they strive to employ it in a preferential, experimental rather than an absolutist musturbating manner.

  8. Environmental health aspects of lubricant additives.

    PubMed

    Hewstone, R K

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes briefly the industrial hygiene aspects of the manufacture and use of lubricant additives and gives some details concerning the acute, chronic and environmental toxicity of important additive types. It also addresses the need to communicate information about product hazards and draws attention to some special points of concern which the additives industry in general has with existing and developing environmental health regulations. Finally, it takes a crystal ball to the long-term future of additives manufacture.

  9. Out of controll: one aspect of infertility.

    PubMed

    McCormick, T M

    1980-01-01

    A perceived loss of control over many aspects of life often accompanies the problem of infertility. While most couples feel the effects of this lack of control in their lifestyle, relationship, and reproductive capacities, there are also some benfits inherent in giving up some control of the problem to outside sources. Nursing interventions are discussed which incorporate the concept of control into the plan of care for the infertile couple.

  10. Radiation damage to the brain: neuropsychiatric aspects

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.; Vahora, S.

    1986-11-01

    Although radiation necrosis of the brain is a recognized complication of irradiation of the central nervous system, the psychiatric aspects of this phenomenon are less well defined. Two cases of radiation necrosis in which psychiatric symptoms were a prominent part of the clinical picture are presented. Factors that determine the evolution and clinical presentation of radiation necrosis are reviewed. In particular, the role of the consultation psychiatrist in the diagnosis and management of such patients is discussed.

  11. Genetic aspects of plant mineral nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Gabelman, W.H.; Loughman, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    This volume which is partly a reprint represents the papers on the Genetic Aspects of Plant Mineral Nutrition. The mechanisms by which plants acquire, transport and utilize essential mineral nutrients are highly complex. The means by which plants either exclude or tolerate ions of metals toxic to them are equally complex. This book has papers on genetic and breeding research. It also includes biotic interactions under genetic control that either enhanced or impeded ion uptake, e.g., mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixing bacteria.

  12. Environmental health aspects of the microelectronics industry.

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, J S; Levy, B S

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews examples of contamination to the surface or groundwater, the ambient air, and soil resulting from the microelectronics industry. The potential effects on human health arising from such environmental contamination are discussed, as well as aspects of their diagnosis, treatment, and related public health implications. Given the high costs of pollution control, the emphasis must be on prevention, which can be facilitated by a high level of suspicion and by the design of safety and pollution control into manufacturing processes.

  13. Fisheries Aspects of Seamounts and Taylor Columns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL DTI I V4 D THESIS FISH ERIES ASPECT S OF SEAMOUNTS AND) TAYLOR COLUMNS by Russell E. Brainard September 1986 Thesis Co...Takahashi and Sasaki, 1977; Genin and Boehlert, 1985). In fact, many seamounts are now known to be excellent fishing grounds for both pelagic nekton, such as...Pentaceros richardsoni and alfonsin, Baryx splendeus on the southern Emperor-northern Hawaiian Ridge seamounts. Both of these rare fish are eagerly

  14. Reconciling symbolic and dynamic aspects of language

    PubMed Central

    Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Kelso, J.A. Scott

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines natural language as a dynamical system. The oft-expressed view of language as “a static system of symbols” is here seen as an element of a larger system that embraces the mutuality of symbols and dynamics. Following along the lines of the theoretical biologist H.H. Pattee, the relation between symbolic and dynamic aspects of language is expressed within a more general framework that deals with the role of information in biological systems. In this framework, symbols are seen as information-bearing entities that emerge under pressures of communicative needs and that serve as concrete constraints on development and communication. In an attempt to identify relevant dynamic aspects of such a system, one has to take into account events that happen on different time scales: evolutionary language change (i.e., a diachronic aspect), processes of communication (language use) and language acquisition. Acknowledging the role of dynamic processes in shaping and sustaining the structures of natural language calls for a change in methodology. In particular, a purely synchronic analysis of a system of symbols as “meaning-containing entities” is not sufficient to obtain answers to certain recurring problems in linguistics and the philosophy of language. A more encompassing research framework may be the one designed specifically for studying informationally based coupled dynamical systems (coordination dynamics) in which processes of self-organization take place over different time scales. PMID:19173014

  15. Recent Developments in the Community Code ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heister, T.; Bangerth, W.; Dannberg, J.; Gassmoeller, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Computational Geosciences have long used community codes to provide simulation capabilities to large numbers of users. We here report on the mantle convection code ASPECT (the Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth ConvecTion) that is developed to be a community tool with a focus on bringing modern numerical methods such as adaptive meshes, large parallel computations, algebraic multigrid solvers, and modern software design. We will comment in particular on two aspects: First, the more recent additions to its numerical capabilities, such as compressible models, averaging of material parameters, melt transport, free surfaces, and plasticity. We will demonstrate these capabilities using examples from computations by members of the ASPECT user community. Second, we will discuss lessons learned in writing a code specifically for community use. This includes our experience with a software design that is fundamentally based on a plugin system for practically all areas that a user may want to describe for the particular geophysical setup they want to simulate. It also includes our experience with leading and organizing a community of users and developers, for example by organizing annual "hackathons", by encouraging code submission via github over keeping modifications private, and by designing a code for which extensions can easily be written as separate plugins rather than requiring knowledge of the computational core.

  16. Religiosity aspects in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tedrus, Glória Maria Almeida Souza; Fonseca, Lineu Corrêa; Fagundes, Tatiane Mariani; da Silva, Gabriela Leopoldino

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess religiosity aspects in patients with epilepsy (PWEs) and controls and to determine whether such aspects were related to the samples' clinical, sociodemographic, and QOL-31 data. The Duke Religion Index was administered to 159 adult PWEs and 50 controls. The relationships between the Duke Religion Index and the study variables of the two groups were compared. Intrinsic religiosity (IR) and nonorganizational religiosity (NOR) were higher in PWEs than in controls. Logistic regression showed that being female (p=0.022) and having mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampus sclerosis (MTLE-HS) (p=0.003) were predictors of high organizational religiosity (OR) and that high NOR was associated with MTLE-HS (p=0.026) and controlled seizures. Further, only MTLE-HS (p=0.002) was predictive of high IR. The Duke Religion Index and QOLIE-31 scores were not related. Different forms of interictal religiosity are related to clinical aspects of epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling sociocognitive aspects of students' learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koponen, I. T.; Kokkonen, T.; Nousiainen, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present a computational model of sociocognitive aspects of learning. The model takes into account a student's individual cognition and sociodynamics of learning. We describe cognitive aspects of learning as foraging for explanations in the epistemic landscape, the structure (set by instructional design) of which guides the cognitive development through success or failure in foraging. We describe sociodynamic aspects as an agent-based model, where agents (learners) compare and adjust their conceptions of their own proficiency (self-proficiency) and that of their peers (peer-proficiency) in using explanatory schemes of different levels. We apply the model here in a case involving a three-tiered system of explanatory schemes, which can serve as a generic description of some well-known cases studied in empirical research on learning. The cognitive dynamics lead to the formation of dynamically robust outcomes of learning, seen as a strong preference for a certain explanatory schemes. The effects of social learning, however, can account for half of one's success in adopting higher-level schemes and greater proficiency. The model also predicts a correlation of dynamically emergent interaction patterns between agents and the learning outcomes.

  18. A suivre. La Conjugaison [le Subjonctif, Auxiliaire, Aspect, Conditionnel] (Conjugations [Subjunctive, Auxiliary Verbs, Aspect, Conditional]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frerot, Jean-Louis

    1980-01-01

    Gives a grammar presentation complemented by a variety of exercises on the use of the subjunctive as opposed to the use of the indicative, on the use of the auxiliaries, on verb aspect, and on the conditional mood. (MES)

  19. Aspect-Oriented Subprogram Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    The Rational Sequence computer program described elsewhere includes a subprogram that utilizes the capability for aspect-oriented programming when that capability is present. This subprogram is denoted the Rational Sequence (AspectJ) component because it uses AspectJ, which is an extension of the Java programming language that introduces aspect-oriented programming techniques into the language

  20. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase: Clinical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2003-01-01

    The specific binding of digitalis glycosides to Na,K-ATPase is used as a tool for Na,K-ATPase quantification with high accuracy and precision. In myocardial biopsies from patients with heart failure, total Na,K-ATPase concentration is decreased by around 40%; a correlation exists between a decrease in heart function and a decrease in Na,K-ATPase concentration. During digitalization, around 30% of remaining pumps are occupied by digoxin. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase is also influenced by other drugs used for the treatment of heart failure. Thus, potassium loss during diuretic therapy has been found to reduce myocardial Na,K-ATPase, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may stimulate Na,K pump activity. Furthermore, hyperaldosteronism induced by heart failure has been found to decrease Na,K-ATPase activity. Accordingly, treatment with the aldosterone antagonist, spironolactone, may also influence Na,K-ATPase activity. The importance of Na,K pump modulation with heart disease, inhibition in digitalization and other effects of medication should be considered in the context of sodium, potassium and calcium regulation. It is recommended that digoxin be administered to heart failure patients who, after institution of mortality-reducing therapy, still have heart failure symptoms, and that the therapy be continued if symptoms are revealed or reduced. Digitalis glycosides are the only safe inotropic drugs for oral use that improve hemodynamics in heart failure. An important aspect of myocardial Na,K pump affection in heart disease is its influence on extracellular potassium (Ke) homeostasis. Two important aspects should be considered: potassium handling among myocytes, and effects of potassium entering the extracellular space of the heart via the bloodstream. It should be noted that both of these aspects of Ke homeostasis are affected by regulatory aspects, eg, regulation of the Na,K pump by physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as by medical

  1. Noise of Embedded High Aspect Ratio Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2011-01-01

    A family of high aspect ratio nozzles were designed to provide a parametric database of canonical embedded propulsion concepts. Nozzle throat geometries with aspect ratios of 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were chosen, all with convergent nozzle areas. The transition from the typical round duct to the rectangular nozzle was designed very carefully to produce a flow at the nozzle exit that was uniform and free from swirl. Once the basic rectangular nozzles were designed, external features common to embedded propulsion systems were added: extended lower lip (a.k.a. bevel, aft deck), differing sidewalls, and chevrons. For the latter detailed Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were made to predict the thrust performance and to optimize parameters such as bevel length, and chevron penetration and azimuthal curvature. Seventeen of these nozzles were fabricated at a scale providing a 2.13 inch diameter equivalent area throat." ! The seventeen nozzles were tested for far-field noise and a few data were presented here on the effect of aspect ratio, bevel length, and chevron count and penetration. The sound field of the 2:1 aspect ratio rectangular jet was very nearly axisymmetric, but the 4:1 and 8:1 were not, the noise on their minor axes being louder than the major axes. Adding bevel length increased the noise of these nozzles, especially on their minor axes, both toward the long and short sides of the beveled nozzle. Chevrons were only added to the 2:1 rectangular jet. Adding 4 chevrons per wide side produced some decrease at aft angles, but increased the high frequency noise at right angles to the jet flow. This trend increased with increasing chevron penetration. Doubling the number of chevrons while maintaining their penetration decreased these effects. Empirical models of the parametric effect of these nozzles were constructed and quantify the trends stated above." Because it is the objective of the Supersonics Project that

  2. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  3. An underdiscussed aspect of chomsky (1959).

    PubMed

    Adelman, Barry Eshkol

    2007-01-01

    Chomsky's (1959) review of Skinner's (1957)Verbal Behavior has been influential and attributed with a role in the cognitive revolution. However, while counter reviews from within behavior analysis have noted that Chomsky misunderstood the subject matter, certain aspects of his scholarship have been underdiscussed. This includes several instances where Chomsky misquotes Skinner or takes his quotes out of context. Similar to the findings of Sokal (1996a, 1996b), it is speculated that the problems with Chomsky were overlooked by cognitive psychologists because his general outlook was accepted. Implications for the editorial review process are discussed.

  4. On a categorial aspect of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataj, Emanuel; Mulawka, Jan; Nieznański, Edward

    Adequate representation of data is crucial for modeling any type of data. To faithfully present and describe the relevant section of the world it is necessary to select the method that can easily be implemented on a computer system which will help in further description allowing reasoning. The main objective of this contribution is to present methods of knowledge representation using categorial approach. Next to identify the main advantages for computer implementation. Categorical aspect of knowledge representation is considered in semantic networks realisation. Such method borrows already known metaphysics properties for data modeling process. The potential topics of further development of categorical semantic networks implementations are also underlined.

  5. [Chronic posttraumatic ostemyelitis. 3. Immunopathological aspects].

    PubMed

    Ring, V J; Seifert, J; Probst, J; Brendel, W

    1976-02-05

    3. Immunological aspects 90 patients suffering from chronic posttraumatic osteomyelitis were examined immunologically. In 10-20% of the patients serum immunoglobulin levels were changed. Only 45% of the patients with staphylococcal infection had a positive anti-staphylolysin titer. In 10% of the patients so-called wound-specific antibodies were demonstrated; their possible autoimmune origin is discussed. A comparison of three groups of patients according to the immunological reactivity "hypoimmune", "humoral hyper-immune" and "cellular hyperimmune" showed that the worst clinical courses were observed in patinets with established delayed type hypersensitivity.

  6. [New aspects in aortic valve disease].

    PubMed

    Tornos, P

    2001-01-01

    Renewed interest for aortic valve disease has evolved in recent years. Aortic valve replacement has become the second most frequent cause of cardiac surgery, following coronary bypass surgery. In addition, the etiologic and physiopathologic knowledge of this disorder has improved. In the present paper we analyze three aspects of the disease which are, at present, the subject of study and controversy: first, we discuss the possible relationship between degenerative aortic stenosis and atherosclerosis; second, the involvement of the aortic root in cases of bicuspid aortic valve; and third, the surgical indications in asymptomatic patients with either aortic stenosis or regurgitation.

  7. Current aspects of occupational chemical carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, D.

    1975-01-01

    The history of measures to control occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances is reviewed. Health hazards associated with exposure to a certain chemical substance must be considered not only from the aspects of its acute or chronic toxicity, but also from its potential to produce tumors (latent effect). There can be no clear distinction between classic toxicity and oncogenesis until the mechanisms of both are completely understood for a given chemical substance. The assessment of carcinogenic potential for a specific substance must include the consideration of published information, monitoring and control data from the affected industry, and the in-depth epidemiologic experience of affected employees.

  8. Aspects of microwave-heating uniformity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, T.; Makowitz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Interest has been shown in the field of nuclear reactor safety in the use of microwave heating to simulate the nuclear heat source. The objective of the investigation reported here was to evaluate the usefulness of microwave dielectric heating as a simulator of the nuclear heat source in experiments which simulate the process of boiling of molten mixtures of nuclear fuel and steel. This paper summarizes the results of studies of several aspects of energy deposition in dielectric liquid samples which are exposed to microwave radiation.

  9. An Underdiscussed Aspect of Chomsky (1959)

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Barry Eshkol

    2007-01-01

    Chomsky's (1959) review of Skinner's (1957) Verbal Behavior has been influential and attributed with a role in the cognitive revolution. However, while counter reviews from within behavior analysis have noted that Chomsky misunderstood the subject matter, certain aspects of his scholarship have been underdiscussed. This includes several instances where Chomsky misquotes Skinner or takes his quotes out of context. Similar to the findings of Sokal (1996a, 1996b), it is speculated that the problems with Chomsky were overlooked by cognitive psychologists because his general outlook was accepted. Implications for the editorial review process are discussed. PMID:22477378

  10. Engineering aspects of seismological studies in Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ocola, L.

    1982-01-01

    In retrospect, the Peruvian national long-range earthquake-study program began after the catastrophic earthquake of May 31, 1970. This earthquake triggered a large snow avalanche from Huascaran mountain, killing over 60,000 people, and covering with mud small cities and tens of villages in the Andean valley of Callejon de Huaylas, Huaraz. Since then, great efforts have been made to learn about the natural seismic environment and its engineering and social aspects. The Organization of American States (OAS)has been one of the most important agencies in the development of the program. 

  11. Simulation of electromagnetic aspects of lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic processes peculiar to the direct-strike case are reviewed with respect to their implications for lightning electromagnetic simulation. At low frequencies (quasistatic) there are important surface-charge-density and corona effects in addition to the surface-current-density effects. At resonant frequencies the frequency-spectral content of the excitation and properties of the arc (attachment, detachment, time history, spatial distribution, resistance, etc.) are significant. Of great complexity in all this are nonlinear aspects of the arc and corona around the system of interest. The complexity of these various processes requires rigor in the simulator design. Potential simulation concepts are presented and their relative merits are discussed.

  12. [Biometric aspects of the menstrual cycle].

    PubMed

    Altieri, P; Monari, P; Montanari, A

    1995-01-01

    "In this paper we examine some biometric aspects of women's fertility cycle and we statistically test a hypothesis concerning the effects of hormone interactions on cycle temporal dynamics. The data base has been provided by the Catholic Marriage Advisory Council Centre...and concerns 31,290 cycles (belonging to 1,781 women), classified according to their length, the length of pre and post ovular phases and woman's age. The distributional model of cycle and phase lengths has been estimated by a kernel procedure and interesting statistical cause-effect relationships have been highlighted showing a sort of hormonal balancing action on the physiological process." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  13. Ergophthalmological aspect of ophthalomologists' professional activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, Valentina; Pigoreva, Natalia

    1996-12-01

    This research is devoted to a problem we do not know enough about--ergophthalmological estimation of ophthalmologist's labor activity. Taking into account the fact that professional activity of ophthalmologists is connected with using different optical devices, the most of which creates high levels of brightness at the retina of investigators, main attention is sparing to this aspect. In a special experiment, 3 young women who are occupied with work in a ophthalmological consulting room, were examined for 9 days. Examination was performed by means of ergophthalmological methods of complex visual system evaluation. Developing visual fatigue, weakness of accommodation and retinal function disorder and also some weakening oculomotor muscles were revealed.

  14. Biotechnological aspects of plum pox virus.

    PubMed

    López-Moya, J J; Fernández-Fernández, M R; Cambra, M; García, J A

    2000-01-21

    Plum pox potyvirus (PPV), the causal agent of a devastating disease that affects stone fruit trees, is becoming a target of intense studies intended both to fight against viral infection and to develop practical applications based on the current knowledge of potyvirus molecular biology. This review focuses on biotechnological aspects related to PPV, such as novel diagnostic techniques that facilitate detection and typing of virus isolates, strategies to implement pathogen-derived resistance through plant transformation, the potential use of genetic elements derived from the virus, and the recent development of PPV-based expression vectors.

  15. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1995-11-14

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

  16. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steve B.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  17. Databases for technical aspects of immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Satoshi; Nagaike, Mika; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2016-01-01

    With the aims of sharing information about the technical aspects of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and making it possible to make a suitable choice of antibody for histopathological examination, this technical report describes the results of a questionnaire administered during the period of 2014 to 2015 to members of the Conference on Experimental Animal Histopathology. It also describes the immunological properties of primary antibodies (clone, supplier, catalog number, species reactivity, etc.) and the IHC staining conditions (fixing solution, fixing time, embedding, antigen retrieval method, antibody dilution, incubation time, incubation temperature, positive control tissue, secondary antibody information, etc.) for a total number of 733 primary antibodies (425 kinds of primary antibody). PMID:28190929

  18. [Aspects of occupational disability in psychosomatic disorders].

    PubMed

    Huber, M

    2000-06-01

    In 1997, 30% of the persons going into early retirement because of occupational disability and received pensions were psychosomatically ill. An additional large number of retirees suffered from untreatable pain such as chronic low back pain, some of them might as well have a chronic somatoform pain disorder. The article describes frequent psychosomatic diseases like somatization disorder, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome with respect to their pathophysiology and psychological aspects as well as therapeutic advancements. It is postulated that an interdisciplinary access to these patients early in the course of their illness involving both somatic medical and psychiatric competence is the most promising means to tackle this enormous medical and health protection problem.

  19. Social psychological aspects of energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, Elliot; Yates, Suzanne

    1985-11-01

    Although some increases in the adoption of energy-efficient practices have been noted, only a small fraction of the potential savings are being realized, perhaps because human behavior is too complex for existing economic models. The rational-economic model is able to predict behavior in many situations, but it has limitations. To design effective public policy, the social, cognitive, and personal forces, that in addition to the economic realities define the situation, must be understood. This chapter examines one aspect of current energy conservation policy, the home energy audit program mandated by the Residential Conservation Service, and attempts to show how existing social psychological research might be beneficially applied.

  20. [Interfamilial violence, medicolegal and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Beauthier, J P

    2010-09-01

    Domestic or interfamilial violence--which is certainly not confined to disadvantaged social or cultural classes--is a process in which one partner carries against his spouse within the framework of private and privileged relationship (marriage, cohabitation, etc.), aggressive, violent and destructive behavior. All sectors of society are affected, whether urban or rural, and regardless of education or ethnic origin or religion. Such violence particularly affects women, but there are also violence perpetrated against men. This violence can take many forms, but we will only consider here the forensic clinical aspects, emphasizing the relevant legislation and medical ethics.

  1. Selenium. Nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, A. M.; Kizer, K. W.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the recent findings of environmental contamination, selenium toxicosis in humans is exceedingly rare in the United States, with the few known cases resulting from industrial accidents and an episode involving the ingestion of superpotent selenium supplements. Chronic selenosis is essentially unheard of in this country because of the typical diversity of the American diet. Nonetheless, because of the growing public interest in selenium as a dietary supplement and the occurrence of environmental selenium contamination, medical practitioners should be familiar with the nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects of this trace element. PMID:2219873

  2. Mind-body. Monistic dual aspect interactionism.

    PubMed

    Wallace, E R

    1988-01-01

    It is difficult to imagine a more perennially vexing topic to philosophers, scientists, and physicians than the mind-body problem. Recent literature bears out its continued vital interest for psychiatrists. This article briefly recapitulates the major perspectives on the problem, examines the relationship of meaning and mind to psychosocial and biological explanatory programs and to materiality, and promotes a monistic dual aspect interactionist approach to mind and body in health and illness. From this thesis conclusions are drawn in regard to the ultimate possibility of a psychiatric unitary field theory, the question of the autonomy of the psychological and biological explanatory programs, and the identity of the psychiatrist.

  3. Acid rain: Engineering solutions, regulatory aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, R.G.; Elliott, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Keeping up with efforts to control acid rain, this reference presents current scientific aspects associated with the problem of political and legislative concerns and ideas for developing effective mitigation programs at reasonable cost. The contributors are the authorities in attendance at the Second International Conference on Acid Rain - and this work represents the first time engineers and managers with firsthand knowledge of systems and equipment to reduce SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions gathered in one place. Throughout the book, some 200 tables, charts, diagrams, and photographs augment the textual material.

  4. Some aspects of virtual black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Faizal, M.

    2012-03-15

    We first consider consistently third-quantize modified gravity. We then analyze certain aspects of virtual black holes in this third-quantized modified gravity. We see how a statistical mechanical origin for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy naturally arises in this model. Furthermore, the area and hence the entropy of a real macroscopic black hole is quantized in this model. Virtual black holes cause a loss of quantum coherence, which gives an intrinsic entropy to all physical systems that can be used to define a direction of time and hence provide a solution to the problem of time.

  5. Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.

  6. Legal and Regulatory Aspects of Sleep Disorders.

    PubMed

    Venkateshiah, Saiprakash B; Hoque, Romy; DelRosso, Lourdes M; Collop, Nancy A

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disorders may interact with the law, making awareness important. Insufficient sleep and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are prevalent and associated with excessive sleepiness. Patients with excessive sleepiness may have civil or criminal liability if they fall asleep and cause a motor vehicle accident. Awareness of screening and treatment of OSA is increasing in certain industries. Parasomnia associated sleep-related violence represents a challenge to clinicians, who may be called on to consider parasomnia as a contributing, mitigating, or exculpatory factor in criminal proceedings. Improving access to sleep medicine care is an important aspect in reducing the consequences of sleep disorders.

  7. Concepts of bullying: developmental and cultural aspects.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter K; Monks, Claire P

    2008-01-01

    This review considers the origins of the term bullying and historical changes in the definition of bullying, leading to contemporary research definitions in terms of agreed criteria. The paper next considers how we can assess the actual working definitions or criteria used by pupils, teachers, parents or others concerned with bullying; in different countries. Developmental changes in the understanding of bullying are reviewed and contrasted with developmental changes in bullying behavior. In the final section, cultural similarities and differences are reviewed. Again, two aspects are considered--the words used for bullying-related phenomena in different countries, their meaning, and the behavioral manifestations of bullying.

  8. Etiology of breast cancer I. Genetic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vakil, Damodar V.; Morgan, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    The subject of breast cancer is reviewed with particular emphasis on the genetic aspect of its etiology. A number of studies using various approaches gave the same results: the familial form occurs earlier and there is a higher risk in female members of the breast-cancer families. An association between breast cancer and cancer of certain other sites among women is reported. Cytogenetic studies of “cancer families” revealed increased frequency of aneuploidy in some members. However, the role of chromosome abnormalities in carcinogenesis is still not clear. PMID:4577599

  9. Neurologic aspects of cobalamin (B12) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Optimal functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system is dependent on a constant supply of appropriate nutrients. Particularly important for optimal functioning of the nervous system is cobalamin (vitamin B12). Cobalamin deficiency is particularly common in the elderly and after gastric surgery. Many patients with clinically expressed cobalamin deficiency have intrinsic factor-related malabsorption such as that seen in pernicious anemia. The commonly recognized neurological manifestations of cobalamin deficiency include a myelopathy with or without an associated neuropathy. This review deals with neurological aspects of vitamin B12 deficiency and attempts to highlight recent developments. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A tokamak equilibrium with arbitrary aspect ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, S.B.; Wootton, A.J.; Solano, E.R.

    1995-07-13

    A general analytical solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is presented. It allows the simulation of plasmas with elongation and triangularity, with an independent choice of pressure and plasma current. A numerical computed fit to families of such solutions allows the direct computation of the poloidal flux function {Psi}(R,Z) from a parametric description of the plasma given by aspect ratio A, elongation {kappa}, triangularity {delta}, size (i.e. major radius), plasma beta poloidal {beta}{sub pol}, and plasma current I{sub p}.

  11. [The ethical aspects of physiological experiment].

    PubMed

    Al'bertin, S V

    2014-01-01

    A modern classification of invasive procedures developed according to International Bioethical Principles has been presented. The experimental data convincingly demonstrate that using of noninvasive approaches and techniques give a good opportunity to reduce a number of animals recruited in experiment as well as to keep the normal (not distressful) physiological functions of animals. The data presented stress that development of noninvasive techniques is closely related both to scientific and social aspects of our life, allowing the scientists to provide high validity of experimental data obtained as well as to keep themselves as a human beings.

  12. [Infantile apnea. The etiopathogenic aspects. I].

    PubMed

    Târdea, A

    1989-01-01

    The paper reports on etiopathogenesis aspects of apnea, on the basis of the literature data. After showing the importance of the problem and the definitions accepted, the author presents the physiological and physiopathological framework of the breathing control. The paper deals with apnea and periodic breathing associated with evident diseases and procedures, and idiopathic apnea. The central, obstructive and mixed types of apnea and their characteristics are described. The final part of the paper dwells on other mechanisms involved in apnea: gastroesophageal flux, endorphines, increased serum level of catecholamines and abnormal awakening hypoxic threshold, tobacco and coffee consumption.

  13. Statistical aspects of food safety sampling.

    PubMed

    Jongenburger, I; den Besten, H M W; Zwietering, M H

    2015-01-01

    In food safety management, sampling is an important tool for verifying control. Sampling by nature is a stochastic process. However, uncertainty regarding results is made even greater by the uneven distribution of microorganisms in a batch of food. This article reviews statistical aspects of sampling and describes the impact of distributions on the sampling results. Five different batch contamination scenarios are illustrated: a homogeneous batch, a heterogeneous batch with high- or low-level contamination, and a batch with localized high- or low-level contamination. These batch contamination scenarios showed that sampling results have to be interpreted carefully, especially when heterogeneous and localized contamination in food products is expected.

  14. Pharmacological aspects of the safety of gliflozins.

    PubMed

    Faillie, Jean-Luc

    2017-04-01

    Sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, also known as gliflozins, are a new class of orally active drugs used in the management of type 2 diabetes. By inhibiting the SGLT responsible for the reabsorption of glucose from the kidney, their use aims primarily to induce glycosuria and, as a consequence, lower glycemic levels. However, their specific mechanism of action involves other pharmacodynamic consequences including potentially harmful adverse reactions. This manuscript reviews the physiological and pharmacological background behind inhibition of SGLTs, and discusses the pharmacological aspects of the safety of gliflozins.

  15. [Forensic chemistry: analytical developments and pharmacological aspects].

    PubMed

    Linnet, Kristian

    2006-03-13

    Analytical development within the field of forensic chemistry has been dominated by the increasing application of mass spectrometry techniques combined with gas or liquid chromatography, all of which improve analytical specificity and sensitivity. The impact of accreditation of standardized method validation is another important aspect. Pharmacokinetic interactions and genetic variation of the cytochrome P450 system are considered in relation to the risk of intoxication with psychoactive drugs. The role of P-glycoprotein in the distribution of drugs over the blood-brain barrier is highlighted. In conclusion, epidemiological trends in drug addiction are touched upon, and newer approaches, such as testing of hair, are considered.

  16. [Pharmacology and clinical aspects of benzodiazepines].

    PubMed

    Mendlewicz, J; Sevy, S

    1985-01-01

    The widespread use of benzodiazepines has led the authors to review the pharmacological and clinical aspects of these substances. On a molecular level, the benzodiazepines have an effect on receptors in relation with the GABA system. Presently, endogenous ligand(s) to these receptors have not yet been fully demonstrated. The main benzodiazepines are also compared for their kinetics which is function of absorption, metabolisation and various factors such as binding to the receptor, age, hepatic and renal disorders. These pharmacological studies have clinical implications. The authors finally make a brief review of the clinical indications of the benzodiazepines.

  17. Otherness within: aspects of insight in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M

    1998-01-01

    In this paper I consider moments of insight in which the subject consciously experiences the emergence of something alien within the self, usually of a drive-related, affective, and at times uncanny nature. These are crucial, yet neglected, experiences of insight within the therapeutic process. Such experiences do not fit easily into our theory, because usual descriptions of insight stress the ego's integrative capacities. I attempt to demonstrate how aspects of our theory that emphasize rational, narrative explanations, or the social construction of clinical facts, as well as those that emphasize the ego's integrative functions, may prevent our fully appreciating these experiences of insight in our patients.

  18. [New aspects in age related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Turlea, C

    2012-01-01

    Being the leading cause of blindness in modern world Age Related Macular Degeneration has beneficiated in the last decade of important progress in diagnosis, classification and the discovery of diverse factors who contribute to the etiology of this disease. Treatments have arised who can postpone the irreversible evolution of the disease and thus preserve vision. Recent findings have identified predisposing genetic factors and also inflamatory and imunological parameters that can be modified trough a good and adequate prevention and therapy This articole reviews new aspects of patology of Age Related Macular Degeneration like the role of complement in maintaining inflamation and the role of oxidative stress on different structures of the retina.

  19. RAE-B antenna aspect system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of a facsimile camera to serve as the antenna aspect system for the second generation Radio Astronomy Explorer Satellite designated RAE-B is summarized. The camera system consists of two cameras and a data encoder. The program deliverables were two flight cameras, a flight encoder and one spare flight encoder. The RAE-B satellite was originally intended for an earth orbit mission and the facsimile subsystem characteristics were specified with this in mind. Subsequently the flight mission was changed to orbit the moon; however the change occurred too late to significantly influence the facsimile system design. Therefore, this report considers only compliance of the system to earth orbit requirements.

  20. Human Brown Fat and Obesity: Methodological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about brown adipose tissue (BAT) in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special attention in order to unravel the heat producing capacity of human BAT, the recruitment of the tissue, and its functionality. PMID:22654813

  1. [Microbiological and clinical aspects of tularaemia].

    PubMed

    Pavliš, Oto; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2011-10-01

    Francisella tularensis belongs to the most important biological agents potentially applicable in biological warfare and bioterrorism. High virulence, easy and rapid spread among individual vectors, stability of the cells in aerosol and good penetration into the lungs make F. tularensis one of the most important biological warfare agents in both human and veterinary medicine. The text provides comprehensive data about tularaemia and outlines the fate of the pathogen in the host. Special attention is paid to immunological aspects of the disease, therapy, and diagnostic methods.

  2. [Chronobiological aspect of children autism diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Bashina, V M

    2010-01-01

    The author reviews the history and classification of autistic disorders and describes in details (by months and year periods) clinical symptoms of early children autism from the birth to 6-8 years of age in 41 children. Follow up data on the patient's state at the age 8-14 years, with account for the effects of treatment and correction, are presented as well. The results are discussed in the aspect of critical periods and phases of early ontogenesis, their deviations and pathology.

  3. Accelerator aspects of photon colliders at TESLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nicholas J.

    2001-10-01

    The TESLA linear collider is being primarily designed as a 500- 800 GeV centre of mass e +e - linear collider. However, a second interaction region is being incorporated into the design with a crossing angle of 32 mrad, which is suitable for use as a γγ collider. In this paper we will review those aspects of the current machine design which are critical to the operation of TESLA as a photon collider, paying particular attention to the preservation of small horizontal emittances, and—in the absence of beamstrahlung—limits on reduced horizontal beam cross-section at the interaction point.

  4. The medicolegal and forensic aspects of fires.

    PubMed

    Eckert, W G

    1981-12-01

    Fires, their consequences and their investigations, continue to provide forensic scientists, especially those involved in medicolegal investigation (the medical examiner or forensic pathologist), with constant work and variations in problems. The recent history of mass disasters involving high-rise buildings, transport accidents, and arson-related accidents in nightclubs and prisons has emphasized the necessity for corrective and preventive means to ensure safety to the occupants of any of these areas. Problems presented by fires include the determination of the cause of the fire, the identification of the victims, and the cause and manner of their deaths. The motivation of the fire setter and the settlement by the insurance company or legal means are also aspects to be considered. The imperceptible effects of the fires include many other aspects, among which loss of loved ones and family providers and loss of industrial revenue and job potential are all felt. The most frightening development of all, however, is the insidious surfacing of arson as a possible factor in many major fires. The most recent tragedies involving the Stouffer Inn fire and the Hilton International Hotel fire were both related to arsonous acts. The scope of this article is to review the subject as it affects the forensic medical practitioner directly or indirectly so that his or her investigation may be brought to completion in conjunction with other authorities involved in the case.

  5. Omniclassical Diffusion in Low Aspect Ratio Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    H.E. Mynick; R.B. White; D.A. Gates

    2004-03-19

    Recently reported numerical results for axisymmetric devices with low aspect ratio A found radial transport enhanced over the expected neoclassical value by a factor of 2 to 3. In this paper, we provide an explanation for this enhancement. Transport theory in toroidal devices usually assumes large A, and that the ratio B{sub p}/B{sub t} of the poloidal to the toroidal magnetic field is small. These assumptions result in transport which, in the low collision limit, is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device one may have B{sub p}/B{sub t} {approx} 1, and the gyroradius may be larger than the banana excursion. Here, we develop an approximate analytic transport theory valid for devices with arbitrary A. For low A, we find that the enhanced transport, referred to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly generalized classical effects, which become dominant in the low-A, B{sub p}/B{sub t} {approx} 1 regime. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained.

  6. Multicultural Aspects in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs).

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiucai; Francisconi, Carlos F; Fukudo, Shin; Gerson, Mary-Joan; Kang, Jin-Yong; Schmulson W, Max J; Sperber, Ami D

    2016-02-15

    Cross-cultural factors are important in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). In the setting of FGIDs, the aims of this review were to: 1) engender interest in global aspects; 2) gain a clearer understanding of culture, race and ethnicity and their effect on patient care and research; 3) facilitate cross-cultural clinical and research competency; and 4) improve and foster the quality and conduct of cross-cultural, multinational research. Cultural variables are inevitably present in the physician-patient context. Food and diets, which differ among cultural groups, are perceived globally as related to or blamed for symptoms. From an individual perspective, biological aspects, such as genetics, the microbiome, environmental hygiene, cytokines and the nervous system, which are affected by cultural differences, are all relevant. Of equal importance are issues related to gender, symptom reporting and interpretation, and family systems. From the physician's viewpoint, understanding the patient's explanatory model of illness, especially in a cultural context, affects patient care and patient education in a multicultural environment. Differences in the definition and use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and other issues related to healthcare services for the FGIDs are also a relevant cross-cultural issue. This paper highlights the importance of cross-cultural competence in clinical medicine and research. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees head-down tilt, which results in a cephalad fluid shift and avoids weightbearing by the hindquarters. Although several reviews have described scientific results obtained with this model, this is the first review to focus on the technical aspects of hindlimb unloading. This review includes a history of the technique, a brief comparison with spaceflight data, technical details, extension of the model to mice, and other important technical considerations (e.g., housing, room temperature, unloading angle, the potential need for multiple control groups, age, body weight, the use of the forelimb tissues as internal controls, and when to remove animals from experiments). This paper is intended as a reference for researchers, reviewers of manuscripts, and institutional animal care and use committees. Over 800 references, related to the hindlimb unloading model, can be accessed via the electronic version of this article.

  8. Modeling generic aspects of ideal fibril formation

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, D.

    2016-01-21

    Many different proteins self-aggregate into insoluble fibrils growing apically by reversible addition of elementary building blocks. But beyond this common principle, the modalities of fibril formation are very disparate, with various intermediate forms which can be reshuffled by minor modifications of physico-chemical conditions or amino-acid sequences. To bypass this complexity, the multifaceted phenomenon of fibril formation is reduced here to its most elementary principles defined for a linear prototype of fibril. Selected generic features, including nucleation, elongation, and conformational recruitment, are modeled using minimalist hypotheses and tools, by separating equilibrium from kinetic aspects and in vitro from in vivo conditions. These reductionist approaches allow to bring out known and new rudiments, including the kinetic and equilibrium effects of nucleation, the dual influence of elongation on nucleation, the kinetic limitations on nucleation and fibril numbers, and the accumulation of complexes in vivo by rescue from degradation. Overlooked aspects of these processes are also pointed: the exponential distribution of fibril lengths can be recovered using various models because it is attributable to randomness only. It is also suggested that the same term “critical concentration” is used for different things, involved in either nucleation or elongation.

  9. Modeling generic aspects of ideal fibril formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Many different proteins self-aggregate into insoluble fibrils growing apically by reversible addition of elementary building blocks. But beyond this common principle, the modalities of fibril formation are very disparate, with various intermediate forms which can be reshuffled by minor modifications of physico-chemical conditions or amino-acid sequences. To bypass this complexity, the multifaceted phenomenon of fibril formation is reduced here to its most elementary principles defined for a linear prototype of fibril. Selected generic features, including nucleation, elongation, and conformational recruitment, are modeled using minimalist hypotheses and tools, by separating equilibrium from kinetic aspects and in vitro from in vivo conditions. These reductionist approaches allow to bring out known and new rudiments, including the kinetic and equilibrium effects of nucleation, the dual influence of elongation on nucleation, the kinetic limitations on nucleation and fibril numbers, and the accumulation of complexes in vivo by rescue from degradation. Overlooked aspects of these processes are also pointed: the exponential distribution of fibril lengths can be recovered using various models because it is attributable to randomness only. It is also suggested that the same term "critical concentration" is used for different things, involved in either nucleation or elongation.

  10. Phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination construct.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Leonardo Fernandez; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet; da Costa, Fábio Antônio; Soares, Ana Luiza Alfaya Galego; Mecler, Kátia; Valença, Alexandre Martins

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of phenomenological aspects of the cognitive rumination (CR) construct in current empirical psychiatric research. We searched SciELO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, OneFile (GALE), SpringerLink, Cambridge Journals and Web of Science between February and March of 2014 for studies whose title and topic included the following keywords: cognitive rumination; rumination response scale; and self-reflection. The inclusion criteria were: empirical clinical study; CR as the main object of investigation; and study that included a conceptual definition of CR. The studies selected were published in English in biomedical journals in the last 10 years. Our phenomenological analysis was based on Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology. Most current empirical studies adopt phenomenological cognitive elements in conceptual definitions. However, these elements do not seem to be carefully examined and are indistinctly understood as objective empirical factors that may be measured, which may contribute to misunderstandings about CR, erroneous interpretations of results and problematic theoretical models. Empirical studies fail when evaluating phenomenological aspects of the cognitive elements of the CR construct. Psychopathology and phenomenology may help define the characteristics of CR elements and may contribute to their understanding and hierarchical organization as a construct. A review of the psychopathology principles established by Jasper may clarify some of these issues.

  11. Chemical aspects of nuclear waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical aspects of the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes are discussed in overview. The role of chemistry and the chemical reactions in waste treatment are emphasized. Waste treatment methods encompass the chemistry of radioactive elements from every group of the periodic table. In most streams, the radioactive elements are present in relatively low concentrations and are often associated with moderately large amounts of process reagents, or materials. In general, it is desirable that waste treatment methods are based on chemistry that is selective for the concentration of radionuclides and does not require the addition of reagents that contribute significantly to the volume of the treated waste. Solvent extraction, ion exchange, and sorbent chemistry play a major role in waste treatment because of the high selectivity provided for many radionuclides. This paper deals with the chemistry of the onsite treatment methods that is typically used at nuclear installations and is not concerned with the chemistry of the various alternative materials proposed for long-term storage of nuclear wastes. The chemical aspects are discussed from a generic point of view in which the chemistry of important radionuclides is emphasized.

  12. Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees head-down tilt, which results in a cephalad fluid shift and avoids weightbearing by the hindquarters. Although several reviews have described scientific results obtained with this model, this is the first review to focus on the technical aspects of hindlimb unloading. This review includes a history of the technique, a brief comparison with spaceflight data, technical details, extension of the model to mice, and other important technical considerations (e.g., housing, room temperature, unloading angle, the potential need for multiple control groups, age, body weight, the use of the forelimb tissues as internal controls, and when to remove animals from experiments). This paper is intended as a reference for researchers, reviewers of manuscripts, and institutional animal care and use committees. Over 800 references, related to the hindlimb unloading model, can be accessed via the electronic version of this article.

  13. Immunological aspects of chronic venous disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grudzińska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a very common health problem concerning up to 1/3 of the society. Although venous hypertension and valvular incompetence have been long known to be crucial for development of the illness, its exact aetiology remains unclear. Recent findings indicate that inflammatory processes may be crucial for development of incompetent valves and vein wall remodelling. One of the most interesting theories describes “leucocyte trapping” as the mechanism responsible for elevated vein wall permeability and oxidative stress in the veins. At the same time, the cytokine profile of the blood in incompetent veins has not been thoroughly examined. Popular anti-inflammatory drugs relieve some symptoms but do not have much proved effects in prevention and treatment. We intend to summarize the existing knowledge of the immunological aspects of CVD in order to emphasize its importance for understanding the aetiology of this illness. We also wish to indicate some aspects that remain to be studied in more detail. PMID:26155174

  14. Functional aspects of emotions in fish.

    PubMed

    Kittilsen, Silje

    2013-11-01

    There is an ongoing scientific discussion on whether fish have emotions, and if so how they experience them? The discussion has incorporated important areas such as brain anatomy and function, physiological and behavioural responses, and the cognitive abilities that fish possess. Little attention has however, been directed towards what functional aspects emotions ought to have in fish. If fish have emotions - why? The elucidation of this question and an assessment of the scientific evidences of emotions in fish in an evolutionary and functional framework would represent a valuable contribution in the discussion on whether fish are emotional creatures. Here parts of the vast amount of literature from both biology and psychology relating to the scientific field of emotions, animal emotion, and the functional aspects that emotions fulfil in the lives of humans and animals are reviewed. Subsequently, by viewing fish behaviour, physiology and cognitive abilities in the light of this functional framework it is possible to infer what functions emotions may serve in fish. This approach may contribute to the vital running discussion on the subject of emotions in fish. In fact, if it can be substantiated that emotions are likely to serve a function in fish similar to that of other higher vertebrate species, the notion that fish do have emotions will be strengthened.

  15. Aspects on Transfer of Aided - Design Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.; Anghelache, D. G.

    2016-08-01

    At this stage of development of hardware and software, each company that makes design software packages has a certain type of file created and customized in time to distinguish that company from its competitors. Thus today are widely known the DWG files belonging AutoCAD, IPT / IAM belonging to Inventor, PAR / ASM of Solid Edge's, PRT from the NX and so on. Behind every type of file there is a mathematical model which is common to more types of files. A specific aspect of the computer -aided design is that all softwares are working with both individual parts and assemblies, but their approach is different in that some use the same type of file both for each part and for the whole (PRT ), while others use different types of files (IPT / IAM, PAR / ASM, etc.). Another aspect of the computer -aided design is to transfer files between different companies which use different software packages or even the same software package but in different versions. Each of these situations generates distinct issues. Thus, to solve the partial reading by a project different from the native one, transfer files of STEP and IGES type are used

  16. Treating Haitian patients: key cultural aspects.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Astrid; St Fleurose, Sheila

    2002-01-01

    The Haitian community in the United States is growing steadily. They make up a significant portion of many cities. As a group, Haitian immigrants are a challenge to mental health professionals. Their view and concepts of the world are unique. Non-Haitian clinicians need to be knowledgeable of the culture in order to provide competent care. The goal of this article is to help clinicians understand aspects of Haitian culture that will facilitate mental health treatment. A historical perspective is offered since the history of Haiti has shaped society, families and therefore individuals. The role of the supernatural is addressed to provide a better understanding of the Haitian psyche. The political and economic climate in Haiti has led to a significant increase in the number of Haitians migrating to the United States. Haitians are faced with the challenge of adapting to a new culture; they experience stress and become vulnerable to mental illness. As a result, there is increasing demand for mental health services. This article highlights aspects of Haitian culture relevant to mental health clinicians. It provides an overview of Haitians' attitudes toward mental health and the utilization of psychotherapy. Concepts relevant to Voodoo beliefs and practices are discussed since these beliefs can shape attitudes, and compliance with treatment. Recommendations for engaging and maintaining Haitian clients in psychotherapy are made. Case vignettes are provided for illustration.

  17. Spatial aspects in the SMAD signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Claus, J; Friedmann, E; Klingmüller, U; Rannacher, R; Szekeres, T

    2013-11-01

    Among other approaches, differential equations are used for a deterministic quantitative description of time-dependent biological processes. For intracellular systems, such as signaling pathways, most existing models are based on ordinary differential equations. These models describe temporal processes, while they neglect spatial aspects. We present a model for the SMAD signaling pathway, which gives a temporal and spatial description on the basis of reaction diffusion equations to answer the question whether cell geometry plays a role in signaling. In this article we simulate the ordinary differential equations as well as partial differential equations of parabolic type with suile numerical methods, the latter on different cell geometries. In addition to manual construction of idealized cells, we also construct meshes from microscopy images of real cells. The main focus of the paper is to compare the results of the model without and with spatial aspects to answer the addressed question. The results show that diffusion in the model can lead to significant intracellular gradients of signaling molecules and changes the level of response to the signal transduced by the signaling pathway. In particular, the extent of these observations depends on the geometry of the cell.

  18. Toxicological aspects of cyclamate and cyclohexylamine.

    PubMed

    Bopp, B A; Sonders, R C; Kesterson, J W

    1986-01-01

    In the late 1960s the artificial sweetener cyclamate was implicated as a bladder carcinogen in rats. This finding and other concerns about its safety ultimately led to a ban on cyclamate in the U.S. and restrictions on its use in many other countries. Since that time, the carcinogenic potential of cyclamate and cyclohexylamine, its principal metabolite, has been reevaluated in a group of well-controlled, well-designed bioassays that have failed to substantiate the earlier findings. This review of the published and unpublished literature on cyclamate attempts to evaluate the carcinogenicity question and other important aspects of the toxicity of cyclamate and cyclohexylamine, including their effects on various organ systems, their genotoxic potential, and their effects on reproduction. In addition, the physiological disposition of cyclamate is reviewed, with particular attention directed toward the site and extent of its conversion to cyclohexylamine.

  19. Fundamental aspects of postharvest heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Susan; Pedreschi, Romina

    2014-01-01

    Heat treatments have been investigated for use in many aspects of postharvest storage. They have been developed for insect control, prevention of fungal development and prevention of postharvest storage disorders including chilling injury. The treatment times and temperature range vary widely, from days at 35 °C to 39 °C in hot air, to up to 63 °C for less than a minute in hot water. Much of the research has been performed to develop solutions to a particular problem, and less investigation has been conducted on the responses of the commodity to the treatment. However, since the turn of the century, a number of groups have been active in examining the molecular responses and changes that occur in commodities during and after the heat treatment. This review examines the changes at the level of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome that occur in response to the different heat treatments.

  20. Fundamental aspects of postharvest heat treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Susan; Pedreschi, Romina

    2014-01-01

    Heat treatments have been investigated for use in many aspects of postharvest storage. They have been developed for insect control, prevention of fungal development and prevention of postharvest storage disorders including chilling injury. The treatment times and temperature range vary widely, from days at 35 °C to 39 °C in hot air, to up to 63 °C for less than a minute in hot water. Much of the research has been performed to develop solutions to a particular problem, and less investigation has been conducted on the responses of the commodity to the treatment. However, since the turn of the century, a number of groups have been active in examining the molecular responses and changes that occur in commodities during and after the heat treatment. This review examines the changes at the level of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome that occur in response to the different heat treatments. PMID:26504541

  1. Ethical aspects of tissue engineering: a review.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob B M; Oerlemans, Anke; Trommelmans, Leen; Dierickx, Kris; Gordijn, Bert

    2008-12-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) is a promising new field of medical technology. However, like other new technologies, it is not free of ethical challenges. Identifying these ethical questions at an early stage is not only part of science's responsibility toward society, but also in the interest of the field itself. In this review, we map which ethical issues related to TE have already been documented in the scientific literature. The issues that turn out to dominate the debate are the use of human embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning. Nevertheless, a variety of other ethical aspects are mentioned, which relate to different phases in the development of the field. In addition, we discuss a number of ethical issues that have not yet been raised in the literature.

  2. [Surgical site infection: clinical and microbiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Sikora, Agnieszka; Kozioł-Montewska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common and serious postoperative complication of modern surgery. It contributes to an increase of morbidity, mortality, prolonged hospitalization and costs of treatment. The optimal strategy in order to reduce wound infections in surgery is SSI knowledge of risk factors associated with a patient, surgery and postoperative care as well as the caution of fundamental recommendations concerning prevention, which include: preparation of patient for surgery, preparation of antiseptic principles for hand skin of the operation team, the proceedings in the case of allegation of infection or colonization within the operation team members, preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, procedures and aspects of aseptic surgical technique, postoperative care and the rules for monitoring infections in the surgical ward.

  3. Aspects of wave turbulence in preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo, José A.; De Oliveira, H.P. E-mail: oliveira@dft.if.uerj.br

    2014-06-01

    In this work we have studied the nonlinear preheating dynamics of several inflationary models. It is well established that after a linear stage of preheating characterized by the parametric resonance, the nonlinear dynamics becomes relevant driving the system towards turbulence. Wave turbulence is the appropriated description of this phase since the matter contents are fields instead of usual fluids. Turbulence develops due to the nonlinear interations of waves, here represented by the small inhomogeneities of the scalar fields. We present relevant aspects of wave turbulence such as the Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum in frequency and wave number that indicates the energy transfer through scales. From the power spectrum of the matter energy density we were able to estimate the temperature of the thermalized system.

  4. Practical aspects of internal quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Uldall, A

    1991-01-01

    The final analytical quality of a result is influenced by external and internal factors. The quality of external elements is influenced by the individual laboratory through its choice of method and supply; such elements are, e.g. reference materials, calibrators, control materials, reagents, reagent kits, instruments and disposables. The internal elements can be described through rules for good laboratory practice (GLP), and include all aspects of internal quality assurance. In this paper, GLP is used to describe the proper milieau in which the optimally selected method is working. The control system for acceptance or rejection of any particular batch of analysis, as well as the long-term control, are also described separately.

  5. [Neuropsychological aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder].

    PubMed

    Andrés-Perpiñá, S; Lázaro-García, L; Canalda-Salhi, G; Boget-Llucià, T

    Neuropsychological performance in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and its association with disfunctions in neuroanatomic structures and clinical symptoms of disorder has been reviewed. OCD symptoms and different aspects between children and adult psychopatology are presented. Briefly neurobiologic studies related with the etiology and patophisiology of OCD has been revised. This article summarizes some last studies about OCD cognitive functioning and its impairment. The more impaired cognitive functions in OCD are executive functions and visual abilities, specially non verbal memory. In addition, other studies have identified verbal memory deficits. These deficits are consistent with neurodevelopmental models, which hypothesizes that abnormalities of ventral prefrontal striatal and thalamic circuits may be involved in the etiology and patophisiology of OCD. The cognitive deficits could be functioning as a intermediate variable between neurobiological abnormalities and OCD symptoms. More studies are needed to analize the OCD cognitive impairment.

  6. Quality assurance in radiation therapy: physical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, H.

    1984-06-01

    The present status of the quality assurance work regarding the physical aspects in radiation treatment is discussed. In particular, the situation in Europe is surveyed. An analysis of the errors in the delivered absorbed dose to a specified point in the irradiated patient shows that the uncertainty, to approximately the same degree, depends on the dose distribution determination, the dose planning and the patient irradiation. Following the procedure generally in use, the overall uncertainty will be about 8%. The random uncertainties are estimated as one standard deviation and non-random uncertainties to corresponding degree of uncertainty. It is argued that this level must be improved. Furthermore, dose intercomparisons show that in reality much larger errors occur in clinical practice. Different means to improve the situation are discussed.

  7. [Legal aspects of networking of medical activities].

    PubMed

    Preissler, Reinhold

    2005-04-01

    Medical networks lack a legal definition. From the viewpoint of social law, this term means a form of organization of joint-service providers in a non-specified composition for the undertaking of medical care activities; from the point of view of occupational law, this consists of a loose form of joint practice. Such medical network can conclude treatment contracts with the patients and exchange patients' medical records. A practice network can take over services as contract partner of hospitals or other institutions, in the interest of improved competition chances within the integrated care system. The joining of a third partner is basically left open by the MBO, however according to SGB V this is possible only after approval by all contract partners. In advance of a planned medical care center, is it recommended to found a physician network as starting model. Before single practices fuse into a single enterprise, management-, tax-, legal-, as well as psychological aspects must be considered.

  8. Cross-Cultural Aspects of Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Hinton, Devon E.

    2014-01-01

    A person’s cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture’s conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person’s ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss “khyâl cap” (“wind attacks”), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress, PMID:24744049

  9. Conceptual Aspects of Gauge/Gravity Duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Haro, Sebastian; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Butterfield, Jeremy N.

    2016-11-01

    We give an introductory review of gauge/gravity duality, and associated ideas of holography, emphasising the conceptual aspects. The opening sections gather the ingredients, viz. anti-de Sitter spacetime, conformal field theory and string theory, that we need for presenting, in Sect. 5, the central and original example: Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence. Sections 6 and 7 develop the ideas of this example, also in applications to condensed matter systems, QCD, and hydrodynamics. Sections 8 and 9 discuss the possible extensions of holographic ideas to de Sitter spacetime and to black holes. Section 10 discusses the bearing of gauge/gravity duality on two philosophical topics: the equivalence of physical theories, and the idea that spacetime, or some features of it, are emergent.

  10. NEUROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN GLYCOSYLATION DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Freeze, Hudson H.; Eklund, Erik A.; Ng, Bobby G.; Patterson, Marc C.

    2016-01-01

    This review will present principles of glycosylation, describe the relevant glycosylation pathways and their related disorders, and highlight some of the neurological aspects and issues that continue to challenge researchers. Over 100 rare human genetic disorders that result from deficiencies in the different glycosylation pathways are known today. Most of these disorders impact the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Patients typically have developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizures, neuropathy, and metabolic abnormalities in multiple organ systems. Between these disorders there is great clinical diversity because all cell types differentially glycosylate proteins and lipids. The patients have hundreds of mis-glycosylated products afflicting a myriad of processes including cell signaling, cell-cell interaction and cell migration. This vast complexity in glycan composition and function, along with limited analytic tools has impeded the identification of key glycosylated molecules that cause pathologies, and to date few critical target proteins have been pinpointed. PMID:25840006

  11. Underlining some aspects of the equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, E.; Feoli, A.

    2017-09-01

    We want to shed light on some discussed aspects of the principle of equivalence. We consider two different phases in the evolution of the principle. We pay attention to the fact that some textbooks do not dwell on the mathematical meaning of ‘locally flat spacetime’, which can confuse students and, occasionally, can also lead to misinterpretations. For example, the non-eliminability of tidal forces, not even locally, may suggest that the equivalence principle is wrong. By contrast, we want to show that this is in perfect agreement with the Einstein geometrical interpretation of spacetime. Finally, in order to check the approximations used in the Gedankenexperiment of an elevator, we estimate explicitly the magnitude of the deflection of light and the effects of tidal forces in a ‘real lift’.

  12. Molecular aspects of bile formation and cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Arrese, Marco; Trauner, Michael

    2003-12-01

    Recent insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control the function and regulation of hepatobiliary transport have led to a greater understanding of the physiological significance of bile secretion. Individual carriers for bile acids and other organic anions in both liver and intestine have now been cloned from several species. In addition, complex networks of signals that regulate key enzymes and membrane transporters located in cells that participate in the metabolism or transport of biliary constituents are being unraveled. This knowledge has major implications for the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver diseases. Here, we review recent information on molecular aspects of hepatobiliary secretory function and its regulation in cholestasis. Potential implications of this knowledge for the design of new therapies of cholestatic disorders are also discussed.

  13. Psychological aspects of pilot spatial orientation.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, P A

    1991-03-01

    Researchers examined the psychological aspects of pilot spatial orientation to aircraft attitude. Study participants completed questionnaires and made drawings of view-from-the-ground and aircraft front window and of attitude indicators, then made flights in a simulator or aircraft with unknown pitch attitude. Analysis of data indicates that pilots favored a view-from-the-ground indicator. The main drawback to the view-from-the-aircraft indicator was mobility of image. The study also examined spatial-orientation techniques pilots use in different flight phases and identified seven factors in effective spatial-orientation techniques. Other components of the study included a comparison of the manipulative capability of pilots and nonprofessional participants and pilot recall of a set of images from long-term and operational memory.

  14. Sensors, Volume 1, Fundamentals and General Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandke, Thomas; Ko, Wen H.

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume deals with the fundamentals and common principles of sensors and covers the wide areas of principles, technologies, signal processing, and applications. Contents include: Sensor Fundamentals, e.g. Sensor Parameters, Modeling, Design and Packaging; Basic Sensor Technologies, e.g. Thin and Thick Films, Integrated Magnetic Sensors, Optical Fibres and Intergrated Optics, Ceramics and Oxides; Sensor Interfaces, e.g. Signal Processing, Multisensor Signal Processing, Smart Sensors, Interface Systems; Sensor Applications, e.g. Automotive: On-board Sensors, Traffic Surveillance and Control, Home Appliances, Environmental Monitoring, etc. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialits and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  15. [Molecular Pathological Aspects in Visceral Surgery].

    PubMed

    Unger, T; Sändig, I; Wittekind, C

    2016-04-01

    New insights gained in the field of molecular medicine have led to fundamental progress in the diagnosis and treatment of tumour patients. Individualised treatment has been essentially facilitated by molecular diagnostics, which, by identifying and interpreting characteristic genetic alterations (biomarkers) in single cells and tissues, provide specific information to confirm the diagnosis and support the treatment of numerous diseases. Particularly with regard to the use of new targeted drugs, which often require the presence or absence of specific target structures or genetic alterations to induce response, the molecular pathological determination of predictive biomarkers plays an increasing role and helps clinicians to decide on optimal therapies for individual patients. The aim of this review is to highlight general aspects of molecular tumour pathology for relevant tumour entities and to present available targeted therapies.

  16. [Physiological aspects of music and longevity].

    PubMed

    Dymnikowa, M

    2015-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the results of studies on the effect of music on the function of various physiological systems of the organism including the nervous, cardiovascular and endocrine systems, also on the effect of Mozart's music and the later mature Baroque music. Particular attention is paid to information on the influence of different kinds of music (classical, jazz and rock), of the nature and of the degree of musical activity (listeners, amateurs and professional performers) on cognitive and behavioral function, on health status, life expectancy and longevity. Structural acoustical attributes of music defining its treatment effect, are described with the comparison of aspects of rock music and of classical music. The article also considers the prospects for using of music in the treatment and prevention of age-associated diseases.

  17. [Forensic aspects of gunshot suicides in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Meyer, Harald J; Kraus, Sybille

    2013-12-01

    Suicidal gunshot wounds are a common appearance in forensic casework. The main task of the coroner lies in the detection of typical pathomorphological correlates, thus differentiating between homicide, suicide and accident. Apart from characteristic bloodstain patterns on the gun and shooting hand, the localisation of the entrance wound and the position of the weapon, additional details such as family background or medical history are important aspects of forensic investigation. An uncommon choice of weaponry and its unusual morphological manifestation often complicate the examination and reconstruction of such cases. Furthermore, due to social stigmatisation, the possibility of secondary changes by relatives at the crime scene should be considered. In addition to autopsy findings, a careful crime scene investigation and bloodstain pattern analysis, a ballistic reconstruction can be an essential tool to gain knowledge of the shooting distance and position of the gun.

  18. Software Aspects of PuMa-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppusamy, R.; Stappers, B.; Stappers, B.

    2006-08-01

    The Pulsar Machine II (PuMa-II) is a state of the art pulsar machine-installed at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), in December 2005. PuMa-II is a flexible instrument and is designed around an ensemble of 44 high-performance computers running the Linux operating system. Much of the flexibility of PuMa-II comes from the software that is being developed for this instrument. The radio signals reaching the telescope undergo several stages of electronic and software processing before a scientifically useful data product is generated. The electronic processing of signals includes the usual RF to IF conversion, analogue to digital conversion and telescope dependent electronic digital delay compensation that happen in the signal chain of WSRT. Within PuMa-II, this data is acquired, stored and suitably processed. In this poster we present various aspects of PuMa-II software and illustrate its pulsar signal processing capabilities.

  19. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    PubMed

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process.

  20. Modern aspects of mushroom culture technology.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C

    2004-06-01

    The production and culture of new species of mushrooms is increasing. The breeding of new strains has significantly improved, allowing the use of strains with high yield and resistance to diseases, increasing productivity and diminishing the use of chemicals for pest control. The improvement and development of modern technologies, such as computerized control, automated mushroom harvesting, preparation of compost, production of mushrooms in a non-composted substrate, and new methods of substrate sterilization and spawn preparation, will increase the productivity of mushroom culture. All these aspects are crucial for the production of mushrooms with better flavor, appearance, texture, nutritional qualities, and medicinal properties at low cost. Mushroom culture is a biotechnological process that recycles ligninocellulosic wastes, since mushrooms are food for human consumption and the spent substrate can be used in different ways.

  1. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF LAPAROSCOPIC SLEEVE GASTRECTOMY

    PubMed Central

    RAMOS, Almino Cardoso; BASTOS, Eduardo Lemos de Souza; RAMOS, Manoela Galvão; BERTIN, Nestor Tadashi Suguitani; GALVÃO, Thales Delmondes; de LUCENA, Raphael Torres Figueiredo; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins

    2015-01-01

    Background : The vertical gastrectomy indications for surgical treatment of morbid obesity have increased worldwide. Despite this increase, many aspects of surgical technique still remains in controversy. Aim : To contribute presenting surgical details in order to better realize the vertical gastrectomy technique in bariatric surgery. Methods : Technical systematization, patient preparation, positioning of the trocars, operative technique and postoperative care are presented in details. Results : During 12 months were enrolled 120 patients undergoing GV according to the technique described herein. The results are published in another ABCD article (ABCD 2015;28(Supl.1):61-64) in this same volume and number. Conclusion : The surgical technique proposed here presented itself viable and facilitating the surgeon's work on difficult points of the vertical gastrectomy. PMID:26537278

  2. Economic Aspects of the Chemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleske, Joseph V.

    Within the formal disciplines of science at traditional universities, through the years, chemistry has grown to have a unique status because of its close correspondence with an industry and with a branch of engineering—the chemical industry and chemical engineering. There is no biology industry, but aspects of biology have closely related disciplines such as fish raising and other aquaculture, animal cloning and other facets of agriculture, ethical drugs of pharmaceutical manufacture, genomics, water quality and conservation, and the like. Although there is no physics industry, there are power generation, electricity, computers, optics, magnetic media, and electronics that exist as industries. However, in the case of chemistry, there is a named industry. This unusual correspondence no doubt came about because in the chemical industry one makes things from raw materials—chemicals—and the science, manufacture, and use of chemicals grew up together during the past century or so.

  3. [Primary ciliary dyskinesia: clinical and genetic aspects].

    PubMed

    D'Auria, E; Palazzo, S; Argirò, S; El, Oksha S; Riva, E

    2012-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease, characterized by ciliary disfunction and impaired mucociliary clearance, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis, chronic otitis media, situs viscerum inversus in almost 40-50% of cases and male infertility. The triad situs viscerum inversus, bronchiectasis and sinusitis is known as Kartagener syndrome. Up to now little is known about genetic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of primary motile ciliary diseases in children: for this reason, diagnosis is generally delayed and almost all treatments for PCD are not based on randomized studies but extrapolated from cystic fibrosis guidelines. The aim of this review is to propose to pediatricians a summary of current clinical and diagnostic evidence to obtain better knoledwge of this condition. The earlier diagnosis and the right treatment are both crucial to improve the prognosis of PCD.

  4. Energy optimization aspects by injection process technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulbure, A.; Ciortea, M.; Hutanu, C.; Farcas, V.

    2016-08-01

    In the proposed paper, the authors examine the energy aspects related to the injection moulding process technology in the automotive industry. Theoretical considerations have been validated by experimental measurements on the manufacturing process, for two types of injections moulding machines, hydraulic and electric. Practical measurements have been taken with professional equipment separately on each technological operation: lamination, compression, injection and expansion. For results traceability, the following parameters were, whenever possible, maintained: cycle time, product weight and the relative time. The aim of the investigations was to carry out a professional energy audit with accurate losses identification. Base on technological diagram for each production cycle, at the end of this contribution, some measure to reduce the energy consumption were proposed.

  5. Coil configurations for low aspect ratio stellerators

    SciTech Connect

    Rome, J.; Morris, R.; Hirshman, S.; Fowler, R.; Merkel, P.

    1989-01-01

    Using the NESCOIL code, it is possible to find a surface current distribution which can create a given last closed flux surface. Thus, almost any stellarator configuration can be created with either helical or modular currents. In particular, we have succeeded in finding current distributions which generate the optimized ATF-II configuration described in Hirshman's paper. As the aspect ratio of the configuration is decreased, or the plasma-to-coil distance is increased, the harmonic content of the surface currents is increased. This makes it a challenge to cut the distribution into either discrete helical or modular coils which are attractive from an engineering point of view. Several approaches to this problem are discussed. There have been some hints of promising configurations, but to date, none of them are satisfactory. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Wear aspects of internal combustion engine valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panţuru, M.; Chicet, D.; Paulin, C.; Alexandru, A.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Because the surface engineering is becoming an increasingly viable alternative to the constructive changes made to improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines, have been proposed and tested various types of coatings of some organs of internal combustion engines. One vital organ is the engine valves, which is subjected during operation to combined thermal, mechanical, corrosion and wear solicitations, which are leading to severe corrosion and complete breakdown. In this paper were analyzed aspects of valves wear and the active surfaces were coated using the atmospheric plasma spraying method (APS) with two commercial powders: Ni-Al and YSZ. Microstructural analyzes were made on these layers and also observations regarding the possibility of using them as thermal barrier and anti-oxidant coatings.

  7. Specific aspects of erectile dysfunction in sexology.

    PubMed

    Borrás-Valls, J J; Gonzalez-Correales, R

    2004-10-01

    The sexology of erectile dysfunction (ED) is approached from a perspective that integrates medical, psychological, and social aspects. This article reviews the clinical intervention in sexology beginning with the diagnostic evaluation, where the organic and psychological factors (predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating) contributing to ED are determined. A description of the differential diagnosis process follows, which establishes the relevance of organic factors in order to organize therapeutic strategies. There are three possible treatment processes: psychological intervention with the patient, intervention on the partner relationship, or intervention with the partner. Referral criteria are also described, such as when patients with ED should be referred to a sexologist, and to whom sexologists should refer patients with ED.

  8. Religious and spiritual aspects of family assessment.

    PubMed

    Moncher, Frank J; Josephson, Allan M

    2004-01-01

    Childhood emotional and behavioral problems have increased over the past several decades, and the consequences of these behaviors have an impact on the entire family. The role of the family in these problems is clearly an important consideration for the child psychiatrist. A specific understanding of how the family's spiritual worldview or religious convictions impact clinical problems has been underappreciated. The religious orientation or spirituality of parents influences various aspects of family life, from ideals about marriage and family to specifics regarding child rearing. This article reviews the goals of assessment of family religious or spiritual worldview, which include empathically engaging the family of a child in treatment, developing a formulation of how these spiritual factors impact general family functioning, and determining whether the family's religion and spirituality are a resource for treatment or a contributor to disorder. The spiritual and religious assessment of the family facilitates the development of a treatment plan.

  9. [Chronobiological aspects of obesity and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Ordovás, José María; Garaulet, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms (approximately 24h) are widely characterized at molecular level and their generation is acknowledged to originate from oscillations in expression of several clock genes and from regulation of their protein products. While general entrainment of organisms to environmental light-dark cycles is mainly achieved through the master clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in mammals, this molecular clockwork is functional in several organs and tissues. Some studies have suggested that disruption of the circadian system (chronodisruption (CD)) may be causal for manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. This review summarizes (1) how molecular clocks coordinate metabolism and their specific role in the adipocyte; (2) the genetic aspects of and scientific evidence for obesity as a chronobiological illness; and (3) CD and its causes and pathological consequences. Finally, ideas about use of chronobiology for the treatment of obesity are discussed.

  10. Comparative aspects of kisspeptin gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Kitahashi, Takashi; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2013-01-15

    Kisspeptin plays an important role in the onset of puberty through stimulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a master molecule of reproduction. Furthermore, the existence of multiple kisspeptins is evident in most vertebrate species. Therefore, elucidating the regulatory mechanisms of the kisspeptin genes is important to understand the functions of multiple kisspeptin forms in the brain. This review focuses on the comparative aspects of kisspeptin gene regulation with an emphasis on the role of environmental signals including gonadal steroids, photoperiods and metabolic signals. These environmental signals differently regulate the kisspeptin genes distinctively in each species. In addition, photoperiodic regulation of the kisspeptin genes alters during sexual maturational, suggesting interactions between the gonadal hormone pathway and the photoperiod pathway. Further studies of the regulatory mechanisms of kisspeptin genes especially in teleosts which possess multiple kisspeptin/kisspeptin receptor systems will help to understand the precise role of multiple kisspeptin forms in different species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychological and social aspects of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Handy, J A

    1982-02-01

    The literature concerning psychosocial aspects of induced abortion is reviewed. Key areas discussed are: the legal context of abortion in Britain, psychological characteristics of abortion-seekers, pre- and post-abortion contraceptive use, pre- and post-abortion counselling, the actual abortion and the effects of termination versus refused abortion. Women seeking termination are found to demonstrate more psychological disturbance than other women, however this is probably temporary and related to the short-term stresses of abortion. Inadequate contraception is frequent prior to abortion but improves afterwards. Few women find the decision to terminate easy and most welcome opportunities for non-judgemental counselling. Although some women experience adverse psychological sequelae after abortion the great majority do not. In contrast, refused abortion often results in psychological distress for the mother and an impoverished environment for the ensuing offspring.

  12. Medicolegal aspects of doping in football

    PubMed Central

    Graf‐Baumann, T

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the historical background of the medicolegal aspects of doping in sports and especially in football. The definitions of legal terms are explained and the procedure of individual case management as part of FIFA's approach to doping is presented. Finally, three medicolegal problems awaiting urgent solution are outlined: firstly, the difficulties in decision making arising from the decrease of the T/E ratio from 6 to 4; secondly, the therapeutic application of α‐reductase inhibitors for male pattern baldness in the face of the classification of finasteride as a forbidden masking agent; and lastly, the increasing use of recreational drugs and its social and legal implications in positive cases. PMID:16799105

  13. Psychosocial aspects of aphasia: whose perspectives?

    PubMed

    Parr, S

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews some different meanings of the term 'psychosocial' and identifies the different ways in which the social and psychological sequelae of aphasia can be explored. These include qualitative methods, which seem well suited to addressing such complex issues. Having outlined some features of qualitative research, the paper describes a study in which fifty people talked about the consequences and significance of their long-term aphasia. Their 'insider perspective' on aphasia suggests its impacts are extensive, complex, direct and indirect, interconnected, systemic, dynamic and diversely experienced. The paper discusses the various implications of the study for clinicians and researchers concerned with the psychosocial aspects of aphasia and outlines how some of the issues raised in the interviews might be addressed.

  14. Clinical aspects of Marburg hemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Mehedi, Masfique; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Marburg virus belongs to the genus Marburgvirus in the family Filoviridae and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever, known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF), in both humans and nonhuman primates. Similar to the more widely known Ebola hemorrhagic fever, MHF is characterized by systemic viral replication, immunosuppression and abnormal inflammatory responses. These pathological features of the disease contribute to a number of systemic dysfunctions including hemorrhages, edema, coagulation abnormalities and, ultimately, multiorgan failure and shock, often resulting in death. A detailed understanding of the pathological processes that lead to this devastating disease remains elusive, a fact that contributes to the lack of licensed vaccines or effective therapeutics. This article will review the clinical aspects of MHF and discuss the pathogenesis and possible options for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. PMID:22046196

  15. Historical and social aspects of halitosis.

    PubMed

    Elias, Marina Sá; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Buccal odors have always been a factor of concern for society. This study aims to investigate the historical and social base of halitosis, through systematized research in the database BVS (biblioteca virtual em saúde - virtual library in health) and also in books. Lack of knowledge on how to prevent halitosis allows for its occurrence, limiting quality of life. As social relationships are one of the pillars of the quality of life concept, halitosis needs to be considered a factor of negative interference. Education in health should be accomplished with a view to a dynamic balance, involving human beings' physical and psychological aspects, as well as their social interactions, so that individuals do not become jigsaw puzzles of sick parts.

  16. Dream content: Individual and generic aspects.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Allan; Kahn, David

    2007-12-01

    Dream reports were collected from normal subjects in an effort to determine the degree to which dream reports can be used to identify individual dreamers. Judges were asked to group the reports by their authors. The judges scored the reports correctly at chance levels. This finding indicated that dreams may be at least as much like each other as they are the signature of individual dreamers. Our results suggest that dream reports cannot be used to identify the individuals who produced them when identifiers like names and gender of friends and family members are removed from the dream report. In addition to using dreams to learn about an individual, we must look at dreams as telling us about important common or generic aspects of human consciousness.

  17. Psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K

    1991-12-01

    This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.

  18. Aspects of Complexity in Sleep Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, José M. N.; Da Rosa, Agostinho C.

    The paper presents a selection of sleep analysis problems where some aspects and concepts of complexity come about. Emphasis is given to the electroencephalogram (EEG) as the most important sleep related variable. The conception of the EEG as a message to be deciphered stresses the importance of the communication and information theories in this field. An optimal detector of K complexes and vertex sharp waves based on a stochastic model of sleep EEG is considered. Besides detecting, the algorithm is also able to follow the evolution of the basic ongoing activity. It is shown that both the ostructure and microstructure of sleep can be described in terms of symbols and interpreted as sentences of a language. Syntactic models and Markov chain representations play in this context an important role.

  19. SOME CHEMICAL SAFETY ASPECTS AT LANL

    SciTech Connect

    J. LAUL

    2001-05-01

    Recently, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have begun activities to improve the quality and consistency of chemical safety programs throughout the DOE Complex. Several working groups have been formed to assemble a framework for systematically identifying and quantifying chemical hazards and managing chemical risks. At LANL, chemical safety program is implemented through Laboratory Implementation Requirements (LIRs), which are part of the Integrated Safety Management (ISM) plan that includes Safe Work Practices, emphasizing five core functions; define work, identify and analyze hazards, develop and implement controls, perform work safely, and ensure performance. Work is authorized in medium, low and minimal risk areas and not in high risk. Some chemical safety aspects are discussed in terms of chemical hazards and identification, screening, facility hazard categorization--Category A (high), Category B (moderate), and Category C (low), and their requirements in format and content in Authorization Safety Basis documents.

  20. Winglets on low aspect ratio wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, John M.; Liaw, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The drag reduction potentially available from the use of winglets at the tips of low aspect ratio (1.75-2.67) wings with pronounced (45-60 deg) leading edge sweep is assessed numerically for the case of a cruise design point at Mach of 0.8 and a lift coefficient of 0.3. Both wing-winglet and wing-alone design geometries are derived from a linear-theory, minimum induced drag design methodology. Relative performance is evaluated with a nonlinear extended small disturbance potential flow analysis code. Predicted lift coefficient/pressure drag coefficient increases at equal lift for the wing-winglet configurations over the wing-alone planform are of the order of 14.6-15.8, when boundary layer interaction is included.

  1. [Treatment of tobacco use. Pediatric aspects].

    PubMed

    Ferrís i Tortajada, J; Garcia i Castell, J; López Andreu, J A; Benedito Monleón, M C

    1997-10-01

    To divulge among pediatricians therapeutic modalities against tobacco use. Literature review of therapeutic modalities, their efficacy indications, secondary effects and scientific value. Relapse-related factors are analyzed. Tobacco use generates physical (nicotine) and psychological addiction. Treatment strategies should consider both aspects. Different therapies have been applied with unequal results: (1) medical information; (2) pharmacologic treatment: symptomatic drugs and nicotine; (3) therapy psychological including positive reinforcement, aversive techniques and hypnosis; (4) other modalities such as acupuncture, collective and self-obtainment. Relapses have been related to nicotine abstinence syndrome and individual, familiar, professional and social factors. Pediatricians should engage to tobacco use treatment. Proper medical information will induce patient commitment to stop smoking, aided by nicotine therapy and psychological support. Relapses should be anticipated and adequately approached. Pediatricians have at hand the best available treatment: to prevent adolescents and young adults to start smoking.

  2. Epidemiological aspects of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Garvey, John F; Pengo, Martino F; Drakatos, Panagis; Kent, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is probably the most common respiratory disorder, with recent data from the United States and Europe suggesting that between 14% and 49% of middle-aged men have clinically significant OSA. The intimate relationship between OSA and obesity means that its prevalence will only increase as the global obesity epidemic evolves. At an individual level, OSA leads to a significant decrease in quality of life (QOL) and functional capacity, alongside a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Emerging data also suggest that the presence and severity of OSA and associated nocturnal hypoxemia are associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cancer. At a societal level, OSA not only leads to reduced economic productivity, but also constitutes a major treatable risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. This article addresses OSA from an epidemiological perspective, from prevalence studies to economic aspects to co-morbidity.

  3. Geometric aspects of Painlevé equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Kenji; Noumi, Masatoshi; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2017-02-01

    In this paper a comprehensive review is given on the current status of achievements in the geometric aspects of the Painlevé equations, with a particular emphasis on the discrete Painlevé equations. The theory is controlled by the geometry of certain rational surfaces called the spaces of initial values, which are characterized by eight point configuration on {{{P}}}1× {{{P}}}1 and classified according to the degeneration of points. We give a systematic description of the equations and their various properties, such as affine Weyl group symmetries, hypergeometric solutions and Lax pairs under this framework, by using the language of Picard lattice and root systems. We also provide with a collection of basic data; equations, point configurations/root data, Weyl group representations, Lax pairs, and hypergeometric solutions of all possible cases.

  4. Osteoporosis in haemophilic patient, rehabilitative aspects.

    PubMed

    Franco, Patrizia

    2012-05-01

    The continuous improvement of substitution and antiviral treatments available to date (at least in countries with greater economic and social development) allow better survival of patients with haemophilia, both as regards the duration and quality of life, to the point that the haemophilic arthropathy, that is the co-morbidity almost always present and extremely debilitating, come to be treated successfully using prosthetic joint replacement surgery. This has further highlighted other aspects of disease such as osteopenia or osteoporosis, which frequently occurs in these patients, and in recent years has aroused the interest of research.Rehabilitation plays a vital role in helping to tackle the different risk factors in young patients, in containing the consequences of the disease on the skeletal and muscle apparatus such as on the recovery after surgery and prosthetic.

  5. Cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-06-01

    A person's cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture's conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person's ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss "khyâl cap" ("wind attacks"), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress.

  6. Psychosocial aspects of rehabilitation in sports.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Beidler, Erica; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Wallace, Jessica

    2015-04-01

    When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses that should also be addressed throughout the rehabilitation process. Sports medicine professions should use psychosocial skills to help decrease the negative consequences of the injury, such as fear of reinjury, anxiety, depression, and adherence to rehabilitation. These psychosocial skills include goal setting, imagery, relaxation techniques, motivation, and self-talk. This article addresses the negative consequences of injury, psychosocial skills used to aid in the rehabilitation process, and clinical implications of the psychological aspects of rehabilitation in sport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  8. [Contemporary aspects of psychiatry in Communist China].

    PubMed

    Stip, E

    1990-03-01

    Psychiatry in Communist China is at a delicate phase where it is drawn both to modern Western medicine and to the wealth of traditional medicine. This is conveyed through accounts of some present-day situations as seen by the author during stays in Peking and Shanghai. After the treatment provided in various hospitals for acute-care and chronic-care patients is described, we are introduced to the organization of mental health at the various levels of hospital and external structures. A general survey of the research being done in epidemiology, neurology and traditional medicine at the Peking Research Centre is also presented. The novel nosography reveals one particular entity: phasophrenia, described as a stereotyped and recurring acute psychotic episode that responds poorly to neuroleptic chemotherapy. Finally, the medico-legal aspects of psychiatry and the effects of the new birth-rate policy are briefly discussed.

  9. Medicolegal aspects of athletic head injury.

    PubMed

    Davis, P M; McKelvey, M K

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the legal aspects of head injuries resulting from a variety of athletic activities, focusing primarily on head and brain injuries resulting from the playing of football, boxing, horseback riding, winter sports (hockey and skiing), and soccer. Part 1 give a general overview of the occurrence of head injuries in athletics and the potential for litigation. Part 2 reviews the history of and increase in sports injury litigation, as well as resulting changes in the law. In Part 3, the current status of athletic head injury litigation, the parties involved, types of claims brought, and viable defenses are discussed. Finally, Part 4 reviews different ways to reduce athletic head injury litigation through better equipment design and adequate warning and instructions for users and coaches.

  10. [Mixotrophy in microorganisms: ecological and cytophysiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Matantseva, O V; Skarlato, S O

    2013-01-01

    Mixotrophy is the ability to combine autotrophic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition. It is widely spread in various microorganisms, particularly in such important plankton groups as dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria. Mixotrophy has a significant impact on our comprehension of the matter and energy flows in marine ecosystems, and therefore, it is an object of much attention for several recent decades. Nevertheless, the precise data on the balance of auto- and heterotrophy during the mixotrophic growth have been absent so far, which is due, first of all, to insufficient understanding of physiological and molecular ground of this phenomenon. In this review we discuss some ecological and cytophysiological aspects of investigation of mixotrophy in microorganisms as well as possible reasons for relatively slow progress in this area.

  11. Safeguards aspects of spent-fuel management

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Remagen, H.H.; Weh, R.

    1989-11-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the concept of spent-fuel management is based on a closed fuel cycle that has the following principal features: (1) intermediate dry storage of spent fuel; (2) reprocessing; (3) thermal recycling of unconsumed nuclear material; and (4) conditioning and final disposal of radioactive waste. Complementary to this concept, methods and techniques for the direct final disposal of spent fuel are under development, including investigations of licensing issues. Furthermore, a licensing procedure is under way for the construction of a pilot conditioning plant close to the Gorleben dry storage facility. Apart from operational safety and environmental protection, the issue of international safeguards is of paramount interest. This paper discusses safeguards aspects of spent-fuel management related to direct final disposal.

  12. [Migrant workers. The critical aspects of integration].

    PubMed

    Berra, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The integration of migrant poplulations with the indigeneous population is regulated by the Italian Decree, D.Lgs 9/7/2003 n. 215 in enforcement of the directive 2000/43/EC implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin. The Italian decree, D.Lgs 215/2003, at present in force, according to regulation stipulated as to the equal treatment of diverse cohabiting populations, explicitly forbids any form of discrimination whatsoever, be it direct or indirect. A first description of today's migrant panorama is offered by the Caritas Migrantes and the CNEL (Italian National Council of the Economy of Labour). The most critical aspects on the integration of migrants are described and discussed in the text.

  13. [Clinical aspects of congenital maxillofacial deformities].

    PubMed

    Sólya, Kitti; Dézsi, Csilla; Vanya, Melinda; Szabó, János; Sikovanyecz, János; Kozinszky, Zoltán; Szili, Károly

    2015-09-13

    The cleft lip and palate deformity is one of the most common type of congenital abnormalities. The aim of this paper is to summarise the literature knowledge about cleft lip and/or palate. The authors review and discuss international literature data on the prevention, genetic and environmental predisposing factors, anatomical and embryological features, as well as pre- and post-natal diagnosis and treatment of these deformities. The aetiology is multifactorial, driven by both genetic and environmental factors which lead to multifaceted phenotypes and clinical features of these malformations. The lack of the multidisciplinary knowledge about prenatal diagnosis, prevention, genetic aspects and treatment strategy could result in serious diagnostic errors, hence clinical teamwork is critically important to solve the problems of this pathology. Only the professional teamwork and multidisciplinary cooperation can guarantee the optimal level of health care and better quality of life for these patients and their families.

  14. [Ethical aspects concerning nurses' managerial activity].

    PubMed

    Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Lourenço, Maria Regina; Shinyashiki, Gilberto Tadeu

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at addressing the ethical aspects concerning nurses' managerial activities, the authors of this work referred to Etzioni and adopted a hospital classification as a reference of organization in which consent is based on the internalization of rules accepted as legitimate. Regarding patients, their need to adapt to medical behavior and hospital rules through internalization is considered to be a result of physicians', nurses' and the hospital's power. However, the authors view that such internalization is naive, without consent, especially by taking into account that most Brazilian patients do not know that they should or should not consent and are used to obeying. Thus, the work focused on nurses' managerial actions, indicating that they must be based on professional values, the Nursing ethical code as well as on the rights of hospitalized patients, thus integrating qualified care guided by respect, free consent and promotion of patients as the protagonists and subjects of care.

  15. A Daytime Aspect Camera for Balloon Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Kurt L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Alexander, Cheryl D.; Apple, Jeff A.; Ghosh, Kajal K.; Swift, Wesley R.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have designed, built, and flight-tested a new star camera for daytime guiding of pointed balloon-borne experiments at altitudes around 40km. The camera and lens are commercially available, off-the-shelf components, but require a custom-built baffle to reduce stray light, especially near the sunlit limb of the balloon. This new camera, which operates in the 600-1000 nm region of the spectrum, successfully provided daytime aspect information of approximately 10 arcsecond resolution for two distinct star fields near the galactic plane. The detected scattered-light backgrounds show good agreement with the Air Force MODTRAN models, but the daytime stellar magnitude limit was lower than expected due to dispersion of red light by the lens. Replacing the commercial lens with a custom-built lens should allow the system to track stars in any arbitrary area of the sky during the daytime.

  16. Daytime Aspect Camera for Balloon Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Kurt L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Alexander, Cheryl D.; Apple, Jeff A.; Ghosh, Kajal K.; Swift, Wesley R.

    2002-01-01

    We have designed, built, and flight-tested a new star camera for daytime guiding of pointed balloon-borne experiments at altitudes around 40 km. The camera and lens are commercially available, off-the-shelf components, but require a custom-built baffle to reduce stray light, especially near the sunlit limb of the balloon. This new camera, which operates in the 600- to 1000-nm region of the spectrum, successfully provides daytime aspect information of approx. 10 arcsec resolution for two distinct star fields near the galactic plane. The detected scattered-light backgrounds show good agreement with the Air Force MODTRAN models used to design the camera, but the daytime stellar magnitude limit was lower than expected due to longitudinal chromatic aberration in the lens. Replacing the commercial lens with a custom-built lens should allow the system to track stars in any arbitrary area of the sky during the daytime.

  17. Dynamic Aspects of Cochlear Microphonic Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.; van der Heijden, Marcel

    2011-11-01

    Cochlear microphonic potentials were recorded from the Mongolian gerbil in response to low-frequency auditory stimuli. Provided that contamination of the potentials by the phase-locked neurophonic is avoided, these recordings can be interpreted "as if recorded from a single outer hair cell". It is found that the instantaneous I/O-curves resemble the well-known Boltzmann activation curve. The dynamic aspect of the I/O-curves does reveal hysteresis and a level-dependent gain that is not observed in static measures of these curves. We explore a model that simulates CM generation from hair cell populations, but find it inadequate to reproduce the data. Rather, there seem to be fast, adaptive mechanisms probably at the level of the transduction channels themselves.

  18. Cocoa agronomy, quality, nutritional, and health aspects.

    PubMed

    Badrie, Neela; Bekele, Frances; Sikora, Elzbieta; Sikora, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The history of cocoa and chocolate including the birth and the expansion of the chocolate industry was described. Recent developments in the industry and cocoa economy were briefly depicted. An overview of the classification of cacao as well as studies on phenotypic and genetic diversity was presented. Cocoa agronomic practices including traditional and modern propagation techniques were reviewed. Nutrition-related health benefits derived from cocoa consumption were listed and widely reviewed. The specific action of cocoa antioxidants was compared to those of teas and wines. Effects of adding milk to chocolate and chocolate drinks versus bioavailability of cocoa polyphenols were discussed. Finally, flavor, sensory, microbiological, and toxicological aspects of cocoa consumption were presented.

  19. Historical aspects of human presence in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsch, V.

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the development of human presence in Space from its beginnings. Study hypotheses were based on historical findings on scientific, medical, cultural, and political aspects of manned Space flight due to the different attitudes of Space minded nations and organizations. Impacts of aerospace medicine on the advances of biomedical sciences will be touched upon, as well as the historical development of aviation and Space medical achievements which are described briefly and visions for future developments are given. Methods: An overview was gained by literature-study, archives research and oral history taking. Results: Aviation Medicine evolved parallel to Man's ability to fly. War-triggered advancements in aviation brought mankind to the edge of space-equivalent conditions within a few decades of the first motor-flight, which took place in the USA in 1903 [V. Harsch, Aerospace medicine in Germany: from the very beginnings, Aviation and Space Environment Medicine 71 (2000) 447-450 [1

  20. Some Remarks on Mood and Aspect in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J.

    1974-01-01

    An explanation is offered of aspect in imperative verb forms and in certain infinitive verb forms in Russian. Three presuppositions or conditions of appropriateness are postulated and their correlation to the aspect of an imperative or infinitive form discussed. (RM)

  1. Some Remarks on Mood and Aspect in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J.

    1974-01-01

    An explanation is offered of aspect in imperative verb forms and in certain infinitive verb forms in Russian. Three presuppositions or conditions of appropriateness are postulated and their correlation to the aspect of an imperative or infinitive form discussed. (RM)

  2. Aspects Psychosociaux de la Toxicomanie Juvenile (Psychosocial Aspects of the Juvenile Addict).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Yolande; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the psychosocial aspects of drug addiction in youth, with specific reference to youth in Quebec, Canada. It notes trends in drug use and discusses three factors in drug usage: availability of the drug, the environment in which the drug use occurs, and the personality of the adolescent. (JDD)

  3. Linguistics from a Conceptual Viewpoint (Aspects of Aspects of a Theory of Syntax).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schank, Roger C.

    Some of the assertions made by Chomsky in "Aspects of the Theory of Syntax" are considered. In particular, the notion of a "competence" model in linguistics is criticized. Formal postulates for a conceptually-based linguistic theory are presented. (Author/JD)

  4. Schizophrenic Inability to Disattend from Strong Aspects of Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Loren J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study tested Cromwell and Dokecki's theory (1968) that excessive response by schizophrenics to strong aspects of meaning of words and deficient response to weak aspects of meaning reflect an inability to disattend from strong aspects of meaning. (Author/RK)

  5. Verb Aspect and the Activation of Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Todd R.; Kutas, Marta; McRae, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The authors show that verb aspect influences the activation of event knowledge with 4 novel results. First, common locations of events (e.g., arena) are primed following verbs with imperfective aspect (e.g., was skating) but not verbs with perfect aspect (e.g., had skated). Second, people generate more locative prepositional phrases as…

  6. Verb Aspect and the Activation of Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Todd R.; Kutas, Marta; McRae, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The authors show that verb aspect influences the activation of event knowledge with 4 novel results. First, common locations of events (e.g., arena) are primed following verbs with imperfective aspect (e.g., was skating) but not verbs with perfect aspect (e.g., had skated). Second, people generate more locative prepositional phrases as…

  7. Different Aspects of the Monotonicity of a Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tossavainen, Timo; Haukkanen, Pentti; Pesonen, Martti

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate which aspects are overriding in the concept images of monotonicity of Finnish tertiary mathematics students, i.e., on which aspects of monotonicity they base their argument in different types of exercises related to that concept. Further, we examine the relationship between the quality of principal aspects and the…

  8. Tailoring Software Inspections for Aspect-Oriented Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Charlette Ward

    2009-01-01

    Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) is a new approach that addresses limitations inherent in conventional programming, especially the principle of separation of concerns by emphasizing the encapsulation and modularization of crosscutting concerns through a new abstraction, the "aspect." Aspect-oriented programming is an emerging AOSD…

  9. Tailoring Software Inspections for Aspect-Oriented Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Charlette Ward

    2009-01-01

    Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) is a new approach that addresses limitations inherent in conventional programming, especially the principle of separation of concerns by emphasizing the encapsulation and modularization of crosscutting concerns through a new abstraction, the "aspect." Aspect-oriented programming is an emerging AOSD…

  10. Aspects of Symmetry in de Sitter Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Gim Seng

    We study various aspects of symmetry in four-dimensional de Sitter space (dS4). The asymptotic symmetry group at future null infinity (I+) of dS4 is shown to be given by the group of three-dimensional diffeomorphisms acting on I+. However, for physics relevant to an eternal observatory in dS4, we should instead impose unconventional future boundary conditions at I+. These boundary conditions violate conventional causality, but we argue the causality violations cannot be detected by any experiment in the observatory. As the next step, we study the relevant dynamics in quantum dS4 by illuminating some previously inaccessible aspects of the dS/CFT dictionary in the context of the higher spin dS4/CFT3 correspondence relating Vasiliev's higher-spin gravity on dS4 to a Euclidean Sp(N) CFT3 . We found that CFT3 states created by operator insertions are found to be dual to (anti) quasinormal modes (QNM) in the bulk. A R-norm is defined on the R3 bulk Hilbert space and shown for the scalar case to be equivalent to both the Zamolodchikov and pseudounitary C-norm of the Sp(N) CFT3. The QNMs are found to lie in two complex highest-weight representations of the dS4 isometry group and form a complete orthogonal basis with respect to the R-norm. The conventional Euclidean vacuum may be defined as the state annihilated by half of the QNMs, and the Euclidean Green function is obtained from a simple mode sum. Finally, as a step towards understanding non-linear dynamics of dS 4 we study both linear and non-linear deformations of dS4 which leave the induced conformal metric and trace of the extrinsic curvature unchanged for a fixed hypersurface. These deformations are required to be regular at the future horizon of the static patch observer. When the slices are arbitrarily close to the cosmological horizon, the finite deformations are characterized by solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation.

  11. Investigating histological aspects of scars in children.

    PubMed

    Westra, I; Verhaegen, P D H M; Ibrahim Korkmaz, H; Braam, K I; Kaspers, G J L; Niessen, H W M; Niessen, F B

    2017-05-02

    Very little is known about histological aspects of paediatric scars and the possible role of the immune system during their formation. In this study, the histology thoracic scars caused by the placement of an implantable central venous access device in children who underwent treatment for cancer was assessed. The amount and type of collagen, the collagen orientation, the type of elastic fibres, the vascularsation, and the count of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes were analysed. The severity of scarring was assessed using the Vancouver scar scale (VSS). To evaluate the role of the immune system on scar severity and histology, the scars of children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were compared with the scars of children suffering from other types of childhood cancer. Our results showed an extremely random orientation of the collagen fibres of the paediatric scars with a mean collagen orientation index of 0.22 (standard deviation (SD) 0.10, zero indicating a perfectly random orientation and a perfectly parallel orientation). A lower collagen orientation index was seen in scars with a lower VSS score (VSS score <3: 0.19 versus VSS score ≥3 0.29, p=0.037). A higher total VSS score, resembling a worse scar, was assessed to the scars in the non-ALL group compared with the children with ALL (mean ALL: 0.91 (0-3) versus mean non-ALL: 2.50 (0-6), p=0.037). To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating a wide array of histological aspects in paediatric scars. Compared with adult scars, an extremely random collagen orientation was found (0.22 in children versus 0.41 and 0.46 adult normotrophic and hypertrophic scars, respectively). A lower collagen orientation index was found in scars with a lower VSS score. In addition, less severe scarring was measured in children suffering from ALL compared with children suffering from other types of childhood cancer. This suggests that the immune system could play a role in the development of

  12. Some economic aspects of recreational injuries.

    PubMed

    Arundel, J T

    1974-06-01

    This paper deals with some basic features of accidents in recreation and will attempt to throw some light on their economic consequences. Let us examine sport as one aspect of recreation. As Williams (1973) put it, "Sport is a phenomenon of simple definition, but with well recognised features. It is essentially recreational, essentially physical, frequently competitive and always contrived." The number and type of participants has increased, along with the range of activities available. Classifications of sport, at best, are arbitrary but nevertheless are useful for analysis. These divisions may be land/air/water types; indoor/outdoor; team/individual; body contact/non-contact/vehicular; amateur/professional. Sports injuries are of two types, intrinsic or self-inflicted (Williams, 1973) and extrinsic. Intrinsic injuries refer to those as a result of over-use (leading, for example, to stress fractures) and to specific incidents not involving outside agents. Extrinsic injuries are caused by contact with external objects and form the bulk of injuries sustained in body-contact, vehicular (horses, cars, skis) and environmental-type sports. Extrinsic injuries are generally more severe because greater forces and velocities are involved. Appendix 1 lists the main sporting activities according to location of sport; individual or team participation; likelihood of extensive body contact; and professional status. Professional players not only suffer loss of earning capacity but may reflect a bad investment for an entrepreneur or reduce spectator attendance and gate taking. It is apparent that team sports, having substantial body contact, face a higher risk of moderate to serious injury than do individual, non-contact sports, although major injuries can be sustained in the latter, for example, sprains and dislocations in athletics, golf, tennis, etc. Other sports must be classed as dangerous because of the nature of competition, for example, motor racing and flying. These

  13. Anatomical aspects of sinus floor elevations.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, J P; ten Bruggenkate, C M; Disch, F J; Tuinzing, D B

    2000-06-01

    Inadequate bone height in the lateral part of the maxilla forms a contra-indication for implant surgery. This condition can be treated with an internal augmentation of the maxillary sinus floor. This sinus floor elevation, formerly called sinus lifting, consists of a surgical procedure in which a top hinge door in the lateral maxillary sinus wall is prepared and internally rotated to a horizontal position. The new elevated sinus floor, together with the inner maxillary mucosa, will create a space that can be filled with graft material. Sinus lift procedures depend greatly on fragile structures and anatomical variations. The variety of anatomical modalities in shape of the inner aspect of the maxillary sinus defines the surgical approach. Conditions such as sinus floor convolutions, sinus septum, transient mucosa swelling and narrow sinus may form a (usually relative) contra-indication for sinus floor elevation. Absolute contra-indications are maxillary sinus diseases (tumors) and destructive former sinus surgery (like the Caldwell-Luc operation). The lateral sinus wall is usually a thin bone plate, which is easily penetrated with rotating or sharp instruments. The fragile Schneiderian membrane plays an important role for the containment of the bonegraft. The surgical procedure of preparing the trap door and luxating it, together with the preparation of the sinus mucosa, may cause a mucosa tear. Usually, when these perforations are not too large, they will fold together when turning the trap door inward and upward, or they can be glued with a fibrin sealant, or they can be covered with a resorbable membrane. If the perforation is too large, a cortico-spongious block graft can be considered. However, in most cases the sinus floor elevation will be deleted. Perforations may also occur due to irregularities in the sinus floor or even due to immediate contact of sinus mucosa with oral mucosa. Obstruction of the antro-nasal foramen is, due to its high location, not a

  14. AspectAssay: A Technique for Expanding the Pool of Available Aspect Mining Test Data Using Concern Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Aspect-oriented software design (AOSD) enables better and more complete separation of concerns in software-intensive systems. By extracting aspect code and relegating crosscutting functionality to aspects, software engineers can improve the maintainability of their code by reducing code tangling and coupling of code concerns. Further, the number…

  15. AspectAssay: A Technique for Expanding the Pool of Available Aspect Mining Test Data Using Concern Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Aspect-oriented software design (AOSD) enables better and more complete separation of concerns in software-intensive systems. By extracting aspect code and relegating crosscutting functionality to aspects, software engineers can improve the maintainability of their code by reducing code tangling and coupling of code concerns. Further, the number…

  16. Automatically extracting the significant aspects evaluated in game reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Chiok Hoong; Ng, Yen Kaow

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the criteria (or "aspects") that reviewers use to evaluate games is important to game developers and publishers, since this will give them important input on how to improve their products. Techniques for the extraction of such aspects have been studied by others, albeit not specific to the gaming industry. In this paper we demonstrate an aspect extraction and analysis system specific to computer games. The system extracts game review texts from a list of known websites and automatically extracts candidate aspects from the review text using techniques from natural language processing and sentiment analysis. It then ranks the candidate aspects using the HITS algorithm. To evaluate the correctness of the extracted aspects, we used the system to calculate an overall score for each game by aggregating its highly-rated aspects, weighted by the importance of the respective aspects. The aggregated scores resulted in a ranking of games, which we compared to a known ranking from a popular website - the rankings showed overall consistency, which suggests that the system has extracted valuable aspects from the reviews. Using the extracted aspect, our system also facilitates the analysis of a game, by evaluating how review articles have rated its performance in these extracted aspects.

  17. Psychosocial aspects of Hansen's disease (leprosy)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurvinder Pal

    2012-01-01

    In general, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among people with Hansen's disease has greatly increased to date. However, inadequate psychiatric care of people with Hansen's disease is an area of increasing concern. Many studies have been conducted in India and abroad to find out the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in patients suffering from Hansen's disease. Although efforts have been made by the government and international organizations to solve the medical problems among this group of patients, this disease still carries a number of psychosocial issues. The social stigma connected to these patients makes this disease completely different from others. Even nowadays people affected by Hansen's disease have to leave their village and are socially isolated. Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder found in these patients. Early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders among Hansen's disease patients is a powerful psychotherapeutic measure. Integrated healthcare strategy will be beneficial to these patients. A comprehensive MEDLINE search and review of relevant literature was carried out and the data extracted and studied with particular reference to psychosocial issues in Hansen's disease. The focus of this research work is related to psychiatric and social aspects vis-à-vis stigma in these patients with Hansen's disease. PMID:23189247

  18. Psychosocial aspects of Hansen's disease (leprosy).

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurvinder Pal

    2012-09-01

    In general, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among people with Hansen's disease has greatly increased to date. However, inadequate psychiatric care of people with Hansen's disease is an area of increasing concern. Many studies have been conducted in India and abroad to find out the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in patients suffering from Hansen's disease. Although efforts have been made by the government and international organizations to solve the medical problems among this group of patients, this disease still carries a number of psychosocial issues. The social stigma connected to these patients makes this disease completely different from others. Even nowadays people affected by Hansen's disease have to leave their village and are socially isolated. Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder found in these patients. Early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders among Hansen's disease patients is a powerful psychotherapeutic measure. Integrated healthcare strategy will be beneficial to these patients. A comprehensive MEDLINE search and review of relevant literature was carried out and the data extracted and studied with particular reference to psychosocial issues in Hansen's disease. The focus of this research work is related to psychiatric and social aspects vis-à-vis stigma in these patients with Hansen's disease.

  19. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management'' was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois' and the Midwest's solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  20. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled ``Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois` and the Midwest`s solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  1. Dedicated breast computed tomography: Basic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni Russo, Paolo

    2015-06-15

    X-ray mammography of the compressed breast is well recognized as the “gold standard” for early detection of breast cancer, but its performance is not ideal. One limitation of screening mammography is tissue superposition, particularly for dense breasts. Since 2001, several research groups in the USA and in the European Union have developed computed tomography (CT) systems with digital detector technology dedicated to x-ray imaging of the uncompressed breast (breast CT or BCT) for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. This CT technology—tracing back to initial studies in the 1970s—allows some of the limitations of mammography to be overcome, keeping the levels of radiation dose to the radiosensitive breast glandular tissue similar to that of two-view mammography for the same breast size and composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the research efforts carried out in the invention, development, and improvement of BCT with dedicated scanners with state-of-the-art technology, including initial steps toward commercialization, after more than a decade of R and D in the laboratory and/or in the clinic. The intended focus here is on the technological/engineering aspects of BCT and on outlining advantages and limitations as reported in the related literature. Prospects for future research in this field are discussed.

  2. Paranoid Schizophrenia versus Schizoaffective Disorder: Neuropsychological Aspects.

    PubMed

    Leposavić, Ljubica; Leposavić, Ivana; Šaula-Marojević, Bijana; Gavrilović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough.These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31), inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=30). Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive, deficits were registered.

  3. Some important aspects of nadipariksha from basavarajiyam.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Goli Penchala; Bharati, K; Swamy, R K

    2004-07-01

    Nadi Pariksha has been said as one of the important Ashta sthana parikshas. Though, there are some physicians who are doing miracles just by examining Nadi, this system of examination in many views has became extinct now a days. The main reason for this is, now a days very little research and practice is going on regarding this technique. So, many resent samhitas and Chikitsa granthas like Sarangadhara, Yogaratnakara, etc., have highlighted Nadi pariksha. Basavarajiyam is also one of those resent treatises (19(th) century), which has highlighted this ancient type of examination of the patient. Basavarajiyam is a popular Ayurvedic heritage of Andhra Pradesh written by Basavaraju, son of Namahshivaya and disciple of Ramadeshika. The author has referred many books and collected many slokas from various ancient granthas and quoted them in 25 Prakaranas along with his own views and quotations. This book was translated in Telugu language by Puvvada surya Narayana Rao and lppublished by A.B.S.publications, Rajahmundry A.P. In this paper Nadi sthanas (Location), Nadi types, Nadi Pareeksha vidhi (examination of Nadi) and its utilities in different aspects of the disease are dealt, which have been mentioned in Basavarajeeyam.

  4. [Ethical aspects of human lactation and breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Parrilla Rodríguez, A M; Gorrín Peralta, J J

    2000-06-01

    Breastfeeding has experienced a surge in Puerto Rico thanks to the efforts of many women, as well as governmental, non-governmental and private organizations. Among the aspects which can affect the initiation, establishment and maintenance of successful breastfeeding one finds potential ethical conflicts among health professionals as well as the financial interests of the companies which produce and market artificial milks. These companies dedicate great marketing efforts and enormous sums of money in the sale of their products, in detriment of breastfeeding. The profit motive of these companies is in open contradiction to public health and to breastfeeding promotion. The international community has carried out efforts for more than two decades in the creation of structures which protect the rights of women and their children to ideal nutrition practices, free from commercial pressures, through breastfeeding. Possible ethical conflicts related to the new industry of breastfeeding paraphernalia are discussed, especially when these are marketed exclusively for profit. Recommendations are presented for health professionals in order for them to be able to face and respond to the unethical strategies practiced by the manufacturers of artificial milks in utilizing these professionals for legitimating and marketing their products.

  5. Practical Aspects of Insulin Pen Devices

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Teresa L.

    2010-01-01

    Insulin pen devices have several advantages over the traditional vial-and-syringe method of insulin delivery, including improved patient satisfaction and adherence, greater ease of use, superior accuracy for delivering small doses of insulin, greater social acceptability, and less reported injection pain. In recent years, pens have become increasingly user-friendly, and some models are highly intuitive to use, requiring little or no instruction. Despite this progress, uptake of these devices in the United States has not matched that in many other areas of the world. There is a need for improved awareness of the current characteristics of insulin pen devices among United States health care professionals. Knowledge of the design improvements that have been incorporated into pens, both to address patient needs and as a result of the improved technology behind the device mechanics, is essential to promoting the use of insulin pen devices. This review highlights some of the practical aspects of pen use and discusses the factors to be considered when selecting among different insulin pens. PMID:20513316

  6. Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Rhabdovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Albertini, Aurélie A. V.; Baquero, Eduard; Ferlin, Anna; Gaudin, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses enter the cell via the endocytic pathway and subsequently fuse with a cellular membrane within the acidic environment of the endosome. Both receptor recognition and membrane fusion are mediated by a single transmembrane viral glycoprotein (G). Fusion is triggered via a low-pH induced structural rearrangement. G is an atypical fusion protein as there is a pH-dependent equilibrium between its pre- and post-fusion conformations. The elucidation of the atomic structures of these two conformations for the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G has revealed that it is different from the previously characterized class I and class II fusion proteins. In this review, the pre- and post-fusion VSV G structures are presented in detail demonstrating that G combines the features of the class I and class II fusion proteins. In addition to these similarities, these G structures also reveal some particularities that expand our understanding of the working of fusion machineries. Combined with data from recent studies that revealed the cellular aspects of the initial stages of rhabdovirus infection, all these data give an integrated view of the entry pathway of rhabdoviruses into their host cell. PMID:22355455

  7. The forensic aspects of sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Newton, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed.

  8. Socio-economic Aspects of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Marešová, Petra; Mohelská, Hana; Dolejš, Josef; Kuča, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Social development, better living conditions and medical advances lead to the fact that more people have the opportunity to live longer than in the past. The aging population is a characteristic feature of demographic trends in developed countries. This trend is closely linked with the issue of increasing number of diseases in old age and increasing government expenditure on health and social care. The most frequently mentioned diseases in old age include dementia. The cause may lie in all kinds of diseases, the most common are Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease. Now the care of current 35 million patients with dementia costs over $ 600 billion per year, it is approximately one percent of global Gross Domestic Product. This review discusses the recent issues and questions in the area of social and economic aspects of Alzheimer's disease. It focuses in detail on the national strategies in the approach to Alzheimer's disease, the anticipated problems concerning the insufficient number of social workers and necessary expenses of state budgets in the future. The situation in the area of health insurance companies' expenditures is illustrated in the context of the analysis of long-term care systems, in the chosen countries within the European Union.

  9. Assessment and nutritional aspects of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Campos, Antonio C L; Groth, Anne K; Branco, Alessandra B

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study is to review the physiopathology and the nutritional aspects of wound healing. Wound healing consists of a perfect and coordinated cascade of events that result in tissue reconstitution. The healing process is common to all wounds, independent of the agent that has caused it. It is divided didactically into three phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling or maturation. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and is also the main component of the wound matrix. It is organized in a thick and dynamic net, resulting from constant collagen deposition and reabsorption. Wound scar is the result of the interaction between collagen synthesis, degradation, and remodeling. There are several ways to evaluate wound healing: tensiometry, collagen morphometry, immunohistochemistry, and, more recently, the dosage of growth factors. Malnutrition adversely affects wound healing. On the contrary, the healing process can be stimulated by preoperative feeding and by certain nutrients such as glutamine, arginine, butyrate, and antioxidants. Wound healing is a complex process that started to be fully understood only in recent years. Recent research has been directed to act in the nutrition modulation of the healing process.

  10. [Negative symptoms: clinical and psychometric aspects].

    PubMed

    Adida, M; Azorin, J-M; Belzeaux, R; Fakra, E

    2015-12-01

    Recent investigations performing exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis have suggested that negative symptoms are multidimensional, including evidence for at least two distinct negative symptom subdomains: diminished expression and amotivation. Guidance for selection of instruments for measurement of negative symptoms is rapidly evolving. As there are continuing advances in the description of negative symptoms, new instruments are under development, and new data on the performance of instruments emerge from clinical trials. The Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Negative Symptom Assessment-16 (NSA-16) are considered to be reliable and valid measures for negative symptom trials but differ with respect to their domain coverage, use of informants, integration of global scores, administration time and comprehensiveness of their structured interviews. In response to the 2005 NIMH - MATRICS consensus statement, work groups are field testing and refining two new measures, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS). Both address the five currently recognized domains of negative symptoms, differentiate appetitive from consummatory aspects of anhedonia and address desire for social relationships. Thus far, both have exhibited promising psychometric properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [Psychopathological aspects of negative symptoms in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    During the past ten years, research on schizophrenia has witnessed a clear emphasis on studies based on negative symptoms. This interest can be explained in terms of diagnosis, specific treatment, functional prognosis and outcome issues. However, main current approaches consider negative symptoms from an operationalist view, which implies objective and atheoretical descriptions of clinical criteria, observed from a third person perspective. And the understanding of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, still a crucial issue of mental health, remains only partial. From a different perspective, psychopathology - and notably psychiatric phenomenology -, can provide a conceptual and clinical framework, taking into account subjective experience (first person perspective), based on a global understanding of the clinical situation lived by patients with schizophrenia. In the present review, we give a brief survey on the historical aspects of the description of negative symptoms. Then, we introduce the clinical contributions raised by clinical phenomenology. We principally develop Minkowski's notion of loss of vital contact, and Blankenburg's notion of loss of natural evidence. Then we highlight the current debates which are discussed and explored in contemporary psychopathology. In conclusion, we discuss the possible articulation between objective and subjective approaches, in order to better understand pauci-symptomatic forms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Security aspects of space operations data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with data security. It identifies security threats to European Space Agency's (ESA) In Orbit Infrastructure Ground Segment (IOI GS) and proposes a method of dealing with its complex data structures from the security point of view. It is part of the 'Analysis of Failure Modes, Effects Hazards and Risks of the IOI GS for Operations, including Backup Facilities and Functions' carried out on behalf of the European Space Operations Center (ESOC). The security part of this analysis has been prepared with the following aspects in mind: ESA's large decentralized ground facilities for operations, the multiple organizations/users involved in the operations and the developments of ground data systems, and the large heterogeneous network structure enabling access to (sensitive) data which does involve crossing organizational boundaries. An IOI GS data objects classification is introduced to determine the extent of the necessary protection mechanisms. The proposal of security countermeasures is oriented towards the European 'Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria (ITSEC)' whose hierarchically organized requirements can be directly mapped to the security sensitivity classification.

  13. [Hepatic cell transplantation. Technical and methodological aspects].

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Martínez, Amparo; Cortés, Miriam; Bonora, Ana; Moya, Angel; Sanjuán, Fernando; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Mir, José

    2010-03-01

    Hepatic cell transplantation consists of grafting already differentiated cells such as hepatocytes. Human hepatocytes are viable and functionally active. Liver cell transplantation is carried out by means of a 3-step method: isolation of hepatocytes from donor liver rejected for orthotopic transplantation, preparing a cell suspension for infusion and, finally, hepatocytes are implanted into the recipient. There are established protocols for the isolation of human hepatocytes from unused segments of donor livers, based on collagenase digestion of cannulated liver tissue at 37 degrees C. The hepatocytes can be used fresh or cryopreserved. Cryopreservation of isolated human hepatocytes would then be available for planned use. In cell transplant, the important aspects are: infusion route, number of cells, number of infusions and viability of the cells. The cells are infused into the patient through a catheter inserted via portal vein or splenic artery. Liver cell transplantation allows liver tissue to be used that would, otherwise, be discarded, enabling multiple patients to be treated with hepatocytes from a single tissue donor. Copyright 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunological aspects of liver cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Oldhafer, Felix; Bock, Michael; Falk, Christine S; Vondran, Florian W R

    2016-01-01

    Within the field of regenerative medicine, the liver is of major interest for adoption of regenerative strategies due to its well-known and unique regenerative capacity. Whereas therapeutic strategies such as liver resection and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) can be considered standards of care for the treatment of a variety of liver diseases, the concept of liver cell transplantation (LCTx) still awaits clinical breakthrough. Success of LCTx is hampered by insufficient engraftment/long-term acceptance of cellular allografts mainly due to rejection of transplanted cells. This is in contrast to the results achieved for OLT where long-term graft survival is observed on a regular basis and, hence, the liver has been deemed an immune-privileged organ. Immune responses induced by isolated hepatocytes apparently differ considerably from those observed following transplantation of solid organs and, thus, LCTx requires refined immunological strategies to improve its clinical outcome. In addition, clinical usage of LCTx but also related basic research efforts are hindered by the limited availability of high quality liver cells, strongly emphasizing the need for alternative cell sources. This review focuses on the various immunological aspects of LCTx summarizing data available not only for hepatocyte transplantation but also for transplantation of non-parenchymal liver cells and liver stem cells. PMID:27011904

  15. Regularity Aspects in Inverse Musculoskeletal Biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Marie; Stâhl, Fredrik; Gulliksson, Mârten

    2008-09-01

    Inverse simulations of musculoskeletal models computes the internal forces such as muscle and joint reaction forces, which are hard to measure, using the more easily measured motion and external forces as input data. Because of the difficulties of measuring muscle forces and joint reactions, simulations are hard to validate. One way of reducing errors for the simulations is to ensure that the mathematical problem is well-posed. This paper presents a study of regularity aspects for an inverse simulation method, often called forward dynamics or dynamical optimization, that takes into account both measurement errors and muscle dynamics. Regularity is examined for a test problem around the optimum using the approximated quadratic problem. The results shows improved rank by including a regularization term in the objective that handles the mechanical over-determinancy. Using the 3-element Hill muscle model the chosen regularization term is the norm of the activation. To make the problem full-rank only the excitation bounds should be included in the constraints. However, this results in small negative values of the activation which indicates that muscles are pushing and not pulling, which is unrealistic but the error maybe small enough to be accepted for specific applications. These results are a start to ensure better results of inverse musculoskeletal simulations from a numerical point of view.

  16. Practical aspects of mobile roof support usage

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, F.E.; Mark, C.; Barczak, T.M.

    1996-12-01

    Mobile roof supports are shield-type support units mounted on crawler tracks. Mobile roof support (MRS) units are used during retreat mining, and they eliminate the setting of roadway, turn, and crosscut breaker posts which are required during pillar recovery operations. Mobiles are a more effective ground support than timbers, and their usage enhance the safety of section personnel and reduces material handling injuries. MRS usage is rapidly increasing, and approximately 40 U.S. coal mines have successfully employed this relatively new technology. This paper is in response to increasing requests from operators, State and Federal Regulatory Agencies, and others on the practical aspects of MRS usage in underground coal mines. During this investigation, nearly half of the U.S. mines which have utilized mobiles were visited. This report depicts the more common pillar extraction methods which operators have found success. The Christmas tree and outside lift methods are illustrated and discussed. Roof control plans that do not require breaker posts or allow pillar extraction with fewer than four mobiles are also examined. In addition, operators` experiences with setting pressures, loads, and rates of loading during pillar extraction are addressed. Mining and support strategies to more effectively control hillseams, weak roof, and gob overrides which have entrapped equipment are also discussed.

  17. Ventricular dysphonia: clinical aspects and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc S; Van Cauwenberge, Paul

    2003-05-01

    Ventricular dysphonia, also known as dysphonia plica ventricularis, refers to the pathological interference of the false vocal folds during phonation. Despite its low incidence and prevalence, Vd is a well-known phenomenon in voice clinics. The present report reviews symptoms, etiology, diagnosis, and therapeutic options regarding this voice disorder. Literature review and case studies. The literature pertaining to all clinical aspects of V(D) was reviewed to define diagnostic and therapeutic clinical decision making. Ventricular dysphonia is characterized by a typical rough, low-pitched voice quality resulting from false vocal fold vibration. Ventricular dysphonia may be compensatory when true vocal folds are affected (resection, paralysis). Noncompensatory types may be of habitual, psychoemotional, or idiopathic origin. Because perceptual symptoms may vary considerably, diagnosis should rely on a meticulous voice assessment, including laryngeal videostroboscopic, perceptual, aerodynamic, and acoustic evaluation. Various therapeutic approaches for the noncompensatory type of ventricular dysphonia may be considered: voice therapy, psychotherapy, anesthetic or botulinum toxin injections, or surgery. The study presents the state of the art with respect to ventricular dysphonia and may be helpful in diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making.

  18. Learning to Eat: Behavioral and Psychological Aspects.

    PubMed

    Birch, Leann L

    2016-01-01

    Because infants are totally dependent upon parents (or other caregivers) for care and sustenance, parents' feeding practices are a key feature of the family environments in which infants and young children learn about food and eating. Feeding practices include not only what the child is fed, but also the how, when, why and how much of feeding. Extensive evidence indicates that parenting behavior influences a variety of child outcomes, including cognitive and socioemotional development, as well as the development of self-regulatory skills. The focus of this chapter is on what is known about how parenting, particularly feeding practices, influences the early development of several aspects of children's eating behavior, including the acquisition of food preferences, self-regulatory skills, children's reactivity to food cues, satiety responsiveness and 'picky eating'. It is argued that traditional feeding practices, which evolved to protect children from environmental threats and ensure adequate intake in the context of food scarcity, can be maladaptive in current environments. An evidence base is needed to inform public policy to reduce early obesity risk in current environments, where too much palatable food is a major threat to child health. Results of recent research provides evidence that promoting responsive feeding practices can alter the development of eating behavior, sleep patterns and early self-regulatory skills, as well as reduce early obesity risk. © 2016 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

    PubMed

    Ozonoff, D

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, (1) causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. (2) This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

  20. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ozonoff, D.

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

  1. Aspects of higher training in emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kilroy, D

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To devise and develop a structured questionnaire addressing important issues relating to specialist registrar training in emergency medicine in the UK, and to then administer this questionnaire nationally to higher trainees in order to establish current practice and opinion regarding those issues. Methods: Informal interviews with current trainees were undertaken to identify themes which might be of wider importance in relation to training. The transcriptions were incorporated into a discussion questionnaire which was circulated to other trainees and to members of the Joint Committee on Higher Training in Accident and Emergency. A postal survey was developed from this draft and distributed to all trainees currently registered with the Faculty of Accident and Emergency Medicine. Results: The response rate was 75%. Collective responses to certain aspects of training are demonstrated in order to reflect current practice and opinion among UK specialist registrars and to allow further debate. Conclusion: Development of a structured questionnaire allows issues in relation to training in emergency medicine to be assessed. The findings of the survey allow national data to be presented which will be of interest to trainees and trainers in the UK as well as overseas. PMID:12954958

  2. Corrosion and other electrochemical aspects of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Bundy, K J

    1994-01-01

    Metallic materials are used extensively as orthopedic implants, dental materials, sensing elements of bioelectrodes, and other applications. The electrochemical behavior of these biomaterials is of interest for a variety of reasons. The corrosion resistance of an implant material influences its functional performance and durability and is a primary factor governing biocompatibility. Among the aspects affecting biocompatibility are the amounts and forms of released corrosion products and their disposition in the body after release. Electrochemical principles are very useful for understanding the factors affecting corrosion resistance and also form the foundation for many biosensors that measure the concentration of various chemical entities (including released corrosion products and naturally occurring substances). Many electrochemical measurement techniques have been used to study biomaterials for years (e.g., polarization curve measurement), while others (such as polarography and AC impedance methods) have been applied more recently. This work focuses on four main topics. The first is the nature of the body's environment as it affects in vivo electrochemical phenomena, that is, the chemical, mechanical, biological, and bioelectrical phenomena that affect the behavior and performance of biomaterials. The second deals with methodology--the techniques used for corrosion measurement and concentration determination, the appropriate environment (laboratory, cell culture, in vivo, etc.), and experimental problems encountered. The third topic treated is the knowledge accumulated regarding the performance of implant alloys in various applications, for example, the forms of corrosion to which they are susceptible, etc. Finally, improvements that may come about in the future regarding both materials and testing methodology are considered.

  3. Cardiometabolic Aspects of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bee K.; Weickert, Martin O.; Lois, Konstantinos; Nestler, John E.; Sattar, Naveed; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age and is associated with various metabolic perturbations, in addition to chronic anovulation and factors related to androgen excess. In general, women live longer than men and develop cardiovascular disease at an older age. However, women with PCOS, as compared with age- and body mass index-matched women without the syndrome, appear to have a higher risk of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and an increased prothrombotic state, possibly resulting in a higher rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus, fatty liver disease, subclinical atherosclerosis, vascular dysfunction, and finally cardiovascular disease and mortality. Further alterations in PCOS include an increased prevalence of sleep apnea, as well as various changes in the secretion and/or function of adipokines, adipose tissue-derived proinflammatory factors and gut hormones, all of them with direct or indirect influences on the complex signaling network that regulates metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and energy homeostasis. Reviews on the cardiometabolic aspects of PCOS are rare, and our knowledge from recent studies is expanding rapidly. Therefore, it is the aim of the present review to discuss and to summarize the current knowledge, focusing on the alterations of cardiometabolic factors in women with PCOS. Further insight into this network of factors may facilitate finding therapeutic targets that should ameliorate not only ovarian dysfunction but also the various cardiometabolic alterations related to the syndrome. PMID:22829562

  4. Radiological and practical aspects of body packing

    PubMed Central

    Reginelli, A; Pinto, F; Sica, G; Scaglione, M; Berger, F H; Romano, L; Brunese, L

    2014-01-01

    Body packing represents the concealment of illegal substances in a person's body with the aim of smuggling. “Body packers” either swallow drug-filled packets or introduce drug-filled packets into their bodies rectally or vaginally with the purpose of concealing them. The three main smuggled drugs are cocaine, heroin and cannabis products. Body packing represents a serious risk of acute narcotic toxicity from drug exposure, intestinal obstruction owing to pellet impaction and bowel perforation with consequent abdominal sepsis. A suspected body packer is generally admitted to hospital to perform imaging investigations and confirm the presence of drugs in his/her body. Radiological imaging methods are essential to diagnose body packing and to detect potential complications. Increasing sophistication of traffickers and improvements in packaging add to the detection difficulty. Radiologists should be aware of the appearance of drug packets in a range of imaging modalities. This article informs physicians about the challenging aspects of body packing, its background and medicolegal issues, what imaging methods can be used and what criteria are necessary to perform a correct diagnosis. PMID:24472727

  5. Ricin Toxicity: Clinical and Molecular Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Hamid, Fatemeh; Etemad, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinuscommunis L (CB) contain ricin toxin (RT), one of the most poisonous naturally-occurring substances known. Ricin toxin, a water-soluble glycoprotein that does not partition into the oil extract, is a ribosome-inactivating toxin composed of two chains, labeled A and B. Severity of the toxicity varies depending on the route of exposure to the toxin. Inhalational is the most toxic route, followed by oral ingestion. Orally-ingested RT accumulates in the liver and spleen but other cells are also affected. The main clinical manifestations are also related to the administration route. Oral ingestion of CB or RT results in abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and various types of gastrointestinal bleeding that leading to volume depletion, hypovolemic shock, and renal failure. Inhalation of the toxin presents with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, diffuse necrotizing pneumonia, interstitial and alveolar inflammation, and edema. Local injection of RT induces indurations at the injection site, swelling of regional lymph nodes, hypotension, and death. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to detect RT in animal tissues and fluids. Ricinine, an alkaloid of CB, can be detected in rat urine within 48 h of RT exposure. Supportive care is the basic treatment and standard biowarfare decontamination protocols are used for RT intoxication. Dexamethasone and difluoromethylornithine might be effective treatments. This review examines the clinical and molecular aspects of ricin toxicity. PMID:27536698

  6. Organization and developmental aspects of lymphatic vessels.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Osamu; Ohtani, Yuko

    2008-05-01

    The lymphatic system plays important roles in maintaining tissue fluid homeostasis, immune surveillance of the body, and the taking up dietary fat and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. The lymphatic system is involved in many pathological conditions, including lymphedema, inflammatory diseases, and tumor dissemination. A clear understanding of the organization of the lymphatic vessels in normal conditions would be critically important to develop new treatments for diseases involving the lymphatic vascular system. Therefore, the present paper reviews the organization of the lymphatic vascular system of a variety of organs, including the thyroid gland, lung and pleura, small intestine, cecum and colon in the rat, the diaphragm in the rat, monkey, and human, Peyer's patches and the appendix in the rabbit, and human tonsils. Methods employed include scanning electron microscopy of lymphatic corrosion casts and tissues with or without treatment of alkali maceration technique, transmission electron microscopy of intact tissues, confocal microscopy in conjunction with immunohistochemistry to some lymphatic-specific markers (i.e., LYVE-1 and VEGFR-3), and light microscopy in conjunction with enzyme-histochemistry to 5'-nucleotidase. Some developmental aspects of the lymphatic vessels and lymphedema are also discussed.

  7. [Medical and behavioural aspects of Angelman syndrome].

    PubMed

    Artigas-Pallarés, J; Brun-Gasca, C; Gabau-Vila, E; Guitart-Feliubadaló, M; Camprubí-Sánchez, C

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetically-based disorder that is characterised by a physical and behavioural phenotype. Additionally, it presents a number of different systemic conditions that must also be taken into account. To evaluate the symptomatic spectrum of AS, we sought the aid of families linked to AS associations by sending them a questionnaire designed to investigate the clinical characteristics of AS. The families were sent a questionnaire aimed at determining the medical and behavioural characteristics of AS. Results from 68 patients were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.8 years. The first symptoms that called parents' attention were feeding problems, followed by gastroesophageal reflux and hypotonia. The mean age at which patients were capable of maintaining a sitting posture was 18 months, while autonomous walking was not achieved until 43 months. Epilepsy, which was present in 91% of cases, began with febrile seizures in 55% of patients. In this study we found that a high percentage of patients with AS have a high resistance to pain (67%), a very common symptom in Prader-Willi syndrome, but little known in AS. This study offers a wide array of information about the clinical spectrum of AS obtained from an extensive populational sample. Some highly prevalent clinical aspects, such as the relative insensitivity to pain, have not been reported in previous publications as a symptom that is typical of AS.

  8. LDL-Apheresis: Technical and Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bambauer, Rolf; Bambauer, Carolin; Lehmann, Boris; Latza, Reinhard; Schiel, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis of patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia, sometimes combined with elevated lipoprotein (a) levels, and coronary heart disease refractory to diet and lipid-lowering drugs is poor. For such patients, regular treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is the therapeutic option. Today, there are five different LDL-apheresis systems available: cascade filtration or lipid filtration, immunoadsorption, heparin-induced LDL precipitation, dextran sulfate LDL adsorption, and the LDL hemoperfusion. There is a strong correlation between hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Besides the elimination of other risk factors, in severe hyperlipidemia therapeutic strategies should focus on a drastic reduction of serum lipoproteins. Despite maximum conventional therapy with a combination of different kinds of lipid-lowering drugs, sometimes the goal of therapy cannot be reached. Hence, in such patients, treatment with LDL-apheresis is indicated. Technical and clinical aspects of these five different LDL-apheresis methods are shown here. There were no significant differences with respect to or concerning all cholesterols, or triglycerides observed. With respect to elevated lipoprotein (a) levels, however, the immunoadsorption method seems to be most effective. The different published data clearly demonstrate that treatment with LDL-apheresis in patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia refractory to maximum conservative therapy is effective and safe in long-term application. PMID:22654591

  9. Manual control aspects of orbital flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of spacecraft rendezvous and docking operations began in the Gemini program in preparation for the two dockings required to send a crew to the moon and return them safely to Earth. However, the goal of getting to the moon before the end of the decade was of greater concern than mission optimization so little or no time or money was expended in researching human factors implications of operational aspects such as braking gates or control modes. Also, with sixteen operational dockings over a six year period (12 Apollo, 3 Skylab, and 1 ASTP) in the United States space program, economies of scale were not yet available to justify extensive research into decreasing the time or fuel necessary for a successful docking. With an operational space station era approaching in which orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), orbital transfer vehicle (OTV), shuttle orbiter, and other traffic will play a major role, a concerted research effort now could help avoid many potential problems later in addition to increasing safety, fuel economy, and productivity. A knowledge of manual control capabilities associated with piloted spaceflight could help save a life if the operational flight envelope can be safely enlarged to include faster dockings that currently envisioned. For example, current and future research is designed to acquire the appropriate information.

  10. Neutronic aspects of a DHCE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Tsai, H.; Smith, D.L.

    1998-03-01

    The DHCE (Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment) irradiation experiment was conceived to simulate fusion-relevant helium production in a fission reactor irradiation. The main objective is to maintain the Helium-to-DPA ratio at, roughly, the same level as expected in a fusion environment. The problem in fission reactor irradiation is that Helium production is very low, because the fission neutrons, for basically all structural materials relevant for fusion applications, do not have enough energy to trigger the Helium producing reactions. A DHCE experiment involves the decay of Tritium to Helium-3 to produce the required Helium during irradiation. This paper describes an analysis of the most important aspects of a DHCE experiment and compares different types of fission reactors and their suitability for performing such an experiment. It is concluded that DHCE experiments are feasible in a certain class of mixed-spectrum fission reactors, but a careful and detailed evaluation, for each facility and condition, must be performed to ensure the success of the experiment.

  11. Semiconductor photocatalysis--mechanistic and synthetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Kisch, Horst

    2013-01-14

    Preceding work on photoelectrochemistry at semiconductor single-crystal electrodes has formed the basis for the tremendous growth in the three last decades in the field of photocatalysis at semiconductor powders. The reason for this is the unique ability of inorganic semiconductor surfaces to photocatalyze concerted reduction and oxidation reactions of a large variety of electron-donor and -acceptor substrates. Whereas great attention was paid to water splitting and the exhaustive aerobic degradation of pollutants, only a small amount of research also explored synthetic aspects. After introducing the basic mechanistic principles, standard experiments for the preparation and characterization of visible light active photocatalysts as well as the investigation of reaction mechanisms are discussed. Novel atom-economic C-C and C-N coupling reactions illustrate the relevance of semiconductor photocatalysis for organic synthesis, and demonstrate that the multidisciplinary field combines classical photochemistry with electrochemistry, solid-state chemistry, and heterogeneous catalysis. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Chronohygienic and chronosocial aspects of industrial accidents.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak-Jaroszowa, J; Jarosz, D

    1987-01-01

    A series of 2,772 accidents has been analyzed in two plants. The following aspects were considered: 1) environmental circumstances, 2) accident causes as given by witnesses or victims, and 3) time of day. Activity of the plants or particular groups of workers was assessed by supervisors on a 10-point scale. A circadian rhythm of accidents has been shown. It was determined to be governed by the interrelationships between the following endogenous and exogenous rhythmic factors: human factors, such as fatigue and circadian fluctuation of biological functions; and multiple hygienic and social components, which either promote human performance or suppress it, e.g., high environmental temperature, overcrowding, and noise. The rate of accidents depends on the particular combinations of these factors, all of which change around the clock. In both plants, the circadian rhythm of accidents was approximately parallel to the circadian rhythm of activity of the plant as a whole rather than to the activity of shift workers only, with a peak around 1100 hr. The lowest number of accidents was noted during night shifts; some increase was observed after midnight, however, in spite of the lowest level of plant activity at that time.

  13. Breast Cancer 2012 – New Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kolberg, H.-C.; Lüftner, D.; Lux, M. P.; Maass, N.; Schütz, F.; Fasching, P. A.; Fehm, T.; Janni, W.; Kümmel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials. PMID:25324576

  14. [Some clinical aspects of sodium homeostasis disorders].

    PubMed

    Sulyok, Endre

    2013-09-22

    In this review three major issues of sodium homeostasis are addressed. Specifically, volume-dependent (salt-sensitive) hypertension, sodium chloride content of maintenance fluid and clinical evaluation of hyponatremia are discussed. Regarding volume-dependent hypertension the endocrine/paracrine systems mediating renal sodium retention, the relationship between salt intake, plasma sodium levels and blood pressure, as well as data on the dissociation of sodium and volume regulation are presented. The concept of perinatal programming of salt-preference is also mentioned. Some theoretical and practical aspects of fluid therapy are summarized with particular reference to using hypotonic sodium chloride solution for maintenance fluid as opposed to the currently proposed isotonic sodium chloride solution. Furthermore, the incidence, the aetiological classification and central nervous system complications of hyponatremia are presented, too. In addition, clinical and pathophysical features of hyponatremic encephalophathy and osmotic demyelinisation are given. The adaptive reactions of the brain to hypotonic stress are also described with particular emphasis on the role of brain-specific water channel proteins (aquaporin-4) and the benzamil-inhibitable sodium channels. In view of the outmost clinical significance of hyponatremia, the principles of efficient and safe therapeutic approaches are outlined.

  15. Computational and Practical Aspects of Drug Repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Oprea, Tudor I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The concept of the hypothesis-driven or observational-based expansion of the therapeutic application of drugs is very seductive. This is due to a number of factors, such as lower cost of development, higher probability of success, near-term clinical potential, patient and societal benefit, and also the ability to apply the approach to rare, orphan, and underresearched diseases. Another highly attractive aspect is that the “barrier to entry” is low, at least in comparison to a full drug discovery operation. The availability of high-performance computing, and databases of various forms have also enhanced the ability to pose reasonable and testable hypotheses for drug repurposing, rescue, and repositioning. In this article we discuss several factors that are currently underdeveloped, or could benefit from clearer definition in articles presenting such work. We propose a classification scheme—drug repositioning evidence level (DREL)—for all drug repositioning projects, according to the level of scientific evidence. DREL ranges from zero, which refers to predictions that lack any experimental support, to four, which refers to drugs approved for the new indication. We also present a set of simple concepts that can allow rapid and effective filtering of hypotheses, leading to a focus on those that are most likely to lead to practical safe applications of an existing drug. Some promising repurposing leads for malaria (DREL-1) and amoebic dysentery (DREL-2) are discussed. PMID:26241209

  16. PERSPECTIVE: Physical aspects of cancer invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiot, Caterina; Pugno, Nicola; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2007-12-01

    Invasiveness, one of the hallmarks of tumor progression, represents the tumor's ability to expand into the host tissue by means of several complex biochemical and biomechanical processes. Since certain aspects of the problem present a striking resemblance with well-known physical mechanisms, such as the mechanical insertion of a solid inclusion in an elastic material specimen (G Eaves 1973 The invasive growth of malignant tumours as a purely mechanical process J. Pathol. 109 233; C Guiot, N Pugno and P P Delsanto 2006 Elastomechanical model of tumor invasion Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 233901) or a water drop impinging on a surface (C Guiot, P P Delsanto and T S Deisboeck 2007 Morphological instability and cancer invasion: a 'splashing water drop' analogy Theor. Biol. Med. Model 4 4), we propose here an analogy between these physical processes and a cancer system's invasive branching into the surrounding tissue. Accounting for its solid and viscous properties, we then arrive, as a unifying model, to an analogy with a granular solid. While our model has been explicitly formulated for multicellular tumor spheroids in vitro, it should also contribute to a better understanding of tumor invasion in vivo.

  17. Physiological and molecular aspects of cobalamin transport.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, Sergey N

    2012-01-01

    Minute doses of a complex cofactor cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B12) are essential for metabolism. The nutritional chain for humans includes: (1) production of Cbl by bacteria in the intestinal tract of herbivores; (2) accumulation of the absorbed Cbl in animal tissues; (3) consumption of food of animal origin. Most biological sources contain both Cbl and its analogues, i.e. Cbl-resembling compounds physiologically inactive in animal cells. Selective assimilation of the true vitamin requires an interplay between three transporting proteins - haptocorrin (HC), intrinsic factor (IF), transcobalamin (TC) - and several receptors. HC is present in many biological fluids, including gastric juice, where it assists in disposal of analogues. Gastric IF selectively binds dietary Cbl and enters the intestinal cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Absorbed Cbl is transmitted to TC and delivered to the tissues with blood flow. The complex transport system guarantees a very efficient uptake of the vitamin, but failure at any link causes Cbl-deficiency. Early detection of a negative B12 balance is highly desirable to prevent irreversible neurological damages, anaemia and death in aggravated cases. The review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of cobalamin transport with emphasis on interaction of corrinoids with the specific proteins and protein-receptor recognition. The last section briefly describes practical aspects of recent basic research concerning early detection of B12-related disorders, medical application of Cbl-conjugates, and purification of corrinoids from biological samples.

  18. Abortion for fetal CNS malformations: religious aspects.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2003-08-01

    Abortion is one of the most widely discussed medical-ethical subjects in medical, legal, philosophical, and religious literature as well as in the lay press. There is hardly a religion or country in the world that is not currently concerned about this issue. The complexity of the topic relates to the fact that it deals with a being that is close to us but not identical to us. On the other hand, the fetus is not like a plant or even like a living being in the animal kingdom. Yet the fetus is not a complete and independent human being either. There are strongly opposing philosophical/religious viewpoints on abortion. On the one hand, pro-life groups and the Roman Catholic Church absolutely oppose abortion. They view the fetus as a full and independent human being, with absolute rights equal to those of the mother. According to this view, the right of the fetus to life can never be disregarded, and abortion is viewed as murder. On the other hand, the permissive, feminist, liberal view, emphasizes the basic right of a woman over her body. This right justifies abortion on demand solely dependent on the woman's wishes at any stage of pregnancy and for any reason whatsoever. This view totally ignores the rights of the fetus and views it as a part of the mother's body. This article deals with some aspects of the approaches of various religions to abortion due to fetal indications, in particular the Jewish viewpoint.

  19. Functional aspects of redox control during neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Reiter, Russel J; Tan, Dun-Xian; Ortiz, Genaro G; Lopez-Armas, Gabriela

    2010-07-15

    Neuroinflammation is a CNS reaction to injury in which some severe pathologies, regardless of their origin, converge. The phenomenon emphasizes crosstalk between neurons and glia and reveals a complex interaction with oxidizing agents through redox sensors localized in enzymes, receptors, and transcription factors. When oxidizing pressures cause reversible molecular changes, such as minimal or transitory proinflammatory cytokine overproduction, redox couples provide a means of translating the presence of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species into useful signals in the cell. Additionally, thiol-based redox sensors convey information about localized changes in redox potential induced by physiologic or pathologic situations. They are susceptible to oxidative changes and become key events during neuroinflammation, altering the course of a signaling response or the behavior of specific transcription factors. When oxidative stress augments the pressure on the intracellular environment, the effective reduction potential of redox pairs diminishes, and cell signaling shifts toward proinflammatory and proapoptotic signals, creating a vicious cycle between oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. In addition, electrophilic compounds derived from the oxidative cascade react with key protein thiols and interfere with redox signaling. This article reviews the relevant functional aspects of redox control during the neuroinflammatory process.

  20. Obesity and shift work: chronobiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Antunes, L C; Levandovski, R; Dantas, G; Caumo, W; Hidalgo, M P

    2010-06-01

    The present review has the objective of summarising chronobiological aspects of shift work and obesity. There was a systematic search in PubMed databases, using the following descriptors: shift work; obesity; biological clock. Shift work is extremely frequent in several services and industries, in order to systematise the needs for flexibility of the workforce, necessary to optimise productivity and business competitiveness. In developing countries, this population represents a considerable contingent workforce. Recently, studies showed that overweight and obesity are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. In addition, the literature shows that shift workers seem to gain weight more often than those workers submitted to a usual work day. In conclusion, there is considerable epidemiological evidence that shift work is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes and CVD, perhaps as a result of physiological maladaptation to chronically sleeping and eating at abnormal circadian times. The impact of shift work on metabolism supports a possible pathway to the development of obesity and its co-morbities. The present review demonstrated the adverse cardiometabolic implications of circadian misalignment, as occurs chronically with shift workers.

  1. Test aspects of the JPL Viterbi decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breuer, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The generation of test vectors and design-for-test aspects of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Viterbi decoder chip is discussed. Each processor integrated circuit (IC) contains over 20,000 gates. To achieve a high degree of testability, a scan architecture is employed. The logic has been partitioned so that very few test vectors are required to test the entire chip. In addition, since several blocks of logic are replicated numerous times on this chip, test vectors need only be generated for each block, rather than for the entire circuit. These unique blocks of logic have been identified and test sets generated for them. The approach employed for testing was to use pseudo-exhaustive test vectors whenever feasible. That is, each cone of logid is tested exhaustively. Using this approach, no detailed logic design or fault model is required. All faults which modify the function of a block of combinational logic are detected, such as all irredundant single and multiple stuck-at faults.

  2. Computational and Practical Aspects of Drug Repositioning.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Tudor I; Overington, John P

    2015-01-01

    The concept of the hypothesis-driven or observational-based expansion of the therapeutic application of drugs is very seductive. This is due to a number of factors, such as lower cost of development, higher probability of success, near-term clinical potential, patient and societal benefit, and also the ability to apply the approach to rare, orphan, and underresearched diseases. Another highly attractive aspect is that the "barrier to entry" is low, at least in comparison to a full drug discovery operation. The availability of high-performance computing, and databases of various forms have also enhanced the ability to pose reasonable and testable hypotheses for drug repurposing, rescue, and repositioning. In this article we discuss several factors that are currently underdeveloped, or could benefit from clearer definition in articles presenting such work. We propose a classification scheme-drug repositioning evidence level (DREL)-for all drug repositioning projects, according to the level of scientific evidence. DREL ranges from zero, which refers to predictions that lack any experimental support, to four, which refers to drugs approved for the new indication. We also present a set of simple concepts that can allow rapid and effective filtering of hypotheses, leading to a focus on those that are most likely to lead to practical safe applications of an existing drug. Some promising repurposing leads for malaria (DREL-1) and amoebic dysentery (DREL-2) are discussed.

  3. Clinical and molecular aspects of severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Kirchgatter, Karin; Del Portillo, Hernando A

    2005-09-01

    The erythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum presents a particularity in relation to other Plasmodium species that infect man. Mature trophozoites and schizonts are sequestered from the peripheral circulation due to adhesion of infected erythrocytes to host endothelial cells. Modifications in the surface of infected erythrocytes, termed knobs, seem to facilitate adhesion to endothelium and other erythrocytes. Adhesion provides better maturation in the microaerophilic venous atmosphere and allows the parasite to escape clearance by the spleen which recognizes the erythrocytes loss of deformability. Adhesion to the endothelium, or cytoadherence, has an important role in the pathogenicity of the disease, causing occlusion of small vessels and contributing to failure of many organs. Cytoadherence can also describe adhesion of infected erythrocytes to uninfected erythrocytes, a phenomenon widely known as rosetting. Clinical aspects of severe malaria, as well as the host receptors and parasite ligands involved in cytoadherence and rosetting, are reviewed here. The erythrocyte membrane protein 1 of P. falciparum (PfEMP1) appears to be the principal adhesive ligand of infected erythrocytes and will be discussed in more detail. Understanding the role of host receptors and parasite ligands in the development of different clinical syndromes is urgently needed to identify vaccination targets in order to decrease the mortality rates of this disease.

  4. Teaching the Ethical Aspects of Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkas, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental and societal issues are often inherently linked, especially in coastal and estuarine environments, and science and social values must often be balanced in ecosystem management and decision-making. A new seminar course has been developed for the Marine Estuarine and Environmental Science (MEES) graduate program, an inter-institutional program within the University System of Maryland, to examine these issues. This 1-credit course, offered for the first time in Spring 2015, takes a complex systems perspective on major environmental and societal challenges to examine these linked issues in a variety of contexts. After a brief introduction to the emerging field of "geoethics," students develop a list of issues to examine throughout the seminar. Example topics could include fracking, offshore wind technology, dam removal, and iron fertilization, among others. A case-study approach is taken, with each class meeting focusing on one issue. For each case study, students are asked to 1) identify relevant scientific principles and major knowledge gaps, 2) predict potential outcomes, 3) identify stakeholders and likely viewpoints, and 4) construct communication plans to disseminate findings to these stakeholders. At the end of the semester, students give a brief presentation of the ethical aspects of their own research topics.

  5. [Multiple homicides--forensic and criminologic aspects].

    PubMed

    Padosch, Stephan A; Schmidt, Peter H; Rothschild, Markus A; Madea, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    The interpretation of medicolegal findings in homicide is an important tool of case profiling (so-called "operative case analysis"). In 17 cases of "multiple homicides" involving 22 offenders (21 males, 1 female; mean age 33 years) and 45 victims (21 males, 24 females; mean age 35 years; 41 fatalities, 4 survivors), the autopsy reports and the prosecution authorities' files were retrospectively analysed with regard to individual characteristics of perpetrators and victims, circumstances, and mode of commitment in order to comprehensively characterise relevant forensic and criminologic aspects. 31 victims were found to belong to the close social environment of the perpetrator, and 32 killings were committed in the victim's, perpetrator's or the joint flat. The main motives included greed (n = 7), personal conflicts (n = 5) and concealing of a crime (n = 9). The relevant injuries were attributable to gunshot wounds (n = 13), sharp force (n = 11), blunt force (n = 3), ligature strangulation (n = 3), smothering (n = 6), fire/carbon monoxide (n = 2) and combined impacts (n = 7). In 12 victims, defense injuries were found. The blood alcohol concentration exceeded 1.5 g/l in 5 victims. In 5 offenders, a psychiatric impairment of juridical responsibility was assessed (and 20 German criminal code, n = 1, psychosis; and 21 German criminal code, n = 4; acute alcohol intoxication). As far as data were available, 16 crimes were judged as murder, 12 as manslaughter and one as physical injury with fatal outcome.

  6. Imagery intelligence from low altitudes: chosen aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczykowski, P.; Kedzierski, M.

    2017-04-01

    Remote acquisition of information about phenomena and objects from an imagery is the main objective of remote sensing. The ability to realize aims of image intelligence depends on the quality of acquired remote sensing data. The imagery intelligence can be carried out from different altitudes- from satellite level to terrestrial platforms. In this article, authors are focused on chosen aspects of imagery intelligence from low altitudes. Unfortunately the term low altitudes is not precise defined, therefore, for the purpose of this article is assumed that low altitudes, are altitudes in which operate the mini unmanned aerial vehicles (mini UAVs).The quality of imagery acquired determines the level of analysis that can be performed. The imagery quality depends on many factors, such as platforms on which the sensor is mounted, imaging sensors, height from which the data are acquired and object that is investigated. The article will also present the methods for assessing the quality of imagery in terms of detection, identification, description and technical analysis of investigated objects, as well as in terms of the accuracy of their location in the images (targeting).

  7. Clinical and Neurobiological Aspects of Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Nishino, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy and/or other dissociated manifestations of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis). Narcolepsy is currently treated with amphetamine-like central nervous system (CNS) stimulants (for EDS) and antidepressants (for cataplexy). Some other classes of compounds such as modafinil (a non-amphetamine wake-promoting compound for EDS) and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, a short-acting sedative for EDS/fragmented nighttime sleep and cataplexy) given at night are also employed. The major pathophysiology of human narcolepsy has been recently elucidated based on the discovery of narcolepsy genes in animals. Using forward (i.e., positional cloning in canine narcolepsy) and reverse (i.e., mouse gene knockout) genetics, the genes involved in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy (hypocretin/orexin ligand and its receptor) in animals have been identified. Hypocretins/orexins are novel hypothalamic neuropeptides also involved in various hypothalamic functions such as energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine functions. Mutations in hypocretin-related genes are rare in humans, but hypocretin-ligand deficiency is found in many narcolepsy-cataplexy cases. In this review, the clinical, pathophysiological and pharmacological aspects of narcolepsy are discussed. PMID:17470414

  8. Conformal aspects of Spinor-Vector duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraggi, Alon E.; Florakis, Ioannis; Mohaupt, Thomas; Tsulaia, Mirian

    2011-07-01

    We present a detailed study of various aspects of Spinor-Vector duality in Heterotic string compactifications and expose its origin in terms of the internal conformal field theory. In particular, we illustrate the main features of the duality map by using simple toroidal orbifolds preserving N=1 and N=2 spacetime supersymmetries in four dimensions. We explain how the duality map arises in this context by turning on special values of the Wilson lines around the compact cycles of the manifold. We argue that in models with N=2 spacetime supersymmetry, the interpolation between the Spinor-Vector dual vacua can be continuously realized. We trace the origin of the Spinor-Vector duality map to the presence of underlying N=(2,2) and N=(4,4) SCFTs, and explicitly show that the induced spectral flow in the twisted sectors is responsible for the observed duality. The isomorphism between current algebra representations gives rise to a number of chiral character identities, reminiscent of the recently-discovered MSDS symmetry.

  9. Maintenance aspects of boiler tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, B.; McNaughton, W.

    1996-07-01

    Boiler tube failures (BTF) remain the number one availability problem in the fossil-fueled power industry. The authors have recently prepared a three-volume book on all aspects of BTF. One of the key areas in the ultimate alleviation of tube failures is proper maintenance activities. This paper thoroughly reviews the areas where improper maintenance leads directly to repeat failures. Problems typically develop from: (i) improper chemical cleaning, (ii) improper repairs, such as the use of palliative or {open_quotes}band-aid{close_quotes} repairs: coatings, pad welding, weld overlay, improper welding activities etc., or (iii) improperly executed maintenance procedures such as can occur with sootblowing. The paper discusses these three topics as they pertain to boiler tube failures. Also discussed are five boiler tube failure mechanisms and how they are influenced by maintenance activities: (i) flyash erosion, (ii) waterwall underdeposit corrosion mechanisms, (iii) short-term overheating in waterwalls, (iv) short-term overheating in SH/RH tubes, and (v) damage directly induced by maintenance operations. A vision of where the authors expect the industry will move over the next five years is presented.

  10. Notable Aspects of Glycan-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    This mini review highlights several interesting aspects of glycan-mediated interactions that are common between cells, bacteria, and viruses. Glycans are ubiquitously found on all living cells, and in the extracellular milieu of multicellular organisms. They are known to mediate initial binding and recognition events of both immune cells and pathogens with their target cells or tissues. The host target tissues are hidden under a layer of secreted glycosylated decoy targets. In addition, pathogens can utilize and display host glycans to prevent identification as foreign by the host’s immune system (molecular mimicry). Both the host and pathogens continually evolve. The host evolves to prevent infection and the pathogens evolve to evade host defenses. Many pathogens express both glycan-binding proteins and glycosidases. Interestingly, these proteins are often located at the tip of elongated protrusions in bacteria, or in the leading edge of the cell. Glycan-protein interactions have low affinity and, as a result, multivalent interactions are often required to achieve biologically relevant binding. These enable dynamic forms of adhesion mechanisms, reviewed here, and include rolling (cells), stick and roll (bacteria) or surfacing (viruses). PMID:26340640

  11. Some structural aspects of urbanization in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, M; Hailemariam, A

    1987-07-01

    This article studies the emerging patterns of urbanization in Ethiopia. Over the period from 1967-1984, a number of structural changes have occurred which are likely to play a dominant role in the future urban growth in Ethiopia. In spite of its long history of settled population, Ethiopia did not witness sustained growth of urban centers. Ethiopia is 1 of the least urbanized areas in the Third World. A 3rd aspect of urbanization in Ethiopia is the wide range of regional differentials in the level of urbanization. Most of the urban population is concentrated in 2 administrative regions--Shoa and Eritrea. A more balanced urban growth may, inter alia, involve a better spread in terms of higher education, industrialization, provision of health and social services, and the development of communication and commercial infrastructure. Another striking feature of urbanization in Ethiopia is that growth has not been disproportionately concentrated in the largest urban centers. The largest urban centers have not assumed an inordinately higher level of primacy. The basic form of the curve depicting the relationship between the size of a locality and its rank has remained unchanged over the period. The post-revolution land reforms and the new socioeconomic structure emerging from reorganization of the society appear to have a rural-urban migration inhibiting effect. Some of the country's regional differentials may be associated with environmental factors.

  12. [Clinical and radiological aspects of mucormycosis].

    PubMed

    Herbrecht, Raoul; Sabou, Marcela; Ledoux, Marie-Pierre

    2013-03-01

    Mucormycosis is an infection caused by filamentous fungi of the Mucorales order. The predisposing factors are mostly diabetic ketoacidosis and severe immunosuppressive conditions such as prolonged neutropenia, steroid or T-cell suppressor therapy, solid organ transplantation or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Mucormycosis can also occur in immunocompetent patients, especially after trauma, burns or direct inoculation of the fungi (e.g. intravenous drug abuse). The most frequently targeted primary sites of infection are sinuses with a rapid spread to the adjacent tissues including the brain, the lower respiratory tract, the digestive tract and the skin. Mucorales are able to invade the vessels causing hematogenous dissemination, vascular thrombosis and, ultimately, necrosis of the lesions. Clinical and radiological aspects are similar to those observed in other invasive filamentous fungi infections such as invasive aspergillosis, fusariosis or scedosporiosis. CT-scan or MRI are mandatory to assess the extension of the lesions. The diagnosis remains difficult and is often delayed resulting in a poor outcome. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  13. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  14. Instrumental aspects of Simulated Moving Bed chromatography.

    PubMed

    Faria, Rui P V; Rodrigues, Alírio E

    2015-11-20

    The Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) is one of the greatest illustrations of the potential of continuous multicolumn counter-current chromatographic processes. Although it was initially developed for the purification of petrochemicals, the advances that this technology has experienced during more than 50 years of existence were at the basis of its successful expansion into the food and pharmaceuticals industries. In this context, the present work provides an overview of the evolution of SMB focused on the most relevant instrumental aspects related with this technology. For that purpose, the details of the design and construction of this equipment will be reviewed, with special attention to the valves design. Due to its increasing interest, the technical requirements imposed by unconventional operating modes will be addressed together with the design adaptations that allow the operation of SMB units with compressible fluids and the implementation of Hybrid-SMB processes. Finally, as SMB technology has been unable to meet all the process specifications within the growing biopharmaceuticals industry, the development of alternative multicolumn counter-current units has intensified over the last few years. Hence, examples of the design and application of these new units will be provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Safe eye surgery: non-technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Azuara-Blanco, A; Reddy, A; Wilkinson, G; Flin, R

    2011-09-01

    The traditional training of surgeons focused exclusively on developing knowledge, clinical expertise, and technical (surgical) skills. However, analyses of the reasons for adverse events in surgery have revealed that many underlying causes originate from behavioural or non-technical aspects of performance (eg, poor communication among members of the surgical team) rather than from a lack of surgical (ie, technical) skills. Therefore, technical skills appear to be necessary but not sufficient to ensure patient safety. Paying attention to non-technical skills, such as team working, leadership, situation awareness, decision making, and communication, will increase the likelihood of maintaining high levels of error-free performance. Identification and training of non-technical skills has been developed for high-risk careers, such as civil aviation and nuclear power. Only recently, training in non-technical skills has been adopted by the surgical world and anaesthetists. Non-technical skills need to be tailored to the environment where they are used, and eye surgery has some substantial differences compared with other surgical areas, for example, high volume of surgery, use of local anaesthetics, and very sophisticated equipment. This review highlights the need for identification of the non-technical skills relevant to eye surgeons and promotion of their use in the training of eye surgeons.

  16. Some prelinguistic aspects of language development.

    PubMed

    Call, J D

    1980-01-01

    Most studies of language acquisition since Chomsky's break-through in linguistics have all utilized as a theoretical base various theories of cognitive development out of which words, phrases, and meanings are created. This study attempts to outline the underpinnings of language ontogenetically and to show the role of affective engagements with caretakers. Some of the prelinguistic aspects of language development are examined in relation to the volution of language function. The newborn infant engages and terminates visual, kinesthetic, oral, and sound reciprocity with the mother, as shown in the cough-smile game, thus providing the infant a significant measure of control over these reciprocal exchanges. The social smile, modulations thereof, and the face itself become organizers of meaningful vocalization, a focal point around which phonemes emerge from the mutuality of the mother-infant relationship. The evolution and meaning of the pointing gesture as it relates to language functioning and to the stages of separation-individuation is discussed. It is suggested that the child's capacity to evaluate the context of utterances in relation to dynamically integrated facial-vocal configurations with familiar caretakers provides the basis for the development of semantics and syntax in later language functioning.

  17. Blau syndrome, clinical and genetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Sfriso, Paolo; Caso, Francesco; Tognon, Sofia; Galozzi, Paola; Gava, Alessandra; Punzi, Leonardo

    2012-11-01

    Blau syndrome (BS) is a rare autosomal dominant, autoinflammatory syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of granulomatous recurrent uveitis, dermatitis and symmetric arthritis. The gene responsible for BS has been identified in the caspase recruitment domain gene CARD15/NOD2. In the majority of patients, the disease is characterized by early onset, usually before 3-4years of age. The manifestations at disease onset are usually represented by articular and cutaneous involvement signs, generally followed later by ocular manifestations which are often the most relevant morbidity of BS. In some cases the presence of fever is also observed; atypical cases of BS have been reported with cardiovascular, neurological, renal, intestinal and other organ involvement. The rarity and the variations in the severity and evolution of its expressions do not permit sufficient data about optimal treatment for patients with BS. The first step of therapy is represented by the use of corticosteroids and successively, in case of unsatisfactory response, by additional treatment with immunosuppressive agents. The results with biologic anti-cytokine agents, such as anti-TNFα and anti-IL1β, are different, particularly with regard to ocular morbidity. Clinical and genetic aspects of the familial and the sporadic form of BS will be discussed and focused on. A description of a case study of an Italian family is also included.

  18. New High Aspect-Ratio Titania Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaitescu, Eugen; Richter, Christiaan; Menon, Latika

    2007-03-01

    Titanium oxide nanotubes show great promise in photocatalytic, gas sensing, biological, and other applications. Techniques for the fabrication of titania nanotubes include electrodeposition in polymer molds starting from alumina templates, anodization of titanium in fluoride containing solutions, and hydrothermal treatment of nano- and micropowders. We have developed a new synthesis route for the production of new ultra-high aspect-ratio (over 1000:1) titania nanotubes by anodization in chloride containing acid solutions. The fabrication process occurs rapidly, in a fraction of the time when compared with other methods such as anodization in the highly toxic fluoride-containing electrolytes. We have demonstrated nanotubes with diameters as small as 25 nm, and lengths of up to 50 μm, and we have produced them with varying carbon content through the addition of organic acids in the electrolyte. This opens up new possibilities for many advanced applications of such nanotubes. Various synthesis conditions (pH, chloride content, electrolyte nature), and their influence on morphology, composition, and crystalline structure will be presented. Preliminary results on photocatalytic and transmission properties will also be discussed.

  19. Manual control aspects of orbital flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of spacecraft rendezvous and docking operations began in the Gemini program in preparation for the two dockings required to send a crew to the moon and return them safely to Earth. However, the goal of getting to the moon before the end of the decade was of greater concern than mission optimization so little or no time or money was expended in researching human factors implications of operational aspects such as braking gates or control modes. Also, with sixteen operational dockings over a six year period (12 Apollo, 3 Skylab, and 1 ASTP) in the United States space program, economies of scale were not yet available to justify extensive research into decreasing the time or fuel necessary for a successful docking. With an operational space station era approaching in which orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), orbital transfer vehicle (OTV), shuttle orbiter, and other traffic will play a major role, a concerted research effort now could help avoid many potential problems later in addition to increasing safety, fuel economy, and productivity. A knowledge of manual control capabilities associated with piloted spaceflight could help save a life if the operational flight envelope can be safely enlarged to include faster dockings that currently envisioned. For example, current and future research is designed to acquire the appropriate information.

  20. [Maternal death of obstetrical origin. Medicolegal aspects].

    PubMed

    Chevrant-Breton, O; Lebervet, J Y; Vialard, J

    1985-01-01

    The authors have become interested in maternal mortality. This study has been carried out solely to look at the medico-legal aspect. Increasingly good health is seen as a right and the doctor the dispenser of this service. The rights of the mother (and of the infant) become of increasing importance. The improvement in obstetrical techniques, which are much better known to the public, have made families far more confident of the results of delivery. This is now seen as something without any danger. But delivering a baby still has lots of risks. Because of this, if an accident happens the obstetrician more than any other doctor perhaps can find himself in the courts. To avoid this he has to know very well the causes of maternal mortality in order to avoid them as far as possible. Furthermore, he must not undertake stupid emergency measures often initiated as measures of desperation caused by his emotional involvement for a patient who is approaching death. Finally, the expert should look for all the causes of death so that he does no wrongly blame the doctor for a maternal death.

  1. Quality and safety aspects of infant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Shamir, Raanan; Ashwell, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Quality and safety aspects of infant nutrition are of key importance for child health, but oftentimes they do not get much attention by health care professionals whose interest tends to focus on functional benefits of early nutrition. Unbalanced diets and harmful food components induce particularly high risks for untoward effects in infants because of their rapid growth, high nutrient needs, and their typical dependence on only one or few foods during the first months of life. The concepts, standards and practices that relate to infant food quality and safety were discussed at a scientific workshop organized by the Child Health Foundation and the Early Nutrition Academy jointly with the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, and a summary is provided here. The participants reviewed past and current issues on quality and safety, the role of different stakeholders, and recommendations to avert future issues. It was concluded that a high level of quality and safety is currently achieved, but this is no reason for complacency. The food industry carries the primary responsibility for the safety and suitability of their products, including the quality of composition, raw materials and production processes. Introduction of new or modified products should be preceded by a thorough science based review of suitability and safety by an independent authority. Food safety events should be managed on an international basis. Global collaboration of food producers, food-safety authorities, paediatricians and scientists is needed to efficiently exchange information and to best protect public health.

  2. Poorly Understood Aspects of Striated Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Månsson, Alf

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contraction results from cyclic interactions between the contractile proteins myosin and actin, driven by the turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Despite intense studies, several molecular events in the contraction process are poorly understood, including the relationship between force-generation and phosphate-release in the ATP-turnover. Different aspects of the force-generating transition are reflected in the changes in tension development by muscle cells, myofibrils and single molecules upon changes in temperature, altered phosphate concentration, or length perturbations. It has been notoriously difficult to explain all these events within a given theoretical framework and to unequivocally correlate observed events with the atomic structures of the myosin motor. Other incompletely understood issues include the role of the two heads of myosin II and structural changes in the actin filaments as well as the importance of the three-dimensional order. We here review these issues in relation to controversies regarding basic physiological properties of striated muscle. We also briefly consider actomyosin mutation effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle function and the possibility to treat these defects by drugs. PMID:25961006

  3. Quantitative Aspects of Single Molecule Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ober, Raimund J.; Tahmasbi, Amir; Ram, Sripad; Lin, Zhiping; Ward, E. Sally

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule microscopy is a relatively new optical microscopy technique that allows the detection of individual molecules such as proteins in a cellular context. This technique has generated significant interest among biologists, biophysicists and biochemists, as it holds the promise to provide novel insights into subcellular processes and structures that otherwise cannot be gained through traditional experimental approaches. Single molecule experiments place stringent demands on experimental and algorithmic tools due to the low signal levels and the presence of significant extraneous noise sources. Consequently, this has necessitated the use of advanced statistical signal and image processing techniques for the design and analysis of single molecule experiments. In this tutorial paper, we provide an overview of single molecule microscopy from early works to current applications and challenges. Specific emphasis will be on the quantitative aspects of this imaging modality, in particular single molecule localization and resolvability, which will be discussed from an information theoretic perspective. We review the stochastic framework for image formation, different types of estimation techniques and expressions for the Fisher information matrix. We also discuss several open problems in the field that demand highly non-trivial signal processing algorithms. PMID:26167102

  4. [Cystinuria update: clinical, biochemical and genetic aspects].

    PubMed

    Orts Costa, J A; Zúñiga Cabrera, A; Martínez de la Cára y Salmerón, J

    2003-06-01

    Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder with an estimated incidence of 1 case in 7000 live births, that results in elevated urinary excretion of cystine and dibasic aminoacids: ornithine, lysine and arginine. Discussed by Sir Archibald Edward Garrod, in 1908, as one of the four first known inborn errors of metabolism, it is characterized by a defect in transport of cystine and dibasic aminoacids, that affects their reabsortion in both renal tubule and gastrointestinal tract. To date, according to the recent molecular findings, two genes have been identified as responsible for this disease: SLC3A1 and SLC7A9. A more accurate pheno/genotyping identification of cystinuric patients will allow to improve prophilaxis and therapy for this illness. Cystinuria only causes recurrent urolithiasis (about 1-2 / of renal calculi in adults) and its associated complications as clinical feature because of poor cystine solubility at low pH. An accurate control over prohylaxis (based on high water intake and potassium citrate treatment, on first line, and tiol-derivatives treatment, on second line) must be taken in patients -like homozygous type I- with high lithiasis risk. However, approximately one half of patients under prophylaxis control will develop recurrent lithiasis; in this case, only urology or surgical approaches would be possible. 474 Updated knowledge about biochemical, genetic, clinical, diagnosis, prevention, treatment and prognosis aspects of this, relatively unusual, disease has been reviewed in this article.

  5. CLP application to nanomaterials: a specific aspect.

    PubMed

    Alessandrelli, Maria; Polci, Maria Letizia

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at describing some relevant aspects related to the classification, labelling and packaging of nanomaterials. Concerns have been raised about potential adverse effects to humans or the environment as result of impacts of nanomaterials. The new Regulation (EC) no. 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) does not contain any specific definition or provision related to nanomaterials nevertheless they are covered by the definition of substance set in the Regulation. It is recognized that different particle sizes or forms of the same substance can have different classification. Thus, if substances are placed on the market both at nanoscale and as bulk, a separate classification and labelling may be required if the available data on the intrinsic properties indicate a difference in hazard class between the two forms. CLP Regulation requires the manufacturer or importer to ensure that the information used to classify relates to the forms or physical states in which the substance is placed on the market and in which it can reasonably be expected to be used. Moreover, CLP demands testing relating to physical hazards to be performed if such information is missing or not adequate to conclude on classification. Further developments of the CLP guidance documents and implementation tools are needed in order to cover nanomaterials more specifically.

  6. Contextualized Language and Transferential Aspects of Context.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Siamak

    2015-08-01

    The analytic process, in which the patient's and the analyst's internal characters struggle to create a script through the analysand's mouth and the analyst's pen, resembles Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921): different characters come together on the analytic stage to rehearse the analyst's role as coauthor of a play that depicts the ongoing analytic saga. To compose the text for the interplay of characters, the author must search for contexts that may confer meaning upon the words and actions of characters. This involves a search for a mise en scène (stage) that will assign mise en sens (meaning) to the actors' role-specific dialogue. Yet mise en scène, in the theatrical sense, is a set of iconic signs set with its own décor, props, and costumes. In contrast, the psychoanalytic scene is a symbolic stage for the play of words--words that may contain unconscious codes for switching into particular language games. A clinical case report describes a struggle with the contextual analysis of an aspect of a treatment that involved reported episodes of verbal indiscretions "taken out of context" with unwanted consequences.

  7. Metaplastic conus meningioma and its applied aspects

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Srikanth; Pulligopu, Aneel Kumar; Kumar, Ashish; Sahu, Barada Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Cranial meningiomas may present with or without major deficits depending on their location and morphology. Spinal meningiomas account for 25% of all the spinal tumors. Most commonly encountered in the dorsal spine in middle-aged females, these intradural-extramedullary tumors can usually be excised without difficulty. Rarely, they can be encountered in the lumbar spine and may create many tactical problems for the surgical team especially if it is calcified and contains metaplastic bone. We report a 55-year-old patient who presented with backache and investigations revealed a calcified lesion at L1 level that was thought of as an ependymoma initially. Intraoperatively, the lesion was calcified in parts, and the histopathology revealed it to be a metaplastic meningioma with calcification. The patient had a transient hip weakness, which recovered completely later on. Calcification in meningiomas is common. However, frank bony metaplasia is extremely rare. More importantly, the applied aspect of their presence in the region of conus lies in the careful dissection to prevent damage to the surrounding neural structures. Awareness regarding the same may help us preventing complications in the future. PMID:25972958

  8. Metaplastic conus meningioma and its applied aspects.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Srikanth; Pulligopu, Aneel Kumar; Kumar, Ashish; Sahu, Barada Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Cranial meningiomas may present with or without major deficits depending on their location and morphology. Spinal meningiomas account for 25% of all the spinal tumors. Most commonly encountered in the dorsal spine in middle-aged females, these intradural-extramedullary tumors can usually be excised without difficulty. Rarely, they can be encountered in the lumbar spine and may create many tactical problems for the surgical team especially if it is calcified and contains metaplastic bone. We report a 55-year-old patient who presented with backache and investigations revealed a calcified lesion at L1 level that was thought of as an ependymoma initially. Intraoperatively, the lesion was calcified in parts, and the histopathology revealed it to be a metaplastic meningioma with calcification. The patient had a transient hip weakness, which recovered completely later on. Calcification in meningiomas is common. However, frank bony metaplasia is extremely rare. More importantly, the applied aspect of their presence in the region of conus lies in the careful dissection to prevent damage to the surrounding neural structures. Awareness regarding the same may help us preventing complications in the future.

  9. Specific Aspects of Drug Hypersensitivity in Children.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Marcel; Caubet, Jean-Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Suspicion for drug hypersensitivity (DH) is a common reason for children's referral to an allergy department, with β-lactam antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as the most frequently involved drugs. The prevalence of DH in children remains not well defined as epidemiologic studies in children are lacking, and the most of those take into account adverse drug reactions (ADR) without a systematic allergy work-up to confirm or exclude hypersensitivity. The clinical history is mandatory in order to classify the reaction as being immediate or non-immediate and then to subsequently adapt the allergy work-up. Mainly due to the lack of studies, the same guidelines used for diagnosis of drug allergy in adults are generally used in the pediatric population, and the diagnosis is based mainly on in vivo tests (i.e. skin tests and/or drug provocation test) and rarely on in vitro tests. However, specific aspects of management of DH in children have been recently highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Sanitary engineering aspects of nuclear energy developments*

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1962-01-01

    So many developments have taken place in the field of nuclear energy since 1956, when the author's previous paper on radioactive waste disposal was published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, that a fresh review of the subject is now appropriate. The present paper deals with those aspects of the problem which are of most interest to the sanitary engineer. It considers specific points in the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in relation to public drinking-water supplies, and examines the problem of fall-out, with special reference to the presence and significance of strontium-90 in drinking-water. A general survey of the various uses of radioactive materials is followed by a discussion of the legislative and control measures necessary to ensure safe disposal of wastes. The methods of waste disposal adopted in a number of nuclear energy establishments are described in detail. The paper concludes with some remarks on solid waste disposal, siting of nuclear energy industries and area monitoring. PMID:14455214

  11. Aspects of general higher-order gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Pablo; Cano, Pablo A.; Min, Vincent S.; Visser, Manus R.

    2017-02-01

    We study several aspects of higher-order gravities constructed from general contractions of the Riemann tensor and the metric in arbitrary dimensions. First, we use the fast-linearization procedure presented in [P. Bueno and P. A. Cano, arXiv:1607.06463] to obtain the equations satisfied by the metric perturbation modes on a maximally symmetric background in the presence of matter and to classify L (Riemann ) theories according to their spectrum. Then, we linearize all theories up to quartic order in curvature and use this result to construct quartic versions of Einsteinian cubic gravity. In addition, we show that the most general cubic gravity constructed in a dimension-independent way and which does not propagate the ghostlike spin-2 mode (but can propagate the scalar) is a linear combination of f (Lovelock ) invariants, plus the Einsteinian cubic gravity term, plus a new ghost-free gravity term. Next, we construct the generalized Newton potential and the post-Newtonian parameter γ for general L (Riemann ) gravities in arbitrary dimensions, unveiling some interesting differences with respect to the four-dimensional case. We also study the emission and propagation of gravitational radiation from sources for these theories in four dimensions, providing a generalized formula for the power emitted. Finally, we review Wald's formalism for general L (Riemann ) theories and construct new explicit expressions for the relevant quantities involved. Many examples illustrate our calculations.

  12. [Some demographic aspects associated with ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Martínez, Elly; Rivas-López, Radamés; Martínez-Escudero, Itzell Sarahid

    2014-02-01

    The determination techniques of chorionic gonadotropin and transvaginal high resolution ultrasound have revolutionized the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. Assess demographic aspects associated with ectopic pregnancy in Hospital Angeles del Pedregal over a 6 years period. Descriptive and retrospective study. We reviewed 143 clinical records from March 1, 2006 to January 31, 2013, with diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy discharge. The analyzed variables were: age, history of ectopic pregnancy, method of family planning, pelvic inflammatory disease, smoking, weeks of gestation, clinical picture, localization of ectopic pregnancy, treatment and complications. Were analyzed 143 cases, diagnosed and corroborated with histopathological study, of ectopic pregnancy in Hospital Angeles del Pedregal during the period from 2006 to 2012. The average age at which pregnancies occurred was 32.4 +/- 5.4 years; 89% of patients were over 25 years old. 35% were primigravidous and 51 women had previous caesarean, 31 abortion and 22 childbirth. 10% had history of ectopic pregnancy and 39% had 5 weeks gestation; 72% not used contraceptives, 30% were smokers, and only 2% had suffered pelvic inflammatory disease. Despite the technological advances the correct evaluation of risk factors is essential for the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

  13. Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Deem, R.; Xing, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2010-11-07

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants, and so may require a concept of operations (ConOps) that also is different. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has begun examining the human factors engineering- (HFE) and ConOps- aspects of SMRs; if needed, they will formulate guidance to support SMR licensing reviews. We developed a ConOps model, consisting of the following dimensions: Plant mission; roles and responsibilities of all agents; staffing, qualifications, and training; management of normal operations; management of off-normal conditions and emergencies; and, management of maintenance and modifications. We are reviewing information on SMR design to obtain data about each of these dimensions, and have identified several preliminary issues. In addition, we are obtaining operations-related information from other types of multi-module systems, such as refineries, to identify lessons learned from their experience. Here, we describe the project's methodology and our preliminary findings.

  14. Visually representing reality: aesthetics and accessibility aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2009-02-01

    This paper gives an overview of the visual representation of reality with three imaging technologies: painting, photography and electronic imaging. The contribution of the important image aspects, called dimensions hereafter, such as color, fine detail and total image size, to the degree of reality and aesthetic value of the rendered image are described for each of these technologies. Whereas quite a few of these dimensions - or approximations, or even only suggestions thereof - were already present in prehistoric paintings, apparent motion and true stereoscopic vision only recently were added - unfortunately also introducing accessibility and image safety issues. Efforts are made to reduce the incidence of undesirable biomedical effects such as photosensitive seizures (PSS), visually induced motion sickness (VIMS), and visual fatigue from stereoscopic images (VFSI) by international standardization of the image parameters to be avoided by image providers and display manufacturers. The history of this type of standardization, from an International Workshop Agreement to a strategy for accomplishing effective international standardization by ISO, is treated at some length. One of the difficulties to be mastered in this process is the reconciliation of the, sometimes opposing, interests of vulnerable persons, thrill-seeking viewers, creative video designers and the game industry.

  15. Psychological aspects of nutrition and cancer.

    PubMed

    Padilla, G V

    1986-12-01

    Cancer and the various treatments employed to combat this disease have an impact on food intake that is psychologic in nature. These psychologic consequences include behavioral responses such as learned food aversions, changes in food preferences, and anticipatory nausea and vomiting. In a second cluster of psychologic consequences are the emotional responses of anxiety and depression. A third type of psychologic consequence is perceptual in nature and is most commonly represented by changes in palatability of foods. A fourth psychologic aspect of food intake and cancer includes attitudinal responses, wherein social, religious, cultural, and other values related to food may change as a consequence of the disease. Studies are needed in this area. Approaches to nutritional care that address the psychologic impact of cancer are described. As a means of maintaining adequate nutritional status, artificial feeding routes may create psychologic problems. In general, cancer and its treatment can exert a negative impact on quality of life. Finally, the ethics of feeding are discussed in terms of care giving versus alimentation.

  16. Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution

    PubMed Central

    Seago, James L.; Fernando, Danilo D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. Scope This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. Key Findings The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Conclusions Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly

  17. [Social aspects of natural methods (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Linhard, J

    1981-01-01

    It is rather difficult to distinguish between "natural methods" and "no natural methods" or "unnatural methods". "Natural methods" should therefore be defined as those which are used without any additional product. Use and success depend on the motivation and control of the couple. These methods are: postcoital douching, prolonged lactation, rhythm method according to Knaus or to Ogino by observing BBT, observation of cervical mucus according to Billings, coitus interruptus, and coitus reservatus. As far as we know, these methods have been used since primeval times and have been commented on during different periods and at different places as being used with the support of all 3 monotheistic religions until the era of Augustinus and Thomas of Aquinas. From then on the Christian and later on the Catholic faith saw human production as the purpose of matrimony and therefore banned all methods with the exception of the rhythm method. It has been assumed that the decrease of fertility in Europe since the industrial revolution was a result of using these methods--primarily coitus interruptus, which still seems to be widely spread. It is therefore unintelligible why so little is known about the impact of these methods on the medical and social sector. As long as the ideal method is not available the natural methods should be given a place in the development of a contraceptive methodology. Since the natural methods do not cost anything, they could help to carry forward family planning in countries with low-income population. But before employing them for the purpose they have to be studied in view of their medicobiological as well as their social aspects in order to learn more about these old and much used methods. (Author's)

  18. [Animal welfare legal aspects of rodeo events].

    PubMed

    Franzky, A; Bohnet, W; Kuhne, F; Luy, J

    2005-03-01

    Rodeo events have been criticised by animal welfare organisations as being adverse to animal protection, for years. This was the motive for TVT to put several of these criticised disciplines to evaluation in terms of animal protection aspects. For that purpose, various rodeo events were visited, and videotaped material of almost all events, which had taken place in Germany in 2003 and 2004, was evaluated. Rodeo events are subject to and 11, sec.1, No. 3d, German Animal Protection Act, which implies compulsory accreditation. In the scope of such events, causing any sort of pain and suffering (and 3 No. 6 German Animal Protection Act) is prohibited. A proof of the severity of the pain caused, is therefore no necessity. For the "critical" disciplines "Bare Back Riding" and "Saddle Bronc Riding" a so called "flank" is used. A flank is a leather strap, fastened to the sensitive parts of the horse skin, (around the flanks,) which is tightened to a maximum as soon as the horse is released from the starting box. Analysis show, that the strap has to be seen as the trigger for the wanted kow-tow. The different coping strategies shown by the animals prove that the leather strap is an apt instrument to cause pain and/or suffering (anxiety/fear/stress) in horses. Bull riding, instead, showed that the rider has to be seen primarily as the trigger for defence behaviour, here. In consideration of the current legal position and taking ethic principles into account, it seems appropriate to only authorise rodeo events under the condition of a flank strap ban. Bull riding should be banned in general.

  19. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  20. Composting public health aspects: Odors and bioaerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.O.; Epstein, E.

    1995-09-01

    The two dominating public health issues associated with composting are odors and bioaerosols, regardless of the feedstock or method of composting. Odors, per se, are an irritant and a nuisance rather than a direct health problem. However, when odors emanate form a facility, the surrounding public often associates odors with compounds which may result in health problems. For example, hydrogen sulfide is not found in high concentrations during composting or found to be of a health significance in the air surrounding composting facilities, yet health issues related to this compound have emerged as a result of odors. Another health concern associated with odors is bioaerosols. Bioaerosols are biological organisms or substances from biological organisms which have been implicated in human health. Bioaerosols may contain fungal spores, actinomycetes, microbial products, and other organisms. Mitigating odors and bioaerosols is a function of facility design and operations. There is a greater opportunity in municipal solid waste (MSW) and biosolids facilities for effective design than with year waste facilities. MSW and biosolids facilities as a result of the nature of the feedstock generally require more sophisticated materials handling equipment which require enclosures. With enclosures there is a greater opportunity to scrub the air for removal of odors and dust. There are also more regulatory requirements for MSW and sewage sludge composting for both process and product by states and the Federal government. The objective of this paper is to provide information on the concerns, state-of-the-art, and potential mitigating aspects which need to be considered in the design and operation of MSW facilities.