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Sample records for gastrointestinal endoscopic findings

  1. Endoscopic Findings of Upper Gastrointestinal Involvement in Primary Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Kim, Do Hoon; Chun, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Jung, Kee Wook; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin Ho; Song, In Hye; Kim, Yong-Gil

    2016-07-15

    Gastrointestinal involvement in vasculitis may result in life-threatening complications. However, its variable clinical presentations and endoscopic features, and the rarity of the disease, often result in delayed diagnosis. Clinical characteristics, endoscopic features, and histopathological findings were reviewed from medical records. Of 6,477 patients with vasculitis, 148 were diagnosed as primary vasculitis with upper gastrointestinal involvement. Of these, 21 cases (14.2%) were classified as large-vessel vasculitis, 17 cases (11.5%) as medium-vessel vasculitis, and 110 cases (74.3%) as small-vessel vasculitis. According to the specific diagnosis, IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura) was the most common diagnosis (56.8%), followed by Takayasu arteritis (14.1%), microscopic polyangiitis (10.1%), and polyarteritis nodosa (6.8%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 113 subjects (76.4%), with abdominal pain (78.8%) the most common symptom. Erosion and ulcers were striking endoscopic features, and the second portion of the duodenum was the most frequently involved site. Biopsy specimens were obtained from 124 patients, and only eight (5.4%) presented histopathological signs of vasculitis. Diagnosis of vasculitis involving the upper gastrointestinal tract is difficult. Because of the widespread use of endoscopy, combining clinical features with endoscopic findings may facilitate making appropriate diagnoses; however, the diagnostic yield of endoscopic biopsy is low.

  2. Endoscopic Findings of Upper Gastrointestinal Involvement in Primary Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Kim, Do Hoon; Chun, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Jung, Kee Wook; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin Ho; Song, In Hye; Kim, Yong-Gil

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Gastrointestinal involvement in vasculitis may result in life-threatening complications. However, its variable clinical presentations and endoscopic features, and the rarity of the disease, often result in delayed diagnosis. Methods Clinical characteristics, endoscopic features, and histopathological findings were reviewed from medical records. Results Of 6,477 patients with vasculitis, 148 were diagnosed as primary vasculitis with upper gastrointestinal involvement. Of these, 21 cases (14.2%) were classified as large-vessel vasculitis, 17 cases (11.5%) as medium-vessel vasculitis, and 110 cases (74.3%) as small-vessel vasculitis. According to the specific diagnosis, IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura) was the most common diagnosis (56.8%), followed by Takayasu arteritis (14.1%), microscopic polyangiitis (10.1%), and polyarteritis nodosa (6.8%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 113 subjects (76.4%), with abdominal pain (78.8%) the most common symptom. Erosion and ulcers were striking endoscopic features, and the second portion of the duodenum was the most frequently involved site. Biopsy specimens were obtained from 124 patients, and only eight (5.4%) presented histopathological signs of vasculitis. Conclusions Diagnosis of vasculitis involving the upper gastrointestinal tract is difficult. Because of the widespread use of endoscopy, combining clinical features with endoscopic findings may facilitate making appropriate diagnoses; however, the diagnostic yield of endoscopic biopsy is low. PMID:27226428

  3. Gangliocytic paraganglioma, a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Endoscopic ultrasound findings presented

    SciTech Connect

    Smithline, A.E.; Hawes, R.H.; Kopecky, K.K.; Cummings, O.W.; Kumar, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) is an uncommon benign neurogenic tumor of the digestive tract that is usually located in the descending duodenum. Patients with GP usually present with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, which reflects the tendency of the tumor to ulcerate the mucosa. The authors report a patient in whom the tumor was overlooked on routine radiologic examinations and initial endoscopy. It was discovered in the distal transverse duodenum at small bowel enteroscopy. The findings of endoscopic ultrasonography are correlated with radiographic and histologic examination. 10 refs.

  4. Correlation of Somatic Dysfunction With Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Findings: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Snider, Karen T; Schneider, Robert P; Snider, Eric J; Danto, Jay B; Lehnardt, Charles W; Ngo, Christopher S; Johnson, Jane C; Sheneman, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy provides a novel means of correlating visceral abnormalities with somatic dysfunction. To assess the correlation of palpatory findings of somatic dysfunction with GI abnormalities determined by endoscopy and to identify which types of somatic dysfunction were most commonly correlated with GI abnormalities. In this observational, cross-sectional study, participants who were scheduled to receive an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), colonoscopy, or both were examined by 2 osteopathic physicians immediately prior to endoscopy for the presence of vertebral tenderness, asymmetry, restricted range of motion, and tissue texture abnormalities (TART findings); tenderness of anterior Chapman reflex points; and tenderness of visceral sphincters. Each type of somatic dysfunction and the somatic dysfunction burden (sum of findings) were compared with the type of endoscopic procedure and abnormal endoscopic findings. Sixty-six adults participated: 43 received an EGD, 40 received a colonoscopy, and 17 received both. The incidence of vertebral TART findings ranged from 70% at T12 to 98% at the sacrum. Participants who received only EGD had a higher somatic dysfunction burden than those who received only colonoscopy and those who received both procedures (P=.002). The incidence of abnormal endoscopic findings ranged from 98% in the stomach to 0% at the ileocecal valve. Statistically significant positive associations were found between specific vertebral TART findings and abnormalities of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, pylorus, ascending colon, and sigmoid colon; specific Chapman reflex point tenderness and abnormalities of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, pylorus, ascending colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum; and specific visceral sphincter tenderness and abnormalities of the duodenum, ascending colon, and sigmoid colon. The current study found numerous associations between somatic dysfunction and abnormal

  5. Endoscopic findings of gastrointestinal involvement in Chinese patients with Behcet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Shen, Yan; Ji, Da-Nian; Zheng, Song-Bai; Guan, Jian-Long

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To report the incidence, clinical features and outcomes of gastrointestinal (GI) involvement in Behcet’s disease (BD). METHODS: A total of 168 consecutive patients with BD were screened and upper and lower GI endoscopies were performed in 148 patients. Four hundred age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled for comparison. RESULTS: Fifty-two (35.1%) patients had GI lesions. After a mean follow-up of 10 mo, ileocecal ulcers had been confirmed in 20 patients, including active ulcer(s) in 18 patients, but no ileocecal ulceration was found in controls. GI symptoms were present in 14 patients with active ulcer(s), while 4 patients with smaller ulcer were asymptomatic. Endoscopic features of ileocecal ulcer were: a single ulcer (50%), larger than 1 cm in diameter (72.2%), and round/oval or volcano-type in shape (83.3%). Compared with patients without GI involvement, less ocular lesions, lower levels of albumin, erythrocyte count and hemoglobin, and higher levels of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were confirmed in the intestinal BD group. Four patients had esophageal ulcers in the BD group but no case in controls. The other endoscopic findings were similar between the two groups. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was similar in both groups. Most patients received an immunomodulator and responded well. CONCLUSION: GI lesions commonly occur in Chinese BD patients. The most frequently involved area is the ileocecal region. Esophageal ulcer might be a rare but unique lesion. PMID:25493032

  6. Endoscopic Management of Gastrointestinal Fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Larsen, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    A gastrointestinal fistula is a common occurrence, especially after surgery. Patients who develop a fistula may have an infection, surgically altered anatomy, nutritional deficiency, or organ failure, making surgical revision more difficult. With advancements in flexible endoscopic devices and technology, new endoscopic options are available for the management of gastrointestinal fistulae. Endoscopically deployable stents, endoscopic suturing devices, through-the-scope and over-the-scope clips, sealants, and fistula plugs can be used to treat fistulae. These therapies are even more effective in combination. Despite the inherent challenges in patients with fistulae, endoscopic therapies for treatment of fistulae have demonstrated safety and efficacy, allowing many patients to avoid surgical fistula repair. In this paper, we review the emerging role of endoscopy in the management of gastrointestinal fistulae. PMID:28845140

  7. The endoscopic findings of the upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yoshiki; Moriichi, Kentaro; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2017-08-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated with ulceration, and the main foci of the inflammation in CD patients are typically the terminal ileum and colon. However, in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the esophagus, stomach and duodenum, inflammatory lesions are also detected as well, with a relatively high frequency (30-75%). Recent advances in imaging modalities, including endoscopy, have aided in the diagnosis of CD. Various lesions, including aphtha, erosion, ulcers, bamboo-joint-like appearance and notch-like appearance, are detected in the upper GI of CD patients. Of these lesions, the bamboo-joint-like appearance in the gastric cardiac region and notch-like appearance in the second portion of the duodenum are highly specific for CD, regardless of the disease activity at other sites. These two findings, particularly a bamboo-joint-like appearance, have therefore been considered as potential biomarkers for CD. Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are administered as an initial treatment for upper GIT lesions of CD, the efficacy of this treatment remains controversial. The administration of mesalazine, steroids, immunosuppressant and biologic agents is expected to be effective for treating such lesions.

  8. Endoscopically visualized lesions, histologic findings, and bacterial invasion in the gastrointestinal mucosa of dogs with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Unterer, S; Busch, K; Leipig, M; Hermanns, W; Wolf, G; Straubinger, R K; Mueller, R S; Hartmann, K

    2014-01-01

    Etiology of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) syndrome in dogs is unknown and histopathologic and microbial investigations have only been performed post mortem. To identify characteristic intra vitam endoscopic and histologic mucosal lesions, as well as bacterial species, within the mucosa of dogs with HGE. Ten dogs diagnosed with HGE were included. Eleven dogs with gastroduodenoscopy and different intestinal diseases were used as controls for microbial changes. Dogs pretreated with antibiotics or diagnosed with any disease known to cause bloody diarrhea were excluded from the study. In this prospective study, gastrointestinal biopsies were collected from 10 dogs with HGE. Endoscopic and histologic changes were assessed according to WSAVA guidelines. Biopsies from the stomach, duodenum, ileum, and colon were investigated by histology and by immunohistochemistry for the presence of Clostridium spp. and parvovirus. The first duodenal biopsy taken with a sterile forceps was submitted for bacterial culture. Acute mucosal lesions were only found in the intestines, not in the stomach. Clostridium spp., identified as Clostridium perfringens in 6/9 cases, were detected on the small intestinal mucosa in all dogs with HGE, either by culture or immunohistopathology. In the control group, C. perfringens could only be cultured in one of 11 dogs. The results of this study demonstrate an apparent association between C. perfringens and the occurrence of acute hemorrhagic diarrhea. The term "HGE," which implies the involvement of the stomach, should be renamed as "acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome." Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    taTME Study Info Foundation SAGES.TV MyCME Educational Activities SAGES Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons Advanced Search Home SAGES Home SAGES Foundation About Donate to ...

  10. Rare gastrointestinal lymphomas: The endoscopic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Vetro, Calogero; Bonanno, Giacomo; Giulietti, Giorgio; Romano, Alessandra; Conticello, Concetta; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Spina, Paolo; Coppolino, Francesco; Cunsolo, Rosario; Raimondo, Francesco Di

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal lymphomas represent up to 10% of gastrointestinal malignancies and about one third of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The most prominent histologies are mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. However, the gastrointestinal tract can be the site of rarer lymphoma subtypes as a primary or secondary localization. Due to their rarity and the multifaceted histology, an endoscopic classification has not been validated yet. This review aims to analyze the endoscopic presentation of rare gastrointestinal lymphomas from disease diagnosis to follow-up, according to the involved site and lymphoma subtype. Existing, new and emerging endoscopic technologies have been examined. In particular, we investigated the diagnostic, prognostic and follow-up endoscopic features of T-cell and natural killer lymphomas, lymphomatous polyposis and mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, plasma cell related disease, gastrointestinal lymphomas in immunodeficiency and Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract. Contrarily to more frequent gastrointestinal lymphomas, data about rare lymphomas are mostly extracted from case series and case reports. Due to the data paucity, a synergism between gastroenterologists and hematologists is required in order to better manage the disease. Indeed, clinical and prognostic features are different from nodal and extranodal or the bone marrow (in case of plasma cell disease) counterpart. Therefore, the approach should be based on the knowledge of the peculiar behavior and natural history of disease. PMID:26265987

  11. Endoscopic hemostasis techniques for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: A review

    PubMed Central

    Anjiki, Hajime; Kamisawa, Terumi; Sanaka, Masaki; Ishii, Taro; Kuyama, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) is an urgent disease that is often encountered in daily medical practice. Endoscopic hemostasis is currently indispensable for the treatment of UGIH. Initially, when UGIH is suspected, a cause of UGIH is presumed from the medical interview and physical findings. After ample primary treatment, urgent endoscopy is performed. Many methods of endoscopic hemostasis are in wide use, including hemoclip, injection and thermo-coagulation methods. Although UGIH develops from a wide variety of diseases, such as esophageal varices and gastric and duodenal ulcer, hemostasis is almost always possible. Identification of the causative diseases, primary treatment and characteristic features of endoscopic hemostasis are needed to allow appropriate treatment. PMID:21160691

  12. Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Guidelines for Endoscope Reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Son, Byoung Kwan; Kim, Byung-Wook; Kim, Won Hee; Myung, Dae-Sung; Cho, Young-Seok; Jang, Byung Ik

    2017-01-01

    The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) issued guidelines for endoscope reprocessing for the first time in 1995, and the version of the guidelines was updated in August 2009, August 2012, and March 2015. Guidelines for endoscope reprocessing should be revised continuously, because new disinfectants and devices are developed and introduced. The current official version of the KSGE guidelines for endoscope reprocessing is explained herein to assist the reader in understanding the KSGE requirements for cleaning and disinfecting endoscopes. PMID:28301923

  13. Endoscopic findings in uninvestigated dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important to know the causes of dyspepsia to establish the therapeutic approach. Dyspepsia is a frequent syndrome in our country, where there are restrictions to endoscopy and high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This study aimed to assess the endoscopic findings of the syndrome, in an outpatient screening clinic of a tertiary hospital in São Paulo. Methods Outpatients with uninvestigated dyspepsia, according to Rome III criteria, answered a dyspepsia questionnaire and underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The Rapid Urease Test was applied to fragments of the antral mucosa and epidemiological data were collected from the studied population. Organic dyspepsia findings were analyzed with different variables to verify statistically significant associations. Results Three hundred and six patients were included and 282 were analyzed in the study. The mean age was 44 years and women comprised 65% of the sample. Forty-five percent of the patients reported alarm symptoms. Functional dyspepsia was found in 66% of the patients (20% with normal endoscopy results and 46% with gastritis), 18% had GERD and 13% had ulcers (duodenal in 9% and gastric in 4%). Four cases of gastric adenocarcinoma were identified (1.4%), one without alarm characteristics, 1 case of adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus and 1 case of gastric lymphoma. The prevalence of H. pylori was 54% and infection, age and smoking status were associated with organic dyspepsia. The age of 48 years was indicative of alarm signs. Conclusions The endoscopic diagnosis of uninvestigated dyspepsia in our setting showed a predominance of functional disease, whereas cancer was an uncommon finding, despite the high prevalence of H. pylori. Organic dyspepsia was associated with infection, age and smoking status. PMID:24499444

  14. Measures to improve microbial quality surveillance of gastrointestinal endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Saliou, Philippe; Le Bars, Hervé; Payan, Christopher; Narbonne, Valérie; Cholet, Franck; Jézéquel, Julien; Scotet, Virginie; Robaszkiewicz, Michel; Cornec, Divi; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Baron, Raoul

    2016-08-01

    Infectious outbreaks associated with the use of gastrointestinal endoscopes have increased in line with the spread of highly resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the measures required to improve microbial quality surveillance of gastrointestinal endoscopes. We reviewed the results of all microbiological surveillance testing of gastrointestinal endoscopes and automatic endoscope reprocessors (AERs) performed at Brest Teaching Hospital from 1 January 2008 to 1 June 2015. We analyzed the influence of the time of incubation on the rate of positive results using the Kaplan - Meier method. We also studied risk factors for gastrointestinal endoscope contamination using a multivariable logistic regression model. Over the study period, 1100 microbiological tests of gastrointestinal endoscopes (n = 762) and AERs (n = 338) were performed. A total of 264 endoscope tests (34.6 %) showed a level of contamination higher than the target. After 2 days of incubation, contamination was apparent in only 55.5 % of the endoscopes that were later shown to be contaminated (95 % confidence interval [CI] 49.2 - 61.8). Multivariable analysis showed that the use of storage cabinets for heat-sensitive endoscopes significantly reduced the risk of endoscope contamination (odds ratio [OR] 0.23, 95 %CI 0.09 - 0.54; P  < 0.001) and that the use of endoscopes older than 4 years significantly increased this risk (OR ≥ 6 vs. < 2 years 2.92, 95 %CI 1.63 - 5.24; P < 0.001). Microbiological culture technique, mainly incubation duration, strongly influenced the results of endoscope sampling. Samples should be cultured for more than 2 days to improve the detection of contaminated endoscopes. Particular attention should be paid to endoscopes older than 2 years and to those that are not stored in storage cabinets for heat-sensitive endoscopes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Endoscopic management of gastrointestinal perforations, leaks and fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Pawel; Daniluk, Jaroslaw; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Wroblewski, Eugeniusz; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal perforations, leaks and fistulas may be serious and life-threatening. The increasing number of endoscopic procedures with a high risk of perforation and the increasing incidence of leakage associated with bariatric operations call for a minimally invasive treatment for these complications. The therapeutic approach can vary greatly depending on the size, location, and timing of gastrointestinal wall defect recognition. Some asymptomatic patients can be treated conservatively, while patients with septic symptoms or cardio-pulmonary insufficiency may require intensive care and urgent surgical treatment. However, most gastrointestinal wall defects can be satisfactorily treated by endoscopy. Although the initial endoscopic closure rates of chronic fistulas is very high, the long-term results of these treatments remain a clinical problem. The efficacy of endoscopic therapy depends on several factors and the best mode of treatment will depend on a precise localization of the site, the extent of the leak and the endoscopic appearance of the lesion. Many endoscopic tools for effective closure of gastrointestinal wall defects are currently available. In this review, we summarized the basic principles of the management of acute iatrogenic perforations, as well as of postoperative leaks and chronic fistulas of the gastrointestinal tract. We also described the effectiveness of various endoscopic methods based on current research and our experience. PMID:26457014

  16. A Review of Current Disinfectants for Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sanghoon; Koo, Ja Seol; Park, Jeong Bae; Lim, Yun Jeong; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy is gaining popularity for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. However, concerns over endoscope-related nosocomial infections are increasing, together with interest by the general public in safe and efficient endoscopy. For this reason, reprocessing the gastrointestinal endoscope is an important step for effective performance of endoscopy. Disinfectants are essential to the endoscope reprocessing procedure. Before selecting an appropriate disinfectant, their characteristics, limitations and means of use must be fully understood. Herein, we review the characteristics of several currently available disinfectants, including their uses, potency, advantages, and disadvantages. Most disinfectants can be used to reprocess gastrointestinal endoscopes if the manufacturer's guidelines are followed. The selection and use of a suitable disinfectant depends on the individual circumstances of each endoscopy suite. PMID:23964330

  17. Handling and Pathology Reporting of Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Mucosal Resection

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Owen, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a non-invasive alternative to surgery that is now frequently used for resection of early lesions in both upper and lower parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. One of the main advantages of these techniques is providing tissue for histopathological examination. Pathological examination of endoscopically resected specimens of GI tract is a crucial component of these procedures and is useful for prediction of both the risk of metastasis and lymph node involvement. As the first step, it is very important for the pathologist to handle the EMR gross specimen in the correct way: it should be oriented, and then the margins should be labeled and inked accurately before fixation. In the second step, the EMR pathological report should include all the detailed information about the diagnosis, grading, depth of invasion (mucosa only or submucosal involvement), status of the margins, and the presence or absence of lymphovascular invasion. The current literature (PubMed and Google Scholar) was searched for the words "endoscopic mucosal resection" to find all relevant publications about this technique with emphasis on the pathologist responsibilities. PMID:28316760

  18. Evaluation of the Quality of Reprocessing of Gastrointestinal Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Saviuc, Philippe; Picot-Guéraud, Romain; Shum Cheong Sing, Jacqueline; Batailler, Pierre; Pelloux, Isabelle; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Dobremez, Valérie; Mallaret, Marie-Reine

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the quality of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing and discuss the advantages of microbiological surveillance testing of these endoscopes. Retrospective analysis of the results of endoscope sampling performed from October 1, 2006, through December 31, 2014, in a gastrointestinal endoscopy unit of a teaching hospital equipped with 89 endoscopes and 3 automated endoscope reprocessors, with an endoscopy quality assurance program in place. The compliance rate was defined as the proportion of the results classified at target or alert levels according to the French guidelines. A multivariate analysis (logistic regression) was used to identify the parameters influencing compliance. A total of 846 samples were taken. The overall compliance rate was 86% and differed significantly depending on the sampling context (scheduled or not scheduled), the type of endoscope, and the season. No other parameter was associated with compliance. A total of 118 samples carried indicator microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Enterobacteriaceae, and Candida sp. The systematic use of an automated endoscope reprocessor does not provide totally satisfactory compliance. Microbiological surveillance is indispensable to monitor reprocessing, reinforce good practices (endoscopes, reprocessing units), and detect endoscopes requiring early technical maintenance.

  19. Anastomotic Leakage after Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery: Endoscopic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kähler, Georg

    2017-06-01

    Anastomotic leakages substantially influence the outcome of patients after major surgery of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Endoscopy is important for making a diagnosis and for managing anastomotic leakages. By means of endoscopic inspection of the anastomotic site, not only the size and position of dehiscences but also the blood supply of the anastomotic region and an imminent leakage can be assessed. To close anastomotic leakages, several therapeutic methods are available, i.e. stenting, clipping, and the application of glue. In the majority of cases, the endoscopic application of a sponge for permanent suction (endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure therapy) is promising.

  20. New devices and techniques for endoscopic closure of gastrointestinal perforations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Wu, Jian-Hua; Meng, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Gong, Wei; Liu, Si-De

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal perforations, which need to be managed quickly, are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatments used to close these perforations range from surgery to endoscopic therapy. Nowadays, with the development of new devices and techniques, endoscopic therapy is becoming more popular. However, there are different indications and clinical efficacies between different methods, because of the diverse properties of endoscopic devices and techniques. Successful management also depends on other factors, such as the precise location of the perforation, its size and the length of time between the occurrence and diagnosis. In this study, we performed a comprehensive review of various devices and introduced the different techniques that are considered effective to treat gastrointestinal perforations. In addition, we focused on the different methods used to achieve successful closure, based on the literature and our clinical experiences. PMID:27672268

  1. Recent Update of Gastrointestinal Endoscope Reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kyong Hee

    2013-01-01

    As infection-related issues have become one of the most important concerns in endoscopy centers, proper reprocessing of endoscopes has attracted great interest. Compliance with established guidelines for reprocessing is critical to prevent pathogen transmission. However, hospital compliance with guidelines has not been satisfactory. To increase compliance, efforts have focused on developing new and more innovative disinfectants and an automated endoscope reprocessor. Reprocessing must be performed by appropriately trained personnel and regular monitoring of reprocessing is essential for quality assurance to improve compliance. PMID:23767038

  2. Master-slave robotic system for therapeutic gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Low, S C; Tang, S W; Thant, Z M; Phee, L; Ho, K Y; Chung, S C

    2006-01-01

    Flexible endoscopy is used to inspect and treat disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract without the need for creating an artificial opening on the patient's body. Simple surgical procedures (like polypectomy and biopsy) can be performed by introducing a flexible tool via a working channel to reach the site of interest at the distal end. More technically demanding surgical procedures like hemostasis for arterial bleeding, or suturing to mend a perforation cannot be effectively achieved with flexible endoscopy. The proposed robotic system enables the endoscopist to perform technically demanding therapeutic procedures (currently possible only with open surgery) in conjunction with conventional flexible endoscopes. The robotic system consists of a master console and a slave. The latter is a cable driven flexible robotic manipulator that can be inserted into tool channel of existing endoscopes or attached in tandem to the endoscopes. Together with the real time endoscopic view, the endoscopist would be capable of performing more intricate and difficult surgical procedures.

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound-assisted gastrointestinal hemostasis: an evolving technique

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepanshu; Thosani, Nirav; Singhal, Shashideep

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding can range from grossly visible blood in stool or vomitus to microscopic bleed. However, any kind of bleeding can lead to potential life-threatening consequences. A small proportion of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding remain refractory to initial endoscopic hemostasis. While some are successfully managed by repeat endoscopic intervention, a few fail to respond or are not amenable to endoscopic hemostasis. As of now, the next level of intervention is passed on to either surgeons or interventional radiologists. There is new evidence suggesting the increased utility of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in diagnosis and treatment of culprit vascular lesions across the gut. In addition, EUS-assisted technique has also been used in the primary prevention of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices. In this review article, we have summarized case series and reports describing the use of EUS-assisted hemostasis. Indications, techniques, complications and success rates reported are discussed. While most of the authors describe their experience with primary and secondary treatment of gastric varices, treatment of other gastrointestinal lesions with EUS assisted hemostatic techniques is also discussed. PMID:27366229

  4. Endoscopic repair of post-surgical gastrointestinal complications.

    PubMed

    Manta, Raffaele; Magno, Luca; Conigliaro, Rita; Caruso, Angelo; Bertani, Helga; Manno, Mauro; Zullo, Angelo; Frazzoni, Marzio; Bassotti, Gabrio; Galloro, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    Complications following gastrointestinal surgery may require re-intervention, can lead to prolonged hospitalization, and significantly increase health costs. Some complications, such as anastomotic leakage, fistula, and stricture require a multidisciplinary approach. Therapeutic endoscopy may play a pivotal role in these conditions, allowing minimally invasive treatment. Different endoscopic approaches, including fibrin glue injection, endoclips, self-expanding stents, and endoscopic vacuum-assisted devices have been introduced for both anastomotic leakage and fistula treatment. Similarly endoscopic treatments, such as endoscopic dilation, incisional therapy, and self-expanding stents have been used for anastomotic strictures. All these techniques can be safely performed by skilled endoscopists, and may achieve a high technical success rate in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Here we will review the endoscopic management of post-surgical complications; these techniques should be considered as first-line approach in selected patients, allowing to avoid re-operation, reduce hospital stay, and decrease costs. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Endoscopic Removal of 15 Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Savran, Bircan; Zeren, Sezgin; Coşgun, Süleyman; Adigüzel, Ünal; Öztürk, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion occurs commonly in children, elderly, mentally impaired or alcoholic, and psychiatric patients. We present a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation and uncontrolled psychiatric disorder admitted to the hospital with abdominal and chest pain. He was diagnosed with foreign body ingestion and 15 foreign objects, including a sharp knife, were successfully removed endoscopically by using an over-tube. PMID:26623255

  6. The Correlation of Endoscopic Findings and Clinical Features in Korean Patients with Scrub Typhus: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi-induced systemic vasculitis, but the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract and the endoscopic findings associated with scrub typhus are not well understood. We performed a prospective study and recommend performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for all possible scrub typhus patients, regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms, endoscopic findings and clinical severity based on organ involvement and ICU admission were analyzed. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in up to 76.4% of scrub typhus patients. The major endoscopic findings were ulcers (43/127, 33.9%). Interestingly, 7.1% (9/127) of the patients presented with esophageal candidiasis. There was no correlation between the presence or absence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the endoscopic grade (P = 0.995). However, there was a positive correlation between the clinical severity and the endoscopic findings (P = 0.001). Sixty-three percent of the patients presented with erosion or ulcers on prospectively performed endoscopic evaluations, irrespective of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms did not reflect the need for endoscopy. Scrub typhus patients could have significant endoscopic abnormalities even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:27195943

  7. Advanced gastrointestinal endoscopic imaging for inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Rath, Timo; Neumann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal luminal endoscopy is of paramount importance for diagnosis, monitoring and dysplasia surveillance in patients with both, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Moreover, with the recent recognition that mucosal healing is directly linked to the clinical outcome of patients with inflammatory bowel disorders, a growing demand exists for the precise, timely and detailed endoscopic assessment of superficial mucosal layer. Further, the novel field of molecular imaging has tremendously expanded the clinical utility and applications of modern endoscopy, now encompassing not only diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment but also the prediction of individual therapeutic responses. Within this review, we describe how novel endoscopic approaches and advanced endoscopic imaging methods such as high definition and high magnification endoscopy, dye-based and dye-less chromoendoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy, endocytoscopy and molecular imaging now allow for the precise and ultrastructural assessment of mucosal inflammation and describe the potential of these techniques for dysplasia detection. PMID:26811662

  8. Compact endoscopic fluorescence detection system for gastrointestinal cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Valerie; Padgett, Miles J.; Hewett, Jacqueline; Sibbett, Wilson; Hamdan, Khaled; Mohammed, Sami; Tait, Iain; Cushieri, Alfred

    2001-04-01

    We describe a compact endoscopic imaging system for the detection of gastro-intestinal cancers. This system is designed to image ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence and allows the clinician to perform fluorescence endoscopy and white light endoscopy simultaneously. The system comprises a filtered mercury arclamp for illumination and fluorescence excitation, a dual camera system coupled to an endoscope for detection and a desktop PC for processing and display of images. The result is a real-time colour image onto which fluorescence information is superimposed. Preliminary in vivo results indicate an increased fluorescence level within cancers in comparison with normal tissue. In addition, the system allows point spectroscopy to be carried out by the insertion of an optical fibre probe down the biopsy channel of the endoscope.

  9. Frequently overlooked and rarely listened to: music therapy in gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Rudin, Dan

    2007-09-07

    To elucidate the role of music therapy in gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures following the conflicting outcomes reported in two recent studies. The findings of our recent meta-analysis that examined this matter were discussed in the context of later studies. Our meta-analysis illustrated the beneficial effects of music therapy on patient anxiety levels when used as a single measure of relaxation and analgesia. Beneficial effects were also shown on analgesia and sedation requirements and procedure duration times when used as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. These findings are in agreement with those of both studies excluded from analysis and those that followed it. Music therapy is an effective tool for stress relief and analgesia in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.

  10. Upper gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding treated with various endoscopic modalities

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Eunae; Jun, Chung Hwan; Choi, Sung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Chang Hwan; Rew, Jong Sun; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Hee Joon; Han, Mingui; Cho, Kyu Man

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Ectopic variceal bleeding is a rare (2–5%) but fatal gastrointestinal bleed in patients with portal hypertension. Patients with ectopic variceal bleeding manifest melena, hematochezia, or hematemesis, which require urgent managements. Definitive therapeutic modalities of ectopic varices are not yet standardized because of low incidence. Various therapeutic modalities have been applied on the basis of the experiences of experts or availability of facilities, with varying results. Patient concerns: We have encountered eight cases of gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding in five patients in the last five years. Diagnoses: All patients were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis presenting melena or hematemesis. Interventions: All patients were treated with various endoscopic modalities (endoscopic variceal obturation [EVO] with cyanoacrylate in five cases, endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) in two cases, hemoclipping in one case). Outcomes: Satisfactory hemostasis was achieved without radiologic interventions in all cases. EVO and EVL each caused one case of portal biliopathy, and EVL induced ulcer bleeding in one case. Lessons: EVO generally accomplished better results of variceal obturations than EVL or hemoclipping, without serious adverse events. EVO may be an effective modality for control of ectopic variceal bleeding without radiologic intervention or surgery. PMID:28072750

  11. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-01-01

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself. PMID:25699232

  12. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing.

    PubMed

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-02-20

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself.

  13. [Incorporation of the flexible endoscope in gastrointestinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Noguera, José F; Cuadrado, Angel; Olea, José M; García, Juan C; Sanfeliu, Gaspar

    2012-11-01

    The flexible endoscope has not traditionally figured among the tools used by the surgeon. Intra-operative flexible endoscopy may be one of the techniques available in the operating room in the near future. On analysing the development of minimally invasive surgery and flexible endoscopy, it can be seen that they are converging and losing ground to gastrointestinal endoscopy on the one hand, and gaining it with the flexible endoscope, on the other. The technical development of «hybrid» NOTES has shown how some tools not usually available in theatre may be very useful. Flexible endoscopy is probably the technique to enter into the surgical area that offers improved performance. Surgeons need to work closely with the gastroenterologists, while they are trained in these techniques for future «hybrid» specialists.

  14. Progress in endoscopic imaging of gastrointestinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, G; Marchese, M

    2010-04-01

    New technologies in the form of high-magnification or "zoom" endoscopy complemented by chromoscopic agents or Narrow Band Imaging permit early detection of neoplastic lesions, particularly flat and depressed types. Detailed characteristics of the mucosal surface can be obtained, enabling an in vivo "optical biopsy" to make an instant diagnosis at endoscopy, previously possible only by using histological or cytological analysis. Advances in fiber optics, light sources, detectors, and molecular biology have led to the development of several novel methods for tissue evaluation in situ. Promising imaging techniques include fluorescence endoscopy, optical coherence tomography, confocal microendoscopy, molecular imaging, and light scattering and Raman spectroscopy. These techniques probably are able to replace conventional biopsy in the near future, but the endoscopists should become increasingly more familiar with histopathologic findings.

  15. The Use of Channel-Purge Storage for Gastrointestinal Endoscopes Reduces Microbial Contamination.

    PubMed

    Saliou, Philippe; Cholet, Franck; Jézéquel, Julien; Robaszkiewicz, Michel; Le Bars, Hervé; Baron, Raoul

    2015-09-01

    Storage cabinets for heat-sensitive endoscopes (SCHEs) are designed to store gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes in a clean, dry and well-ventilated cupboard to prevent microbiological proliferation. The use of SCHEs in a GI endoscopy unit has significally reduced the rate of contaminated endoscopes (13.0% vs 45.0%, P<.001).

  16. Gastrointestinal tract access for urological natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Miakicheva, Olga; Hamilton, Zachary; Beksac, Alp T; Berquist, Sean W; Hassan, Abd-elrahman; Holden, Marc; Derweesh, Ithaar H

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a literature review of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), focusing on urologic procedures with gastrointestinal tract access, to update on the development of this novel surgical approach. As part of the methods, a comprehensive electronic literature search for NOTES was conducted using PubMed and Cochrane Library from March 2002 to February 2016 for papers reporting urologic procedures performed utilizing gastrointestinal tract access. A total of 11 peer-reviewed studies examining utility of gastrointestinal access for NOTES urologic procedures were noted, with the first report in 2007. The procedures reported in the studies were total/radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, adrenalectomy, and prostatectomy. The transgastric approach was identified in five studies examining total/radical nephrectomy (n = 2), partial nephrectomy (n = 1), partial cystectomy (n = 1), and adrenalectomy (n = 1). Six studies evaluated transrectal approach for NOTES, describing total/radical nephrectomy (n = 3), partial nephrectomy (n = 1), robotic nephrectomy with adrenalectomy (n = 1) and prostatectomy (n = 1). Feasibility was reported in all studies. Most studies were preclinical and acute, and limited by concerns regarding restricted instrumentation and infection risk. We concluded that gastrointestinal access for urologic NOTES demonstrates promise as described by outlined feasibility studies in preclinical models. Nonetheless, clinical application awaits further advancements in surgical technology and concerns regarding infectious potential. PMID:27909547

  17. Audit of endoscopic surveillance biopsy specimens in HIV positive patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, S G; Lipman, M C; Squire, S; Pillay, D; Gillespie, S; Sankey, E A; Dhillon, A P; Johnson, M A; Lee, C A; Pounder, R E

    1993-01-01

    An audit of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in HIV infected patients with gastrointestinal symptoms assessed the frequency of disease detected by endoscopy and routine laboratory analysis of surveillance biopsy specimens. Sixty nine consecutive endoscopies were performed in 59 HIV infected patients. Endoscopic biopsy specimens were taken from the lower oesophagus, gastric antrum, and third part of the duodenum for virology, histopathology, parasitology, bacteriology, and mycobacterial culture. Endoscopic appearances detected disease in 25/59 (42.4%) patients (oesophageal candida, 14; oesophageal ulcer, 3; Kaposi's sarcoma, 4; others, 4), but only 4/43 (9.3%) specimens showed evidence of disease in the absence of endoscopic abnormality. Virology for cytomegalovirus (detection of early antigenic fluorescent foci and culture) was positive in 6/59 (10.2%) patients, but parasitology and mycobacterial culture were negative in all cases. Histopathology was abnormal in 11/52 (21%) oesophageal biopsy specimens, 13/47 (28%) gastric biopsy specimens, and 4/65 (6%) duodenal biopsy specimens. Abnormal findings were found predominantly in those with advanced HIV disease (CDC Stage IV) (21/33 patients (64%)) compared with those with early HIV disease (CDC Stage II) (5/26 (19%)). In conclusion, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy detects macroscopic disease in AIDS patients and those with low CD4 counts, but routine surveillance biopsy specimens of apparently normal bowel in early HIV disease (or where CD4 counts are greater than 0.2 x 10(9)/1) are of little value. PMID:8244115

  18. Evaluation of results of lower gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsi.

    PubMed

    Yanık, Serdar; Akkoca, Ayşe Neslin; Özdemir, Zeynep Tuba; Sözütek, Didem; Yılmaz, Edip Erdal; Sayar, Süleyman

    2014-01-01

    The endoscopic examination is widely used and also the the gold standard in lower gastrointestinal system (LGIS) in the diagnosis and treatment of mucosal pathology. Colon and rectum often hosts premalignant lesions and relatively easily accessible organs. Therefore, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a early detectable disease. And to prevent the development of CRC and to capture at early stage the screening tests such as screening endoscopy are used. In our study was aimed to evaluate the biopsy results of the lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. The lower gastrointestinal endoscopy (LGE) biopsy results of 135 cases and demographic characteristics of the patients were evaluated retrospectively who admitted to Department of Pathology between January 2013-November 2013. 135 patients enrolled in the study, 89 (65.92%) of male and 46 (34.07%) were female. The age of patients were between 15 and 82 with a mean age of 53.00 ± 14.6. 85 of 135 cases (62.96%) were colitis, 3 (2.22%) were hyperplastic polyps, 22 (16.30%) were tubular adenoma, 15 (11.11%) of them tubulovillous adenoma, 1 (0%, 74) of submucosal lipoma, 9 (6.67%) patients were diagnosed with cancer. All of the cancer cases were in adenocarcinoma histology, one of developing from villous adenoma, one of them from tübülovillous adenoma. Cases of adenomas were included to only cancer groups because there is no duplication of data. Colonoscopy in the detection of both benign and malignant LGIS pathologies is the gold standard method. The upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy(LGE) must be remembered as a reliable method in the population, with a low complication rate and high diagnosis rate and when there is clinical necessity gastrointestinal endoscopy should not be avoided as planned.

  19. Rescue endoscopic bleeding control for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage using clipping and detachable snaring.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Kim, B K; Seol, D C; Byun, S J; Park, K H; Sung, I K; Park, H S; Shim, C S

    2013-06-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding recurs after appropriate endoscopic therapy in 10 % - 15 % of cases. The mortality rate can be as high as 25 % when bleeding recurs, but there is no consensus about the best modality for endoscopic re-treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate clipping and detachable snaring (CDS) for rescue endoscopic control of nonvariceal UGI hemorrhage. We report a case series of seven patients from a Korean tertiary center who underwent endoscopic hemostasis using the combined method of detachable snares with hemoclips. The success rate of endoscopic hemostasis with CDS was 86 %: six of the seven patients who had experienced primary endoscopic treatment failure or recurrent bleeding after endoscopic hemostasis were treated successfully. In conclusion, rescue endoscopic bleeding control by means of CDS is an option for controlling nonvariceal UGI bleeding when no other method of endoscopic treatment for recurrent bleeding and primary hemostatic failure is possible. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Endoscopic submucosal dissection: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline.

    PubMed

    Pimentel-Nunes, Pedro; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Ponchon, Thierry; Repici, Alessandro; Vieth, Michael; De Ceglie, Antonella; Amato, Arnaldo; Berr, Frieder; Bhandari, Pradeep; Bialek, Andrzej; Conio, Massimo; Haringsma, Jelle; Langner, Cord; Meisner, Søren; Messmann, Helmut; Morino, Mario; Neuhaus, Horst; Piessevaux, Hubert; Rugge, Massimo; Saunders, Brian P; Robaszkiewicz, Michel; Seewald, Stefan; Kashin, Sergey; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Hassan, Cesare; Deprez, Pierre H

    2015-09-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system 1 2 was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. 1 ESGE recommends endoscopic en bloc resection for superficial esophageal squamous cell cancers (SCCs), excluding those with obvious submucosal involvement (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) may be considered in such lesions when they are smaller than 10 mm if en bloc resection can be assured. However, ESGE recommends endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) as the first option, mainly to provide an en bloc resection with accurate pathology staging and to avoid missing important histological features (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 2 ESGE recommends endoscopic resection with a curative intent for visible lesions in Barrett's esophagus (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). ESD has not been shown to be superior to EMR for excision of mucosal cancer, and for that reason EMR should be preferred. ESD may be considered in selected cases, such as lesions larger than 15 mm, poorly lifting tumors, and lesions at risk for submucosal invasion (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 3 ESGE recommends endoscopic resection for the treatment of gastric superficial neoplastic lesions that possess a very low risk of lymph node metastasis (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). EMR is an acceptable option for lesions smaller than 10 - 15 mm with a very low probability of advanced histology (Paris 0-IIa). However, ESGE recommends ESD as treatment of choice for most gastric superficial neoplastic lesions (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 4 ESGE states that the majority of colonic and rectal superficial lesions can be effectively removed in a curative way by standard polypectomy and

  1. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Amer, Syed; Horsley-Silva, Jennifer L; Menias, Christine O; Pannala, Rahul

    2015-10-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with surgically altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), can be more challenging compared to those with a normal anatomy. Detailed assessment of cross-sectional imaging features by the radiologist, especially the pancreaticobiliary anatomy, strictures, and stones, is very helpful to the endoscopist in planning the procedure. In addition, any information on enteral anastomoses (for e.g., gastrojejunal strictures and afferent limb obstruction) is also very useful. The endoscopist should review the operative note to understand the exact anatomy prior to procedure. RYGB, which is performed for medically complicated obesity, is the most commonly encountered altered anatomy ERCP procedure. Other situations include patients who have had a pancreaticoduodenectomy or a hepaticojejunostomy. Balloon-assisted deep enteroscopy (single and double-balloon enteroscopy) or rotational endoscopy is often used to traverse the length of the intestine to reach the papilla. In addition, ERCP in these patients is further challenging due to the oblique orientation of the papilla relative to the forward viewing endoscope and the limited enteroscopy-length therapeutic accessories that are currently available. Overall, reported therapeutic success is approximately 70-75% with a complication rate of 3-4%. Alternative approaches include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, laparoscopy-assisted ERCP, or surgery. Given the complexity, ERCP in patients with surgically altered anatomy should be performed in close collaboration with body imagers, interventional radiology, and surgical services.

  2. Evaluation of motion compensation method for assessing the gastrointestinal motility using three dimensional endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Fujinaga, Tetsuji; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2016-03-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are the most common gastrointestinal disorders. The term "functional" is generally applied to disorders where there are no structural abnormalities. Gastrointestinal dysmotility is one of the several mechanisms that have been proposed for the pathogenesis of FGID and is usually examined by manometry, a pressure test. There have been no attempts to examine the gastrointestinal dysmotility by endoscopy. We have proposed an imaging system for the assessment of gastric motility using a three-dimensional endoscope. After we newly developed a threedimensional endoscope and constructed a wave simulated model, we established a method of extracting three-dimensional contraction waves derived from a three-dimensional profile of the wave simulated model obtained with the endoscope. In the study, the endoscope and the wave simulated model were fixed to the ground. However, in a clinical setting, it is hard for endoscopists to keep the endoscope still. Moreover, stomach moves under the influence of breathing. Thus, three-dimensional registration of the position between the endoscope and the gastric wall is necessary for the accurate assessment of gastrointestinal motility. In this paper, we propose a motion compensation method using three-dimensional scene flow. The scene flow of the feature point calculated by obtained images in a time series enables the three-dimensional registration of the position between the endoscope and the gastric wall. We confirmed the validity of a proposed method first by a known-movement object and then by a wave simulated model.

  3. Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities. Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract. The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract. The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information. First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model. Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  4. Contrast-enhanced (endoscopic) ultrasound and endoscopic ultrasound elastography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ignee, Andre; Jenssen, Christian; Hocke, Michael; Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Cui, Xin-Wu; Woenckhaus, Matthias; Iordache, Sevastita; Saftoiu, Adrian; Schuessler, Gudrun; Dietrich, Christoph F.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) represent the largest group of subepithelial tumors (SET) of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. They may show malignant behavior, in contrast to other SET. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is frequently used to characterize SET. With the introduction of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) into EUS (CE-EUS), distinct enhancement patterns can be detected. In the presented study, the characteristic features of CE-EUS in GIST are analyzed and compared with those of other SET. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients from four centers with SET of the upper and middle GI tract were included and received endoscopic or transcutaneous CEUS. The results were compared with EUS-guided tissue acquisition, forceps biopsy, or surgical resection. Results: Forty-two out of 62 (68%) patients had SET of the stomach, 17/62 (27%) of the small intestine, 2/62 (3%) of the esophagus, and 1/62 (2%) extraintestinal. Eighty-one percent underwent surgery. Leiomyoma was found in 5/62 (8%) and GIST in 57/62 patients (92%). Thirty-nine out of 57 (68%) patients had GIST lesions in the stomach, 17/57 (30%) had GIST of the small intestine, and 1/57 (2%) patients had extraintestinal GISTs. GIST size was 62.6 ± 42.1 (16–200) mm. Hyperenhancement had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 98%, 100%, 100%, 93%, and 98% for the diagnosis of GIST. Fifty out of 57 patients with GIST (88%) showed avascular areas in the center of the lesions. Conclusion: CE-EUS and CEUS show hyperenhancement and avascular areas in a high percentage of GIST but not in leiomyoma. Thus, GIST and leiomyoma can be discriminated accurately. PMID:28218202

  5. Endoscopic internal drainage as first-line treatment for fistula following gastrointestinal surgery: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Donatelli, Gianfranco; Dumont, Jean-Loup; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Dhumane, Parag; Tuszynski, Thierry; Vergeau, Bertrand Marie; Meduri, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Leaks following gastrointestinal surgery are a dreadful complication burdened by high morbidity and not irrelevant mortality. Endoscopic internal drainage (EID) has showed optimal results in the treatment of leaks following bariatric surgery. We report our experience with EID as first-line treatment for fistulas following surgery along all gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27556072

  6. Endoscopic clip closure of gastrointestinal perforations, fistulae, and leaks.

    PubMed

    Raju, Gottumukkala S

    2014-01-01

    Development of endoscopic devices to close perforations has certainly revolutionized endoscopy. Immediate closure of perforations eliminates the need for surgery, which allows us to push the limits of endoscopic surgery from the mucosal plane to deep submucosal layers and eventually transmurally. The present article focuses on endoscopic closure devices, closure techniques, followed by a review of animal and clinical studies on endoscopic closure of perforations. © 2013 The Author. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  7. Evaluation of the three-dimensional endoscope system for assessing the gastrointestinal motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Takeda, Maki; Nishimura, Takahiro; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2014-02-01

    This paper described evaluation of the three-dimensional endoscope system for assessing the gastrointestinal motility. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on the morphological or anatomical abnormity. However, sometimes the gastrointestinal symptoms are apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors of these diseases is the gastrointestinal dysmotility. Assessment procedures for motor function are either invasive, or indirect. We thus propose a three-dimensional endoscope system for assessing the gastrointestinal motility. To assess the dynamic motility of the stomach, three-dimensional endoscopic imaging of stomach lining is performed. Propagating contraction waves are detected by subtracting estimated stomach geometry without contraction waves from one with contraction waves. After detecting constriction waves, their frequency, amplitude, and speed of propagation can be calculated. In this study, we evaluate the proposed system. First, we evaluate the developed three-dimensional endoscope system by a flat plane. This system can measure the geometry of the flat plane with an error of less than 10 percent of the distance between endoscope tip and the object. Then we confirm the validity of a prototype system by a wave simulated model. The detected wave is approximated by a Gaussian function. In the experiment, the amplitude and position of the wave can be measure with 1 mm accuracy. These results suggest that the proposed system can measure the speed and amplitude of contraction. In the future, we evaluate the proposed system in vivo experiments.

  8. False-Negative Results of Endoscopic Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Kaposi's Sarcoma in HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sekine, Katsunori; Igari, Toru; Hamada, Yohei; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Ohmagari, Norio; Akiyama, Junichi; Shimbo, Takuro; Teruya, Katsuji; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a rare endothelial neoplasm mainly involving the skin, but it is often associated with AIDS. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract KS, a common site of visceral involvement in AIDS, is important, but endoscopic biopsy carries a risk of false-negative results (FNRs) due to its submucosal appearance. This study sought to determine the rate and causes of FNR for endoscopic biopsy of GI-KS lesions. Endoscopic biopsy samples of 116 GI-KS lesions were reviewed retrospectively. All GI-KS lesions were confirmed to be resolved following KS therapy. FNRs were yielded for 41 of the lesions (35.3%). Among upper and lower GI sites, the esophagus was the only site significantly associated with FNRs (P < 0.01). Small size (<10 mm) and patches found on endoscopy were significantly associated with FNRs (P < 0.05). Findings of submucosal tumor (SMT) with ulceration were significantly associated with true-positive results (P < 0.05). In conclusion, FNRs were found in 35.3% of GI-KS lesions and were especially related to the site of the esophagus and endoscopic early stage (small size or patch appearance). An SMT with ulceration may be relatively easy to diagnose on endoscopic biopsy. Caution should be exercised when performing endoscopic biopsy of these lesions in AIDS patients and evaluating the histological features.

  9. How to adjust endoscopic findings to histopathological findings of the stomach: a "histopathology-oriented" correspondence method helps to understand endoscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yasuko; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Dohi, Osamu; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Majima, Atsushi; Kimura-Tsuchiya, Reiko; Yagi, Nobuaki; Konishi, Hideyuki; Naito, Yuji; Harada, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hideo; Konishi, Eiichi; Sugai, Tamotsu; Yanagisawa, Akio

    2017-09-05

    Endoscopic findings have now become nearly as detailed as histopathological findings. Thus, one-to-one correspondence and precise feedback of histopathological findings is very desirable but may be very difficult to accomplish. We describe a systematic process called the Kyoto One-to-One Correspondence Method (the KOTO Method) that allows detailed adjustments of endoscopic findings to match histopathological findings. By comparing endoscopic and stereoscopic images of the gastric mucosa, we could obtain one-to-one correspondence between endoscopic images and equivalent histology in 44 of 47 fields. The histological structure of gastric cancers of the same histological subtype may not be similar. One-to-one correspondence between endoscopic images and gastric mucosal histology (histopathology-oriented correspondence) will improve endoscopic diagnosis and provide more useful information for pathological diagnosis.

  10. Cooperative laparoscopic endoscopic and hybrid laparoscopic surgery for upper gastrointestinal tumors: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Ntourakis, Dimitrios; Mavrogenis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the cooperative laparoscopic and endoscopic techniques used for the resection of upper gastrointestinal tumors. METHODS: A systematic research of the literature was performed in PubMed for English and French language articles about laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative, combined, hybrid and rendezvous techniques. Only original studies using these techniques for the resection of early gastric cancer, benign tumors and gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach and the duodenum were included. By excluding case series of less than 10 patients, 25 studies were identified. The study design, number of cases, tumor pathology size and location, the operative technique name, the endoscopy team and surgical team role, operative time, type of closure of visceral wall defect, blood loss, complications and length of hospital stay of these studies were evaluated. Additionally all cooperative techniques found were classified and are presented in a systematic approach. RESULTS: The studies identified were case series and retrospective cohort studies. A total of 706 patients were operated on with a cooperative technique. The tumors resected were only gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in 4 studies, GIST and various benign submucosal tumors in 22 studies, early gastric cancer (pT1a and pT1b) in 6 studies and early duodenal cancer in 1 study. There was important heterogeneity between the studies. The operative techniques identified were: laparoscopic assisted endoscopic resection, endoscopic assisted wedge resection, endoscopic assisted transgastric and intragastric surgery, laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS), laparoscopic assisted endoscopic full thickness resection (LAEFR), clean non exposure technique and non-exposed endoscopic wall-inversion surgery (NEWS). Each technique is illustrated with the roles of the endoscopic and laparoscopic teams; the indications, characteristics and short term results are described. CONCLUSION: Along with

  11. Cooperative laparoscopic endoscopic and hybrid laparoscopic surgery for upper gastrointestinal tumors: Current status.

    PubMed

    Ntourakis, Dimitrios; Mavrogenis, Georgios

    2015-11-21

    To investigate the cooperative laparoscopic and endoscopic techniques used for the resection of upper gastrointestinal tumors. A systematic research of the literature was performed in PubMed for English and French language articles about laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative, combined, hybrid and rendezvous techniques. Only original studies using these techniques for the resection of early gastric cancer, benign tumors and gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach and the duodenum were included. By excluding case series of less than 10 patients, 25 studies were identified. The study design, number of cases, tumor pathology size and location, the operative technique name, the endoscopy team and surgical team role, operative time, type of closure of visceral wall defect, blood loss, complications and length of hospital stay of these studies were evaluated. Additionally all cooperative techniques found were classified and are presented in a systematic approach. The studies identified were case series and retrospective cohort studies. A total of 706 patients were operated on with a cooperative technique. The tumors resected were only gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in 4 studies, GIST and various benign submucosal tumors in 22 studies, early gastric cancer (pT1a and pT1b) in 6 studies and early duodenal cancer in 1 study. There was important heterogeneity between the studies. The operative techniques identified were: laparoscopic assisted endoscopic resection, endoscopic assisted wedge resection, endoscopic assisted transgastric and intragastric surgery, laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS), laparoscopic assisted endoscopic full thickness resection (LAEFR), clean non exposure technique and non-exposed endoscopic wall-inversion surgery (NEWS). Each technique is illustrated with the roles of the endoscopic and laparoscopic teams; the indications, characteristics and short term results are described. Along with the traditional cooperative

  12. Recent Update on Microbiological Monitoring of Gastrointestinal Endoscopes after High-Level Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Suk Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy-related infections are important contributors to nosocomial infections. Endoscope reprocessing according to standard guidelines ensures high-level disinfection and prevents endoscopy-related infections. Microbiological surveillance may help in monitoring the effectiveness of gastrointestinal endoscope disinfection. The process involves microbial cultures and non-culture methods such as bioburden assays, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence, and quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Surveillance culturing to monitor endoscopes after reprocessing has been recommended by a majority of organizations. Bioburden assays, ATP bioluminescence, and quantitative PCRs provide rapid and reliable measures. Each institution will have to try to establish its own surveillance guidelines. PMID:26473118

  13. Review of Pure Endoscopic Full-Thickness Resection of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) using flexible endoscopy has attracted attention as a minimally invasive surgical method that does not cause an operative wound on the body surface. However, minimizing the number of devices involved in endoscopic, compared to laparoscopic, surgeries has remained a challenge, causing endoscopic surgeries to gradually be phased out of use. If a flexible endoscopic full-thickness suturing device and a counter-traction device were developed to expand the surgical field for gastrointestinal-tract collapse, then endoscopic full-thickness resection using NOTES, which is seen as an extension of endoscopic submucosal dissection for full-thickness excision of tumors involving the gastrointestinal-tract wall, might become an extremely minimally invasive surgical method that could be used to resect only full-thickness lesions approached by the shortest distance via the mouth. It is expected that gastroenterological endoscopists will use this surgery if device development is advanced. This extremely minimally invasive surgery would have an immeasurable impact with regard to mitigating the burden on patients and reducing healthcare costs. Development of a new surgical method using a multipurpose flexible endoscope is therefore considered a socially urgent issue. PMID:26343069

  14. Upper non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding - review the effectiveness of endoscopic hemostasis methods

    PubMed Central

    Szura, Mirosław; Pasternak, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Upper non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding is a condition that requires immediate medical intervention and has a high associated mortality rate (exceeding 10%). The vast majority of upper gastrointestinal bleeding cases are due to peptic ulcers. Helicobacter pylori infection, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin are the main risk factors for peptic ulcer disease. Endoscopic therapy has generally been recommended as the first-line treatment for upper gastrointestinal bleeding as it has been shown to reduce recurrent bleeding, the need for surgery and mortality. Early endoscopy (within 24 h of hospital admission) has a greater impact than delayed endoscopy on the length of hospital stay and requirement for blood transfusion. This paper aims to review and compare the efficacy of the types of endoscopic hemostasis most commonly used to control non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding by pooling data from the literature. PMID:26421105

  15. Does lymphocytic colitis always present with normal endoscopic findings?

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Sun; Han, Dong Soo; Ro, Young Ouk; Eun, Chang Soo; Yoo, Kyo Sang

    2015-03-01

    Although normal endoscopic findings are, as a rule, part of the diagnosis of microscopic colitis, sev-eral cases of macroscopic lesions (MLs) have been reported in collagenous colitis, but hardly in lymphocytic colitis (LC). The aim of this study was to investigate the endoscopic, clini-cal, and histopathologic features of LC with MLs. A total of 14 patients with LC who were diagnosed between 2005 and 2010 were enrolled in the study. Endoscopic, clini-cal, and histopathologic findings were compared retrospec-tively according to the presence or absence of MLs. MLs were observed in seven of the 14 LC cases. Six of the MLs exhibited hypervascularity, three exhibited exudative bleeding and one exhibited edema. The patients with MLs had more severe diarrhea and were taking aspirin or pro-ton pump inhibitors. More intraepithelial lymphocytes were observed during histologic examination in the patients with MLs compared to the patients without MLs, although this difference was not significant. The numbers of mononuclear cells and neutrophils in the lamina propria were independent of the presence or absence of MLs. LC does not always present with normal endoscopic findings. Hyper-vascularity and exudative bleeding are frequent endoscopic findings in patients with MLs. (Gut Liver, 2015;9197-201).

  16. Multidetector CT angiography for acute gastrointestinal bleeding: technique and findings.

    PubMed

    Artigas, José M; Martí, Milagros; Soto, Jorge A; Esteban, Helena; Pinilla, Inmaculada; Guillén, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a common reason for emergency department admissions and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Factors that complicate its clinical management include patient debility due to comorbidities; intermittence of hemorrhage; and multiple sites of simultaneous bleeding. Its management, therefore, must be multidisciplinary and include emergency physicians, gastroenterologists, and surgeons, as well as radiologists for diagnostic imaging and interventional therapy. Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding is usually managed endoscopically, with radiologic intervention reserved as an alternative to be used if endoscopic therapy fails. Endoscopy is often less successful in the management of acute lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding, where colonoscopy may be more effective. The merits of performing bowel cleansing before colonoscopy in such cases might be offset by the resultant increase in response time and should be weighed carefully against the deficits in visualization and diagnostic accuracy that would result from performing colonoscopy without bowel preparation. In recent years, multidetector computed tomographic (CT) angiography has gained acceptance as a first-line option for the diagnosis and management of lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding. In selected cases of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding, CT angiography also provides accurate information about the presence or absence of active bleeding, its source, and its cause. This information helps shorten the total diagnostic time and minimizes or eliminates the need for more expensive and more invasive procedures. © RSNA, 2013.

  17. Surveillance cultures of samples obtained from biopsy channels and automated endoscope reprocessors after high-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The instrument channels of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes may be heavily contaminated with bacteria even after high-level disinfection (HLD). The British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines emphasize the benefits of manually brushing endoscope channels and using automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) for disinfecting endoscopes. In this study, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of decontamination using reprocessors after HLD by comparing the cultured samples obtained from biopsy channels (BCs) of GI endoscopes and the internal surfaces of AERs. Methods We conducted a 5-year prospective study. Every month random consecutive sampling was carried out after a complete reprocessing cycle; 420 rinse and swabs samples were collected from BCs and internal surface of AERs, respectively. Of the 420 rinse samples collected from the BC of the GI endoscopes, 300 were obtained from the BCs of gastroscopes and 120 from BCs of colonoscopes. Samples were collected by flushing the BCs with sterile distilled water, and swabbing the residual water from the AERs after reprocessing. These samples were cultured to detect the presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and mycobacteria. Results The number of culture-positive samples obtained from BCs (13.6%, 57/420) was significantly higher than that obtained from AERs (1.7%, 7/420). In addition, the number of culture-positive samples obtained from the BCs of gastroscopes (10.7%, 32/300) and colonoscopes (20.8%, 25/120) were significantly higher than that obtained from AER reprocess to gastroscopes (2.0%, 6/300) and AER reprocess to colonoscopes (0.8%, 1/120). Conclusions Culturing rinse samples obtained from BCs provides a better indication of the effectiveness of the decontamination of GI endoscopes after HLD than culturing the swab samples obtained from the inner surfaces of AERs as the swab samples only indicate whether the AERs are free from microbial contamination or not. PMID:22943739

  18. Surveillance cultures of samples obtained from biopsy channels and automated endoscope reprocessors after high-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Chiu, King-Wah; Tsai, Ming-Chao; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Lin, Ming-Tzung; Hu, Tsung-Hui

    2012-09-03

    The instrument channels of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes may be heavily contaminated with bacteria even after high-level disinfection (HLD). The British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines emphasize the benefits of manually brushing endoscope channels and using automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) for disinfecting endoscopes. In this study, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of decontamination using reprocessors after HLD by comparing the cultured samples obtained from biopsy channels (BCs) of GI endoscopes and the internal surfaces of AERs. We conducted a 5-year prospective study. Every month random consecutive sampling was carried out after a complete reprocessing cycle; 420 rinse and swabs samples were collected from BCs and internal surface of AERs, respectively. Of the 420 rinse samples collected from the BC of the GI endoscopes, 300 were obtained from the BCs of gastroscopes and 120 from BCs of colonoscopes. Samples were collected by flushing the BCs with sterile distilled water, and swabbing the residual water from the AERs after reprocessing. These samples were cultured to detect the presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and mycobacteria. The number of culture-positive samples obtained from BCs (13.6%, 57/420) was significantly higher than that obtained from AERs (1.7%, 7/420). In addition, the number of culture-positive samples obtained from the BCs of gastroscopes (10.7%, 32/300) and colonoscopes (20.8%, 25/120) were significantly higher than that obtained from AER reprocess to gastroscopes (2.0%, 6/300) and AER reprocess to colonoscopes (0.8%, 1/120). Culturing rinse samples obtained from BCs provides a better indication of the effectiveness of the decontamination of GI endoscopes after HLD than culturing the swab samples obtained from the inner surfaces of AERs as the swab samples only indicate whether the AERs are free from microbial contamination or not.

  19. Telemedicine for gastrointestinal endoscopy: The Endoscopic Club E-conference in the Asia Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Kudo, Kuriko; Tomimatsu, Shunta; Ahmad, Mohamad Zahir; Aso, Akira; Seo, Dong Wan; Goh, Khean-Lee; Shimizu, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims An Endoscopic Club E-conference (ECE) was set up in May 2014 to cater to increased demand for gastrointestinal endoscopy-related teleconferences in the Asia-Pacific region which were traditionally organized by the medical working group (MWG) of Asia-Pacific Advanced Network. This study describes how the ECE meeting was run, examines the group dynamics, outlines feedback and analyzes factors affecting the enthusiasm of participants. It is hoped that the findings here can serve as guidance for future development of other teleconference groups. Methods The preparation, running of and feedback on the ECE teleconference were evaluated and described. The country’s economic situation, time zone differences, connectivity with a research and education network (REN) and engineering cooperation of each member were recorded and analyzed with regard to their association with participant enthusiasm, which was taken as participation in at least 50 % of the meetings since joining. Associations were calculated using 2-way table with chi-square test to generate odds ratio and P value. Results To date, ECE members have increased from 7 to 29 (increment of 314 %). Feedback received indicated a high level of satisfaction with program content, audiovisual transmission and ease of technical preparation. Upper gastrointestinal luminal endoscopy-related topics were the most favored program content. Those topics were presented mainly via case studies with a focus on management challenges. Time zone differences of more than 6 hours and poor engineering cooperation were independently associated with inactive participation (P values of 0.04 and 0.001 respectively). Conclusions Good program content and high-quality audiovisual transmission are keys to the success of an endoscopic medical teleconference. In our analysis, poor engineering cooperation and discordant time zones contributed to inactive participation while connectivity with REN and a country

  20. Current issues in endoscope reprocessing and infection control during gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Douglas B; Muscarella, Lawrence F

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the evidence regarding transmission of infection during gastrointestinal endoscopy, factors important in endoscope reprocessing and infection control, areas to focus on to improve compliance, and recent developments and advances in the field. PMID:16810740

  1. A pilot study on using chlorine dioxide gas for disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes* #

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ying; Hao, Li-mei; Ma, Shu-ren; Wu, Jin-hui; Wang, Tao; Lin, Song; Zhang, Zong-xing; Qi, Jian-cheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study of employing chlorine dioxide (CD) gas to disinfect gastrointestinal endoscopes was conducted to meet the expectations of many endoscopy units in China for a high-efficiency and low-cost disinfectant. Methods: An experimental prototype with an active circulation mode was designed to use CD gas to disinfect gastrointestinal endoscopes. One type of testing device composed of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes (2 m long, inner diameter 1 mm) and bacterial carrier containers was used to simulate the channel of the endoscope. PTFE bacterial carriers inoculated with Bacillus atrophaeus with or without organic burden were used to evaluate the sporicidal activity of CD gas. Factors including exposure dosage, relative humidity (RH), and flow rate (FR) influencing the disinfection effect of CD gas were investigated. Moreover, an autoptic disinfecting test on eight real gastrointestinal endoscopes after clinical use was performed using the experimental prototype. Results: RH, exposure dosage, organic burden, and the FR through the channel significantly (P<0.05) affected the disinfection efficacy of CD gas for a long and narrow lumen. The log reduction increased as FR decreased. Treatment with 4 mg/L CD gas for 30 min at 0.8 L/min FR and 75% RH, resulted in complete inactivation of spores. Furthermore, all eight endoscopes with a maximum colony-forming unit of 915 were completely disinfected. The cost was only 3 CNY (0.46 USD) for each endoscope. Conclusions: The methods and results reported in this study could provide a basis for further studies on using CD gas for the disinfection of endoscopes. PMID:27381729

  2. A pilot study on using chlorine dioxide gas for disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ying; Hao, Li-Mei; Ma, Shu-Ren; Wu, Jin-Hui; Wang, Tao; Lin, Song; Zhang, Zong-Xing; Qi, Jian-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    This pilot study of employing chlorine dioxide (CD) gas to disinfect gastrointestinal endoscopes was conducted to meet the expectations of many endoscopy units in China for a high-efficiency and low-cost disinfectant. An experimental prototype with an active circulation mode was designed to use CD gas to disinfect gastrointestinal endoscopes. One type of testing device composed of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes (2 m long, inner diameter 1 mm) and bacterial carrier containers was used to simulate the channel of the endoscope. PTFE bacterial carriers inoculated with Bacillus atrophaeus with or without organic burden were used to evaluate the sporicidal activity of CD gas. Factors including exposure dosage, relative humidity (RH), and flow rate (FR) influencing the disinfection effect of CD gas were investigated. Moreover, an autoptic disinfecting test on eight real gastrointestinal endoscopes after clinical use was performed using the experimental prototype. RH, exposure dosage, organic burden, and the FR through the channel significantly (P<0.05) affected the disinfection efficacy of CD gas for a long and narrow lumen. The log reduction increased as FR decreased. Treatment with 4 mg/L CD gas for 30 min at 0.8 L/min FR and 75% RH, resulted in complete inactivation of spores. Furthermore, all eight endoscopes with a maximum colony-forming unit of 915 were completely disinfected. The cost was only 3 CNY (0.46 USD) for each endoscope. The methods and results reported in this study could provide a basis for further studies on using CD gas for the disinfection of endoscopes.

  3. [OVESCO: a promising system for endoscopic closure of gastrointestinal tract perforations].

    PubMed

    Junquera, Félix; Martínez-Bauer, Eva; Miquel, Mireia; Fort, Miriam; Gallach, Marta; Brullet, Enric; Campo, Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Perforations of the gastrointestinal tract are a significant source of morbidity in clinical practice. Surgery has been the standard of care. However, endoscopic treatment with clips can be used when perforations are small. The development of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has substantially contributed to research in this field, such as the over the scope clip (OVESCO or OTSC). This system is one of the most promising technologies for closure of perforations of the gastrointestinal tract because of its efficacy, safety and rapidity. Other indications include severe gastrointestinal bleeding, fistulae, anastomotic leaks, and bariatric surgery anastomosis remodelling. This article describes the OVESCO system from its initial design to its introduction in clinical practice.

  4. Advanced endoscopic imaging: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Technology Review.

    PubMed

    East, James E; Vleugels, Jasper L; Roelandt, Philip; Bhandari, Pradeep; Bisschops, Raf; Dekker, Evelien; Hassan, Cesare; Horgan, Gareth; Kiesslich, Ralf; Longcroft-Wheaton, Gaius; Wilson, Ana; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2016-11-01

    Background and aim: This technical review is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the utilization of advanced endoscopic imaging in gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Methods: This technical review is based on a systematic literature search to evaluate the evidence supporting the use of advanced endoscopic imaging throughout the GI tract. Technologies considered include narrowed-spectrum endoscopy (narrow band imaging [NBI]; flexible spectral imaging color enhancement [FICE]; i-Scan digital contrast [I-SCAN]), autofluorescence imaging (AFI), and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence. Main recommendations:1. We suggest advanced endoscopic imaging technologies improve mucosal visualization and enhance fine structural and microvascular detail. Expert endoscopic diagnosis may be improved by advanced imaging, but as yet in community-based practice no technology has been shown consistently to be diagnostically superior to current practice with high definition white light. (Low quality evidence.) 2. We recommend the use of validated classification systems to support the use of optical diagnosis with advanced endoscopic imaging in the upper and lower GI tracts (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 3. We suggest that training improves performance in the use of advanced endoscopic imaging techniques and that it is a prerequisite for use in clinical practice. A learning curve exists and training alone does not guarantee sustained high performances in clinical practice. (Weak recommendation, low quality evidence.) Conclusion: Advanced endoscopic imaging can improve mucosal visualization and endoscopic diagnosis; however it requires training and the use of validated classification systems.

  5. Review of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography using several endoscopic methods in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Shimatani, Masaaki; Takaoka, Makoto; Tokuhara, Mitsuo; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    The endoscopic approach for biliary diseases in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy (SAGA) had been generally deemed impractical. However, it was radically made feasible by the introduction of double balloon endoscopy (DBE) that was originally developed for diagnosis and treatments for small-bowel diseases. Followed by the subsequent development of single-balloon endoscopy (SBE) and spiral endoscopy (SE), interventions using several endoscopes for biliary disease in patients with SAGA widely gained an acceptance as a new modality. Many studies have been made on this new technique. Yet, some problems are to be solved. For instance, the mutual unavailability among devices due to different working lengths and channels, and unestablished standardization of procedural techniques can be raised. Additionally, in an attempt to standardize endoscopic procedures, it is important to evaluate biliary cannulating methods by case with existence of papilla or not. A full comprehension of the features of respective scope types is also required. However there are not many papers written as a review. In our manuscript, we would like to evaluate and make a review of the present status of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography applying DBE, SBE and SE for biliary diseases in patients with SAGA for establishment of these modalities as a new technology and further improvement of the scopes and devices. PMID:26078830

  6. Endoscopic Closure for Full-Thickness Gastrointestinal Defects: Available Applications and Emerging Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Ho, Khek Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full-thickness gastrointestinal defects such as perforation, anastomotic leak, and fistula are severe conditions caused by various types of pathologies. They are more likely to require intensive care and a long hospital stay and have high rates of morbidity and mortality. After intentional full-thickness opening of hollow organs for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, safe and secure closure is urgently required. The currently available advanced endoscopic closing techniques have a major role in the treatment of full-thickness gastrointestinal defects. Appropriate usage of these techniques requires taking into account their advantages and limitations during practical application. We reviewed the available endoscopic modalities, including endoscopic clips, stents, vacuum-assisted closure, gap filling, and suturing devices, discussed their advantages and limitations when treating full-thickness gastrointestinal defects, and explored emerging innovations, including a novel endoluminal surgical platform for versatile suturing and a cell-laden scaffold for effective gap filling. Although these emerging technologies still require further pre-clinical and clinical trials to assess their feasibility and efficacy, the available modalities may be replaced and refined by these new techniques in the near future. PMID:27571898

  7. [Characteristics of deep sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures performed by intensivists].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ó; Ballesteros, D; Estébanez, B; Chana, M; López, B; Martín, C; Algaba, Á; Vigil, L; Blancas, R

    2014-12-01

    To determine tolerance, pain intensity, percentage of tests completed successfully and complications of deep sedation controlled by intensivists during gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. A one-year, prospective observational study was carried out. Department of Intensive Care intervention in the Endoscopy Unit of Hospital Universitario del Tajo (Spain). Subjects over 15 years of age subjected to endoscopic procedures under deep sedation. A total of 868 patients were sedated during the study period, with the conduction of 1010 endoscopic procedures. The degree of tolerance was considered adequate («Very good»/«Good») in 96.9% of the patients (95%CI: 95.7-98.1%), with a median score of 0 on the pain visual analog scale. A total of 988 endoscopic procedures were successfully completed (97.8%; 95%CI: 96.9-98.8%): 675 colonoscopies (97.1%) and 305 endoscopies (99.7%). Complications were recorded in 106 patients (12.2%; 95%CI: 10.0-14.5%). The most frequent being desaturation (6.1%), rhythm disturbances (5.1%) and hypotension (2.4%). Gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures under sedation controlled by intensivists are well tolerated and satisfactory for the patient, and are successfully completed in a very large percentage of cases. The procedures are associated with frequent minor complications that are resolved successfully. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Endoscopic modalities for upper gastrointestinal leaks, fistulae and perforations

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Gary; Saxena, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Endotherapy techniques are a recent addition to the suite of non‐surgical and minimally invasive strategies to manage patients with perforations, leaks and fistulae. The emergency nature of these conditions and the heterogeneity of pathologies encountered create difficulties when trying to select appropriate tools in these complex situations. The purpose of this article is to review experience at a tertiary academic centre, describe the various endoscopic tools available and the situations where they can be considered for use. Methods Single‐centre series and review of the published literature. Results Of 64 patients, 57 were successfully treated using endoscopic therapy, with surgery used only to provide drainage and suture fully covered metal stents in place to prevent migration. Discussion Selection of an appropriate endotherapy or stent for a patient with an oesophago‐gastric perforation or fistula requires an understanding of the anatomy and physiology underlying the patient's presentation and an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the available methods. Standard surgical principles of drainage, avoidance of distal obstruction and nutrition remain central to successful outcomes. A combination of surgical and endoscopic treatments may reduce the number of required treatments and can provide the ability to anchor fully covered stents to prevent them from migrating. PMID:26525773

  9. Hyaluronic acid solution injection for upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed conventional endoscopic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyung Hun

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be an additional endoscopic modality for controlling bleeding in difficult cases when other techniques have failed. We evaluated 12 cases in which we used hyaluronic acid solution injection for stopping bleeding. Immediately following hyaluronic acid solution injection, bleeding was controlled in 11 out of 12 cases. There was no clinical evidence of renewed bleeding in 11 cases during follow up.Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be a simple and efficient additional method for controlling upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed endoscopic therapy.

  10. Ongoing evolution of practice gaps in gastrointestinal and endoscopic surgery: 2014 report from the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) Continuing Education Committee.

    PubMed

    McLemore, Elisabeth C; Paige, John T; Bergman, Simon; Hori, Yumi; Schwarz, Erin; Farrell, Timothy M

    2015-11-01

    In an effort to fulfill the charge to develop and maintain a comprehensive educational program to serve the members of the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES), the SAGES Continuing Education Committee reports a summary of findings related to the evaluation of the 2014 SAGES annual meeting. All attendees to the 2014 annual meeting had the opportunity to complete an immediate post-meeting questionnaire as part of their continuing medical education (CME) certification, and identify up to two learning themes, answer questions related to potential practice change items based on these learning themes, and complete a needs assessment for relevant learning topics for future meetings. In addition, participants in the postgraduate and hands-on courses were asked to complete questions about case volume and comfort level related to procedures/topics in those courses. All respondents to this initial survey were sent a 3-month follow-up questionnaire in which they were asked how successful they had been in the implementation of the targeted practice changes and what, if any, barriers were encountered. Descriptive statistical analysis of de-identified data was undertaken. SAGES University attendees respond to a post-test and post-activity evaluation. Response rates were 43 and 31 % for CME-eligible attendees/respondents for the immediate post-meeting and 3-month follow-up questionnaires, respectively. Top learning themes for respondents were foregut, hernia, bariatric, and colorectal. Improving minimally invasive surgical (MIS) technique and managing complications related to MIS procedures were top intended practice changes. Partial implementation was common with top barriers including lack of resources and lack of time. Desired topics for future meetings included management of complications, enhanced recovery after surgery, introduction of new procedures into clinical practice, and re-operative surgery. The SAGES 2014 annual meeting analysis

  11. Endoscopic vacuum therapy for various defects of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Florian; Loske, Gunnar; Schiffmann, Leif; Gock, Michael; Klar, Ernst

    2017-01-11

    Postoperative, iatrogenic or spontaneous upper gastrointestinal defects result in significant morbidity and mortality of the patients. In the last few years, endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) has been recognized as a new promising method for repairing upper gastrointestinal defects of different etiology. However, probably due to insufficient data and no commercially available system for EVT of the upper gastrointestinal tract, until the end of 2014, covering of esophageal defects with self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) were still the mainstay of endoscopic therapy. The aim of this article is to review the data available about EVT for various upper gastrointestinal defects. A selective literature search was conducted in Medline and PubMed (2007-2016), taking into account all the published case series and case reports reporting on the use of EVT in the management of upper gastrointestinal defects. EVT works through intracorporal application of negative pressure at the defect zone with an electronic controlled vacuum device along a polyurethane sponge drainage. This results in closure of the esophageal defect and internal drainage of the septic focus, simultaneously. Compared to stenting, EVT enables regular viewing of wound conditions with control of the septic focus and adjustment of therapy. Moreover, endoscopical negative pressure is applicable in all esophageal regions (cricopharygeal, tubular, gastroesophageal junction) and in anastomotic anatomic variants. EVT can be used solely as a definite treatment or as a complimentary therapy combined with operative revision. In total, there are published data of more than 200 patients with upper gastrointestinal defects treated with EVT, showing succes rates from 70-100%. The available data indicate that EVT is feasible, safe and effective with good short-term and long-term clinical outcomes in the damage control of upper GI-tract leaks. Still, a prospective multi-center study has to be conducted to proof the definite

  12. Colonoscopic findings and management of patients with outbreak typhoid fever presenting with lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Shaikhani, Mohammad A R; Husein, Hiwa A B; Karbuli, Taha A; Mohamed, Mohamed Abdulrahman

    2013-09-01

    Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) along with intestinal perforation is a well-known complication of typhoid fever. Reports of colonoscopic appearance and intervention of typhoid perforation involve only few cases. This series reports the colonoscopic findings and the role of colonoscopic hemostatic interventions in controlling the bleeding ileocolonic lesions. During the typhoid fever outbreak in Sulaymaniyah City in Iraqi Kurdistan Region, we received 52 patients with LGIB manifesting as fresh bleeding per rectum or melena. We performed total colonoscopy with ileal intubation for all cases. The findings were recorded and endoscopic hemostatic intervention with adrenaline-saline injection and argon plasma coagulation was applied to actively bleeding lesion. These patients were young, 11-30 years of age, with female preponderance. Blood culture was positive in 50 %. Colonoscopic findings were mostly located in the ileocecal region, although other areas of the colon were involved in many cases. Twenty-four percent of the cases required endoscopic hemostatic intervention by adrenaline injection with argon plasma coagulation which was effective in all patients except one who died in spite of surgical intervention in addition of endoscopic hemostasis. Dual endoscopic hemostatic intervention can be a safe and effective management option for patients with LGIB due to typhoid fever.

  13. Diagnosis and management of iatrogenic endoscopic perforations: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Paspatis, Gregorios A; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Barthet, Marc; Meisner, Søren; Repici, Alessandro; Saunders, Brian P; Vezakis, Antonios; Gonzalez, Jean Michel; Turino, Stine Ydegaard; Tsiamoulos, Zacharias P; Fockens, Paul; Hassan, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    This Position Paper is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of iatrogenic perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic digestive endoscopic procedures. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends that each center implements a written policy regarding the management of iatrogenic perforation, including the definition of procedures that carry a high risk of this complication. This policy should be shared with the radiologists and surgeons at each center. 2 In the case of an endoscopically identified perforation, ESGE recommends that the endoscopist reports: its size and location with a picture; endoscopic treatment that might have been possible; whether carbon dioxide or air was used for insufflation; and the standard report information. 3 ESGE recommends that symptoms or signs suggestive of iatrogenic perforation after an endoscopic procedure should be carefully evaluated and documented, possibly with a computed tomography (CT) scan, in order to prevent any diagnostic delay. 4 ESGE recommends that endoscopic closure should be considered depending on the type of perforation, its size, and the endoscopist expertise available at the center. A switch to carbon dioxide insufflation, the diversion of luminal content, and decompression of tension pneumoperitoneum or tension pneumothorax should also be done. 5 After closure of an iatrogenic perforation using an endoscopic method, ESGE recommends that further management should be based on the estimated success of the endoscopic closure and on the general clinical condition of the patient. In the case of no or failed endoscopic closure of the iatrogenic perforation, and in patients whose clinical condition is deteriorating, hospitalization and surgical consultation are recommended.

  14. [Endoscopic diagnostics and treatment of submucous tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Starkov, Iu G; Solodinina, E N; Shishin, K V; Novozhilova, A V; Kurushkina, N A

    2011-01-01

    The endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is considered to be the leading method of diagnostic of the submucous gastrointestinal tumors. Results of diagnostics and treatment of submucous tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract in 38 patients were analyzed. EUS was performed in 37 (97,4%) of patients, which allowed to detect the origin, size and localization of the tumor. The differential diagnostic algorithm was suggested together with certain indications for various surgical treatment modalities. Thereby, endoscopic ablation is reasonable when the tumor invades not deeper than muscle plate of mucosa or the submucose layer. Laparoscopic full-layer resection of the organ wall is necessary when the tumor invades the muscle layer. Larger tumors or those of any size, but with preoperative signs of high malignancy must be eradicated through laparotomy, meeting all principles of oncology.

  15. Wide-field endoscopic fluorescence imaging for gastrointestinal tumor detection with glucose analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yun; Qu, Yawei; Bai, Jing; Liu, Haifeng

    2014-05-01

    The lack of functional information and targeted imaging in conventional white-light endoscopy leads to a high miss-rate of gastrointestinal tumor. The combination of near-infrared fluorescence imaging and endoscopy presents a promising approach. Here we introduce a new endoscopy method employing a home-made flexible wide-field epi-fluorescence endoscope, that can be inserted through the biopsy channel of a gastrointestinal endoscope, with the glucose analogue 2- DeoxyGlucosone as the near-infrared fluorescent probe. System characterization indicates a good sensitivity and linearity over a large field of view. Its capability of tumor identification and location is demonstrated with in-vivo imaging of xenografted tumor model.

  16. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for removal of superficial gastrointestinal neoplasms: A technical review

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Noriaki; Akahoshi, Kazuya; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Ihara, Eikichi; Kita, Hiroto

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is now the most common endoscopic treatment in Japan for intramucosal gastrointestinal neoplasms (non-metastatic). ESD is an invasive endoscopic surgical procedure, requiring extensive knowledge, skill, and specialized equipment. ESD starts with evaluation of the lesion, as accurate assessment of the depth and margin of the lesion is essential. The devices and strategies used in ESD vary, depending on the nature of the lesion. Prior to the procedure, the operator must be knowledgeable about the treatment strategy(ies), the device(s) to use, the electrocautery machine settings, the substances to inject, and other aspects. In addition, the operator must be able to manage complications, should they arise, including immediate recognition of the complication(s) and its treatment. Finally, in case the ESD treatment is not successful, the operator should be prepared to apply alternative treatments. Thus, adequate knowledge and training are essential to successfully perform ESD. PMID:22523613

  17. An endoscopic system for the early detection of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckechnie, Tracy; Jahan, Ali; Tait, Iain; Cuschieri, Alfred; Sibbett, Wilson; Padgett, Miles

    1998-06-01

    We report a compact endoscopic imaging system suitable for the early detection of cancers throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The system incorporates a three-color camera to provide a conventional color image, a mercury lamp filtered between 360 and 450 nm to excite the photosensitizer, and an intensified camera to image the resulting fluorescence at 630 nm. Our results on over 30 resected specimens show a high optical contrast between the cancerous and healthy tissue.

  18. Endoscopic en bloc resection of an exophytic gastrointestinal stromal tumor with suction excavation technique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyuk Soon; Chun, Hoon Jai; Kim, Kyoung-Oh; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon-Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-06-21

    Here, we report the first successful endoscopic resection of an exophytic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) using a novel perforation-free suction excavation technique. A 49-year-old woman presented for further management of a gastric subepithelial tumor on the lesser curvature of the lower body, originally detected via routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Abdominal computed tomography and endoscopic ultrasound showed a 4-cm extraluminally protruding mass originating from the muscularis propria layer. The patient firmly refused surgical resection owing to potential cardiac problems, and informed consent was obtained for endoscopic removal. Careful dissection and suction of the tumor was repeated until successful extraction was achieved without serosal injury. We named this procedure the suction excavation technique. The tumor's dimensions were 3.5 cm × 2.8 cm × 2.5 cm. The tumor was positive for C-KIT and CD34 by immunohistochemical staining. The mitotic count was 6/50 high-power fields. The patient was followed for 5 years without tumor recurrence. This case demonstrated the use of endoscopic resection of an exophytic GIST using the suction excavation technique as a potential therapy without surgical resection.

  19. [Novel endoscopic techniques to image the upper gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Quénéhervé, Lucille; Neunlist, Michel; Bruley des Varannes, Stanislas; Tearney, Guillermo; Coron, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Novel endoscopic techniques for the analysis of the digestive wall have recently been developed to allow investigating digestive diseases beyond standard "white-light" macroscopic imaging of the mucosal surface. Among innovative techniques under clinical evaluation, confocal endomicroscopy and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) are the most promising. Indeed, these techniques allow performing in vivo microscopy with different levels in terms of depths and magnification, as well as functional assessment of structures. Some of these techniques, such as capsule-based OFDI, are also less invasive than traditional endoscopy and might help screening large groups of patients for specific disorders, for instance oesophageal precancerous diseases. In this review, we will focus on the results obtained with these techniques in precancerous, inflammatory and neuromuscular disorders.

  20. [Advantages of endoscopic stenting for malignant gastrointestinal obstructions].

    PubMed

    Meier, P N; Manns, M P

    2006-03-01

    Self-expanding stents play a major role in the interdisciplinary treatment of gastrointestinal obstructions in patients with local nonresectable tumors, advanced metastasis, and pronounced comorbidity. Reinstenting the passage and sealing esophagotracheal fistulae is very effective as palliative treatment for esophageal tumor complications. In hepatobiliary occlusions, the success rate against cholestasis is also high. Enteral and colorectal stents are gaining favor. Required are an experienced endoscopy team and adequate equipment. The rate of procedural complications is generally low, but rare and severe complications such as perforation must be considered. Further improvements in the materials and construction of stents can be expected.

  1. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in cirrhosis: clinical and endoscopic correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Terés, J; Bordas, J M; Bru, C; Diaz, F; Bruguera, M; Rodes, J

    1976-01-01

    The clinical data of 180 episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in 168 patients with cirrhosis of the liver are examined. The source of bleeding had been determined by early endoscopy in all cases. In men under the age of 50 years, and without symptoms of liver failure, bleeding was due to ruptured gastro-oesophageal varices in 84% of cases. Severe liver failure was associated with acute lesions of gastric mucosa in many cases. No presumptive diagnosis of the source of haemorrhage could be based on the examination of other clinical data (presence of ascites, mode of presentation and pattern of bleeding, history of ulcer disease, alcoholism, and previous medication. PMID:1083824

  2. Microgroove cushion of robotic endoscope for active locomotion in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Zhiwu; Jiang, Pingping; Liu, Hua

    2012-12-01

    The robotic endoscope the advantage of active locomotion in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but lacks a suitable contact device to improve the locomotion efficiency and safety. This paper proposes a microgroove cushion for the robotic endoscope to improve its active locomotion ability in the GI tract. Coupons with different microgrooves were designed and tested to verify the contact efficiency of the grooves. Based on experimental investigations, uniform oblique grid grooves were suggested, because they could generate gteater friction than other proposed microgrooves on the intestinal surface. To improve the contact safety of the robotic endoscope, a cushion-type contact device was designed and fabricated. The microgroove cushion was tested under the use of a custom-built robot. An experiment in a rigid tube showed that the robot with cushion had a static friction 65% higher than the robot without cushion; an experiment in the in vitro colonic tract showed that the robot without the cushion produced a more obvious contact appearance than with the cushion. It can be seen that the microgroove cushion provides the robotic endoscope with efficient and safe contact ability. The microgroove cushion is a useful addition to the development of a contact device for the robotic endoscope in the GI tract, although requiring further improvements. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Role of Endoscopic Ultrasonography in Guiding Treatment Plans for Upper Gastrointestinal Subepithelial Tumors.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Seop

    2016-05-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) subepithelial tumors (SETs) are usually observed incidentally by endoscopy and have diverse prognoses, varying from benign to potentially malignant. When a GI SET is suspected, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the most accurate diagnostic method to differentiate it from extraluminal compression. To determine the nature of GI SETs, EUS is also the most accurate diagnostic method, and reveals the precise sonographic nature of the lesion. There are some SETs with typical EUS findings of GI SETs, but most hypoechoic lesions are difficult to diagnose based on EUS images alone. EUS is also helpful to determine GI wall involvement in SETs and optimal treatment methods. For the diagnosis of GI SETs, obtaining a proper specimen is essential. EUS-guided cytology or biopsy methods such as fine-needle aspiration, Tru-Cut biopsy, and the newly introduced fine-needle biopsy (FNB) provide good results. To increase the diagnostic yield for GI SETs, cytology with immunocytochemical staining is used for cytological interpretation, resulting in good diagnostic yields. Recently, EUS-FNB using cheese slicer technology has been introduced, and has been reported to provide good diagnostic results for GI SETs.

  4. Two gastrointestinal conditions with similar symptoms and endoscopic appearance: irritable bowel syndrome and microscopic colitis.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Zahide; Tuncer, Nazife Candan; Alagüzlü, Hakan; Karaahmet, Fatih; Çoban, Şahin; Dursun, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal condition characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits in the absence of any organic cause. This trial investigated the presence of microscopic colitis (MC) and associated factors related to MC in patients diagnosed with IBS. The study group (group I) consisted of 91 consecutive patients diagnosed with IBS based on the Rome III Criteria for whom colonoscopic examination was requested. The control group (group II) had 41 patients diagnosed with IBS considered as eligible for colonoscopic investigation due to specific conditions, and for whom colonoscopic examination was recommended for screening purposes due to a familial history of colon cancer. Clinical data, endoscopic findings, and the effects of the therapy were evaluated. In the diarrhea-predominant IBS group, nine patients (9.89%) were diagnosed with microscopic colitis, seven with lymphocytic colitis (7.69%), and two with collagenous colitis (CC) (2.19%). None of the patients in group II were found to have MC (P = 0.007). There were no diagnoses of MC in the constipation-predominant and mixed type IBS groups. Clinicians should keep MC in mind for patients presenting with diarrhea-predominant IBS symptoms.

  5. Successful Endoscopic Hemostasis Is a Protective Factor for Rebleeding and Mortality in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong Jae; Cha, Jae Myung; Park, Jae Hyun; Jeon, Jung Won; Shin, Hyun Phil; Joo, Kwang Ro; Lee, Joung Il

    2016-07-01

    Rebleeding and mortality rates remain high in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To identify clinical and endoscopic risk factors for rebleeding and mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study was performed in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding who underwent upper endoscopic procedures between July 2006 and February 2013. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics were compared among patients with and without rebleeding and mortality. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors for rebleeding and mortality. After excluding 64 patients, data for 689 patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding were analyzed. Peptic ulcer (62.6 %) was by far the most common source of bleeding. Endoscopic intervention was performed within 24 h in 99.0 % of patients, and successful endoscopic hemostasis was possible in 80.7 % of patients. The 30-day rebleeding rate was 13.1 % (n = 93). Unsuccessful endoscopic hemostasis was found to be the only independent risk factor for rebleeding (odds ratio 79.6; 95 % confidence interval 37.8-167.6; p = 0.000). The overall 30-day mortality rate was 3.2 % (n = 23). Unsuccessful endoscopic hemostasis (odds ratio 4.9; 95 % confidence interval 1.7-13.9; p = 0.003) was also associated with increased 30-day mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Successful endoscopic hemostasis is an independent protective factor for both rebleeding and mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  6. Deep biopsy via endoscopic submucosal dissection in upper gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tae, Hye Jin; Lee, Hang Lak; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Oh Young; Han, Dong Soo; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon; Hahm, Joon Soo

    2014-10-01

    Preoperative pathological diagnosis may improve clinical management decisions in patients with upper gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors (SETs). The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic yield of deep biopsy via an endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technique, the complications associated with the procedure, and the impact on management of patients with upper gastrointestinal SETs. A total of 68 patients with SETs in the stomach or esophagus were voluntarily assigned to two groups. One group underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic deep biopsy using the ESD technique (40 patients), and the other group (28 patients) underwent surgical resection after EUS without obtaining preoperative pathological diagnosis, in accordance with accepted clinical management algorithms. The diagnostic yield of deep biopsy was 90 % (36/40). The results of deep biopsy changed the treatment plans in 14/40 patients (35 %). One patient with lymphoepithelial carcinoma was scheduled for surgical resection, and 13 patients with benign SETs of diameter ≥  2 cm avoided surgery. Of the 28 patients who underwent surgical resection without preoperative pathological diagnosis, 12 (42.9 %) were confirmed to have benign lesions. The mean procedure time for deep biopsy was 13.7 minutes. There were no procedure-related complications in the deep biopsy group.  Deep biopsy by the ESD technique is a safe, high-yield, diagnostic method in patients with upper gastrointestinal SETs. Pathologic confirmation could improve clinical decision making in the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal SETs. NCT 01993199. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. SAGES research agenda in gastrointestinal and endoscopic surgery: updated results of a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Montero, Paul; Urbach, David R; Qureshi, Alia; Perry, Kyle; Bachman, Sharon L; Madan, Atul; Petersen, Rebecca; Pryor, Aurora D

    2014-10-01

    Research in gastrointestinal and endoscopic surgery has witnessed unprecedented growth since the introduction of minimally invasive techniques in surgery. Coordination and focus of research efforts could further advance this rapidly expanding field. The objective of this study was to update the SAGES research agenda for gastrointestinal and endoscopic surgery. A modified Delphi methodology was used to create the research agenda. Using an iterative, anonymous web-based survey, the general membership and leadership of SAGES were asked for input over three rounds. Initially submitted research questions were reviewed and consolidated by an expert panel and redistributed to the membership for priority ranking using a 5-point Likert scale of importance. The top 40 research questions of this round were then redistributed to and re-rated by members, and a final ranking was established. Comparisons were made between membership and leadership responses. 283 initially submitted research questions were condensed into 89 distinct questions, which were rated by 388 respondents to determine the top 40 questions. 460 respondents established the final ranking of these 40 most important research questions. Topics represented included training and technique, gastrointestinal, hernia, GERD, bariatric surgery, and endoscopy. The top question was, "How do we best train, assess, and maintain proficiency of surgeons and surgical trainees in flexible endoscopy, laparoscopy, and open surgery?" 28% of responders were leadership and the rest general members with the majority of ratings (73%) being similar between the groups. While SAGES leadership rated the majority of questions (89%) lower, they rated nonclinical questions higher compared with general membership. An updated research agenda for gastrointestinal and endoscopic surgery was developed using a systematic methodology. This agenda may assist investigators and funding organizations to concentrate their efforts in the highest research

  8. Status of the gastric mucosa with endoscopically diagnosed gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Ban, Shinichi; Hiejima, Yoshimitsu; Narita, Rei; Shimizu, Michio; Aikawa, Masayasu; Ohata, Ken; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Arai, Shin; Kita, Hiroto

    2014-01-01

    Background. Since gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a mesenchymal submucosal tumor, the endosonographic, CT, and MRI features of gastric GISTs have been widely investigated. However, the GIST-bearing gastric mucosa status has not been reported. Objective. To characterize the GIST-bearing gastric mucosa status in terms of the degree of inflammation and atrophy, assessed endoscopically. Subjects and Methods. The subjects were 46 patients with submucosal tumors (histologically proven gastric GISTs) who had undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in our hospital between April 2007 and September 2012. They were retrospectively evaluated regarding clinicopathological features, the endoscopically determined status of the entire gastric mucosa (presence or absence and degree of atrophy), presence or absence and severity of endoscopic gastritis/atrophy (A-B classification) at the GIST site, and presence or absence of H. pylori infection. Results. Twenty-three patients had no mucosal atrophy, but 17 and 6 had closed- and open-type atrophy, respectively. Twenty-six, 5, 12, 1, 1, and 1 patients had grades B0, B1, B2, B3, A0, and A1 gastritis/atrophy at the lesion site, respectively, with no grade A2 gastritis/atrophy. Conclusion. The results suggest that gastric GISTs tend to arise in the stomach wall with H. pylori-negative, nonatrophic mucosa or H. pylori-positive, mildly atrophic mucosa.

  9. The diagnostic value of endoscopic ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanchao; Qian, Linxue; Li, Peng; Zhang, Shutian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and contrast-enhanced harmonic (CEH) EUS in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Patients and Methods: About 19 patients with suspected GISTs underwent EUS and CEH-EUS before tumor resection. The malignant potential was assessed according to the modified Fletcher classification system. Patients were divided into lower (Group I) and higher (Group II) malignant potential group. The clinical characteristics and EUS/CEH-EUS features were compared between two groups. Results: The tumor size in Group II was significantly larger than that in Group I (14.6 ± 5.8 mm vs. 32.1 ± 8.4 mm, P < 0.05). Heterogeneous echogenicity was observed in 4 (4/8) cases in Group II and none in Group I (P < 0.05). Irregular intratumoral vessels were detected in 6 cases in Group II and none in Group I (P < 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of irregular vessel detection for discriminating higher from lower malignant potential GISTs were 75% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of detection of irregular vessels to high malignant potential GISTs were 33% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: Detection of irregular intratumoral vessels can predict higher malignant potential before tumor resection. The tumor size and echogenicity are assistant factors for malignant potential assessment. Endoscopic resection is an efficacious treatment with good security for appropriate patients. PMID:27080610

  10. Challenges of Endoscopic Management of Pancreaticobiliary Complications in Surgically Altered Gastrointestinal Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Tin Moe; Kim, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    Pancreaticobiliary complications following various surgical procedures, including liver transplantation, are not uncommon and are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic endoscopy plays a substantial role in these patients and can help to avoid the need for reoperation. However, the endoscopic approach in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal (GI) anatomy is technically challenging because of the difficulty in entering the enteral limb to reach the target orifice to manage pancreaticobiliary complications. Additional procedural complexity is due to the need of special devices and accessories to obtain successful cannulation and absence of an elevator in forward-viewing endoscopes, which is frequently used in this situation. Once bilioenteric anastomosis is reached, the technical success rates achieved in expert hands approach those of patients with intact GI anatomy. The success of endoscopic therapy in patients with surgically altered GI anatomy depends on multiple factors, including the expertise of the endoscopist, understanding of postoperative anatomic changes, and the availability of suitable scopes and accessories for endoscopic management. In this issue of Clinical Endoscopy, the focused review series deals with pancreatobiliary endoscopy in altered GI anatomy such as bilioenteric anastomosis and post-gastrectomy. PMID:27894188

  11. Diagnostic value of endothelial markers and HHV-8 staining in gastrointestinal Kaposi sarcoma and its difference in endoscopic tumor staging.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Igari, Toru; Shimbo, Takuro; Sekine, Katsunori; Akiyama, Junichi; Hamada, Yohei; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Ohmagari, Norio; Teruya, Katsuji; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-06-21

    To clarify the diagnostic values of hematoxylin and eosin (HE), D2-40, CD31, CD34, and HHV-8 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in gastrointestinal Kaposi's sarcoma (GI-KS) in relation to endoscopic tumor staging. Biopsy samples (n = 133) from 41 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients were reviewed. GI-KS was defined as histologically negative for other GI diseases and as a positive clinical response to KS therapy. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC) was compared in relation to lesion size, GI location, and macroscopic appearances on endoscopy. GI-KS was confirmed in 84 lesions (81.6%). Other endoscopic findings were polyps (n = 9), inflammation (n = 4), malignant lymphoma (n = 4), and condyloma (n = 2), which mimicked GI-KS on endoscopy. ROC-AUC of HE, D2-40, blood vessel markers, and HHV-8 showed results of 0.83, 0.89, 0.80, and 0.82, respectively. For IHC staining, the ROC-AUC of D2-40 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of HE staining only. In the analysis of endoscopic appearance, the ROC-AUC of HE and IHC showed a tendency toward an increase in tumor staging (e.g., small to large, patches, and polypoid to SMT appearance). D2-40 was significantly (P < 0.05) advantageous in the upper GI tract and for polypoid appearance compared with HE staining. The diagnostic value of endothelial markers and HHV-8 staining was found to be high, and its accuracy tended to increase with endoscopic tumor staging. D2-40 will be useful for complementing HE staining in the diagnosis of GI-KS, especially in the upper GI tract and for polypoid appearance.

  12. Gastrointestinal endoscopy in the cat: equipment, techniques and normal findings.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Christiane; Robertson, Elise; Neiger, Reto

    2013-11-01

    Feline gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is in high demand, particularly by cat owners already aware of the clinical benefits and availability of this procedure within the human healthcare system. This article will provide a basic introduction to GI flexible endoscopy, covering important aspects of endoscope selection, clinical indications, and basic techniques required to perform a thorough and diagnostically meaningful examination in the cat. Challenges associated with implementing endoscopy in GI tract investigations can include lack of appropriate/suitable-sized equipment to perform a thorough examination in the cat, insufficient operator training/understanding in how to 'drive the scope' through the GI tract, and/or lack of confidence in differentiating normal from abnormal. This article is intended to familiarize and motivate the feline practitioner to develop basic endoscopic skills. Clinical proficiency can only be obtained through use of appropriate equipment, formal training and hours of practice indistinguishing normal from abnormal. The guidance contained in this article is based on a combination of the published literature, the authors' personal experience and the experience of colleagues.

  13. New endoscopic platform for endoluminal en bloc tissue resection in the gastrointestinal tract (with videos).

    PubMed

    Kantsevoy, Sergey V; Bitner, Marianne; Piskun, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    Endoscopic removal of gastrointestinal tract lesions is increasingly popular around the world. We evaluated feasibility, safety, effectiveness, and user learning curve of new endoscopic platform for complex intraluminal interventions. A novel system, consisting of expandable working chamber with two independent instrument guides (LIG), was inserted into colon. Simulated colonic lesions were removed with endoscopic submucosal (ESD) and submuscular (ESmD) dissection. In all nine in vivo models, an intraluminal chamber and its dynamic tissue retractors (via LIG) provided a stable working space with excellent visualization and adequate access to target tissue. Endoscopic platform facilitated successful completion of 11 en bloc ESDs (mean size 43.0 ± 11.3 mm, mean time 46.3 ± 41.2 min) and eight ESmD (mean size 50.0 ± 14.1 mm, mean time 48.0 ± 21.2 min). The learning curve for ESD using this platform demonstrated three phases: rapid improvement in procedural skills took place during the first three procedures (mean ESD time 98.7 ± 40.0 min). A plateau phase then occurred (procedures 4-7) with mean procedure time 42.0 ± 13.4 min (p = 0.04), followed by another sharp improvement in procedural skills (procedures 8-11) requiring only 16.3 ± 11.4 min (p = 0.03) to complete ESD. Especially dramatic (p = 0.002) was the time difference between the first three procedures (mean time 98.7 ± 40.0 min) and subsequent eight procedures (mean time 29.1 ± 17.9 min). A newly developed endoscopic platform provides stable intraluminal working space, dynamic tissue retraction, and instrument triangulation, improving visualization and access to the target tissue for safer and more effective en bloc endoscopic submucosal and submuscular dissection. The learning curve for ESD was markedly facilitated by this new endoscopic platform.

  14. Clinical and endoscopic significance of bowel-wall thickening reported on abdominal computed tomographies in symptomatic patients with no history of gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Khowaiter, Saad S; Brahmania, Mayur; Kim, Edward; Madden, Mark; Harris, Alison; Yoshida, Eric M; Gray, James R

    2014-02-01

    Bowel-wall thickening (BWT) is a commonly reported finding on diagnostic abdominal pelvic computed tomographies (CT) in patients with no history of gastroenterologic disease. The significance of this nonspecific finding is not clear. Medical records from the Vancouver General Hospital were reviewed from October 27, 1999, to October 27, 2009. The initial search yielded 5696 cases, of which 76 cases met the inclusion criteria for review. Inclusion criteria were the following: age older than 18 years, symptoms without a diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease before CT, the reported finding of terminal ileal and/or colonic BWT, colonoscopy after CT, and/or microbiologic investigations. Exclusion criteria included known gastrointestinal disease before CT. The primary objective was to determine if BWT could be associated with a significant endoscopic pathology. The secondary objective was to determine whether the pattern of abnormality on the CT was associated with a specific endoscopic finding. A total of 76 patients met the inclusion criteria of our study. Of those, 76% had various identifiable pathologies on colonoscopy. Only 24% had normal colonoscopic findings. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and infectious colitis were the most common causes of BWT. A report of "skip lesions" on the CT (5%) was always associated with IBD. "Pancolitis" reported on the CT (11%) was associated with endoscopic findings of IBD in 25% of cases, infection in 50% of cases, and normal findings in 25% of cases. The report of "stranding" (36%) on CT in the presence of BWT was associated with many non-neoplastic endoscopic pathologic processes, including infectious colitis (22%), IBD (19%), and ischemia (15%), but also was associated with normal endoscopic findings in 26% of the cases. "Lymphadenopathy" was reported in 17% of the CTs and was associated with infectious colitis (30%), IBD (38%), or neoplastic processes (15%) but also normal endoscopic findings in 15%. Symptomatic patients who

  15. Endoscopic management of acute gastrointestinal bleeding in children: Time for a radical rethink.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Mike; Belsha, Dalia

    2016-02-01

    Currently we are no nearer than 10 or 20years ago providing a safe, adequate, and effective round-the-clock endoscopic services for acute life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding in children. Preventable deaths are occurring still, and it is a tragedy. This is owing to a number of factors which require urgent attention. Skill-mix and the ability of available endoscopists in the UK are woeful. Manpower is spread too thinly and not concentrated in centers of excellence, which is necessary given the relative rarity of the presentation. Adult gastroenterologists are increasingly reticent regarding their help in increasingly litigious times. Recent work on identification of those children likely to require urgent endoscopic intervention has mirrored scoring systems that have been present in adult circles for many years and may allow appropriate and timely intervention. Recent technical developments such as that of Hemospray® may lower the threshold of competency in dealing with this problem endoscopically, thus allowing lives to be saved. Educational courses, mannequin and animal model training are important but so will be appropriate credentialing of individuals for this skill-set. Assessment of competency will become the norm and guidelines on a national level in each country mandatory if we are to move this problem from the "too difficult" to the "achieved". It is an urgent problem and is one of the last emergencies in pediatrics that is conducted poorly. This cannot and should not be allowed to continue unchallenged.

  16. Surgical endoscopic vacuum therapy for anastomotic leakage and perforation of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, F; Schiffmann, L; Rau, B M; Klar, E

    2012-11-01

    Emergency operations for perforations and anastomotic leakage of the upper gastrointestinal tract are associated with a high overall morbidity and mortality rate. An endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) has been established successfully for anastomotic leakage after rectal resection but only limited data exist for EVT of the upper GI tract. We report on a series of nine patients treated with EVT for defects of the upper intestinal tract between March 2011 and May 2012. In four patients, initial endoscopic sponge placement was performed in combination with open surgical revision. Median follow-up was 189 (range, 51-366) days. In total, 52 vacuum sponges were placed in upper GI defects of nine patients. Indication for EVT were anastomotic leakage after esophageal resection or gastrectomy (n = 5) and iatrogenic or spontaneous esophageal perforations (n = 4). The mean number of sponge insertions was six (range, 1-13) with a mean changing interval of 3.5 days (range, 2-5). A successful vacuum therapy for upper intestinal defects was achieved in eight of nine patients (89 %). EVT is a promising approach for postoperative, iatrogenic, or spontaneous lesions of the upper GI tract. If necessary the endoscopic procedure can be combined with operative revision for better control of the local septic focus.

  17. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for silent gastric Dieulafoy lesions mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Cao, Hailong; Wang, Sinan; Wang, Dan; Xu, Mengque; Piao, Meiyu; Wang, Bangmao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Dieulafoy lesion is a rare but serious cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. However, some cases can be occasionally found without bleeding during the endoscopic screening, and the management remains unclear. The aim of this article was to report the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for silent gastric Dieulafoy lesions, which presented as protrusion lesions mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Methods: Data from the patients with gastric protrusion lesions who underwent ESD from September 2008 to April 2016 in General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, China were recorded. Seven cases with pathological diagnosis of Dieulafoy lesion without bleeding were enrolled for further analysis. Results: A total of 7 patients (2 males and 5 females) with mean age of 57.7 ± 4.15 years were pathologically diagnosed as Dieulafoy lesion. Four of the lesions were located in gastric antrum, 2 in the fundus, and 1 in the body of stomach, respectively. The mean sizes of the Dieulafoy lesions under white light endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) were 1.06 ± 0.28 and 0.84 ± 0.29 cm. The origins of these lesions were submucosa (6/7, 85.7%) and muscularis propria (1/7, 14.3%). Three of them appeared with mixed echo under EUS, 3 with hypoechogenicity, and 1 with hyperechogenicity. En bloc complete resection was achieved in all the lesions by ESD with average time of 76.00 ± 16.86 minutes, and no intraoperative bleeding happened. In addition, all patients were followed up for 1 to 53 months, and no recurrence or long-term complications was observed. Conclusion: Therefore, ESD can be an effective and safe treatment for silent gastric Dieulafoy lesions with clinical presentations of submucosal protrusion lesions mimicking GISTs. PMID:27603399

  18. Endoscopic management of Barrett's esophagus: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Weusten, Bas; Bisschops, Raf; Coron, Emanuel; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Esteban, José-Miguel; Hassan, Cesare; Pech, Oliver; Repici, Alessandro; Bergman, Jacques; di Pietro, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    Current practices for the management of Barrett's esophagus (BE) vary across Europe, as several national European guidelines exist. This Position Statement from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is an attempt to homogenize recommendations and, hence, patient management according to the best scientific evidence and other considerations (e.g. health policy). A Working Group developed consensus statements, using the existing national guidelines as a starting point and considering new evidence in the literature. The Position Statement wishes to contribute to a more cost-effective approach to the care of patients with BE by reducing the number of surveillance endoscopies for patients with a low risk of malignant progression and centralizing care in expert centers for those with high progression rates.Main statements MS1 The diagnosis of BE is made if the distal esophagus is lined with columnar epithelium with a minimum length of 1 cm (tongues or circular) containing specialized intestinal metaplasia at histopathological examination. MS2 The ESGE recommends varying surveillance intervals for different BE lengths. For patients with an irregular Z-line/columnar-lined esophagus of < 1 cm, no routine biopsies or endoscopic surveillance is advised. For BE ≥ 1 cm and < 3 cm, BE surveillance should be repeated every 5 years. For BE ≥ 3 cm and < 10 cm, the interval for endoscopic surveillance should be 3 years. Patients with BE with a maximum extent ≥ 10 cm should be referred to a BE expert center for surveillance endoscopies. Patients with limited life expectancy and advanced age should be discharged from endoscopic surveillance. MS3 The diagnosis of any degree of dysplasia (including "indefinite for dysplasia") in BE requires confirmation by an expert gastrointestinal pathologist. MS4 Patients with visible lesions in BE diagnosed as dysplasia or early cancer should be referred to a BE expert center. All visible

  19. Therapeutic Decision-Making in Endoscopically Unmanageable Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Defreyne, Luc; Schrijver, Ignace De; Decruyenaere, Johan; Maele, Georges Van; Ceelen, Wim; Looze, Danny De; Vanlangenhove, Peter

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify endoscopic and clinical parameters influencing the decision-making in salvage of endoscopically unmanageable, nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) and to report the outcome of selected therapy. We retrospectively retrieved all cases of surgery and arteriography for arrest of endoscopically unmanageable UGIH. Only patients with overt bleeding on endoscopy within the previous 24 h were included. Patients with preceding nonendoscopic hemostatic interventions, portal hypertension, malignancy, and transpapillar bleeding were excluded. Potential clinical and endoscopic predictors of allocation to either surgery or arteriography were tested using statistical models. Outcome and survival were regressed on the choice of rescue and clinical variables. Forty-six arteriographed and 51 operated patients met the inclusion criteria. Univariate analysis revealed a higher number of patients with a coagulation disorder in the catheterization group (41.4%, versus 20.4% in the laparotomy group; p = 0.044). With multivariate analysis, the identification of a bleeding peptic ulcer at endoscopy significantly steered decision-making toward surgical rescue (OR = 5.2; p = 0.021). Taking into account reinterventions, hemostasis was achieved in nearly 90% of cases in both groups. Overall therapy failure (no survivors), rebleeding within 3 days (OR = 3.7; p = 0.042), and corticosteroid use (OR = 5.2; p = 0.017) had a significant negative impact on survival. The odds of dying were not different for embolotherapy or surgery. In conclusion, decision-making was endoscopy-based, with bleeding peptic ulcer significantly directing the choice of rescue toward surgery. Unsuccessful hemostasis and corticosteroid use, but not the choice of rescue, negatively affected outcome.

  20. Endoscopic findings in patients with Schatzki rings: Evidence for an association with eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Michaela; Eckardt, Alexander J; Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette; Haas, Susanne; Gockel, Ines; Wehrmann, Till

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate endoscopic findings in patients with Schatzki rings (SRs) with a focus on evidence for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). METHODS: We consecutively approached all adult patients scheduled for elective outpatient upper endoscopy for a variety of indications at the German Diagnostic Clinic, Wiesbaden, Germany between July 2007 and July 2010. All patients with endoscopically diagnosed SRs, defined as thin, symmetrical, mucosal structures located at the esophagogastric junction, were prospectively registered. Additional endoscopic findings, clinical information and histopathological findings with a focus on esophageal eosinophilia (≥ 20 eosinophils/high power field) were recorded. The criteria for active EoE were defined as: (1) eosinophilic tissue infiltration ≥ 20 eosinophils/hpf; (2) symptoms of esophageal dysfunction; and (3) exclusion of other causes of esophageal eosinophilia. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was excluded by proton pump inhibitor treatment prior to endoscopy. The presence of ≥ 20 eosinophils/hpf in esophageal biopsies in patients that did not fulfil the criteria of EoE was defined as esophageal hypereosinophilia. RESULTS: A SR was diagnosed in 171 (3.3%; 128 males, 43 females, mean age 66 ± 12.9 years) of the 5163 patients that underwent upper gastrointestinal-endoscopy. Twenty of the 116 patients (17%) from whom esophageal biopsies were obtained showed histological hypereosinophilia (≥ 20 eosinophils/hpf). Nine of these patients (8 males, 1 female, mean age 49 ± 10 years) did not fulfill all diagnostic criteria of EoE, whereas in 11 (9%) patients with ≥ 20 eosinophils/hpf, a definite diagnosis of EoE was made. Three of the 11 patients (27%) with definite EoE had no suspicious endoscopic features of EoE. In contrast, in the 25 patients in whom EoE was suspected by endoscopic features, EoE was only confirmed in 7 (28%) patients. Patients with EoE were younger (mean age 41.5 ± 6.5 vs 50.5 ± 11.5 years, P = 0.012), were

  1. Symptomatic cytomegalovirus gastrointestinal infection with positive quantitative real-time PCR findings in apparently immunocompetent patients: a case series.

    PubMed

    Bernard, S; Germi, R; Lupo, J; Laverrière, M-H; Masse, V; Morand, P; Gavazzi, G

    2015-12-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastrointestinal disease rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients, and is mainly diagnosed on the basis of histopathological findings. Real-time PCR for CMV DNA quantification is considered to be a useful diagnostic tool, but its place in the diagnostic strategy is not clearly defined. The goal of the study was to describe the clinical and paraclinical features of apparently immunocompetent patients with CMV gastrointestinal disease diagnosed according to quantitative PCR results. In this retrospective study conducted in a 1500-bed tertiary-care centre, we reviewed the case records of apparently immunocompetent patients with positive findings of CMV DNA in gastrointestinal biopsies with compatible symptoms and endoscopic findings. A total of 13 patients were included between January 2007 and December 2010. The median age was 81 years, and 54% of patients had underlying immune-modulating conditions. Diarrhoea, haematochezia and dysphagia were the main reported symptoms, and ulcers were the main endoscopic findings. The mean value of CMV DNA load in gastrointestinal biopsies was 3845 copies/μg total DNA (range, 15-15 500 copies/μg total DNA). The highest values were found in two patients who were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in the subsequent course of CMV infection. Clinical features were similar to those in previous series in which diagnosis was based on histopathological analysis. Elderly people are more commonly affected, and a link with immune senescence is possible. Quantification of CMV DNA seems to be a useful tool for diagnosis when combined with clinical and endoscopic findings, but further studies are necessary to interpret quantitative values. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Endoscopic findings on alimentary lymphoma in 7 dogs.

    PubMed

    Miura, Teruhisa; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Sakai, Manabu; Takahashi, Tomoko; Koie, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Yoshiki; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo; Watari, Toshihiro; Tokuriki, Mikihiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2004-05-01

    Alimentary lymphoma was evaluated endoscopically in 7 dogs and a histopathological examination was made to detect the origin of neoplastic lymphocytes in 5 dogs. A solitary mass in the rectum (1 case), irregular cobblestone appearance in the duodenum (4 cases) and a moderate irregular appearance resembling lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis (2 cases) were endoscopically detected. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated increased thickness of the duodenal wall in 2 cases examined. Neoplastic lymphocytes of alimentary lymphoma proved to originate in T cells in all 5 cases examined by immunohistochemical analysis.

  3. Endoscopic management of patients with post-surgical leaks involving the gastrointestinal tract: A large case series

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Angelo; Cellini, Carlo; Sica, Mariano; Zullo, Angelo; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Bertani, Helga; Frazzoni, Marzio; Mutignani, Massimiliano; Galloro, Giuseppe; Conigliaro, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-surgical anastomotic leaks often require a re-intervention, are associated with a definite morbidity and mortality, and with relevant costs. We described a large series of patients with different post-surgical leaks involving the gastrointestinal tract managed with endoscopy as initial approach. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected cases with anastomotic leaks managed with different endoscopic approaches (with surgical or radiological drainage when needed) in two endoscopic centres during 5 years. Interventions included: (1) over-the-scope clip (OTSC) positioning; (2) placement of a covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS); (3) fibrin glue injection (Tissucol); and (4) endo-sponge application, according to both the endoscopic feature and patient’s status. Results A total of 76 patients underwent endoscopic treatment for a leak either in the upper (47 cases) or lower (29 cases) gastrointestinal tract, and the approach was successful in 39 (83%) and 22 (75.9%) patients, respectively, accounting for an overall 80.3% success rate. Leak closure was achieved in 84.9% and 78.3% of patients managed by using a single or a combination of endoscopic devices. Overall, leak closure failed in 15 (19.7%) patients, and the surgical approach was successful in all 14 patients who underwent re-intervention, whilst one patient died due to sepsis at 7 days. Conclusions Our data suggest that an endoscopic approach, with surgical or radiological drainage when needed, is successful and safe in the majority of patients with anastomotic gastrointestinal leaks. Therefore, an endoscopic treatment could be attempted before resorting to more invasive, costly and risky re-intervention. PMID:28408994

  4. Gastrointestinal Tract Perforation: MDCT Findings according to the Perforation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2009-01-01

    Our objective is to describe the characteristic CT findings of gastrointestinal (GI) tract perforations at various levels of the gastrointestinal system. It is beneficial to localize the perforation site as well as to diagnose the presence of bowel perforation for planning the correct surgery. CT has been established as the most valuable imaging technique for identifying the presence, site and cause of the GI tract perforation. The amount and location of extraluminal free air usually differ among various perforation sites. Further, CT findings such as discontinuity of the bowel wall and concentrated free air bubbles in close proximity to the bowel wall can help predict the perforation site. Multidetector CT with the multiplanar reformation images has improved the accuracy of CT for predicting the perforation sites. PMID:19182505

  5. Safety of carbon dioxide insufflation for upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic treatment of patients under deep sedation.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Satoru; Saito, Yutaka; Takisawa, Hajime; Kim, Yongmin; Kikuchi, Tsuyoshi; Oda, Ichiro

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is absorbed faster in the body than air and also that it is rapidly excreted through respiration. This study aimed to investigate the safety of CO(2) insufflation used for esophageal and gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in patients under deep sedation. Patients with either early gastric or esophageal cancers that could be resected by ESD were enrolled in this study from March 2007 to July 2008 and randomly assigned to undergo ESD procedures with CO(2) insufflation (CO(2) group) or air insufflation (air group). A TOSCA measurement system and TOSCA 500 monitor were used to measure and monitor both transcutaneous partial pressure of CO(2) (PtcCO(2)) and oxygen saturation (SpO(2)). The study enrolled 89 patients and randomly assigned them to a CO(2) group (45 patients) or an air group (44 patients). The mean CO(2) group versus air group measurements were as follows: PtcCO(2) (49.1 +/- 5.0 vs. 50.1 +/- 5.3 mmHg; nonsignificant difference [NS]), maximum PtcCO(2) (55.1 +/- 6.5 vs. 56.8 +/- 7.0 mmHg; NS), PtcCO(2) elevation (9.1 +/- 5.4 vs. 11.4 +/- 5.6 mmHg; p = 0.054), SpO(2) (99.0 +/- 0.7% vs. 99.0 +/- 1.0%; NS), minimum SpO(2) (96.5 +/- 2.4% vs. 95.4 +/- 3.3%; p = 0.085), and SpO(2) depression (2.4 +/- 2.3% vs. 3.3 +/- 2.9%; NS). The PtcCO(2) and SpO(2) measurements were similar in the two groups, but the CO(2) group was better than the air group in PtcCO(2) elevation and minimum SpO(2). The findings demonstrated CO(2) insufflation to be as safe as air insufflation for upper gastrointestinal tract ESDs performed for patients under deep sedation without evidencing any adverse effects.

  6. Current status of endoscopic ultrasound for the upper gastrointestinal tract in Asia.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Hilmi, Ida Normiha; Kwek, Boon Eu Andrew; Hara, Kazuo; Goda, Kenichi

    2015-04-01

    We summarize the current status of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract solely in Asia, focusing on the staging of superficial cancers and the diagnosis of submucosal tumors (SMT), by analysis of questionnaire responses and a literature review. EUS for assessing the depth of superficial cancers of the upper GI tract is useful; however, evidence is lacking to support that EUS is superior to other modalities. The current status of EUS varies across different Asian countries, and standardization of the methods used both during the procedure and for depth subclassification is necessary to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Although EUS alone is limited in the diagnosis of SMT, EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration is an effective and safe diagnostic tool. Although there is a role for EUS, there are still many limitations both technically and in terms of accessibility. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  7. Endoscopic findings and lesion distribution in amebic colitis.

    PubMed

    Horiki, Noriyuki; Furukawa, Keiichi; Kitade, Takashi; Sakuno, Takashi; Katsurahara, Masaki; Harada, Tetsuro; Tano, Shunsuke; Yamada, Reiko; Hamada, Yasuhiko; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kyosuke; Gabazza, Esteban C; Ishii, Naoki; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Omata, Fumio; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 55 symptomatic patients with amebic colitis that visited at St. Luke's International Hospital and Mie University Hospital from 1994 through 2013. To diagnose amebic colitis, 40 patients underwent total colonoscopy within 1 week after hospital visiting and before receiving any treatment. The percentage of characteristic endoscopic findings of amebic colitis including discrete ulcers or erosions with white or yellow exudates were 0% in terminal ileum, 93% in cecum, 28% in ascending, 25% in transverse, 15% in descending, 20% in sigmoid colon and 45% in rectum. The rectal lesions in 55% of patients with amebic colitis were nonspecific. The trophozoite identification rate by direct smear of intestinal tract washings performed during colonoscopy was 88%. The protozoan identification rate was 70% in biopsy specimens taken from the periphery of the characteristic discrete ulcers. Total colonoscopy should be considered for the diagnosis of amebic colitis. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Indications and efficacy of endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure therapy for upper gastrointestinal perforations.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Geraldine; Burton, Paul; Packiyanathan, Andrew; Loh, Damien; Chen, Richard; Shaw, Kalai; Brown, Wendy; Nottle, Peter

    2016-11-15

    Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure (EndoVAC) therapy is a recent innovation described for use in upper gastrointestinal perforations and leaks, with reported success of 80-90%. It provides sepsis control and collapses the cavity preventing stasis, encouraging healing of the defect. Whilst promising, initial reports of this new technique have not established clear indications, feasibility and optimal technique. We analysed all patients who underwent EndoVAC therapy between 2014 and 2016. The technique involved a standard gastroscope, nasogastric tube and vacuum-assisted closure dressing kit, with endoscopic placement of the polyurethane sponge. Data were collected on indication, technique, sepsis control, outcomes and drainage volumes. Ten patients were treated. Average age was 56.7 ± 12.3 years. There were three mortalities. EndoVAC placement was feasible in nine patients and successful healing was observed in six patients. Failure was more likely in the cases of large (>8 cm), chronic or complex cavities. A three-phase response was seen in successful cases, with initial reduction in external drainage (average: 143-17 mL/day within 1 week), followed by a progressive reduction in inflammatory markers (2 weeks) and finally a healing phase with reduction in cavity size (3 weeks). EndoVAC therapy is a potentially useful adjunct to conventional treatments of a subset of upper gastrointestinal leaks and perforations when there is a contained cavity <8 cm. It appears less effective in an uncontained perforation or chronically established tract. It has clear advantages of being easily applied with readily available equipment and disposables. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Simple risk factors to predict urgent endoscopy in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding pre-endoscopically

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianzong; Hu, Duanming; Tang, Wen; Hu, Chuanyin; Lu, Qin; Li, Juan; Zhu, Jianhong; Xu, Liming; Sui, Zhenyu; Qian, Mingjie; Wang, Shaofeng; Yin, Guojian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The goal of this study is to evaluate how to predict high-risk nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) pre-endoscopically. A total of 569 NVUGIB patients between Match 2011 and January 2015 were retrospectively studied. The clinical characteristics and laboratory data were statistically analyzed. The severity of NVUGIB was based on high-risk NVUGIB (Forrest I–IIb), and low-risk NVUGIB (Forrest IIc and III). By logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic curve, simple risk score systems were derived which predicted patients’ risks of potentially needing endoscopic intervention to control bleeding. Risk score systems combined of patients’ serum hemoglobin (Hb) ≤75 g/L, red hematemesis, red stool, shock, and blood urine nitrogen ≥8.5 mmol/L within 24 hours after admission were derived. As for each one of these clinical signs, the relatively high specificity was 97.9% for shock, 96.4% for red stool, 85.5% for red hematemesis, 76.7% for Hb ≤75 g/L, and the sensitivity was 50.8% for red hematemesis, 47.5% for Hb ≤75 g/L, 14.2% for red stool, and 10.9% for shock. When these 5 clinical signs were presented as a risk score system, the highest area of receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.746, with sensitivity 0.675 and specificity 0.733, which discriminated well with high-risk NVUGIB. These simple risk factors identified patients with high-risk NVUGIB of needing treatment to manage their bleeding pre-endoscopically. Further validation in the clinic was required. PMID:27367977

  10. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes: are current guidelines adequate?

    PubMed

    Kovacs, B J; Chen, Y K; Kettering, J D; Aprecio, R M; Roy, I

    1999-06-01

    For a germicide to obtain a high level disinfection (HLD) claim, FDA requires demonstration of a 6-log reduction of mycobacterial inoculum under worst case conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the adequacy of current guidelines for high level disinfection of GI endoscopes using alkaline glutaraldehyde in simulated-use testing. Various gastrointestinal endoscopes were contaminated with Mycobacterium chelonae in 46 experiments. Quantitative cultures were obtained from each endoscope channel separately after each step: inoculation, standardized manual cleaning, immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde (Cidex) for 10, 20, or 45 min at room temperature, 70% isopropanol rinse, and drying. Manual cleaning alone achieved a 4-log reduction. After 10 min of glutaraldehyde exposure, but before alcohol rinse, two of 10 experiments failed to achieve a 6-log reduction. However, after alcohol rinse, all 10 experiments achieved HLD. After 20 min of glutaraldehyde exposure, but before alcohol rinse, one of 18 experiments failed to achieve a 6-log reduction. After alcohol rinse, all 18 experiments achieved HLD. After 45 min of glutaraldehyde exposure, but before alcohol rinse, one of 18 experiments failed to achieve a 6-log reduction. After alcohol rinse, all 18 experiments achieved HLD. Thus, if the entire reprocessing protocol including manual cleaning, glutaraldehyde exposure, alcohol rinse, and drying was taken into account, the required 6-log reduction of mycobacteria was achieved with a minimum of 10 min of glutaraldehyde exposure at room temperature. Current guidelines for high level disinfection using glutaraldehyde are appropriate. Alcohol rinse is a valuable adjunctive step for drying and for its bactericidal effects.

  11. Endoscopic Ultrasound of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract and Mediastinum: Diagnosis and Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Priyajit; Wittmann, Johannes; Pereira, Stephen P.

    2006-12-15

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has developed significantly over the last two decades and has had a considerable impact on the imaging and staging of mass lesions within or in close proximity to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In conjunction with conventional imaging such as helical computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the indications for EUS include (1) differentiating between benign and malignant lesions of the mediastinum and upper GI tract, (2) staging malignant tumors of the lung, esophagus, stomach, and pancreas prior to surgery or oncological treatment, (3) excluding common bile duct stones before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, thereby avoiding the need for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in some patients, and (4) assessing suspected lesions that are either equivocal or not seen on conventional imaging. In recent years, EUS has charted a course similar to that taken by ERCP, evolving from a purely diagnostic modality to one that is interventional and therapeutic. These indications include (5) obtaining a tissue diagnosis by EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration or trucut-type needle biopsy and (6) providing therapy such as coeliac plexus neurolysis and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage-in many cases, more accurately and safely than conventional techniques. Emerging investigational techniques include EUS-guided enteric anastomosis formation and fine-needle injection therapy for malignant disease.

  12. Endoscope

    MedlinePlus

    An endoscope is a medical device with a light attached. It is used to look inside a body cavity ... sigmoidoscopy . A medical procedure using any type of endoscope is called an endoscopy . See also: Colonoscopy Cystourethroscopy ...

  13. Role of hemostatic powders in the endoscopic management of gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante-Balén, Marco; Plumé, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB) is a prevalent condition with significant influence on healthcare costs. Endoscopy is essential for the management of AGIB with a pivotal role in diagnosis, risk stratification and management. Recently, hemostatic powders have been added to our endoscopic armamentarium to treat gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. These substances are intended to control active bleeding by delivering a powdered product over the bleeding site that forms a solid matrix with a tamponade function. Local activation of platelet aggregation and coagulation cascade may be also boosted. There are currently three powders commercially available: hemostatic agent TC-325 (Hemospray®), EndoClot™ polysaccharide hemostatic system, and Ankaferd Bloodstopper®. Although the available evidence is based on short series of cases and there is no randomized controlled trial yet, these powders seem to be effective in controlling GI bleeding from a variety of origins with a very favorable side effects profile. They can be used either as a primary therapy or a second-line treatment, and they seem to be especially indicated in cases of cancer-related bleeding and lesions with difficult access. In this review, we will comment on the mechanism of action, efficacy, safety and technical challenges of the use of powders in several clinical scenarios and we will try to define the main current indications of use and propose new lines of research in this area. PMID:25133029

  14. Endoscopic ultrasonography: Transition towards the future of gastro-intestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    De Lisi, Stefania; Giovannini, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a technique with an established role in the diagnosis and staging of gastro-intestinal tumors. In recent years, the spread of new devices dedicated to tissue sampling has improved the diagnostic accuracy of EUS fine-needle aspiration. The development of EUS-guided drainage of the bilio-pancreatic region and abdominal fluid collections has allowed EUS to evolve into an interventional tool that can replace more invasive procedures. Emerging techniques applying EUS in pancreatic cancer treatment and in celiac neurolysis have been described. Recently, confocal laser endomicroscopy has been applied to EUS as a promising technique for the in vivo histological diagnosis of gastro-intestinal, bilio-pancreatic and lymph node lesions. In this state-of-the-art review, we report the most recent data from the literature regarding EUS devices, interventional EUS, EUS-guided confocal laser endomicroscopy and EUS pancreatic cancer treatment, and we also provide an overview of their principles, clinical applications and limitations. PMID:26855537

  15. Considerable Variability of Procedural Sedation and Analgesia Practices for Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Procedures in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Vaessen, Hermanus H. B.; Knape, Johannes T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The use of moderate to deep sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures has increased in Europe considerably. Because this level of sedation is a risky medical procedure, a number of international guidelines have been developed. This survey aims to review if, and if so which, quality aspects have been included in new sedation practices when compared to traditional uncontrolled sedation practices. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to the National Associations of Nurse Anesthetists in Europe and the National Delegates of the European Section and Board of Anaesthesiology from January 2012 to August 2012. Results: Huge variation in practices for moderate to deep sedation were identified between and within European countries in terms of safety, type of practitioners, responsibilities, monitoring, informed consent, patient satisfaction, complication registration, and training requirements. Seventy-five percent of respondents were not familiar with international sedation guidelines. Safe sedation practices (mainly propofol-based moderate to deep sedation) are rapidly gaining popularity. Conclusions: The risky medical procedure of moderate to deep sedation has become common practice for gastrointestinal endoscopy. Safe sedation practices requiring adequate selection of patients, adequate monitoring, training of sedation practitioners, and adequate after-care, are gaining attention in a field that is in transition from uncontrolled sedation care to controlled sedation care. PMID:26855924

  16. Performance and Clinical Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound Fine Needle Aspiration for Diagnosing Gastrointestinal Intramural Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hea Jung; Park, Eun Young; Moon, Sung Jin; Lim, Chul Hyun; Kim, Jin Su; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Choi, Kyu Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the performance, clinical role, and diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in gastrointestinal intramural lesions. Methods Procedural and pathologic data were reviewed from consecutive patients undergoing EUS-FNA for intramural lesions. Final diagnoses were determined by surgical histopathologic conformation and the diagnosis of malignancy, including clinical follow-up with repeat imaging. Results Forty-six patients (mean age, 47 years; 24 males) underwent EUS-FNA. Lesions were located in the stomach (n=31), esophagus (n=5), and duodenum (n=10). The median lesion size was 2 cm (range, 1 to 20.6). Final diagnoses were obtained in 22 patients (48%). EUS-FNA was diagnostic in 40 patients (87%). The diagnostic accuracy of cytology for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions was 82%; diagnostic error occurred in three patients (6%). The cytologic results influenced clinical judgment in 78% cases. The primary reasons for negative or no clinical impact were false-negative results, misdirected patient management, and inconclusive cytology. Conclusions EUS-FNA exhibited an 87% diagnostic yield for gastrointestinal intramural lesions; the accuracy of cytology for differentiating malignancy was 82%. The limitations of EUS-FNA were primarily because of nondiagnostic sampling (9%) and probable diagnostic error (6%); these factors may influence the clinical role of EUS-FNA. PMID:24340255

  17. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract: 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Mohamed H; Darwiesh, Ehab M; Refaey, Mohamed M; Galal, Sherif M

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies (FBs) in the upper gastrointestinal tract are produced chiefly by accidental swallowing but rarely produce symptoms. Removal of FBs is not an infrequent challenge for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study is to elicit our experience in a 5-year period in dealing with FBs in the upper gastrointestinal tract using upper endoscopy. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, over a 5-year period. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results A total of 45 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 102 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (53.3%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (44.4%). Coins were the most commonly encountered FBs (14/45). Esophagus was the most common site of trapping (27/45). The overall success rate was 95.6% (43/45). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal (41/43) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat to the stomach (2/43). Two cases were referred for surgical removal. The rate of complications was 6.7%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when performed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications. PMID:25053889

  18. Clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of eosinophilic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract in pediatric liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Parashette, Kalyan Ray; Zeytinoglu, Meltem; Kernek, Kevin; Molleston, Jean P; Subbarao, Girish

    2013-12-01

    Immunosuppression during the post-transplantation period has led to dramatic outcome improvements in PLTR patients. There have been reports describing the development of food allergies and an increased predilection for development of EGI in PLTR. We aimed to identify the clinical, endoscopic and histologic features of EGI in PLTR patients. In this retrospective case series we analyzed medical record of all PLTR who underwent EGD and/or colonoscopy at our institution from 2000 to 2006. From 2000 to 2006, 32 PLTR patients underwent endoscopic evaluation. Seventeen (53%) of 32 patients were diagnosed with EGI. Endoscopic abnormalities were seen in the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine in 11 (65%), 11 (65%), and four (24%) patients, respectively. Eosinophilic inflammation was seen in the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine in 13 (76%), 10 (59%), and five (29%) patients, respectively. Nine of 17 patients underwent colonoscopy and endoscopic abnormalities were seen in four (44%) patients. Five patients (56%) had eosinophilic inflammation. In conclusion, we have characterized the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of EGI. Histologic and endoscopic examination reveals that, when present, EGI is often found at multiple segments along the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Ingested gastrointestinal foreign bodies: predisposing factors for complications in children having surgical or endoscopic removal.

    PubMed

    Tokar, Baran; Cevik, Alper A; Ilhan, Huseyin

    2007-02-01

    A retrospective study was performed to determine the predisposing factors associated with the complications of ingested gastrointestinal (GI) tract foreign bodies (FBs) in children who had surgical or endoscopic removal. The study was performed in 161 children who had endoscopic or surgical removal. The clinical data were evaluated in two groups. In groups I and II, respectively, 135 patients with no complications and 26 patients with complications were analyzed. The relative risk analysis was performed for the risk factors. The number of the patients with an accurate history and the radiopaque FBs was significantly higher in group I. Metal, especially sharp objects, and food plugs obstructing a diseased esophagus were the most common FBs found in group II. The majority of the FBs of both groups were entrapped in esophagus, the number of the FBs distal to esophagus was significantly higher and duration of lodgment was significantly longer in group II. Esophageal abrasion, laceration and bleeding, complete esophageal obstruction, caustic injury, severe esophageal stricture, laryngeal edema, recurrent aspiration pneumonia, loss of weight, intestinal perforation, constipation and intestinal obstruction were determined as complications. The relative risk was >1 for duration of lodgment more than 24 h, for sharp or pointed objects, button batteries, nonopaque objects, diseased esophagus and for the objects located below the upper third of esophagus. Type, radiopacity, location and duration of the ingested GI tract FB determine the outcome. A delayed diagnosis is the most significant factor increasing the risk of complications. Physician must maintain a high index of suspicion and a more extensive history; physical examination and radiodiagnostic investigation should be obtained in suspected cases.

  20. Endoscopic features and prognoses of mantle cell lymphoma with gastrointestinal involvement

    PubMed Central

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Shinagawa, Katsuji; Morito, Toshiaki; Yoshino, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the endoscopic manifestations and prognoses of gastrointestinal (GI) mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). METHODS: A database search at the Department of Pathology of Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences revealed 57 MCL patients with GI involvement. Clinical records were available for 35 of the 57 patients from 21 institutions, and those 35 patients were enrolled in this study. We summarized the gross types of endoscopic features, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) of those patients. RESULTS: Of the 35 patients, GI involvement in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum was found in 2 (5.7%), 26 (74.3%), and 12 (34.3%) patients, respectively. Twenty-one of the 35 patients underwent colonoscopy; among them, GI involvement in the ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum was found in 10 (47.6%), 3 (14.3%), 12 (57.1%), and 10 (47.6%), respectively. Various lesions, such as superficial, protruded, fold thickening, or ulcerative, were found in the stomach, whereas multiple lymphomatous polyposis (MLP) was dominant from the duodenum to the rectum. Twelve patients were treated with a hyper-CVAD/MA regimen, and they had better OS (3-year rate, 88.3% vs 46.4%, P < 0.01) and better EFS (3-year rate, 66.7% vs 33.8%, P < 0.05) than the remaining 23 patients who were not treated with this regimen. CONCLUSION: MLP was a representative form of intestinal involvement, whereas a variety of lesions were found in the stomach. The hyper-CVAD/MA regimen may improve survival in these patients. PMID:20872966

  1. Endoscopic full-thickness resection for gastrointestinal lesions using the over-the-scope clip system: a case series.

    PubMed

    Fähndrich, Martin; Sandmann, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system was developed for the closure of gastrointestinal defects but can also be used for endoscopic resection. This report describes the efficacy and safety of endoscopic full-thickness resection (eFTR) using the OTSC system. In this retrospective, observational, open-label case study, a total of 17 patients underwent eFTR using a dual clip and cap technique. The indications were: carcinoids, incompletely resected colon cancers involving the mucosa or submucosa, recurrent fibrosed adenoma of the colon, and submucosal lesions. The technical success was 94 % (16 /17). The complete resection (R0) rate was 100 %. There were no complications. In summary, the described minimally invasive method to perform eFTR of complex gastrointestinal lesions appears to be effective and safe.

  2. Comparison between air and carbon dioxide insufflation in the endoscopic submucosal excavation of gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei-Bin; Wang, Zi-Hao; Qu, Chun-Ying; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Han; Zhou, Min; Chen, Ying; Xu, Lei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CO2 insufflation compared with air insufflation in the endoscopic submucosal excavation (ESE) of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized to undergo endoscopic submucosal excavation, with the CO2 group (n = 30) and the air group (n = 30) undergoing CO2 insufflation and air insufflation in the ESE, respectively. The end-tidal CO2 level (pETCO2) was observed at 4 time points: at the beginning of ESE, at total removal of the tumors, at completed wound management, and 10 min after ESE. Additionally, the patients’ experience of pain at 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after the examination was registered using a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: Both the CO2 group and air group were similar in mean age, sex, body mass index (all P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in PetCO2 values before and after the procedure (P > 0.05). However, the pain scores after the ESE at different time points in the CO2 group decreased significantly compared with the air group (1 h: 21.2 ± 3.4 vs 61.5 ± 1.7; 3 h: 8.5 ± 0.7 vs 42.9 ± 1.3; 6 h: 4.4 ± 1.6 vs 27.6 ± 1.2; 24 h: 2.3 ± 0.4 vs 21.4 ± 0.7, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the percentage of VAS scores of 0 in the CO2 group after 1, 3, 6 and 24 h was significantly higher than that in the air group (60.7 ± 1.4 vs 18.9 ± 1.5, 81.5 ± 2.3 vs 20.6 ± 1.2, 89.2 ± 0.7 vs 36.8 ± 0.9, 91.3 ± 0.8 vs 63.8 ± 1.3, respectively, P < 0.05). Moreover, the condition of the CO2 group was better than that of the air group with respect to anal exsufflation. CONCLUSION: Insufflation of CO2 in the ESE of gastrointestinal stromal tumors will not cause CO2 retention and it may significantly reduce the level of pain, thus it is safe and effective. PMID:23326136

  3. Comparison between air and carbon dioxide insufflation in the endoscopic submucosal excavation of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-Bin; Wang, Zi-Hao; Qu, Chun-Ying; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Han; Zhou, Min; Chen, Ying; Xu, Lei-Ming

    2012-12-28

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CO(2) insufflation compared with air insufflation in the endoscopic submucosal excavation (ESE) of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Sixty patients were randomized to undergo endoscopic submucosal excavation, with the CO(2) group (n = 30) and the air group (n = 30) undergoing CO(2) insufflation and air insufflation in the ESE, respectively. The end-tidal CO(2) level (pETCO(2)) was observed at 4 time points: at the beginning of ESE, at total removal of the tumors, at completed wound management, and 10 min after ESE. Additionally, the patients' experience of pain at 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after the examination was registered using a visual analog scale (VAS). Both the CO(2) group and air group were similar in mean age, sex, body mass index (all P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in PetCO(2) values before and after the procedure (P > 0.05). However, the pain scores after the ESE at different time points in the CO(2) group decreased significantly compared with the air group (1 h: 21.2 ± 3.4 vs 61.5 ± 1.7; 3 h: 8.5 ± 0.7 vs 42.9 ± 1.3; 6 h: 4.4 ± 1.6 vs 27.6 ± 1.2; 24 h: 2.3 ± 0.4 vs 21.4 ± 0.7, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the percentage of VAS scores of 0 in the CO(2) group after 1, 3, 6 and 24 h was significantly higher than that in the air group (60.7 ± 1.4 vs 18.9 ± 1.5, 81.5 ± 2.3 vs 20.6 ± 1.2, 89.2 ± 0.7 vs 36.8 ± 0.9, 91.3 ± 0.8 vs 63.8 ± 1.3, respectively, P < 0.05). Moreover, the condition of the CO(2) group was better than that of the air group with respect to anal exsufflation. Insufflation of CO(2) in the ESE of gastrointestinal stromal tumors will not cause CO(2) retention and it may significantly reduce the level of pain, thus it is safe and effective.

  4. Surgical Endoscopic Vacuum Therapy for Defects of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Florian; Schiffmann, Leif; Janisch, Florian; Schwandner, Frank; Alsfasser, Guido; Gock, Michael; Klar, Ernst

    2016-02-01

    Intraluminal therapy used in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was first shown for anastomotic leaks after rectal resection. Since a few years vacuum sponge therapy is increasingly being recognized as a new promising method for repairing upper GI defects of different etiology. The principles of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy remain the same no matter of localization: Continuous or intermittent suction and drainage decrease bacterial contamination, secretion, and local edema. At the same time, perfusion and granulation is promoted. However, data for endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) of the upper intestinal tract are still scarce and consist of only a few case reports and small series with low number of patients. Here, we present a single center experience of EVT for substantial wall defects in the upper GI tract. Retrospective single-center analysis of EVT for various defects of the upper GI tract over a time period of 4 years (2011-2015) with a mean follow-up of 17 (2-45) months was used. If necessary, initial endoscopic sponge placement was performed in combination with open surgical revision. In total, 126 polyurethane sponges were placed in upper gastrointestinal defects of 21 patients with a median age of 72 years (range, 49-80). Most frequent indication for EVT was anastomotic leakage after esophageal or gastric resection (n = 11) and iatrogenic esophageal perforation (n = 8). The median number of sponge insertions was five (range, 1-14) with a mean changing interval of 3 days (range, 2-4). Median time of therapy was 15 days (range, 3-46). EVT in combination with surgery took place in nine of 21 patients (43 %). A successful vacuum therapy for upper intestinal defects with local control of the septic focus was achieved in 19 of 21 patients (90.5 %). EVT is a promising approach for postoperative, iatrogenic, or spontaneous lesions of the upper GI tract. In this series, EVT was combined with operative revision in a relevant proportion of

  5. Hospital Authority audit of the outcome of endoscopic resection of superficial upper gastro-intestinal lesions in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Anthony Y B; Chiu, Philip W Y; Chan, S Y; Cheung, Frances K Y; Chu, K M; Kao, S S; Lai, T W; Lau, C W; Law, Simon Y K; Leung, Canice T L; Leung, W K; Tong, Daniel K H; Tsang, S H

    2015-06-01

    To review the short-term outcome of endoscopic resection of superficial upper gastro-intestinal lesions in Hong Kong. Historical cohort study. All Hospital Authority hospitals in Hong Kong. This was a multicentre retrospective study of all patients who underwent endoscopic resection of superficial upper gastro-intestinal lesions between January 2010 and June 2013 in all government-funded hospitals in Hong Kong. Indication of the procedures, peri-procedural and procedural parameters, oncological outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. During the study period, 187 lesions in 168 patients were resected. Endoscopic mucosal resection was performed in 34 (18.2%) lesions and endoscopic submucosal dissection in 153 (81.8%) lesions. The mean size of the lesions was 2.6 (standard deviation, 1.8) cm. The 30-day morbidity rate was 14.4%, and perforations and severe bleeding occurred in 4.3% and 3.2% of the patients, respectively. Among patients who had dysplasia or carcinoma, R0 resection was achieved in 78% and the piecemeal resection rate was 11.8%. Lateral margin involvement was 14% and vertical margin involvement was 8%. Local recurrence occurred in 9% of patients and 15% had residual disease. The 2-year overall survival rate and disease-specific survival rate was 90.6% and 100%, respectively. Endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection were introduced in low-to-moderate-volume hospitals with acceptable morbidity rates. The short-term survival was excellent. However, other oncological outcomes were higher than those observed in high-volume centres and more secondary procedures were required.

  6. Endoscopic Management of Foreign Bodies in the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Javier; Twersky, Yitzhak; Iqbal, Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common diagnosis that presents in emergency departments throughout the world. Distinct foreign bodies predispose to particular locations of impaction in the gastrointestinal tract, commonly meat boluses in the esophagus above a preexisting esophageal stricture or ring in adults and coins in children. Several other groups are at high risk of foreign body impaction, mentally handicapped individuals or those with psychiatric illness, abusers of drugs or alcohol, and the geriatric population. Patients with foreign body ingestion typically present with odynophagia, dysphagia, sensation of having an object stuck, chest pain, and nausea/vomiting. The majority of foreign bodies pass through the digestive system spontaneously without causing any harm, symptoms, or necessitating any further intervention. A well-documented clinical history and thorough physical exam is critical in making the diagnosis, if additional modalities are needed, a CT scan and diagnostic endoscopy are generally the preferred modalities. Various tools can be used to remove foreign bodies, and endoscopic treatment is safe and effective if performed by a skilled endoscopist. PMID:27807447

  7. Short-type single balloon enteroscope for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with altered gastrointestinal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Okuwaki, Kosuke; Miyazawa, Shiro; Iwai, Tomohisa; Takezawa, Miyoko; Kikuchi, Hidehiko; Watanabe, Maya; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Wasaburo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of a short-type single-balloon-enteroscope (SBE) for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with a reconstructed intestine. METHODS: Short-type SBE was developed to perform ERCP in postoperative patients with a reconstructed intestine. Short-type SBE is a direct-viewing endoscope with the following specifications: working length, 1520 mm; total length, 1840 mm; channel diameter, 3.2 mm. In addition, short-type SBE has a water-jet channel. The study group comprised 22 patients who underwent 31 sessions of short-type SBE-assisted ERCP from June 2011 through May 2012. Reconstruction was performed by Billroth-II (B-II) gastrectomy in 6 patients (8 sessions), Roux-en-Y (R-Y) gastrectomy in 14 patients (21 sessions), and R-Y hepaticojejunostomy in 2 patients (2 sessions). We retrospectively studied the rate of reaching the blind end (papilla of Vater or choledochojejunal anastomosis), mean time required to reach the blind end, diagnostic success rate (defined as the rate of successfully imaging the bile and pancreatic ducts), therapeutic success rate (defined as the rate of successfully completing endoscopic treatment), mean procedure time, and complications. RESULTS: Among the 31 sessions of ERCP, the rate of reaching the blind end was 88% in B-II gastrectomy, 91% in R-Y gastrectomy, and 100% in R-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The mean time required to reach the papilla was 18.3 min in B-II gastrectomy, 21.1 min in R-Y gastrectomy, and 32.5 min in R-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The diagnostic success rates in all patients and those with an intact papilla were respectively 86% and 86% in B-II gastrectomy, 90% and 87% in R-Y gastrectomy, and 100% in R-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The therapeutic success rates in all patients and those with an intact papilla were respectively 100% and 100% in B-II gastrectomy, 94% and 92% in R-Y gastrectomy, and 100% in R-Y hepaticojejunostomy. Because the channel diameter was 3.2 mm, stone

  8. Long-term results of endoscopic balloon dilatation of lower gastrointestinal tract strictures in Crohn's disease: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stienecker, Klaus; Gleichmann, Daniel; Neumayer, Ulrike; Glaser, H Joachim; Tonus, Carolin

    2009-06-07

    To examine the long-term results of endoscopic treatment in a prospective study conducted over a period of 10 years, 1997 to January 2007. A total of 25 patients (20 female and five male: aged 18-75 years), with at least one symptom of stricture not passable with the standard colonoscope and with a confirmed scarred Crohn's stricture of the lower gastrointestinal tract, were included in the study. The main symptom was abdominal pain. The endoscopic balloon dilatation was performed with an 18 mm balloon under endoscopic and radiological control. Eleven strictures were located in the colon, 13 at the anastomosis after ileocecal resection, three at the Bauhin valve and four in the ileum. Four patients had two strictures and one patient had three strictures. Of the 31 strictures, in 30 was balloon dilatation successful in a single endoscopic session, so that eventually the strictures could be passed easily with the standard colonoscope. In one patient with a long stricture of the ileum involving the Bauhin valve and an additional stricture of the ileum which were 15 cm apart, sufficient dilatation was not possible. This patient therefore required surgery. Improvement of abdominal symptoms was achieved in all cases which had technically successful balloon dilatation, although in one case perforation occurred after dilatation of a recurrent stricture. Available follow-up was in the range of 54-118 mo (mean of 81 mo). The relapse rate over this period was 46%, but 64% of relapsing strictures could be successfully dilated again. Only in four patients was surgery required during this follow-up period. We conclude from these initial results that endoscopic balloon dilatation, especially for short strictures in Crohn's disease, can be performed with reliable success. Perforation is a rare complication. It is our opinion that in the long-term, the relapse rate is probably higher than after surgery, but usually a second endoscopic treatment can be performed successfully

  9. Is photodynamic therapy a selective treatment? Analysis of local complications after endoscopic photodynamic therapy of early stage tumors of gastrointestinal, tracheobronchial, and urinary tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Dal Fante, Marco; Mancini, Andrea

    1995-03-01

    Selectivity is the most emphasized advantage of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, at drug and light doses used for clinical applications, response from normal tissue surrounding the tumor reduces the real selectivity of the drug-light system and increases the surface of the area responding to the treatment. It is now evident that light irradiation of a sensitized patient produces damage at a various degree not only in the tumor but also in non-neoplastic tissues included in the field of irradiation. We report our experience in endoscopic PDT of early stage tumors in tracheobronchial, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, describing early and late local complications caused by the damage of normal tissues adjacent to the tumors and included in the field of light irradiation. Among 44 patients treated, local complications, attributable to a poor selectivity of the modality, occurred in 6 patients (14%). In particular, the rate of local complications was 9% in patients treated for esophageal tumors, 14% in patients with gastric tumors, 9% in patients with tracheobronchial tumors, and 67% in bladder cancer patients. Clinical pictures as well as endoscopic findings at various intervals from treatment showed that mucositis is a common event following endoscopic PDT. It causes exudation and significant tissue inflammatory response, whose consequences are different in the various organs treated. Photoradiation must be, as much as possible, limited to the malignant area.

  10. The use of rapid indicators for the detection of organic residues on clinically used gastrointestinal endoscopes with and without visually apparent debris.

    PubMed

    Visrodia, Kavel H; Ofstead, Cori L; Yellin, Hannah L; Wetzler, Harry P; Tosh, Pritish K; Baron, Todd H

    2014-08-01

    Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant organisms have been linked to endoscope reprocessing lapses. Meticulous manual cleaning before high-level disinfection (HLD) is essential in reducing residual contamination that can interfere with HLD. Current reprocessing guidelines state that visual inspection is sufficient to confirm adequate cleaning. Our aim was to evaluate contamination of clinically used endoscopes, using visual inspection and rapid indicator tests before and after manual cleaning. A second objective was to determine which rapid indicator instruments and methods could be used for quality improvement initiatives in endoscope reprocessing. Clinical use study of endoscope reprocessing effectiveness. Tertiary care teaching hospital with an inpatient endoscopy center. Researchers sampled endoscopes used for gastrointestinal procedures before and after manual cleaning. The external surfaces and 1 channel of each endoscope were visually inspected and tested with rapid indicators to measure protein, blood, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contamination levels. Multiple components were sampled during 37 encounters with 12 unique endoscopes. All bedside-cleaned endoscopes had high levels of ATP and detectable blood or protein, whether or not any residue was visible. Although there was no visible residue on any endoscopes after manual cleaning, 82% had at least 1 positive rapid indicator test. Relying solely on visual inspection of endoscopes prior to HLD is insufficient to ensure reprocessing effectiveness. For quality assurance initiatives, tests of different endoscope components using more than 1 indicator may be necessary. Additional research is needed to validate specific monitoring protocols.

  11. A patient with odynophagia and unusual endoscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Jessica; Potts, Jonathan; Chatu, Sukhdev; Chung-Faye, Guy

    2015-11-26

    The case describes a 50-year-old woman presenting with a severe painful dysphagia to solids, impacting on her nutritional intake. She had a history of pemphigus vulgaris maintained in remission with azathioprine, with no evidence of active oral or cutaneous disease at the time of presentation. Endoscopy and histology from the distal oesophagus revealed oesophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris. This is a relatively rare clinical form of the disease, with only 58 cases reported worldwide. Patients with pemphigus vulgaris are also prone to infective or steroid-induced gastritis, which present in the same way. Early endoscopic evaluation is therefore essential to distinguish between oesophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris and other pathologies, which warrant significant differences in management.

  12. Gastrointestinal pathology in the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia: review of endoscopic and pathology records.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Paul; Katema, Mwamba; Amadi, Beatrice; Zimba, Lameck; Aparicio, Sylvia; Mudenda, Victor; Baboo, K Sridutt; Zulu, Isaac

    2008-02-01

    There is a shortage of information on the epidemiology of digestive disease in developing countries. In the belief that such information will inform public health priorities and epidemiological comparisons between different geographical regions, we analysed 2132 diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy records from 1999 to 2005 in the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. In order to clarify unexpected impressions about the age distribution of cancers, a retrospective analysis of pathology records was also undertaken. No abnormality was found in 31% of procedures, and in 42% of procedures in children. In patients with gastrointestinal haemorrhage, the common findings were oesophageal varices (26%), duodenal ulcer (17%) and gastric ulcer (12%). Gastrointestinal malignancy was found in 8.8% of all diagnostic procedures, in descending order of frequency: gastric adenocarcinoma, oesophageal squamous carcinoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Data from endoscopy records and pathology records strongly suggest that the incidence in adults under the age of 45 years is higher than in the USA or UK, and pathology records suggest that this effect is particularly marked for colorectal carcinoma.

  13. PillCam(TradeMark), a Noninvasive Endoscopic Device for the Measurement of Gastrointestinal Motility Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Zahman; Crady, Camille; Raju, G. S.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs given by mouth are governed in part by gastrointestinal (GI) motility and function. Microgravity has been shown to decrease GI motility as indicated by a 3 fold increase in gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). The PillCam(TradeMark), an endoscopic camera embedded in a capsule, is a novel noninvasive and unobtrusive device that is used for the diagnosis of GI pathology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of PillCam(TradeMark) as an alternative to the Lactulose Breath Hydrogen Test (LBHT) for estimating GI motility. The sensitivity and applicability of this device for detection and estimation of the effect of promethazine, a deterrent, and caffeine, a prokinetic, on GI motility were also examined. Method: In this semi-randomized cross-over design study, six male and six female subjects were administered the following 4 treatments: PillCam(TradeMark) alone, PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose (10g), PillCam(TradeMark)+caffeine (200mg), and PillCam(TradeMark)+Promethazine (50mg). Results: GITT ranged between 1:24 and 7:52 hr:min. Lactulose did not alter GITT. A significant increase in GITT was noticed after administration of PMZ when compared to values from PillCam(TradeMark) treatment alone or PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose treatment. No difference in GITT after caffeine treatment was noticed. While there were no gender related differences in GITT after administration of PillCam(TradeMark) or with lactulose, a significant difference (p<.05) between genders was observed after promethazine administration with mean GITT higher in males (5:50 hr:min) than females (4:15 hr:min). Conclusion: The PillCam(TradeMark) capsule is applicable for the determination of GITT using time stamped GI images. It can be successfully used for the assessment of drug induced changes in GI motility and therefore, may be applicable for microgravity and analog environment studies on GI motility and function.

  14. PillCam(TradeMark), a Noninvasive Endoscopic Device for the Measurement of Gastrointestinal Motility Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Zahman; Crady, Camille; Raju, G. S.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs given by mouth are governed in part by gastrointestinal (GI) motility and function. Microgravity has been shown to decrease GI motility as indicated by a 3 fold increase in gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). The PillCam(TradeMark), an endoscopic camera embedded in a capsule, is a novel noninvasive and unobtrusive device that is used for the diagnosis of GI pathology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of PillCam(TradeMark) as an alternative to the Lactulose Breath Hydrogen Test (LBHT) for estimating GI motility. The sensitivity and applicability of this device for detection and estimation of the effect of promethazine, a deterrent, and caffeine, a prokinetic, on GI motility were also examined. Method: In this semi-randomized cross-over design study, six male and six female subjects were administered the following 4 treatments: PillCam(TradeMark) alone, PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose (10g), PillCam(TradeMark)+caffeine (200mg), and PillCam(TradeMark)+Promethazine (50mg). Results: GITT ranged between 1:24 and 7:52 hr:min. Lactulose did not alter GITT. A significant increase in GITT was noticed after administration of PMZ when compared to values from PillCam(TradeMark) treatment alone or PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose treatment. No difference in GITT after caffeine treatment was noticed. While there were no gender related differences in GITT after administration of PillCam(TradeMark) or with lactulose, a significant difference (p<.05) between genders was observed after promethazine administration with mean GITT higher in males (5:50 hr:min) than females (4:15 hr:min). Conclusion: The PillCam(TradeMark) capsule is applicable for the determination of GITT using time stamped GI images. It can be successfully used for the assessment of drug induced changes in GI motility and therefore, may be applicable for microgravity and analog environment studies on GI motility and function.

  15. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for the treatment of neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Białek, Andrzej; Wiechowska-Kozłowska, Anna; Pertkiewicz, Jan; Karpińska, Katarzyna; Marlicz, Wojciech; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Starzyńska, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the indications, resection rate, and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract at a European referral center. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of the ESD procedures performed in our center for mucosal neoplastic and submucosal lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The duration of the procedure, en bloc and complete (R0) resection rates, and complication rates were evaluated. Variables were reported as mean ± SD or simple proportions. Univariate analysis and comparisons of procedure times and resection rates were performed using Mann-Whitney U tests, or χ2 tests for dichotomous variables. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2011, ESD was performed in a total of 103 patients (46.7% male, mean age 64.0 ± 12.7 years). The indications for the procedure were epithelial tumor (n = 54), submucosal tumor (n = 42), or other (n = 7). The total en bloc resection rate was 90.3% (93/103) and R0 resection rate 80.6% (83/103). The median speed of the procedure was 15.0 min/cm2. The complete resection rate was lower for submucosal tumors arising from the muscle layer (68%, 15/22, P < 0.05). Resection speed was quicker for submucosal tumors localized in the submucosal layer than for lesions arising from the muscularis propria layer (8.1 min/cm2 vs 17.9 min/cm2, P < 0.05). The R0 resection rate and speed were better in the last 24 mo (90.1%, 49/54 and 15.3 min/cm2) compared to the first 3 years of treatment (73.5%, 36/49, P < 0.05 and 22.0 min/cm2, P < 0.05). Complications occurred in 14.6% (n = 15) of patients, including perforation in 5.8% (n = 6), pneumoperitoneum in 3.9% (n = 4), delayed bleeding in 1.9% (n = 2), and other in 2.9% (n = 3). Only one patient with delayed perforation required surgical treatment. During the mean follow-up of 26 ± 15.3 mo, among patients with R0 resection, recurrence occurred in one patient (1.2%). CONCLUSION: ESD is an effective and safe method for resection of

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for suspected malignancies adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gambitta, Pietro; Armellino, Antonio; Forti, Edoardo; Vertemati, Maurizio; Colombo, Paola Enrica; Aseni, Paolo

    2014-07-14

    To investigate the impact of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in association with a multidisciplinary team evaluation for the detection of gastrointestinal malignancies. A cohort of 1019 patients with suspected malignant lesions adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract received EUS-FNA after a standardized multidisciplinary team evaluation (MTE) and were divided into 4 groups according to their specific malignant risk score (MRS). Patients with a MRS of 0 (without detectable risk of malignancy) received only EUS without FNA. For patients with a MRS score ranging from 1 (low risk) - through 2 (intermediate risk) - to 3 (high risk), EUS-FNA cytology of the lesion was planned for a different time and was prioritized for those patients at higher risk for cancer. The accuracy, efficiency and quality assessment for the early detection of patients with potentially curable malignant lesions were evaluated for the whole cohort and in the different classes of MRSs. The time to definitive cytological diagnosis (TDCD), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the rate of inconclusive tests were calculated for all patients and for each MRS group. A total of 1019 patients with suspected malignant lesions were evaluated by EUS-FNA. In 515 patients of 616 with true malignant lesions the tumor was diagnosed by EUS-FNA; 421 patients with resectable lesions received early surgical treatment, and 94 patients received chemo-radiotherapy. The overall diagnostic accuracy for the 1019 lesions in which a final diagnosis was obtained by EUS-FNA was 0.95. When patients were stratified by MTE into 4 classes of MRSs, a higher rate of patients in the group with higher cancer risk (MRS-3) received early treatment and EUS-FNA showed the highest level of accuracy (1.0). TDCD was also shorter in the MRS-3 group. The number of patients who received surgical treatment or chemo-radiotherapy was significantly higher in the MRS-3 patient

  17. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for suspected malignancies adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Gambitta, Pietro; Armellino, Antonio; Forti, Edoardo; Vertemati, Maurizio; Colombo, Paola Enrica; Aseni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in association with a multidisciplinary team evaluation for the detection of gastrointestinal malignancies. METHODS: A cohort of 1019 patients with suspected malignant lesions adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract received EUS-FNA after a standardized multidisciplinary team evaluation (MTE) and were divided into 4 groups according to their specific malignant risk score (MRS). Patients with a MRS of 0 (without detectable risk of malignancy) received only EUS without FNA. For patients with a MRS score ranging from 1 (low risk) - through 2 (intermediate risk) - to 3 (high risk), EUS-FNA cytology of the lesion was planned for a different time and was prioritized for those patients at higher risk for cancer. The accuracy, efficiency and quality assessment for the early detection of patients with potentially curable malignant lesions were evaluated for the whole cohort and in the different classes of MRSs. The time to definitive cytological diagnosis (TDCD), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the rate of inconclusive tests were calculated for all patients and for each MRS group. RESULTS: A total of 1019 patients with suspected malignant lesions were evaluated by EUS-FNA. In 515 patients of 616 with true malignant lesions the tumor was diagnosed by EUS-FNA; 421 patients with resectable lesions received early surgical treatment, and 94 patients received chemo-radiotherapy. The overall diagnostic accuracy for the 1019 lesions in which a final diagnosis was obtained by EUS-FNA was 0.95. When patients were stratified by MTE into 4 classes of MRSs, a higher rate of patients in the group with higher cancer risk (MRS-3) received early treatment and EUS-FNA showed the highest level of accuracy (1.0). TDCD was also shorter in the MRS-3 group. The number of patients who received surgical treatment or chemo-radiotherapy was significantly

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided forceps biopsy from upper gastrointestinal subepithelial lesions using a forward-viewing echoendoscope

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Ippei; Miyahara, Ryoji; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Funasaka, Kohei; Yamamura, Takeshi; Ohno, Eizaburo; Nakamura, Masanao; Kawashima, Hiroki; Watanabe, Osamu; Kobayashi, Makoto; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Nakamura, Shigeo; Goto, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic tissue acquisition techniques using needle-knife and biopsy forceps allow abundant tissue acquisition from upper gastrointestinal subepithelial lesions; however, these techniques cannot capture real-time intratumor information. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided forceps biopsy (EUS-FB) from upper gastrointestinal subepithelial lesions using a forward-viewing echoendoscope. Patients and methods: This study was a prospective case series. After mucosal cuts, several specimens were taken using a hot biopsy forceps under real-time EUS visualization. The incision was closed using hemoclips. Diagnostic yield, rate of diagnosable samples obtained under EUS visualization, procedure time, and adverse events were assessed. Results: Ten patients (median lesion size 16 mm, range 15 – 44 mm) underwent EUS-FB. The overall rate of histological diagnosis by EUS-FB was 100 % (10/10). The rate of diagnosable samples among all cases was 97.6 % (41/42). The median procedure times for EUS-FB and complete closure were 28.5 and 4.5 minutes, respectively. No adverse events occurred. Conclusions: This newly developed EUS-FB is feasible and allowed forceps biopsy from upper gastrointestinal subepithelial lesions. Study registration: UMIN000015364 PMID:27556070

  19. Novel treatment options for perforations of the upper gastrointestinal tract: Endoscopic vacuum therapy and over-the-scope clips

    PubMed Central

    Mennigen, Rudolf; Senninger, Norbert; Laukoetter, Mike G

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic management of leakages and perforations of the upper gastrointestinal tract has gained great importance as it avoids the morbidity and mortality of surgical intervention. In the past years, covered self-expanding metal stents were the mainstay of endoscopic therapy. However, two new techniques are now available that enlarge the possibilities of defect closure: endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT), and over-the-scope clip (OTSC). EVT is performed by mounting a polyurethane sponge on a gastric tube and placing it into the leakage. Continuous suction is applied via the tube resulting in effective drainage of the cavity and the induction of wound healing, comparable to the application of vacuum therapy in cutaneous wounds. The system is changed every 3-5 d. The overall success rate of EVT in the literature ranges from 84% to 100%, with a mean of 90%; only few complications have been reported. OTSCs are loaded on a transparent cap which is mounted on the tip of a standard endoscope. By bringing the edges of the perforation into the cap, by suction or by dedicated devices, such as anchor or twin grasper, the OTSC can be placed to close the perforation. For acute endoscopy associated perforations, the mean success rate is 90% (range: 70%-100%). For other types of perforations (postoperative, other chronic leaks and fistulas) success rates are somewhat lower (68%, and 59%, respectively). Only few complications have been reported. Although first reports are promising, further studies are needed to define the exact role of EVT and OTSC in treatment algorithms of upper gastrointestinal perforations. PMID:24976714

  20. Novel treatment options for perforations of the upper gastrointestinal tract: endoscopic vacuum therapy and over-the-scope clips.

    PubMed

    Mennigen, Rudolf; Senninger, Norbert; Laukoetter, Mike G

    2014-06-28

    Endoscopic management of leakages and perforations of the upper gastrointestinal tract has gained great importance as it avoids the morbidity and mortality of surgical intervention. In the past years, covered self-expanding metal stents were the mainstay of endoscopic therapy. However, two new techniques are now available that enlarge the possibilities of defect closure: endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT), and over-the-scope clip (OTSC). EVT is performed by mounting a polyurethane sponge on a gastric tube and placing it into the leakage. Continuous suction is applied via the tube resulting in effective drainage of the cavity and the induction of wound healing, comparable to the application of vacuum therapy in cutaneous wounds. The system is changed every 3-5 d. The overall success rate of EVT in the literature ranges from 84% to 100%, with a mean of 90%; only few complications have been reported. OTSCs are loaded on a transparent cap which is mounted on the tip of a standard endoscope. By bringing the edges of the perforation into the cap, by suction or by dedicated devices, such as anchor or twin grasper, the OTSC can be placed to close the perforation. For acute endoscopy associated perforations, the mean success rate is 90% (range: 70%-100%). For other types of perforations (postoperative, other chronic leaks and fistulas) success rates are somewhat lower (68%, and 59%, respectively). Only few complications have been reported. Although first reports are promising, further studies are needed to define the exact role of EVT and OTSC in treatment algorithms of upper gastrointestinal perforations.

  1. Endoscopic findings in sleep apnea associated with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Cadieux, R J; Kales, A; Santen, R J; Bixler, E O; Gordon, R

    1982-07-01

    Two acromegalic patients presented with the additional complaint of excessive daytime sleepiness. Subsequent sleep laboratory evaluation revealed that each patient had concurrent obstructive sleep apnea. In each patient, endoscopic examination of the upper airway revealed that on inspiration, the soft tissue of the posterior and lateral hypopharynx invaginated into the laryngeal vestibule before any posterior movement of the tongue. Neither enlargement of the tongue nor in movement in relation to respiration appeared to be the primary factors in the etiology of the upper airway obstruction. After tracheostomy, both the obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness were eliminated. Our case reports indicate that the treatment and prognosis of patients with acromegaly are affected when sleep apnea is concurrently diagnosed. When a patient is suspected of being acromegalic and also complains of excessive daytime sleepiness, obtaining a through sleep history from the patient as well as from the bed partner is essential. If sleep apnea is then diagnosed, a tracheostomy should be considered an initial and continuing part of the overall treatment plan.

  2. Endoscopic findings and colonic perforation in microscopic colitis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marlicz, Wojciech; Skonieczna-Żydecka, Karolina; Yung, Diana E; Loniewski, Igor; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2017-10-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is a clinical syndrome of severe watery diarrhea with few or no endoscopic abnormalities. The incidence of MC is reported similar to that of other inflammatory bowel diseases. The need for histological confirmation of MC frequently guides reimbursement health policies. With the advent of high-definition (HD) coloscopes, the incidence of reporting distinct endoscopic findings in MC has risen. This has the potential to improve timely diagnosis and cost-effective MC management and diminish the workload and costs of busy modern endoscopy units. Publications on distinct endoscopic findings in MC available until March 31st, 2017 were searched systematically (electronic and manual) in PubMed database. The following search terms/descriptors were used: collagenous colitis (CC) OR lymphocytic colitis (LC) AND endoscopy, colonoscopy, findings, macroscopic, erythema, mucosa, vasculature, scars, lacerations, fractures. An additional search for MC AND perforation was made. Eighty (n=80) articles, predominantly single case reports (n=49), were found. Overall, 1582 (1159F; 61.6±14.1 years) patients (pts) with MC and endoscopic findings were reported. The majority of articles (n=62) were on CC (pts 756; 77.5% females). We identified 16 papers comprising 779 pts (69.2% females) with LC and 7 articles describing 47 pts (72.3% females) diagnosed as MC. The youngest patient was 10 and the oldest a 97-year-old. Aside diarrhea, symptoms included abdominal pain, weight loss, bloating, flatulence, edema and others. In the study group we found 615 (38.8%) persons with macroscopic lesions in gut. Isolated linear ulcerations were identified in 7 pts (1.1%) while non-ulcerous lesions i.e. pseudomembranes, a variable degree of vasculature pruning & dwindling, mucosal lacerations and abnormalities such as erythema/edema/nodularity, or surface textural alteration in 608 pts (98.1%). The location of endoscopic findings was not reported in 27 articles. The distinct

  3. A novel imaging system of optical detection on cancers and tissues in gastrointestinal endoscope using high-color-rendering white and color tunable LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Jun; Taguchi, Tsunemasa; Uchida, Yuji; Kurai, Satoshi; Yanai, Hideo; Kiyotoki, Shu; Okamoto, Takeshi; Higaki, Shingo; Sakaida, Isao

    2010-02-01

    The use of white or color tunable LEDs (light-emitting diodes), which can replace a large light source apparatus and light-guiding fiber bundle, enable the miniaturization of the whole endoscope system and remove constraints on the design of its shape. We have developed a novel white LED for a new experimental prototype LED-illuminated gastrointestinal endoscope having the color rendering in the clinically important red range at around 600 nm.­

  4. Two-sided sponge (TSS) treatment: Description of a novel device and technique for endoscopic vacuum treatment (EVT) in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andreas; Thimme, Robert; Hopt, Ulrich T; Richter-Schrag, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    Endoscopic vacuum treatment (EVT) is increasingly used in the treatment of anastomotic leakages and perforations in the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, sponges often have to be mounted individually on a gastric tube and endoscopic introduction of the latter into an infected extraluminal cavity is challenging. In order to facilitate this procedure in some anatomical situations, we developed the prototype of a new sponge for EVT called a two-side sponge (TSS).

  5. Two-sided sponge (TSS) treatment: Description of a novel device and technique for endoscopic vacuum treatment (EVT) in the upper gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andreas; Thimme, Robert; Hopt, Ulrich T.; Richter-Schrag, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic vacuum treatment (EVT) is increasingly used in the treatment of anastomotic leakages and perforations in the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, sponges often have to be mounted individually on a gastric tube and endoscopic introduction of the latter into an infected extraluminal cavity is challenging. In order to facilitate this procedure in some anatomical situations, we developed the prototype of a new sponge for EVT called a two-side sponge (TSS). PMID:27652297

  6. Identification of lesion images from gastrointestinal endoscope based on feature extraction of combinational methods with and without learning process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ding-Yun; Gan, Tao; Rao, Ni-Ni; Xing, Yao-Wen; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sang; Luo, Cheng-Si; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Wan, Yong-Li

    2016-08-01

    The gastrointestinal endoscopy in this study refers to conventional gastroscopy and wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE). Both of these techniques produce a large number of images in each diagnosis. The lesion detection done by hand from the images above is time consuming and inaccurate. This study designed a new computer-aided method to detect lesion images. We initially designed an algorithm named joint diagonalisation principal component analysis (JDPCA), in which there are no approximation, iteration or inverting procedures. Thus, JDPCA has a low computational complexity and is suitable for dimension reduction of the gastrointestinal endoscopic images. Then, a novel image feature extraction method was established through combining the algorithm of machine learning based on JDPCA and conventional feature extraction algorithm without learning. Finally, a new computer-aided method is proposed to identify the gastrointestinal endoscopic images containing lesions. The clinical data of gastroscopic images and WCE images containing the lesions of early upper digestive tract cancer and small intestinal bleeding, which consist of 1330 images from 291 patients totally, were used to confirm the validation of the proposed method. The experimental results shows that, for the detection of early oesophageal cancer images, early gastric cancer images and small intestinal bleeding images, the mean values of accuracy of the proposed method were 90.75%, 90.75% and 94.34%, with the standard deviations (SDs) of 0.0426, 0.0334 and 0.0235, respectively. The areas under the curves (AUCs) were 0.9471, 0.9532 and 0.9776, with the SDs of 0.0296, 0.0285 and 0.0172, respectively. Compared with the traditional related methods, our method showed a better performance. It may therefore provide worthwhile guidance for improving the efficiency and accuracy of gastrointestinal disease diagnosis and is a good prospect for clinical application.

  7. Endoscopic Management of Gastrointestinal Leaks and Bleeding with the Over-the-Scope Clip: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Rai, Vijay Kumar; Goenka, Usha; Tiwary, Indrajit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) is a device used for endoscopic closure of perforations, leaks and fistulas, and for endoscopic hemostasis. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of OTSC. Methods Between October 2013 and November 2015, 12 patients underwent OTSC placement by an experienced endoscopist. OTSC was used for the closure of gastrointestinal (GI) leaks and fistula in six patients, three of which were iatrogenic (esophageal, gastric, and duodenal) and three of which were inflammatory. In six patients, OTSC was used for hemostasis of non-variceal upper GI bleeding. Endoscopic tattooing using India ink was used to assist the accurate placement of the clip. Results All subjects except one with a colonic defect experienced immediate technical success as well as long-term clinical success, during a mean follow-up of 6 weeks. Only one clip was required to close each of the GI defects and to achieve hemostasis in all patients. There were no misfirings or complications of clips. The procedure was well tolerated, and patients were hospitalized for an average of 8 days (range, 3 to 10). Antiplatelet therapy was continued in patients with GI bleeding. Conclusions In our experience, OTSC was safe and effective for the closure of GI defect and to achieve hemostasis of non-variceal GI bleeding. PMID:27802375

  8. In-situ visualization and evaluation of neoplastic lesions of the human gastrointestinal tract using endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, Andrew M.; Westphal, Volker; Das, Ananya; Pfau, Patrick; Chak, Amitabh; Wong, Richard C. K.; Sivak, Michael J., Jr.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2001-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel biomedical imaging technique that uses low-coherence optical interferometry to obtain micron-scale resolution cross- sectional images of tissue microstructure noninvasively. OCT fills a valuable niche in imaging of tissue structure, providing subsurface imaging with high spatial resolution (on the order of 10 micrometers) and penetration depths of 1 - 2 mm with no contact or matching medium needed between the probe and the tissue. An OCT system for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has been developed using a small-diameter rotary-scanning probe compatible with standard GI endoscopes and capable of imaging in real-time. To date more than 100 volunteers have been imaged during routine upper and lower endoscopic procedures. Results of imaging in normal organs have demonstrated visualization of morphological layers (epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria) and microscopic structures (glands, villi, crypts, vessels) in all endoscopically accessible GI organs. It has been observed in more than 30 patients that the EOCT appearance of Barrett's mucosa is clearly differentiable from normal gastric or esophageal mucosa. Furthermore, the EOCT appearance of dysplasia and neoplastic lesions, including adenocarcenoma in Barrett's and villous tumor in colon have been observed and are under investigation. Preliminary data indicate the potential of EOCT for routine clinical diagnostics in GI tissues, including early cancer detection and staging and detection of tumor margins.

  9. Endoscopic findings of the stomach in pleasure horses in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ulcers in the gastric squamous and glandular mucosa in Polish pleasure horses. Study design Medical records from gastroscopic examinations of 108 pleasure horses of different breeds were reviewed. The study population consisted of two groups; group I (n = 48) with horses that expressed mild clinical signs of gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) including poor appetite, slight weight loss or poor body condition, and group II (n = 60) with horses that had no signs of gastrointestinal problems. The age range was 4–10 years, including 5 males, 34 castrated males (geldings) and 69 mares. The prevalence, distribution and severity of gastric ulcers were recorded. Lesions involving the squamous mucosa and the glandular mucosa of the antrum and pylorus were graded and compared between groups. Results Significant difference was found in the presence and severity of gastric ulcers between the two groups of horses. The overall prevalence of gastric ulcers in the first group of horses (n = 48) was 59% while in the group of clinically healthy horses (n = 60) the prevalence of gastric lesion was 40% (P = 0.004). Almost 19% of horses from group I had between 6–10 lesions (EGUS score III) and nearly 19% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). The number of ulcerations in affected horses were significantly lower in group II compared to group I (P = 0.016) as 10% of horses had 6–10 lesions (EGUS number score III) and nearly 14% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). Gastroscopy revealed that nearly 32% of horses from the second group had an ulceration EGUS score ≥ II. Discussion and conclusions This study confirms that gastric ulcerations can be prevalent in apparently clinically normal pleasure horses and a complete gastroscopic examination including the examination of the pylorus is advisable

  10. Predictive value of endoscopic findings in the diagnosis of active intestinal amebiasis.

    PubMed

    Nagata, N; Shimbo, T; Akiyama, J; Nakashima, R; Niikura, R; Nishimura, S; Yada, T; Watanabe, K; Oka, S; Uemura, N

    2012-04-01

    Endoscopic diagnosis of amebic colitis can be difficult because its appearance may mimic other forms of colonic disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictive endoscopic findings for amebic colitis. Patients with suspected amebic colitis based on distinctive endoscopic findings such as aphthae or erosions, ulcers, exudates, or a bump, were included in the study. A total of 157 patients were selected, 50 of whom had amebic colitis. The sensitivity and specificity of endoscopic findings that were significantly associated with amebic colitis were: cecal lesions (80% and 54%), multiple number of lesions (96% and 29%), presence of aphthae or erosions (84% and 37%), and presence of exudate (88% and 74%). Multivariate analysis revealed that the best combination of findings to predict amebic colitis was the presence of cecal lesions, multiple lesions, and exudates, which corresponded to an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.82-0.95). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Successful closure of defects in the upper gastrointestinal tract by endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT): a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Laukoetter, Mike G; Mennigen, Rudolf; Neumann, Philipp A; Dhayat, Sameer; Horst, Gabriele; Palmes, Daniel; Senninger, Norbert; Vowinkel, Thorsten

    2017-06-01

    Perforations and anastomotic leakages of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract cause a high morbidity and mortality rate. Only limited data exist for endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) in the upper GI tract. Fifty-two patients (37 men and 15 women, ages 41-94 years) were treated (12/2011-12/2015) with EVT for anastomotic insufficiency secondary to esophagectomy or gastrectomy (n = 39), iatrogenic esophageal perforation (n = 9) and Boerhaave syndrome (n = 4). After diagnosis, polyurethane sponges were endoscopically positioned with a total of 390 interventions and continuous negative pressure of 125 mm of mercury (mmHg) was applied to the EVT-system. Sponges were changed endoscopically twice per week. Clinical and therapy-related data and mortality were analyzed. After 1-25 changes of the sponge at intervals of 3-5 days with a mean of 6 sponge changes and a mean duration of therapy of 22 days, the defects were healed in 94.2 % of all patients without revision surgery. In three patients (6 %), EVT failed. Two of these patients died due to hemorrhage related to EVT. Four postinterventional strictures were observed during the follow-up of up to 4 years. Esophageal wall defects of different etiology in the upper gastrointestinal tract can be treated successfully with EVT, considering that indication for EVT should be weighed carefully. EVT can be regarded as a novel life-saving therapeutic tool.

  12. Embolization of Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Resistant to Endoscopic Treatment: Results and Predictors of Recurrent Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Loffroy, Romaric Rao, Pramod; Ota, Shinichi; Lin Mingde; Kwak, Byung-Kook; Geschwind, Jean-Francois

    2010-12-15

    Acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage is a frequent complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most common cause of UGI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, but the differential diagnosis is diverse and includes tumors; ischemia; gastritis; arteriovenous malformations, such as Dieulafoy lesions; Mallory-Weiss tears; trauma; and iatrogenic causes. Aggressive treatment with early endoscopic hemostasis is essential for a favorable outcome. However, severe bleeding despite conservative medical treatment or endoscopic intervention occurs in 5-10% of patients, requiring surgery or transcatheter arterial embolization. Surgical intervention is usually an expeditious and gratifying endeavor, but it can be associated with high operative mortality rates. Endovascular management using superselective catheterization of the culprit vessel, < sandwich> occlusion, or blind embolization has emerged as an alternative to emergent operative intervention for high-risk patients and is now considered the first-line therapy for massive UGI bleeding refractory to endoscopic treatment. Indeed, many published studies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and its high technical and clinical success rates, which range from 69 to 100% and from 63 to 97%, respectively, even if the choice of the best embolic agent among coils, cyanaocrylate glue, gelatin sponge, or calibrated particles remains a matter of debate. However, factors influencing clinical outcome, especially predictors of early rebleeding, are poorly understood, and few studies have addressed this issue. This review of the literature will attempt to define the role of embolotherapy for acute nonvariceal UGI hemorrhage that fails to respond to endoscopic hemostasis and to summarize data on factors predicting angiographic and embolization failure.

  13. Trans-fistulary endoscopic drainage for post-bariatric abdominal collections communicating with the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Simon; Eisendrath, Pierre; Toussaint, Emmanuel; Le Moine, Olivier; Lemmers, Arnaud; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Devière, Jacques

    2016-09-01

    Diverse endoscopic methods, such as placement of temporary self-expandable stents, have proven effective for the treatment of post-bariatric surgery leaks. However, some patients do not respond to the usual endoscopic treatment. This study tested the efficacy of an alternative treatment strategy based on trans-fistulary drainage with double-pigtail plastic stents. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with abdominal collections following bariatric surgery who were treated by trans-fistulary stenting between May 2007 and February 2015. Clinical success was defined as a sustained (> 4 months) clinical resolution (patient discharged from the hospital without antibiotics and able to resume a normal diet) and radiological response. Patient records, radiological images, and the hospital endoscopy database were reviewed. A total of 33 patients (26 women/7 men, mean age 42 years [SD 11.2]) were included. Collections occurred after sleeve gastrectomy (n = 28) or after gastric bypass (n = 5). Fourteen patients were treated by trans-fistulary stenting as primary treatment, and 19 patients had undergone previous unsuccessful endoscopic treatment. No serious complication occurred during the drainage procedure. Clinical success was achieved in 26 patients (78.8 %). In two successfully treated patients, stents are still in place. Spontaneous stent migration occurred in 12 patients. In 12 patients, the stents were removed, either electively (n = 5) or because of complications (ulcerations n = 3, upper gastrointestinal symptoms n = 3, splenic hematoma n = 1). Trans-fistulary drainage of post-bariatric abdominal collections is safe and associated with high success rates. This technique can be considered in previously untreated patients, when a collection is not properly drained percutaneously, or after failure of other endoscopic treatments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Efficacy and safety of submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection for upper gastrointestinal submucosal tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiu-He; Wang, Chun-Hui; Xie, Yan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER) has emerged as a novel therapeutic endoscopic technique for upper gastrointestinal submucosal tumors (SMTs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of STER for upper gastrointestinal SMTs. A systematic search of both English and Chinese databases was performed until November 15, 2015. Complete resection and en bloc resection rates were considered the primary outcome measures. Prevalence of complications was considered the secondary outcome measure. A random-effects model was used to generate conservative estimates of the prevalence of the main outcome variables. All data analyses were performed using Meta-Analyst software (version beta 3.13). A total of 28 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The pooled complete resection and en bloc resection rates were 97.5 % (95 % CI 96.0-98.5 %) and 94.6 % (95 % CI 91.5-96.7 %), respectively. The common complications associated with STER were air leakage symptoms and perforation. The pooled prevalence of air leakage symptoms was 14.8 % (95 % CI 10.5-20.5 %) for subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum, 6.1 % (95 % CI 4.0-9.0 %) for pneumothorax and 6.8 % (95 % CI 4.7-9.6 %) for pneumoperitoneum. Additionally, the pooled prevalence of perforation was 5.6 % (95 % CI 3.7-8.2 %). Only a few cases of bleeding were reported in two studies. STER is a highly feasible and safe treatment option for upper gastrointestinal SMTs.

  15. Long-Term Outcome of Endoscopic Balloon Dilation in Obstructive Gastrointestinal Crohn's Disease: A Prospective Long-Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Keisuke; Tsuda, Sumio; Yao, Kenshi; Sou, Suketo; Satoh, Shigeru; Hatakeyama, Sadamune; Matake, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Yao, Tsuneyoshi

    2000-01-01

    Background The short- and long-term results of balloon dilation therapy in Crohn's patients with non-anastomotic obstructive gastrointestinal lesions are investigated. Materials and methods Fifty-five patients with Crohn's disease who had obstructive gastrointestinal lesions were treated prospectively by endoscopic balloon dilation. Short-term results Eight of the initial dilations were unsuccessful giving no symptomatic relief (14.5%). Long-term results The subjects of the long-term prognosis were 40 cases followed up for more than 6 months (average 37 months) and their strictures were non-anastomotic in more than half (59%). Avoidance of surgery, was possible in 31 of 40 patients (78%). Surgery was avoided in 92%, 81% and 77% of patients after one, two, and three years, respectively (Kaplan–Meier's method). There was no difference in long-term outcome between anastomotic strictures and strictures in the absence of prior surgery. Conclusion Our results suggest that, (1) strictures in the absence of prior surgery might be treated in this way as well as anastomotic strictures; (2) if followed for a prolonged time period, more than 70% of patients, who have undergone balloon dilation for obstructive gastrointestinal Crohn's disease, may be able to avoid surgery. PMID:18493528

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound findings predict the recurrence of esophageal varices after endoscopic band ligation: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masalaite, Laura; Valantinas, Jonas; Stanaitis, Juozas

    2015-01-01

    Variceal recurrence following endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is common. Esophageal collateral veins (ECV) are observed by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in patients with portal hypertension. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of EUS in predicting the recurrence of esophageal varices following EBL. Forty patients who had undergone EBL for eradication of varices were examined over a 12-month period to detect variceal recurrence. EUS was performed before ligation to detect and describe the type, grade, and the number of ECV. EUS findings obtained prior to EBL were compared in the variceal recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Of the 40 patients, 19 (47.5%) had variceal recurrence within 12 months of EBL. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that severe peri-ECV (p < 0.001), multiple peri-ECV (p < 0.001), and the presence of perforating veins (p < 0.014) were statistically significantly related to the variceal recurrence after EBL. Multivariate logistic regression model found that only severe peri-ECV (odds ratio [OR] = 24.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.34-253.78) and multiple peri-ECV (OR = 24.39; 95% CI: 2.34-253.78) remained as independent prognostic factors for variceal recurrence. The sensitivity and specificity of multivariate logistic regression model in predicting variceal recurrence was 89.2% and 90.5%, respectively (prognostic value (AUC) = 0.946). Recurrence rate of esophageal varices after EBL is high (47.5%). EUS can clearly depict ECV and has a value in predicting variceal recurrence after EBL; severe peri-ECV and multiple peri-ECV were significant and independent prognostic factors associated with variceal recurrence risk.

  17. Endoscopic Management of Foreign Bodies in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract of Adults.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chih-Chien; Wu, I-Ting; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Lin, Sheng-Chieh; Liang, Chih-Ming; Kuo, Yuan-Hung; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Wang, Hsing-Ming; Kuo, Chung-Huang; Chiou, Shue-Shian; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Tai, Wei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Foreign object ingestion and food bolus impaction are a common clinical problem. We report our clinical experiences in endoscopic management for adults, foreign body ingestion, and food bolus impaction. A retrospective chart review study was conducted on adult patients with foreign body ingestion and food bolus impaction between January 2011 and November 2014. Patients with incomplete medical records were excluded. A total of 198 patients (226 incidents) were included in the study (male/female: 1.54/1; age 57 ± 16 years). Among them, 168 foreign bodies were found successfully (74.3%). 75.6% of the foreign bodies were located in the esophagus. Food bolus impaction was most common (41.6%). 93.5% of foreign bodies in current study cohort were successfully extracted and 5 patients required surgical interventions. Comparisons between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients revealed that locations of foreign bodies in the pharynx and esophagus were the significant relevant factors (P < 0.001). Shorter time taken to initiate endoscopic interventions increased detection rate (289.75 ± 465.94 versus 471.06 ± 659.93 minutes, P = 0.028). Endoscopic management is a safe and highly effective procedure in extracting foreign body ingestion and food bolus impaction. Prompt endoscopic interventions can increase the chance of successful foreign bodies' detection.

  18. Innovations and techniques for balloon-enteroscope-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with altered gastrointestinal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Okuwaki, Kosuke; Miyazawa, Shiro; Iwai, Tomohisa; Koizumi, Wasaburo

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) remains challenging in patients who have undergone surgical reconstruction of the intestine. Recently, many studies have reported that balloon-enteroscope-assisted ERCP (BEA-ERCP) is a safe and effective procedure. However, further improvements in outcomes and the development of simplified procedures are required. Percutaneous treatment, Laparoscopy-assisted ERCP, endoscopic ultrasound-guided anterograde intervention, and open surgery are effective treatments. However, treatment should be noninvasive, effective, and safe. We believe that these procedures should be performed only in difficult-to-treat patients because of many potential complications. BEA-ERCP still requires high expertise-level techniques and is far from a routinely performed procedure. Various techniques have been proposed to facilitate scope insertion (insertion with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) rendezvous technique, Short type single-balloon enteroscopes with passive bending section, Intraluminal injection of indigo carmine, CO2 inflation guidance), cannulation (PTBD or percutaneous transgallbladder drainage rendezvous technique, Dilation using screw drill, Rendezvous technique combining DBE with a cholangioscope, endoscopic ultrasound-guided rendezvous technique), and treatment (overtube-assisted technique, Short type balloon enteroscopes) during BEA-ERCP. The use of these techniques may allow treatment to be performed by BEA-ERCP in many patients. A standard procedure for ERCP yet to be established for patients with a reconstructed intestine. At present, BEA-ERCP is considered the safest and most effective procedure and is therefore likely to be recommended as first-line treatment. In this article, we discuss the current status of BEA-ERCP in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy. PMID:26074685

  19. Image Quality Analysis of Various Gastrointestinal Endoscopes: Why Image Quality Is a Prerequisite for Proper Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Weon Jin; An, Pyeong; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik; Hong, Sung Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Arising from human curiosity in terms of the desire to look within the human body, endoscopy has undergone significant advances in modern medicine. Direct visualization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by traditional endoscopy was first introduced over 50 years ago, after which fairly rapid advancement from rigid esophagogastric scopes to flexible scopes and high definition videoscopes has occurred. In an effort towards early detection of precancerous lesions in the GI tract, several high-technology imaging scopes have been developed, including narrow band imaging, autofocus imaging, magnified endoscopy, and confocal microendoscopy. However, these modern developments have resulted in fundamental imaging technology being skewed towards red-green-blue and this technology has obscured the advantages of other endoscope techniques. In this review article, we have described the importance of image quality analysis using a survey to consider the diversity of endoscope system selection in order to better achieve diagnostic and therapeutic goals. The ultimate aims can be achieved through the adoption of modern endoscopy systems that obtain high image quality. PMID:26473119

  20. The Association Between Gastric Endoscopic Findings and Histologic Premalignant Lesions in the Iranian Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Niknam, Ramin; Manafi, Alireza; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoudi, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric dysplasia are histologic premalignant lesions (PMLs). Correlation between the gastric endoscopic findings and histologic PMLs is not clear. This study was designed to determine the possible association of endoscopic findings and histologic PMLs. Over 28 months gastric endoscopic findings of consecutive rural patients with dyspepsia were categorized into 3 groups: 1—normal, 2—ulcerative with or without concurrent abnormality, 3—abnormal non-ulcerative. Biopsies of antrum and body were taken from all included patients and examined for the presence of histologic PMLs. Any mucosal abnormality was also biopsied. From 7340 evaluated patients, an overall of 1973 patients were included. 55.7% of patients were in group 1; 3.8% in group 2 and 40.5% in group 3. A within sex analysis showed that the majority of male patients were in PMLs subgroup (P < 0.001) likewise in groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). The prevalence of histologic PMLs in groups 2 and 3 was significantly higher than group 1 (P < 0:001) but the difference was not significant between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.484). Mean (±SD) age of patient with PMLs was 50.25 ± 17.71 whereas in patients without PMLs was 41.16 ± 16.48 (P < 0.001). This study has showed that abnormal gastric endoscopic findings, male sex and increased age can be considered as risk factors of the formation of histologic PMLs. Until further investigations we propose that any abnormality on gastric mucosa (ulcerative or non-ulcerative) could be biopsied for the evaluation of probable histologic PMLs especially in old men. PMID:25929902

  1. The association between gastric endoscopic findings and histologic premalignant lesions in the Iranian rural population.

    PubMed

    Niknam, Ramin; Manafi, Alireza; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoudi, Laleh

    2015-05-01

    Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric dysplasia are histologic premalignant lesions (PMLs). Correlation between the gastric endoscopic findings and histologic PMLs is not clear. This study was designed to determine the possible association of endoscopic findings and histologic PMLs.Over 28 months gastric endoscopic findings of consecutive rural patients with dyspepsia were categorized into 3 groups: 1-normal, 2-ulcerative with or without concurrent abnormality, 3-abnormal non-ulcerative. Biopsies of antrum and body were taken from all included patients and examined for the presence of histologic PMLs. Any mucosal abnormality was also biopsied.From 7340 evaluated patients, an overall of 1973 patients were included. 55.7% of patients were in group 1; 3.8% in group 2 and 40.5% in group 3. A within sex analysis showed that the majority of male patients were in PMLs subgroup (P < 0.001) likewise in groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). The prevalence of histologic PMLs in groups 2 and 3 was significantly higher than group 1 (P < 0:001) but the difference was not significant between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.484). Mean (±SD) age of patient with PMLs was 50.25 ± 17.71 whereas in patients without PMLs was 41.16 ± 16.48 (P < 0.001).This study has showed that abnormal gastric endoscopic findings, male sex and increased age can be considered as risk factors of the formation of histologic PMLs. Until further investigations we propose that any abnormality on gastric mucosa (ulcerative or non-ulcerative) could be biopsied for the evaluation of probable histologic PMLs especially in old men.

  2. Mesenteric findings of CT enterography are well correlated with the endoscopic severity of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takehiro; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Saito, Keiko; Yoshihama, Sayuri; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Koseki, Hirotaka; Taida, Takashi; Ishigami, Hideaki; Okimoto, Ken-Ichiro; Maruoka, Daisuke; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Arai, Makoto; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-04-01

    Maintenance of mucosal healing is a primary goal when treating Crohn's disease (CD). Endoscopy is the most precise method for the assessment of mucosal healing, but is considered overly invasive for patients with CD. In contrast, CT enterography (CTE) is less invasive, but little is known about the correlation between mucosal status and CTE parameters. We recruited CD patients who underwent CTE and double balloon endoscopy (DBE) on the same day at our hospital between 2012 and 2014. CTE parameters evaluated included bowel-wall thickening, mural hyperenhancement, mural stratification (target sign), submucosal fat deposition, mesenteric hypervascularity (comb sign), increased fat density, mesenteric fibrofatty proliferation, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, and stenosis/sacculation. Endoscopic findings were evaluated using the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD). CTE parameters that were predictive of higher values in the SES-CD were extracted statistically. Forty-one patients were recruited, from which 191 intestinal segments were evaluated. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients showed that the majority of CTE values exhibited mild to moderate correlations with SES-CD values. Notably, multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis demonstrated that CTE findings obtained from the mesenteric area, such as mesenteric hypervascularity (comb sign) and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, were more critical predictors of endoscopic mucosal ulceration than those obtained from the bowel wall. This study was the first of its kind to assess correlations between CTE values and SES-CD values. Mesenteric findings of CTE, rather than mural findings, were highly correlated with the endoscopically evaluated severity of ulceration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Upper GI endoscopy in elderly patients: predictive factors of relevant endoscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Buri, Luigi; Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Bersani, Gianluca; Anti, Marcello; Bianco, Maria A; Cipolletta, Livio; Giulio, Emilio Di; Matteo, Giovanni Di; Familiari, Luigi; Ficano, Leonardo; Loriga, Piero; Morini, Sergio; Pietropaolo, Vincenzo; Zambelli, Alessandro; Grossi, Enzo; Tessari, Francesco; Intraligi, Marco; Buscema, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Elderly patients are at increased risk for peptic ulcer and cancer. Predictive factors of relevant endoscopic findings at upper endoscopy in the elderly are unknown. This was a post hoc analysis of a nationwide, endoscopic study. A total of 3,147 elderly patients were selected. Demographic, clinical, and endoscopic data were systematically collected. Relevant findings and new diagnoses of peptic ulcer and malignancy were computed. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 1,559 (49.5%), 213 (6.8%), 93 (3%) relevant findings, peptic ulcers, and malignancies were detected. Peptic ulcers and malignancies were more frequent in >85-year-old patients (OR 3.1, 95% CI = 2.0-4.7, p = 0.001). The presence of dysphagia (OR = 5.15), weight loss (OR = 4.77), persistent vomiting (OR = 3.68), anaemia (OR = 1.83), and male gender (OR = 1.9) were significantly associated with a malignancy, whilst overt bleeding (OR = 6.66), NSAIDs use (OR = 2.23), and epigastric pain (OR = 1.90) were associated with the presence of peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcer or malignancies were detected in 10% of elderly patients, supporting the use of endoscopy in this age group. Very elderly patients appear to be at higher risk of such lesions.

  4. Low Prevalence of Clinically Significant Endoscopic Findings in Outpatients with Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Abdeljawad, Khaled; Wehbeh, Antonios

    2017-01-01

    Background. The value of endoscopy in dyspeptic patients is questionable. Aims. To examine the prevalence of significant endoscopic findings (SEFs) and the utility of alarm features and age in predicting SEFs in outpatients with dyspepsia. Methods. A retrospective analysis of outpatient adults who had endoscopy for dyspepsia. Demographic variables, alarm features, and endoscopic findings were recorded. We defined SEFs as peptic ulcer disease, erosive esophagitis, malignancy, stricture, or findings requiring specific therapy. Results. Of 650 patients included in the analysis, 51% had a normal endoscopy. The most common endoscopic abnormality was nonerosive gastritis (29.7%) followed by nonerosive duodenitis (7.2%) and LA-class A esophagitis (5.4%). Only 10.2% had a SEF. Five patients (0.8%) had malignancy. SEFs were more likely present in patients with alarm features (12.6% versus 5.4%, p = 0.004). Age ≥ 55 and presence of any alarm feature were associated with SEFs (aOR 1.8 and 2.3, resp.). Conclusion. Dyspeptic patients have low prevalence of SEF. The presence of any alarm feature and age ≥ 55 are associated with higher risk of SEF. Endoscopy in young patients with no alarm features has a low yield; these patients can be considered for nonendoscopic approach for diagnosis and management. PMID:28210269

  5. A Bamboo Joint-Like Appearance is a Characteristic Finding in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract of Crohn's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fujiya, Mikihiro; Sakatani, Aki; Dokoshi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Ando, Katsuyoshi; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Gotoh, Takuma; Kashima, Shin; Tominaga, Motoya; Inaba, Yuhei; Ito, Takahiro; Moriichi, Kentaro; Tanabe, Hiroki; Ikuta, Katsuya; Ohtake, Takaaki; Yokota, Kinnichi; Watari, Jiro; Saitoh, Yusuke; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The clinical importance of Crohn's disease (CD)-specific lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract (upper GIT) has not been sufficiently established. The aim of this case-control study is to investigate the characteristic findings of CD in the upper GIT. In 2740 patients who underwent gastroduodenoscopy at Asahikawa Medical University between April 2011 and December 2012, 81 CD patients, 81 gender- and age-matched non-IBD patients, and 66 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were investigated in the present study. (1) The diagnostic ability and odds ratio of each endoscopic finding (a bamboo joint-like appearance in the cardia, erosions, and/or ulcers in the antrum, notched signs, and erosions and/or ulcers in the duodenum) were compared between the CD and non-IBD patients or UC patients. (2) The interobserver agreement of the diagnosis based on the endoscopic findings was evaluated by 3 experienced and 3 less-experienced endoscopists. The incidence of detecting a bamboo joint-like appearance, notched signs, and erosions and/or ulcers in the duodenum was significantly higher in the CD patients than in the non-IBD and UC patients. In addition, the diagnostic ability and odds ratio of a bamboo joint-like appearance for CD were higher than those for the other findings. Kendall's coefficients of concordance in the group of experienced and less-experienced endoscopists were relatively high for a bamboo joint-like appearance (0.748 and 0.692, respectively). A cardiac bamboo joint-like appearance is a useful finding for identifying high-risk groups of CD patients using only gastroduodenoscopy. PMID:26376393

  6. Application Of Endoscopic Lasers For Operations In Gastro-Intestinal Tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobelkin, O. K.; Saphronov, A. M.; Shapovalov, A. M.; Zaharov, P. I.

    1988-06-01

    We have described our experience in the application of high energy argon and Nd:YAG lasers for endoscopic surgical manipulations. Laser was used for the removal of polyps with a wide base, villi tumours in colon, for the elimination of scar strictures in colon anastomosis, for the formation of primary-delayed colon anastomosis and for the removal of timoral stenosis in esophagus and in colon. Laser therapy has certain advantages over other endoscopic manipulations: long-term and immediate results are better. One can use this therapy in combination with others (radial therapy, surgical treatment). We have worked out a classification of polyps and stenosing tumours in the digestive system to determine indications for laser endoscopy and to choose the best parameters of laser irradiation.

  7. [Single centre experience of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in premalignant and malignant gastrointestinal neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Höbel, S; Baumbach, R; Dautel, P; Oldhafer, K J; Stang, A; Feyerabend, B; Yahagi, N; Faiss, S

    2014-02-01

    Worldwide endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of early GI cancers or premalignant neoplasia is becoming increasingly important. In Germany ESD is restricted to larger endoscopic institutions and only a few literature reports are available. The aim of the present study is to describe the results of 46 ESDs conducted in a German endoscopic centre. Between June 2007 and May 2012 46 ESDs in 45 patients (33 men, 12 women, mean age 66.1 years) were performed in the oesophagus (n = 17), stomach (n = 23) and rectum (n = 6). Data were collected for the en-bloc, R0 and R0 en-bloc resection rates as well as for complications, the curative resection and the local recurrence rates. In order to demonstrate a learning curve, results were evaluated for two periods (June 2007 to November 2010 vs. December 2010 to May 2012). ESD was technically possible in 93.5%. En-bloc, R0, R0 en-bloc and curative resection rates were 90.7%, 74.4%, 67.4% and 65.1%, respectively. The complication rate was 13%. In the second period en-bloc and R0 en-bloc resection rates increased from 81% to 100% and, respectively, from 52.4% to 81.8%. After a medium follow-up of 11.4 months, local tumour recurrence occurred in 10%. In cases of curative R0 en bloc resection of malignant tumours no tumour recurrence occurred. Despite the small number of patients, the present data underline the value of ESD, especially in cases of R0 en-bloc resections in the therapy for premalignant and early malignant GI tumours. Due to the required learning curve, ESD should be restricted to larger endoscopic centres in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Symptoms and endoscopic findings--can they predict abnormal nocturnal acid gastro-oesophageal reflux?

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, L. R.; Norris, T. L.; Watson, A.

    1989-01-01

    Nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux is known to be particularly damaging to the oesophageal mucosa, being associated with stricture formation and columnarisation. At present, this can only be detected by prolonged intra-oesophageal pH monitoring. A total of 50 patients with endoscopic oesophagitis were evaluated by ambulatory pH monitoring to detect the presence of nocturnal reflux. Whether certain symptoms in the presence of a hiatal hernia would identify those patients with reflux at night was investigated. Thirty-three patients had nocturnal reflux, two-thirds of whom had a hiatal hernia. Heartburn at night was of limited value (specificity = 65%) in detecting acid reflux whereas regurgitation and cough showed greater specificity (88% and 100% respectively) but lacked sensitivity (45% and 12% respectively). The combination of nocturnal symptoms and a hiatal hernia in patients with endoscopic oesophagitis correctly identified 58% of patients with nocturnal reflux and was highly specific (100%). This study has confirmed that symptoms and endoscopic findings can detect a significant proportion of 'at risk' patients, but the remainder will require pH monitoring to assess their pattern of acid exposure. PMID:2650603

  9. Incidental sinonasal findings identified during preoperative evaluation for endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches

    PubMed Central

    Laury, Adrienne M.; Oyesiku, Nelson M.; Hadjipanayis, Costas G.; DelGaudio, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach (eTSA) to lesions of the sellar region is typically performed jointly by neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists. Occasionally, the approach is significantly altered by sinonasal disease, anatomic variants, or previous surgery. However, there are no current guidelines that describe which physical or radiological findings should prompt a change in the plan of care. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of sinonasal pathology or anatomic variants noted endoscopically or by imaging that altered preoperative or intraoperative management. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 355 consecutive patients who underwent combined neurosurgery–otolaryngology endoscopic sella approach from August 1, 2007 to April 1, 2011. Our practice in these patients involves preoperative otolaryngology clinical evaluation and MRI review. Intraoperative image guidance is not routinely used in uncomplicated eTSA. Results: The most common management alteration was the addition of image guidance based on anatomic variants on MRI, which occurred in 81 patients (35.0%). Eight patients (2.9%) were preoperatively treated with antibiotics and surgery was postponed secondary to acute or chronic purulent rhinosinusitis; two (0.7%) required functional endoscopic sinus surgery for medically refractory disease before eTSA. Five patients (1.8%) required anterior septoplasty intraoperatively for severe nasal septal deviation. Two patients (0.7%) had inverted papilloma and one patient had esthesioneuroblastoma identified preoperatively during rigid nasal endoscopy. Conclusion: This is one of the larger reviews of patients undergoing eTSA for sellar lesions and the only study that describes how intraoperative management may be altered by preoperative sinonasal evaluation. We found a significant incidence of sinonasal pathology and anatomic variants that altered routine operative planning; therefore, a thorough sinonasal evaluation

  10. Use of sterile compared with tap water in gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, C M; Waites, K; Brookings, E S

    1996-10-01

    Because of the concern for infection risk, use of sterile water has been recommended in the water bottle for endoscopic equipment, although studies evaluating prevalence of contamination of the water bottle with clinical outcomes have not been performed. Over a 12-week period in three endoscopy rooms at a university teaching hospital, the water bottles were filled on a weekly schedule with either sterile (one room) or tap water. The water bottles were sterilized on a weekly basis with an automated endoscope washer. At the end of each week, an aliquot of the remaining water was transferred to a sterile container, and quantitative cultures for aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were performed by use of a 0.01 ml calibrated loop according to standard protocols. Cultures were performed in a blinded fashion without knowledge of the water source. Follow-up was performed on all patients within 2 weeks of the procedure to determine any potential infectious complications. During the study period, 437 procedures were performed (203 endoscopy, 68 colonoscopy, 38 sigmoidoscopy, 128 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography). Of a total of 36 cultures (12 sterile), the results of nine (25%) were positive, including three bottles where sterile water was used. Bacterial isolates included five Flavobacterium sp., four Acinetobacter sp., two Pseudomonas sp., and one Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Colony counts ranged from 900 to more than 10,000 per ml. On follow-up no patient had development of a clinical infection from any of these organisms. Bacterial growth in the water bottle was infrequent, consisted predominantly of nonpathogenic organisms, and was not associated with clinical complications. Our pilot study suggests that the use of tap water as compared with sterile water may be practical as well as provide cost savings.

  11. An innovative ex-vivo porcine upper gastrointestinal model for submucosal tunnelling endoscopic resection (STER)

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Baldwin; Chiu, Philip; Teoh, Anthony; Zheng, Linfu; Chan, Shannon; Lam, Kelvin; Tang, Raymond; Ng, Enders K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Submucosal tunnelling endoscopic resection (STER) is a novel endoscopic technique to remove submucosal tumour (SMT). We propose a novel, low cost simulator for training of techniques for STER. Patients and methods: The model consisted of an ex-planted porcine oesophagus, stomach and duodenum with marbles embedded surgically in the submucosal plane. Two expert endoscopists with experience in submucosal tunnelling and 5 board-certified endoscopists with no experience in submucosal tunnelling were recruited. Participants were asked to perform a diagnostic endoscopy and 2 STER procedures, 1 in the oesophagus and 1 in the stomach. They also answered a structured questionnaire. Factors including operative time, mucosal and muscular injury rate, injection volume and accuracy of endoscopic closure were assessed. Results: The median time for localization of all SMTs was 40.1 seconds for experts and 38.5 seconds for novices (P = 1.000). For esophageal STER, the length of mucosal incisions and tunnelling distances were comparable between the 2 groups. The median volume injected by the novice group was significantly lower than the experts (15 mL vs 42.5 mL (P = 0.05). The median tunnelling time per length was 25.9 seconds/mm for the experts and 40.8 seconds/mm for the novice group (P = 0.38). There was a higher rate of mucosal injury and muscular perforation in the novice group (8 vs 0; P = 0.05). For gastric STER, the length of mucosal incisions and tunnel distances were comparable between the 2 groups. The median tunnelling time per length for the experts was 23.3 seconds/mm and 34.6 seconds/mm for the novice group (P = 0.38). One mucosal injury was incurred by a novice. The rate of dissection in the stomach and the oesophagus was not statistically different (P = 0.620). All participants voted that the model provides a realistic simulation and recommended it for training. Conclusions: STER is an advanced endoscopic

  12. Endoscopic reflectance spectrophotometry and visible light spectroscopy in clinical gastrointestinal studies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Felix W

    2008-06-01

    The use of reflectance spectrophotometry (RS) for mucosal hemodynamic measurement relies on the recognition of changes in indexes of mucosal hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. Endoscopic application in clinical studies has confirmed important observations demonstrated in animal experiments. The vasoconstriction induced by propranolol, vasopressin, glypressin, or somatostatin in the portal hypertensive gastric mucosa and the reduction of gastroduodenal mucosal perfusion by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or smoking, mesenteric venoconstriction associated with systemic hypoxia, and acid-induced duodenal hyperemia are important examples. Prognostic predictions include the development of stress-induced gastric ulcerations in patients with significant reductions in gastric perfusion after thermal or head injury, or the demonstration of delayed gastric or duodenal ulcer healing when the hyperemia at the ulcer margin fails to materialize. In mechanical-ventilator-dependent patients with sepsis, a significantly reduced gastric mucosal RS measurement portends a grave prognosis (mortality >80%). Recent advances in technology resulted in the construction and validation of instruments for visible light spectroscopy. Measurements focused on tissue oxygen saturation demonstrated epinephrine and vessel-ligation-induced vasoconstriction, the absence of ischemia in radiation-induced rectal telangiectasias, and gut ischemia responsive to revascularization treatment. Endoscopic RS and visible light spectroscopy are suitable for assessing the role of blood flow in conditions with a lesser degree of ischemia and for testing the hypothesis that functional dyspepsia and dysmotility syndromes may be due to gut ischemia.

  13. Color calibration of swine gastrointestinal tract images acquired by radial imaging capsule endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou-Yang, Mang; Jeng, Wei-De; Lai, Chien-Cheng; Wu, Hsien-Ming; Lin, Jyh-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The type of illumination systems and color filters used typically generate varying levels of color difference in capsule endoscopes, which influence medical diagnoses. In order to calibrate the color difference caused by the optical system, this study applied a radial imaging capsule endoscope (RICE) to photograph standard color charts, which were then employed to calculate the color gamut of RICE. Color gamut was also measured using a spectrometer in order to get a high-precision color information, and the results obtained using both methods were compared. Subsequently, color-correction methods, namely polynomial transform and conformal mapping, were used to improve the color difference. Before color calibration, the color difference value caused by the influences of optical systems in RICE was 21.45±1.09. Through the proposed polynomial transformation, the color difference could be reduced effectively to 1.53±0.07. Compared to another proposed conformal mapping, the color difference value was substantially reduced to 1.32±0.11, and the color difference is imperceptible for human eye because it is <1.5. Then, real-time color correction was achieved using this algorithm combined with a field-programmable gate array, and the results of the color correction can be viewed from real-time images.

  14. [Possibilities of endoscopic stenting in the treatment of gastrointestinal and biliary system diseases].

    PubMed

    Sarian, I V; Solovĭov, V V

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of endoscopic treatment of patients for stenosis and stricture of the gut organs and biliary ducts, using stents, was analyzed. In 48 patients, suffering tumoral and inflammatory diseases of the gut, biliary ducts and respiratory ways, selfexpanding metal stents, produced by firm Sooho M.I.-Tech. Co, Diagmed (Southern Korea), were introduced to reduce the severity of dysphagia, jaundice and the intestinal passability restoration. This had promoted the passability disorders elimination and the organs wall integrity restoration. In 16.6% of patients the immediate postinterventional period was complicated by occurrence of a short-term pain syndrome. In 6.2% of patients in 5-6 months the additional stenting intervention "stent into the stent" was performed for the stent restenosing. In 7-8 months the recurrent dysphagia have had occurred in 4.2% of patients. Endoscopic treatment of stenosis and stricture of the gut organs and biliary ducts, using self-expanding metal stents, is an effective, safe and secure procedure.

  15. Development of an Autonomous Endoscopically Implantable Submucosal Microdevice Capable of Neurostimulation in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Gastric dysmotility can be a sign of common diseases such as longstanding diabetes mellitus. It is known that the application of high-frequency low-energetic stimulation can help to effectively moderate and alleviate the symptoms of gastric dysmotility. The goal of our research was the development of a miniature, endoscopically implantable device to a submucosal pocket. The implantable device is a fully customized electronics package which was specifically designed for the purpose of experiments in the submucosa. The device was endoscopically inserted into the submucosal pocket of a pig stomach and partially severed pig side in order to adequately simulate a live animal model. The experiment confirmed that the designed device can be implanted into the submucosa and is capable of the measurement of sensor data and the transmission of this data wirelessly in real time to a computer outside of the body. After proving that the device can be implanted submucosally and transmit data, further experiments can now be performed, primarily with an electrogastrography (EGG) instrument and implantable device with tissue stimulation capability. PMID:28717363

  16. Impact of formal training in endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastrointestinal cancer: A systematic review and a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, Miguel A; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Morita, Yoshinori; Aguirre-Valadez, Jonathan; Gomez, Elisa; Moctezuma-Velazquez, Carlos; Estradas-Trujillo, Jose A; Valdovinos, Miguel A; Uscanga, Luis F; Fujita, Rikiya

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the clinical impact of a formal training for the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastrointestinal cancer. METHODS: We searched databases including PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library and Science citation Index updated to August 2014 to include eligible articles. In the Meta-analysis, the main outcome measurements were en bloc resection rate, local recurrence rate (R0) and the incidence of procedure-related complications (perforation, bleeding). RESULTS: En bloc resection was high for both, dissecting stomach tumors with an overall percentage of 93.2% (95%CI: 90.5-95.8) and dissecting colorectal tumors with an overall percentage of 89.4% (95%CI: 85.1-93.7). Although the number of studies reporting R0 resection (the dissected specimen was revealed free of tumor in both vertical and lateral margins) was small, the overall estimates for R0 resection were 81.4% (95%CI: 72-90.8) for stomach and 85.9% (95%CI: 77.5-95.5) for colorectal tumors, respectively. The analysis showed that the percentage of immediate perforation and bleeding were very low; 4.96 (95%CI: 3.6-6.3) and 1.4% (95%CI: 0.8-1.9) for colorectal tumors and 3.1% (95%CI: 2.0-4.1) and 4.8% (95%CI: 2.8-6.7) for stomach tumors, respectively. CONCLUSION: In order to obtain the same rate of success of the analyzed studies it is a necessity to create training centers in the western countries during the “several years” of gastroenterology residence first only to teach EGC diagnose and second only to train endoscopic submucosal dissection. PMID:25901222

  17. Initial radiographic findings of early gastric cancer detected in health check programs and human "dry dock" (multiphasic screening) collective health checks and treated by endoscopic mucosal resection.

    PubMed

    Arai, Junya; Yamada, Hironori; Maruyama, Masakazu

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of detection (detectability), by radiographic examination, of minute gastric cancer that was indicated for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Fifty-five lesions in 55 patients with minute gastric cancer were endoscopically resected between 1992 and 2000 at the Foundation for Detection of Early Gastric Carcinoma. Of these 55 patients, 33 patients underwent indirect (with image intensifier and 100-mm roll film) and/or direct radiographic examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract as the initial screening examination, and subsequent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The remaining 22 patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy as the initial screening examination. As the first step, radiographic (indirect and direct) images were reviewed, and the abnormalities which had eventually led to the detection of the minute early gastric cancer (EGC) were reconfirmed. Then, they were analyzed in terms of the reproducibility of abnormal findings which enabled the detection of such a minute EGC, and in terms of whether they could be treated by EMR. The size, morphology, and location of the radiographically detected lesions were analyzed. Seventeen lesions of EGC were detected in the group in which indirect radiography was initially performed. Of these 17 lesions, some abnormality corresponding to the site of the lesion was pointed out in 7 lesions (2 lesions of type IIa and 5 lesions of type IIc). On the other hand, the remaining 10 lesions (type IIa, 3; type IIc, 5; type IIa + IIc, 1; and type IIb, 1) were detected by endoscopy, which was carried out to confirm the other abnormalities in the indirect radiographic images. Sixteen lesions of EGC were detected in the group in which direct radiography was initially performed. Of these 16 lesions, some abnormality corresponding to the site of the lesion was pointed out in 8 lesions (4 lesions of type IIa and 4 lesions of type IIc). The remaining 8 lesions (3 lesions

  18. Temporal bone computed tomography findings associated with feasibility of endoscopic ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Aziz, Dunia; Kozin, Elliott D; Lin, Brian M; Wong, Kevin; Shah, Parth V; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Landegger, Lukas D; Juliano, Amy F; Cohen, Michael S; Lee, Daniel J

    2017-06-14

    There are no formal radiologic criteria to stratify patients for transcanal (TEES) or transmastoid endoscopic ear surgery for resection of cholesteatoma. We aim to determine 1) whether standard preoperative computed tomography (CT) findings are associated with the need for conversion to a transmastoid approach and 2) the amount of time added for conversion from TEES to transmastoid techniques. Retrospective chart review of consecutive pediatric and adult cases of TEES for primary cholesteatoma from 2013 through 2015 (n=52). TEES cases were defined as endoscope-only procedures that did not require a transmastoid approach (n=33). Conversion cases were defined as procedures that began as TEES however, required conversion to a transmastoid approach due to the inability to complete cholesteatoma removal (n=19). Preoperative CT findings and total operating room (OR) times of TEES and conversion cases were compared. Preoperative CT scan characteristics that were associated with conversion included tegmen erosion (p=0.026), malleus erosion (p<0.001), incus erosion (p=0.009), mastoid opacification (p=0.009), soft tissue opacification extending into the aditus ad antrum (p=0.009) and into antrum (p=0.006). Total OR time for TEES cases was significantly shorter than conversion cases (median 143min versus 217min, p<0.001). Preoperative CT findings, notably extension of soft tissue in the aditus ad antrum, antrum and mastoid, are associated with need for conversion to transmastoid technique to achieve removal of cholesteatoma. Endoscope-only cases were significantly faster than cases that required conversion to a transmastoid approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical gastro-oesophagitis, upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage and gastroscopic findings following Dettol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chan, T Y; Sung, J J; Critchley, J A

    1995-01-01

    1. Dettol liquid (chloroxylenol 4.8%, pine oil, isopropyl alcohol), a household disinfectant, has a corrosive action on the gastrointestinal mucosa when swallowed. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage and gastroscopic findings following Dettol poisoning was studied in 89 patients. 2. Five patients (5.6%) developed minor haematemesis, in the form of coffee-coloured or blood-stained vomitus. One patient had a gastroscopy performed on the day after admission, showing signs of chemical burns in the oesophagus and stomach. Gastroscopy was performed in one other patient on day 11 to rule out oesophageal stricture; the patient was normal. All patients completely recovered. 3. The data from this study suggest that upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage following Dettol poisoning tends to be mild and self-limiting. Gastroscopy, which may increase the risk of aspiration in patients with impaired consciousness, is not required unless other causes of gastrointestinal bleeding are suspected.

  20. Endoscopic techniques and management of foreign body ingestion and food bolus impaction in the upper gastrointestinal tract: a retrospective analysis of 139 cases.

    PubMed

    Katsinelos, Panagiotis; Kountouras, Jannis; Paroutoglou, George; Zavos, Christos; Mimidis, Kostas; Chatzimavroudis, Grigoris

    2006-10-01

    Ingested foreign bodies and food bolus impaction are frequently seen in endoscopic practice. Successful foreign body and food bolus removal may depend on the method used, the choice of device, and the experience level of the endoscopist, although few papers report experience and outcome of tertiary centers. To investigate the effectiveness of our protocol designed for removal of ingested foreign bodies and food boluses. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with a diagnosis of foreign body ingestion and food bolus impaction from 1994 to 2005 identified by computer search. Patients were excluded if medical record was incomplete. The analysis included 171 patients. Foreign bodies and impacted food boluses were found in 77 and 62 patients, respectively. In 32 cases (23%), the foreign bodies passed spontaneously through the gastrointestinal tract. The overall success rate for endoscopic management was obtained in 137 patients (98.6%). Surgical removal of a foreign body was required in only 2 cases (1.4%). According to the type and location of the foreign object and food bolus we used Dormia baskets, retrieval forceps, polypectomy snares, and all sizes of Roth net. No complications relating to the endoscopic procedure were observed; 50 patients (35.2%) had an underlying esophageal disease. Endoscopic removal of upper gastrointestinal tract foreign bodies and food bolus impaction is efficacious and safe. Especially the Roth net is the best device for safe retrieval of food boluses and button disc batteries.

  1. Endoscopic fluorescence of gastrointestinal neoplasia after sensitization with 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) or Photofrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messmann, Helmut; Mlkvy, Peter; Montan, Sune; Wang-Nordman, Ingrid; Nilsson, Annika M.; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Bown, Stephen G.

    1995-03-01

    Fluorescence after photosensitization has the potential to identify lesions not visible on conventional endoscopy. We assessed 12 patients at high risk of or with established GI cancers (u ulcerative colitis, 1 colon polyp, 2 familial polyposis with duodenal polyps, 2 early oesophageal cancers). Fluorescence images (excitation 390 nm) were recorded with endoscopic equipment and additional spot measurements (optical multichannel analyzer). Patients were given 10 - 60 mg/kg ALA orally or 2 mg/kg Photofrin i.v. 60 mg/kg ALA gave high levels of PP IX (proto-porphyrin IX) in all areas, but 10 - 15 mg/kg resulted in selectivity in macroscopically inflamed colon. Photofrin gave oesophageal tumors selectivity at 4 and 48 hours. Photofrin patients subsequently had PDT. Photobleaching was documented in 3. We conclude that these techniques have potential as `optical biopsy tools' and for screening for early neoplastic changes.

  2. Endoscopic findings in the excluded stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Kuga, Rogerio; Safatle-Ribeiro, Adriana V; Faintuch, Joel; Ishida, Robson K; Furuya, Carlos K; Garrido, Arthur B; Cecconello, Ivan; Ishioka, Shinichi; Sakai, Paulo

    2007-10-01

    After gastric bypass surgery performed because of morbid obesity, the excluded stomach can rarely be endoscopically examined. With the advent of a new apparatus and technique, possible mucosal changes can be routinely accessed and monitored, thus preventing potential benign and malignant complications. Prospective observational study in a homogeneous population with nonspecific symptoms. Outpatient clinic of a large public academic hospital. Forty consecutive patients (mean +/- SD age, 44.5 +/- 10.0 y ears; 85.0% women) were seen at a mean +/- SD of 77.3 +/- 19.4 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Elective double-balloon enteroscopy of the excluded stomach was performed. Rate of successful intubation, endoscopic findings, and complications. The excluded stomach was reached in 35 of 40 patients (87.5%). Mean +/- SD time to enter the organ was 24.9 +/- 14.3 minutes (range, 5-75 minutes). Endoscopic findings were normal in 9 patients (25.7%), whereas in 26 (74.3%), various types of gastritis (erythematous, erosive, hemorrhagic erosive, and atrophic) were identified, primarily in the gastric body and antrum. No cancer was documented in the present series. Tolerance was good, and no complications were recorded during or after the intervention. The double-balloon method is useful and practical for access to the excluded stomach. Although cancer was not noted, most of the studied population had gastritis, including moderate and severe forms. Surveillance of the excluded stomach is recommended after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery performed because of morbid obesity.

  3. The ureterovesical junction in children: sonographic findings after surgical or endoscopic treatment.

    PubMed

    Rypens, F; Avni, E F; Bank, W O; Schulman, C C; Struyven, J

    1992-04-01

    We retrospectively analyzed pre- and postoperative sonographic and medical records of 335 children who had surgical or endoscopic treatment at the ureterovesical junction, in order to determine normal and atypical sonographic appearances. Normal sonographic findings after ureteral reimplantation include thickening of the posterior bladder wall, pseudodiverticular sacculations, bladder asymmetry, and transitory hydroureteronephrosis. Short-term or persistent (lasting more than 1 month) hydroureteronephrosis, urinoma, hematoma, bladder lithiasis, and diverticula were abnormal findings, occurring in 17% of the patients. After partial ureteronephrectomies, visualization of the residual ureter on sonograms was not possible in cases without complications; in one patient, reflux of fluid dilated the residual ureter and made the ureter visible on sonograms. After endoscopic incisions, the masslike appearance of a collapsed ureterocele was observed. Submucosally injected Teflon always appeared as a curvilinear hyperechoic area with an acoustic shadow. Marked acute or persistent hydroureteronephrosis or ectopic intracavitary Teflon particles were observed in 2% of patients. Granuloma formation was considered likely in 5% of the patients when the area of injected Teflon material was longer than 12 mm on sonograms. Submucosally injected collagen appeared less echogenic than Teflon and showed no acoustic shadowing. The various normal sonographic appearances after treatment must be known in order to distinguish them from significant abnormalities. In patients with anatomic anomalies, such as short-term or persistent hydroureteronephrosis, urinoma, hematoma, and lithiasis, complementary uroradiologic examinations may be necessary to clarify the diagnosis.

  4. Subject-friendly entire gastrointestinal screening with a single capsule endoscope by magnetic navigation and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hidetoshi; Katsuki, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Ever since capsule endoscopy (CE) was introduced into clinical practice, we gastroenterologists have been dreaming of using this less invasive modality to explore the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract. To realize this dream, we have developed a magnetic navigation system which includes real-time internet streaming of endoscopic video and some useful gadgets (position detection by means of magnetic impedance (MI) sensors and a modified capsule that is "weightless" in water). The design of the weightless capsule made it possible with 0.5T (Tesla) extracorporeal magnets to control the capsule beyond 20cm. A pair of MI sensors on the body surface could detect subtle magnetic flux generated by an intra-capsular magnet in the GI tract by utilizing the space diversity effect which eliminated the interference of terrestrial magnetism. Subjects underwent CE, during which they were free from confinement in the hospital, except for 1 hour when the capsule was manipulated in the stomach and colon. This study had a completion rate of 97.5%. The high completion rate indicates that our system (single capsule endoscopy-SCE) with further improvements could become a viable modality for screening of the entire GI tract.

  5. Histopathological standards for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal inflammation in endoscopic biopsy samples from the dog and cat: a report from the World Small Animal Veterinary Association Gastrointestinal Standardization Group.

    PubMed

    Day, M J; Bilzer, T; Mansell, J; Wilcock, B; Hall, E J; Jergens, A; Minami, T; Willard, M; Washabau, R

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of inflammatory change in endoscopic biopsy samples of the gastrointestinal mucosa is an increasingly important component in the diagnosis and management of canine and feline gastrointestinal disease. Interpretation has hitherto been limited by the lack of standard criteria that define morphological and inflammatory features, and the absence of such standardization has made it difficult, if not impossible, to compare results of retrospective or prospective studies. The World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Gastrointestinal Standardization Group was established, in part, to develop endoscopic and microscopical standards in small animal gastroenterology. This monograph presents a standardized pictorial and textual template of the major histopathological changes that occur in inflammatory disease of the canine and feline gastric body, gastric antrum, duodenum and colon. Additionally, a series of standard histopathological reporting forms is proposed, to encourage evaluation of biopsy samples in a systematic fashion. The Standardization Group believes that the international acceptance of these standard templates will advance the study of gastrointestinal disease in individual small companion animals as well as investigations that compare populations of animals.

  6. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF L-MENTHOL IN THE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC PROCEDURE

    PubMed Central

    KIKUCHI, HITOMI; HIKICHI, TAKUTO; TAKAGI, TADAYUKI; SUZUKI, REI; WATANABE, KO; NAKAMURA, JUN; SUGIMOTO, MITSURU; WARAGAI, YUICHI; KONNO, NAOKI; ASAMA, HIROYUKI; TAKASUMI, MIKA; WATANABE, HIROSHI; OBARA, KATSUTOSHI; OHIRA, HIROMASA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: Peppermint oil, which suppresses gastric peristalsis during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), is effective for determining the margin of a gastric tumor. This study was conducted to evaluate the utility of an L-menthol preparation for suppressing gastric peristalsis and for diagnosing gastric tumors. Methods: The study examined 124 patients who underwent EGD between January and April 2012. After 20 mL of 0.8% L-menthol was sprayed directly onto the mucosal surface of the gastric antrum, the degree of peristalsis suppression in the antrum was evaluated. The effectiveness of L-menthol for identifying new gastric tumors and determining tumor margins was also evaluated. Results: Gastric peristalsis was suppressed in 88.5% (69/78) of patients, with complete suppression of peristalsis achieved in 78.2%. L-menthol exerted a higher peristalsis-suppressive effect in patients with endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy (93.3%, 56/60) than in patients without atrophy (72.2%, 13/18) (p = .014). L-menthol application caused the detection of new gastric tumors in 1.6% (2/124) of patients and clarification of the margin of three lesions (in 3 patients) identified as having an unclear margin before L-menthol application. Conclusion: These results suggest that L-menthol is effective for suppressing gastric peristalsis during EGD and suggest that it is useful for identifying gastric tumors and for determining tumor margins. PMID:26632191

  7. Endoscopic detection of early malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract using laser-induced fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukowski, Uwe; Ebert, Bernd; Ortner, Marianne; Zumbusch, Katharina; Mueller, Karsten; Fleige, Barbara; Lochs, Herbert; Rinneberg, Herbert H.

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence images were recorded simultaneously with white light images to detect dyspasia or early malignancies during regular endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, after topical administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid. Biopsies were taken at locations where fluorescence intensity were high compared with the mean fluorescence intensity of the image. Prompt and delayed fluorescence spectra of biopsies were subsequently recorded ex vivo, and normalized fluorescence intensities of Protoporphyrin IX derived from these spectra were compared with routine histology. In contrast to routine endoscopy, one early carcinoma and one signet-ring carcinoma were found in the stomach, and malignancies in a duodenal polyp. In addition, intestinal metaplasia could be visualized in the stomach of two patients, which had not been detected in biopsies taken prior to fluorescence endoscopy.

  8. Rotational assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with reconstructive gastrointestinal surgical anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Zouhairi, Majed El; Watson, James B; Desai, Svetang V; Swartz, David K; Castillo-Roth, Alejandra; Haque, Mahfuzul; Jowell, Paul S; Branch, Malcolm S; Burbridge, Rebecca A

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the success rates of performing therapy utilizing a rotational assisted enteroscopy device in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in surgically altered anatomy patients. METHODS: Between June 1, 2009 and November 8, 2012, we performed 42 ERCPs with the use of rotational enteroscopy for patients with altered anatomy (39 with gastric bypass Roux-en-Y, 2 with Billroth II gastrectomy, and 1 with hepaticojejunostomy associated with liver transplant). The indications for ERCP were: choledocholithiasis: 13 of 42 (30.9%), biliary obstruction suggested on imaging: 20 of 42 (47.6%), suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: 4 of 42 (9.5%), abnormal liver enzymes: 1 of 42 (2.4%), ascending cholangitis: 2 of 42 (4.8%), and bile leak: 2 of 42 (4.8%). All procedures were completed with the Olympus SIF-Q180 enteroscope and the Endo-Ease Discovery SB overtube produced by Spirus Medical. RESULTS: Successful visualization of the major ampulla was accomplished in 32 of 42 procedures (76.2%). Cannulation of the bile duct was successful in 26 of 32 procedures reaching the major ampulla (81.3%). Successful therapeutic intervention was completed in 24 of 26 procedures in which the bile duct was cannulated (92.3%). The overall intention to treat success rate was 64.3%. In terms of cannulation success, the intention to treat success rate was 61.5%. Ten out of forty two patients (23.8%) required admission to the hospital after procedure for abdominal pain and nausea, and 3 of those 10 patients (7.1%) had a diagnosis of post-ERCP pancreatitis. The average hospital stay was 3 d. CONCLUSION: It is reasonable to consider an attempt at rotational assisted ERCP prior to a surgical intervention to alleviate biliary complications in patients with altered surgical anatomy. PMID:25789100

  9. The Use of Standard Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Ultrasound to Assess Cardiac Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Sentissi, Kinza; Sawhney, Mandeep S; Pleskow, Douglas; Sepe, Paul; Mella, Jose M; Kwittken, Benjamin; Ketwaroo, Gyanprakash; Subramaniam, Balachundhar

    2016-09-01

    In this prospective observational study, conducted at an academic medical center, we evaluated the feasibility of performing a basic transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) technology to determine what cardiac structures could be assessed. This may be potentially beneficial during hemodynamic emergencies in the endoscopy suite resulting from hypovolemia, depressed ventricular function, aortic dissection, pericardial effusions, or aortic stenosis. Of the 20 patients enrolled, 18 underwent EUS with a linear echoendoscope for standard clinical indications followed by a cardiac assessment performed under the guidance of a TEE-certified cardiac anesthesiologist. Eight of the 20 standard views of cardiovascular structures per the 1999 American Society of Echocardiography/Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists guidelines for TEE could be obtained using the linear echoendoscope. The following cardiac valvular structures were visualized: aortic valve (100%), mitral valve (100%), tricuspid valve (33%), and pulmonic valve (11%). Left ventricular and right ventricular systolic function could be assessed in 89% and 67% of patients, respectively. Other structures such as the ascending and descending aorta, pericardium, left atrial appendage, and interatrial septum were identified in 100% of patients. Doppler-dependent functions could not be assessed. Given that the EUS images were not directly compared with TEE in these patients, we cannot comment definitively on the quality of these assessments and further studies would need to be performed to make a formal comparison. Based on this study, EUS technology can consistently assess the mitral valve, aortic valve, aorta, pericardium, and left ventricular function. Given its limitations, EUS technology, although not a substitute for formal echocardiography, could be a helpful early diagnostic tool in an emergency setting.

  10. Various Upper Endoscopic Findings of Acute Esophageal Thermal Injury Induced by Diverse Food: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu Mi; Kim, Ji Young; Song, Hyun Jung; Koo, Hoon Sup; Song, Kyung Ho; Kim, Yong Seok; Huh, Kyu Chan

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal thermal injury caused by food has been reported to occur mostly after drinking hot liquid food, and is known to produce alternating white and red linear mucosal bands. In addition, thermal injury caused by ingestion of hot solid foods is documented to be a cause of esophageal ulcers or pseudomembranes. From January 2006 to August 2012, five patients with suspected esophageal thermal injury underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy. A "candy-cane" appearance was observed in one case, pseudomembrane was observed in two cases, an esophageal ulcer was observed in one case, and a friable and edematous mucosa was noted in one case. We believe that the endoscopic findings of esophageal thermal injury depend on the following factors: causative materials, amount of food consumed, exposure period, and time to endoscopy after the incident. Therefore, physicians who encounter patients with suspected esophageal thermal injury should carefully take the patient's history considering these factors. PMID:25325006

  11. Various upper endoscopic findings of acute esophageal thermal injury induced by diverse food: a case series.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Mi; Kim, Sun Moon; Kim, Ji Young; Song, Hyun Jung; Koo, Hoon Sup; Song, Kyung Ho; Kim, Yong Seok; Huh, Kyu Chan

    2014-09-01

    Esophageal thermal injury caused by food has been reported to occur mostly after drinking hot liquid food, and is known to produce alternating white and red linear mucosal bands. In addition, thermal injury caused by ingestion of hot solid foods is documented to be a cause of esophageal ulcers or pseudomembranes. From January 2006 to August 2012, five patients with suspected esophageal thermal injury underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy. A "candy-cane" appearance was observed in one case, pseudomembrane was observed in two cases, an esophageal ulcer was observed in one case, and a friable and edematous mucosa was noted in one case. We believe that the endoscopic findings of esophageal thermal injury depend on the following factors: causative materials, amount of food consumed, exposure period, and time to endoscopy after the incident. Therefore, physicians who encounter patients with suspected esophageal thermal injury should carefully take the patient's history considering these factors.

  12. Mobile gastrointestinal and endoscopic surgery in rural Ecuador: 20 years' experience of Cinterandes.

    PubMed

    Shalabi, H T; Price, M D; Shalabi, S T; Rodas, E B; Vicuña, A L; Guzhñay, B; Price, R R; Rodas, E

    2017-06-21

    Five billion people worldwide do not have timely access to surgical care. Cinterandes is one of the only mobile surgical units in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the methodology that Cinterandes uses to deliver mobile surgery. Founding and core staff were interviewed, four missions were participated in, and internal documents and records were analysed between 1 May and 1 July 2014. Cinterandes performed 7641 operations over the last 20 years (60% gastrointestinal/laparoscopic), travelling 300,000 km to remote areas of Ecuador. The mobile surgery programme was initiated by a local Ecuadorian surgeon in 1980. Funding was acquired from businesses, private hospitals, and individuals, to fund a low-cost surgical truck, simple equipment, and running costs. The mobile surgical unit is a 24-foot modified Isuzu truck containing a preparation room with general equipment storage and running water, together with an operating room including the operating table, anaesthetic and surgical equipment. Mission structure includes: patient identification by a network of local medical personnel in remote regions; pre-operative assessment at 1 week by core team via teleconsultations; four-day surgical missions; post-operative recovery in tents or a local clinic; post-operative follow-up care by local personnel and remote teleconsultations. The permanent core team includes seven members; lead surgeon, lead anaesthetist, operating-room technician, medical coordinator, driver, general coordinator, and receptionist. Additional support members include seven regular surgeons, residents, medical students, and volunteers. Surgery is a very effective way to gain the trust of the community, due to immediate results. Trust opens doors to other programmes (e.g. family medicine). Surgery can be incorporated with all other aspects of health care, which can in turn be incorporated with all other aspects of human development, education, food production and nutrition, housing

  13. Adverse events related to gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in pediatric patients under anesthesia care and a predictive risk model (AEGEP Study).

    PubMed

    Ariza, F; Montilla-Coral, D; Franco, O; González, L F; Lozano, L C; Torres, A M; Jordán, J; Blanco, L F; Suárez, L; Cruz, G; Cepeda, M

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies have analyzed perioperative factors related to adverse events (AEs) in children who require gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures (GEP) in settings where deep sedation is the preferred anesthetic technique over general anesthesia (GA) but not for the opposite case. We reviewed our anesthesia institutional database, seeking children less than 12 years who underwent GEP over a 5-year period. A logistic regression was used to determine significant associations between preoperative conditions, characteristics of the procedure, airway management, anesthetic approaches and the presence of serious and non-serious AEs. GA was preferred over deep sedation [77.8% vs. 22.2% in 2178 GEP under anesthesia care (n=1742)]. We found 96 AEs reported in 77 patients, including hypoxemia (1.82%), bronchospasm (1.14%) and laryngospasm (0.91%) as the most frequent. There were 2 cases of severe bradycardia related to laryngospasm/hypoxemia and a case of aspiration resulting in unplanned hospitalization, but there were no cases of intra- or postoperative deaths. Final predictive model for perioperative AEs included age <1 year, upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) <1 week prior to the procedure and low weight for the age (LWA) as independent risk factors and ventilation by facial mask as a protector against these events (p<0.05). AEs are infrequent and severe ones are remote in a setting where AG is preferred over deep sedation. Ventilatory AEs are the most frequent and depend on biometrical and comorbid conditions more than anesthetic drugs chosen. Age <1 year, history of URTI in the week prior to the procedure and LWA work as independent risk factors for AEs in these patients. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Nurse-administered propofol sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures: first Nordic results from implementation of a structured training program.

    PubMed

    Slagelse, Charlotte; Vilmann, Peter; Hornslet, Pernille; Hammering, Anne; Mantoni, Teit

    2011-12-01

    Proper training to improve safety of NAPS (nurse-administered propofol sedation) is essential. To communicate our experience with a training program of NAPS. In 2007, a training program was introduced for endoscopists and endoscopy nurses in collaboration with the Department of Anaesthesiology. During a 2.5-year period, eight nurses were trained. Propofol was given as monotherapy. The training program for nurses consisted of a 6-week course including theoretical and practical training whereas the training program for endoscopists consisted of 2.5 h of theory. Patients were selected based on strict criteria including patients in ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) group I-III. 2527 patients undergoing 2.656 gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures were included. The patients were ASA group I, II and III in 34.7%, 56% and 9,3%, respectively. Median dose of propofol was 300 mg. No mortality was noted. 119 of 2527 patients developed short lasting hypoxia (4.7%); 61 (2.4%) needed suction; 22 (0.9%) required bag-mask ventilation and 8 (0.3%) procedures had to be discontinued. In 11 patients (0.4%), anesthetic assistance was called due to short lasting desaturation. 34 patients (1.3%) experienced a change in blood pressure greater than 30%. NAPS provided by properly trained nurses according to the present protocol is safe and only associated with a minor risk (short lasting hypoxia 4.7%). National or international structured training programs are at present few or non-existing. The present training program has documented its value and is suggested as the basis for the current development of guidelines.

  15. Pre-endoscopic erythromycin administration in upper gastrointestinal bleeding: an updated meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Rubayat; Nguyen, Douglas L.; Sohail, Umair; Almashhrawi, Ashraf A.; Ashraf, Imran; Puli, Srinivas R.; Bechtold, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Background In patients suffering from upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), adequate visualization is essential during endoscopy. Prior to endoscopy, erythromycin administration has been shown to enhance visualization in these patients; however, guidelines have not fully adopted this practice. Thus, we performed a comprehensive, up-to-date meta-analysis on the issue of erythromycin administration in this patient population. Methods After searching multiple databases (November 2015), randomized controlled trials on adult subjects comparing administration of erythromycin before endoscopy in UGIB patients to no erythromycin or placebo were included. Pooled estimates of adequacy of gastric mucosa visualized, need for second endoscopy, duration of procedure, length of hospital stay, units of blood transfused, and need for emergent surgery using odds ratio (OR) or mean difference (MD) were calculated. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. Results Eight studies (n=598) were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Erythromycin administration showed statistically significant improvement in adequate gastric mucosa visualization (OR 4.14; 95% CI: 2.01-8.53, P<0.01) while reduced the need for a second-look endoscopy (OR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.34-0.77, P<0.01) and length of hospital stay (MD -1.75; 95% CI: -2.43 to -1.06, P<0.01). Duration of procedure (P=0.2), units of blood transfused (P=0.08), and need for emergent surgery (P=0.88) showed no significant differences. Conclusion Pre-endoscopic erythromycin administration in UGIB patients significantly improves gastric mucosa visualization while reducing length of hospital stay and the need for second-look endoscopy. PMID:27366031

  16. Changes in endoscopic findings of gastritis after cure of H. pylori infection: multicenter prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Kato, Mototsugu; Terao, Shuichi; Adachi, Kyoichi; Nakajima, Shigemi; Ando, Takashi; Yoshida, Norimasa; Uedo, Noriya; Murakami, Kazunari; Ohara, Shuichi; Ito, Masanori; Uemura, Naomi; Shimbo, Takuro; Watanabe, Hidenobu; Kato, Takahiro; Ida, Kazunori

    2013-05-01

    Successful eradication of H. pylori changes pathological findings of gastritis dramatically. However, change of endoscopic mucosal findings is not fully understood. To clarify the short-term changes of endoscopic mucosal findings after cure of H. pylori infection, a multicenter prospective trial was conducted. One hundred and forty-seven patients with H. pylori infection from 12 institutions were enrolled into this prospective cohort trial. Nineteen endoscopic findings using high-resolution white light electronic endoscopy were assessed before and 2-4 months after eradication treatment of H. pylori. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by pathology of three stomach sites using hematoxylin-eosin stain or H. pylori-specific immunostaining. Endoscopic features of the successful eradication group and the failed eradication group were compared. The change of severity of endoscopic features before and after H. pylori eradication were compared between successful eradication and failed eradication. One hundred and twenty-six patients were analyzed. Eradication rate was 81% (102/126). Non-transparency of gastric juice, diffuse redness of fundic mucosa, enlarged fold, spotty redness of fundic mucosa, flat erosion of stomach, and hemoglobin index of fundic mucosa were significantly different between the successful eradication group and the failed eradication group. Gastric flat erosion was of higher frequency in the successful eradication group. When eradication was successful, spotty redness of fundic gland improved significantly. Assessment of endoscopic findings of spotty redness after eradication treatment is useful in the diagnosis of H. pylori eradication. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  17. Association of clinical signs with endoscopic findings in horses with nasopharyngeal cicatrix syndrome: 118 cases (2003-2008).

    PubMed

    Norman, Tracy E; Chaffin, M Keith; Bisset, Wesley T; Thompson, James A

    2012-03-15

    To characterize the associations between clinical signs of nasopharyngeal cicatrix syndrome (NCS) and endoscopic findings in horses. Retrospective, case-control study. 239 horses (118 case horses and 121 control horses). Medical records of horses that had an endoscopic evaluation of the upper airway performed between January 2003 and December 2008 were reviewed. Clinical signs and the appearance and anatomic locations of lesions identified during endoscopic evaluation were reviewed and recorded for each horse. The associations between clinical signs and endoscopic findings were evaluated by the use of a prospective logistic model that used a Bayesian method for inference and was implemented by a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Nasal discharge was associated with acute inflammation of the pharynx and larynx. Exercise intolerance was associated with circumferential pharyngeal lesions. Respiratory noise was associated with chronic scarring of the pharynx, a combination of pharyngeal and laryngeal scarring, and circumferential scarring of the pharynx. Respiratory distress was associated with acute inflammation of all portions of the airway, especially when there was preexisting scarring and narrowing of the airway by ≥ 50%. Cough did not have any significant association with NCS, compared with results in control horses. Associations between the endoscopic appearance of NCS lesions and relevant clinical signs will help practitioners identify horses with NCS and allow them to select appropriate treatment.

  18. [Effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection on endoscopic findings and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux].

    PubMed

    Mesihović, Rusmir; Vucelić, Boris; Bratović, Ismet; Gribajcević, Mehmed; Selak, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) represents an illness which reflects a syndrome caused by returning of acid gastric, alkaline pancreatic and bowels content into the oesophagus, which is in the stomach, because of the protective mechanisms of oesophageal loss. The aim of this study was that this prospective study should explain the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in modification of GORD, respectively whether the Helicobacter pylori infection acts protectively or by deterioration of the disease. According to the settled rules, the inquiry was performed as well as the selection of 97 candidates to undergo research in this study. Helicobacter pylori infection has been proved by immunoassay in all pts in the beginning of this study. Endoscopy has been performed in all pts, the degree of gastroesophageal reflux disease by Sawary-Miller was done. The main group consisted of 50 candidates in whom the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection was done with triple therapy, pantoprazol + amoxycilin + klaritromicin, which was proven by an immunoassay test. Two groups of pts were formed: the main one with eradicated Helicobacter infection, and a controlled one with a Helicobacter positive infection, which was subject to modification of life style. During 12 months, this study consisted of endoscopic evaluations and monthly evaluation of pts daily difficulties. The eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection acts on the improvement of gastroesophageal disease course by improvement of endoscopic findings by Sawary-Miller, and by decreasing daily acid symptoms. The eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastroesophageal reflux disease does it act at the symptoms such as heartburn, weekly acid symptoms and chest pain.

  19. Gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Marek, T A

    2011-11-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding remains one of the most important emergencies in gastroenterology. Despite this, only about 100 abstracts concerning gastrointestinal bleeding (excluding bleeding complicating endoscopic procedures) were presented at this year's Digestive Disease Week (DDW; 7-10 May 2011; Chicago, Illinois, USA), accounting for less than 2% of all presented lectures and posters. It seems that the number of such abstracts has been decreasing over recent years. This may be due in part to the high level of medical care already achieved, especially in the areas of pharmacotherapy and endoscopic treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding. In this review of gastrointestinal bleeding, priority has been given to large epidemiological studies reflecting "real life," and abstracts dealing more or less directly with endoscopic management. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. [Oropharyngeal vocal tract space during singing--comparison of tactile-kinesthetic and auditory perception with objective endoscopic findings].

    PubMed

    Schade, G; Adelmann, W; Müller, F; Mantay, C; Fleischer, S; Leuwer, R; Bubenheim, M; Berger, J; Hess, M

    2003-08-01

    In this study we compared the perceived diameter of the vocal tract's oropharyngeal part with the diameter that was determined endoscopically. 28 singers (13 male, 15 female) were examined with transnasal fiberscopic pharyngoscopy while singing the vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/ in 4 different timbres (normal, opened, covered, dumpled) and 3 different pitches (chest/modal register, subjective comfortable pitch for singing, head/falsetto register). The tactile-kinesthetic and auditive rating of the singers, the auditive rating of a singing teacher and the visual-endoscopic analysis of three laryngologists were compared. The tactile-kinesthetic and auditory self-perception of the singers was quite different from the auditive perception of a singing teacher and visual endoscopic findings of the laryngologists. The singers had the impression that the different singing timbres (normal, opened, covered, dumpled) influence oropharyngeal vocal tract space during singing. They judged the vowel itself and the pitch as having very little influence. Based on his auditory perception, the singing teacher also rated that the timbre plays an important role for the oropharyngeal vocal tract space but he found vowels to be the parameter with the greatest impact. Via visual endoscopic examination we found that, among the three parameters (vowel, timbre, pitch), the different vowels are most influential on the oropharyngeal vocal tract space. Analysis of video sequences revealed that pitch and timbre are less important. Subjective tactile-kinesthetic and auditory perception of the singers differs from auditory perception of the singing teacher as well as from endoscopic findings. The endoscopically determined oropharyngeal vocal tract space during singing the vowels /i/ or /u/ tends to be larger compared to the oropharyngeal vocal tract space while singing the vowel /a/.

  1. Anatomic findings in revision endoscopic sinus surgery: Case series and review of contributory factors

    PubMed Central

    Bewick, Jessica; Egro, Francesco M.; Masterson, Liam; Javer, Amin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is recognized that patients who undergo endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) do not always achieve control of their disease. The causes are multifactorial; variations in surgical practice have been identified as possible factors in refractory disease. Objective: To reflect on the frequent anatomic findings of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) who require revision ESS. Methods: A retrospective review of patients who required revision ESS at a tertiary institution over a 3-year period. Patients for whom maximal medical therapy failed for CRS underwent computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and image-guided surgery. Surgical records of anatomic findings were reviewed and analyzed. Results: Over 3 years, a total of 75 patients underwent revision procedures, 28% of all ESS performed in the unit. The most frequent finding was a residual uncinate process in 64% of the patients (n = 48); other findings included a maxillary antrostomy not based on the natural ostium of the maxillary sinus in 47% (n = 35), an oversized antrostomy in 29% (n = 22), resected middle turbinates in 35% (n = 26), middle meatal stenosis in 15% (n = 11), synechiae in 29% (n = 22), and osteitic bone that required drilling in 13% (n = 10). Conclusion: Surgical technique can give rise to anatomic variations that may prevent adequate mucociliary clearance and medication delivery, which leads to failure in ESS in patients with CRS. This study demonstrated the surgical findings encountered in revision ESS that should be highlighted in the training of Ear, Nose and Throat surgeons to help prevent primary failure and reduce health care costs. PMID:28107148

  2. Long-term results of endoscopic balloon dilatation of lower gastrointestinal tract strictures in Crohn’s disease: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Stienecker, Klaus; Gleichmann, Daniel; Neumayer, Ulrike; Glaser, H Joachim; Tonus, Carolin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine the long-term results of endoscopic treatment in a prospective study conducted over a period of 10 years, 1997 to January 2007. METHODS: A total of 25 patients (20 female and five male: aged 18-75 years), with at least one symptom of stricture not passable with the standard colonoscope and with a confirmed scarred Crohn’s stricture of the lower gastrointestinal tract, were included in the study. The main symptom was abdominal pain. The endoscopic balloon dilatation was performed with an 18 mm balloon under endoscopic and radiological control. RESULTS: Eleven strictures were located in the colon, 13 at the anastomosis after ileocecal resection, three at the Bauhin valve and four in the ileum. Four patients had two strictures and one patient had three strictures. Of the 31 strictures, in 30 was balloon dilatation successful in a single endoscopic session, so that eventually the strictures could be passed easily with the standard colonoscope. In one patient with a long stricture of the ileum involving the Bauhin valve and an additional stricture of the ileum which were 15 cm apart, sufficient dilatation was not possible. This patient therefore required surgery. Improvement of abdominal symptoms was achieved in all cases which had technically successful balloon dilatation, although in one case perforation occurred after dilatation of a recurrent stricture. Available follow-up was in the range of 54-118 mo (mean of 81 mo). The relapse rate over this period was 46%, but 64% of relapsing strictures could be successfully dilated again. Only in four patients was surgery required during this follow-up period. CONCLUSION: We conclude from these initial results that endoscopic balloon dilatation, especially for short strictures in Crohn’s disease, can be performed with reliable success. Perforation is a rare complication. It is our opinion that in the long-term, the relapse rate is probably higher than after surgery, but usually a second endoscopic

  3. Spontaneous Crenosoma vulpis infection in 10 dogs: laboratory, radiographic and endoscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Unterer, S; Deplazes, P; Arnold, P; Flückiger, M; Reusch, C E; Glaus, T M

    2002-04-01

    Crenosoma (C.) vulpis infection was diagnosed in 10 dogs aged between 0.5 and 12 years (median 4 years) during a 4-year period. The predominant clinical sign in all dogs was coughing which lasted from 1 day to > 4 months. Hematological abnormalities included eosinophilia in 5/9 dogs, basophilia in 3/9 dogs, and mild monocytosis in 6/9 dogs. Thoracic radiographs (n = 9) were normal in 1 dog, showed a mild bronchial or interstitial pattern in 4 dogs, and moderate to marked changes (bronchial-interstitial to alveolar) in 4 dogs. Endoscopic findings (n = 9) varied from mild erythematous bronchitis (n = 3) to marked bronchitis with accumulation of large amounts of mucus (n = 2), irregular nodular mucosal surface (n = 2), accumulation of pus (n = 1), and bronchial hemorrhage (n = 1). Adult worms were observed in 2 dogs. Bronchial lavage cytology revealed inflammation with predominance of eosinophils in 7/10 dogs, eosinophils and neutrophils in 2/10 dogs, and neutrophils in 1/10 dogs. C. vulpis larvae were identified in the BAL of 5/10 dogs. Fecal examinations with the Baermann technique was the most sensitive method and positive in all 10 dogs. C. vulpis infection has to be considered in the differential diagnosis in dogs of all ages presenting with acute or chronic cough.

  4. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue sampling of small subepithelial tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract with a 22-gauge core biopsy needle

    PubMed Central

    Schlag, Christoph; Menzel, Christoph; Götzberger, Manuela; Nennstiel, Simon; Klare, Peter; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schmid, Roland M.; Weirich, Gregor; von Delius, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims The optimal approach to small subepithelial tumors (SETs) of the upper gastrointestinal tract remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) for less invasive tissue sampling of small SETs of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Patients and methods In this prospective observational study patients with small ( ≤ 3 cm) SETs of the upper gastrointestinal tract were eligible and underwent EUS-FNB with a 22-gauge core biopsy needle. The main outcome measure was the diagnostic yield. The number of obtained core biopsies was also assessed. Results Twenty patients were included. The mean SET size was 16 mm (range 10 – 27 mm). EUS-FNB was technically feasible in all cases and no complications were observed. The diagnostic yield was 75 %. Core biopsy specimens were obtained in only 25 % of cases. Conclusion EUS-FNB with a 22-gauge core biopsy needle of small SETs can achieve a definite diagnosis in the majority of cases. However, because core samples cannot regularly be obtained, EUS-FNB seems not to be convincingly superior to standard EUS-FNA in this setting PMID:28299351

  5. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue sampling of small subepithelial tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract with a 22-gauge core biopsy needle.

    PubMed

    Schlag, Christoph; Menzel, Christoph; Götzberger, Manuela; Nennstiel, Simon; Klare, Peter; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schmid, Roland M; Weirich, Gregor; von Delius, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Background and study aims The optimal approach to small subepithelial tumors (SETs) of the upper gastrointestinal tract remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) for less invasive tissue sampling of small SETs of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Patients and methods In this prospective observational study patients with small ( ≤ 3 cm) SETs of the upper gastrointestinal tract were eligible and underwent EUS-FNB with a 22-gauge core biopsy needle. The main outcome measure was the diagnostic yield. The number of obtained core biopsies was also assessed. Results Twenty patients were included. The mean SET size was 16 mm (range 10 - 27 mm). EUS-FNB was technically feasible in all cases and no complications were observed. The diagnostic yield was 75 %. Core biopsy specimens were obtained in only 25 % of cases. Conclusion EUS-FNB with a 22-gauge core biopsy needle of small SETs can achieve a definite diagnosis in the majority of cases. However, because core samples cannot regularly be obtained, EUS-FNB seems not to be convincingly superior to standard EUS-FNA in this setting.

  6. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Endoscope Reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy is effective and safe for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disease. However, issues regarding endoscope-transmitted infections are emerging. Many countries have established and continuously revise guidelines for endoscope reprocessing in order to prevent infections. While there are common processes used in endoscope reprocessing, differences exist among these guidelines. It is important that the reprocessing of gastrointestinal endoscopes be carried out in accordance with the recommendations for each step of the process. PMID:26473117

  7. Endoscopic Complete Remission of Crohn Disease After Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Therapy: CT Enterographic Findings and Their Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cherry; Park, Seong Ho; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Park, Sang Hyoung; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the CT enterographic (CTE) findings after endoscopic complete remission (CR) of Crohn disease in patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) and the clinical implications of these findings. The records of 27 patients with Crohn disease (14 men, 13 women; mean age, 28.4 ± 8.6 [SD] years) who achieved endoscopic (ileocolonoscopic) CR after anti-TNF-α therapy and underwent CTE both before therapy and at endoscopic CR were identified. Two readers independently assessed the frequencies and severities of mural and perienteric CTE abnormalities, generally regarded as active inflammatory findings, in the terminal ileum and colorectum in the endoscopic CR state and compared them with the corresponding findings before anti-TNF-α therapy. The association between the presence of CTE abnormalities in the face of endoscopic CR and patient outcome during subsequent follow-up was investigated. CTE abnormalities were present in the face of endoscopic CR in 11-18 (26-42%) of 43 bowel sections (18 terminal ileum, 25 colorectum), the most frequent being mural hyperenhancement (21-40%) followed by mural thickening (12-16%). Both findings were mild and unaccompanied by other findings. The frequency and severity of mural and perienteric CTE abnormalities were statistically significantly reduced at endoscopic CR compared with the pre-treatment state. Patients with (n = 10) and without (n = 17) CTE abnormalities at endoscopic CR did not significantly differ with respect to Crohn disease aggravation during subsequent follow-up periods averaging 27.4 and 28.5 months (0/10 versus 2/17, p = 0.516). More than one-fourth of bowel sections in endoscopic CR after anti-TNF-α therapy had residual CTE abnormalities, predominantly mild mural thickening or hyperenhancement. These findings may not have any clinical significance.

  8. Acute malignancy-related hydrocephalus uncovered after endoscopic manipulation: possible influence of gastrointestinal endoscopy on concurrent intracranial lesion.

    PubMed

    Zenda, Takahiro; Masunaga, Takaharu; Hayase, Hideo

    2006-04-01

    A 78-year-old man underwent biliary stenting by means of endoscopy for obstructive jaundice due to common bile duct cancer. Despite uneventful operation, the patient remained comatose and began to hiccup and vomit with marked gastrointestinal gas retention. Neuroimaging studies disclosed obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a midbrain metastasis, probably from coexisting lung cancer. Ventricular peritoneal shunting restored consciousness and eliminated other gastrointestinal symptoms. This case suggests that gastrointestinal endoscopy may affect concurrent intracranial lesions, resulting in acute distress, presumably by transmission of pressure from the abdomen to a distant body compartment such as the intracranial space, or by endoscopy-related hypoventilation.

  9. Gastrointestinal cancers in inflammatory bowel disease: An update with emphasis on imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Barral, Matthias; Dohan, Anthony; Allez, Matthieu; Boudiaf, Mourad; Camus, Marine; Laurent, Valérie; Hoeffel, Christine; Soyer, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancers depending on the specific type of IBD, the extent of the disease and its location. Patients with IBD and extensive colonic involvement are at increased risk of colorectal cancer whereas patients with Crohn disease have an increased risk for small-bowel and anal carcinoma. These cancers preferentially develop on sites of longstanding inflammation. In regards to colon cancer, several key pathogenic events are involved, including chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability and hypermethylation. The risk for colon cancer in IBD patients correlates with longer disease duration, presence of sclerosing cholangitis, pancolitis, family history of colorectal cancer, early onset of the disease and severity of bowel inflammation. Identification of increased colorectal cancer risk in individual IBD patients has led to formal surveillance guidelines. Conversely, although an increased risk for other types of cancer has been well identified, no specific formal screening recommendations exist. Consequently, the role of the radiologist is crucial to alert the referring gastroenterologist when a patient with IBD presents with unusual imaging findings at either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This review provides an update on demographics, molecular, clinical and histopathological features of gastrointestinal cancers in IBD patients including colorectal carcinoma, small bowel adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors and anal carcinoma, along with a special emphasis on the current role of CT and MR imaging.

  10. First-line endoscopic treatment with OTSC in patients with high-risk non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: preliminary experience in 40 cases.

    PubMed

    Manno, Mauro; Mangiafico, Santi; Caruso, Angelo; Barbera, Carmelo; Bertani, Helga; Mirante, Vincenzo G; Pigò, Flavia; Amardeep, Khanna; Conigliaro, Rita

    2016-05-01

    The over-the-scope clip (OTSC; Ovesco, Tübingen, Germany) is a novel endoscopic clipping device designed for tissue approximation. The device has been used in the closure of fistulas and perforations. We hereby report a series of patients with high-risk non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) lesions in whom OTSCs were used as first-line endoscopic treatment. We prospectively collected and retrospectively analysed data over a period of 12 months from October 2013 to November 2014 from all consecutive patients who underwent emergency endoscopy for acute severe high-risk NVUGIB and were treated with OTSC as primary first-line therapy. We included forty consecutive patients with mean age 69 years (range 25-94 years). All patients were treated with the non-traumatic version of the OTSC system (23 with the 11 mm version and 17 with the 12 mm version). Indications for OTSC treatment included gastric ulcer with large vessel (Forrest IIa) (n = 8, 20 %), duodenal ulcer (Forrest Ib) (n = 7, 18 %), duodenal ulcer with large vessel (Forrest IIa) (n = 6, 15 %), Dieulafoy's lesion (n = 6, 15 %) and other secondary indications (n = 13, 32 %). Technical success and primary haemostasis were achieved in all patients (100 %). No re-bleeding, need for surgical or radiological embolization treatment or other complications were observed during the follow-up period of 30 days. We conclude OTSC placement as a first-line endoscopic treatment seems to be effective, safe and easy to perform and should be considered in patients with high-risk NVUGIB lesions.

  11. [The First Successful Application of a Mask with a Left Side Slit for Passing the Trunk of an Endoscope In Situ and Enabling Respiratory Support during Sedation for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy].

    PubMed

    Baba, Tomoko; Maekawa, Kengo; Tokunaga, Yukiko; Oyoshi, Takafumi; Kakihara, Satoshi; Matsushita, Ikuo

    2015-10-01

    Sedation in patients during gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy involves the risk of respiratory depression. Ventilation support with a conventional face mask without removing an endoscope is impossible. We devised a ventilation mask with a slit and membranous valve on the left side wall and the circular upper end enabling to pass the trunk of an endoscope in situ, based on an idea published in the Japanese Journal of Anesthesia "Masui" 2013; 62: 105-8. An 82-year-old woman was scheduled for GI endoscopy for severe abdominal pain. An endoscope was inserted into her GI tract through the mouth after midazolam 1.5 mg i.v. Soon after the examination began, she developed respiratory depression, and her SpO2 gradually decreased to 84%, despite oxygen insufflated around the nose and mouth. The new slit mask was applied without removing the endoscope, and respiratory support was started by bag-valve method. Her SpO2 recovered and remained above 95% thereafter as the endoscopic examination continued. The side slit mask offers important advantages allowing its application in situ after an endoscope being inserted and by enabling positive pressure ventilation without interrupting the endoscopic procedure.

  12. Endoscopic findings using narrow-band imaging to distinguish between basal cell hyperplasia and carcinoma of the pharynx.

    PubMed

    Yagishita, Atsushi; Fujii, Satoshi; Yano, Tomonori; Kaneko, Kazuhiro

    2014-07-01

    Narrow-band imaging (NBI) has been reported to be useful for detecting superficial-type esophageal or head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and in the present study we have used NBI to detect non-carcinomatous lesions, such as basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) accompanied by microvascular irregularities; these non-carcinomatous lesions were pathologically discriminated from squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx. The aim of the present study was to clarify the endoscopic characteristics of BCH that contribute to the discrimination of superficial-type head and neck SCC (HNSCC). We examined the key endoscopic findings capable of distinguishing BCH from SCC using 26 BCH and 37 superficial-type SCC of the pharynx that had been pathologically diagnosed at our institution between January 2008 and July 2012. The clinicopathological factors were also compared. The size of the BCH lesions was significantly smaller (P < 0.001), and their intervascular transparency was more clearly observed (P < 0.001). Intra-epithelial papillary capillary loop (IPCL) shapes were less variable and monotonous (P < 0.001), and the distribution of the IPCL was more regular with an interval comparable to that of SCC (P < 0.001), although no significant differences in the sharpness of the lesion border, dilatation of IPCL and tortuosity of the IPCL were seen between the BCH and SCC lesions. This study revealed that BCH was an independent entity in terms of not only pathological findings, but also endoscopic findings observed using NBI, such as the regular distribution of IPCL and the preserved intervascular transparency. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. Impact of periodic endoscopy on incidentally diagnosed gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors: findings in surgically resected and confirmed lesions.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Hyuk; Kim, Eun Hye; Jung, Da Hyun; Chung, Hyunsoo; Park, Jun Chul; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Hoguen; Lee, Sang Kil

    2015-09-01

    Although gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are usually identified by endoscopic examinations, the diagnostic value of endoscopy has not been fully evaluated. We assessed the diagnostic performance of endoscopy for gastric GISTs according to lesion characteristics. Furthermore, the benefits of periodic endoscopy prior to diagnosis of gastric GISTs were evaluated. We reviewed patients who underwent surgery for gastric GISTs at Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea, between January 2008 and April 2014. In addition, we administered a questionnaire to determine the usage of periodic endoscopic inspection and the period from the penultimate endoscopy to the diagnosis. Of 174 included patients, 109 (62.4 %) showed intraluminally growing GISTs and 65 (37.4 %) showed extraluminally growing GISTs. The proportions of lesions that were initially diagnosed via endoscopy were 99.1 % for intraluminally growing GISTs and 49.2 % for extraluminally growing GISTs (P < 0.001). In patients with intraluminally growing GISTs, patients who had undergone endoscopy within 3 years prior to the diagnosis showed smaller tumor sizes (P = 0.015) and fewer tumors with ulceration (7.1 vs. 28.4 %, P = 0.021). The proportion of GISTs with a high mitotic index did not differ according to the usage of periodic endoscopy (P = 0.639). In contrast, lesion characteristics of the extraluminally growing GISTs did not differ according to whether an endoscopy was performed within 3 years prior to the diagnosis. Endoscopic examinations had a limited role in the diagnosis of extraluminally growing GISTs. However, periodic endoscopy was associated with relatively earlier detection of growth in intraluminal gastric GISTs.

  14. Management and follow-up of gallbladder polyps : Joint guidelines between the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR), European Association for Endoscopic Surgery and other Interventional Techniques (EAES), International Society of Digestive Surgery - European Federation (EFISDS) and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE).

    PubMed

    Wiles, Rebecca; Thoeni, Ruedi F; Barbu, Sorin Traian; Vashist, Yogesh K; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Dewhurst, Catherine; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Lahaye, Max; Soltes, Marek; Perinel, Julie; Roberts, Stuart Ashley

    2017-09-01

    The management of incidentally detected gallbladder polyps on radiological examinations is contentious. The incidental radiological finding of a gallbladder polyp can therefore be problematic for the radiologist and the clinician who referred the patient for the radiological examination. To address this a joint guideline was created by the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR), European Association for Endoscopic Surgery and other Interventional Techniques (EAES), International Society of Digestive Surgery - European Federation (EFISDS) and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). A targeted literature search was performed and consensus guidelines were created using a series of Delphi questionnaires and a seven-point Likert scale. A total of three Delphi rounds were performed. Consensus regarding which patients should have cholecystectomy, which patients should have ultrasound follow-up and the nature and duration of that follow-up was established. The full recommendations as well as a summary algorithm are provided. These expert consensus recommendations can be used as guidance when a gallbladder polyp is encountered in clinical practice. • Management of gallbladder polyps is contentious • Cholecystectomy is recommended for gallbladder polyps >10 mm • Management of polyps <10 mm depends on patient and polyp characteristics • Further research is required to determine optimal management of gallbladder polyps.

  15. Ensuring the Safety of Your Endoscopic Procedure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the design of endoscopes to ensure patient safety. Quality Assurance and Training Any facility in which gastrointestinal endoscopy is performed must have an effective quality assurance program in place to ensure that endoscopes ...

  16. Fabrication of a Micro-Fluid Gathering Tool for the Gastrointestinal Juice Sampling Function of a Versatile Capsular Endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Kyo-in; Lee, Sangmin; Cho, Dong-il Dan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a micro-fluid gathering tool for a versatile capsular endoscope that employs a solid chemical propellant, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). The proposed tool consists of a micro-heater, an AIBN matrix, a Venturi tube, a reservoir, an inlet, and an outlet. The micro-heater heats the AIBN matrix to be decomposed into by-products and nitrogen gas. This nitrogen gas generates negative pressure passing through the Venturi tube. The generated negative pressure inhales a target fluid from around the inlet into the reservoir. All the parts are designed to be embedded inside a cylindrical shape with a diameter of 17 mm and a height of 2.3 mm in order to integrate it into a versatile developmental capsular endoscope without any scaledown. Two sets of the proposed tools are fabricated and tested: one is made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and the other is made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). In performance comparisons, the PDMS gathering tool can withstand a stronger pulling force, and the PMMA gathering tool requires a less negative pressure for inhaling the same target fluid. Due to the instant and full activation of the thin AIBN matrix, both types of gathering tool show analogous performance in the sample gathering evaluation. The gathered volume is approximately 1.57 μL using approximately 25.4 μL of AIBN compound. PMID:22163997

  17. State of the art in advanced endoscopic imaging for the detection and evaluation of dysplasia and early cancer of the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Sergio; Thillainayagam, Andrew V

    2014-01-01

    Ideally, endoscopists should be able to detect, characterize, and confirm the nature of a lesion at the bedside, minimizing uncertainties and targeting biopsies and resections only where necessary. However, under conventional white-light inspection – at present, the sole established technique available to most of humanity – premalignant conditions and early cancers can frequently escape detection. In recent years, a range of innovative techniques have entered the endoscopic arena due to their ability to enhance the contrast of diseased tissue regions beyond what is inherently possible with standard white-light endoscopy equipment. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art advanced endoscopic imaging techniques available for clinical use that are impacting the way precancerous and neoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are currently detected and characterized at endoscopy. The basic instrumentation and the physics behind each method, followed by the most influential clinical experience, are described. High-definition endoscopy, with or without optical magnification, has contributed to higher detection rates compared with white-light endoscopy alone and has now replaced ordinary equipment in daily practice. Contrast-enhancement techniques, whether dye-based or computed, have been combined with white-light endoscopy to further improve its accuracy, but histology is still required to clarify the diagnosis. Optical microscopy techniques such as confocal laser endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy enable in vivo histology during endoscopy; however, although of invaluable assistance for tissue characterization, they have not yet made transition between research and clinical use. It is still unknown which approach or combination of techniques offers the best potential. The optimal method will entail the ability to survey wide areas of tissue in concert with the ability to obtain the degree of detailed information provided by

  18. State of the art in advanced endoscopic imaging for the detection and evaluation of dysplasia and early cancer of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Coda, Sergio; Thillainayagam, Andrew V

    2014-01-01

    Ideally, endoscopists should be able to detect, characterize, and confirm the nature of a lesion at the bedside, minimizing uncertainties and targeting biopsies and resections only where necessary. However, under conventional white-light inspection - at present, the sole established technique available to most of humanity - premalignant conditions and early cancers can frequently escape detection. In recent years, a range of innovative techniques have entered the endoscopic arena due to their ability to enhance the contrast of diseased tissue regions beyond what is inherently possible with standard white-light endoscopy equipment. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art advanced endoscopic imaging techniques available for clinical use that are impacting the way precancerous and neoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are currently detected and characterized at endoscopy. The basic instrumentation and the physics behind each method, followed by the most influential clinical experience, are described. High-definition endoscopy, with or without optical magnification, has contributed to higher detection rates compared with white-light endoscopy alone and has now replaced ordinary equipment in daily practice. Contrast-enhancement techniques, whether dye-based or computed, have been combined with white-light endoscopy to further improve its accuracy, but histology is still required to clarify the diagnosis. Optical microscopy techniques such as confocal laser endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy enable in vivo histology during endoscopy; however, although of invaluable assistance for tissue characterization, they have not yet made transition between research and clinical use. It is still unknown which approach or combination of techniques offers the best potential. The optimal method will entail the ability to survey wide areas of tissue in concert with the ability to obtain the degree of detailed information provided by microscopic

  19. Gastrointestinal endoscopy in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Savas, Nurten

    2014-11-07

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy has a major diagnostic and therapeutic role in most gastrointestinal disorders; however, limited information is available about clinical efficacy and safety in pregnant patients. The major risks of endoscopy during pregnancy include potential harm to the fetus because of hypoxia, premature labor, trauma and teratogenesis. In some cases, endoscopic procedures may be postponed until after delivery. When emergency or urgent indications are present, endoscopic procedures may be considered with some precautions. United States Food and Drug Administration category B drugs may be used in low doses. Endoscopic procedures during pregnancy may include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, enteroscopy of the small bowel or video capsule endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography. All gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in pregnant patients should be performed in hospitals by expert endoscopists and an obstetrician should be informed about all endoscopic procedures. The endoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy may be safe for the fetus and pregnant patient, and may be performed during pregnancy when strong indications are present. Colonoscopy for pregnant patients may be considered for strong indications during the second trimester. Although therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be considered during pregnancy, this procedure should be performed only for strong indications and attempts should be made to minimize radiation exposure.

  20. Gastrointestinal endoscopy in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Savas, Nurten

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy has a major diagnostic and therapeutic role in most gastrointestinal disorders; however, limited information is available about clinical efficacy and safety in pregnant patients. The major risks of endoscopy during pregnancy include potential harm to the fetus because of hypoxia, premature labor, trauma and teratogenesis. In some cases, endoscopic procedures may be postponed until after delivery. When emergency or urgent indications are present, endoscopic procedures may be considered with some precautions. United States Food and Drug Administration category B drugs may be used in low doses. Endoscopic procedures during pregnancy may include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, enteroscopy of the small bowel or video capsule endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography. All gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in pregnant patients should be performed in hospitals by expert endoscopists and an obstetrician should be informed about all endoscopic procedures. The endoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy may be safe for the fetus and pregnant patient, and may be performed during pregnancy when strong indications are present. Colonoscopy for pregnant patients may be considered for strong indications during the second trimester. Although therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be considered during pregnancy, this procedure should be performed only for strong indications and attempts should be made to minimize radiation exposure. PMID:25386072

  1. Gastroduodenal Complications After Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Endoscopic Findings and Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Chon, Young Eun; Seong, Jinsil; Kim, Beom Kyung; Cha, Jihye; Kim, Seung Up; Park, Jun Yong; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Shin, Sung Kwan; Kim, Do Young

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) is useful in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but little is known about radiation-induced gastroduodenal complications following therapy. To determine risk factors, we investigated the prevalence and patterns of gastroduodenal complications following CCRT using endoscopy. Methods and Materials: Enrolled in the study were 123 patients treated with CCRT for unresectable HCC between January 1998 and December 2005. Radiation-induced gastroduodenal complications were defined as radiation gastritis/duodenitis, radiation gastric/duodenal ulcer, or other gastroduodenal toxicity associated with radiation, based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE 3.0). Serious gastroduodenal complications were defined as events occurring within 12 months from completion of CCRT, those requiring prompt therapeutic intervention, or symptoms equivalent to Grade 3 or 4 radiation-related gastroduodenal toxicity, including nausea or vomiting, based on CTCAE 3.0. Results: A month after completion of CCRT, 65 (52.8%) patients displayed endoscopic evidence of radiation-induced gastroduodenal complications. Radiation gastric and duodenal ulcers were found in 32 (26.0%) and 20 (16.3%) patients, respectively; radiation gastritis and duodenitis were found in 50 (40.7%) and 42 (34.1%) patients, respectively. Radiation-related bleeding was observed in 13 patients (10.6%). Serious gastroduodenal complications occurred in 18 patients (14.6%) and were significantly more frequent in patients with liver cirrhosis than in those without cirrhosis (p = 0.043). There were no radiation-related deaths. Conclusions: Endoscopically detectable radiation-induced gastroduodenal complications were common in HCC following CCRT. Although serious complications were uncommon, the frequency was higher in patients with liver cirrhosis; thus, these patients should be closely monitored when receiving CCRT.

  2. Outcome Measures of an Intracanal, Endoscopic Transforaminal Decompression Technique: Initial Findings from the MIS Prospective Registry

    PubMed Central

    Sclafani, Joseph A.; Raiszadeh, Kamshad; Laich, Dan; Shen, Jian; Bennett, Matthew; Blok, Robert; Liang, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive transforaminal endoscopic procedures can achieve spinal decompression through either direct or indirect techniques. Subtle variations in trajectory of the surgical corridor can dictate access to the pathologic tissue. Two general strategies exist: the intradiscal “inside-out” technique and the extradiscal, intracanal (IC) technique. The IC technique utilizes a more lateral transforaminal approach than the intradiscal technique, which allows for a more direct decompression of the spinal canal. Objective This study is an assessment of IC patient outcome data obtained through analysis of a previously validated MIS Prospective Registry. Methods Post-hoc analysis was performed on the MIS Prospective Registry database containing 1032 patients. A subgroup of patients treated with the endoscopic IC technique was identified. Patient outcome measures after treatment of symptomatic disk herniation and neuroforaminal stenosis were evaluated. Results A total of 86 IC patients were analyzed. Overall, there was significant improvement in employment and walking tolerance as soon as 6 weeks post-op as well as significant one year VAS and ODI score improvement. Subanalysis of IC patients with two distinct primary diagnoses was performed. Group IC-1 (disc herniation) showed improvement in ODI and VAS back and leg outcomes at 1 year post-op. Group IC-2 (foraminal stenosis) showed VAS back and leg score improvement at one year post-op but did not demonstrate significant improvement in overall ODI outcome at any time point. The one year re-operation rate was 2% (1/40) for group IC-1 and 28% (5/18) for group IC-2. Conclusions The initial results of the MIS Registry IC subgroup show a significant clinical improvement when the technique is employed to treat patients with lumbar disc herniation. The treatment of foraminal stenosis can lead to improved short-term clinical outcome but is associated with a high re-operation rate at 1 year post-op. PMID

  3. Outcome Measures of an Intracanal, Endoscopic Transforaminal Decompression Technique: Initial Findings from the MIS Prospective Registry.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Joseph A; Raiszadeh, Kamshad; Laich, Dan; Shen, Jian; Bennett, Matthew; Blok, Robert; Liang, Kevin; Kim, Choll W

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal endoscopic procedures can achieve spinal decompression through either direct or indirect techniques. Subtle variations in trajectory of the surgical corridor can dictate access to the pathologic tissue. Two general strategies exist: the intradiscal "inside-out" technique and the extradiscal, intracanal (IC) technique. The IC technique utilizes a more lateral transforaminal approach than the intradiscal technique, which allows for a more direct decompression of the spinal canal. This study is an assessment of IC patient outcome data obtained through analysis of a previously validated MIS Prospective Registry. Post-hoc analysis was performed on the MIS Prospective Registry database containing 1032 patients. A subgroup of patients treated with the endoscopic IC technique was identified. Patient outcome measures after treatment of symptomatic disk herniation and neuroforaminal stenosis were evaluated. A total of 86 IC patients were analyzed. Overall, there was significant improvement in employment and walking tolerance as soon as 6 weeks post-op as well as significant one year VAS and ODI score improvement. Subanalysis of IC patients with two distinct primary diagnoses was performed. Group IC-1 (disc herniation) showed improvement in ODI and VAS back and leg outcomes at 1 year post-op. Group IC-2 (foraminal stenosis) showed VAS back and leg score improvement at one year post-op but did not demonstrate significant improvement in overall ODI outcome at any time point. The one year re-operation rate was 2% (1/40) for group IC-1 and 28% (5/18) for group IC-2. The initial results of the MIS Registry IC subgroup show a significant clinical improvement when the technique is employed to treat patients with lumbar disc herniation. The treatment of foraminal stenosis can lead to improved short-term clinical outcome but is associated with a high re-operation rate at 1 year post-op.

  4. Endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection of upper gastrointestinal submucosal tumors: A comparative study of hook knife vs hybrid knife

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie-Qiong; Tang, Xiao-Wei; Ren, Yu-Tang; Wei, Zheng-Jie; Huang, Si-Lin; Gao, Qiao-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Jian-Feng; Gong, Wei; Jiang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare the efficacy and safety of a hook knife (HO) with a hybrid knife (HK) during endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection (ESTD) procedure. METHODS Between August 2012 and December 2015, the ESTD procedure was performed for 83 upper GI submucosal lesions, which originated from the muscularis propria layer identified by upper endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography. Of these, 34 lesions were treated by a HO, whereas 49 lesions were treated by a HK. Data regarding age, gender, presenting symptoms, tumor location and size, procedure time, complications, en bloc resection rate and others were analyzed and compared between the two groups. RESULTS There were no significant differences in the age, gender, presenting symptoms and tumor location between the two groups. ESTD was successfully completed in all the patients, and no case was converted to laparoscopy. The mean procedure time was significantly shorter in the HK group than in the HO group (41.3 ± 20.3 min vs 57.2 ± 28.0 min, P = 0.004). The mean frequency of device exchange was 1.4 ± 0.6 in the HK group and significantly less than 3.3 ± 0.6 in the HO group (P < 0.001). The differences in tumor size and histopathological diagnoses were not significant between the two groups (P = 0.813, P = 0.363, respectively). Both groups had an equal en bloc resection rate and complete resection rate. Additionally, the complication rate was similar between the two groups (P = 0.901). During the follow-up, no recurrence occurred in either group. CONCLUSION We demonstrate for the first time that HO and HK do not differ in efficacy or safety, but HK reduces the frequency of device exchange and procedure time. PMID:28348490

  5. Rapid on-site evaluation of endoscopic ultrasound core biopsy specimens has excellent specificity and positive predictive value for gastrointestinal lesions.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Kumar; Dalal, Sharvari; Nayar, Ritu; Keswani, Rajesh N; Keefer, Laurie; Komanduri, Srinadh

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a safe and effective way to sample lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. Rapid on-site specimen evaluation (ROSE) improves the accuracy of EUS-FNA. While data suggests that EUS with fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) is effective, it remains unclear if ROSE is predictive of a final diagnosis when obtaining core specimens. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of ROSE in achieving a final diagnosis for EUS-FNB core specimens. We evaluated 60 consecutive patients referred for EUS guided sampling of lesions within or adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract. All patients underwent EUS-FNB to evaluate the additive value of ROSE to the diagnostic accuracy of specimens obtained using a core biopsy needle. EUS-FNA was also performed in a majority of cases. EUS-FNB was feasible in all 60 cases; on-site specimen adequacy and final diagnostic accuracy was 58 % [95 % confidence intervals (CI) 45.1-71.2] and 83 % (95 % CI 71.9-91.5), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value of ROSE for core biopsies were 65, 100, 100, and 39 %, respectively. On-site adequacy and diagnostic accuracy for EUS-FNA was 38 % (95 % CI 22.2-53.5) and 63 % (95 % CI 50.1-75.8), respectively. There were no significant complications. EUS-FNB is safe, feasible, and effective. ROSE of the core biopsy provides excellent PPV; however, an inadequate ROSE appears to be of limited value. Further prospective studies are needed to assess the optimal handling and onsite processing of core specimens to determine whether ROSE is beneficial for EUS-FNB.

  6. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography can predict a higher malignant potential of gastrointestinal stromal tumors by visualizing large newly formed vessels.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yasunobu; Kato, Jun; Ueda, Kazuki; Nakamura, Yasushi; Abe, Hiroko; Tamura, Takashi; Itonaga, Masahiro; Yoshida, Takeichi; Maeda, Hiroki; Moribata, Kosaku; Niwa, Toru; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ichinose, Masao

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the histologic and clinical implications of detection of intratumoral vessels on contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography (CE-EUS) in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Thirteen patients with a GIST, all of whom were referred for surgery, underwent presurgical CE-EUS. The malignant potential, assessed according to the modified Fletcher risk classification system, and the histologic degree of angiogenesis were compared with the presence or absence of intratumoral vessels on CE-EUS. Of the six tumors with intratumoral vessels observed on CE-EUS, five were intermediate- or high-risk GISTs, and the remaining seven negative cases were categorized as very low risk or low risk. The presence of intratumoral vessels on CE-EUS was significantly correlated with a higher-risk classification (p = 0.005). On histologic examination, all GISTs having visualized vessels incorporated vessels of more than 500 μm in diameter. The large intratumoral vessels of the five intermediate- or high-risk GISTs lacked elastic fibers, suggesting that they were neovascular in nature. These higher-risk tumors were also found, by immunohistochemical analysis, to have high expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Intratumoral vessels observed in GISTs on CE-EUS are correlated with a higher degree of angiogenesis, resulting in higher malignant potential. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Learning, techniques, and complications of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Technical Guideline.

    PubMed

    Polkowski, M; Larghi, A; Weynand, B; Boustière, C; Giovannini, M; Pujol, B; Dumonceau, J-M

    2012-02-01

    This article is the second of a two-part publication that expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) about endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling, including EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and EUS-guided Trucut biopsy. The first part (the Clinical Guideline) focused on the results obtained with EUS-guided sampling, and the role of this technique in patient management, and made recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use. The current Technical Guideline discusses issues related to learning, techniques, and complications of EUS-guided sampling, and to processing of specimens. Technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., rapid on-site cytopathological evaluation, needle diameter, microcore isolation for histopathological examination, and adequate number of needle passes) are discussed and recommendations are made for various settings, including solid and cystic pancreatic lesions, submucosal tumors, and lymph nodes. The target readership for the Clinical Guideline mostly includes gastroenterologists, oncologists, internists, and surgeons while the Technical Guideline should be most useful to endoscopists who perform EUS-guided sampling. A two-page executive summary of evidence statements and recommendations is provided. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Endoscopic laser dacryocystorhinostomy. An unusual post-operative finding: re-opening of the nasolacrimal duct.

    PubMed

    Arullendran, P; Robson, A K; Bearn, M

    2001-12-01

    Endoscopic laser dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is a recognized technique for the surgical treatment of epiphora. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction is surgically bypassed by creating a passage from the lacrimal sac to the nasal cavity (rhinostomy). Some patients have undergone endonasal laser-assisted DCR, and were found to have an obstructed rhinostomy at follow-up. However, they reported a subjective improvement in their symptoms. Five such patients, at six months follow-up, were found to have a non-functioning rhinostomy with fluorescein dye emerging from under the inferior turbinate. These five patients along with four controls had post-operative macrodacryocystograms (MDCG) to delineate the anatomical passage by which tears were entering the nasal cavity. In the control group, clear passage of contrast into the middle meatus was demonstrated in three of the four subjects. In the study group, passage of dye to the inferior meatus, via the nasolacrimal duct was demonstrated in four of the five subjects. It is well recognized that a proportion of patients suffering from epiphora will have a natural resolution of their symptoms. Our results demonstrate that the resolution of epiphora in some operated patients was due to a re-opening of the nasolacrimal duct, and not because of a patent rhinostomy.

  9. [Endoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Rushfeldt, Christian; Pham, Khanh Do-Cong; Aabakken, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Endoscopic surgery of the stomach/gastrointestinal tract was developed in the 1990s in Japan as a minimally invasive method of removing early-stage tumours, using a gastro-/coloscope instead of open or laparoscopic surgery. Its advantages are obvious, in that the patient is spared more major surgery, the hospital saves on resources as well as admission to a ward, and society is spared the costs of days of sickness absence. Endoscopic submucosal dissection is considered the most difficult technique, but it allows for the accurate dissection of large tumours. In 1999, Japanese surgeon Takuji Gotoda and his team were the first to perform these types of dissections of early cancers in the rectum using a diathermic needle and a flexible scope.

  10. Diagnostic imaging and endoscopic finding in dogs and cats with gastric tumors: a review.

    PubMed

    Terragni, R; Vignoli, M; van Bree, H J; Gaschen, L; Saunders, J H

    2014-12-01

    Medical imaging is an essential part of the diagnostic workup of many gastrointestinal disorders. This paper reviews imaging and endoscopy of gastric tumors in dogs and cats and the techniques used. The appearance of the normal as well as the various aspects of gastric tumors are described for these different modalities. Plain radiography is widely available but has limited diagnostic value. Contrast radiography has higher sensitivity but is laborious and time-consuming. Ultrasonography (if an adequate acoustic window is available), endosonography and endoscopy are the most appropriate modalities for diagnosing gastric tumors. They are especially useful when obtaining samples for cytologic or histopathologic examination, because the imaging modalities do not always differentiate between inflammatory or infectious conditions and neoplastic disorders. Hydro-helical CT was found helpful for evaluating the location and local invasiveness of the lesion. Ultrasonography and endoscopy are useful modalities for taking adequate biopsies.

  11. A fibreoptic endoscopic study of upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 240 cases.

    PubMed

    Jaka, Hyasinta; Koy, Mheta; Liwa, Anthony; Kabangila, Rodrick; Mirambo, Mariam; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Mkongo, Eliasa; McHembe, Mabula D; Chalya, Phillipo L

    2012-07-03

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is recognized as a common and potentially life-threatening abdominal emergency that needs a prompt assessment and aggressive emergency treatment. A retrospective study was undertaken at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania between March 2010 and September 2011 to describe our own experiences with fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy in the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our setting and compare our results with those from other centers in the world. A total of 240 patients representing 18.7% of all patients (i.e. 1292) who had fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy during the study period were studied. Males outnumbered female by a ratio of 2.1:1. Their median age was 37 years and most of patients (60.0%) were aged 40 years and below. The vast majority of the patients (80.4%) presented with haematemesis alone followed by malaena alone in 9.2% of cases. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alcohol and smoking prior to the onset of bleeding was recorded in 7.9%, 51.7% and 38.3% of cases respectively. Previous history of peptic ulcer disease was reported in 22(9.2%) patients. Nine (3.8%) patients were HIV positive. The source of bleeding was accurately identified in 97.7% of patients. Diagnostic accuracy was greater within the first 24 h of the bleeding onset, and in the presence of haematemesis. Oesophageal varices were the most frequent cause of upper GI bleeding (51.3%) followed by peptic ulcers in 25.0% of cases. The majority of patients (60.8%) were treated conservatively. Endoscopic and surgical treatments were performed in 30.8% and 5.8% of cases respectively. 140 (58.3%) patients received blood transfusion. The median length of hospitalization was 8 days and it was significantly longer in patients who underwent surgical treatment and those with higher Rockall scores (P < 0.001). Rebleeding was reported in 3.3% of the patients. The overall mortality rate of 11.7% was significantly

  12. [Gastrointestinal bleeding, NSAIDs, aspirin and anticoagulants].

    PubMed

    Lanas, Ángel

    2014-09-01

    The studies presented at the recent American Congress of Gastroenterology in the field of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (associated or not to NSAIDs or ASA use) have not been numerous but interesting. The key findings are: a) rabeprazole, the only PPI that had few studies in this field, is effective in the prevention of gastric ulcers; b) famotidine could also be effective in the prevention of complications by AAS; c) the new competitive inhibitors of the acid potassium pump are effective (as much as PPIs) on the recurrence of peptic ulcers by ASA; d) early endoscop (<8 h) in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding seems to offer no better results than those made in the first 24 h; e) endoscopic therapy in Forrest 1a ulcers does not obliterate the bleeding artery in 30% of cases and is the cause of bleeding recurrence; f) alternative therapies with glue or clotting products are being increasingly used in endoscopic therapy of gastrointestinal bleeding; g) liberal administration of blood in the GI bleeding is associated with poor prognosis; h) lesions of the small intestine are frequent cause of gastrointestinal bleeding when upper endoscopy shows no positive stigmata; and i) capsule endoscopy studies have high performance in gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin, if performed early in the first two days after the beginning of the bleeding episode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Specific Radiological Findings of Traumatic Gastrointestinal Tract Injuries in Patients With Blunt Chest and Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Kokabi, Nima; Harmouche, Elie; Xing, Minzhi; Shuaib, Waqas; Mittal, Pardeep K; Wilson, Kenneth; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Nicolaou, Savvas; Khosa, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    Gastrointestinal hollow viscus injury after blunt chest and abdominal trauma is uncommon and complicates 0.6%-1.2% of all cases of trauma. Early recognition of such injuries significantly decreases morbidity and mortality. Since physical examination is not accurate in detecting such injuries, contrast-enhanced computed tomography has been the mainstay for diagnosis in many emergency departments. This pictorial essay aims to review the incidence, mechanisms, and signs of gastrointestinal hollow viscus injuries in the setting of blunt chest and abdominal trauma.

  14. Animal feasibility study of an innovated splash-needle for endoscopic submucosal dissection in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Sugita, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    The high frequency of complications accompanying endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and its complex processes suggest that the process requires improvement. The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of an innovated splash-needle for ESD. An animal feasibility study with a living pig was conducted. Six resections per portion (esophagus and upper, middle, and lower thirds of the stomach) in a total of 24 resections were carried out by using an original splash-needle or an innovated splash-needle. Major innovations were a thicker part in the middle of the knife and a metal plate on the tip of the sheath to obtain more coagulation ability. Injection solution in the submucosal layer was also changed due to possible influence on the outcomes. Main outcome measurements were entire procedure time, cutting speed, and frequency of bleeding during ESD. All the 24 resections were completed without complications. Among the obtained data, only mean cutting speeds were significantly influenced by location of the simulated lesion, which revealed that ESD at the upper third was significantly quicker than that at the lower third (P = 0.01), and ESD at the esophagus was significantly slower than that at the three parts of the stomach (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the different knives in each variable. The innovated splash-needle will be feasible for human use, although the safety and advantages in clinical settings must be elucidated by proper comparative studies with existing knives in humans. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  15. Two forensic autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a comparison of postmortem computed tomography and autopsy findings.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hasegawa, Iwao; Hoshino, Norio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-05-01

    In this report, we describe two autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (Case 1: gastric ulcer, Case 2: aortoduodenal fistula). Postmortem computed tomography (CT) images from both cases revealed pooling of gastric fluid, which contained high attenuation areas, although these images also mirrored the different sources of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Fluid collection was observed in the small intestine for both cases, although the high attenuation areas were only remarkable in Case 2. The autopsy in Case 1 revealed a peptic ulcer, with small vessels exposed on the surface of the ulcer. Melena was also observed throughout the intestine, although clotting was only observed inside the stomach. The autopsy in Case 2 revealed diffuse massive clotting from the stomach to the upper portion of the ileum, which was due to a primary aortoduodenal fistula. Given our autopsy findings, the extent of the high attenuation areas in the digestive tract during postmortem CT scanning may be correlated with the speed of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage before death. Carefully evaluating the radiodensity of the gastrointestinal contents during postmortem CT scanning may indicate the primary site of the hemorrhage before the autopsy, thereby facilitating the accurate identification of the cause of death during forensic autopsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound hemostasis techniques.

    PubMed

    Artifon, Everson L A; Aparicio, Dayse P S; Otoch, Jose P; Carvalho, Paulo B; Marson, Fernando P; Fernandes, Kaie; Tchekmedyian, Asadur J

    2014-04-01

    Since its development, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has evolved from a simple diagnostic technique to an important therapeutic tool for interventional endoscopy. EUS analysis provides real-time imaging of most major thoracic and abdominal vessels, and the possibility to use needle puncture with a curved linear array echoendoscope as a vascular intervention. In this review, we describe the endoscopic ultrasound approach to vascular therapy outside of the gastrointestinal wall.

  17. The impact of endoscopic ultrasound findings on clinical decision making in Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia or early esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bulsiewicz, W J; Dellon, E S; Rogers, A J; Pasricha, S; Madanick, R D; Grimm, I S; Shaheen, N J

    2014-07-01

    The clinical utility of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for staging patients with Barrett's esophagus and high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or intramucosal carcinoma (IMC) prior to endoscopic therapy is unclear. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with HGD or IMC referred to an American medical center for endoscopic treatment between 2004 and 2010. All patients had pretreatment staging by EUS. We examined the frequency that EUS findings consistent with advanced disease (tumor invasion into the submucosa, lymph node involvement, or regional metastasis) led to a change in management. The analysis was stratified by nodularity and pre-EUS histology. We identified one hundred thirty-five patients with HGD (n = 106, 79%) or IMC (n = 29, 21%) had staging by EUS (79 non-nodular, 56 nodular). Pathologic lymph nodes or metastases were not found by EUS. There were no endosonographic abnormalities noted in any patient with non-nodular mucosa (0/79). Abnormal EUS findings were present in 8/56 patients (14%) with nodular neoplasia (five IMC, three HGD). Endoscopic mucosal resection was performed in 44 patients with a nodule, with 13% (6/44) having invasive cancer. In nodular neoplasia, the EUS and endoscopic mucosal resection were abnormal in 24% (5/21) and 40% (6/15) of those with IMC and 9% (3/35) and 0% (0/29) of those with HGD, respectively. In this study we found that EUS did not alter management in patients with non-nodular HGD or IMC. Because the diagnostic utility of EUS in subjects with non-nodular Barrett's esophagus is low, the value of performing endoscopic mucosal resection in this setting is questionable. For patients with nodular neoplasia, resection of the nodule with histological examination had greater utility than staging by EUS.

  18. [Update on non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Lanas, Ángel

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes the main studies in the field of non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding reported in the last American Congress of Gastroenterology (Digestive Disease Week) in 2013. Some of these studies have provided new knowledge and expertise in areas of uncertainty. In this context and among other findings, it has been reported that the administration of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prior to endoscopy or the early performance of endoscopy-within 6 hours of admission in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) (or colonoscopy within 24 hours in patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding)-does not improve the prognosis of the event. It has also been reported that oral administration of a PPI after endoscopic hemostasis may produce a similar outcome to that of intravenously administered PPI in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). In the field of endoscopic therapy, the use of radiofrequency ablation for antral vascular ectasia is of interest. Regarding UGIB and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), new data confirm the risk of cardiovascular events by stopping treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) after an episode of UGIB, the increased risk of UGIB when associating gastrotoxic drugs, and the need to identify both the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks of each NSAID and coxib when prescribing these agents. Finally, there is evidence that both environmental and genetic factors are involved in individual susceptibility to gastrointestinal bleeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. [Gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Lanas, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    In the Digestive Disease Week in 2015 there have been some new contributions in the field of gastrointestinal bleeding that deserve to be highlighted. Treatment of celecoxib with a proton pump inhibitor is safer than treatment with nonselective NSAID and a proton pump inhibitor in high risk gastrointestinal and cardiovascular patients who mostly also take acetylsalicylic acid. Several studies confirm the need to restart the antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy at an early stage after a gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The need for urgent endoscopy before 6-12 h after the onset of upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode may be beneficial in patients with hemodynamic instability and high risk for comorbidity. It is confirmed that in Western but not in Japanese populations, gastrointestinal bleeding episodes admitted to hospital during weekend days are associated with a worse prognosis associated with delays in the clinical management of the events. The strategy of a restrictive policy on blood transfusions during an upper GI bleeding event has been challenged. Several studies have shown the benefit of identifying the bleeding vessel in non varicose underlying gastric lesions by Doppler ultrasound which allows direct endoscopic therapy in the patient with upper GI bleeding. Finally, it has been reported that lower gastrointestinal bleeding diverticula band ligation or hemoclipping are both safe and have the same long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Duodenal Lipoma as a Rare Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ouwerkerk, Helga M; Raber; Freling, G; Klaase, J M

    2010-12-01

    A 52-year-old female was referred because of melaena. After initital work-up, including gastroduodenoscopy, endosonography and CT scan, a duodenotomy was performed. Definite diagnosis was a duodenal lipoma based on histological findings. Lipomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare. Only 4% occur in the duodenum. The peak incidence is around the 5th and 7th decade of life, with a slight female preponderance. Gastrointestinal lipomas are usually asymptomatic, but can present with mild to severe gastrointestinal bleeding, intussusceptions, abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea. Clinical, endoscopical, surgical, and radiological features are described in this case of duodenal lipoma.

  1. Duodenal Lipoma as a Rare Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Ouwerkerk, Helga M.; Raber; Freling, G.; Klaase, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A 52-year-old female was referred because of melaena. After initital work-up, including gastroduodenoscopy, endosonography and CT scan, a duodenotomy was performed. Definite diagnosis was a duodenal lipoma based on histological findings. Lipomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare. Only 4% occur in the duodenum. The peak incidence is around the 5th and 7th decade of life, with a slight female preponderance. Gastrointestinal lipomas are usually asymptomatic, but can present with mild to severe gastrointestinal bleeding, intussusceptions, abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea. Clinical, endoscopical, surgical, and radiological features are described in this case of duodenal lipoma. PMID:27942311

  2. Descriptive analysis of endoscopic findings in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Cuenllas, B; Díez-Rodríguez, R; Vaquero, L; Pisabarros, C; Aparicio, M; Rodríguez-Martín, L; Muñoz, F; Olcoz, J L; Jorquera, F; Vivas, S

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a family history implies an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC), and may require a different screening strategy. The aim of this study was to evaluate lesions found during colonoscopies of patients that had a family history of CRC. A retrospective study was conducted that included consecutive colonoscopies performed on patients with a family history of CRC at a referral center within the period from April 2000 to January 2012. The colonoscopic findings were analyzed in relation to sex, age, and the presence or absence of symptoms. Data from 3,792 colonoscopies were collected. The mean age of the patients was 53.14 years (SD 12.22), and 57.4% were women. Colonoscopy was normal in 71.7% of the cases, with hyperplastic polyps being detected in 7.1%, and adenomatous polyps in 19.8% (39.4% of them were high risk). There was a 1.5% presence of adenocarcinomas in the subjects. Polyps and CRC were predominant in men (P=.001 and P=.027, respectively) and there was a linear increase with age. Symptomatic patients had a higher CRC detection rate (P<.001), but no differences were observed in relation to polyp diagnosis. Age and male sex increased the risk for presenting with CRC or adenomas in the group of patients with a family history of CRC, and the presence of symptoms was associated with a greater risk for presenting with CRC. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors as an incidental finding in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Mario; Ramirez, Pedro T.; Echeverri, Carolina; Álvarez, Luis Guillermo; Palomino, Maria Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report the clinical presentation and oncologic outcomes of a series of patients who presented with an abdominal or pelvic mass and were diagnosed with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Methods Data were obtained on all patients who presented with an abdominal or pelvic mass between September 2007 and June 2010 and who were ultimately diagnosed with a GIST. The patients' medical records were reviewed. A literature review was also conducted. Results Six patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria. All six patients had a tumor in the intestinal tract arising from the small bowel. The mean tumor size was 12 cm (range, 6 to 22 cm). A complete resection was achieved in five of the six patients. There were no intraoperative complications; one patient had a postoperative complication. Two patients were treated with imatinib after surgery. The mean follow-up time was 32 months (range, 0.3 to 40 months). At the last follow-up, five of the six patients were without any evidence of disease. One patient died of an unrelated hepatic encephalopathy. The incidence in our institution is 3%. Conclusion GISTs are uncommon; however, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with an abdominal or pelvic mass. PMID:22355467

  4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors as an incidental finding in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Mario; Ramirez, Pedro T; Echeverri, Carolina; Alvarez, Luis Guillermo; Palomino, Maria Alejandra; Pareja, Luis René

    2012-01-01

    To report the clinical presentation and oncologic outcomes of a series of patients who presented with an abdominal or pelvic mass and were diagnosed with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Data were obtained on all patients who presented with an abdominal or pelvic mass between September 2007 and June 2010 and who were ultimately diagnosed with a GIST. The patients' medical records were reviewed. A literature review was also conducted. Six patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria. All six patients had a tumor in the intestinal tract arising from the small bowel. The mean tumor size was 12 cm (range, 6 to 22 cm). A complete resection was achieved in five of the six patients. There were no intraoperative complications; one patient had a postoperative complication. Two patients were treated with imatinib after surgery. The mean follow-up time was 32 months (range, 0.3 to 40 months). At the last follow-up, five of the six patients were without any evidence of disease. One patient died of an unrelated hepatic encephalopathy. The incidence in our institution is 3%. GISTs are uncommon; however, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with an abdominal or pelvic mass.

  5. Similarities and differences among eosinophilic esophagitis, proton-pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia, and reflux esophagitis: comparisons of clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological findings in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Dijin; Ishimura, Norihisa; Maruyama, Riruke; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Nagase, Mamiko; Oshima, Naoki; Aimi, Masahito; Okimoto, Eiko; Mikami, Hironobu; Izumi, Daisuke; Okada, Mayumi; Ishihara, Shunji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2017-02-01

    Esophageal eosinophilia is classified as either eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or proton-pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE), depending on the response to PPI treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological findings of EoE and PPI-REE in Japanese patients. In addition, the characteristics of these cases were compared with those of reflux esophagitis (RE) cases. Eleven patients diagnosed with EoE, 16 with PPI-REE, and 39 with RE, who were all consecutively examined from 2005 to 2015 at Shimane University Hospital, were enrolled. Clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological esophageal findings in these groups were retrospectively examined and compared. The differences in the clinical characteristics of EoE and PPI-REE were not remarkable, though patients with EoE and PPI-REE were younger, presented a higher prevalence of allergic comorbidities, and complained of symptoms of dysphagia more frequently than those with RE. The only noteworthy differences between EoE and PPI-REE were more frequent reports of asthma (36.4 vs. 2.6 %) and food allergy (27.3 vs. 0 %) by patients with EoE (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively). Endoscopic findings in patients with EoE and PPI-REE were similar, with the presence of esophageal erosions in a small percentage of PPI-REE cases being the only difference. There were no histopathological differences between EoE and PPI-REE. Comparisons of clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological findings between EoE and PPI-REE showed that these two types have similar characteristics, though EoE patients showed a higher atopic background. Predicting PPI responsiveness in cases with esophageal eosinophilia is difficult and requires further investigation.

  6. Idiopathic non-hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in an infant successfully treated via endoscopic approach

    PubMed Central

    Karnsakul, Wikrom; Cannon, Mary L; Gillespie, Stacey; Vaughan, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Non-peptic, non-hypertrophic pyloric stenosis has rarely been reported in pediatric literature. Endoscopic pyloric balloon dilation has been shown to be a safe procedure in treating gastric outlet obstruction in older children and adults. Partial gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) was diagnosed in an infant by history and confirmed by an upper gastrointestinal series (UGI). Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography scan excluded idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, abdominal tumors, gastrointestinal and hepato-biliary-pancreatic anomalies. Endoscopic findings showed a pinhole-sized pylorus and did not indicate peptic ulcer disease, Helicobacter pylori infection, antral web, or evidence of allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases. Three sessions of a step-wise endoscopic pyloric balloon dilation were conducted under general anesthesia and a fluoroscopy at two week intervals using catheter balloons (Boston Scientific Microvasive®, MA, USA) of increasing diameters. Repeat UGI after the first session revealed normal gastrointestinal transit and no intestinal obstruction. The patient tolerated solid food without any gastrointestinal symptoms since the first session. The endoscope was able to be passed through the pylorus after the last session. Although the etiology of GOO in this infant is unclear (proposed mechanisms are herein discussed), endoscopic pyloric balloon dilation was a safe procedure for treating this young infant with non-peptic, non-hypertrophic pyloric stenosis and should be considered as an initial approach before pyloroplasty in such presentations. PMID:21191516

  7. Mast cells, disease and gastrointestinal cancer: A comprehensive review of recent findings

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Kyle; Kennedy, Lindsey; Meng, Fanyin; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Paul Ehrlich, a German scientist, discovered what is known as the mast cell in the late 1800’s, which has proven to be an important player in the immune system of vertebrates. Mast cells are ubiquitous throughout the tissues of the human body and play numerous roles, both beneficial and destructive. We know they are important in our army of immunity warrior cells, which defend us against viruses, bacteria and parasitic invaders. They are also very well known for the havoc they wreak, causing uncomfortable symptoms due to their release of histamine and other mediators which cause the all too familiar itching, sneezing, urticaria and rhinorrhea of allergic responses. Mast cell activities are diverse and include painful inflammatory reactions in autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. In the gastrointestinal system, mast cells are implicated in diverse actions such as increased gastric acid secretion, polyp formation and uncomfortable conditions such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome. The role of immunology and mast cells in these areas is intriguing but less well understood than their role in allergic responses. Because mast cells have been implicated in both physiologic as well as pathogenic processes, they have been the subjects of avid study. Review of the current literature on mast cell biology reveals that there are many studies of their presence within the tumor microenvironment and evidence, which supports mast cell influence on tumor angiogenesis, tumor invasion, and immune suppression. The studies reviewed in this article concentrate largely on mast cells in human GI malignancies. This review also provides background information regarding mast cells, such as their origination, their location within the body, how they are activated and how they function as mediators. PMID:22943044

  8. Poor agreement between endoscopists and gastrointestinal pathologists for the interpretation of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy findings

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Shajan; Council, Leona; Bang, Ji Young; Neumann, Helmut; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Wilcox, Charles Melbern

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the interpretation of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) findings between endoscopists and gastrointestinal (GI)-pathologists. METHODS: All pCLE procedures were undertaken and the endoscopist rendered assessment. The same pCLE videos were then viewed offline by an expert GI pathologist. Histopathology was considered the gold standard for definitive diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosis of dysplastic/ neoplastic GI lesions and interobserver agreement between endoscopists and experienced gastrointestinal pathologist for pCLE findings were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 66 included patients, 40 (60.6%) had lesions in the esophagus, 7 (10.6%) in the stomach, 15 (22.7%) in the biliary tract, 3 (4.5%) in the ampulla and 1 (1.5%) in the colon. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing dysplastic/neoplastic lesions using pCLE were higher for endoscopists than pathologist at 87.0% vs 69.6%, 80.0% vs 40.0% and 84.8% vs 60.6% (P = 0.0003), respectively. Area under the ROC curve (AUC) was greater for endoscopists than the pathologist (0.83 vs 0.55, P = 0.0001). Overall agreement between endoscopists and pathologist was moderate for all GI lesions (K = 0.43; 95%CI: 0.26-0.61), luminal lesions (K = 0.40; 95%CI: 0.20-0.60) and those of dysplastic/neoplastic pathology (K = 0.55; 95%CI: 0.37-0.72), the agreement was poor for benign (K = 0.13; 95%CI: -0.097-0.36) and pancreaticobiliary lesions (K = 0.19; 95%CI: -0.26-0.63). CONCLUSION: There is a wide discrepancy in the interpretation of pCLE findings between endoscopists and pathologist, particularly for benign and malignant pancreaticobiliary lesions. Further studies are needed to identify the cause of this poor agreement. PMID:25548499

  9. Endoscopic full-thickness resection: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection are powerful tools for treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, those techniques are restricted to superficial layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is an evolving technique, which is just about to enter clinical routine. It is not only a powerful tool for diagnostic tissue acquisition but also has the potential to spare surgical therapy in selected patients. This review will give an overview about current EFTR techniques and devices. PMID:26309354

  10. Clinical manifestations and endoscopic findings of amebic colitis in a United States-Mexico border city: a case series.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Rhonda; Cooper, Chad J; Ramirez-Vega, Ruben; Huerta-Alardin, Ana; Boman, Darius; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-12-14

    Invasive amebiasis is not frequently seen in the United States. It is associated with considerable morbidity in patients residing in or traveling to endemic areas. We report a case series of patients with amebic colitis in a United States-Mexico border city to alert physicians to the varied clinical manifestations. Nine patients were diagnosed with amebic colitis. Mean age was 56 (38-83), 6 were males, and all were Hispanic. Common symptoms were diarrhea (56 %), hematochezia (33 %) and abdominal bloating (11 %). The diagnosis of amebic colitis was established in the following ways: 8 patients by colonoscopy with biopsy, 1 by surgery for colonic obstruction. The diagnosis of amebic colitis was confirmed in 8 patients (89 %) by amebic trophozoites present in histopathologic sections. One patient was diagnosed with amebic colitis based upon clinical symptoms, colitis on colonoscopy and visualization of amebic trophozoites on stool examination. In the 8 patients in whom colonoscopy was done, 6 (75 %) had inflammation with rectosigmoid involvement and 5 (62.5 %) had ulcerations. Infection resolved after treatment with metronidazole in most patients; however, one patient developed a liver abscess and another had a colonic perforation and later developed a liver abscess. The occurrence of amebic colitis in this United States-Mexico border city hospital population was low, but in some cases potentially life-threatening. Physicians should be alert to the less common presentations of amebic colitis, such as overt gastrointestinal bleeding, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, and the incidental finding of association with colon cancer, or a surgical abdomen. Rectosigmoid involvement was typically found on colonoscopy.

  11. Compromised ventilation caused by tracheoesophageal fistula and gastrointestinal endoscope undergoing removal of disk battery on esophagus in pediatric patient -A case report-.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Woo; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jung Won; Park, Jang Su; Choe, Won Joo; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Sangil

    2011-09-01

    Ingestion of disk batteries may have serious complications such as esophageal burn, perforation, and tracheoesophageal fistula, particularly when the battery is caught in the esophagus. Proper placement of the tracheal tube is critical when tracheoesophageal fistula was occurred from esophageal impaction the battery. Endoscopy of upper gastrointestinal tract in infants and children is an important and effective tool for the diagnosis and treatment of foreign body ingestion. But upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in infant and children has very high risk of tracheal compression and airway compromise. We present a case of ventilatory compromise during insertion of the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in 16-month-old child with tracheoesophageal fistula secondary to disk battery ingestion.

  12. Blood thinners and gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Monjur

    2016-01-01

    As the number of diagnostic and therapeutic gastrointestinal endoscopies is increasing, and there is an increase in number of patients taking blood thinners, we are seeing more and more patients on blood thinners prior to endoscopic procedures. Gastrointestinal bleeding or thromboembolism can occur in this category of patients in the periendoscopic period. To better manage these patients, endoscopists should have a clear concept about the various blood thinners in the market. Patients’ risk of thromboembolism off anticoagulation, and the risk of bleeding from endoscopic procedures should be assessed prior to endoscopy. The endoscopic procedure should be done when it is safe to do it. PMID:27668068

  13. Endoscopic management of adenomatous ampullary lesions

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, Jesús; Pinedo, Eugenia; Ojeda, Vanesa; del Rio, Maria Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the ampulla of Vater represent an uncommon group of gastrointestinal malignancies. The majority of lesions of the ampulla of Vater are either adenomas or adenocarcinomas. Ampullary lesions are often incidental findings. Accurate preoperative diagnosis and staging of ampullary tumors is imperative for predicting prognosis and determining the most appropriate therapeutic approach. Endoscopic ampullectomy is a safe and efficacious therapeutic procedure that can obviate the need for potentially major surgical intervention. This review will provide the framework for the diagnosis and management of ampullary lesions from the perspective of the practicing gastroenterologist. Strategies for safe and successful endoscopic ampullectomy with a focus on accurate preoperative diagnosis and staging, resection technique, and management of complications are presented. PMID:26413485

  14. First-line endoscopic treatment with over-the-scope clips significantly improves the primary failure and rebleeding rates in high-risk gastrointestinal bleeding: A single-center experience with 100 cases

    PubMed Central

    Richter-Schrag, Hans-Jürgen; Glatz, Torben; Walker, Christine; Fischer, Andreas; Thimme, Robert

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate rebleeding, primary failure (PF) and mortality of patients in whom over-the-scope clips (OTSCs) were used as first-line and second-line endoscopic treatment (FLET, SLET) of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB, LGIB). METHODS A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database identified all patients with UGIB and LGIB in a tertiary endoscopic referral center of the University of Freiburg, Germany, from 04-2012 to 05-2016 (n = 93) who underwent FLET and SLET with OTSCs. The complete Rockall risk scores were calculated from patients with UGIB. The scores were categorized as < or ≥ 7 and were compared with the original Rockall data. Differences between FLET and SLET were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to evaluate the factors that influenced rebleeding after OTSC placement. RESULTS Primary hemostasis and clinical success of bleeding lesions (without rebleeding) was achieved in 88/100 (88%) and 78/100 (78%), respectively. PF was significantly lower when OTSCs were applied as FLET compared to SLET (4.9% vs 23%, P = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, patients who had OTSC placement as SLET had a significantly higher rebleeding risk compared to those who had FLET (OR 5.3; P = 0.008). Patients with Rockall risk scores ≥ 7 had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared to those with scores < 7 (35% vs 10%, P = 0.034). No significant differences were observed in patients with scores < or ≥ 7 in rebleeding and rebleeding-associated mortality. CONCLUSION Our data show for the first time that FLET with OTSC might be the best predictor to successfully prevent rebleeding of gastrointestinal bleeding compared to SLET. The type of treatment determines the success of primary hemostasis or primary failure. PMID:27895403

  15. Effects of chronic ethanol consumption on rat upper gastrointestinal system: functional and histologic findings.

    PubMed

    Yazir, Yusufhan; Tugay, Melih; Utkan, Zafer; Utkan, Tijen

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on reactivity of esophageal tunica muscularis mucosae (TMM) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) smooth muscle. Six male rats in alcohol-fed group received ethanol (7.2% v/v) in a modified liquid diet for 4 weeks. Two control groups were used; six rats in the standard diet-fed group received rat chow and water for 4 weeks. Six rats in sucrose-fed group were given sucrose and received a liquid diet. The smooth muscle reactivity of TMM and LES strips from ethanol-fed and control animals was evaluated in organ chambers. Also histologic study was undertaken to show effects of chronic alcohol consumption. Maximum contractile responses of TMM to KCl and carbachol were decreased in the ethanol-fed group compared to the control groups. Relaxant responses to serotonin were decreased in the ethanol-fed group compared to the control groups. In TMM, isoproterenol- and papaverine-induced relaxant responses were similar in the ethanol-fed and control groups. In LES smooth muscle, relaxant responses to papaverine or isoproterenol were similar in the control groups and the ethanol-fed group. There was no change in agonist potency among the groups. The relaxation response elicited by nicotine and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or contractile response elicited by carbachol and 80 mM KCl was decreased with maximum responses and pD(2) values, in the ethanol-fed group compared to that of the control groups in LES. Decreased nNOS immunoreactivity in myenteric plexus was found in alcohol-exposed group compared to control groups. Our findings suggest that chronic alcohol consumption impairs relaxant and contractile responses of both TMM and LES smooth muscle and it may contribute to gastroesophageal reflux commonly seen after alcohol binges.

  16. Endoscopic therapy in early adenocarcinomas (Barrett's cancer) of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Knabe, Mate; May, Andrea; Ell, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of early esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing significantly in recent decades. Prognosis depends greatly on the choice of treatment. Early cancers can be treated by endoscopic resection, whereas advanced carcinomas have to be sent for surgery. Esophageal resection is associated with high perioperative mortality (1-5%) even in specialized centers. Early diagnosis enables curative endoscopic treatment option. Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a familial risk for esophageal cancer should undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. High-definition endoscopes have been developed with technical add-on that helps endoscopists to find fine irregularities in the esophageal mucosa, but interpreting the findings remains challenging. In this review we discussed novel and old diagnostic procedures and their values, as well as our own recommendations and those of the authors discussed for the diagnosis and treatment of early Barrett's carcinoma. Endoscopic resection is the therapy of choice in early esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is mandatory to perform a subsequent ablation of all residual Barrett's mucosa to avoid metachronous lesions.

  17. Evaluation of the Relationships Between Computed Tomography Features, Pathological Findings, and Prognostic Risk Assessment in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Carbonetti, Francesco; Federici, Giulia Francesca; Martini, Isabella; Caterino, Salvatore; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Panzuto, Francesco; Briani, Chiara; David, Vincenzo

    The aim of this study was to correlate computed tomography (CT) findings with pathology in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). A retrospective evaluation of CT images of 44 patients with GISTs was performed. Computed tomography findings analyzed were location, size, margins, degree and pattern of contrast enhancement, angiogenesis, necrosis, signs of invasion, peritoneal effusion, peritoneal implants, surface ulceration, and calcifications.Associations between CT features and mitotic rate, Miettinen classes of risk, lesions size, and among CT features were investigated. χ Test and Fisher test were performed. Mitotic rate was associated with margins (P = 0.016) and with adjacent organ invasion (P = 0.043). Pattern of contrast enhancement (P = 0.002), angiogenesis (P = 0.006), necrosis (P = 0.006), invasion of adjacent organs (P = 0.011), and margins (P = 0.006) were associated with classes of risk. Several associations (P < 0.05) between lesion size and CT features and among all the investigated CT features were found. Computed tomography features could reflect GIST biology being associated with the mitotic rate and with classes of risk.

  18. Treatment of solitary gastric carcinoid tumor by endoscopic polypectomy in a patient with pernicious anemia

    PubMed Central

    Kadikoylu, Gurhan; Yavasoglu, Irfan; Yukselen, Vahit; Ozkara, Esra; Bolaman, Zahit

    2006-01-01

    Type I gastric carcinoid tumors result from hypergastrinemia in 1%-7% of patients with pernicious anemia. We diagnosed pernicious anemia in a 48-year-old female patient with complaint of fatigue for three months. She had no gastrointestinal symptoms. Endoscopic examination ot the upper gastrointestinal tract revealed atrophic gastritis and a polypoid lesion in the corpus of 3-4 mm in size. Endoscopic polypectomy was performed. Histopathological examination of the specimen revealed positive chromogranin A and synaptophysin stainings compatible with the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor. Serum gastrin level was increased, urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid was within the normal range. There was no other symptom, sign, or laboratory finding of a carcinoid syndrome in the patient. No metastasis was found with indium-111 octreotide scan, computed tomographies of abdomen and thorax. Type I gastric carcinoid tumors are only rarely solitary and patients with tumors < 1 cm in size may benefit from endoscopic polypectomy. PMID:16830392

  19. Representing flexible endoscope shapes with hermite splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Elvis C. S.; Fowler, Sharyle A.; Hookey, Lawrence C.; Ellis, Randy E.

    2010-02-01

    Navigation of a flexible endoscope is a challenging surgical task: the shape of the end effector of the endoscope, interacting with surrounding tissues, determine the surgical path along which the endoscope is pushed. We present a navigational system that visualized the shape of the flexible endoscope tube to assist gastrointestinal surgeons in performing Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES). The system used an electromagnetic positional tracker, a catheter embedded with multiple electromagnetic sensors, and graphical user interface for visualization. Hermite splines were used to interpret the position and direction outputs of the endoscope sensors. We conducted NOTES experiments on live swine involving 6 gastrointestinal and 6 general surgeons. Participants who used the device first were 14.2% faster than when not using the device. Participants who used the device second were 33.6% faster than the first session. The trend suggests that spline-based visualization is a promising adjunct during NOTES procedures.

  20. Endoscopic ultrasonography: equipment and technique.

    PubMed

    Röesch, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    By definition, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) combines endoscopy and high-frequency ultrasound, incorporating a small ultrasonic transducer into the tip of endoscopes. For the upper gastrointestinal tract, mostly oblique-viewing endoscopes are used, although recently, forward viewing instruments have become available. For colorectal EUS, rigid probes for the rectum and a flexible forward-viewing echocolonoscope are available. EUS generates ultrasound either mechanically or electronically, depending on the type of instrument used. The electronic technique potentially allows the incorporation of (color) Doppler ultrasound, which allows for additional processing and postprocessing functions. This generally is considered the EUS technique of the future.

  1. Cecal Leiomyoma: Can We Attempt Endoscopic Resection?

    PubMed Central

    Badipatla, Kanthi Rekha; Kamireddy, Chandana; Niazi, Masooma; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal leiomyomas are smooth muscle tumors arising from the muscularis mucosae, muscularis propriae and possibly from smooth muscle of the vessel wall. Management depends on the size, location and the clinical scenario. Endoscopic snare cauterization with or without saline lift has been described in literature for tumors involving the left colon. To the best of our knowledge, endoscopic resection of right colon leiomyoma was never attempted in the past. We present a case of cecal leiomyoma which was resected endoscopically. PMID:28058080

  2. Hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound: Current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S; Menachery, John; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and staging of various gastrointestinal malignancies have been made possible with the use of endoscopic ultrasound, which is a relatively safe procedure. The field of endoscopic ultrasound is fast expanding due to advancements in therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound. Though various studies have established its role in gastrointestinal malignancies and pancreatic conditions, its potential in the field of hepatic lesions still remains vastly untapped. In this paper the authors attempt to review important and landmark trials, case series and case studies involving hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound, thus not only providing an overview of utilization of endoscopic ultrasound in various liver conditions but also speculating its future role. PMID:26640331

  3. Hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound: Current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S; Menachery, John; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-11-28

    The diagnosis and staging of various gastrointestinal malignancies have been made possible with the use of endoscopic ultrasound, which is a relatively safe procedure. The field of endoscopic ultrasound is fast expanding due to advancements in therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound. Though various studies have established its role in gastrointestinal malignancies and pancreatic conditions, its potential in the field of hepatic lesions still remains vastly untapped. In this paper the authors attempt to review important and landmark trials, case series and case studies involving hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound, thus not only providing an overview of utilization of endoscopic ultrasound in various liver conditions but also speculating its future role.

  4. Management of gastrointestinal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, S; Watts, D; Kinnear, M

    2002-01-01

    A variety of endoscopic haemostatic techniques have enabled major advances in the management of not only bleeding peptic ulcers and bleeding varices, but also in a variety of bleeding lesions in the small intestine and in the colon. Indeed, the development and widespread implementation of endoscopic haemostasis has been one of the most important developments in clinical gastroenterology in the past two decades. An increasingly ageing cohort of patients with multiple co-morbidity are being treated and therefore improving the outcome of gastrointestinal bleeding continues to pose major challenges. PMID:11796865

  5. Gastrointestinal endoscopy: infection and disinfection.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, H J; Axon, A T

    1983-01-01

    The past decade has seen the development of an array of complex flexible fibreoptic instruments for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and an increasing use of these for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It has been recognised more recently that the use of contaminated endoscopic equipment can lead to serious and occasionally fatal infections. Infection with a wide variety of micro-organisms has been reported following oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy (OGD) and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). PMID:6414894

  6. Treatment of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in a Probable Case of Cerebroretinal Microangiopathy with Calcifications and Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, T.A.; Hubbard, M.; Hawkins, C.; Cole, T.; Livingston, J.H.; Crow, Y.J.; Pigott, A.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts (CRMCC) is a highly pleiotropic disorder, particularly affecting the eye, brain, bone, and gut. The potential catastrophic sequelae of the associated gastrointestinal phenotype, variably characterised by both chronic bleeding and liver failure, is becoming increasingly apparent. Here we report a probable case of CRMCC with pre- and postnatal growth restriction, bilateral exudative retinopathy, a pathognomonic pattern of intracranial calcification, white matter disease, osteopenia with a tendency to fractures, and chronic gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to abnormal dilated vasculature. The gastrointestinal endoscopic findings were characteristic of gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE). Treatment with a combination of oral oestrogen and progesterone ameliorated the gastrointestinal blood loss such that monthly blood transfusions could be stopped. The benefit of this relatively benign therapy in managing the potentially life-limiting consequences of an abnormal gastrointestinal vasculature in CRMCC is of great interest. PMID:21373254

  7. Endoscopic septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Getz, Anne E; Hwang, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    Successful septoplasty involves accurate assessment of septal pathology and sound technique to avoid persistent symptoms and new complications. This review highlights endoscopic septoplasty techniques and instrumentation, as well as the indications for and advantages of endoscopic septoplasty as compared with traditional headlight septoplasty. Isolated lesions such as septal spurs and contact points may be better addressed with limited endoscopic techniques. Powered instrumentation has been utilized with reported success. Operative time and outcomes of endoscopic septoplasty are at least commensurate with, and at times superior to, traditional techniques. Endoscopic technology greatly enhances visualization during septoplasty. Discrete septal pathologies such as isolated deflection, spurs, perforations, and contact points can be addressed in a directed fashion. These advantages can be especially important in revision cases. Endoscopic technique in conjunction with video imaging is valuable for the education of residents and staff.

  8. Upper Digestive Endoscopic Scene Analyze

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es...one of endoscopic semiology (disease descriptions) and one of endoscopic exams (patients’ iconography). A Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) [2] whose...knowledge of these Scenes. B) Object Information Lesions or any element of interest, i.e. the "endoscopic findings", constitute the objects to be

  9. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Fujimoto, James G.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    New gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are expected to affect more than 290,200 new patients and will cause more than 144,570 deaths in the United States in 2013 [1]. When detected and treated early, the 5-year survival rate for colorectal cancer increases by a factor of 1.4 [1]. For esophageal cancer, the rate increases by a factor of 2 [1]. The majority of GI cancers begin as small lesions that are difficult to identify with conventional endoscopy. With resolutions approaching that of histopathology, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well suited for detecting the changes in tissue microstructure associated with early GI cancers. Since the lesions are not endoscopically apparent, however, it is necessary to survey a relatively large area of the GI tract. Tissue motion is another limiting factor in the GI tract; therefore, in vivo imaging must be performed at extremely high speeds. OCT imaging can be performed using fiber optics and miniaturized lens systems, enabling endoscopic OCT inside the human body in conjunction with conventional video endoscopy. An OCT probe can be inserted through the working channel of a standard endoscope, thus enabling depth-resolved imaging of tissue microstructure in the GI tract with micron-scale resolution simultaneously with the endoscopic view (Fig. 68.1).

  10. Description of original endoscopic findings and respiratory functional assessment using barometric whole-body plethysmography in dogs suffering from brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bernaerts, Frédérique; Talavera, Jesús; Leemans, Jérôme; Hamaide, Annick; Claeys, Stéphanie; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Clercx, Cécile

    2010-01-01

    The clinical features of brachycephalic airway obstructive disease in 11 brachycephalic dogs are described in this study. The respiratory strategy was assessed before (n=11) and after (n=6) surgery using barometric whole-body plethysmography (BWBP), with the relationship between BWBP variables and the severity of the clinical signs assessed by the use of a respiratory score based on clinical, radiographic and endoscopic findings. Partial collapse of the left main bronchus was a common finding not previously described as part of the brachycephalic airway obstructive disease syndrome. Epiglottic cysts, laryngeal granulomas and nasopharyngeal turbinates in English Bulldogs were other previously unreported findings. No significant correlation between the respiratory score and any of the BWBP variables was detected. Compared to healthy dogs, brachycephalic dogs had a significantly lower Te/Ti ratio (expiratory time over inspiratory time), peak inspiratory flow (PIF) per kg bodyweight (BW), significantly higher peak expiratory flow (PEF) per kgBW, PEF/PIF, and enhanced pause. These variations are compatible with upper airway obstructions primarily in the extrathoracic airways. Following surgery, a significant decrease in PEF/PIF was detected. The study showed that BWBP could be used to characterise the respiratory strategy in brachycephalic dogs before and after surgery. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Endoscopic Clip MRI Screening: A Canada-Wide Policy Survey.

    PubMed

    Accorsi, Fabio; Coutu, Geneviève; Simms, Emily-Lauren; Lalonde, Alain; Leswick, David A

    2017-07-01

    Not all endoscopically placed clips are MRI compatible, so screening for endoscopic clips before MRI is recommended. The purpose of this study was to assess endoscopic clip screening practices at Canadian MRI centers, including number of centers that screen, specific screening methods, perceived safety of endoscopic clip models, and practices for dealing with confirmed gastrointestinal endoscopic clips. A bilingual online survey was distributed to Canadian MRI centers to assess site demographics, endoscopic clip screening practices, safety considerations for different endoscopic clip models, protocols for dealing with patients with endoscopic clips, and the perceived value of screening. One year later, a secondary survey was distributed to the original participants to assess for changes made to screening policy after the initial survey and to assess awareness of any complications arising from the presence of endoscopic clips during MRI. Sixty-seven MRI centers completed the survey (55% response rate). Sixteen centers (24%) did not specifically screen for endoscopic clips, five because they were not aware that endoscopic clips may not be safe for MRI. Fifty-one centers (76%) did screen for endoscopic clips. At least 23% of screeners misclassified the safety of one or more MRI-unsafe clips. As many as 36% of screeners may perform MRI on patients with confirmed gastrointestinal endoscopic clips; 16% reschedule for more than 6 weeks after endoscopy; and 18% limit the field strength to 1.5 T, the safety of which is uncertain. Many Canadians are undergoing MRI without screening for endoscopic clips. Although the risks of MRI to patients with endoscopic clips is unclear, the misclassification of some endoscopic clip models and inconsistent protocols for dealing with confirmed endoscopic clips call for further research and unified evidence-based endoscopic clip screening standards.

  12. Therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalapathy, Suresh; Nayar, Manu K

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is now firmly established as one of the essential tools for diagnosis in most gastrointestinal MDTs across the UK. However, the ability to provide therapy with EUS has resulted in a significant impact on the management of the patients. These include drainage of peripancreatic collections, EUS-guided endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram, EUS-guided coeliac plexus blocks, etc. The rapid development of this area in endoscopy is a combination of newer tools and increasing expertise by endosonographers to push the boundaries of intervention with EUS. However, the indications are limited and we are at the start of the learning curve for these high-risk procedures. These therapies should, therefore, be confined to centres with a robust multidisciplinary team, including interventional endoscopists, radiologists and surgeons. PMID:28261439

  13. Dabigatran-induced esophagitis: The prevalence and endoscopic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Toya, Yosuke; Nakamura, Shotaro; Tomita, Kazumitsu; Matsuda, Nozomi; Abe, Keinosuke; Abiko, Yukito; Orikasa, Shunsuke; Akasaka, Risaburo; Chiba, Toshimi; Uesugi, Noriyuki; Sugai, Tamotsu; Matsumoto, Takayuki

    2016-03-01

    There have been some descriptions of dabigatran-induced esophagitis in the literature. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and endoscopic characteristics of the disease. We reviewed the endoscopic database and medical records of 91 patients with dabigatran internal use who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The frequency of dabigatran-induced esophagitis and its endoscopic findings were retrospectively analyzed. In addition, the clinical characteristics were compared between patients with dabigatran-induced esophagitis and those without the disease. Dabigatran-induced esophagitis was found in 19 of 91 (20.9%) patients. Of the 19 patients with the esophagitis, 18 (94.7%) showed longitudinally sloughing epithelial casts in the mid and/or lower esophagus, which may be characteristic endoscopic findings of this disease. Symptomatic patients were more frequent in patients with dabigatran-induced esophagitis (68.4%) than those without (37.5%, P = 0.02). Other factors including age, gender, coexistence of hiatal hernia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or concomitant other medications did not differ between the two groups. Dabigatran causes the esophageal mucosal injury in approximately 20% of patients. Longitudinally sloughing casts in the distal esophagus are characteristic of dabigatran-induced esophagitis. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Continued use of low-dose aspirin may increase risk of bleeding after gastrointestinal endoscopic submucosal dissection: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Chen, Jingdi; Ding, Qianshan; Yang, Dongmei; Yu, Honggang; Lin, Jun

    2017-08-09

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection has been widely accepted. At present, the number of antiplatelet (APT) users has been growing. Moreover, because of high risks of thromboembolism, some patients need to continuously receive APT agents. The relationship between hemorrhage and continuous therapy with low-dose aspirin (LDA) remains controversial. A systematic search was conducted; studies were screened out- if data of no-anticoagulant/APT drugs use and interrupted and continued-LDA use were reported separately. The Newcastle-scale was chosen to assess the quality of the included studies. Review Manager 5.2 was used for quality assessment statistical analysis, and the odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Pooled data suggested a significantly higher bleeding ratio in the LDA-continued group compared to both the LDA-interrupted group (OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.05-3.99) and no-anticoagulant/APT group (OR=2.89, 95% CI=1.86-4.47). However, the LDA-interrupted group did not differ significantly from the no-anticoagulant/APT group. The en bloc resection rates of the LDA-continued group versus the LDA-interrupted group, the LDA-continued group versus no-anticoagulant/APT group, and the LDA-interrupted group versus the no-anticoagulant/APT group were similar (OR=0.82, 95% CI=0.21-3.24, p=0.78; OR=0.80, 95% CI=0.24-2.65, p=0.71; OR=1.41, 95% CI=0.38-5.24, p=0.60, respectively). There is an extremely high ratio of bleeding in the LDA-continued group compared to both the LDA-interrupted group and no-anticoagulant/APT group. All groups had similar ratios of en bloc resection.

  15. Endoscopic septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sautter, Nathan B; Smith, Timothy L

    2009-04-01

    Endoscopic septoplasty has gained popularity since Lanza and colleagues and Stammberger first described the technique. This technique has several advantages over the traditional "headlight" septoplasty. These advantages include superior visualization, accommodation of limited and minimally invasive septoplasty, and usefulness as an effective teaching tool. This article reviews and illustrates the endoscopic septoplasty technique and discusses its limitations and advantages.

  16. EVALUATION OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    ASSEF, Maurício Saab; MELO, Tiago Torres; ARAKI, Osvaldo; MARIONI, Fábio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic, and is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Treatment is multidisciplinary. Surgical treatment is a consistent resource in severe obesity. The indication of preoperative upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in asymptomatic patients is controversial; however, most studies recommend its implementation in all patients. Aim: To analyze endoscopic performance in patients who were in preoperative for bariatric surgery and compare them with control group. Method: A series of 35 obese patients in preoperative period for bariatric surgery compared with a control group of 30 patients submitted to upper endoscopy. There were analyzed clinical and endoscopic data. Results: The mean age of the group of patients was 43.54 years. Most individuals in the group of patients were female with median BMI of 47.26kg/m2and in control group 24.21 kg/m2. The majority of patients were asymptomatic. Upper endoscopy was altered in 81.25% of asymptomatic patients. Endoscopic findings in the patient group were 57.1% resulting from peptic ulcer disease and 34.3% associated with GERD. The analysis of endoscopic findings in patients showed no significant difference in relation of the control group. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 60% in patients. Conclusion: It is recommended that the upper endoscopy should be made in all patients in the preoperative bariatric surgery period, although the degree of obesity is not related to a greater number of endoscopic findings. Obese patients do not have more endoscopic findings that non-obese individuals. PMID:26537272

  17. Endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy in swine.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Provenza, J M; Doyle, J T; Bacon, B R

    1991-10-01

    Endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy was performed on four sedated pigs, ages 3-4 months, using a standard human duodenoscope and papillotome. Sphincterotomies, 1 cm in length, were well-tolerated, and all animals recovered promptly, spontaneously regained gastrointestinal function, and gained weight. The first three animals were sacrificed after one week, and autopsy revealed no complications. The fourth animal was sacrificed immediately following the procedure, and no evidence of perforation was found. These observations demonstrate that the pig is a valid experimental model for endoscopic sphincterotomy. Its use in training is limited by technical and anatomic differences from humans. Potential uses of this technique in research are discussed.

  18. Indications, results, and clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline - Updated January 2017.

    PubMed

    Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Deprez, Pierre H; Jenssen, Christian; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Larghi, Alberto; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Arcidiacono, Paolo G; Bastos, Pedro; Carrara, Silvia; Czakó, László; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Fockens, Paul; Ginès, Àngels; Havre, Roald F; Hassan, Cesare; Vilmann, Peter; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Polkowski, Marcin

    2017-07-01

    For pancreatic solid lesions, ESGE recommends performing endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling as first-line procedure when a pathological diagnosis is required. Alternatively, percutaneous sampling may be considered in metastatic disease.Strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence.In the case of negative or inconclusive results and a high degree of suspicion of malignant disease, ESGE suggests re-evaluating the pathology slides, repeating EUS-guided sampling, or surgery.Weak recommendation, low quality evidence.In patients with chronic pancreatitis associated with a pancreatic mass, EUS-guided sampling results that do not confirm cancer should be interpreted with caution.Strong recommendation, low quality evidence.For pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs), ESGE recommends EUS-guided sampling for biochemical analyses plus cytopathological examination if a precise diagnosis may change patient management, except for lesions ≤ 10 mm in diameter with no high risk stigmata. If the volume of PCL aspirate is small, it is recommended that carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level determination be done as the first analysis.Strong recommendation, low quality evidence.For esophageal cancer, ESGE suggests performing EUS-guided sampling for the assessment of regional lymph nodes (LNs) in T1 (and, depending on local treatment policy, T2) adenocarcinoma and of lesions suspicious for metastasis such as distant LNs, left liver lobe lesions, and suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis.Weak recommendation, low quality evidence.For lymphadenopathy of unknown origin, ESGE recommends performing EUS-guided (or alternatively endobronchial ultrasound [EBUS]-guided) sampling if the pathological result is likely to affect patient management and no superficial lymphadenopathy is easily accessible.Strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence.In the case of solid liver masses suspicious for metastasis, ESGE suggests performing EUS-guided sampling if the pathological result is likely

  19. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shu-Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu-Tian

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

  20. Endoscopic diagnosis of a pylorogastric intussusception with spontaneous resolution.

    PubMed

    de Brito Galvao, Joao Felipe; Johnson, Susan E; Sherding, Robert G; Baan, Mieke; Ball, Rebecca L; Ben-Amotz, Ron

    2011-01-01

    A 7 mo old intact female golden retriever was evaluated for acute vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed a possible gastric foreign body. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an edematous, tubular antral mass, which on further evaluation was determined to be a pylorogastric intussusception based on radiographic, endoscopic, and surgical findings. Spontaneous resolution of the intussusception occurred upon surgical exploration of the abdomen. Histopathology of a full-thickness gastric biopsy revealed vascular congestion consistent with an intussusception, but did not indicate the primary cause. The dog recovered uneventfully from surgery and had no further vomiting during the 6 mo follow-up period. This case was significant as it was the first report of pylorogastric intussusception diagnosed using endoscopy. This description of the unique endoscopic appearance of pylorogastric intussusception will be useful for the veterinary endoscopist.

  1. Potential capacity of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato; Goto, Rei

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Japanese government decided to introduce endoscopic screening for gastric cancer as a national program. To provide endoscopic screening nationwide, we estimated the proportion of increase in the number of endoscopic examinations with the introduction of endoscopic screening, based on a national survey. The total number of endoscopic examinations has increased, particularly in clinics. Based on the national survey, the total number of participants in gastric cancer screening was 3 784 967. If 30% of the participants are switched from radiographic screening to endoscopic screening, approximately 1 million additional endoscopic examinations are needed. In Japan, the participation rates in gastric cancer screening and the number of hospitals and clinics offering upper gastrointestinal endoscopy vary among the 47 prefectures. If the participation rates are high and the numbers of hospitals and clinics are small, the proportion of increase becomes larger. Based on the same assumption, 50% of big cities can provide endoscopic screening with a 5% increase in the total number of endoscopic examinations. However, 16.7% of the medical districts are available for endoscopic screening within a 5% increase in the total number of endoscopic examinations. Despite the Japanese government's decision to introduce endoscopic screening for gastric cancer nationwide, its immediate introduction remains difficult because of insufficient medical resources in rural areas. This implies that endoscopic screening will be initially introduced to big cities. To promote endoscopic screening for gastric cancer nationwide, the disparity of medical resources must first be resolved.

  2. Advances in endoscopic imaging in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Pastorelli, Luca; Ishaq, Sauid; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Modern strategies for the treatment of ulcerative colitis require more accurate tools for gastrointestinal imaging to better assess mucosal disease activity and long-term prognostic clinical outcomes. Recent advances in gastrointestinal luminal endoscopy are radically changing the role of endoscopy in every-day clinical practice and research trials. Advanced endoscopic imaging techniques including high-definition endoscopes, optical magnification endoscopy, and various chromoendoscopy techniques have remarkably improved endoscopic assessment of ulcerative colitis. More recently, optical biopsy techniques with either endocytoscopy or confocal laser endomicroscopy have shown great potential in predicting several histological changes in real time during ongoing endoscopy. Here, we review current applications of advanced endoscopic imaging techniques in ulcerative colitis and present the most promising upcoming headways in this field.

  3. [Gastrointestinal tract volvulus: diagnosis and correlation between plain-film X-ray and multidetector computed tomography findings].

    PubMed

    Ibáñez Sanz, L; Borruel Nacenta, S; Cano Alonso, R; Díez Martínez, P; Navallas Irujo, M

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal volvuli cause processes that manifest as acute abdomen. Volvuli are important not because they are common, but rather because their possible complications can be severe. All types of volvuli share a common pathophysiology, which consists of intestinal obstruction in a closed loop that results in ischemia. The clinical manifestations are nonspecific, so radiologists play a very important role in the early identification of the most common signs of torsion. These include the "bird's beak sign", the "whirlpool sign", and signs of potentially reversible or irreversible ischemia. The treatment of choice in most cases is surgery, either to correct the torsion and save the organ or to resect it if it is necrotic. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. A Case with Serrated Polyposis Syndrome Controlled by Multiple Applications of Endoscopic Mucosal Resection and Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Satohiro; Mashima, Hirosato

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 66 Final Diagnosis: Serrated polyposis syndrome Symptoms: Positive fecal occult blood test Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual setting of medical care Background: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is characterized by numerous hyperplastic polyps and sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) in the large intestine. SSA/P is known to transform into malignant lesions through the serrated pathway instead of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Early diagnosis with lower gastrointestinal endoscopy and early treatment are now considered to be essential. Case Report: We had an experience with a case of SPS to which endoscopic treatment was applied in multiple sessions. Endoscopic treatment was performed for 16 lesions in total, and the pathological findings were SSA/P for 15 and adenoma for the other lesion. We intend to continue performing endoscopic surveillance for any newly developing lesions. Conclusions: SPS has a potential for malignant transformation, and issues, such as long-term prognosis and optimal therapeutic strategies, await resolution. However, multiple endoscopic treatments are useful for cases with lesions that are controllable employing this modality. PMID:28341823

  5. Gastrointestinal Stent Update

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The use of self-expanding metallic stents in the upper gastrointestinal tract, placed under radiologic imaging or endoscopic guidance, is the current treatment of choice for the palliation of malignant gastrointestinal outlet obstructions. Advances in metallic stent design and delivery systems have progressed to the stage where this treatment is now considered a minimally invasive therapy. Metallic stent placement will broaden further into the field of nonsurgical therapy for the gastrointestinal tract. To date, metallic stents placed in the esophagus, gastric outlet, colorectum, and bile ducts are not intended to be curative, but rather to provide a palliative treatment for obstructions. The evolution of metallic stent technology will render such procedures not only palliative but also therapeutic, by enabling local drug delivery, and the use of biodegradable materials will reduce procedure-related complications. PMID:21103290

  6. Endoscopic ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pancreatitis References Lee LS. Endoscopic ultrasound. In: McNalley PR, ed. GI/Liver Secrets Plus . 5th ed. Philadelphia, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  7. Endoscopic valvuloplasty for GERD.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Serna, T; Davis, R E; Mason, R; Perdikis, G; Filipi, C J; Lehman, G; Nigro, J; Watson, P

    2000-11-01

    The transoral, endoscopic route has been suggested as a possible approach for the correction of severe gastroesophageal reflux. Such a procedure would involve no mobilization of the cardia or other structures. The optimal placement, number, and configuration of sutures remains undefined. With the use of a previously developed endoscopic sewing machine, this study was undertaken in baboons with two suture arrangements immediately below the lower esophageal sphincter. A linear arrangement (group I) and a circular arrangement (group II) were compared. During the 6 months after the procedure, the animals were evaluated using manometry, fluoroscopic barium swallow, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and a pressure volume test. A significant increase in lower esophageal sphincter length was demonstrated only in group II (p = 0. 010). A significant increase in lower esophageal sphincter pressure was demonstrated only in group I animals (p = 0.008). The abdominal length increased in group I (p = 0.004) and group II (p = 0.004). The yield pressure and yield volume did not differ significantly from those measured previously in control animals. No evidence of reflux, stricture formation, esophagitis, or other pathology was noted. Some manometric parameters associated with gastroesophageal reflux are altered by the endoscopic placement of sutures below the gastroesophageal junction, with no associated serious complications.

  8. Endoscopic laser therapy in gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Pritikin, J; Weinman, D; Harmatz, A; Young, H

    1992-07-01

    Endoscopic laser therapy has become an important and widely used tool in gastroenterology. It has become important for outpatient palliative therapy for ablating obstructing gastrointestinal neoplasms. This method has often circumvented the need for major palliative surgical resections. Caution must be applied to laser therapy for potentially curable malignant neoplasms because, with vaporization of the target tissue, no tissue specimen is available to assure that local or invasive residual carcinoma is excluded. Therefore, in good surgical candidates, surgical resection of potentially curable cancers is always recommended. In the future, however, the combination of refined endoscopic ultrasonography and laser fluorescence techniques may lead to earlier detection, more precise localization, and even curative ablation of gastrointestinal malignancy.

  9. Endoscopic laser therapy in gastroenterology.

    PubMed Central

    Pritikin, J; Weinman, D; Harmatz, A; Young, H

    1992-01-01

    Endoscopic laser therapy has become an important and widely used tool in gastroenterology. It has become important for outpatient palliative therapy for ablating obstructing gastrointestinal neoplasms. This method has often circumvented the need for major palliative surgical resections. Caution must be applied to laser therapy for potentially curable malignant neoplasms because, with vaporization of the target tissue, no tissue specimen is available to assure that local or invasive residual carcinoma is excluded. Therefore, in good surgical candidates, surgical resection of potentially curable cancers is always recommended. In the future, however, the combination of refined endoscopic ultrasonography and laser fluorescence techniques may lead to earlier detection, more precise localization, and even curative ablation of gastrointestinal malignancy. Images PMID:1413743

  10. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique’s benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument’s flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system. PMID:24887743

  11. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-06-01

    We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique's benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument's flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system.

  12. Evaluation of two Iranian domestic ovine breeds for their pathological findings to gastrointestinal infection of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, Javad; Hosseini, Ehsan; Mousavi, Shadi; Hassan, Mehdi Aghamohammad; Salehzadeh Kazeroni, Simin; Khaki, Fariba; Fattahi, Rooholla; Jani, Meysam; Alimohammadi, Samad

    2014-09-01

    The generally warm, moist environmental conditions in the Northwestern Iran are ideal for survival and growth of the egg and larval stages of Haemonchus contortus and other gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep and goats.A total of 2,421 animals were slaughtered and examined from July 2010 to July 2011 in Urmia abattoir. In case of sheep, 225 out of 2,421 were positive and prevalence of H. contortus infestation was 9.3 %. Sex wise prevalence of H. contortus in sheep was 33.08 % (76/229) in male and 66.22 % (149/225) in female. The females indicated significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence (66.22 %) as compared to males (33.08 %). The highest prevalence was recorded in the spring (April) and the lowest was in summer (July), respectively. On microscopic examination, infiltration of mononuclear cells and eosinophils in gastric glands, periglandular hyperemia and hemorrhage, mucous gland hyperplasia, connective tissue proliferation and necrosis was observed. Also, in mixed abomasal infection with Haemonchus and Ostertagia species, mucosal hyperplasia and increased mucous glands and sometimes cystic glands were seen. Statistical analysis using SPSS software, and Chi-square test, demonstrated a non-significant difference between ages and abomasal PH values of infected and healthy sheep (P < 0.05). But the difference between sexes, seasons and abomasal lesions was significant (P > 0.05).

  13. Risk Factors for Community-Based Reports of Gastrointestinal, Respiratory, and Dermal Symptoms: Findings From a Cohort Study in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Najnin, Nusrat; Forbes, Andrew; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background Although gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, and dermal symptoms are common, few studies have conducted concurrent and comparative prospective analyses of risk factors for these 3 morbidity outcomes. Methods We used data from a community-based randomized controlled trial among 277 South Australian families to analyze GI (diarrhea, vomiting), respiratory (sore throat, runny nose, cough) and dermal (rash, generalized itch, dermal infection) symptoms. Results Log-binomial regression analysis revealed similar risks of GI (adjusted risk ratio [RR], 1.65; 95% CI, 1.05–2.58) and respiratory (RR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.31–2.15) symptoms among childcare/kindergarten attendees. Swimming in public pools/spas in the current or previous week was associated with all 3 symptom complexes, conferring similar risk for each (RR for GI: 1.33; 95% CI, 0.99–1.77; respiratory: 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04–1.38; dermal: 1.41; 95% CI, 1.08–1.85). Pet ownership was not associated with symptoms. Household clustering of GI and respiratory symptoms was common, and clustering of respiratory symptoms correlated with number of individuals per household. Conclusions This simultaneous examination of risk factors for 3 health outcomes yielded new comparative data that are useful for developing prevention strategies. PMID:24240632

  14. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy following previous abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Stellato, T A; Gauderer, M W; Ponsky, J L

    1984-01-01

    During a 36-month period, 89 patients have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy without mortality. Of these patients, 25 (13 infants and children, 12 adults) had prior abdominal procedures that increased their risk for the endoscopic procedure. With two exceptions, all gastrostomies were performed utilizing local anesthesia. There was one major complication, a gastrocolic fistula, which was successfully managed by repeating the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure at a location more cephalad in the stomach. Twenty-two of the gastrostomies were placed for feeding purposes and all of these patients were able to leave the hospital with alimentation accomplished via the tube. Three of the endoscopically placed gastrostomies were for gastrointestinal tract decompression. A total of 255 patient months have been accumulated in these patients with the endoscopically placed gastrostomy in situ. The technique can be safely performed in patients with prior abdominal surgery and in the majority of cases is the technique of choice for establishing a tube gastrostomy. PMID:6428334

  15. Endoscopic Sedation: From Training to Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Adequate sedation and analgesia are considered essential requirements to relieve patient discomfort and pain and ultimately to improve the outcomes of modern gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. The willingness of patients to undergo sedation during endoscopy has increased steadily in recent years and standard sedation practices are needed for both patient safety and successful procedural outcomes. Therefore, regular training and education of healthcare providers is warranted. However, training curricula and guidelines for endoscopic sedation may have conflicts according to varying legal frameworks and/or social security systems of each country, and well-recognized endoscopic sedation training systems are not currently available in all endoscopy units. Although European and American curricula for endoscopic sedation have been extensively developed, general curricula and guidelines for each country and institution are also needed. In this review, an overview of recent curricula and guidelines for training and basic performance of endoscopic sedation is presented based on the current literature. PMID:24765596

  16. Endoscopic management of peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Sung; Park, Sung Min; Kim, Byung-Wook

    2015-03-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common medical emergency around the world and the major cause is peptic ulcer bleeding. Endoscopic treatment is fundamental for the management of peptic ulcer bleeding. Despite recent advances in endoscopic treatment, mortality from peptic ulcer bleeding has still remained high. This is because the disease often occurs in elderly patients with frequent comorbidities and are taking ulcerogenic medications. Therefore, the management of peptic ulcer bleeding is still a challenge for clinicians. This article reviews the various endoscopic methods available for management of peptic ulcer bleeding and the techniques in using these methods.

  17. Endoscopic Management of Peptic Ulcer Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon Sung; Park, Sung Min

    2015-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common medical emergency around the world and the major cause is peptic ulcer bleeding. Endoscopic treatment is fundamental for the management of peptic ulcer bleeding. Despite recent advances in endoscopic treatment, mortality from peptic ulcer bleeding has still remained high. This is because the disease often occurs in elderly patients with frequent comorbidities and are taking ulcerogenic medications. Therefore, the management of peptic ulcer bleeding is still a challenge for clinicians. This article reviews the various endoscopic methods available for management of peptic ulcer bleeding and the techniques in using these methods. PMID:25844337

  18. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography for Clinical Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Fujimoto, James G.; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time optical imaging technique that is similar in principle to ultrasonography, but employs light instead of sound waves and allows depth-resolved images with near-microscopic resolution. Endoscopic OCT allows the evaluation of broad-field and subsurface areas and can be used ancillary to standard endoscopy, narrow band imaging, chromoendoscopy, magnification endoscopy, and confocal endomicroscopy. This review article will provide an overview of the clinical utility of endoscopic OCT in the gastrointestinal tract and of recent achievements using state-of-the-art endoscopic 3D-OCT imaging systems. PMID:26852678

  19. Gastrointestinal Pyogenic Granuloma (Lobular Capillary Hemangioma): An Underrecognized Entity Causing Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Umar M.; Hammami, Muhammad B.; Taylor, Jason R.; Omran, M. Louay; Chen, Yongxin; Lai, Jin-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG), more accurately known as lobular capillary hemangioma, is a benign vascular tumor that usually occurs in the skin or oral mucosa. This lesion is rarely reported in the gastrointestinal tract but is known to bleed if not resected. We herein describe a case series with the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic findings of four cases of gastrointestinal PG at our institution. In addition, we provide a review of the literature and summation of all reported cases of PG specific to the gastrointestinal tract. Based on our experience, we suggest that the actual incidence of gastrointestinal PG may in fact be higher than reported because PG can be unrecognized or improperly diagnosed. It is important for the clinician to properly recognize this lesion as a source of anemia and its propensity to bleed during biopsy or resection. PMID:27403353

  20. Clinical outcome of endoscopic management of duodenal Dieulafoy's lesions: endoscopic band ligation versus endoscopic hemoclip placement.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jeong-Seon; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Kim, Sung Soo; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Cho, Hyunjung; Cho, Young-Seok

    2016-08-01

    The most appropriate type of endoscopic hemostasis for bleeding due to duodenal Dieulafoy's lesions (DLs) is not yet established. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of mechanical endoscopic hemostasis for duodenal DLs and long-term outcome after successful hemostasis, as well as to compare the efficacy and safety of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) and endoscopic hemoclip placement (EHP). Patients admitted to the emergency unit with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding from duodenal DLs were enrolled in this study. The data were collected prospectively, but data analysis was performed retrospectively. Twenty-four patients with duodenal DLs were treated with EBL (n = 11) or EHP (n = 13). There were no significant differences between groups with respect to clinical or endoscopic characteristics, apart from the number of epinephrine (three cases with EBL vs. 11 cases with EHP; p = 0.011). Primary hemostasis was achieved in all patients. Recurrent bleeding was observed in one patient (9.1 %) from the EBL group and in five patients (38.5 %) from the EHP group (p = 0.166). The recurrent bleeding in the patient from the EBL group was treated by EHP. In the EHP group, all five patients achieved successful secondary hemostasis by endoscopic treatment (EBL in two patients and EHP in three patients). There were no differences in secondary outcomes between the two groups, including the number of endoscopic sessions required, need for angiographic embolization or emergent surgery, transfusion requirements, or length of hospital stay. No complications occurred, and there was no recurrence of bleeding in either group during the follow-up period. Mechanical endoscopic treatments are effective and safe for the treatment of bleeding duodenal DLs. A large-scale, randomized, controlled study is required to confirm the efficacy and safety of EBL and EHP for the management of bleeding duodenal DLs.

  1. Developments in flexible endoscopic surgery: a review

    PubMed Central

    Feussner, Hubertus; Becker, Valentin; Bauer, Margit; Kranzfelder, Michael; Schirren, Rebekka; Lüth, Tim; Meining, Alexander; Wilhelm, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Flexible endoscopy is increasingly developing into a therapeutic instead of a purely diagnostic discipline. Improved visualization makes early lesions easily detectable and allows us to decide ad hoc on the required treatment. Deep enteroscopy allows the exploration of even the small bowel – for long a “white spot” for gastrointestinal endoscopy – and to perform direct treatment. Endoscopic submucosal dissection is a considerable step forward in oncologically correct endoscopic treatment of (early) malignant lesions. Though still technically challenging, it is increasingly facilitated by new manipulation techniques and tools that are being steadily optimized. Closure of wall defects and hemostasis could be improved significantly. Even the anatomy beyond the gastrointestinal wall is being explored by the therapeutic use of endoluminal ultrasound. Endosonographic-guided surgery is not only a suitable fallback solution if conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography fails, but even makes necrosectomy procedures, abscess drainage, and neurolysis feasible for the endoscopist. Newly developed endoscopic approaches aim at formerly distinctive surgical domains like gastroesophageal reflux disease, appendicitis, and cholecystitis. Combined endoscopic/laparoscopic interventional techniques could become the harbingers of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, whereas pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery is currently still in its beginnings. PMID:25565878

  2. Eosinophilic disorders of the gastro-intestinal tract: an update.

    PubMed

    Ridolo, Erminia; Melli, Valerie; De' Angelis, Gianluigi; Martignago, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), are rare chronic pathologies of the digestive system, with an immuno-mediated pathogenesis. Recent data suggest that, together with the "classic" IgE-response to allergens, also a delayed hypersensitivity mechanism could be involved in the development of eosinophilic disorders. EoE and EGE were studied only in the latest decades and as a consequence accurate data are not yet available, concerning not only pathogenesis, but also epidemiology, treatment and outcomes. The diagnosis of EoE is centered on endoscopic findings but the certainty is obtained by histological examination from biopsy samples, that has a sensitivity of 100% when based on five samples. The currently available treatments include topical corticosteroids, specific diets and endoscopic treatment. Concerning EGE, three subtypes (mucosal, muscular, and serosal) were identified. The diagnosis is based, as for EoE, on endoscopic and histological assessment, and the treatment includes pharmacological and dietetic approaches. Further studies are warranted in order to better define the etiology and pathogenesis of eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and thus to develop more appropriate and specific therapies.

  3. Immediate detection of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related periampullary perforation: Fluoroscopy or endoscopy?

    PubMed Central

    Motomura, Yasuaki; Akahoshi, Kazuya; Gibo, Junya; Kanayama, Kenji; Fukuda, Shinichiro; Hamada, Shouhei; Otsuka, Yoshihiro; Kubokawa, Masaru; Kajiyama, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the causes and intraoperative detection of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-related perforations to support immediate or early diagnosis. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent ERCP procedures at our hospital between January 2008 and June 2013 were retrospectively enrolled in the study (n = 2674). All procedures had been carried out using digital fluoroscopic assistance with the patient under conscious sedation. For patients showing alterations in the gastrointestinal anatomy, a short-type double balloon enteroscope had been applied. Cases of perforation had been identified by the presence of air in or leakage of contrast medium into the retroperitoneal space, or upon endoscopic detection of an abdominal cavity related to the perforated lumen. For patients with ERCP-related perforations, the data on medical history, endoscopic findings, radiologic findings, diagnostic methods, management, and clinical outcomes were used for descriptive analysis. RESULTS: Of the 2674 ERCP procedures performed during the 71-mo study period, only six (0.22%) resulted in perforations (male/female, 2/4; median age: 84 years; age range: 57-97 years). The cases included an endoscope-related duodenal perforation, two periampullary perforations related to endoscopic sphincterotomy, two periampullary perforations related to endoscopic papillary balloon dilation, and a periampullary or bile duct perforation secondary to endoscopic instrument trauma. No cases of guidewire-related perforation occurred. The video endoscope system employed in all procedures was only able to immediately detect the endoscope-related perforation; the other five perforation cases were all detected by subsequent digital fluoroscope applied intraoperatively (at a median post-ERCP intervention time of 15 min). Three out of the six total perforation cases, including the single case of endoscope-related duodenal injury, were surgically treated; the remaining three cases were

  4. FECAL CALPROTECTIN AND GASTROINTESTINAL (GI) PERMEABILITY CORRELATE WITH DISEASE ACTIVITY INDEX, AND HISTOLOGIC, ENDOSCOPIC, AND RADIOLOGIC FINDINGS IN CHILDREN WITH CROHN DISEASE (CD)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fecal calprotectin and permeability are noninvasive measures of GI inflammation and damage, respectively. However, there are scant data as to the possible association between the tests and CD disease activity in children. We hypothesized that levels of fecal calprotectin and permeability would corre...

  5. Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding associated with solitary rectal ulcer in a patient with Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Bes, C; Dağlı, Ü; Yılmaz, F; Soy, M

    2015-09-16

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a rare benign disorder that has a wide range of clinical presentations and variable endoscopic findings which makes it difficult to diagnose and treat. The clinical and endoscopic picture in this condition can also mimic malign ulceration, malignancy or Crohn's disease. Behçet's disease can affect the gastrointestinal tract. However to the best of our knowledge, no case with solitary rectal ulceration has been reported so far in literature. We herein present a patient diagnosed with Behçet's disease admitted to our clinic with rectal bleeding due to solitary rectal ulceration.

  6. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Perl, Daniel; Leddin, Desmond; Bizos, Damon; Veitch, Andrew; N'Dow, James; Bush-Goddard, Stephanie; Njie, Ramou; Lemoine, Maud; Anderson, Suzanne T; Igoe, John; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Shah, Brijen

    2016-03-01

    Levels of endoscopic demand and capacity in West Africa are unclear. This paper aims to: 1. describe the current labor and endoscopic capacity, 2. quantify the impact of a mixed-methods endoscopy course on healthcare professionals in West Africa, and 3. quantify the types of diagnoses encountered. In a three-day course, healthcare professionals were surveyed on endoscopic resources and capacity and were taught through active observation of live cases, case discussion, simulator experience and didactics. Before and after didactics, multiple-choice exams as well as questionnaires were administered to assess for course efficacy. Also, a case series of 23 patients needing upper GI endoscopy was done. In surveying physicians, less than half had resources to perform an EGD and none could perform an ERCP, while waiting time for emergency endoscopy in urban populations was at least one day. In assessing improvement in medical knowledge among participants after didactics, objective data paired with subjective responses was more useful than either alone. Of 23 patients who received endoscopy, 7 required endoscopic intervention with 6 having gastric or esophageal varices. Currently the endoscopic capacity in West Africa is not sufficient. A formal GI course with simulation and didactics improves gastrointestinal knowledge amongst participants.

  7. Endoscopic calcaneoplasty.

    PubMed

    Jerosch, Joerg

    2015-03-01

    Opinions differ regarding the surgical treatment of posterior calcaneal exostosis. After failure of conservative treatment, open surgical bursectomy and resection of the calcaneal prominence is indicated by many investigators. Clinical studies have shown high rates of unsatisfactory results and complications. Endoscopic calcaneoplasty (ECP) is a minimally invasive surgical option that can avoid some of these obstacles. ECP is an effective procedure for the treatment of patients with posterior calcaneal exostosis. The endoscopic exposure is superior to the open technique and has less morbidity, less operating time, fewer complications, and the disorders can be better differentiated.

  8. Predictive Factors of Atelectasis Following Endoscopic Resection.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jung Wan; Jung, Sung Woo; Song, Jong Kyu; Shim, Euddeum; Choo, Ji Yung; Kim, Seung Young; Hyun, Jong Jin; Koo, Ja Seol; Yim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Sang Woo

    2016-01-01

    Atelectasis is one of the pulmonary complications associated with anesthesia. Little is known about atelectasis following endoscopic procedures under deep sedation. This study evaluated the frequency, risk factors, and clinical course of atelectasis after endoscopic resection. A total of 349 patients who underwent endoscopic resection of the upper gastrointestinal tract at a single academic tertiary referral center from March 2010 to October 2013 were enrolled. Baseline characteristics and clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical records. To identify atelectasis, we compared the chest radiography taken before and after the endoscopic procedure. Among the 349 patients, 68 (19.5 %) had newly developed atelectasis following endoscopic resection. In univariate logistic regression analysis, atelectasis correlated significantly with high body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, procedure duration, size of lesion, and total amount of propofol. In multiple logistic regression analysis, body mass index, procedure duration, and total propofol amount were risk factors for atelectasis following endoscopic procedures. Of the 68 patients with atelectasis, nine patients developed fever, and six patients displayed pneumonic infiltration. The others had no symptoms related to atelectasis. The incidence of radiographic atelectasis following endoscopic resection was nearly 20 %. Obesity, procedural time, and amount of propofol were the significant risk factors for atelectasis following endoscopic procedure. Most cases of the atelectasis resolved spontaneously with no sequelae.

  9. Management of early asymptomatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Scherübl, Hans; Faiss, Siegbert; Knoefel, Wolfram-Trudo; Wardelmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. Approximately two thirds of clinically manifest tumors occur in the stomach, nearly one third in the small bowel, and the rest in the colorectal region with a few cases in the esophagus. GIST originate within the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the tubular gastrointestinal tract and grow mostly toward the serosa, far less often toward the mucosa. In the latter case, ulceration may develop and can cause gastrointestinal bleeding as the cardinal symptom. However, most GIST of the stomach are asymptomatic. They are increasingly detected incidentally as small intramural or submucosal tumors during endoscopy and particularly during endoscopic ultrasound. Epidemiological and molecular genetic findings suggest that early asymptomatic GIST of the stomach (< 1 cm) show self-limiting tumorigenesis. Thus, early (< 1 cm) asymptomatic gastric GIST (synonym: micro-GIST) are found in 20%-30% of the elderly. The mostly elderly people with early gastric GIST have an excellent GIST-specific prognosis. Patients with early GIST of the stomach can therefore be managed by endoscopic surveillance. PMID:25031785

  10. Ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Herz, Paul R.; Hsiung, Pei-Lin; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Desai, Saleem; Pedrosa, Macos; Koski, Amanda; Schmitt, Joseph M.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2005-01-01

    Early detection of gastrointestinal cancer is essential for the patient treatment and medical care. Endoscopically guided biopsy is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of early esophageal cancer, but can suffer from high false negative rates due to sampling errors. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology which can generate high resolution, cross-sectional images of tissue in situ and in real time, without the removal of tissue specimen. Although endoscopic OCT has been used successfully to identify certain pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract, the resolution of current endoscopic OCT systems has been limited to 10 - 15 m for clinical procedures. In this study, in vivo imaging of the gastrointestinal tract is demonstrated at a three-fold higher resolution (< 5 m), using a portable, broadband, Cr4+:Forsterite laser as the optical light source. Images acquired from the esophagus, gastro-esophageal junction and colon on animal model display tissue microstructures and architectural details at high resolution, and the features observed in the OCT images are well-matched with histology. The clinical feasibility study is conducted through delivering OCT imaging catheter using standard endoscope. OCT images of normal esophagus, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal cancers are demonstrated with distinct features. The ability of high resolution endoscopic OCT to image tissue morphology at an unprecedented resolution in vivo would facilitate the development of OCT as a potential imaging modality for early detection of neoplastic changes.

  11. GASTROINTESTINAL EOSINOPHILIA

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Li; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2007-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Gastrointestinal eosinophilia, as a broad term for abnormal eosinophil accumulation in the GI tract, involves many different disease identities. These diseases include primary eosinophil associated gastrointestinal diseases, gastrointestinal eosinophilia in HES and all gastrointestinal eosinophilic states associated with known causes. Each of these diseases has its unique features but there is no absolute boundary between them. All three groups of GI eosinophila are described in this chapter although the focus is on primary gastrointestinal eosinophilia, i.e. EGID. PMID:17868858

  12. The relationship between computed tomography findings and the locations of perforated peptic ulcers: it may provide better information for gastrointestinal surgeons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shang-Yu; Cheng, Chi-Tung; Liao, Chien-Hung; Fu, Chih-Yuan; Wong, Yon-Cheong; Chen, Huan-Wu; Ouyang, Chun-Hsiang; Kuo, I-Ming; Hsu, Yu-Pao; Yeh, Chun-Nan

    2016-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in diagnosing gastrointestinal perforation. This study explored the relationship between CT findings and the locations of perforated peptic ulcers (PPUs), which may help further surgical planning. During a 34-month period, 175 patients had CT scans. We categorized those 175 patients into 2 groups: patients with and without a PPU at a difficult ulcer site for a laparoscopic approach. Both clinical data and the CT images were reviewed and analyzed. Based on the univariate analysis results, we conducted multivariate analyses of 3 factors: age, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification of 3 or more, and positive lesser sac image findings. The positive lesser sac findings in CT were the only independent factor that was correlated to the PPU site. Positive lesser sac CT findings may help to predict PPUs in sites where a laparoscopic approach might be difficult. Our study re-evaluates the additional value of CT scanning in diagnosing PPU, and the results may assist with surgical planning in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope for use in the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. K.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We have successfully developed a fully-sheathed, flexible shaft-based, mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The endoscopic system uses a single element ultrasonic transducer and flexible shaft-based proximal actuation mechanism, and it has a 2.5 m long and 3.2 mm diameter catheter section, which can be accommodated in the 3.7 mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo imaging capability of the PAE system.

  14. [Patient Monitoring and Associated Devices during Endoscopic Sedation].

    PubMed

    Moon, Sung Hoon; Kim, Hyung Keun; Myung, Dae Seong; Yoon, Soon Man; Moon, Won

    2017-01-25

    Sedation is an essential component for gastrointestinal endoscopy. It allows patients to tolerate unpleasant endoscopic procedures by relieving anxiety, discomfort, or pain. It also reduces patient's risk of physical injury during endoscopic procedures, while providing the endoscopist with an adequate setting for a detailed examination. For the safety during endoscopic sedation, patient monitoring is crucial. Minimal monitoring requirements during endoscopic sedation are periodic assessment of blood pressure and application of continuous pulse oximetry. Continuous electrocardiography is recommended in selected patients with high risk for sedation or have cardiopulmonary diseases. Continuous supplemental oxygen is also recommended for endoscopic sedation. This study describes detailed monitoring and associated devices based on the current guidelines and recommendations from gastrointestinal society of America, Europe, and Korea.

  15. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  16. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres

    2017-05-01

    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. PMID:28192107

  18. Safe storage time for reprocessed flexible endoscopes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Marilee; Daniels, Glenda; Hough, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Flexible endoscopes are used to diagnose and treat gastrointestinal and pulmonary diseases. They have narrow, internal channels which are used to insert instruments, air and water into hollow organs and to remove tissues and secretions. Since endoscopes are contaminated during use and have heat sensitive components that cannot be sterilized, they are reprocessed with cleaning and high-level disinfection to destroy microorganisms. Knowing how long reprocessed endoscopes can be safely stored is essential for preventing infection and decreasing unnecessary costs. The objective was to systematically review the best available evidence related to safe storage time (in days) of flexible endoscopes that have undergone reprocessing in order to determine when they can be safely used again without posing any risk of contamination from pathogens. The types of equipment were flexible endoscopes that had been reprocessed according to recommended guidelines, stored for a specified period of time, and tested for microorganisms.The intervention was the length of time (in days) that reprocessed endoscopes were appropriately stored before use.This review included non-randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies.This review considered studies that included the outcome measure: microbial growth on endoscopes which was measured with microbiological cultures. The search strategy aimed to find studies in English and Spanish and included published and unpublished studies from 1990 to 2014. An initial search of CINAHL, MEDLINE/PUBMed and EMBASE was conducted followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract and index terms used to describe the articles. Next, a search using all identified keywords and index terms was undertaken across all included databases. Then, the reference lists of all identified reports and articles were searched for additional studies. A citation search was performed in order to find additional studies that cited those

  19. Endoscopic ultrasound for chronic abdominal pain and gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Dill, B; Dill, J E; Berkhouse, L; Palmer, S T

    1999-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a major advance in gastrointestinal endoscopy. EUS, which is invaluable in the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal cancer, is now being used in the diagnosis of chronic upper abdominal pain. EUS combined with stimulated biliary drainage (EUS/SBD) aids in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis, cholecystitis, microlithiasis, and various conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. This article describes the EUS/SBD procedure and nursing care. Two case histories illustrating potential benefits to patients are presented.

  20. What if endoscopic hemostasis fails? Alternative treatment strategies: interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Nanavati, Sujal M

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1960s, interventional radiology has played a role in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. What began primarily as a diagnostic modality has evolved into much more of a therapeutic tool. And although the frequency of gastrointestinal bleeding has diminished thanks to management by pharmacologic and endoscopic methods, the need for additional invasive interventions still exists. Transcatheter angiography and intervention is a fundamental step in the algorithm for the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  1. Prognostic factors for recurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding due to Dieulafoy's lesion.

    PubMed

    Jamanca-Poma, Yuliana; Velasco-Guardado, Antonio; Piñero-Pérez, Concepción; Calderón-Begazo, Renzo; Umaña-Mejía, Josue; Geijo-Martínez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Pérez, Antonio

    2012-10-28

    To analyze the effectiveness of the endoscopic therapy and to identify prognostic factors for recurrent bleeding. Retrospective study of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to Dieulafoy's lesion (DL) from 2005 to 2011. We analyzed the demographic characteristics of the patients, risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding, endoscopic findings, characteristics of the endoscopic treatment, and the recurrence of bleeding. We included cases in which endoscopy described a lesion compatible with Dieulafoy. We excluded patients who had potentially bleeding lesions such as angiodysplasia in other areas or had undergone other gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. Twenty-nine patients with DL were identified. Most of them were men with an average age of 71.5 years. Fifty-five percent of the patients received antiaggregatory or anticoagulant therapy. The most common location for DL was the stomach (51.7%). The main type of bleeding was oozing in 65.5% of cases. In 27.6% of cases, there was arterial (spurting) bleeding, and 6.9% of the patients presented with an adherent clot. A single endoscopic treatment was applied to nine patients (31%); eight of them with adrenaline and one with argon, while 69% of the patients received combined treatment. Six patients (20.7%) presented with recurrent bleeding at a median of 4 d after endoscopy (interquartile range = 97.75). Within these six patients, the new endoscopic treatment obtained a therapeutic success of 100%. The presence of arterial bleeding at endoscopy was associated with a higher recurrence rate for bleeding (50% vs 33.3% for other type of bleeding) [P = 0.024, odds ratio (OR) = 8.5, 95% CI = 1.13-63.87]. The use of combined endoscopic treatment prevented the recurrence of bleeding (10% vs 44.4% of single treatment) (P = 0.034, OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.19-0.99). Endoscopic treatment of DL is safe and effective. Adrenaline monotherapy and arterial (spurting) bleeding are associated with a high rate of bleeding

  2. Prognostic factors for recurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding due to Dieulafoy's lesion

    PubMed Central

    Jamanca-Poma, Yuliana; Velasco-Guardado, Antonio; Piñero-Pérez, Concepción; Calderón-Begazo, Renzo; Umaña-Mejía, Josue; Geijo-Martínez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Pérez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the effectiveness of the endoscopic therapy and to identify prognostic factors for recurrent bleeding. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to Dieulafoy’s lesion (DL) from 2005 to 2011. We analyzed the demographic characteristics of the patients, risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding, endoscopic findings, characteristics of the endoscopic treatment, and the recurrence of bleeding. We included cases in which endoscopy described a lesion compatible with Dieulafoy. We excluded patients who had potentially bleeding lesions such as angiodysplasia in other areas or had undergone other gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients with DL were identified. Most of them were men with an average age of 71.5 years. Fifty-five percent of the patients received antiaggregatory or anticoagulant therapy. The most common location for DL was the stomach (51.7%). The main type of bleeding was oozing in 65.5% of cases. In 27.6% of cases, there was arterial (spurting) bleeding, and 6.9% of the patients presented with an adherent clot. A single endoscopic treatment was applied to nine patients (31%); eight of them with adrenaline and one with argon, while 69% of the patients received combined treatment. Six patients (20.7%) presented with recurrent bleeding at a median of 4 d after endoscopy (interquartile range = 97.75). Within these six patients, the new endoscopic treatment obtained a therapeutic success of 100%. The presence of arterial bleeding at endoscopy was associated with a higher recurrence rate for bleeding (50% vs 33.3% for other type of bleeding) [P = 0.024, odds ratio (OR) = 8.5, 95% CI = 1.13-63.87]. The use of combined endoscopic treatment prevented the recurrence of bleeding (10% vs 44.4% of single treatment) (P = 0.034, OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.19-0.99). CONCLUSION: Endoscopic treatment of DL is safe and effective. Adrenaline monotherapy and arterial (spurting) bleeding are

  3. [Laser in gastroenterologic endoscopic therapy].

    PubMed

    Naveau, S; Chaput, J C

    1991-01-21

    Endoscopic gastrointestinal laser therapy was originally inspired by the haemostatic properties of the laser beam and was subsequently used to destroy tumours. In endoscopic gastroenterology, the most commonly used type of laser is the neodyme+-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. Endoscopic Nd:YAG laser therapy of obstructive cancers of the oesophagus and cardia rapidly reduces dysphagia in 70 to 100% of the patients. In the treatment of colorectal cancers, the intestinal transit returns to normal in 57 to 83% of the cases, and rectal haemorrhages are controlled in 38 to 92% of the cases. However, sustained results can only be obtained by a maintenance treatment with at least one application every 4 weeks. The Nd:YAG laser makes it possible to destroy villose tumours in patients who cannot, or will not, be operated upon; the number of applications depends on the size of the tumour. Finally, the Nd:YAG laser seems to be able to control bleeding due to gastrointestinal angiodysplasia and to stabilize the course of Rendu-Osler-Weber disease.

  4. Recent traction methods for endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Kunihiro; Yoshida, Naohiro; Nakanishi, Hiroyoshi; Takemura, Kenichi; Yamada, Shinya; Doyama, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is problematic with regard to en bloc and curable resection rates. Advancements in endoscopic techniques have enabled novel endoscopic approaches such as endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), which has overcome some EMR problems, and has become the standard treatment for gastrointestinal tumors. However, ESD is technically difficult. Procedure time is longer and complications such as intraoperative perforation and bleeding occur more frequently than in EMR. Recently various traction methods have been introduced to facilitate ESD procedures, such as clip with line, external forceps, clip and snare, internal traction, double scope, and magnetic anchor. Each method must be used appropriately according to the anatomical characteristics. In this review we discuss recently proposed traction methods for ESD based on the characteristics of various anatomical sites. PMID:27468186

  5. [Advances on endoscopic treatment of intestinal fistulas].

    PubMed

    Wu, X W; Ren, J A; Li, J S

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal fistulas are severe complications after abdominal surgical procedures. The endoscopic therapy makes it possible to close fistulas without surgical interventions. When patients achieved stabilization and had no signs of systemic sepsis or inflammation, these therapies could be conducted, which included endoscopic vacuum therapy, fibrin glue sealing, stents, fistula plug, suture, and Over The Scope Clip (OTSC). Various techniques may be combined. Endoscopy vacuum therapy could be applied to control systemic inflammation and prevent continuing septic contamination by active drainage. Endoscopic stent is placed over fistulas and gastrointestinal continuity is recovered. The glue sealing is applied for enterocutaneous fistulas, and endoscopy suture has the best results seen in fistulas <1 cm in diameter. Insertion of the fistula plug is used to facilitate fistula healing. The OTSC is effective to treat leaks with large defects. Endoscopic treatment could avoid reoperation and could be regarded as the first-line treatment for specific patients.

  6. Video-based measurements for wireless capsule endoscope tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Iakovidis, Dimitris K.

    2014-01-01

    The wireless capsule endoscope is a swallowable medical device equipped with a miniature camera enabling the visual examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It wirelessly transmits thousands of images to an external video recording system, while its location and orientation are being tracked approximately by external sensor arrays. In this paper we investigate a video-based approach to tracking the capsule endoscope without requiring any external equipment. The proposed method involves extraction of speeded up robust features from video frames, registration of consecutive frames based on the random sample consensus algorithm, and estimation of the displacement and rotation of interest points within these frames. The results obtained by the application of this method on wireless capsule endoscopy videos indicate its effectiveness and improved performance over the state of the art. The findings of this research pave the way for a cost-effective localization and travel distance measurement of capsule endoscopes in the GI tract, which could contribute in the planning of more accurate surgical interventions.

  7. Utilisation of magnets to enhance gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Imdadur; Patel, Praful; Boger, Philip; Thomson, Mike; Afzal, Nadeem Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Methods to assess, access and treat pathology within the gastrointestinal tract continue to evolve with video endoscopy replacing radiology as the gold standard. Whilst endoscope technology develops further with the advent of newer higher resolution chips, an array of adjuncts has been developed to enhance endoscopy in other ways; most notable is the use of magnets. Magnets are utilised in many areas, ranging from endoscopic training, lesion resection, aiding manoeuvrability of capsule endoscopes, to assisting in easy placement of tubes for nutritional feeding. Some of these are still at an experimental stage, whilst others are being increasingly incorporated in our everyday practice. PMID:26722611

  8. Integrated biophotonics in endoscopic oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muguruma, Naoki; DaCosta, Ralph S.; Wilson, Brian C.; Marcon, Norman E.

    2009-02-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy has made great progress during last decade. Diagnostic accuracy can be enhanced by better training, improved dye-contrast techniques method, and the development of new image processing technologies. However, diagnosis using conventional endoscopy with white-light optical imaging is essentially limited by being based on morphological changes and/or visual attribution: hue, saturation and intensity, interpretation of which depends on the endoscopist's eye and brain. In microlesions in the gastrointestinal tract, we still rely ultimately on the histopathological diagnosis from biopsy specimens. Autofluorescence imaging system has been applied for lesions which have been difficult to morphologically recognize or are indistinct with conventional endoscope, and this approach has potential application for the diagnosis of dysplastic lesions and early cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, supplementing the information from white light endoscopy. This system has an advantage that it needs no administration of a photosensitive agent, making it suitable as a screening method for the early detection of neoplastic tissues. Narrow band imaging (NBI) is a novel endoscopic technique which can distinguish neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions without chromoendoscopy. Magnifying endoscopy in combination with NBI has an obvious advantage, namely analysis of the epithelial pit pattern and the vascular network. This new technique allows a detailed visualization in early neoplastic lesions of esophagus, stomach and colon. However, problems remain; how to combine these technologies in an optimum diagnostic strategy, how to apply them into the algorithm for therapeutic decision-making, and how to standardize several classifications surrounding them. 'Molecular imaging' is a concept representing the most novel imaging methods in medicine, although the definition of the word is still controversial. In the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the future of

  9. Endoscopic Cyclophotocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Seibold, Leonard K.; SooHoo, Jeffrey R.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many new procedures and implants have been introduced as safer alternatives for the surgical treatment of glaucoma. The majority of these advances are implant-based with a goal of increased aqueous drainage to achieve lower intraocular pressure (IOP). In contrast, endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP) lowers IOP through aqueous suppression. Although ciliary body ablation is a well-established method of aqueous suppression, the novel endoscopic approach presents a significant evolution of this treatment with marked improvement in safety. The endoscope couples a light source, video imaging, and diode laser to achieve direct visualization of the ciliary processes during controlled laser application. The result is an efficient and safe procedure that can achieve a meaningful reduction in IOP and eliminate or reduce glaucoma medication use. From its initial use in refractory glaucoma, the indications for ECP have expanded broadly to include many forms of glaucoma across the spectrum of disease severity. The minimally-invasive nature of ECP allows for easy pairing with phacoemulsification in patients with coexisting cataract. In addition, the procedure avoids implant or device-related complications associated with newer surgical treatments. In this review, we illustrate the differences between ECP and traditional cyclophotocoagulation, then describe the instrumentation, patient selection, and technique for ECP. Finally, we summarize the available clinical evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of this procedure. PMID:25624669

  10. Mucosal eosinophilia: prevalence and racial/ethnic differences in symptoms and endoscopic findings in adults over 10 years in an urban hospital.

    PubMed

    Bohm, Matthew; Malik, Zubair; Sebastiano, Christopher; Thomas, Rebecca; Gaughan, John; Kelsen, Steven; Richter, Joel E

    2012-08-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disease with mucosal accumulation of eosinophils. There is a paucity of data among racial/ethnic groups other than white patients. To determine if racial/ethnic differences exist in clinical presentation, endoscopic appearance, and biopsy results in adult patients (age ≥18 y) with mucosal eosinophilia and examine the prevalence of mucosal eosinophilia at an urban hospital over a 10-year period. Pathology reports searched at Temple University Hospital 2000 to 2009; key words: "eosinophils", "esophagus", and "biopsy". Clinical and endoscopic records reviewed on patients with ≥15 eosinophils/high power field. A total of 64 adults (average age, 41 y; 62% male patients; 81% white, 12% black, and 6% Hispanic). White patients were significantly younger (P=0.03). Adult mucosal eosinophilia diagnosis increased by 833% (3 in 2000 to 25 in 2009); black/Hispanic diagnosis increased by 500% (1 in 2000 to 5 in 2009). Solid food dysphagia was more common among white patients (72% vs. 0.33%, P=0.02). Reflux symptoms were more common in black/Hispanic patients (42% vs. 22%, P=0.16). Normal endoscopy (42% vs. 13%, P=0.04) and reflux changes (41% vs. 21%, P=0.16) were more common in black/Hispanic patients. Furrows (42% vs. 8%, P=0.04) and rings (46% vs. 0%, P=0.002) were more common in white patients. Average eosinophil counts did not vary between groups. Mucosal eosinophilia presents with significant differences between racial/ethnic groups in age at onset, symptoms at presentation, and endoscopic features. Differences may reflect different phenotypes of the same disease or separate disease entities.

  11. Endoscopic Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Gastric Subepithelial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Kim, Do Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Subepithelial lesions occasionally found in the stomach of patients undergoing endoscopy may be either benign lesions or tumors with malignant potential. They may also appear due to extrinsic compression. Discrimination of gastric subepithelial lesions begins with meticulous endoscopic examination for size, shape, color, mobility, consistency, and appearance of the overlying mucosa. Accurate diagnosis can be achieved with endoscopic ultrasonography, which provides useful information on the exact size, layer-of-origin, and characteristic morphologic features to support a definitive diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography also aids in the prediction of malignant potential, especially in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Features of subepithelial lesions identified on endoscopic ultrasonography can be used to determine whether further diagnostic procedures such as endoscopic resection, fine needle aspiration, or core biopsy are required. Endoscopic ultrasonography is a valuable tool for diagnosis and clinical decision making during follow-up of gastric subepithelial lesions. PMID:27744661

  12. Transmission of Infection by Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and Bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Frans T. M.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Degener, John E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Flexible endoscopy is a widely used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Contaminated endoscopes are the medical devices frequently associated with outbreaks of health care-associated infections. Accurate reprocessing of flexible endoscopes involves cleaning and high-level disinfection followed by rinsing and drying before storage. Most contemporary flexible endoscopes cannot be heat sterilized and are designed with multiple channels, which are difficult to clean and disinfect. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms on the inner channel surfaces can contribute to failure of the decontamination process. Implementation of microbiological surveillance of endoscope reprocessing is appropriate to detect early colonization and biofilm formation in the endoscope and to prevent contamination and infection in patients after endoscopic procedures. This review presents an overview of the infections and cross-contaminations related to flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy and bronchoscopy and illustrates the impact of biofilm on endoscope reprocessing and postendoscopic infection. PMID:23554415

  13. MR Enterography of Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Endoscopic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Pankaj; Somwaru, Alexander S; Charabaty, Aline; Levy, Angela D

    2017-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two main forms of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD is a transmural chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract in a discontinuous distribution. UC is a mucosal and submucosal chronic inflammatory disease that typically originates in the rectum and may extend proximally in a continuous manner. In treating patients with CD and UC, clinicians rely heavily on accurate diagnoses and disease staging. Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography used in conjunction with endoscopy and histopathologic analysis can help accurately diagnose and manage disease in the majority of patients. Endoscopy is more sensitive for detection of the early-manifesting mucosal abnormalities seen with IBD and enables histopathologic sampling. MR enterography yields more insightful information about the pathologic changes seen deep to the mucosal layer of the gastrointestinal tract wall and to those portions of the small bowel that are not accessible endoscopically. CD can be classified into active inflammatory, fistulizing and perforating, fibrostenotic, and reparative and regenerative phases of disease. Although CD has a progressive course, there is no stepwise progression between these disease phases, and various phases may exist at the same time. The endoscopic and MR enterographic features of UC can be broadly divided into two categories: acute phase and subacute-chronic phase. Understanding the endoscopic features of IBD and the pathologic processes that cause the MR enterographic findings of IBD can help improve the accuracy of disease characterization and thus optimize the medication and surgical therapies for these patients. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  14. An Unusual Cause of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Acute Esophageal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tokala, Madhusudhan R.; Dhillon, Sonu; Pisoh, Watcoun-Nchinda; Walayat, Saqib; Vanar, Vishwas; Puli, Srinivas R.

    2016-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), also called “black esophagus,” is a condition characterized by circumferential necrosis of the esophagus with universal distal involvement and variable proximal extension with clear demarcation at the gastroesophageal junction. It is an unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is recognized with distinct and striking mucosal findings on endoscopy. The patients are usually older and are critically ill with shared comorbidities, which include atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic renal insufficiency, and malnutrition. Alcoholism and substance abuse could be seen in younger patients. Patients usually have systemic hypotension along with upper abdominal pain in the background of clinical presentation of hematemesis and melena. The endoscopic findings confirm the diagnosis and biopsy is not always necessary unless clinically indicated in atypical presentations. Herein we present two cases with distinct clinical presentation and discuss the endoscopic findings along with a review of the published literature on the management of AEN. PMID:27642529

  15. Endoscopic examination of the upper esophagus by withdrawal of endoscope over guide wire.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Deepak K; Rana, Surinder S; Chandail, Vijant S; Nanda, Mohit; Nadkarni, Nikhil; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Sinha, Saroj K; Nagi, Birinder

    2006-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy is an important diagnostic modality in evaluation of patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. However, lesions located in the cricopharyngeal area and upper esophagus can be missed, as this area may not be well visualized during endoscopy. This study was conducted to study the utility of a new technique of endoscopic examination of the upper esophagus by withdrawal of endoscope over guide wire in diagnosing esophageal disorders. Patients with suspected upper esophageal disorders on history and radiological investigations were assessed using guide wire assisted endoscopic examination during withdrawal of the endoscope. In this technique, endoscope is inserted into the esophagus under vision and thereafter the whole of esophagus, stomach and proximal duodenum is examined. The endoscope is then withdrawn into the mid-esophagus, a guide wire is fed into the biopsy channel, and thereafter inserted into the esophagus. Once guide wire has been advanced into the esophagus, the endoscope is withdrawn gently over the guide wire into esophagus carefully examining for lesions in upper esophagus and cricopharyngeal area. Twenty cases of various abnormalities localized to the upper esophagus were studied. The final diagnosis in these patients was cervical esophageal web (10), post transhiatal esophagectomy leak (4), heterotopic gastric mucosa (3), posttraumatic esophageal perforation (2), and Zenker's diverticulum (1). Intact web was detected in 2 patients and in 8 patients fractured web was seen. Guide wire assisted examination of upper esophagus improved the ability to visualize and characterize these lesions and no complications were encountered as a result of this procedure. Endoscopic examination of the upper esophagus by withdrawal of endoscope over guide wire is safe and effective in diagnosing anatomical abnormalities of the upper esophagus that may be missed or poorly characterized during standard endoscopy.

  16. Advances in gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lanas, Ángel

    2016-09-01

    The main innovations of the latest meeting of the Gastroenterological Association (2016) concerning upper gastrointestinal bleeding from the clinician's perspective can be summarised as follows: a) The Glasgow-Blatchford scale has the best accuracy in predicting the need for surgical intervention and hospital mortality; b) Prognostic scales for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding are also useful for lower gastrointestinal bleeding; c) Preliminary data suggest that treatment with hemospray does not seem to be superior to current standard treatment in controlling active peptic ulcer bleeding; d) Either famotidine or a proton pump inhibitor may be effective in preventing haemorrhagic recurrence in patients taking aspirin, but this finding needs to be confirmed in further studies; e) There was confirmation of the need to re-introduce antiplatelet therapy as early as possible in patients with antiplatelet-associated gastrointestinal bleeding in order to prevent cardiovascular mortality; f) Routine clinical practice suggests that gastrointestinal or cardiovascular complications with celecoxib or traditional NSAIDs are very low; g) Dabigatran is associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding compared with apixaban or warfarin. At least half of the episodes are located in the lower gastrointestinal tract; h) Implant devices for external ventricular circulatory support are associated with early gastrointestinal bleeding in up to one third of patients; the bleeding is often secondary to arteriovenous malformations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of the color rendition of flexible endoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Edward M.; Hegarty, Francis J.; McMahon, Barry P.; Boyle, Gerard

    2003-03-01

    Endoscopes are imaging devices routinely used for the diagnosis of disease within the human digestive tract. Light is transmitted into the body cavity via incoherent fibreoptic bundles and is controlled by a light feedback system. Fibreoptic endoscopes use coherent fibreoptic bundles to provide the clinician with an image. It is also possible to couple fibreoptic endoscopes to a clip-on video camera. Video endoscopes consist of a small CCD camera, which is inserted into gastrointestinal tract, and associated image processor to convert the signal to analogue RGB video signals. Images from both types of endoscope are displayed on standard video monitors. Diagnosis is dependent upon being able to determine changes in the structure and colour of tissues and biological fluids, and therefore is dependent upon the ability of the endoscope to reproduce the colour of these tissues and fluids with fidelity. This study investigates the colour reproduction of flexible optical and video endoscopes. Fibreoptic and video endoscopes alter image colour characteristics in different ways. The colour rendition of fibreoptic endoscopes was assessed by coupling them to a video camera and applying video colorimetric techniques. These techniques were then used on video endoscopes to assess how the colour rendition of video endoscopes compared with that of optical endoscopes. In both cases results were obtained at fixed illumination settings. Video endoscopes were then assessed with varying levels of illumination. Initial results show that at constant luminance endoscopy systems introduce non-linear shifts in colour. Techniques for examining how this colour shift varies with illumination intensity were developed and both methodology and results will be presented. We conclude that more rigorous quality assurance is required to reduce colour error and are developing calibration procedures applicable to medical endoscopes.

  18. Management of a large mucosal defect after duodenal endoscopic resection

    PubMed Central

    Fujihara, Shintaro; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Duodenal endoscopic resection is the most difficult type of endoscopic treatment in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and is technically challenging because of anatomical specificities. In addition to these technical difficulties, this procedure is associated with a significantly higher rate of complication than endoscopic treatment in other parts of the GI tract. Postoperative delayed perforation and bleeding are hazardous complications, and emergency surgical intervention is sometimes required. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to establish a management protocol for preventing serious complications. For instance, the prophylactic closure of large mucosal defects after endoscopic resection may reduce the risk of hazardous complications. However, the size of mucosal defects after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is relatively large compared with the size after endoscopic mucosal resection, making it impossible to achieve complete closure using only conventional clips. The over-the-scope clip and polyglycolic acid sheets with fibrin gel make it possible to close large mucosal defects after duodenal ESD. In addition to the combination of laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic resection, endoscopic full-thickness resection holds therapeutic potential for difficult duodenal lesions and may overcome the disadvantages of endoscopic resection in the near future. This review aims to summarize the complications and closure techniques of large mucosal defects and to highlight some directions for management after duodenal endoscopic treatment. PMID:27547003

  19. Endoscopic management of acute peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yidan; Chen, Yen-I; Barkun, Alan

    2014-12-01

    This review discusses the indications, technical aspects, and comparative effectiveness of the endoscopic treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by peptic ulcer. Pre-endoscopic considerations, such as the use of prokinetics and timing of endoscopy, are reviewed. In addition, this article examines aspects of postendoscopic care such as the effectiveness, dosing, and duration of postendoscopic proton-pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori testing, and benefits of treatment in terms of preventing rebleeding; and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, and oral anticoagulants, including direct thrombin and Xa inhibitors, following acute peptic ulcer bleeding.

  20. Effects of flunixin and flunixin plus prednisone on the gastrointestinal tract of dogs.

    PubMed

    Dow, S W; Rosychuk, R A; McChesney, A E; Curtis, C R

    1990-07-01

    Flunixin meglumine has been reported to induce gastrointestinal lesions in dogs when administered at therapeutic dosages. We administered flunixin meglumine to dogs daily for 10 days to assess the effect of this drug on the gastrointestinal tract. We also evaluated the possibility of corticosteroid potentiation of gastrointestinal toxicosis by concurrent administration of prednisone to 1 group of dogs. Dogs were monitored for gastrointestinal toxicosis by means of serial endoscopic evaluation, measurement of fecal occult blood, PCV, and total solid concentration, and by physical examination. There were 3 treatment groups of 5 dogs each. Group-1 dogs were given 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses IM; group-2 dogs were given 4.4 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses IM; and group-3 dogs were given 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses IM plus 1.1 mg of prednisone/kg/d orally, in 2 divided doses. A fourth group of 5 dogs served as a control group. Endoscopically visible gastric mucosal lesions developed in all treated dogs within 4 days of initiating treatment. Lesions first developed in the gastric pylorus and antrum and lesions at these sites were more severe than those observed elsewhere. Dogs treated with flunixin meglumine plus prednisone developed the earliest and most severe lesions; lesion scores in group-2 dogs were higher than those in group-1 dogs. All dogs treated had occult blood in their feces by day 5 and its presence appeared to correlate more closely with endoscopic findings than did physical examination findings or changes in values for PCV or total solids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Paediatric Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Mike; Tringali, Andrea; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Tavares, Marta; Tabbers, Merit M; Furlano, Raoul; Spaander, Manon; Hassan, Cesare; Tzvinikos, Christos; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; Viala, Jérôme; Dall'Oglio, Luigi; Benninga, Marc; Orel, Rok; Vandenplas, Yvan; Keil, Radan; Romano, Claudio; Brownstone, Eva; Hlava, Štěpán; Gerner, Patrick; Dolak, Werner; Landi, Rosario; Huber, Wolf D; Everett, Simon; Vecsei, Andreas; Aabakken, Lars; Amil-Dias, Jorge; Zambelli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This guideline refers to infants, children, and adolescents ages 0 to 18 years. The areas covered include indications for diagnostic and therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy; endoscopy for foreign body ingestion; corrosive ingestion and stricture/stenosis endoscopic management; upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; and endoscopic ultrasonography. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and endoscopy specific to inflammatory bowel disease has been dealt with in other guidelines and are therefore not mentioned in this guideline. Training and ongoing skill maintenance are to be dealt with in an imminent sister publication to this.

  2. Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Pignon, Charly; Huynh, Minh; Husnik, Roman; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is a common complaint in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Their relatively simple and short gastrointestinal tract makes them good candidates for flexible endoscopy. However, apart from a few references in biomedical research articles, there is little information on the use of flexible endoscopy in ferrets. This review describes patient preparation, equipment, and select gastrointestinal endoscopy techniques in ferrets, including esophagoscopy, gastroscopy, duodenoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, jejunoileoscopy, colonoscopy, and biopsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Clinical analysis of gastrointestinal bleeding after cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui-ming; Wu, Ruo-bin; Yang, Hong-wei; Zheng, Shao-yi; Fan, Rui-xin; Lu, Cong; Zhang, Jing-fang

    2005-05-15

    To explore early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding after cardiac surgery. In the last 13 years, cases complicated with GI bleeding after cardiac surgeries were analyzed retrospectively. Fourty-four GI bleeding occurred post-operatively in (6 +/- 3) d. The mortality was 23% (10/44). Thirty-eight were located in upper GI tract, of them 26 underwent conservative therapy while 4 died of other than GI bleeding cause; six underwent laparotomy while 1 and 3 died of septicemia and multi-organ failure respectively; six underwent gastric endoscopic hemostasis by electrocautery or clipping the bleeding vessel while all survived. Six were located in lower GI tract, and 2 of them underwent laparotomy without finding bleeding section and died of multi-organ failure. By multivariable logistic regression analysis, deaths were highly related to the post-operative ventilator-dependence, acute renal insufficiency, intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) assisting and laparotomy. The mortality of GI bleeding after cardiac surgeries is very high, early gastrointestinal endoscopic examination and minimally invasive intervention can treat this complication more effectively. GI bleeding must be prevented whenever complicating post-operative ventilator-dependence, acute renal insufficiency, and IABP assisting after cardiac surgery.

  4. Risk Factors for Dieulafoy Lesions in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hae Jin; Ju, Jong Seok; Kim, Ki Dae; Kim, Seok Won; Kang, Sung Hoon; Moon, Hee Seok; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The purpose of this study is to verify the risk factors associated with Dieulafoy lesion formation in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Methods A case-control study was performed by reviewing the electronic medical records of 42 patients who were admitted to a tertiary medical center in the Daejeon region for Dieulafoy lesions from September 2008 to October 2013, and the records of 132 patients who were admitted during the same period and who underwent endoscopic examination for reasons other than bleeding. We analyzed clinical and endoscopic findings retrospectively, and searched for risk factors associated with Dieulafoy lesion formation. Results All 42 patients diagnosed with Dieulafoy lesion had accompanying bleeding, and the location of the bleeding was proximal in 25 patients (59.5%), the middle portion in seven patients (16.7%), and distal in 10 patients (23.8%). Antiplatelet agents (p=0.022) and alcohol (p=0.001) use showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the two factors were 2.802 (1.263 to 6.217) and 3.938 (1.629 to 9.521), respectively. Conclusions This study showed that antiplatelet agents and alcohol consumption were risk factors associated with Dieulafoy lesion formation in the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26064823

  5. Utility of esophageal gastroduodenoscopy at the time of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Haan, James M; Bochicchio, Grant V; Scalea, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    Background The utility of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) performed at the time of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is unclear. We examined whether EGD at time of PEG yielded clinically useful information important in patient care. We also reviewed the outcome and complication rates of EGD-PEG performed by trauma surgeons. Methods Retrospective review of all trauma patients undergoing EGD with PEG at a level I trauma center from 1/01–6/03. Results 210 patients underwent combined EGD with PEG by the trauma team. A total of 37% of patients had unsuspected upper gastrointestinal lesions seen on EGD. Of these, 35% had traumatic brain injury, 10% suffered multisystem injury, and 47% had spinal cord injury. These included 15 esophageal, 61 gastric, and six duodenal lesions, mucosal or hemorrhagic findings on EGD. This finding led to a change in therapy in 90% of patients; either resumption/continuation of H2 -blockers or conversion to proton-pump inhibitors. One patient suffered an upper gastrointestinal bleed while on H2-blocker. It was treated endoscopically. Complication rates were low. There were no iatrogenic visceral perforations seen. Three PEGs were inadvertently removed by the patient (1.5%); one was replaced with a Foley, one replaced endoscopically, and one patient underwent gastric repair and open jejunostomy tube. One PEG leak was repaired during exploration for unrelated hemorrhage. Six patients had significant site infections (3%); four treated with local drainage and antibiotics, one requiring operative debridement and later closure, and one with antibiotics alone. Conclusion EGD at the time of PEG may add clinically useful data in the management of trauma patients. Only one patient treated with acid suppression therapy for EGD diagnosed lesions suffered delayed gastrointestinal bleeding. Trauma surgeons can perform EGD and PEG with acceptable outcomes and complication rates. PMID:17615081

  6. Therapeutic aspects of endoscopic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Timothy A.

    1999-06-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a technology that had been used primarily as a passive imaging modality. Recent advances have enabled us to move beyond the use of EUS solely as a staging tool to an interventional device. Current studies suggest that interventional applications of EUS will allow for minimally invasive assessment and therapies in a cost-effective manner. Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been demonstrated to be a technically feasible, relatively safe method of obtaining cytologic specimens. The clinical utility of EUS- FNA appears to be greatest in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer and in the nodal staging of gastrointestinal and pulmonary malignancies. In addition, EUS-FNA has demonstrated utility in the sampling pleural and ascitic fluid not generally appreciated or assessable to standard interventions. Interventional applications of EUS include EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage, EUS-guided injection of botulinum toxin in the treatment of achalasia, and EUS- guided celiac plexus neurolysis in the treatment of pancreatic cancer pain. Finally, EUS-guided fine-needle installation is being evaluated, in conjunction with recent bimolecular treatment modalities, as a delivery system in the treatment of certain gastrointestinal tumors.

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound guided interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S; Bhasin, Deepak K

    2015-06-10

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy. EUS provides access to many organs and lesions which are in proximity to the gastrointestinal tract and thus giving an opportunity to target them for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. This modality also provides a real time opportunity to target the required area while avoiding adjacent vascular and other structures. Therapeutic EUS has found role in management of pancreatic fluid collections, biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drainage of gallbladder, celiac plexus neurolysis/blockage, drainage of mediastinal and intra-abdominal abscesses and collections and in targeted cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Infact, therapeutic EUS has emerged as the therapy of choice for management of pancreatic pseudocysts and recent innovations like fully covered removable metallic stents have improved results in patients with organised necrosis. Similarly, EUS guided drainage of biliary tract and pancreatic duct helps drainage of these systems in patients with failed cannulation, inaccessible papilla as with duodenal/gastric obstruction or surgically altered anatomy. EUS guided gall bladder drainage is a useful emergent procedure in patients with acute cholecystitis who are not fit for surgery. EUS guided celiac plexus neurolysis and blockage is more effective and less morbid vis-à-vis the percutaneous technique. The field of interventional EUS is rapidly advancing and many more interventions are being continuously added. This review focuses on the current status of evidence vis-à-vis the established indications of therapeutic EUS.

  8. Upper endoscopy versus endosonography in differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal bulging.

    PubMed

    Ardengh, José Celso; Vaiciunas, Spencer; Kemp, Rafael; Venco, Filadelfo; Lima-Filho, Eder Rios; dos Santos, José Sebastião

    2011-01-01

    The identification of a bulging covered by normal epithelium is a common finding during an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. To compare the endoscopic and endosonography findings in the differential diagnosis of the gastrointestinal bulging (subepithelial tumor or extrinsic compression). Patients referred by endosonography with bulging of upper gastrointestinal tract were studied retrospectively. The size, location, consistency and presumptive diagnosis were recorded at time of endoscopy and endosonography. Endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration was proposed in case of uncertain diagnose to increase diagnostic sensitivity. One hundred seventy-six patients (93 women) and mean age 62.5 years (10-87). One hundred fifty-three had subepithelial tumor and 23 had extrinsic compression as a final diagnosis. Endosonography had sensitivity, specificity and accuracy higher than those found by endoscopy for both diagnosis subepithelial tumor and extrinsic compression. Endoscopy and endosonography showed poor concordance (K = 0.13) for subepithelial tumor diagnosis and unsuitable agreement for diagnosis in extrinsic compression (K = 0.01). The endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 75%, 72.4%, 80.5%, 65.6% and 74%, respectively. Endoscopy has high sensitivity and low specificity for subepithelial tumor and both are low for the extrinsic compression. Endoscopy is a good tool for diagnosis of the subepithelial tumors, but not to determine the cause of an extrinsic compression. The endosonography identifies the layer from which subepithelial tumor comes, obtain histological samples, and increasing the diagnostic accuracy.

  9. Outcomes of endoscopic treatment of gastroduodenal Dieulafoy's lesion with rubber band ligation and thermal/injection therapy.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Rushda; Shaukat, Masud; Ramirez, Francisco C

    2003-04-01

    Dieulafoy's lesion is a rare but important cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Current endoscopic methods used to treat Dieulafoy's lesion include injection, with or without thermal methods, and mechanical methods. The latter include variceal ligation and hemoclips. There are no studies comparing the outcomes of rubber band ligation and injection with or without thermal therapy. To report the outcomes of Dieulafoy's lesion treated endoscopically with rubber band ligation and injection with or without thermal therapy at a single institution. Patients with the diagnosis of Dieulafoy's lesion treated endoscopically at the Carl T. Hayden VA Medical Center in Phoenix, between August 1994 and August 2002 were analyzed. Demographic data, mode of presentation, risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding, hemodynamic parameters, blood transfusion requirements, endoscopic findings, details of endoscopic therapy, length of stay in ICU/hospital, complications, recurrence of bleeding, and mortality rates were collected and compared between those receiving endoscopic band ligation (EBL group) and those receiving injection with or without thermal therapy (non-EBL group). Twenty-three patients with Dieulafoy's lesion (14 in the EBL group and nine in the non-EBL group) were studied. All patients were men. The mean age, hemoglobin levels on admission, and the transfusion requirements before therapy were similar in both groups. Fourteen patients (eight in the EBL- and six in the non-EBL groups) presented with hematemesis and the remaining with melena. The majority of Dieulafoy's lesions (91.3%) were located in the stomach and two in the duodenum. Active bleeding at the time of endoscopy was seen in 61% of cases, and immediate hemostasis was achieved with either method in 100% of patients. Early rebleeding (within 72 hours of endoscopic therapy) occurred in only one patient treated with epinephrine plus heater probe therapy. The length of stay in ICU was longer in the non

  10. Design of wormlike automated robotic endoscope: dynamic interaction between endoscopic balloon and surrounding tissues.

    PubMed

    Poon, Carmen C Y; Leung, Billy; Chan, Cecilia K W; Lau, James Y W; Chiu, Philip W Y

    2016-02-01

    The current design of capsule endoscope is limited by the inability to control the motion within gastrointestinal tract. The rising incidence of gastrointestinal cancers urged improvement in the method of screening endoscopy. This preclinical study aimed to design and develop a novel locomotive module for capsule endoscope. We investigated the feasibility and physical properties of this newly designed caterpillar-like capsule endoscope with a view to enhancing screening endoscopy. This study consisted of preclinical design and experimental testing on the feasibility of automated locomotion for a prototype caterpillar endoscope. The movement was examined first in the PVC tube and then in porcine intestine. The image captured was transmitted to handheld device to confirm the control of movement. The balloon pressure and volume as well as the contact force between the balloon and surroundings were measured when the balloon was inflated inside (1) a hard PVC tube, (2) a soft PVC tube, (3) muscular sites of porcine colons and (4) less muscular sites of porcine colons. The prototype caterpillar endoscope was able to move inward and backward within the PVC tubing and porcine intestine. Images were able to be captured from the capsule endoscope attached and being observed with a handheld device. Using the onset of a contact force as indication of the buildup of the gripping force between the balloon and the lumen walls, it is concluded from the results of this study that the rate of change in balloon pressure and volume is two good estimators to optimize the inflation of the balloon. The results of this study will facilitate further refinement in the design of caterpillar robotic endoscope to move inside the GI tract.

  11. Endoscopic orientation correction.

    PubMed

    Höller, Kurt; Penne, Jochen; Schneider, Armin; Jahn, Jasper; Guttiérrez Boronat, Javier; Wittenberg, Thomas; Feussner, Hubertus; Hornegger, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    An open problem in endoscopic surgery (especially with flexible endoscopes) is the absence of a stable horizon in endoscopic images. With our "Endorientation" approach image rotation correction, even in non-rigid endoscopic surgery (particularly NOTES), can be realized with a tiny MEMS tri-axial inertial sensor placed on the tip of an endoscope. It measures the impact of gravity on each of the three orthogonal accelerometer axes. After an initial calibration and filtering of these three values the rotation angle is estimated directly. Achievable repetition rate is above the usual endoscopic video frame rate of 30 Hz; accuracy is about one degree. The image rotation is performed in real-time by digitally rotating the analog endoscopic video signal. Improvements and benefits have been evaluated in animal studies: Coordination of different instruments and estimation of tissue behavior regarding gravity related deformation and movement was rated to be much more intuitive with a stable horizon on endoscopic images.

  12. Gastrointestinal manifestations.

    PubMed

    Tanowitz, H B; Simon, D; Weiss, L M; Noyer, C; Coyle, C; Wittner, M

    1996-11-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is a common problem in the setting of HIV-1 infection. As patients live longer and other opportunistic pathogens are suppressed, these problems are becoming even more important in the quality of life.

  13. Gastrointestinal tattoos.

    PubMed

    Snider, T E; Goodell, W M; Pulitzer, D R

    1994-06-01

    Tattooing of the gastrointestinal tract is used to facilitate the relocation of biopsy sites or other sites of interest at the time of subsequent biopsy or surgery. Submucosal injection of sterile india ink produces a zone of blue-black coloration that is grossly visible from both the mucosal and serosal surfaces. The pathology of gastrointestinal tattoos has only been briefly mentioned previously in the medical literature. We report two cases of gastrointestinal tattooing: one that was done to mark the margin of resection in a patient with gastric lymphoma, and the second that occurred unintentionally following the administration of activated charcoal for drug overdosage in a patient with undiagnosed active inflammatory bowel disease. Unintentional tattooing of the gastrointestinal tract has, therefore, not been reported.

  14. Mycobiota in gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pranab K; Sendid, Boualem; Hoarau, Gautier; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Poulain, Daniel; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2015-02-01

    New insights gained through the use of state-of-the-art technologies, including next-generation sequencing, are starting to reveal that the association between the gastrointestinal tract and the resident mycobiota (fungal community) is complex and multifaceted, in which fungi are active participants influencing health and disease. Characterizing the human mycobiome (the fungi and their genome) in healthy individuals showed that the gastrointestinal tract contains 66 fungal genera and 184 fungal species, with Candida as the dominant fungal genera. Although fungi have been associated with a number of gastrointestinal diseases, characterization of the mycobiome has mainly been focused on patients with IBD and graft-versus-host disease. In this Review, we summarize the findings from studies investigating the relationship between the gut mycobiota and gastrointestinal diseases, which indicate that fungi contribute to the aggravation of the inflammatory response, leading to increased disease severity. A model explaining the mechanisms underlying the role of the mycobiota in gastrointestinal diseases is also presented. Our understanding of the contribution of the mycobiota to health and disease is still in its infancy and leaves a number of questions to be addressed. Answering these questions might lead to novel approaches to prevent and/or manage acute as well as chronic gastrointestinal disease.

  15. Future directions of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Satohiro; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic therapies for lesions of the duodenum are technically more difficult than those for lesions of the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract due to the anatomical features of the duodenum, and the incidence rate of complications such as perforation and bleeding is also higher. These aforementioned trends were especially noticeable for the case of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The indication for ESD of duodenal tumors should be determined by assessment of the histopathology, macroscopic morphology, and diameter of the tumors. The three types of candidate lesions for endoscopic therapy are adenoma, carcinoma, and neuroendocrine tumors. For applying endoscopic therapies to duodenal lesions, accurate preoperative histopathological diagnosis is necessary. The most important technical issue in duodenal ESD is the submucosal dissection process. In duodenal ESD, a short needle-type knife is suitable for the mucosal incision and submucosal dissection processes, and the Small-caliber-tip Transparent hood is an important tool. After endoscopic therapies, the wound should be closed by clipping in order to prevent complications such as secondary hemorrhage and delayed perforation. At present, the criteria for selection between ESD and EMR vary among institutions. The indications for ESD should be carefully considered. Duodenal ESD should have limitations, such as the need for its being performed by experts with abundant experience in performing the procedure. PMID:25901218

  16. ENDOSCOPIC THERAPY OF SEVERE ULCER BLEEDING

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Thomas O.G.; Jensen, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding secondary to ulcer disease occurs commonly and results in significant patient morbidity and medical expense. After initial resuscitation, carefully performed endoscopy provides an accurate diagnosis of the source of the UGI hemorrhage and can reliably identify those high-risk subgroups that may benefit most from endoscopic hemostasis. Large channel therapeutic endoscopes are recommended. Endoscopists should be very experienced in management of patients with UGI hemorrhage including the use of various hemostatic devices. For patients with major stigmata of ulcer hemorrhage – active arterial bleeding, non-bleeding visible vessel and adherent clot – combination therapy with epinephrine injection and either thermal coaptive coagulation (with multipolar or heater probe), or endoclips is recommended. High dose intravenous proton pump inhibitors are recommended as concomitant therapy with endoscopic hemostasis of major stigmata. Patients with minor stigmata or clean-based ulcers will not benefit from endoscopic therapy and should be triaged to less intensive care and be considered for early discharge. Effective endoscopic hemostasis of ulcer bleeding can significantly improve outcomes by reducing rebleeding, transfusion requirement, and need for surgery, as well as reduce cost of medical care. PMID:21944418

  17. Appropriateness of outpatient gastrointestinal endoscopy in a non-academic hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mangualde, João; Cremers, Marie I; Vieira, Ana M; Freire, Ricardo; Gamito, Élia; Lobato, Cristina; Alves, Ana L; Augusto, Fátima; Oliveira, Ana P

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the appropriate use and the diagnostic yield of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy in this subgroup of patients. METHODS: In total, 789 consecutive outpatients referred for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy [381 for esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and 408 for colonoscopy] were prospectively enrolled in the study. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) guidelines were used to assess the relationship between appropriateness and the presence of relevant endoscopic findings. RESULTS: The overall inappropriate rate was 13.3%. The indications for EGD and colonoscopy were, respectively, appropriate in 82.7% and 82.6% of the exams, uncertain in 5.8% and 2.4% and inappropriate in 11.5% and 15%. The diagnostic yield was significant higher for EGDs and colonoscopies judged appropriate and uncertain when compared with those considered inappropriate (EGD: 36.6% vs 36.4% vs 11.4%, P = 0.004; Colonoscopy: 24.3% vs 20.0% vs 3.3%, P = 0.001). Of the 25 malignant lesions detected, all but one was detected in exams judged appropriate or uncertain. CONCLUSION: This study shows a good adherence to ASGE guidelines by the referring physicians and a significant increase of the diagnostic yield in appropriate examinations, namely in detecting neoplastic lesions. It underscores the importance that the appropriateness of the indication assumes in assuring high-quality GI endoscopic procedures. PMID:22013500

  18. Endoscopic ultrasonography for gastric submucosal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Kourikou, Anastasia; Rösch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) are a rather frequent finding, occurring in about 0.36% of routine upper GI-endoscopies. EUS has emerged as a reliable investigative procedure for evaluation of these lesions. Diagnostic Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has the ability to differentiate intramural tumors from extraluminal compressions and can also show the layer of origin of gastric SMTs. Tumors can be further characterized by their layer of origin, echo pattern and margin. EUS-risk criteria of their malignant potential are presented, although the emergence of EUS-guided fne needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has opened new indications for transmural tissue diagnosis and expanded the possibilities of EUS in SMTs of the stomach. Tissue diagnosis should address whether the SMT is a Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) or another tumor type and evaluate the malignant potential of a given GIST. However, there seems to be a lack of data on the optimal strategy in SMTs suspected to be GISTs with a negative EUS-FNA tissue diagnosis. The current management strategies, as well as open questions regarding their treatment are also presented. PMID:21772939

  19. Nodular gastritis in Japanese young adults: endoscopic and histological observations.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Akiko; Kamada, Tomoari; Kumamoto, Mitsutaka; Nakae, Yukinori; Nakamura, Yasushi; Kakudo, Kenichi; Haruma, Ken

    2007-08-01

    Endoscopic findings of nodular gastritis (NG) are characterized by the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection and follicular gastritis. A possible association with diffuse-type gastric cancer has recently been suggested from observations in Japanese. Our aim was to analyze antral nodularity and histological scores in young adults. Subjects (55 men and 45 women; age range, 18-25 years) with upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms or positive H. pylori antibodies underwent endoscopy. One specimen each was obtained from the greater and lesser curvatures (curves) of the corpus and from those of the antrum. Endoscopic appearance was assessed using 0.2% indigo carmine, and histopathological grading was evaluated by the updated Sydney System. Antral nodularity was identified in none of 17 H. pylori-negative subjects and in 55 of 83 (66.3%) H. pylori-positive subjects. By the distribution of nodular or granular elevated lesions in the antrum, NG was divided into diffuse (n = 27) or nondiffuse (n = 28) types. The diffuse-type NG predominantly affected women (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-10). The atrophy scores in the lesser curve of the antrum were significantly higher in the nondiffuse than in the diffuse group. However, the scores for activity, inflammation, and H. pylori density were not significantly different among the three groups. Diffuse-type NG depended on sex, and antral nodularity seemed to change from the diffuse to the nondiffuse type in association with atrophy.

  20. In-Use Evaluation of Peracetic Acid for High-Level Disinfection of Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Chenjiao, Wu; Hongyan, Zhang; Qing, Gu; Xiaoqi, Zhong; Liying, Gu; Ying, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Many high-level disinfectants have been used for disinfection of endoscopes such as 2% glutaraldehyde (GA), 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), and peracetic acid (PAA). Both GA and OPA are widely used in disinfection of endoscopes and have been previously discussed, but there is little research on the practical use of PAA as an endoscope disinfectant. An experimental model of a flexible gastrointestinal endoscope being contaminated with 9 strains of microorganism was designed. After the cleaning and disinfecting procedure was completed, we evaluated the biocidal activity (850 ppm PAA, 2% GA, and 0.55% OPA) on our flexible gastrointestinal endoscope model. We also evaluated sterilization effectiveness of PAA on other bacteria, including some antibiotic-resistant bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile). The residual bacterial colony count number of the PAA-disinfected endoscope was significantly lower than that of the GA- and OPA-disinfected endoscopes. The biocidal effect and efficiency of the endoscope disinfection by PAA appeared to be better than either the GA- or OPA-disinfected endoscope. PAA has demonstrated a good sterilization effect on other bacterial species; of particular note are common antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile. The results of this study demonstrate that PAA is a fast and effective high-level disinfectant for use in the reprocessing of flexible endoscopes.

  1. Gastrointestinal function and structure in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, L R; Church, D L; Gill, M J; Kelly, J K; Hwang, W S; Bryant, H E

    1990-01-01

    We examined 19 patients (17 men) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and gastrointestinal symptoms to determine whether those symptoms were due to either a gastrointestinal tract infection or a defect in mucosal absorption because of an enteropathy. The erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 levels were within normal limits in all of the patients. The serum ferritin level was elevated in 12. The xylose absorption test results were abnormal in 8 of the 13 patients able to complete the study. None of the duodenal aspirates yielded a pathogen. Light microscopy revealed nonspecific lymphocytic inflammation without infection in the stomach (in seven patients), the esophagus (in five), the duodenum (in two) and the rectum (in two). However, biopsy specimens were positive for Candida albicans in the esophagus (four patients), cytomegalovirus in the esophagus (one) and the rectum (two), Helicobacter pylori in the antrum (two), Treponema infection in the rectum (two) and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare in the small intestine (one). Only three patients had a normal series of biopsy specimens. All of the patients had similar ultrastructural changes at the epithelial-stromal junction of the antral glands and in the intestinal crypts. We conclude that abnormal biochemical and endoscopic findings are common in HIV-positive patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Defects in carbohydrate absorption and ultrastructural changes may be responsible for some aspects of HIV enteropathy. PMID:2207920

  2. Diagnostic procedures for submucosal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ponsaing, Laura Graves; Kiss, Katalin; Loft, Annika; Jensen, Lise Ingemann; Hansen, Mark Berner

    2007-01-01

    This review is part one of three, which will present an update on diagnostic procedures for gastrointestinal (GI) submucosal tumors (SMTs). Part two identifies the classification and part three the therapeutic methods regarding GI SMTs. Submucosal tumors are typically asymptomatic and therefore encountered incidentally. Advances in diagnostic tools for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors have emerged over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to provide the readers with guidelines for the use of diagnostic procedures, when a submucosal tumor is suspected. Literature searches were performed to find information on diagnostics for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors. Based on the searches, the optimal diagnostic procedures and specific features of the submucosal tumors could be outlined. Standard endoscppy, capsule endoscopy and push-and-pull enteroscopy (PPE) together with barium contrast X-ray do not alone provide sufficient information, when examining submucosal tumors. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are recommended as supplementary tools. PMID:17659668

  3. An ambulant porcine model of acid reflux used to evaluate endoscopic gastroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kadirkamanathan, S; Yazaki, E; Evans, D; Hepworth, C; Gong, F; Swain, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—There is a lack of suitable models for testing of therapeutic procedures for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic sewing methods might allow the development of a new less invasive surgical approach to treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.
AIMS—To develop an animal model of gastro-oesophageal reflux for testing the efficacy of a new antireflux procedure, endoscopic gastroplasty, performed at flexible endoscopy without laparotomy or laparoscopy.
METHODS—At endoscopy a pH sensitive radiotelemetry capsule was sewn to the oesophageal wall, 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter, in six large white pigs. Ambulant pH recordings (48-96 hours; total 447 hours) were obtained. The median distal oesophageal pH was 6.8 (range 6.4-7.3); pH was less than 4 for 9.3% of the time. After one week, endoscopic gastroplasty was performed by placing sutures below the gastro-oesophageal junction, forming a neo-oesophagus of 1-2 cm in length. Postoperative manometry and pH recordings (24-96 hours; total 344 hours) were carried out.
RESULTS—Following gastroplasty, the median sphincter pressure increased significantly from 3 to 6 mm Hg and in length from 3 to 3.75 cm. The median time pH was less than 4 decreased significantly from 9.3% to 0.2%.
CONCLUSIONS—These are the first long term measurements of oesophageal pH in ambulant pigs. The finding of spontaneous reflux suggested a model for studying treatments of reflux. Endoscopic gastroplasty increased sphincter pressure and length and decreased acid reflux.


Keywords: gastro-oesophageal reflux; endoscopic gastroplasty; manometry PMID:10323878

  4. Uncommon gastrointestinal bleeding during targeted therapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma: A report of four cases

    PubMed Central

    FUJIHARA, SHINTARO; MORI, HIROHITO; KOBARA, HIDEKI; NISHIYAMA, NORIKO; AYAKI, MAKI; OHATA, RYO; UEDA, NOBUFUMI; SUGIMOTO, MIKIO; KAKEHI, YOSHIYUKI; MASAKI, TSUTOMU

    2015-01-01

    Clinically available targeted agents to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) include sunitinib, sorafenib and temsirolimus. Sorafenib and sunitinib have been associated with bleeding in selected trials, but clinical and endoscopic characteristics of gastrointestinal bleeding are not well described. Herein, we report four cases of advanced RCC in which endoscopic hemostasis effectively resolved high-grade, life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding that occurred during targeted therapy. Although stomatitis and mucositis have occurred during targeted therapies, life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding is less common. In these four patients, the origins of gastrointestinal bleeding were identified, and complete endoscopic hemostasis was achieved. Endoscopies revealed variable characteristics including angiodysplasia, multiple gastric ulcers and oozing bleeding of the normal mucosa. Although the most effective diagnostic and treatment strategies are disputed, endoscopic examinations are best performed before starting targeted therapies. Additionally, these patients should be monitored even for rare life-threatening events. PMID:26722259

  5. Application of new packing material in endoscopic nasal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Haiying; Han, Fei; Cui, Zhaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To show the efficacy and comfort of pneumatic bag packing after the endoscopic nasal surgery. Pneumatic bag packing may be recommendable in terms of comfort and efficacy after endoscopic nasal surgery. Significant findings: There were statistical significant differences between the pneumatic bag packing and the expansive sponge packing regarding subjective symptoms and objective findings after surgery. Conclusions: Pneumatic bag packing may be recommendable in terms of comfort and efficacy after endoscopic nasal surgery. PMID:25785173

  6. [Endoscopic treatment of gastroduodenal digestive hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Llanos, J; Valdés, E; Cofré, C; Tapia, A; Denegri, E

    1992-12-01

    Endoscopy is extremely useful for the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. At the present time, therapeutic measures are been used during the endoscopy to stop bleeding. This paper reports the experience of hospital de Talca in the endoscopic treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Thirty four patients (22 male) with bleeding not originating from esophageal or gastric varices were treated with direct absolute alcohol injection into the bleeding lesions. The procedure was successful in 31 patients. Three of the 34 patients required surgery, but only one of those successfully sclerosed (97% success). There were no complications attributable to the procedure. It is concluded that this therapeutic modality must be implemented in places were gastrointestinal endoscopy is performed.

  7. Endoscopic Resection Multicenter Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-22

    Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Disease; Gastric Cancer; Gastric Neoplasm; Gastric Polyp; Esophageal Neoplasms; Duodenal Neoplasms; Duodenal Polyp; Stomach Neoplasm; Stomach Polyp; Neoplasms; Colon Polyp; Colon Neoplasm

  8. Rapid fecal calprotectin testing to assess for endoscopic disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease: A diagnostic cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kwapisz, Lukasz; Mosli, Mahmoud; Chande, Nilesh; Yan, Brian; Beaton, Melanie; Micsko, Jessica; Mennill, Pauline W.; Barnett, William; Bax, Kevin; Ponich, Terry; Howard, John; Tirolese, Anthony; Lannigan, Robert; Gregor, James

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: With increasing numbers of patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), it is important to identify noninvasive methods of detecting disease activity. The aim of this study is to examine the diagnostic accuracy of fecal rapid calprotectin (FC) testing in the detection of endoscopically active IBD. Patients and Methods: All consecutive patients presenting to outpatient clinics with lower gastrointestinal symptoms were prospectively recruited. Patients provided FC samples. Sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for FC were calculated. Receiver–operator characteristics (ROC) curve was used to identify the ideal FC cutoff that predicts endoscopic disease activity. Correlation between FC and endoscopic disease activity, disease location, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured. Results: One hundred and twenty-six patients, of whom 52% were females, were included in the final analysis with a mean age of 44.4 ± 16.7 years. Comparing FC to endoscopic findings, the following results were calculated: A cutoff point of 100 μg/g showed Sn = 83%, Sp = 67%, PPV = 65%, and NPV = 85%; and 200 μg/g showed Sn = 66%, Sp = 82%, PPV = 73%, and NPV = 77%. Based on ROC curve, the best FC cutoff point to predict endoscopic disease activity was 140 μg/g. Using this reference, FC levels strongly correlated with colorectal, ileocolonic, and ileal disease and predicted endoscopic activity. Conclusions: FC is an accurate test when used as an initial screening tool for patients suspected of having active IBD. Given its noninvasive nature, it may prove to reduce the need for colonoscopy and be an added tool in the management of IBD. PMID:26655130

  9. Clinical relevance of aberrant polypoid nodule scar after endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Arantes, Vitor; Uedo, Noriya; Pedrosa, Moises Salgado; Tomita, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    AIM To describe a series of patients with aberrant polypoid nodule scar developed after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), and to discuss its pathogenesis and clinical management. METHODS We reviewed retrospectively the endoscopic database of two academic institutions located in Brazil and Japan and searched for all patients that underwent ESD to manage gastric neoplasms from 2003 to 2015. The criteria for admission in the study were: (1) successful en bloc ESD procedure with R0 and curative resection confirmed histologically; (2) postoperative endoscopic examination with identification of a polypoid nodule scar (PNS) at ESD scar; (3) biopsies of the PNS with hyperplastic or regenerative tissue, reviewed by two independent experienced gastrointestinal pathologists, one from each Institution. Data were examined for patient demographics, Helicobacter pylori status, precise neoplastic lesion location in the stomach, tumor size, histopathological assessment of the ESD specimen, and postoperative information including medical management, endoscopic and histological findings, and clinical outcome. RESULTS A total of 14 patients (10 men/4 women) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in this study. One center contributed with 8 cases out of 60 patients (13.3%) from 2008 to 2015. The second center contributed with 6 cases (1.7%) out of 343 patients from 2003 to 2015. Postoperative endoscopic follow-up revealed similar findings in all patients: A protruded polypoid appearing nodule situated in the center of the ESD scar surrounded by convergence of folds. Biopsies samples were taken from PNS, and histological assessment revealed in all cases regenerative and hyperplastic tissue, without recurrent tumor or dysplasia. Primary neoplastic lesions were located in the antrum in 13 patients and in the angle in one patient. PNS did not develop in any patient after ESD undertaken for tumors located in the corpus, fundus or cardia. All patients have been

  10. Orbital endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C; Selva, Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    Minimally invasive "keyhole" surgery performed using endoscopic visualization is increasing in popularity and is being used by almost all surgical subspecialties. Within ophthalmology, however, endoscopic surgery is not commonly performed and there is little literature on the use of the endoscope in orbital surgery. Transorbital use of the endoscope can greatly aid in visualizing orbital roof lesions and minimizing the need for bone removal. The endoscope is also useful during decompression procedures and as a teaching aid to train orbital surgeons. In this article, we review the history of endoscopic orbital surgery and provide an overview of the technique and describe situations where the endoscope can act as a useful adjunct to orbital surgery.

  11. Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in severe dengue: To scope or not to scope?

    PubMed

    Lim, C H; Benjamin, N H S; Kan, F K

    2017-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH) in severe dengue represents a clinical dilemma in term of management. The recommended treatment in dengue with UGIH involves blood product transfusion support and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) infusion. Despite being the mainstay of treatment in non-dengue UGIH, the role of endoscopic haemostatic intervention in severe dengue remains controversial. In the present report, we present a case of severe dengue complicated with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage successfully underwent early therapeutic endoscopic intervention in a district hospital.

  12. The utility of upper endoscopy in patients with concomitant upper gastrointestinal bleeding and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sauyu; Konstance, Richard; Jollis, James; Fisher, Deborah A

    2006-12-01

    Patients who present with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may have suffered an UGIB that subsequently led to an AMI or endured an AMI and subsequently suffered a UGIB as a consequence of anticoagulation. We hypothesized that patients in the former group bled from more severe upper tract lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors for endoscopic therapy in patients who suffer a concomitant UGIB and AMI. Retrospective, single center medical record abstraction of hospital admissions from January 1, 1996-December 31, 2002. During the study period, 183 patients underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) within 7 days of suffering an AMI and UGIB (AMI group N=105, UGIB group N=78). A higher proportion of patients in the UGIB group (41%) was found to have high-risk UGI lesions requiring endoscopic treatment compared to patients in the AMI group (17%; P < 0.004). UGIB as the inciting event and patients suffering from hematemesis and hemodynamic instability were significantly associated with requiring endoscopic therapy. Although predominantly diagnostic, endoscopic findings in the AMI group did alter the decision to perform cardiac catheterization in 43% of patients. Severe complications occurred in 1% (95% confidence interval, 0%-4%) of patients. We conclude that in patients suffering from concomitant UGIB and AMI, urgent endoscopy was most beneficial in patients with UGIB as the initial event and those presenting with hematemesis and hemodynamic instability. In patients without these clinical features, urgent endoscopy may be delayed, unless cardiac management decisions are dependent on endoscopic findings.

  13. Submucosal tumors: comprehensive guide for the diagnosis and therapy of gastrointestinal submucosal tumors.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Toshirou; Kawai, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Nishida, Yoshiki

    2013-09-01

    Small submucosal tumors (SMT) without symptoms are frequently found by endoscopic and radiological examinations. To find proper diagnostic measures and therapeutic indications for histologically undiagnosed SMT, we reviewed published articles in PubMed between 1990 and March 2013 using the key words 'submucosal tumor' and the name of a specific disease. SMT is observed in a wide range of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases and conditions, including compression by extra-GI organs and lesions, congenital tumors, inflammation, and benign as well as malignant neoplastic lesions. In the diagnosis of diseases and decision-making for therapy, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) may play a key role. Symptomatic SMT and SMT histologically diagnosed as malignant or potentially malignant tumors such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) should be treated by surgery. SMT >5 cm, SMT increasing in size and those with'high-risk features' including irregular border, heterogeneous internal echo such as anechoic area, and heterogeneous enhancement by contrast media may also be removed by surgery. Laparoscopic approach is feasible for gastric GIST <5 cm and this is considered less invasive than the open approach. Emerging techniques using flexible endoscopes appear less invasive, but require further evidence and are still under clinical study. Correct diagnosis of SMT is challenging; however, EUS and EUS-FNA are useful in the histological diagnosis and clinical decision-making. In the future, minimally invasive approaches may be a mainstream of surgical treatment for small SMT. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  14. Gastrointestinal endoscopy in the pregnant woman

    PubMed Central

    Friedel, David; Stavropoulos, Stavros; Iqbal, Shahzad; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    About 20000 gastrointestinal endoscopies are performed annually in America in pregnant women. Gastrointestinal endoscopy during pregnancy raises the critical issue of fetal safety in addition to patient safety. Endoscopic medications may be potentially abortifacient or teratogenic. Generally, Food and Drug Administration category B or C drugs should be used for endoscopy. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) seems to be relatively safe for both mother and fetus based on two retrospective studies of 83 and 60 pregnant patients. The diagnostic yield is about 95% when EGD is performed for gastrointestinal bleeding. EGD indications during pregnancy include acute gastrointestinal bleeding, dysphagia > 1 wk, or endoscopic therapy. Therapeutic EGD is experimental due to scant data, but should be strongly considered for urgent indications such as active bleeding. One study of 48 sigmoidoscopies performed during pregnancy showed relatively favorable fetal outcomes, rare bad fetal outcomes, and bad outcomes linked to very sick mothers. Sigmoidoscopy should be strongly considered for strong indications, including significant acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding, chronic diarrhea, distal colonic stricture, suspected inflammatory bowel disease flare, and potential colonic malignancy. Data on colonoscopy during pregnancy are limited. One study of 20 pregnant patients showed rare poor fetal outcomes. Colonoscopy is generally experimental during pregnancy, but can be considered for strong indications: known colonic mass/stricture, active lower gastrointestinal bleeding, or colonoscopic therapy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) entails fetal risks from fetal radiation exposure. ERCP risks to mother and fetus appear to be acceptable when performed for ERCP therapy, as demonstrated by analysis of nearly 350 cases during pregnancy. Justifiable indications include symptomatic or complicated choledocholithiasis, manifested by jaundice, cholangitis, gallstone

  15. Robotic system for no-scar gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Phee, S J; Low, S C; Sun, Z L; Ho, K Y; Huang, W M; Thant, Z M

    2008-03-01

    Flexible endoscopy allows diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Simple procedures can be performed endoscopically using currently available tools. More advanced endoscopic surgical interventions are much desired and anticipated, yet they await improvements in instrumentation. Presented here is a master-slave robotic system designed for use with flexible endoscopy. The slave is a cable-driven flexible robotic manipulator that can be attached to an endoscope, allowing two-handed endoscopic manipulation with 9-12 degrees of freedom (DOF). Feasibility has been demonstrated in a porcine intragastric model. Further studies should determine whether this novel device can overcome some of the instrumentation-related challenges that have heretofore limited the development of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery.

  16. Current status of functional gastrointestinal evaluation in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Daphne; Fock, Kwong Ming; Law, Ngai Moh; Ang, Tiing Leong

    2015-01-01

    Neurogastroenterology and motility disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract encompass a broad spectrum of diseases involving the GI tract and central nervous system. They have varied pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management, and make up a substantial proportion of outpatient clinic visits. Typically, patients experience persistent symptoms referable to the GI tract despite normal endoscopic and radiologic findings. An appropriate evaluation is thus important in the patient’s care. Advances in technology and understanding of the disease pathophysiology have provided better insight into the physiological basis of disease and a more rational approach to patient management. While technological advances serve to explain patients’ persistent symptoms, they should be balanced against the costs of diagnostic tests. This review highlights the GI investigative modalities employed to evaluate patients with persistent GI symptoms in the absence of a structural lesion, with particular emphasis on investigative modalities available locally and the clinical impact of such tools. PMID:25715853

  17. Current status of functional gastrointestinal evaluation in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ang, Daphne; Fock, Kwong Ming; Law, Ngai Moh; Ang, Tiing Leong

    2015-02-01

    Neurogastroenterology and motility disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract encompass a broad spectrum of diseases involving the GI tract and central nervous system. They have varied pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management, and make up a substantial proportion of outpatient clinic visits. Typically, patients experience persistent symptoms referable to the GI tract despite normal endoscopic and radiologic findings. An appropriate evaluation is thus important in the patient's care. Advances in technology and understanding of the disease pathophysiology have provided better insight into the physiological basis of disease and a more rational approach to patient management. While technological advances serve to explain patients' persistent symptoms, they should be balanced against the costs of diagnostic tests. This review highlights the GI investigative modalities employed to evaluate patients with persistent GI symptoms in the absence of a structural lesion, with particular emphasis on investigative modalities available locally and the clinical impact of such tools.

  18. Endoscopic papillectomy: indications, techniques, and results.

    PubMed

    De Palma, Giovanni D

    2014-02-14

    Endoscopic papillectomy (EP) is currently accepted as a viable alternative therapy to surgery in sporadic ampullary adenoma and has been reported to have high success and low recurrence rates. At present, the indications for EP are not yet fully established. The accepted criteria for EP include size (up to 5 cm), no evidence of intraductal growth, and no evidence of malignancy on endoscopic findings (ulceration, friability, and spontaneous bleeding). Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is the imaging modality of choice for local T staging in ampullary neoplasms. Data reported in the literature have revealed that linear EUS is superior to helical computed tomography in the preoperative assessment of tumor size, detection of regional nodal metastases and detection of major vascular invasion. Endoscopic ampullectomy is performed using a standard duodenoscope in a similar manner to snare polypectomy of a mucosal lesion. There is no standardization of the equipment or technique and broad EP methods are described. Endoscopic ampullectomy is considered a ''high-risk'' procedure due to complications. Complications of endoscopic papillectomy can be classified as early (pancreatitis, bleeding, perforation, and cholangitis) and late (papillary stenosis) complications. The appropriate use of stenting after ampullectomy may prevent post-procedural pancreatitis and papillary stenosis. Tumor recurrence of benign lesions occurs in up to 20% of patients and depends on tumor size, final histology, presence of intraductal tumor, coexisting familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and the expertise of the endoscopist. Recurrent lesions are usually benign and most can be retreated endoscopically.

  19. Pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Guideline Executive summary.

    PubMed

    Tringali, Andrea; Thomson, Mike; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Tavares, Marta; Tabbers, Merit M; Furlano, Raoul; Spaander, Manon; Hassan, Cesare; Tzvinikos, Christos; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; Viala, Jérôme; Dall'Oglio, Luigi; Benninga, Marc; Orel, Rok; Vandenplas, Yvan; Keil, Radan; Romano, Claudio; Brownstone, Eva; Hlava, Štěpán; Gerner, Patrick; Dolak, Werner; Landi, Rosario; Huber, Wolf Dietrich; Everett, Simon; Vecsei, Andreas; Aabakken, Lars; Amil-Dias, Jorge; Zambelli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This Executive summary of the Guideline on pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) refers to infants, children, and adolescents aged 0 - 18 years. The areas covered include: indications for diagnostic and therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy; endoscopy for foreign body ingestion; endoscopic management of corrosive ingestion and stricture/stenosis; upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic ultrasonography. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and endoscopy specific to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been dealt with in other Guidelines and are therefore not mentioned in this Guideline. Training and ongoing skill maintenance will be addressed in an imminent sister publication. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Endoscopic ultrasound guided interventional procedures

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S; Bhasin, Deepak K

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy. EUS provides access to many organs and lesions which are in proximity to the gastrointestinal tract and thus giving an opportunity to target them for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. This modality also provides a real time opportunity to target the required area while avoiding adjacent vascular and other structures. Therapeutic EUS has found role in management of pancreatic fluid collections, biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drainage of gallbladder, celiac plexus neurolysis/blockage, drainage of mediastinal and intra-abdominal abscesses and collections and in targeted cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Infact, therapeutic EUS has emerged as the therapy of choice for management of pancreatic pseudocysts and recent innovations like fully covered removable metallic stents have improved results in patients with organised necrosis. Similarly, EUS guided drainage of biliary tract and pancreatic duct helps drainage of these systems in patients with failed cannulation, inaccessible papilla as with duodenal/gastric obstruction or surgically altered anatomy. EUS guided gall bladder drainage is a useful emergent procedure in patients with acute cholecystitis who are not fit for surgery. EUS guided celiac plexus neurolysis and blockage is more effective and less morbid vis-à-vis the percutaneous technique. The field of interventional EUS is rapidly advancing and many more interventions are being continuously added. This review focuses on the current status of evidence vis-à-vis the established indications of therapeutic EUS. PMID:26078831

  1. Diagnostic potential of endoscopic ultrasonography-elastography for gastric submucosal tumors: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yuichiro; Kusano, Chika; Gotoda, Takuji; Itokawa, Fumihide; Fukuzawa, Masakatsu; Sofuni, Atsushi; Matsubayashi, Jun; Nagao, Toshitaka; Itoi, Takao; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2016-03-01

    Qualitative diagnosis for gastric submucosal tumors (SMT) is not easy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in combination with EUS-elastography (EUS-EG) is reported useful for qualitatively diagnosing pancreatic tissues. We prospectively studied whether EUS-EG could be useful in qualitative diagnosis of gastric SMT. We prospectively registered 25 consecutive patients with gastric SMT diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy and carried out qualitative evaluations using EUS-EG (May 2013 to March 2015) followed by histopathological diagnosis using EUS-FNA or endoscopic mucosal cutting biopsy. Elastic scores of gastric SMT were compared to the cytological diagnosis. Of 25 patients, 22 had a confirmed cytological diagnosis. Regarding the Giovannini elastic score, of three patients with aberrant pancreas, one was score 1 and two were score 2; of eight patients with leiomyoma, seven were score 2 and one was score 3. Both of two patients with schwannoma were score 4. Of nine patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor, six were score 4 and three were score 5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is harder than other types of gastric SMT, and our study's findings suggested the usefulness of EUS-EG, which can also assess tumor hardness of gastric SMT. EUS-EG might be helpful for the differential diagnosis of gastric SMT, especially to differentiate GIST from other SMT. © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  2. Gastrointestinal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 33 selections. Some of the titles are: The natural history of colorectal cancer; opportunities for intervention; Radiotherapy for early rectal cancer; Intraoperative irradiation for gastrointestinal cancers; Hepatocellular carcinoma; clinical presentation, etiology, and prevention; and Current issues in the treatment of patients with gastric cancer.

  3. Measurement of motion detection of wireless capsule endoscope inside large intestine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingda; Bao, Guanqun; Pahlavan, Kaveh

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscope (WCE) provides a noninvasive way to inspect the entire Gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including large intestine, where intestinal diseases most likely occur. As a critical component of capsule endoscopic examination, physicians need to know the precise position of the endoscopic capsule in order to identify the position of detected intestinal diseases. Knowing how the capsule moves inside the large intestine would greatly complement the existing wireless localization systems by providing the motion information. Since the most recently released WCE can take up to 6 frames per second, it's possible to estimate the movement of the capsule by processing the successive image sequence. In this paper, a computer vision based approach without utilizing any external device is proposed to estimate the motion of WCE inside the large intestine. The proposed approach estimate the displacement and rotation of the capsule by calculating entropy and mutual information between frames using Fibonacci method. The obtained results of this approach show its stability and better performance over other existing approaches of motion measurements. Meanwhile, findings of this paper lay a foundation for motion pattern of WCEs inside the large intestine, which will benefit other medical applications.

  4. Endoscopic Removal of Ingested Dentures and Dental Instruments: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Tominaga, Kentaro; Nishigaki, Yuki; Sato, Hiroki; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Hayashi, Kazunao; Yamamoto, Takashi; Honda, Yutaka; Hashimoto, Satoru; Kamimura, Kenya; Takeuchi, Manabu; Yokoyama, Junji; Sato, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Terai, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Background. Dentures and dental instruments are frequently encountered ingested foreign bodies. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of endoscopically removing ingested dental objects. Methods. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with 29 dental objects who were treated at the Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital from August 2009 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Characteristics of the patients and the ingested dental objects, the clinical features and findings of radiological imaging tests, and outcomes of endoscopic removal were analyzed. Results. Patients' mean age was 62.9 ± 21.0 years. The ingested dental objects included 23 dentures (13 crowns, 4 bridges, 4 partial dentures, and 2 other dentures) and 6 dental instruments. Twenty-seven upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and 2 colonoscopies were performed, and their success rates were 92.6% and 100%, respectively. There were 2 cases of removal failure; one case involved an impacted partial denture in the cervical esophagus, and this case required surgical removal. Conclusions. Endoscopic removal of ingested dentures and dental instruments is associated with a favorable success rate and acceptable complications. The immediate intervention and appropriate selection of devices are essential for managing ingested dental objects. PMID:27738426

  5. Simulating a target lesion for endoscopic submucosal dissection training in an ex vivo pig model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsang-En; Wang, Horng-Yuan; Lin, Ching-Chung; Chen, Tung-Ying; Chang, Ching-Wei; Chen, Chih-Jen; Chen, Ming-Jen

    2011-08-01

    Currently, there is no training model that simulates the target lesion encountered during endoscopic submucosal dissection. To develop a novel method simulating a target lesion for endoscopic submucosal dissection. Training program with the use of an ex vivo porcine stomach model. Clinical skills training center. A pseudopolyp was created by using an esophageal variceal ligation device to simulate a protruding (0-Ip) lesion, and the pseudopolyp was transected with a snare cautery to simulate a depressed (0-IIc) lesion. Evaluate the histological depth of the target lesions and resected specimens. Histological findings of the simulated targets showed artificial ulcerative or polypoid lesions involving the muscularis mucosa or superficial submucosa. The resected specimen was limited to the submucosal layer, and no perforation was noted. Pilot study in an ex vivo porcine stomach model. The most important advantage of the model is to simulate realistic target lesions like those encountered in clinical practice in endoscopic submucosal dissection training. It allows trainees to practice how to make proper markings, delineate adequate safety margins, and properly manage different subtypes of early gastric cancer. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimal management of Barrett's esophagus: pharmacologic, endoscopic, and surgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Konda, Vani Ja; Dalal, Kunal

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus, are rapidly rising in incidence. This review serves to highlight the role of pharmacologic, endoscopic, and surgical intervention in the management of Barrett's esophagus, which requires acid suppression and endoscopic assessment. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor may decrease acid exposure and delay the progression to dysplasia. Patients who require aspirin for cardioprotection or other indications may also benefit in terms of a protective effect against the development of esophageal cancer. However, without other indications, aspirin is not indicated solely to prevent cancer. A careful endoscopic examination should include assessment of any visible lesions in a Barrett's segment. An expert gastrointestinal pathologist should confirm neoplasia in the setting of Barrett's esophagus. For those patients with high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma, careful consideration of endoscopic therapy or surgical therapy must be given. All visible lesions in the setting of dysplasia should be targeted with focal endoscopic mucosal resection for both accurate histopathologic diagnosis and treatment. The remainder of the Barrett's epithelium should be eradicated to address all synchronous and metachronous lesions. This may be done by tissue acquiring or nontissue acquiring means. Radiofrequency ablation has a positive benefit-risk profile for flat Barrett's esophagus. At this time, endoscopic therapy is not indicated for nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Esophagectomy is still reserved for selected cases with evidence of lymph node metastasis, unsuccessful endoscopic therapy, or with high-risk features of high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma.

  7. Correction method of bending loss in the hollow optical fiber for endoscopic submucosal dissection using carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakari, Daisuke; Hazama, Hisanao; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection using carbon dioxide laser is a promising treatment of early digestive cancer because it can avoid the risk of perforation. Although a hollow optical fiber transmitting mid-infrared light has been used, it was observed that the irradiation effect was influenced by bending a gastrointestinal gastrointestinal endoscope due to the change in transmittance by the bending loss. Therefore, we quantitatively evaluated the change in the irradiation effect by bending the hollow optical fiber in the gastrointestinal endoscope and proposed a correction method to stabilize the irradiation effect. First, the relationship between the irradiated laser energy density and the incision depth for porcine stomach was measured by bending the head of the gastrointestinal endoscope. Next, the relationship between the bending angle of the head of the gastrointestinal endoscope and the temperature rise of the hollow optical fiber in the head of the gastrointestinal endoscope was measured during the laser irradiation. As a result, the laser energy density and the incision depth decreased as the bending angle increased, and linear correlation between the laser energy density and the incision depth was observed. It was found that the bending angle can be estimated by the ratio of the setting laser power to time derivative of the temporal profile of the temperature of the hollow optical fiber. In conclusion, it is suggested that the correction of the laser energy density and stabilization of the incision capability is possible by measuring the temporal profile of the temperature of the hollow optical fiber.

  8. Optimizing early upper gastrointestinal cancer detection at endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Andrew M; Uedo, Noriya; Yao, Kenshi; East, James E

    2015-11-01

    Survival rates for upper gastrointestinal cancers are poor and oesophageal cancer incidence is increasing. Upper gastrointestinal cancer is also often missed during examinations; a predicament that has not yet been sufficiently addressed. Improvements in the detection of premalignant lesions, early oesophageal and gastric cancers will enable organ-preserving endoscopic therapy, potentially reducing the number of advanced upper gastrointestinal cancers and resulting in improved prognosis. Japan is a world leader in high-quality diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and the clinical routine in this country differs substantially from Western practice. In this Perspectives article, we review lessons learnt from Japanese gastroscopy technique, training and screening for risk stratification. We suggest a key performance indicator for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with a minimum total procedure time of 8 min, and examine how quality assurance concepts in bowel cancer screening in the UK could be applied to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and improve clinical practice.

  9. Recent Trends in Endoscopic Bariatric Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyuk Soon; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic diseases including diabetes mellitus are severe medical problems that are increasing in prevalence worldwide and result in significant healthcare expenses. While behavioral and pharmacological treatment approaches are partly effective in the short term, their effects are not long-lasting. Although previous studies have described bariatric surgery as the most effective treatment for obesity, it is associated with morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Endoluminal interventions performed entirely using gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy offer alternative approaches to the treatment of obesity that are safer and more cost-effective than current surgical approaches. The use of endoluminal techniques in the field of metabolic obesity disease has diverse promising applications including endoscopic gastroplasty, intragastric balloon, endoluminal malabsorptive bariatric procedures, and gastric electrical stimulation (GES) for the modulation of gastric emptying. This review discusses recent trends and roles in endoscopic bariatric therapies using the currently available endoluminal and transgastric technologies. PMID:28147471

  10. [Gastrointestinal bezoars].

    PubMed

    Espinoza González, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    Gastrointestinal bezoars are a concretion of indigested material that can be found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and some animals. This material forms an intraluminal mass, more commonly located in the stomach. During a large period of history animal bezoars were considered antidotes to poisons and diseases. We report a historical overview since bezoars stones were thought to have medicinal properties. This magic conception was introduced in South America by Spanish conquerors. In Chile, bezoars are commonly found in a camelid named guanaco (Lama guanicoe). People at Central Chile and the Patagonia believed that bezoar stones had magical properties and they were traded at very high prices. In Santiago, during the eighteenth century the Jesuit apothecary sold preparations of bezoar stones. The human bezoars may be formed by non-digestible material like cellulose (phytobezoar), hair (trichobezoar), conglomerations of medications or his vehicles (pharmacobezoar or medication bezoar), milk and mucus component (lactobezoar) or other varieties of substances. This condition may be asymptomatic or can produce abdominal pain, ulceration, gastrointestinal bleeding, gastric outlet obstruction, perforation and mechanical intestinal obstruction. We report their classification, diagnostic modalities and treatment.

  11. Comparison of endoscopic based diagnosis with Helicobacter urease test for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Adu-Aryee, N A; Aabakken, L; Dedey, F; Nsaful, J; Kudzi, W

    2016-08-30

    Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. The prevalence in developed countries is lower than 40 % but higher than 80 % in some developing countries. It is 75 % in Ghana. The Helicobacter urease test (HUT) is performed at endoscopy and gives an accurate diagnosis. The HUT is not routinely done at our facility and presumption of H. pylori is made based on endoscopic findings and H. pylori eradication prescribed, as the incidence in the general population is presumed high. Is this endoscopic diagnosis sufficient for diagnosing and treating H. pylori? We aimed to assess the feasibility of an endoscopic based H. pylori diagnosis and its accuracy using a HUT as the gold standard in consecutive patients. Seventy-six consecutive adult patients with dyspepsia were assessed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A clinical diagnosis of H. pylori or not was made. Biopsy samples were collected for HUT. H. pylori was diagnosed if HUT was positive. The results were then compared. Median age of patients was 45.0 years. H. pylori prevalence detected by HUT was 51.3 % (95 % CI 40.0-63.0). Sensitivity of endoscopic diagnosis of H. pylori was 71.8 % (95 % CI 55.1-85.0) and specificity was 37.8 % (95 % CI 22.5-55.2). There was no association between clinical findings (73.7 %) and HUT (26.3 %) (OR = 0.80; [95 % CI 0.24-2.64], p = 0.682). There was also no association between endoscopic diagnosis (71.8 %) and HUT (28.2 %), (OR = 1.55; 95 % CI 0.59-4.06, p = 0.373). Helicobacter pylori infection was not as high as that published in earlier reports. The endoscopic diagnosis alone is not sufficient to make a diagnosis of H. pylori.

  12. Role of Clinical Endoscopy in Emphasizing Endoscope Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Eun Young; Kwon, Kwang An; Choi, Il Ju

    2015-01-01

    Based on the unexpected Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea, it was established that the virus can spread easily, MERS exposure in hospitals carries an extreme risk for infection as well as mortality, and the sharing of information was essential for infection control. Although the incidence of exogenous infections related to contaminated endoscopes is very low, the majority of published outbreaks have been caused by various shortcomings in reprocessing procedures, including insufficient training or awareness. Ever since the inauguration of "Clinical Endoscopy" as an English-language journal of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in 2011, it has published several articles on disinfection of the endoscope and its accessories. Many Science Citation Index journals have also emphasized high-level disinfection of the gastrointestinal endoscope. Many papers have been produced specifically, since the outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in 2013. The recent review papers concluded that quality control is the most important issue among all the aspects of procedural care, including the efficiency of the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit and reprocessing room. Thorough reprocessing of endoscopes using high-level disinfection and sterilization methods may be essential for reducing the risk of infection. PMID:26473114

  13. Infectious diseases of gastrointestinal tract in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marsh, W W

    2000-06-01

    This article reviews the following gastrointestinal infections: esophagitis, gastritis, duodenitis including duodenal ulcers, and enteritis (gastroenteritis). The epidemiology, risk factors, microbiology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, morbidity/mortality, and prevention are discussed in relation to the most important pathogens. The symptoms and pathogenesis of esophagitis caused by Candida albicans and herpes simplex are contrasted with the symptoms of esophagitis caused by Helicobacter pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The incidence of gastritis and gastric and duodenal ulcers caused by H. pylori is discussed. The treatment regimens of H. pylori infection recommended by the CDC are presented. Endoscopic findings in esophagitis, gastritis, and duodenal ulcers are presented and discussed. The difference in symptoms caused by viral agents (Norwalk virus), bacterial agents (enterotoxigenic E. coli), and parasites (Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum) are compared and contrasted. The symptoms of infections of the terminal small bowel caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni and the symptoms of pure colonic infection, dysentery, caused by Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli and Entamoeba histolytica are discussed. The treatment regimens for enteritis are presented.

  14. Duodenal plexiform fibromyxoma as a cause of obscure upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Moris, Demetrios; Spanou, Evangelia; Sougioultzis, Stavros; Dimitrokallis, Nikolaos; Kalisperati, Polyxeni; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Felekouras, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: We are reporting the first-to our knowledge-case of duodenal Plexiform Fibromyxoma causing obscure upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Patient concerns: Plexiform fibromyxoma triggered recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding episodes in a 63-year-old man who remained undiagnosed, despite multiple hospitalizations, extensive diagnostic workups and surgical interventions (including gastrectomies), for almost 17 years. Diagnoses-Interventions: During hospitalization for the last bleeding episode, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an intestinal hemorrhagic nodule. The lesion was deemed unresectable by endoscopic means. An abdominal computerized tomography disclosed no further lesions and surgery was decided. The lesion at operation was found near the edge of the duodenal stump and treated with pancreas-preserving duodenectomy (1st and 2nd portion). Outcomes: Postoperative recovery was mainly uneventful and a 20-month follow-up finds the patient in good health with no need for blood transfusions. Plexiform fibromyxomas stand for a rare and widely unknown mesenchymal entity. Despite the fact that they closely resemble other gastrointestinal tumors, they distinctly vary in clinical management as well as the histopathology. Clinical awareness and further research are compulsory to elucidate its clinical course and prognosis. PMID:28072751

  15. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early esophageal cancer associated with achalasia.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Yu; Iizuka, Toshiro; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Yamashita, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masanori; Matsui, Akira; Mitani, Toshifumi; Hoteya, Shu; Kaise, Mitsuru; Yahagi, Naohisa

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal achalasia is often associated with esophageal cancer. However, in many cases, esophageal cancer tends to be found in an advanced stage, with a poor prognosis. However, early-stage cancer was detected recently due to the advances in endoscopic instruments. In those cases, it is important to facilitate successful treatment by endoscopic submucosal dissection. We analyzed a total of six cases of esophageal cancer with achalasia in four patients treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection. Three features common to all six cases had a bearing on how endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed. First, esophageal dilatation and diminished peristalsis facilitated the performance of successful endoscopic submucosal dissection. Second, the esophageal wall was thickened, primarily with muscular tissue. Third, the submucosal layer contained abundant blood vessels that made it difficult to minimize bleeding during dissection. Those findings suggest that endoscopic submucosal dissection for early esophageal cancer associated with achalasia is a safe and potentially curative procedure. It is important, therefore, to detect esophageal cancer early.

  16. Use of water jet instruments in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Toru; Sato, Chiaki; Sakurai, Tadashi; Kamei, Takashi; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2016-02-10

    In recent years, water jet instruments have been used in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, mainly in two clinical situations: Investigation and treatment under endoscopic view. Injecting water jet into the gastrointestinal lumen is helpful for maintaining a clear endoscopic view, washing away blood or mucous in the lumen or on the surface of the tip of the endoscope. This contributes to reducing time and discomfort of examination. Water jet technology is an alternative method for dissecting soft tissue; this method does not harm the small vessels or cause mechanical or thermal damage. However, its use in clinical settings has been limited to the transmucosal injection of water into the submucosal layer that elevates the mucosa to prepare for endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection, instead of tissue dissection, which may occur because of the continuous water jet. A preclinical study has been conducted using a pulsed water jet system as an alternative method for submucosal dissection by reducing intraoperative water consumption and maintenance of dissection capability. This review introduces recent studies pertaining to using a water jet in gastrointestinal endoscopy and discusses future prospects.

  17. Use of water jet instruments in gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Toru; Sato, Chiaki; Sakurai, Tadashi; Kamei, Takashi; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, water jet instruments have been used in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, mainly in two clinical situations: Investigation and treatment under endoscopic view. Injecting water jet into the gastrointestinal lumen is helpful for maintaining a clear endoscopic view, washing away blood or mucous in the lumen or on the surface of the tip of the endoscope. This contributes to reducing time and discomfort of examination. Water jet technology is an alternative method for dissecting soft tissue; this method does not harm the small vessels or cause mechanical or thermal damage. However, its use in clinical settings has been limited to the transmucosal injection of water into the submucosal layer that elevates the mucosa to prepare for endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection, instead of tissue dissection, which may occur because of the continuous water jet. A preclinical study has been conducted using a pulsed water jet system as an alternative method for submucosal dissection by reducing intraoperative water consumption and maintenance of dissection capability. This review introduces recent studies pertaining to using a water jet in gastrointestinal endoscopy and discusses future prospects. PMID:26862362

  18. Guidelines for Safety in the Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit

    PubMed Central

    Calderwood, Audrey H.; Chapman, Frank J.; Cohen, Jonathan; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Collins, James; Day, Lukejohn W.; Early, Dayna S.

    2014-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Historically, safety in the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy unit has focused on infection control, particularly around the reprocessing of endoscopes. Two highly publicized outbreaks where the transmission of infectious agents were related to GI endoscopy have highlighted the need to address potential gaps along the endoscopy care continuum that could impact patient safety. PMID:24485393

  19. General considerations and updates in pediatric gastrointestinal diagnostic endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal and colonic endoscopic examinations have been performed in pediatric patients in Korea for 3 decades. Endoscopic procedures are complex and may be unsafe if special concerns are not considered. Many things have to be kept in mind before, during, and after the procedure. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is one of the most frequently performed procedure in children nowadays, Since the dimension size of the endoscopy was modified for pediatric patients 15 years ago, endoscopic procedures are almost performed routinely in pediatric gastrointestinal patients. The smaller size of the scope let the physicians approach the diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic procedures. But this is an invasive procedure, so the procedure itself may provoke an emergence state. The procedure-related complications can more easily occur in pediatric patients. Sedation-related or procedure-related respiratory, cardiovascular complications are mostly important and critical in the care. The endoscopists are required to consider diverse aspects of the procedure - patient preparation, indications and contraindications, infection controls, sedation methods, sedative medicines and the side effects of each medicine, monitoring during and after the procedure, and complications related with the procedure and medicines - to perform the procedure successfully and safely. This article presents some important guidelines and recommendations for gastrointestinal endoscopy through literature review. PMID:21189965

  20. Is there still a role for intraoperative enteroscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding?

    PubMed

    Monsanto, Pedro; Almeida, Nuno; Lérias, Clotilde; Figueiredo, Pedro; Gouveia, Hermano; Sofia, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    in 21st century, endoscopic study of the small intestine has undergone a revolution with capsule endoscopy and balloon-assisted enteroscopy. The difficulties and morbidity associated with intraoperative enteroscopy, the gold-standard in the 20th century, made this technique to be relegated to a second level. evaluate the actual role and assess the diagnostic and therapeutic value of intraoperative enteroscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. we conducted a retrospective study of 19 patients (11 males; mean age: 66.5 ± 15.3 years) submitted to 21 IOE procedures for obscure GI bleeding. Capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy had been performed in 10 and 5 patients, respectively. with intraoperative enteroscopy a small bowel bleeding lesion was identified in 79% of patients and a gastrointestinal bleeding lesion in 94%. Small bowel findings included: angiodysplasia (n = 6), ulcers (n = 4), small bowel Dieulafoy´s lesion (n = 2), bleeding from anastomotic vessels (n = 1), multiple cavernous hemangiomas (n = 1) and bleeding ectopic jejunal varices (n = 1). Agreement between capsule endoscopy and intraoperative enteroscopy was 70%. Endoscopic and/or surgical treatment was used in 77.8% of the patients with a positive finding on intraoperative enteroscopy, with a rebleeding rate of 21.4% in a mean 21-month follow-up period. Procedure-related mortality and postoperative complications have been 5 and 21%, respectively. intraoperative enteroscopy remains a valuable tool in selected patients with obscure GI bleeding, achieving a high diagnostic yield and allowing an endoscopic and/or surgical treatment in most of them. However, as an invasive procedure with relevant mortality and morbidity, a precise indication for its use is indispensable.

  1. Towards automated visual flexible endoscope navigation.

    PubMed

    van der Stap, Nanda; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Broeders, Ivo A M J

    2013-10-01

    The design of flexible endoscopes has not changed significantly in the past 50 years. A trend is observed towards a wider application of flexible endoscopes with an increasing role in complex intraluminal therapeutic procedures. The nonintuitive and nonergonomical steering mechanism now forms a barrier in the extension of flexible endoscope applications. Automating the navigation of endoscopes could be a solution for this problem. This paper summarizes the current state of the art in image-based navigation algorithms. The objectives are to find the most promising navigation system(s) to date and to indicate fields for further research. A systematic literature search was performed using three general search terms in two medical-technological literature databases. Papers were included according to the inclusion criteria. A total of 135 papers were analyzed. Ultimately, 26 were included. Navigation often is based on visual information, which means steering the endoscope using the images that the endoscope produces. Two main techniques are described: lumen centralization and visual odometry. Although the research results are promising, no successful, commercially available automated flexible endoscopy system exists to date. Automated systems that employ conventional flexible endoscopes show the most promising prospects in terms of cost and applicability. To produce such a system, the research focus should lie on finding low-cost mechatronics and technologically robust steering algorithms. Additional functionality and increased efficiency can be obtained through software development. The first priority is to find real-time, robust steering algorithms. These algorithms need to handle bubbles, motion blur, and other image artifacts without disrupting the steering process.

  2. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Therapies in Pancreatic Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dennis; DiMaio, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has evolved from being primarily a diagnostic modality into an interventional endoscopic tool for the management of both benign and malignant gastrointestinal illnesses. EUS-guided therapy has garnered particular interest as a minimally invasive approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, a disease often complicated by its aggressive course and poor survival. The potential advantage of an EUS-guided approach revolves around real-time imaging for targeted therapy of a difficult to reach organ. In this review, we focus on EUS-guided therapies for pancreatic neoplasms. PMID:25802863

  3. [Preventive effect of postoperative disinfection of endoscope on bacterial adhesion to endoscope].

    PubMed

    Uwagawa, T; Okabe, N; Matsumoto, T; Kurihara, H; Miyamoto, S; Tujihara, Y; Takahashi, T; Sakurai, I; Matsumoto, F; Yamazaki, Y

    1999-10-01

    We took culture of throat swab from 77 subjects who were negative for infection of HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis infection before and after endoscopy. Moreover, the existence of bacterium including Helicobacter pylori at overcoat of endoscopic instrument was investigated right after examination and after disinfection of endoscope. Povidoneiodine, 70% alcohol and 1% benzalkonium chloride was used as a disinfectant for endoscope, and it took less than 10 minutes to wash by hand to disinfection. alpha-haemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus epidermids, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA were cultured in throat swab. The rate of adhesion of bacterium especially such as Candida, K. pneumoniae and S. epidermids to endoscope was considerably high. 23 of 77 subjects had H. pylori infection, and the adhesion of H. pylori to endoscope was found to be 65.2% of the subjects. On the contrast, no bacterium was detected from the endoscopic instrument after careful disinfection. These findings stress the importance of postoperative disinfection of the endoscope to prevent the chance to acquire bacterial infection.

  4. Nodular colitis: endoscopic image an unusual finding.

    PubMed

    Loza Vargas, L A; Núñez Rodríguez, Henar; Benito Sanz, Marina; Zamora Martínez, Tomás; Díez Redondo, Pilar; Pérez Miranda, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    An 82-year-old male with a history of high blood pressure, COPD, chronic myeloid leukemia, and stage-4 chronic renal failure. Admitted to hospital for lower-limb cellulitis and severe COPD exacerbation, he received antibiotic therapy and bronchodilators. During his hospital stay he developed severe anemia and had an hematochezia event with no diarrhea. A complete colonoscopy found small (4-7 mm) nacreous elevated lesions, circumferential in shape, in the cecum and ascending colon with some bleeding stigmata and submucosal bleeding suggestive of infectious colitis; stool culture was negative and Clostridium difficile toxins were positive. The condition was histologically confirmed.

  5. [Endoscopic submucosal excavation (ESE) is a safe and useful technique for endoscopic removal of submucosal tumors of the stomach and the esophagus in selected cases].

    PubMed

    Reinehr, R

    2015-06-01

    Submucosal tumors of stomach and esophagus are often detected incidentally during endoscopy and further characterized by endoscopic ultrasonography. After risk estimation such submucosal tumors are either controlled by watchful waiting or surgically resected. Nevertheless, symptomatic submucosal tumors should be treated. Endoscopic submucosal excavation (ESE) and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER) may represent an alternative non-surgical therapeutic option. Two cases of complete endoscopic resection of symptomatic submucosal tumors are reported: a small gastrointestinal stroma tumor (GIST) of the antrum and a 12  cm long esophageal lipoma. For selected cases, ESE of symptomatic submucosal tumors of stomach and esophagus represents a useful alternative compared to surgical removal particularly if mass is located in antrum or corpus, sized < 20  mm and clearly defined by endoscopic ultrasonography.

  6. Endoscopic management of erosion after banded bariatric procedures.

    PubMed

    Spann, Matthew D; Aher, Chetan V; English, Wayne J; Williams, D Brandon

    2017-07-24

    Prosthetic materials wrapped around a portion of the stomach have been used to provide gastric restriction in bariatric surgery for many years. Intraluminal erosion of adjustable and nonadjustable gastric bands typically occurs many years after placement and results in various symptoms. Endoscopic management of gastric band erosion has been described and allows for optimal patient outcomes. We will describe our methods and experience with endoscopic management of intraluminal gastric band erosions after bariatric procedures. University hospital in the United States. A retrospective review of our bariatric surgery database identified patients undergoing removal of gastric bands. A chart review was then undertaken to confirm erosion of prosthetic material into the gastrointestinal tract. Baseline characteristics, operative reports, and follow-up data were analyzed. Sixteen patients were identified with an eroded gastric band: 11 after banded gastric bypass, 3 after laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB), and 2 after vertical banded gastroplasty. All patients were successfully treated with endoscopic removal of the prosthetic materials using either endoscopic scissors or ligation of the banding material with off-label use of a mechanical lithotripter device. Complications included a postoperative gastrointestinal bleed requiring repeat endoscopy, 1 patient with asymptomatic pneumoperitoneum requiring observation, and 1 with seroma at the site of LAGB port removal. Endoscopic management of intraluminal prosthetic erosion after gastric banded bariatric procedures can be safe and effective and should be considered when treating this complication. Erosion of the prosthetic materials inside the gastric lumen allows for potential endoscopic removal without free intraabdominal perforation. Endoscopic devices designed for dividing eroded LAGBs may help standardize and increase utilization of this approach. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery

  7. Familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors associated with dysphagia and novel type germline mutation of KIT gene.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Seiichi; Nishida, Toshirou; Isozaki, Koji; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Ohashi, Akiko; Takabayashi, Arimichi; Obayashi, Tadashi; Okuno, Tomoko; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Chen, Hui; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Kitamura, Yukihiko

    2002-05-01

    A family with multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), a new type of germline mutation of KIT gene, and dysphagia is reported. The mutation was observed at Asp-820 in tyrosine kinase (TK) II domain. Mutations in TK II domain have been found in mast cell and germ cell tumors but not in GISTs, and the present family members are the first reported cases of GISTs with TK II domain mutations, including sporadic GISTs. Because interleukin 3-dependent Ba/F3 murine lymphoid cells transfected with the mutant KIT complementary DNA grew autonomously without any growth factors and formed tumors in nude mice, the mutation was considered to be gain-of-function type. Family members with the germline KIT mutation reported dysphagia, but those without the mutation did not. The mechanism of dysphagia was examined with gastrointestinal fiberscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, and esophageal manometry. No mechanical obstruction was found, and the esophagus was not remarkably dilated. In the family members with dysphagia, endoscopic ultrasonography at the esophagocardiac junction showed a thickened hyperechoic layer between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers, suggesting hyperplasia of interstitial cells of Cajal at the myenteric plexus layer. Manometry showed low resting lower esophageal sphincter pressure and abnormal simultaneous contractions of the esophagus without normal peristalsis. These findings indicate that the dysphagia of the present family is different from typical achalasia. This is the first report of familial dysphagia caused by germline gain-of-function mutation of the KIT gene at the TK II domain.

  8. Advantages of laser application in endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J G

    1993-08-01

    This article discusses the various kinds of laser therapy used in endoscopic surgery and their respective indications. Following a brief introduction into the basics of laser-tissue-interaction it is shown how less expensive treatment modalities have narrowed the range of laser applications to very specific purposes. In upper gastrointestinal bleeding argon and KTP lasers are mainly used for treatment of pigmented gut lesions. In malignant disease the combined use of balloon dilatation and laser irradiation has proved efficient in restoring patency to the gastrointestinal tract. Argon and CO2 lasers are used by gynaecologists for ablation of endometrioma. In an assessment of future prospects it is concluded that the lasting value of the laser lies in its ability to selectively destroy pigmented pathologic tissues.

  9. Elements Involved In Promoting Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Anshi; Mishra, Akanksha; Venkateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Manohar, Murli; Mahadevappa, Chandrashekara Puthanapura; Mishra, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) are food allergen-induced allergic gastrointestinal disorders, characterized by accumulation of highly induced eosinophils in different segments of gastrointestinal tract along with eosinophil microabssess and extracellular eosinophilic granules in the epithelial layer. EGID are both IgE- and cell-mediated group of diseases that include eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), eosinophilic gastritis (EG), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) and eosinophilic colitis (EC). Despite the increased incidences and considerable progress made in understanding EGID pathogenesis. The mechanism is still not well understood. It has been shown that IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-15, IL-18, eotaxin-1, eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 play a critical role in EGID pathogenesis. Currently, the only criterion for diagnosing EoE, EGE and EC are repetitive endoscopic and histopathological evaluation of biopsies along with other clinical characteristics/manifestations. Antigen elimination and corticosteroid therapies are the most effective therapies currently in practice for the treatment of EGID. The cytokines (anti-IL-5 and anti-IL-13) therapy trials were not very successful in case of EoE. Most recently, a clinical trial using anti-IL-13 reported only 60% reduced esophageal eosinophilia without achieving primary endpoint. This clinical finding is not surprising and is in accordance with our earlier report indicating that IL-13 is not critical in the initiation of EoE. Notably, EGID still has no reliable noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers. Hence, there is a great necessity to identify novel noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers that can easily diagnose EGID and provide an effective therapy. Now, the attention is required to target cell types like iNKT cells that produce eosinophil active cytokines and is found induced in the pathogenesis of both experimental and human EoE. iNKT cell neutralization is shown to protect allergen-induced EoE in experimental model. In this

  10. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma from a native kidney of a renal transplant patient diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Alastal, Yaseen; Hammad, Tariq A; Rafiq, Ehsan; Nawras, Mohamad; Alaradi, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) biopsy sampling of enlarged lymph nodes is increasingly used to diagnose metastatic tumors, especially of the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs. Herein, we describe the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma from a native kidney of a 54 year-old male patient, who had a 5-years history of renal transplant, by EUS-FNA of mediastinal and celiac lymph nodes. Histological and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the origin of metastatic tumor. EUS-FNA with proper cytological evaluation can be useful in the diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in renal transplant patients. PMID:28326261

  11. Endoscopic Management of Esthesioneuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Roxbury, Christopher R; Ishii, Masaru; Gallia, Gary L; Reh, Douglas D

    2016-02-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare malignant tumor of sinonasal origin. These tumors typically present with unilateral nasal obstruction and epistaxis, and diagnosis is confirmed on biopsy. Over the past 15 years, significant advances have been made in endoscopic technology and techniques that have made this tumor amenable to expanded endonasal resection. There is growing evidence supporting the feasibility of safe and effective resection of esthesioneuroblastoma via an expanded endonasal approach. This article outlines a technique for endoscopic resection of esthesioneuroblastoma and reviews the current literature on esthesioneuroblastoma with emphasis on outcomes after endoscopic resection of these malignant tumors.

  12. Magnetic anchor guidance for endoscopic submucosal dissection and other endoscopic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Mortagy, Mohamed; Mehta, Neal; Parsi, Mansour A; Abe, Seiichiro; Stevens, Tyler; Vargo, John J; Saito, Yutaka; Bhatt, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a well-established, minimally invasive treatment for superficial neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. The universal adoption of ESD has been limited by its slow learning curve, long procedure times, and high risk of complications. One technical challenge is the lack of a second hand that can provide traction, as in conventional surgery. Reliable tissue retraction that exposes the submucosal plane of dissection would allow for safer and more efficient dissection. Magnetic anchor guided endoscopic submucosal dissection (MAG-ESD) has potential benefits compared to other current traction methods. MAG-ESD offers dynamic tissue retraction independent of the endoscope mimicking a surgeon’s “second hand”. Two types of magnets can be used: electromagnets and permanent magnets. In this article we review the MAG-ESD technology, published work and studies of magnets in ESD. We also review the use of magnetic anchor guidance systems in natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery and the idea of magnetic non-contact retraction using surface ferromagentization. We discuss the current limitations, the future potential of MAG-ESD and the developments needed for adoption of this technology. PMID:28522906

  13. "Full moon" endoscopic sign in intraventricular neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Zúñiga, R; de La Cruz-Ramírez, J; Casillas-Espinosa, P M; Sánchez-Prieto, J A; López-Hernández, M D S

    2011-04-01

    Despite improvements in sanitation, diagnosis and treatment, neurocysticercosis is still a public health problem in many countries. In symptomatic patients, there is a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. When cysticerci are lodged in the ventricles or the subarachnoid space, the flow of cerebrospinal fluid can be obstructed and lead to hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension. The endoscopic view may be useful as a diagnostic tool. This report clearly shows a common endoscopic pattern in 4 selected patients with ventricular cysticercosis (2 third ventricle/2 lateral ventricle). The endoscopic view of the cysts in the ventricles resembles a "full moon". This analogy helped to identify the features of cysticerci with intact walls and the vesicular stage, malleable due to its cystic content and having an irregular surface, as evidence of the microscopic structure of the cyst wall in a cysticercus. This finding is not seen in other intraventricular cysts or tumors that can actually be considered as an additional diagnostic criterion among the definitive findings to establish the diagnosis of cysticercosis, since it involves direct endoscopic visualization of a cysticercus under histopathological demonstration. Additionally, the endoscopic approach can be used as primary treatment for these cases, following the minimally invasive approach principle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Gastrointestinal gas.

    PubMed Central

    Fardy, J; Sullivan, S

    1988-01-01

    Complaints related to gastrointestinal gas are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Various therapies have been proposed, yet none has appeared to be extremely effective. A review of the literature revealed little hard evidence to support the use of simethicone, pancreatic enzymes, anticholinergic agents or antibiotics. Evidence supporting the use of prokinetic agents has been the strongest, and there may be a pathophysiologic basis for the use of these agents if the complaints are related to abnormal intestinal motility. The use of activated charcoal for adsorbing intestinal gas has been effective in healthy subjects but has not been properly investigated in patients with gas complaints. Dietary modification may be beneficial in certain cases. Additional controlled trials are necessary to clarify the issues in the treatment of this common problem. PMID:3058280

  15. [Subepithelial tumors of the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Stupnik, Silvio; Rafaelli, Claudio; González, Graciela Osorio; Pestalardo, María Luján; Quesada, Matías; Viúdez, Pedro

    2009-06-01

    The subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are related to mesenchymal tumors and 80% of them are GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors). However, there are also other tumors, such as: leiomyomas, schwannomas, lipomas, glomus tumors, carcinoid tumors, aberrant pancreas and polyps or inflammatory tumors. Diagnosis of submucosal tumors is often performed during routine endoscopic examination, they are frequently located at the stomach and in most cases are clinically evidenced by their complications. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the elected method for their staging; but other imaging diagnosis methods include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography scan (PET). The differential diagnosis is made by inmunohistochemical techniques, revealing in the GIST the expression of the antigen CD117, and prognostic factors are determined by size and mitotic index. Surgery is the recommended therapeutic, although in small lesions not exceeding 2 cm it has also been suggested the endoscopic resection guided by EUS and a watchful behaviour based on periodical controls in lesions with benignity criteria. The series here exhibited (2 GIST 1 lyposarcoma, 1 schwannoma and 1 inflammatory fibroid polyp) shows that all these tumors were symptomatic; have been diagnosed using endoscopy and recognized by means of histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis after surgery.

  16. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy

    MedlinePlus

    Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) is surgery to treat sweating that is much heavier than normal. This condition ... hyperhidrosis . Usually the surgery is used to treat sweating in the palms or face. The sympathetic nerves ...

  17. Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... information in the popular media may not reflect reality. Although useful, balloon sinuplasty is not for everyone. In many cases standard endoscopic sinus surgery or medical therapy may be the best treatment. However, in some ...

  18. Endoscopic cubital tunnel release.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Tyson K

    2010-10-01

    A minimally invasive endoscopic approach has been successfully applied to surgical treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome. This procedure allows for smaller incisions with faster recovery time. This article details relevant surgical anatomy, indications, contraindications, surgical technique, complications, and postoperative management.

  19. Endoscopic drainage for duodenal hematoma following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ya-Min; Wang, Tian-Tian; Wu, Jun; Hu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Intramural duodenal hematoma (IDH) is a rare complication following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Blunt damage caused by the endoscope or an accessory has been suggested as the main reason for IDH. Surgical treatment of isolated duodenal hematoma after blunt trauma is traditionally reserved for rare cases of perforation or persistent symptoms despite conservative management. Typical clinical symptoms of IDH include abdominal pain and vomiting. Diagnosis of IDH can be confirmed by imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Duodenal hematoma is mainly treated by drainage, which includes open surgery drainage and percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage, both causing great trauma. Here we present a case of massive IDH following ERCP, which was successfully managed by minimally invasive management: intranasal hematoma aspiration combined with needle knife opening under a duodenoscope. PMID:23599635

  20. Evaluation of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats and dogs in an adapter-modified Ussing chamber

    PubMed Central

    DeBiasio, John V.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Newman, Shelley; Musch, Mark W.; Steiner, Jörg M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate an adapter-modified Ussing chamber for assessment of transport physiology in endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from healthy cats and dogs, as well as dogs with chronic enteropathies. 17 duodenal biopsies from five cats and 51 duodenal biopsies from 13 dogs were obtained. Samples were transferred into an adapter-modified Ussing chamber and sequentially exposed to various absorbagogues and secretagogues. Overall, 78.6% of duodenal samples obtained from cats responded to at least one compound. In duodenal biopsies obtained from dogs, the rate of overall response ranged from 87.5% (healthy individuals; n = 8), to 63.6% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and histopathological unremarkable duodenum; n = 15), and 32.1% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal diseases and moderate to severe histopathological lesions; n = 28). Detailed information regarding the magnitude and duration of the response are provided. The adapter-modified Ussing chamber enables investigation of the absorptive and secretory capacity of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from cats and dogs and has the potential to become a valuable research tool. The response of samples was correlated with histopathological findings. PMID:24378587

  1. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Moraites, Eleni; Vaughn, Olushola Akinshemoyin; Hill, Samantha

    2014-10-01

    Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy is a surgical technique most commonly used in the treatment of severe palmar hyperhidrosis in selected patients. The procedure also has limited use in the treatment axillary and craniofacial hyperhidrosis. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy is associated with a high rate of the development of compensatory hyperhidrosis, which may affect patient satisfaction with the procedure and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.

  3. Autonomous Retroflexion of a Magnetic Flexible Endoscope.

    PubMed

    Slawinski, Piotr R; Taddese, Addisu Z; Musto, Kyle B; Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2017-07-01

    Retroflexion during colonoscopy is typically only practiced in the wider proximal and distal ends of the large intestine owing to the stiff nature of the colonoscope. This inability to examine the proximal side of the majority of colon folds contributes to today's suboptimal colorectal cancer detection rates. We have developed an algorithm for autonomous retroflexion of a flexible endoscope that is actuated magnetically from the tip. The magnetic wrench applied on the tip of the endoscope is optimized in real-time with data from pose detection to compute motions of the actuating magnet. This is the first example of a completely autonomous maneuver by a magnetic endoscope for exploration of the gastrointestinal tract. The proposed approach was validated in plastic tubes of various diameters with a success rate of 98.8% for separation distances up to 50 mm. Additionally, a set of trials was conducted in an excised porcine colon observing a success rate of 100% with a mean time of 19.7 s. In terms of clinical safety, the maximum stress that is applied on the colon wall with our methodology is an order of magnitude below what would damage tissue.

  4. Reality named endoscopic ultrasound biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Hugo Gonçalo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida

    2015-10-25

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangiography, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful therapeutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. In cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), patients are usually referred for either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or surgical bypass. Both these procedures have high rates of undesirable complications. EGBD is an attractive alternative to PTBD or surgery when ERCP fails. EGBD can be performed at two locations: transhepatic or extrahepatic, and the stent can be inserted in an antegrade or retrograde fashion. The drainage route can be transluminal, duodenal or transpapillary, which, again, can be antegrade or retrograde [rendezvous (EUS-RV)]. Complications of all techniques combined include pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, bile leak/peritonitis and cholangitis. We recommend EGBD when bile duct access is not possible because of failed cannulation, altered upper GI tract anatomy, gastric outlet obstruction, a distorted ampulla or a periampullary diverticulum, as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery or radiology.

  5. Endoscopic ultrasonography: Challenges and opportunities in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Furqaan

    2014-05-06

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has become a vital diagnostic modality for the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, pancreatic cysts and masses, anorectal pathology, subepithelial gastrointestinal lesions, and for the staging of many gastrointestinal and pulmonary malignancies. Establishing a EUS program in a developing country presents many challenges. Doing so in Pakistan has led to the identification of the following challenges: initial investment, ongoing costs (particularly fine needle aspiration needle costs), awareness and cytopathology. Endoscopic ultrasonography has revolutionized aspects of the practice of gastroenterology and oncology in the West. This technique is becoming increasingly available in the developing world, where it poses unique challenges to its practice. These challenges include those relating to service initiation and maintenance costs, physician awareness, and on-site cytopathology access. If these issues are anticipated and addressed in ways appropriate to local circumstances, obstacles to the institution of EUS programs can be overcome.

  6. Successful endoscopic removal of a swallowed toothbrush: case report.

    PubMed

    Tonkic, Ante; Bogdanovic, Zoran; Grandić, Leo

    2011-04-06

    Most ingested foreign bodies will pass uneventfully through the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, long and rigid foreign bodies are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal impaction, perforation and bleeding. Moreover, there has been no case of spontaneous passage of a toothbrush reported. Therefore, the prompt removal of such ingested foreign objects is recommended before complications develop. This case report describes a case of an 18-year-old woman who accidentally swallowed her toothbrush. The toothbrush was successfully removed via flexible endoscopy using a polypectomy snare. A swallowed toothbrush is a special clinical challenge. Early endoscopic retrieval of the toothbrush is critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. In cases when endoscopic removal fails, a laparoscopic surgical approach may be an alternative.

  7. Endoscopic band ligation: Beyond prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jeong-Seon; Cho, Young-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is the preferred endoscopic technique for the endoscopic treatment of acute esophageal variceal bleeding. EBL has also been used to treat nonvariceal bleeding. Recently, Han et al demonstrated that EBL can be a feasible and safe alternate technique for the management of iatrogenic gastric perforation especially in cases in which closure with endoclips is difficult. EBL is technically simpler to perform than other methods and provides a good view of the lesions under direct pressure and suction from the transparent ligation cap. EBL can be used even if the diameter of the perforation is greater than 10 mm or if there is a severe tangential angle. In this commentary, we discuss the efficacy and safety of EBL for the closure of iatrogenic gastrointestinal perforation. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of EBL for the treatment of nonvariceal bleeding. PMID:23885137

  8. Endoscopic band ligation: beyond prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jeong-Seon; Cho, Young-Seok

    2013-07-21

    Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is the preferred endoscopic technique for the endoscopic treatment of acute esophageal variceal bleeding. EBL has also been used to treat nonvariceal bleeding. Recently, Han et al demonstrated that EBL can be a feasible and safe alternate technique for the management of iatrogenic gastric perforation especially in cases in which closure with endoclips is difficult. EBL is technically simpler to perform than other methods and provides a good view of the lesions under direct pressure and suction from the transparent ligation cap. EBL can be used even if the diameter of the perforation is greater than 10 mm or if there is a severe tangential angle. In this commentary, we discuss the efficacy and safety of EBL for the closure of iatrogenic gastrointestinal perforation. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of EBL for the treatment of nonvariceal bleeding.

  9. Accessory Devices Frequently Used for Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyuk Soon; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is increasingly being considered an essential component of treatment for early gastrointestinal cancers and subepithelial tumors. The ESD technique owes its popularity to the development of sophisticated instruments used for ESD. With an increase in the number of ESD procedures performed, there is rapid development in the number and types of endoscopic accessory devices used for such procedures. Despite the large numbers of new devices developed and marketed, the use of ESD instruments and accessory devices is largely determined by individual preferences and experiences. Accessory devices frequently used during ESD are important tools for ESD techniques. Each instrument possesses characteristic advantages and disadvantages associated with its use, and no one instrument is superior in all respects to others. In this article, we review the characteristics of endoscopic electrical knives, cap and hood, and hemostatic devices commonly used in ESD. PMID:28609818

  10. Endoscopic vacuum therapy for esophageal perforations and leakages

    PubMed Central

    Möschler, Oliver; Nies, Christoph; Mueller, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Injuries to the esophageal wall, such as perforations and anastomotic leaks, are serious complications of surgical and endoscopic interventions. Since 2006, a new treatment has been introduced, in the form of endoscopically placed vacuum sponge therapy. Patients and methods: Between April 2012 and October 2014, 10 patients (5 men and 5 women) aged 57 to 94 years were treated at our institution using endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Results: The defect in the esophageal wall was successfully closed in seven of the 10 patients (70 %). No severe complications occurred. Conclusions: EVT is a valuable tool for management of defects in the esophageal wall and should be considered as a treatment option for patients with this condition. PMID:26716111

  11. Endoscopic vacuum therapy for esophageal perforations and leakages.

    PubMed

    Möschler, Oliver; Nies, Christoph; Mueller, Michael K

    2015-12-01

    Injuries to the esophageal wall, such as perforations and anastomotic leaks, are serious complications of surgical and endoscopic interventions. Since 2006, a new treatment has been introduced, in the form of endoscopically placed vacuum sponge therapy. Between April 2012 and October 2014, 10 patients (5 men and 5 women) aged 57 to 94 years were treated at our institution using endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The defect in the esophageal wall was successfully closed in seven of the 10 patients (70 %). No severe complications occurred. EVT is a valuable tool for management of defects in the esophageal wall and should be considered as a treatment option for patients with this condition.

  12. Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery cognitive examination: development and validity evidence.

    PubMed

    Poulose, Benjamin K; Vassiliou, Melina C; Dunkin, Brian J; Mellinger, John D; Fanelli, Robert D; Martinez, Jose M; Hazey, Jeffrey W; Sillin, Lelan F; Delaney, Conor P; Velanovich, Vic; Fried, Gerald M; Korndorffer, James R; Marks, Jeffrey M

    2014-02-01

    Flexible endoscopy is an integral part of surgical care. Exposure to endoscopic procedures varies greatly in surgical training. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons has developed the Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery (FES), which serves to teach and assess the fundamental knowledge and skills required to practice flexible endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes the validity evidence in the development of the FES cognitive examination. Core areas in the practice of gastrointestinal endoscopy were identified through facilitated expert focus groups to establish validity evidence for the test content. Test items then were developed based on the content areas. Prospective enrollment of participants at various levels of training and experience was used for beta testing. Two FES cognitive test versions then were developed based on beta testing data. The Angoff and contrasting group methods were used to determine the passing score. Validity evidence was established through correlation of experience level with examination score. A total of 220 test items were developed in accordance with the defined test blueprint and formulated into two versions of 120 questions each. The versions were administered randomly to 363 participants. The correlation between test scores and training level was high (r = 0.69), with similar results noted for contrasting groups based on endoscopic rotation and endoscopic procedural experience. Items then were selected for two test forms of 75 items each, and a passing score was established. The FES cognitive examination is the first test with validity evidence to assess the basic knowledge needed to perform flexible endoscopy. Combined with the hands-on skills examination, this assessment tool is a key component for FES certification.

  13. Endoscopic submucosal dissection in the colorectum: Feasibility in the Canadian setting

    PubMed Central

    Iacucci, Marietta; Eustace, Gregory; Uraoka, Toshio; Saito, Yutaka; Gasia, Miriam Fort; Love, Jon; Yahagi, Naohisa

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection is a minimally invasive endoscopic technique for the removal of gastrointestinal tumours that is increasingly being used for colonic neoplasms to spare resection of colon in selected patients. Colonic endoscopic submucosal dissection is technically challenging and was initially pioneered in Japan but increasingly used in selected western centres. Its use in Canada is currently limited, and the authors review the challenges and opportunities, in addition to the unique training infrastructure required to practice the procedure under supervision. Specific tools are required to perform endoscopic submucosal dissection and meticulous attention to detail is essential. The authors provide a combined Japanese and Canadian perspective to this technique, and discuss training and performance of endoscopic submucosal dissection as well as potential indications. PMID:24340310

  14. Endoscopic Closure of Duodenal Perforation with the Over-the-scope-clipping System

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Miyahara, Ryoji; Funasaka, Kohei; Yamamura, Takeshi; Ohno, Eizaburo; Nakamura, Masanao; Kawashima, Hiroki; Watanabe, Osamu; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic treatment for superficial non-ampullary duodenal tumors is technically difficult and challenging due to the anatomical characteristics of the duodenum. It is frequently complicated by procedural accidents, such as perforation. Surgical repair has long been the standard treatment for acute iatrogenic gastrointestinal perforation. However, endoscopic closure has recently emerged as an attractive alternative. In the patient presented herein, the over-the-scope-clipping system (OTSC system) was found to be useful for closing a duodenal perforation that had occurred during endoscopic submucosal dissection. For endoscopists who perform endoscopic treatment of the duodenum, endoscopic closure with the OTSC system is considered to be a technique that is necessary to master. PMID:27803406

  15. [Tension pneumothorax during peroral endoscopic myotomy for treatment of esophageal achalasia under general anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Li, Tsung-Shih; Lee, Tsung-Yang; Liao, Kate Hsiurong

    More and more endoscopically gastrointestinal procedures require anesthesiologists to perform general anesthesia, such as "peroral endoscopic myotomy". Peroral endoscopic myotomy is a novel invasive treatment for the primary motility disorder of esophagus, called esophageal achalasia. Despite of its minimally invasive feature, there are still complications during the procedure which develop to critical conditions and threat patients' lives. Herein we describe a case about tension pneumothorax subsequent to esophageal rupture during peroral endoscopic myotomy. The emergent management of the complication is stated in detail. The pivotal points of general anesthesia for patients undergoing peroral endoscopic myotomy are emphasized and discussed. Also, intraoperative and post-operative complications mentioned by literature are integrated. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Iatrogenic oesophageal perforation during placement of an endoscopic vacuum therapy device

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Edwin; Patel, Anant; Hindmarsh, Andrew; Sujendran, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is increasingly being used as a means of managing perforations or anastomotic leaks of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Published outcomes are favourable, with few mentions of complications or morbidity. We present a case in which the management of a gastric perforation with endoscopic vacuum therapy was complicated by cervical oesophageal perforation. The case highlights the risks of such endoscopic therapeutic procedures and is the first report in the literature to describe significant visceral injury during placement of a VAC device for upper GI perforation. Iatrogenic oesophageal perforation is an inherent risk to upper GI endoscopy and the risk increases in therapeutic endoscopic procedures. Complications may be reduced by management under a multidisciplinary team in a centre with specialist upper GI services. There is no doubt that the endoscopic VAC approach is becoming established practice, and training in its use must reflect its increasingly widespread adoption. PMID:27470015

  17. Successful endoscopic sclerotherapy for bleeding gastric varices with combined cyanoacrylate and aethoxysklerol

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bei; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Hui; Wu, Yun-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Two patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension related to hepatitis infection were admitted to Shanghai Ruijin Hospital due to recurrent melena and hematemesis. Isolated gastric varices were observed in the gastric fundus during the retroflexion of gastroscope. We carried out endoscopic sclerotherapy successfully for bleeding gastric varices with combined cyanoacrylate and aethoxysklerol, which disappeared dramatically several months after two courses of sclerotherapy for each patient. No complication and clinical signs of gastrointestinal re-bleeding were observed during the 6-mo endoscopic follow-up. CT portal angiography (CTPA) has been widely used in the assessment of variceal treatment and improves the results of endoscopic injection therapy. PMID:18567095

  18. Endoscopic endoluminal vacuum therapy in esophageal perforation.

    PubMed

    Heits, Nils; Stapel, Leonie; Reichert, Benedikt; Schafmayer, Clemens; Schniewind, Bodo; Becker, Thomas; Hampe, Jochen; Egberts, Jan-Hendrik

    2014-03-01

    Esophageal perforation is a serious disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) is a new endoscopic treatment option, which is used to treat anastomotic leakages after rectal and esophageal resections. We report on 10 patients treated with EVT for esophageal perforation. Clinical and therapy-related data such as age, sex, duration of intensive care stay, length of hospital stay, reasons for perforation, EVT-associated complications, mortality, need for alternative treatment options, and course of infectious variables were analyzed. Ten patients were treated with 54 vacuum sponges that were placed in upper gastrointestinal defects. Causes for perforation were iatrogenic, spontaneous, or foreign body-associated. Mean number of sponge insertions was 5.4 (range, 2 to 12) with a mean period of 19 ± 14.26 days. Successful therapy was achieved in 9 of 10 patients. After successful primary treatment, 1 patient died during therapy as a result of general failure of the cardiovascular system. In 1 patient, surgical resection was necessary after repeated Mallory-Weiss lesions and minor perforations during the course of immunosuppressive therapy. In a third patient an endoscopic stent was inserted in the clean wound cavity after primary EVT. In this small trial EVT has been shown to be a safe and feasible therapy option for perforations of the upper gastrointestinal tract. If necessary, EVT can be combined with operative revision for better control of the local septic focus or used as a bridging procedure for wound conditioning before aggressive surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Endoscopic facelift: two years' experience.

    PubMed

    Chajchir, A

    1997-01-01

    In the upcoming Twenty-first Century, we will find many surgical methods and devices that come to fulfill one of the main objectives of the aesthetic plastic surgery: to reduce scars, especially in facial surgery. Endoscopy is one of those methods. In my experience of the last two years, I have used this technique, sometimes combined with CO2 laser to partially remove glabellar muscles and the platysma fibers of the middle part of the neck. This work shows the results from 160 patients undergoing endoscopic forehead lift and neck contouring, using specially designed instruments. The results are highly significant and satisfactory.

  20. Gastric ulcer penetrating to liver diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kayacetin, Ertugrul; Kayacetin, Serra

    2004-01-01

    Liver penetration is a rare but serious complication of peptic ulcer disease. Usually the diagnosis is made by operation or autopsy. Clinical and laboratory data were no specific. A 64-year-old man was admitted with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Hepatic penetration was diagnosed as the cause of bleeding. Endoscopy showed a large gastric ulcer with a pseudotumoral mass protruding from the ulcer bed. Definitive diagnosis was established by endoscopic biopsies of the ulcer base. PMID:15188520

  1. [Difficult endoscopic extraction: pneumomediastinum and bilateral pneumothorax after attempted endoscopic extraction of needle incarcerated in hiatal hernia].

    PubMed

    Scamporrino, A; Mongardini, M; Stagnitti, F; Corona, F; Costantini, A; Priore, F M; Tiberi, R; Iannetti, A; Occhigrossi, G

    2002-01-01

    From June 1987 to April 2000, 167 (74%) of 223 patients suspected of swallowing foreign bodies were treated. Hundred-sixty-three were successfully treated endoscopically. The surgery rate was 2.4%. There was failure to remove a tablespoon, a tooth-brush, a dental prostheses with metallic hook, a knitting-needle. The sharp and pointed foreign bodies were 35 (20.9%). Endoscopic removal of sharp and pointed foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal tract can be very difficult to manage. The Authors report iatrogenic perforation of esophagus-gastric-fundus in a patient with hiatus hernia who ingested a big knitting-needle in order to suicide. They think that it is absolutely necessary to use special endoscopic equipment during the taking out of foreign-body procedure, especially when pointed and sharp-edge shaped bodies are involved and when there is high risk of iatrogenic lesions.

  2. How to establish endoscopic submucosal dissection in Western countries

    PubMed Central

    Oyama, Tsuneo; Yahagi, Naohisa; Ponchon, Thierry; Kiesslich, Tobias; Berr, Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been invented in Japan to provide resection for cure of early cancer in the gastrointestinal tract. Professional level of ESD requires excellent staging of early neoplasias with image enhanced endoscopy (IEE) to make correct indications for ESD, and high skills in endoscopic electrosurgical dissection. In Japan, endodiagnostic and endosurgical excellence spread through personal tutoring of skilled endoscopists by the inventors and experts in IEE and ESD. To translocate this expertise to other continents must overcome two fundamental obstacles: (1) inadequate expectations as to the complexity of IEE and ESD; and (2) lack of suitable lesions and master-mentors for ESD trainees. Leading endoscopic mucosal resection-proficient endoscopists must pioneer themselves through the long learning curve to proficient ESD experts. Major referral centers for ESD must arise in Western countries on comparable professional level as in Japan. In the second stage, the upcoming Western experts must commit themselves to teach skilled endoscopists from other referral centers, in order to spread ESD in Western countries. Respect for patients with early gastrointestinal cancer asks for best efforts to learn endoscopic categorization of early neoplasias and skills for ESD based on sustained cooperation with the masters in Japan. The strategy is discussed here. PMID:26523097

  3. How to establish endoscopic submucosal dissection in Western countries.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Tsuneo; Yahagi, Naohisa; Ponchon, Thierry; Kiesslich, Tobias; Berr, Frieder

    2015-10-28

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been invented in Japan to provide resection for cure of early cancer in the gastrointestinal tract. Professional level of ESD requires excellent staging of early neoplasias with image enhanced endoscopy (IEE) to make correct indications for ESD, and high skills in endoscopic electrosurgical dissection. In Japan, endodiagnostic and endosurgical excellence spread through personal tutoring of skilled endoscopists by the inventors and experts in IEE and ESD. To translocate this expertise to other continents must overcome two fundamental obstacles: (1) inadequate expectations as to the complexity of IEE and ESD; and (2) lack of suitable lesions and master-mentors for ESD trainees. Leading endoscopic mucosal resection-proficient endoscopists must pioneer themselves through the long learning curve to proficient ESD experts. Major referral centers for ESD must arise in Western countries on comparable professional level as in Japan. In the second stage, the upcoming Western experts must commit themselves to teach skilled endoscopists from other referral centers, in order to spread ESD in Western countries. Respect for patients with early gastrointestinal cancer asks for best efforts to learn endoscopic categorization of early neoplasias and skills for ESD based on sustained cooperation with the masters in Japan. The strategy is discussed here.

  4. Maxillary haemangioma successfully resected by endoscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, T; Inoue, R; Ohta, Y; Watanabe, Y; Iino, Y

    2009-07-01

    We report an extremely rare case of maxillary haemangioma. Case report and review of the literature concerning haemangioma arising from the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Maxillary haemangioma is rare and sometimes requires wider resection than nasal haemangioma if a large tumour is found. We present a case of maxillary haemangioma in a 37-year-old Japanese woman, which was completely resected by pre-operative embolisation and endoscopic sinus surgery. Our findings suggest that if a large maxillary haemangioma is diagnosed pre-operatively, the treatment of choice is pre-operative embolisation followed by endoscopic sinus surgery, in order to avoid the surgical complications associated with wide resection.

  5. Gastrointestinal Bleeding: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Spanish Small Bowel Bleeding (American College of Gastroenterology) Also in Spanish Upper GI Endoscopy (National Institute ... in Spanish Find an Expert American College of Gastroenterology ASGE: Find a Doctor (American Society for Gastrointestinal ...

  6. Endoscope drying and its pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, J

    2017-07-17

    Inadequate drying of endoscope channels is a possible cause of replication and survival of remaining pathogens during storage. The presence during storage of potentially contaminated water in endoscope channels may promote bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation. An incomplete drying procedure or lack of drying and not storing in a vertical position are the most usual problems identified during drying and endoscope storage. Inadequate drying and storage procedures, together with inadequate cleaning and disinfection, are the most important sources of endoscope contamination and post-endoscopic infection. Flexible endoscopes may be dried in automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs), manually, or in drying/storage cabinets. Flushing of the endoscope channels with 70-90% ethyl or isopropyl alcohol followed by forced air drying is recommended by several guidelines. Current guidelines recommend that flexible endoscopes are stored in a vertical position in a closed, ventilated cupboard. Drying and storage cabinets have a drying system that circulates and forces the dry filtered air through the endoscope channels. Endoscope reprocessing guidelines are inconsistent with one another or give no exact recommendations about drying and storage of flexible endoscopes. There is no conclusive evidence on the length of time endoscopes can be safely stored before requiring re-disinfection and before they pose a contamination risk. To minimize the risk of disease transmission and nosocomial infection, modification and revision of guidelines are recommended as required to be consistent with one another. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Endoscopic band ligation for colonic diverticular hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Naoki; Setoyama, Takeshi; Deshpande, Gautam A; Omata, Fumio; Matsuda, Michitaka; Suzuki, Shoko; Uemura, Masayo; Iizuka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Koyu; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    The number of sample cases of colonic diverticular hemorrhage treated with endoscopic band ligation (EBL) has been small to date. To elucidate the safety and efficacy of EBL for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Retrospective study. General hospital. A total of 29 patients with 31 colonic diverticula with stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH). Urgent colonoscopy was performed after bowel preparation. When diverticula with SRH were identified, marking with hemoclips was done near the diverticula. The endoscope was removed and reinserted after a band-ligator device was attached to the tip of endoscope. At first, EBL was attempted. In patients who could not be treated with EBL, epinephrine injection or endoscopic clipping was performed. Procedure time, rate of hemostasis and rebleeding, complications. The mean procedure time was 47 ± 19 minutes. EBL was successfully completed in 27 colonic diverticula (87%); except in 3 diverticula with a small orifice and large dome and 1 diverticula in which the orifice was too large. Early rebleeding after EBL occurred in 3 of 27 cases (11%). Although 2 cases of sigmoid rebleeding could be managed by repeat EBL or conservatively, right hemicolectomy was performed in 1 ascending diverticulum, in which the bleeding source was not identified on repeat colonoscopy. Scar formation at previously banded diverticula was identified in 7 of 11 patients who underwent follow-up colonoscopy. There were no complications after EBL in any of the patients. Retrospective study. EBL is a safe and effective treatment for colonic diverticular hemorrhage, and colonic diverticula resolve after EBL. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent Trends in Endoscopic Management of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Štimac, Davor; Klobučar Majanović, Sanja; Ličina, Milan

    2016-10-01

    Obesity remains a tremendous public health, clinical, and scientific challenge globally. Conventional approaches in the management of obesity offer limited potential for sustained weight loss. Bariatric surgery, although it represents the most effective weight loss treatment, has its own risks and is associated with substantial costs and limited patient applicability. Endoscopic weight loss procedures are considered as the major breakthrough in the management of obesity. Endoluminal interventions performed entirely through the gastrointestinal tract have evolved as a result of an attempt to replicate some of the anatomical features and the physiological effects of the traditional weight loss surgery while being reversible, less invasive, and more cost-effective. Restrictive procedures act to decrease gastric volume by space-occupying devices and/or by suturing or stapling techniques that alter gastric anatomy, whereas malabsorptive procedures tend to create malabsorption by preventing food contact with the duodenum and proximal jejunum. Other procedures act by influencing gastric function (gastric botulinum injections, gastric pacing, and vagal nerve blocking) or by gastric aspiration. It is important to underline that the majority of endoscopic weight loss procedures are still being evaluated and are not yet available routinely. Even though some of the techniques and devices that have recently emerged have demonstrated promising short-term results, evidence on their safety and long-term efficacy from well-designed and well-conducted research should be given before they can become an inherent part of everyday clinical practice. Given the rapid development of endoscopic weight loss procedures, this review considers the current state and recent trends in endoscopic management of obesity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Endoscopic Diagnosis and Differentiation of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Min; Lee, Kang-Moon

    2016-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease have significantly increased in recent decades in Korea. Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) and intestinal Behcet’s disease (BD), which should be differentiated from Crohn’s disease (CD), are more frequent in Korea than in the West. Thus, the accurate diagnosis of these inflammatory diseases is problematic in Korea and clinicians should fully understand their clinical and endoscopic characteristics. Ulcerative colitis mostly presents with rectal inflammation and continuous lesions, while CD presents with discontinuous inflammatory lesions and frequently involves the ileocecal area. Involvement of fewer than four segments, a patulous ileocecal valve, transverse ulcers, and scars or pseudopolyps are more frequently seen in ITB than in CD. A few ulcers with discrete margins are a typical endoscopic finding of intestinal BD. However, the differential diagnosis is difficult in many clinical situations because typical endoscopic findings are not always observed. Therefore, clinicians should also consider symptoms and laboratory, pathological, and radiological findings, in addition to endoscopic findings. PMID:27484813

  10. Training in Endoscopy: Endoscopic Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chang Min

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has been recently established as an indispensable modality for the diagnosis and management of pancreatobiliary and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. EUS proficiency requires both cognitive and technical abilities, including an understanding of the appropriate indications, the performance of appropriate evaluations before and after the procedure, and the management of procedure-related complications. An increasing demand for skills to handle a growing range of interventional EUS procedures and a continual shortage of EUS training programs are two major obstacles for EUS training. Acquiring the skills necessary to comprehend and conduct EUS often requires training beyond the scope of a standard GI fellowship program. In addition to traditional formal EUS training and preceptorships, regular short-term intensive EUS training programs that provide training at various levels may help EUS practitioners improve and maintain EUS-related knowledges and skills. Theoretical knowledge can be acquired from lectures, textbooks, atlases, slides, videotapes, digital video discs, interactive compact discs, and websites. Informal EUS training is generally based on 1- or 2-day intensive seminars, including didactic lectures, skills demonstrated by expert practitioners through live video-streaming of procedures, and hands-on learning using animal or phantom models.

  11. Nosocomial infections from contaminated endoscopes: a flawed automated endoscope washer. An investigation using molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, C J; Stolz, S M; Maki, D G

    1991-09-16

    Approximately 1 year after purchase of one manufacturer's automated endoscope washing machine, we began to detect heavy contamination of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopes cultured after cleaning and disinfection in the washer. During the first 6 months of 1988, 77% of surveillance cultures (20-mL flush through the biopsy channel) were positive for gram-negative bacilli (median concentration, 10(5) cfu/mL), most frequently Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype 10. During the first 19 months of use of the washer, nosocomial post-UGI endoscopy colonization or infections with P. aeruginosa increased 36%. Investigations show that endoscope contamination derives from a flaw in the design of the EW-10 washer: the detergent holding tank, inlet water hose, and air vents cannot be reliably disinfected and contain heavy biofilms that recontaminate the machine after it has been disinfected, as specified by the manufacturer, with glutaraldehyde. Only by rinsing machine-cleansed endoscopes with 70% alcohol followed by forced air drying has reliable disinfection been achieved. Since adaptation of terminal alcohol treatment and drying, post-UGI endoscopy colonization or infection by P. aeruginosa has declined threefold (p less than 0.001). Testing in other centers using the manufacturer's EW-10 or EW-20 washer has shown similar contamination. In three centers, including our own, postendoscopy infections by machine-associated type 10 P. aeruginosa have been confirmed by demonstrating concordance between isolates from contaminated machines or endoscopes and from infected patients by immunoblot of whole cell lysates and by pulsed-field electrophoresis of DraI endonuclease-digested genomic DNA. This problem reaffirms the vulnerability to microbial contamination of water-containing apparatus and equipment in patient care and points up the critical importance of engineering design to prevent contamination.

  12. Patients with McCune-Albright syndrome have a broad spectrum of abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wood, Laura D; Noë, Michaël; Hackeng, Wenzel; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Bhaijee, Feriyl; Debeljak, Marija; Yu, Jun; Suenaga, Masaya; Singhi, Aatur D; Zaheer, Atif; Boyce, Alison; Robinson, Cemre; Eshleman, James R; Goggins, Michael G; Hruban, Ralph H; Collins, Michael T; Lennon, Anne Marie; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2017-02-10

    McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS) is a rare sporadic syndrome caused by post-zygotic mutations in the GNAS oncogene, leading to constitutional mosaicism for these alterations. Somatic activating GNAS mutations also commonly occur in several gastrointestinal and pancreatic neoplasms, but the spectrum of abnormalities in these organs in patients with MAS has yet to be systematically described. We report comprehensive characterization of the upper gastrointestinal tract in seven patients with MAS and identify several different types of polyps, including gastric heterotopia/metaplasia (7/7), gastric hyperplastic polyps (5/7), fundic gland polyps (2/7), and a hamartomatous polyp (1/7). In addition, one patient had an unusual adenomatous lesion at the gastroesophageal junction with high-grade dysplasia. In the pancreas, all patients had endoscopic ultrasound findings suggestive of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), but only two patients met the criteria for surgical intervention. Both of these patients had IPMNs at resection, one with low-grade dysplasia and one with high-grade dysplasia. GNAS mutations were identified in the majority of lesions analyzed, including both IPMNs and the adenomatous lesion from the gastroesophageal junction. These studies suggest that there is a broad spectrum of abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas in patients with MAS and that patients with MAS should be evaluated for gastrointestinal pathology, some of which may warrant clinical intervention due to advanced dysplasia.

  13. Collision tumour involving a rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumour with invasion of the prostate and a prostatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common primary mesenchymal neoplasia in the gastrointestinal tract, although they represent only a small fraction of total gastrointestinal malignancies in adults (<2%). GISTs can be located at any level of the gastrointestinal tract; the stomach is the most common location (60-70%), in contrast to the rectum, which is most rare (4%). When a GIST invades into the adjacent prostate tissue, it can simulate prostate cancer. In this study, we report on a case comprising the unexpected collision between a rectal GIST tumour and a prostatic adenocarcinoma. Findings We describe the complexity of the clinical, endoscopic and radiological diagnosis, of the differential diagnosis based on tumour biopsy, and of the role of neoadjuvant therapy using imatinib prior to surgical treatment. Conclusions Although isolated cases of coexisting GISTs and prostatic adenocarcinomas have previously been described, this is the first reported case in the medical literature of a collision tumour involving a rectal GIST and prostatic adenocarcinoma components. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1238437468776331. PMID:23111239

  14. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, Joseph P.

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part thereof, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases the utility thereof. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing.

  15. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, J.P.

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope is disclosed which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases it's utility. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing. 7 figs.

  16. Endoscopic resection of esthesioneuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gallia, Gary L; Reh, Douglas D; Lane, Andrew P; Higgins, Thomas S; Koch, Wayne; Ishii, Masaru

    2012-11-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma, or olfactory neuroblastoma, is an uncommon malignant tumor arising in the upper nasal cavity. Surgical approaches to this and other sinonasal malignancies involving the anterior skull base have traditionally involved craniofacial resections. Over the past 10 years to 15 years, there have been advances in endoscopic approaches to skull base pathologies, including malignant tumors. In this study, we review our experience with purely endoscopic approaches to esthesioneuroblastomas. Between January 2005 and February 2012, 11 patients (seven men and four women, average age 53.3 years) with esthesioneuroblastoma were treated endoscopically. Nine patients presented with newly diagnosed disease and two were treated for tumor recurrence. The modified Kadish staging was: A, two patients (18.2%); B, two patients (18.2%); C, five patients (45.5%); and D, two patients (18.2%). All patients had a complete resection with negative intraoperative margins. Three patients had 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)fluoro-d-glucose avid neck nodes on their preoperative positron emission tomography-CT scan. These patients underwent neck dissections; two had positive neck nodes. Perioperative complications included an intraoperative hypertensive urgency and pneumocephalus in two different patients. Mean follow-up was over 28 months and all patients were free of disease. This series adds to the growing experience of purely endoscopic surgical approaches in the treatment of skull base tumors including esthesioneuroblastoma. Longer follow-up on larger numbers of patients is required to clarify the utility of purely endoscopic approaches in the management of this malignant tumor.

  17. Sterilization of endoscopic instruments.

    PubMed

    Sabnis, Ravindra B; Bhattu, Amit; Vijaykumar, Mohankumar

    2014-03-01

    Sterilization of endoscopic instruments is an important but often ignored topic. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the sterilization of endoscopic instruments and elaborate on the appropriate sterilization practices. Autoclaving is an economic and excellent method of sterilizing the instruments that are not heat sensitive. Heat sensitive instruments may get damaged with hot sterilization methods. Several new endoscopic instruments such as flexible ureteroscopes, chip on tip endoscopes, are added in urologists armamentarium. Many of these instruments are heat sensitive and hence alternative efficacious methods of sterilization are necessary. Although ethylene oxide and hydrogen peroxide are excellent methods of sterilization, they have some drawbacks. Gamma irradiation is mainly for disposable items. Various chemical agents are widely used even though they achieve high-level disinfection rather than sterilization. This article reviews various methods of endoscopic instrument sterilization with their advantages and drawbacks. If appropriate sterilization methods are adopted, then it not only will protect patients from procedure-related infections but prevent hypersensitive allergic reactions. It will also protect instruments from damage and increase its longevity.

  18. MULTIPHOTON IMAGING CAN BE USED FOR MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF INTACT HUMAN GASTROINTESTINAL MUCOSA EX VIVO

    PubMed Central

    Rogart, Jason N.; Nagata, Jun; Loeser, Caroline S.; Roorda, Robert D.; Aslanian, Harry; Robert, Marie E.; Zipfel, Warren R.; Nathanson, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Background & Aims The ability to observe cellular and subcellular detail during routine endoscopy is a major goal in the development of new endoscopic imaging techniques. Multiphoton microscopy, which relies on nonlinear infared optical processes, has the potential to identify cellular details by excitation of endogenous fluorescent molecules. We examined the feasibility of using multiphoton microscopy to characterize mucosal histology in the human gastrointestinal tract. Methods A multiphoton microscope was used to determine the optimal excitation wavelength for examination of gastrointestinal mucosa. Fresh, unfixed, and unstained biopsy specimens obtained during routine endoscopy in human subjects were then examined by confocal microscopy and multiphoton microscopy. Multiphoton images also were compared to standard H&E images obtained from paired biopsy specimens. A prototype miniaturized multiphoton probe was used to examine intact rat colon. Results Peak multiphoton autofluorescence intensity was detected in mucosa excited at 735 nm. Multiphoton microscopic examination of unstained biopsy specimens revealed improved cellular detail relative to either unstained or stained specimens examined by confocal imaging. Resolution of structures such as epithelial nuclei, goblet cells, and interstitial fibers and cells was comparable to what was obtained using standard H&E histology. Similar findings were observed when using a prototype miniaturized multiphoton probe. Conclusions Multiphoton microscopy can be used to examine gastrointestinal mucosa at the cellular level, without the need for fluorescent dyes. The construction of a multiphoton endomicroscope could therefore provide a practical means of performing “virtual biopsies” during the course of routine endoscopy, with advantages over currently available endomicroscopy technologies. PMID:18065276

  19. Brunner's Gland Adenoma – A Rare Cause of Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Case Report and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sorleto, Michele; Timmer-Stranghöner, Annette; Wuttig, Helge; Engelhard, Oliver; Gartung, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Brunner's gland adenoma is an extremely rare benign small bowel neoplasm, often discovered incidentally during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy or radiological diagnostics. In few cases, it tends to cause gastrointestinal hemorrhage or intestinal obstruction. We report here our experience with a 47-year-old woman with a Brunner's gland adenoma of more than 6 cm in size, located in the first part of the duodenum and causing gastrointestinal bleeding. Initially, we performed a partial endoscopic resection using endoloop and snare alternatively to prevent severe bleeding. A rest endoscopic polypectomy with the submucosal dissection technique was planned. However, on request of the patient, an elective surgical duodenotomy with submucosal resection of the remaining small duodenal tumor was performed. To better define the patient's characteristics and treatment options of such lesions, we performed a systematic review of the available literature in PubMed. Recently, an endoscopic removal is being increasingly practiced and is considered as a safe treatment modality of such lesions. PMID:28203131

  20. Gastrointestinal toxicity associated to radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Mario López; Martín, Margarita Martín; Padellano, Laura Cerezo; Palomo, Alicia Marín; Puebla, Yamile Ibáñez

    2010-08-01

    Radiation therapy in combination with other treatments, such as surgery and chemotherapy, increases locoregional control and survival in patients with thoracic, abdominal and pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, significant clinical toxicity with combined treatments may be seen in these patients. With the advent of tridimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), dose-volume histograms (DVH) can be generated to assess the dose received by the organs at risk. The possible relationship between these parameters and clinical, anatomical and, more recently, genetic factors has to be considered. Treatment options include initial conservative medical therapies, endoscopic procedures, hyperbaric oxygen and surgery. Some pharmacological agents to prevent gastrointestinal toxicity are under investigation.

  1. Optical Coherence Tomography for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wei; Qi, Xin; Wang, Hui; Rollins, Andrew M.

    Researchers have long been exploring OCT as a diagnostic tool for the early epithelial dysplastic changes in the gastrointestinal tract. One reason is that the subsurface microscopic changes are within the depth-penetrating and detail-resolving capability of OCT. However, endoscopically imaging a large lumen (i.e. esophagus and colon) has been challenging. In this chapter, the key technologies to overcome the obstacles are introduced: 1) Rapid imaging acquisition based on spectral-domain OCT technology; 2) Miniature scanning probe and balloon-based catheter for volumetric imaging; and 3) Image reconstruction and computer-aided diagnosis algorithms. Animal and clinical studies based on these technologies will be presented.

  2. Microstructure inspection endoscope design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Jing, Chao; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Yimo; Jing, Wencai; Zhou, Ge

    2005-02-01

    A microstructure inspection endoscope, based on directly imaging, is proposed. It is designed for detecting defects on the surface of optical fiber end. It is matched with FC or SC female fiber connector. The inspection head of the endoscope can be put into a 2.5-millimeter-diameter micro-pore. Its numerical aperture is not restricted by tiny dimension of object lenses. System resolution is increased to 600 line-pairs per millimeter. The endoscope consists of object lenses, scanner slab and kohler illumination system. The design provides possibility of various utilities such as aiming at a smaller subject by micro optical scanner and modeling the surface by tri-dimensional vision. And the optical system includes low-magnification lenses and high-magnification zoom lenses. Rough observation at low-magnification and particularly inspection at high-magnification are provided. The instrument has the advantages of high identification, compact configuration and flexible manipulation.

  3. Endoscopic and biopsy diagnoses of superficial, nonampullary, duodenal adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kakushima, Naomi; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Keiko; Kawata, Noboru; Tanaka, Masaki; Takizawa, Kohei; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the accuracy of endoscopic or biopsy diagnoses of superficial nonampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (NADETs). METHODS: Clinicopathological data were reviewed for 84 superficial NADETs from 74 patients who underwent surgery or endoscopic resection between September 2002 and August 2014 at a single prefectural cancer center. Superficial NADETs w