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Sample records for gastrointestinal nematode infections

  1. Human gastrointestinal nematode infections: are new control methods required?

    PubMed Central

    Stepek, Gillian; Buttle, David J; Duce, Ian R; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections affect 50% of the human population worldwide, and cause great morbidity as well as hundreds of thousands of deaths. Despite modern medical practices, the proportion of the population infected with GI nematodes is not falling. This is due to a number of factors, the most important being the lack of good healthcare, sanitation and health education in many developing countries. A relatively new problem is the development of resistance to the small number of drugs available to treat GI nematode infections. Here we review the most important parasitic GI nematodes and the methods available to control them. In addition, we discuss the current status of new anthelmintic treatments, particularly the plant cysteine proteinases from various sources of latex-bearing plants and fruits. PMID:16965561

  2. Interactions Between Nutrition and Infections With Haemonchus contortus and Related Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Small Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Hoste, H; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Quijada, J; Chan-Perez, I; Dakheel, M M; Kommuru, D S; Mueller-Harvey, I; Terrill, T H

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between host nutrition and feeding behaviour are central to understanding the pathophysiological consequences of infections of the digestive tract with parasitic nematodes. The manipulation of host nutrition provides useful options to control gastrointestinal nematodes as a component of an integrated strategy. Focussed mainly on the Haemonchus contortus infection model in small ruminants, this chapter (1) illustrates the relationship between quantitative (macro- and micro-nutrients) and qualitative (plant secondary metabolites) aspects of host nutrition and nematode infection, and (2) shows how basic studies aimed at addressing some generic questions can help to provide solutions, despite the considerable diversity of epidemiological situations and breeding systems. PMID:27238007

  3. A real-time PCR assay for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode infections of small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Roeber, Florian; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode infections in small ruminants is central to studying the biology and epidemiology of these parasites and underpins their control. Traditional methods of diagnosis are inaccurate, time-consuming and laborious. Here, we describe a step-by-step protocol for the molecular-based diagnosis of infections by real-time PCR.

  4. Gastrointestinal nematode infection in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Sheferaw, Desie; Aragaw, Kassaye; Abera, Mesele; Sibhat, Berhanu; Haile, Aynalem; Kiara, Henry; Szonyi, Barbara; Skjerve, Eystein; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are a major health challenge affecting productive and reproductive performance of sheep and goats in Ethiopia. However, there is no comprehensive summary on the occurrence and distribution of the infection at national level. This systematic review provides pooled prevalence estimates and assesses potential predictors of the nematode infections in small ruminants, i.e. helpful in planning interventions or control strategies. The review used 50 animal level datasets retrieved from 24 manuscripts. The studies used data collected from 9407 sheep and 3478 goats. A meta-analytical approach was employed to analyze Effect size (ES). The reported GI nematodes represented eleven genera affecting sheep and goats including: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia/Ostertagia, Strongyloides, Bunostomum, Nematodirus, Chabertia, Trichuris, Cooperia, Skrjabinema and Oesophagostomum. The GI nematodes pooled prevalence estimate in the random effect model was 75.8% (95% CI: 69.6, 80.8). The subgroup analysis revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in the prevalence between different regions and type of diagnostic methods used. 'Postmortem technique' and 'eastern part of the country' were associated with higher GI nematode prevalence and accounted for 68.1% of the between studies heterogeneity. In light of the high parasitic prevalence in all agro-ecologies, the need for strategic intervention is recommended. Meanwhile, data need to be generated for some of the regions where dependable survey reports are lacking.

  5. Climate and the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode infections of sheep in Europe.

    PubMed

    Morgan, E R; van Dijk, J

    2012-09-30

    The free-living stages of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep are strongly affected by climate. Thus, extreme heat and cold are detrimental to development and survival, while, within tolerable limits, increasing temperatures generally accelerate development but increase mortality. Moisture is needed for development and translation of larvae from faeces to pasture, and so rainfall is a limiting factor for transmission. Together, these factors underpin seasonal patterns of infection in sheep, as well as geographic variation in the epidemiology and relative importance of different species within Europe. Local knowledge and experience enable treatment to be targeted appropriately to prevent dangerous levels of infection. This traditional know-how can be supplemented by predictive epidemiological models, built on thorough understanding of the influence of climate on larval availability. However, management also has a dominant role in determining patterns of infection, and is itself influenced by climate. Current geographic variation in nematode epidemiology across Europe, and knowledge of systems from outside Europe, can provide only limited perspectives on the likely effects of climate change on disease in future. This is because disease arises from complex interaction between host and parasite factors, and the implementation of optimal control strategies to meet new challenges will be slowed by the inertia of current systems. Approaches to nematode control must therefore take account not only of parasite biology, but also the forces that shape sheep farming systems and management decisions. PMID:22494941

  6. The Effect of Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection Level on Grazing Distance from Dung

    PubMed Central

    Seó, Hizumi Lua Sarti; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; da Silva, Bruna Fernanda; do Amarante, Alessandro Fernando Talamini; Bricarello, Patrizia Ana

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding grazing near feces is an efficient strategy to prevent parasitic infection and contamination; therefore, in the evolution of herbivorous species, this behavior may have developed as a mechanism to protect the host against infection by gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to assess whether grazing distance from dung is related to the level of parasitic infection in cattle. Based on Fecal Egg Count (FEC) means, 18 castrated male steers, aged 18 months, were divided into three groups: High (FEC ≥ 315); Medium (FEC = 130–160); and Low (FEC = 40–70). To analyze the response to a new natural infection by gastrointestinal nematodes and to standardize infection levels, all animals received anthelmintic treatment at twenty days prior to field observation. Three observers simultaneously collected data on grazing behavior for 2.5 hours/week for 12 weeks. Observers recorded the distance when grazing occurred at less than one meter from dung. Every two weeks, fecal samples were collected for FEC, as well as serum samples to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels against larvae and adult antigens of the parasitic species Haemonchus placei. All groups grazed farther from the dung on days of greater insolation (r = 0.62; P = 0.03). Animals with high levels of parasitism grazed farther from the dung (P < 0.05) but had lower levels (P < 0.0001) of IgG serum levels compared to those with medium and low levels of infection. FEC values varied over the experiment, remaining below 200 for the low and medium group and reaching 1000 (P < 0.01) for the animals with the highest rates of parasitism. Our results indicate that cattle showing high levels of parasitism are more likely to avoid contaminated areas than animals with lower infection levels, and the immune system seems to be involved in such behavior. PMID:26039729

  7. The effect of gastrointestinal nematode infection level on grazing distance from dung.

    PubMed

    Seó, Hizumi Lua Sarti; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; da Silva, Bruna Fernanda; do Amarante, Alessandro Fernando Talamini; Bricarello, Patrizia Ana

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding grazing near feces is an efficient strategy to prevent parasitic infection and contamination; therefore, in the evolution of herbivorous species, this behavior may have developed as a mechanism to protect the host against infection by gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to assess whether grazing distance from dung is related to the level of parasitic infection in cattle. Based on Fecal Egg Count (FEC) means, 18 castrated male steers, aged 18 months, were divided into three groups: High (FEC ≥ 315); Medium (FEC = 130-160); and Low (FEC = 40-70). To analyze the response to a new natural infection by gastrointestinal nematodes and to standardize infection levels, all animals received anthelmintic treatment at twenty days prior to field observation. Three observers simultaneously collected data on grazing behavior for 2.5 hours/week for 12 weeks. Observers recorded the distance when grazing occurred at less than one meter from dung. Every two weeks, fecal samples were collected for FEC, as well as serum samples to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels against larvae and adult antigens of the parasitic species Haemonchus placei. All groups grazed farther from the dung on days of greater insolation (r = 0.62; P = 0.03). Animals with high levels of parasitism grazed farther from the dung (P < 0.05) but had lower levels (P < 0.0001) of IgG serum levels compared to those with medium and low levels of infection. FEC values varied over the experiment, remaining below 200 for the low and medium group and reaching 1000 (P < 0.01) for the animals with the highest rates of parasitism. Our results indicate that cattle showing high levels of parasitism are more likely to avoid contaminated areas than animals with lower infection levels, and the immune system seems to be involved in such behavior. PMID:26039729

  8. The relation between input-output transformation and gastrointestinal nematode infections on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, M; Van Meensel, J; Lauwers, L; Van Huylenbroeck, G; Charlier, J

    2016-02-01

    Efficiency analysis is used for assessing links between technical efficiency (TE) of livestock farms and animal diseases. However, previous studies often do not make the link with the allocation of inputs and mainly present average effects that ignore the often huge differences among farms. In this paper, we studied the relationship between exposure to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections, the TE and the input allocation on dairy farms. Although the traditional cost allocative efficiency (CAE) indicator adequately measures how a given input allocation differs from the cost-minimising input allocation, they do not represent the unique input allocation of farms. Similar CAE scores may be obtained for farms with different input allocations. Therefore, we propose an adjusted allocative efficiency index (AAEI) to measure the unique input allocation of farms. Combining this AAEI with the TE score allows determining the unique input-output position of each farm. The method is illustrated by estimating efficiency scores using data envelopment analysis (DEA) on a sample of 152 dairy farms in Flanders for which both accountancy and parasitic monitoring data were available. Three groups of farms with a different input-output position can be distinguished based on cluster analysis: (1) technically inefficient farms, with a relatively low use of concentrates per 100 l milk and a high exposure to infection, (2) farms with an intermediate TE, relatively high use of concentrates per 100 l milk and a low exposure to infection, (3) farms with the highest TE, relatively low roughage use per 100 l milk and a relatively high exposure to infection. Correlation analysis indicates for each group how the level of exposure to GI nematodes is associated or not with improved economic performance. The results suggest that improving both the economic performance and exposure to infection seems only of interest for highly TE farms. The findings indicate that current farm recommendations

  9. The relation between input-output transformation and gastrointestinal nematode infections on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, M; Van Meensel, J; Lauwers, L; Van Huylenbroeck, G; Charlier, J

    2016-02-01

    Efficiency analysis is used for assessing links between technical efficiency (TE) of livestock farms and animal diseases. However, previous studies often do not make the link with the allocation of inputs and mainly present average effects that ignore the often huge differences among farms. In this paper, we studied the relationship between exposure to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections, the TE and the input allocation on dairy farms. Although the traditional cost allocative efficiency (CAE) indicator adequately measures how a given input allocation differs from the cost-minimising input allocation, they do not represent the unique input allocation of farms. Similar CAE scores may be obtained for farms with different input allocations. Therefore, we propose an adjusted allocative efficiency index (AAEI) to measure the unique input allocation of farms. Combining this AAEI with the TE score allows determining the unique input-output position of each farm. The method is illustrated by estimating efficiency scores using data envelopment analysis (DEA) on a sample of 152 dairy farms in Flanders for which both accountancy and parasitic monitoring data were available. Three groups of farms with a different input-output position can be distinguished based on cluster analysis: (1) technically inefficient farms, with a relatively low use of concentrates per 100 l milk and a high exposure to infection, (2) farms with an intermediate TE, relatively high use of concentrates per 100 l milk and a low exposure to infection, (3) farms with the highest TE, relatively low roughage use per 100 l milk and a relatively high exposure to infection. Correlation analysis indicates for each group how the level of exposure to GI nematodes is associated or not with improved economic performance. The results suggest that improving both the economic performance and exposure to infection seems only of interest for highly TE farms. The findings indicate that current farm recommendations

  10. The unique resistance and resilience of the Nigerian West African Dwarf goat to gastrointestinal nematode infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background West African Dwarf (WAD) goats serve an important role in the rural village economy of West Africa, especially among small-holder livestock owners. They have been shown to be trypanotolerant and to resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than any other known breed of goat. Methods In this paper we review what is known about the origins of this goat breed, explain its economic importance in rural West Africa and review the current status of our knowledge about its ability to resist parasitic infections. Conclusions We suggest that its unique capacity to show both trypanotolerance and resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections is immunologically based and genetically endowed, and that knowledge of the underlying genes could be exploited to improve the capacity of more productive wool and milk producing, but GI nematode susceptible, breeds of goats to resist infection, without recourse to anthelmintics. Either conventional breeding allowing introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds, or transgenesis could be exploited for this purpose. Appropriate legal protection of the resistance alleles of WAD goats might provide a much needed source of revenue for the countries in West Africa where the WAD goats exist and where currently living standards among rural populations are among the lowest in the world. PMID:21291550

  11. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics world-wide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, inclu...

  12. Chronic Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection Mutes Immune Responses to Mycobacterial Infection Distal to the Gut.

    PubMed

    Obieglo, Katja; Feng, Xiaogang; Bollampalli, Vishnu Priya; Dellacasa-Lindberg, Isabel; Classon, Cajsa; Österblad, Markus; Helmby, Helena; Hewitson, James P; Maizels, Rick M; Gigliotti Rothfuchs, Antonio; Nylén, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    Helminth infections have been suggested to impair the development and outcome of Th1 responses to vaccines and intracellular microorganisms. However, there are limited data regarding the ability of intestinal nematodes to modulate Th1 responses at sites distal to the gut. In this study, we have investigated the effect of the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri on Th1 responses to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). We found that H. polygyrus infection localized to the gut can mute BCG-specific CD4(+) T cell priming in both the spleen and skin-draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, H. polygyrus infection reduced the magnitude of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to PPD in the skin. Consequently, H. polygyrus-infected mice challenged with BCG had a higher mycobacterial load in the liver compared with worm-free mice. The excretory-secretory product from H. polygyrus (HES) was found to dampen IFN-γ production by mycobacteria-specific CD4(+) T cells. This inhibition was dependent on the TGF-βR signaling activity of HES, suggesting that TGF-β signaling plays a role in the impaired Th1 responses observed coinfection with worms. Similar to results with mycobacteria, H. polygyrus-infected mice displayed an increase in skin parasite load upon secondary infection with Leishmania major as well as a reduction in DTH responses to Leishmania Ag. We show that a nematode confined to the gut can mute T cell responses to mycobacteria and impair control of secondary infections distal to the gut. The ability of intestinal helminths to reduce DTH responses may have clinical implications for the use of skin test-based diagnosis of microbial infections. PMID:26819205

  13. Chronic Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection Mutes Immune Responses to Mycobacterial Infection Distal to the Gut

    PubMed Central

    Obieglo, Katja; Feng, Xiaogang; Bollampalli, Vishnu Priya; Dellacasa-Lindberg, Isabel; Classon, Cajsa; Österblad, Markus; Helmby, Helena; Hewitson, James P.; Maizels, Rick M.

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections have been suggested to impair the development and outcome of Th1 responses to vaccines and intracellular microorganisms. However, there are limited data regarding the ability of intestinal nematodes to modulate Th1 responses at sites distal to the gut. In this study, we have investigated the effect of the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri on Th1 responses to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG). We found that H. polygyrus infection localized to the gut can mute BCG-specific CD4+ T cell priming in both the spleen and skin-draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, H. polygyrus infection reduced the magnitude of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to PPD in the skin. Consequently, H. polygyrus–infected mice challenged with BCG had a higher mycobacterial load in the liver compared with worm-free mice. The excretory–secretory product from H. polygyrus (HES) was found to dampen IFN-γ production by mycobacteria-specific CD4+ T cells. This inhibition was dependent on the TGF-βR signaling activity of HES, suggesting that TGF-β signaling plays a role in the impaired Th1 responses observed coinfection with worms. Similar to results with mycobacteria, H. polygyrus–infected mice displayed an increase in skin parasite load upon secondary infection with Leishmania major as well as a reduction in DTH responses to Leishmania Ag. We show that a nematode confined to the gut can mute T cell responses to mycobacteria and impair control of secondary infections distal to the gut. The ability of intestinal helminths to reduce DTH responses may have clinical implications for the use of skin test–based diagnosis of microbial infections. PMID:26819205

  14. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fankhauser, Rebecca; Hamel, Dietmar; Dorr, Paul; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Crafford, Dionne; Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael; Yoon, Stephen; Larsen, Diane L

    2016-07-30

    The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six separate studies. Two studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the product against Toxocara canis, two studies evaluated the efficacy against Toxascaris leonina, one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, and one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma caninum. In the A. caninum study, the efficacy of milbemycin oxime alone and afoxolaner alone was also evaluated. Dogs in all studies were inoculated with infective eggs or larvae and confirmed to have patent infections based on a fecal examination prior to allocation to study group and treatment. Each study utilized a randomized block design with blocks based on pre-treatment body weight. All dogs were assigned to blocks based on body weight, and then each dog within a block was randomly assigned to treatment group. There were two groups of 10 dogs each in the T. canis, T. leonina, and A. braziliense studies: 1) an untreated (control) group and 2) a group treated with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables (NexGard Spectra(®), Merial). This group was treated at a dose as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime (2.5mg+0.5mg per kg body weight, respectively) once on Day 0 using whole chews. There were four groups of 10 dogs each in the A. caninum study: 1) untreated (control), 2) NexGard Spectra(®) as described above, 3) milbemycin oxime alone (dose of at least 0.5mg per kg of body weight) and 4) afoxalaner alone (dose of at least 2.5mg per kg body weight). For parasite recovery and counts, dogs were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven days after treatment. The efficacy of the afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination was ≥98% against T. canis, ≥95.8% against T. leonina, and 90.2% against A. braziliense. Efficacy of the combination against A. caninum was 99

  15. Sunn hemp with chicory or pearl millet to minimize gastrointestinal nematode infection in weaned goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predominantly grass forage systems are typically used throughout the southeastern U.S., but are inadequate for nutritional needs of growing goats, and encourage problems with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Browse predominant forages would be preferable, but are not always available. Selection o...

  16. Evaluation of Kumaon hill goats for resistance to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Subramani, K V; Sankar, M; Prasad, A; Gowane, G R; Sharma, A K; Zahid, A K; Saravanan, B C; Khobra, Vikram; Chandra, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    The present study deals with the investigation of different degrees of genetic resistance/resilience of Uttarakhand hill goats to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in order to introduce into breeding schemes. Animals were naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were carried out every month for a period of 1 year and blood samples were collected every third month for the determination of indicator traits such as FEC, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb). The mean egg per gram (EPG), PCV and Hb were 1,579.6 ± 346, 35.12 ± 1.1 and 8.7 ± 0.2, respectively. The goats were divided into three groups (<800, 801-2,000 and >2,000) based on EPG. The EPG showed a negative correlation with both Hb and PCV (P < 0.01). Therefore, it was concluded that the Hb and PCV value would decrease, if EPG increases. PMID:27413336

  17. Evaluation of Kumaon hill goats for resistance to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Subramani, K V; Sankar, M; Prasad, A; Gowane, G R; Sharma, A K; Zahid, A K; Saravanan, B C; Khobra, Vikram; Chandra, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    The present study deals with the investigation of different degrees of genetic resistance/resilience of Uttarakhand hill goats to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in order to introduce into breeding schemes. Animals were naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were carried out every month for a period of 1 year and blood samples were collected every third month for the determination of indicator traits such as FEC, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb). The mean egg per gram (EPG), PCV and Hb were 1,579.6 ± 346, 35.12 ± 1.1 and 8.7 ± 0.2, respectively. The goats were divided into three groups (<800, 801-2,000 and >2,000) based on EPG. The EPG showed a negative correlation with both Hb and PCV (P < 0.01). Therefore, it was concluded that the Hb and PCV value would decrease, if EPG increases.

  18. Gastrointestinal nematode infection in beef cattle of different genetic groups in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M C S; Alencar, M M; Chagas, A C S; Giglioti, R; Oliveira, H N

    2009-12-23

    Resistance to natural infection by gastrointestinal nematodes was compared in 67 female calves of the following genetic groups: Nelore (NX); 1/2 Senepol+1/2 Nelore (SN); and 1/2 Aberdeen Angus+1/2 Nelore (AN). The NX (n=26), SN (n=23) and AN (n=18) animals were monitored for 14 months, during which they remained without treatment, allowed to graze in a tropical environment. Eggs per gram of feces (EPG), coprocultures and packed cell volume (PCV) were carried out monthly. No significant effects of the interaction between the genetic groups and month/year of collection and the genetic group on the EPG were found, but there was a significant influence of the month of collection (P<0.01). The monthly PCV measurements did not differ for the animals of the three genetic groups and there was no association found between the EPG and PCV. The animals of the SN and NX groups showed similar numbers of EPG with results zero, while for the AN group these numbers were significantly lower (P<0.05). Although the NX group had a large number of EPG with results zero, it also contained many animals with high counts, meaning this group had higher averages during the entire study period. The following nematode genera were found in the coprocultures: Haemonchus, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum and Trichostrongylus, the latter in smallest proportion. There was no significant difference between the genetic groups for averages of all parasites identified, except Cooperia, which were present in higher numbers in the animals of the NX group (P<0.05). The results obtained in this experiment suggest that the use of Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbreeds can be a good strategy to reduce the use of chemical control in Brazil. PMID:19828253

  19. Gastrointestinal nematode infections in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from the NW of the Iberian Peninsula: assessment of some risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pato, F J; Vázquez, L; Díez-Baños, N; López, C; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Fernández, G; Díez-Baños, P; Panadero, R; Díaz, P; Morrondo, P

    2013-09-01

    Intestinal contents of 218 roe deer hunted in the northwest (NW) of the Iberian Peninsula during the 2008-2009 hunting seasons were examined in order to provide information on the gastrointestinal (GI) nematode prevalence and intensity of infection and the possible influence of some environmental and intrinsic factors such as climatic conditions, age and sex. All the animals studied harboured GI nematodes, and a total of 20 different species belonging to ten genera were identified. Spiculopteragia spiculoptera/Spiculopteragia mathevossiani, Ostertagia leptospicularis/Ostertagia kolchida and Nematodirus filicollis were the most common. This is the first citation for Chabertia ovina, Cooperia pectinata, Cooperia punctata, Cooperia oncophora, Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus spathiger, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Teladorsagia trifurcata, Trichostrongylus capricola, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Trichuris capreoli in roe deer from the Iberian Peninsula. Prevalence and intensity were significantly higher in the abomasum, where infections with more than one GI nematode species were the most common; in the other intestinal segments infections with only one GI nematode species were the most prevalent. When considering the influence of the different risk factors on the prevalence of GI nematodes, the highest prevalence for most of the genera were observed in roe deer from coastal areas, where climatic conditions are more favourable for the development and survival of third stage larvae in the environment. Regarding the sex of the animals, the prevalence was, in general, higher in males than in females, probably due to behavioural and physiological sex-related differences. On the contrary, no differences were found in relation to the age of the animals. This study reveals that roe deer from the NW of the Iberian Peninsula are widely and intensely infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, which probably affect the health status of these

  20. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) against gastrointestinal nematode parasites in experimentally infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Thamsborg, Stig M; Desrues, Olivier; Hansen, Tina V A; Enemark, Heidi L

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments studied the effects of dietary chicory against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In Experiment (Exp.) 1, stabled calves were fed chicory silage (CHI1; n = 9) or ryegrass/clover hay (CTL1; n = 6) with balanced protein/energy intakes between groups. After 16 days, all calves received 10 000 Ostertagia ostertagi and 66 000 Cooperia oncophora third-stage larvae (L3) [day (D) 0 post-infection (p.i.)]. In Exp. 2, calves were assigned to pure chicory (CHI2; n=10) or ryegrass/clover (CTL2; n = 10) pastures. After 7 days, animals received 20 000 O. ostertagi L3/calf (D0 p.i.) and were moved regularly preventing pasture-borne infections. Due to poor regrowth of the chicory pasture, CHI2 was supplemented with chicory silage. At D40 p.i. (Exp. 1) and D35 p.i. (Exp. 2) calves were slaughtered for worm recovery. In Exp.1, fecal egg counts (FEC) were similar between groups. However, O. ostertagi counts were significantly reduced in CHI1 by 60% (geometric mean; P < 0·01), whereas C. oncophora burdens were unaffected (P = 0·12). In Exp. 2, FEC were markedly lowered in CHI2 from D22 p.i onwards (P < 0·01). Ostertagia ostertagi adult burdens were significantly reduced in CHI2 by 66% (P < 0·001). Sesquiterpene lactones were identified only in chicory (fresh/silage). Chicory shows promise as an anti-Ostertagia feed for cattle and further studies should investigate its on-farm use. PMID:27173405

  1. Prevalence and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats raised in Baybay city, Leyte, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Rupa, Ariel Paul M.; Portugaliza, Harvie P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal parasitism is a serious constraint affecting goat production in the Philippines. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of gastrointestinal nematode infection in goat-populated barangays of Baybay City, Leyte. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 households or farms were interviewed, and 450 goats were sampled for fecalysis. Fecal egg count along with egg morphological identification and coproculture for third stage larvae identification were conducted. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine the farm- and animal-level prevalence and risk factors. Results: Fecalysis revealed the presence of strongyle and Trichuris spp. with a farm-level prevalence of 100% and 4.94%, respectively; and animal-level prevalence of 96.22% and 4.44%, respectively. The identified strongyle genera per barangay were Haemonchus spp. (34.79%), Trichostrongylus spp. (33.29%), Oesophagostomum spp. (24.21%), Cooperia spp. (6.93%), and Chabertia spp. (0.79%). Goats older than 12 months were four times more likely to present high strongyle burden when compared to goats <6 months. With each month increase in goat’s age, the odds of acquiring strongyle infection also increased by 1.07 times. Animals kept in goat house with cemented flooring have lower odds of acquiring strongyle (odds ratio=0.12). Goats raised for leisure purposes and fed with carabao grass (Paspalum conjugatum) were 8.12 and 5.52 times more likely to acquire Trichuris, respectively. Conclusion: Most of the backyard goat raisers in Baybay City, Leyte, do not practice sound helminth control measures as shown by the high prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes. The most relevant risk factors for gastrointestinal nematode infection were the age of the goat, type of goat house’s flooring, purpose of raising goats, and feeding practices. PMID:27536034

  2. Natural Selection on Individual Variation in Tolerance of Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Nussey, Daniel H.; Wilson, Alastair J.; Berenos, Camillo; Pilkington, Jill G.; Watt, Kathryn A.; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Graham, Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    Hosts may mitigate the impact of parasites by two broad strategies: resistance, which limits parasite burden, and tolerance, which limits the fitness or health cost of increasing parasite burden. The degree and causes of variation in both resistance and tolerance are expected to influence host–parasite evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics and inform disease management, yet very little empirical work has addressed tolerance in wild vertebrates. Here, we applied random regression models to longitudinal data from an unmanaged population of Soay sheep to estimate individual tolerance, defined as the rate of decline in body weight with increasing burden of highly prevalent gastrointestinal nematode parasites. On average, individuals lost weight as parasite burden increased, but whereas some lost weight slowly as burden increased (exhibiting high tolerance), other individuals lost weight significantly more rapidly (exhibiting low tolerance). We then investigated associations between tolerance and fitness using selection gradients that accounted for selection on correlated traits, including body weight. We found evidence for positive phenotypic selection on tolerance: on average, individuals who lost weight more slowly with increasing parasite burden had higher lifetime breeding success. This variation did not have an additive genetic basis. These results reveal that selection on tolerance operates under natural conditions. They also support theoretical predictions for the erosion of additive genetic variance of traits under strong directional selection and fixation of genes conferring tolerance. Our findings provide the first evidence of selection on individual tolerance of infection in animals and suggest practical applications in animal and human disease management in the face of highly prevalent parasites. PMID:25072883

  3. Comparing different maize supplementation strategies to improve resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing goats

    PubMed Central

    Gárate-Gallardo, Leslie; Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe de Jesús; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Cámara-Sarmiento, Ramón; Canul-Ku, Hilda Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The effect of maize grain supplementation on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo goat kids against gastrointestinal nematodes was evaluated. Five-month-old kids (n = 42), raised worm-free, were allocated to five groups: infected + not supplemented (I-NS; n = 10), infected + maize supplement at 108 g/d (I-S108; n = 8), maize supplement at 1% of body weight (BW) (I-S1%; n = 8), maize supplement at 1.5% BW (I-S1.5%; n = 8), or infected + supplemented (maize supplement 1.5% BW) + moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg BW subcutaneously every 28 d) (T-S1.5%; n = 8). Kids browsed daily (7 h) in a tropical forest for 112 days during the rainy season. Kids were weighed weekly to adjust supplementary feeding. Hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and eggs per gram of feces were determined fortnightly. On day 112, five goat kids were slaughtered per group to determine worm burdens. Kids of the I-S1.5% group showed similar body-weight change, Ht and Hb, compared to kids without gastrointestinal nematodes (T-S1.5%), as well as lower eggs per gram of feces and Trichostrongylus colubriformis worm burden compared to the I-NS group (P > 0.05). Thus, among the supplement levels tested, increasing maize supplementation at 1.5% BW of kids was the best strategy to improve their resilience and resistance against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections under the conditions of forage from the tropical forest. PMID:26071051

  4. Gastrointestinal nematode infection and performance of weaned stocker calves in response to anthelmintic control strategies.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Miller, J E; Monlezun, C J; LaMay, D; Navarre, C; Ensley, D

    2013-10-18

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite control recommendations are in a state of flux because of the increase in anthelmintic resistant cattle parasites, such as Cooperia spp. In addition, Cooperia spp. infection is typically high in warm-season grass pastures and can affect growth performance of grazing stocker calves in the Gulf Coast Region. This study evaluated the effects of moxidectin pour-on, oxfendazole oral suspension, or a combination of the two given at separate times on infection and performance of weaned beef calves grazing summer forages. Steers (n=42) and heifers (n=31) were stratified by sex, d-11 fecal egg count (FEC), and d-1 shrunk body weight (BW) to one of 10 pastures with four anthelmintic treatments and one control. Treatments included: (1) oxfendazole given on d 0 and moxidectin on d 73 (O+M), (2) moxidectin given on d 0 and oxfendazole on d 73 (M+O), (3) moxidectin given on d 0 (M), (4) oxfendazole given on d 0 (O) and (5) no anthelmintic given (CON). Calves grazed for d-110 beginning May 27th. Response variables were FEC (collected on d-11, 14, 31, 45, 59, 73, 87 and 108), coprocultures (evaluated for d 87 and 108), final shrunk BW, shrunk BW gain, average daily gain (ADG), and full BW gain (collected on d 31, 59, 73, 87, and 108). Calves treated with either oxfendazole (O+M and O) or moxidectin (M+O and M) on d 0 had significantly lower (P<0.001) FEC than the CON calves on d 14, 31 and 45. However, the M+O treated calves had significantly higher (P<0.001) FEC than both oxfendazole treated groups. In addition, calves treated with a second dewormer on d 73 (O+M and M+O) had significantly lower (P<0.001) FEC by d 87 than the CON or M treated calves. Shrunk BW gain and ADG were significantly greater (P=0.005) for the O+M compared to the M treated and CON calves, but comparable with the M+O and O treated calves, respectively. Coprocultures sampled on d 87 and 108 for calves not receiving a second dewormer were predominantly Cooperia spp. and

  5. Gastrointestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    Alby, Kevin; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal infections in the immunocompromised host are caused by the common bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic agents that also cause infections in the immunocompetent host. Of special consideration is that immunocompromised patients may be at increased risk for infection or disease severity and by pathogens not seen in the competent host. This chapter reviews the various agents, risk factors, and diagnostic approaches to detect gastrointestinal infections in this patient population. PMID:27337464

  6. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats.

    PubMed

    Gujja, S; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Mechineni, A; Kommuru, D S; Shaik, S A; Lambert, B D; Cherry, N M; Burke, J M

    2013-01-16

    Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. A study was completed in which supplemental feeds (75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets and a commercial pellet, all fed at 0.91 kg/head/day) were offered to thirty growing male Spanish goats (9 months old, 20.6 ± 2.8 kg, 10/treatment) grazing perennial warm-season grass pastures in Fort Valley, GA, from September to November, 2010. Fecal and blood samples were taken from individual animals weekly to determine fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively, and animal weights were recorded at the start and end of the trial. After 11 weeks grazing, animals were slaughtered for recovery, counting, and speciation of adult GIN from the abomasum and small intestines. There was no difference in FEC between goats fed the 75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets, but both groups had lower (P<0.05) FEC than the goats fed the commercial pellets from days 35 to 77. The PCV values were not affected by the dietary treatments. Animal gain per day averaged 102.0, 77.2, and 53.3g for goats fed 95% SL, commercial, and 75% SL pellets, respectively (P<0.05). The 95% SL leaf meal pellet goats had 93.0 and 47.3% fewer (P<0.05) total (male+female) adult Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, respectively, than control animals, while only male H. contortus were lower (47.6%; P<0.05) in 75% SL-fed goats compared with commercial pellet-fed animals. Feeding supplemental SL leaf meal pellets improved animal performance (95% SL pellets) and reduced worm burdens (75 and 95% SL pellets) in young grazing goats and is a useful tool for natural GIN control in small ruminants. PMID:22985929

  7. A stochastic frontier approach to study the relationship between gastrointestinal nematode infections and technical efficiency of dairy farms.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, Mariska; Van Meensel, Jef; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Charlier, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The impact of gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections in dairy farming has traditionally been assessed using partial productivity indicators. But such approaches ignore the impact of infection on the performance of the whole farm. In this study, efficiency analysis was used to study the association of the GI nematode Ostertagia ostertagi on the technical efficiency of dairy farms. Five years of accountancy data were linked to GI nematode infection data gained from a longitudinal parasitic monitoring campaign. The level of exposure to GI nematodes was based on bulk-tank milk ELISA tests, which measure the antibodies to O. ostertagi and was expressed as an optical density ratio (ODR). Two unbalanced data panels were created for the period 2006 to 2010. The first data panel contained 198 observations from the Belgian Farm Accountancy Data Network (Brussels, Belgium) and the second contained 622 observations from the Boerenbond Flemish farmers' union (Leuven, Belgium) accountancy system (Tiber Farm Accounting System). We used the stochastic frontier analysis approach and defined inefficiency effect models specified with the Cobb-Douglas and transcendental logarithmic (Translog) functional form. To assess the efficiency scores, milk production was considered as the main output variable. Six input variables were used: concentrates, roughage, pasture, number of dairy cows, animal health costs, and labor. The ODR of each individual farm served as an explanatory variable of inefficiency. An increase in the level of exposure to GI nematodes was associated with a decrease in technical efficiency. Exposure to GI nematodes constrains the productivity of pasture, health, and labor but does not cause inefficiency in the use of concentrates, roughage, and dairy cows. Lowering the level of infection in the interquartile range (0.271 ODR) was associated with an average milk production increase of 27, 19, and 9L/cow per year for Farm Accountancy Data Network farms and 63, 49, and

  8. A stochastic frontier approach to study the relationship between gastrointestinal nematode infections and technical efficiency of dairy farms.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, Mariska; Van Meensel, Jef; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Charlier, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The impact of gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections in dairy farming has traditionally been assessed using partial productivity indicators. But such approaches ignore the impact of infection on the performance of the whole farm. In this study, efficiency analysis was used to study the association of the GI nematode Ostertagia ostertagi on the technical efficiency of dairy farms. Five years of accountancy data were linked to GI nematode infection data gained from a longitudinal parasitic monitoring campaign. The level of exposure to GI nematodes was based on bulk-tank milk ELISA tests, which measure the antibodies to O. ostertagi and was expressed as an optical density ratio (ODR). Two unbalanced data panels were created for the period 2006 to 2010. The first data panel contained 198 observations from the Belgian Farm Accountancy Data Network (Brussels, Belgium) and the second contained 622 observations from the Boerenbond Flemish farmers' union (Leuven, Belgium) accountancy system (Tiber Farm Accounting System). We used the stochastic frontier analysis approach and defined inefficiency effect models specified with the Cobb-Douglas and transcendental logarithmic (Translog) functional form. To assess the efficiency scores, milk production was considered as the main output variable. Six input variables were used: concentrates, roughage, pasture, number of dairy cows, animal health costs, and labor. The ODR of each individual farm served as an explanatory variable of inefficiency. An increase in the level of exposure to GI nematodes was associated with a decrease in technical efficiency. Exposure to GI nematodes constrains the productivity of pasture, health, and labor but does not cause inefficiency in the use of concentrates, roughage, and dairy cows. Lowering the level of infection in the interquartile range (0.271 ODR) was associated with an average milk production increase of 27, 19, and 9L/cow per year for Farm Accountancy Data Network farms and 63, 49, and

  9. Dose confirmation studies for monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative, against fourth stage gastro-intestinal nematode larvae infecting sheep.

    PubMed

    Hosking, B C; Dobson, D P; Stein, P A; Kaminsky, R; Bapst, B; Mosimann, D; Mason, P C; Seewald, W; Strehlau, G; Sager, H

    2009-03-23

    Monepantel is the first compound from the recently discovered amino-acetonitrile derivative (AAD) class of anthelmintics to be developed for use in sheep. Nine dose confirmation studies were conducted in Australia, New Zealand and Switzerland to confirm the minimum therapeutic oral dose of monepantel to control fourth stage (L4) gastro-intestinal nematode larvae in sheep (target species were Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta, Teladorsagia trifurcata, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Cooperia curticei, Cooperia oncophora, Nematodirusbattus, Nematodirusfilicollis, Nematodirus spathiger, Chabertia ovina and Oesophagostomum venulosum). In each study, sheep infected with a defined selection of the target nematodes were treated with 2.5mg monepantel/kg liveweight. Following euthanasia and worm counting, efficacy was calculated against worm counts from untreated control groups. The results demonstrate high (95<100%) efficacy of monepantel when administered orally to sheep at 2.5mg/kg for most species tested. Efficacy levels against N. spathiger and O. venulosum were variable and failed to meet the required regulatory standard (> or =90%) in some studies. Efficacy was demonstrated against L4 stages of nematodes known to be resistant to either benzimidazole and/or levamisole anthelmintics (macrocyclic lactone resistant isolates were not available for testing). The broad-spectrum activity of monepantel against L4 larvae of common gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep and its favorable safety profile represents a significant advance in the treatment of parasitic gastro-enteritis in this animal species. No adverse effects related to treatment with monepantel were observed. PMID:19135310

  10. Differences in susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematode infection between Angus and Brangus cattle in south Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Peña, M T; Miller, J E; Wyatt, W; Kearney, M T

    2000-03-28

    Breed susceptibility to nematode infection was evaluated in Angus (Bos taurus) and Brangus (B. indicus crossbreed) cattle. A cow-calf herd and a yearling replacement heifer herd were monitored during one grazing season. Calves were born in March and were weaned in October. Individual rectal fecal samples were collected monthly from the two herds and processed for fecal egg counts (FEC) and coprocultures. Cow and calf FEC increased from April, reaching maximum values during the summer. Angus cows and calves had significantly (p<0.05) greater FEC than Brangus cows and calves, and Haemonchus and Cooperia were the predominant genera. Replacement heifer FEC showed a similar pattern with maximum levels during late summer/fall, and Haemonchus was the predominant genus. No significant differences were seen between breeds, however, infection levels were consistently lower in Brangus heifers. Ostertagia was present in cows and heifers only in fall/winter, which is consistent with summer inhibition. The data suggested that cows were an important source of pasture contamination for their susceptible calves and that the Brangus breed was relatively more resistant to infection. The use of B. indicus crossbreeds may help in alleviating reliance on chemical control by reducing the rate of pasture contamination and subsequent infection losses. PMID:10729645

  11. Improving resilience against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing kids during the dry season in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Acosta, J F J; Jacobs, D E; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C; Cob-Galera, L; May-Martínez, M

    2006-01-30

    The objective was to determine the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of Criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections, when browsing native vegetation during the dry season in tropical Mexico. Thirty-three two-month-old Criollo kids, raised nematode free, were included at weaning in a 20-week trial. The kids were placed into four groups. Two groups of eight kids were offered 100g/day soybean and sorghum meal (26%:74% respectively fresh basis) (treated/supplemented (T-S) and infected/supplemented (I-S)). Two groups remained with no supplement for the duration of the trial (infected/non-supplemented (I-NS) (n=9) and treated/non-supplemented (T-NS) (n=8)). Kids in groups T-S and T-NS were drenched with 0.2mg of moxidectin/kg body weight orally (Cydectin, Fort Dodge) every 28 days. Groups I-S and I-NS were naturally infected with GIN. The animals browsed native vegetation for an average of 7h/day together with a herd of 120 naturally infected adult goats. Cumulative live weight gain (CLWG), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total plasma protein and plasma albumin were recorded every 14 days as measurements of resilience. Resistance parameters (faecal egg counts (FEC) and peripheral eosinophil counts (PEC)) were also measured. Bulk faecal cultures were made for each group every 28 days. Every month a new pair of initially worm-free tracer kids assessed the infectivity of the vegetation browsed by the animals. Tracer kids and faecal cultures showed that kids faced low mixed infections (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Oesophagostomum columbianum). Under conditions of scarce vegetation, such as those in the present study, supplemented groups (I-S and T-S) had higher growth rates compared to the non-supplemented groups independently of the control of GIN infection with anthelmintic (AH) treatment (P<0.001). Supplementary feeding did not affect FEC or PEC. In the absence of

  12. Gastro-intestinal nematode infections in goats relative to season, host sex and age from the Kashmir valley, India.

    PubMed

    Tariq, K A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, F

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the seasonal epidemiological prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes (GINs) of goats with respect to sex and age of the host in the Kashmir valley from 1 February 2005 to 31 January 2007. A total of 1267 goats were examined [faecal examination: 938 (year 1: 470; year 2: 468); gastro-intestinal (GIT) examination: 329 (year 1: 175; year 2: 154)]. The overall prevalence of GIN infection in these animals was 54.3% (year 1: 54.8%; year 2: 53.8%; P = 0.842). The different parasites reported with their respective prevalences (%) were: Haemonchus contortus (48.3); Bunostomum trigonocephalum (30.1); Chabertia. ovina (29.8); Ostertagia circumcincta (29.8); Nematodirus spathiger (25.2); Trichostrongylus spp. (25.1); Oesophagostomum columbianum (23.5); Trichuris ovis (19.0); and Marshallagia marshalli (16.6). The mean maximum prevalence of GIN infection (faecal examination: 75.6 +/- 0.20; GIT examination: 85.3 +/- 0.95), faecal egg counts (2552 +/- 85.7) and average worm burden (333.25 +/- 2.25) were found in the summer and they were lowest in winter (prevalence: faecal examination, 23.2 +/- 0.95; GIT examination, 12.7 +/- 0.20; faecal egg counts: 134.15 +/- 9.15; and average worm burden: 79.8 +/- 52.2), with significant differences between the seasons (P < 0.05). The sex of the hosts was not an important factor influencing the prevalence of GIN infection. With the increase in host age, prevalence of infection decreased significantly (P > or = 0.05). Thus seasonal dynamics and age of the host animals significantly influenced the prevalence of GIN infection. The above findings will be helpful in devising the appropriate control strategies for GINs of goats reared under the traditional husbandry system in temperate agro-climatic conditions in the Kashmir valley as well as in similar climatic zones of other parts of the world. PMID:19627625

  13. Effect of an Orange Oil Emulsion on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in ovine gastrointestinal strongylids, especially Haemonchus contortus, have led many investigators worldwide to examine potential anthelmintic effects of naturally occurring plant products. In previous work, we have shown that 1200 mg/kg of an orange oi...

  14. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Moore, D A; Terrill, T H; Kouakou, B; Shaik, S A; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Vanguru, M; Kannan, G; Burke, J M

    2008-09-01

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics worldwide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, including use of forages containing condensed tannins (CT). An experiment was designed using infected and dewormed male kids (Kiko x Spanish, 6 mo old, 18.9 +/- 3.25 kg) fed diets containing 25% concentrate and either 75% sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don], a high CT forage (87 to 181 g of CT/kg), or 75% bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay (n = 10/treatment). The kids were weighed every 14 d, and fecal and blood samples were taken weekly for fecal egg counts and packed cell volume determination, respectively. Fecal cultures were processed every 14 d to determine CT effect on larval development. At slaughter, adult GIN were collected from the abomasum and small intestines for counting and speciation. Blood samples were also analyzed for plasma urea-N, and ruminal VFA and pH were determined. The infected SL-fed kids had consistently lower (P < 0.05) fecal egg counts than the infected BG goats throughout the trial and greater (P < 0.05) packed cell volume beginning by d 77. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.001) in kids fed SL- than BG-based diets, regardless of infection status (104.3 +/- 5.0 and 75.5 +/- 4.8 g/d, respectively). Total VFA and acetate concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in the BG- than in SL-fed goats, whereas propionate levels were unaffected by diet. Acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.01) and plasma urea-N (P = 0.03) levels were greater in BG-fed goats, whereas rumen pH was greater (P < 0.001) in the SL-fed goats. Feeding SL hay can reduce GIN infection levels and increase performance of goats compared with BG hay. PMID:18469053

  15. Gastrointestinal nematode infections of first-grazing season calves in Western Europe: general patterns and the effect of chemoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shaw, D J; Vercruysse, J; Claerebout, E; Dorny, P

    1998-02-28

    Research on the prevention of gastrointestinal nematode infections of cattle has mainly concentrated on comparing a specific chemoprophylactic treatment system to an untreated control group on a particular farm. Here, the results from analysis of 85 studies involving over 2000 first grazing season (FGS) calves put onto pasture for at least 4 months from late spring/early summer over a 26-year period in 13 countries in Western Europe are presented. Both control and chemoprophylactic treated FGS calf groups were considered. All chemoprophylactic systems (slow- and pulse-release boli, strategic treatments) were given early in the grazing season. Two general infection levels emerged--'sub-clinical' (32 studies) and 'clinical' (53 studies). The 'sub-clinical' infections were characterised by no clinical symptoms of parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE) being observed in the control groups. Mean faecal egg counts in the 'clinical' control groups were significantly higher than those for 'sub-clinical' control groups for almost the entire season with overall peaks of 275 and 100 EPG respectively. Maximum pasture larval counts were also significantly higher in the 'clinical' control groups with 44% of 'clinical' pastures > 10,000 L3 kg(-1) dry herbage by the end of the FGS, compared to only 15% of 'sub-clinical' pastures. There was a significant positive relationship between log transformed worm burdens from tracers put onto pastures for 2 weeks and the corresponding pasture larval count. No evidence of density dependence in tracer worm burden was observed. Weight gains in the 'clinical' control groups (375 g/day) were significantly lower than those of the 'sub-clinical' control groups (530 g/day). No symptoms of PGE were observed in any of the chemoprophylactic treated groups, but in those studies with an outbreak of PGE in the control group, the treated groups had significantly higher faecal egg and pasture larval counts than treated groups in 'sub-clinical' studies. The

  16. Efficacy of a single high oxfendazole dose against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Luis; Saumell, Carlos; Fusé, Luis; Moreno, Laura; Ceballos, Laura; Domingue, Gilbert; Donadeu, Meritxell; Dungu, Baptiste; Lanusse, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    The goal of the current experiment was to assess the clinical efficacy of oxfendazole (OFZ) administered as a single oral dose (30 mg/kg) to pigs naturally parasitized with Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum spp., Metastrongylus spp. and Trichuris suis. Thirty-six local ecotype piglets were divided into three independent experiments, named I, II and III (n=12 each), respectively. Each experiment involved two different groups (n=6): Untreated Control and OFZ treated. Animals were naturally parasitized with A. suum (Experiments I, II and III), Oesophagostomum spp. (Experiments I and II), T. suis (Experiments II and III) and Metastrongylus spp. (Experiment I). Pigs in the treated group received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30 mg/kg dose. At five (5) days post-treatment, animals were sacrificed and the clinical efficacy of the OFZ treatment was established following the currently available WAAVP guidelines for a controlled efficacy test. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse events during the study. OFZ treatment given as a single 30 mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against all the nematode parasites present in the three experiments. In conclusion, under the current experimental conditions, OFZ orally administered to naturally parasitized piglets at a single dose of 30 mg/kg was safe and highly efficacious (100%) against adult stages of A. suum, Oesophagostomum spp., T. suis and Metastrongylus spp. PMID:23357598

  17. Efficacy of a single high oxfendazole dose against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Luis; Saumell, Carlos; Fusé, Luis; Moreno, Laura; Ceballos, Laura; Domingue, Gilbert; Donadeu, Meritxell; Dungu, Baptiste; Lanusse, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    The goal of the current experiment was to assess the clinical efficacy of oxfendazole (OFZ) administered as a single oral dose (30 mg/kg) to pigs naturally parasitized with Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum spp., Metastrongylus spp. and Trichuris suis. Thirty-six local ecotype piglets were divided into three independent experiments, named I, II and III (n=12 each), respectively. Each experiment involved two different groups (n=6): Untreated Control and OFZ treated. Animals were naturally parasitized with A. suum (Experiments I, II and III), Oesophagostomum spp. (Experiments I and II), T. suis (Experiments II and III) and Metastrongylus spp. (Experiment I). Pigs in the treated group received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30 mg/kg dose. At five (5) days post-treatment, animals were sacrificed and the clinical efficacy of the OFZ treatment was established following the currently available WAAVP guidelines for a controlled efficacy test. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse events during the study. OFZ treatment given as a single 30 mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against all the nematode parasites present in the three experiments. In conclusion, under the current experimental conditions, OFZ orally administered to naturally parasitized piglets at a single dose of 30 mg/kg was safe and highly efficacious (100%) against adult stages of A. suum, Oesophagostomum spp., T. suis and Metastrongylus spp.

  18. The effects of short-term feeding of fresh cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage on gastrointestinal nematode parasite infections in goats in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seng, Sokerya; Waller, Peter J; Ledin, Inger; Höglund, Johan

    2007-06-01

    The antiparasitic effect of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was tested in goats artificially infected with gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes. Each experimental group consisted of 6 pen-fed goats kept on a slatted floor. The treatments compared were: 1) controls fed grass only, 2) cassava replaced grass for 3 weeks from the commencement of larval dosing period, and 3) cassava replaced grass for 3 weeks after the worm infection was patent. A total of 2000 mixed-species infective nematode larvae (L3) were administered to each goat in four doses of 500 L3/day, commencing 5 weeks after removal of previously acquired infections with ivermectin. The faecal egg counts (FEC) reduced in both cassava fed groups during the time of feeding, compared to the controls. Although, FEC increased differently with time (P < 0.05), total adult worm burdens at slaughter (week 15) were not different between the treatment groups. No differences in live weight gain, or packed cell volume, between treatments were found. Whilst these results show limited evidence of an anthelmintic effect of cassava in the diet, they do suggest that feeding, or supplementation, of cassava over an extended period may prove beneficial.

  19. [Effects of aqueous extracts of Mentha piperita L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves in infective larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats].

    PubMed

    De Almeida, Maria Angela O; Domingues, Luciana F; Almeida, Gisele N; Simas, Mônica Mattos Dos S; Botura, Mariana B; Da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira G; Da Silva, Ana Valéria Araújo F; Menezes, Taise P; Batatinha, Maria José M

    2007-01-01

    Phitotherapy has been frequently utilized in parasitism control for numerous animal species. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro effects of aqueous extracts of Mentha piperita L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves in larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. Six different concentrations of M. piperita extracts (196; 150.7; 115.9; 89.1; 68.5 e 52.7 mg/mL) and C. ambrosioides extracts (110,6; 85; 65,3; 50,2; 38,6 e 29,6 mg/mL) were used for the treatment of larvae cultures, in triple assays. Distilled water and doramectin were used in larvae cultures as negative and positive controls, respectively. The results revealed a reduction of more than 95% of the infective larvae when M. piperita extracts were used in the concentrations of 115.9 and 196 mg/mL, and C. ambrosioides extract in the concentration of 110.6 mg/mL, supporting the effect of these extracts in the in vitro treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats.

  20. Gastro-intestinal nematode infection in lambs — A model based on climatic indices for forecasting peak pasture larval contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paton, G.

    1987-06-01

    The parasite Ostertagia circumcincta is the primary cause of parasitic gastro-enteritis in lambs during their first season at grass. The life-cycle of this nematode parasite involves the development and survival of the free-living stages on pasture. Accordingly the pasture is the site of deposition, development and transmission of infection and meteorological factors affecting the pasture will affect the parasites. In this paper two empirical models for forecasting the timing of the “summer wave” of infective larvae on pasture are presented. These models are similar in form to that described by Starr and Thomas (1980) but involve different approaches to assessing the temperature and moisture components of the daily index value. Further, using the prediction model described by Paton, Thomas and Waller (1984) as an investigative tool, certain tentative suggestions are made as to a general fundamental weakness of empirical index methods.

  1. Neuroparasitic Infections: Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M.D.; Zunt, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system—Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.—is reviewed. Objectives On completion of this article, the reader should be able to summarize the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the common nematodal infections of the nervous system. Accreditation The Indiana University School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Credit The Indiana University School of Medicine designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1 Category 1 credit toward the AMA Physicians Recognition Award. Each physician should claim only those credits that he/she actually spent in the educational activity. Disclosure Statements of disclosure have been obtained regarding the authors’ relevant financial relationships. The authors have nothing to disclose. PMID:16170738

  2. [Biology of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants].

    PubMed

    Manfredi, M T

    2006-09-01

    The development and survival of free-living stages of gastro-intestinal nematodes of small ruminants are influenced by several abiotic and biotic factors. Within the abiotic factors, most important are the environmental temperature and humidity. They regulate the development of larvae from eggs dispersed on the pasture by the animals faeces. Each parasite species that infect ruminants requires a different time to development, depending on temperature and humidity. Among trichostrongylids, Ostertagia, Teladorsagia and Nematodirus show a strong adaptation to low temperatures. Nematodirus larvae are able to survive to winter inside the egg shell. Temperature and humidity influence the distribution and survival of larvae on pasture. The larval third stage can migrate from faeces to pasture vegetation and they accumulate at the basis of vegetation where stay during the day or in the soil to avoid the desiccation. The forage species affects the migration of larvae on herbage too. Many biological factors contribute to disperse the larvae on the pasture. Dung burying beetles, coprophagous beetles and earthworms can greatly reduce the larvae of some trichostrongylids on pasture. They contribute to the spread of the faecal material on the pasture and allow the larval death as a consequence of drying. PMID:17176950

  3. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep.

  4. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep. PMID:27514886

  5. Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of Haemonchus spp. and other gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to benzimidazole in infected calves from the tropical regions of Campeche State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Encalada-Mena, Lisandro; Tuyub-Solis, Henry; Ramirez-Vargas, Gabriel; Mendoza-de-Gives, Pedro; Aguilar-Marcelino, Liliana; López-Arellano, Ma Eugenia

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this study was to identify the presence of anthelmintic resistance to benzimidazole (BZ) in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) from naturally infected calves in the tropical regions of Campeche State of Mexico. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was conducted at 10 livestock farms localised in the Carmen, Candelaria, Champotón, Escárcega and Palizada municipalities of Campeche. The assessed anthelmintic was albendazole. The trial period was between August and November 2012. Infected calves were allocated into two groups, control and treated, on each farm. The number of eggs excreted per g of faeces was estimated by the McMaster technique at 0 and 14 days pre- and post- treatment, respectively. Recovered infective larvae (L3) (pre- and post-treatment) were identified using taxonomic keys and a genomic DNA (gDNA) template from a pool of L3 species prior to BZ treatment. Additionally, BZ-resistance polymorphisms in Haemonchus were determined by Allele Specific PCR (AS-PCR) at codon 200 and by end-point PCR at codons 200, 198 and 167 from isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene. Morphological identification revealed Haemonchus, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia and Oesophagostumum L3 species before BZ treatment, and Haemonchus and Cooperia L3 species after treatment. Additionally, of the GIN populations, three exhibited BZ resistance, and seven were BZ-susceptible by FECRT. Molecular analysis identified mutations in Haemonchus populations on nine farms at codon 200 (TTC to TAC) by AS-PCR, while no changes were observed at 167 (TTC to TAC) or 198 (GAA to GCA) codons in any population. In conclusion, resistance to BZ was determined in Haemonchus and Cooperia nematodes in infected cattle in five tropical regions of Campeche State.

  6. Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.

    PubMed

    Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

    2014-10-15

    The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0

  7. Gastrointestinal nematodes: the Karkar experience.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D I

    1995-12-01

    This paper reviews our research on the hookworm Necator americanus over several years. Our field site for the research was on Karkar Island, Papua New Guinea, where we found a prevalence of N. americanus infection among adults of nearly 100%. The intensity of infection was related to host age and to the development of iron deficiency anaemia, which occurred at a much lower infection intensity than had been previously reported. We studied the immune response to infection and our results initially suggested that antibody responses and eosinophilia do not protect the host against infection. However, we have more recently found a negative correlation of both IgE and eosinophilia with the weight and fecundity of N. americanus which suggests that the immune response does have some effect on N. americanus and that this immunity is dependent on the Th2 subset of T lymphocytes. Following treatment for hookworm, the prevalence of N. americanus returned almost to pretreatment levels within 2 years, with the rate of acquisition of adult worms independent of host age. A significant predisposition to hookworm infection was demonstrated by individuals. Prevention will result from measures to reduce the transmission and intensity of infection, and can be achieved through improved sanitation or by vaccination. However, vaccination is not yet a viable option because of our limited knowledge about protective immunity.

  8. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  9. Evaluation of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil on goat gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; de Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Amóra, Sthenia Dos Santos Albano

    2011-01-01

    Phytotherapy may be an alternative strategy for controlling gastrointestinal parasites. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (EcEO). The in vitro effects of EcEO were determined through testing the inhibition of egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus. EcEO was subjected to acute toxicity testing on mice, orally and intraperitoneally. The in vivo effects of EcEO were determined by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in goats infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The results showed that 5.3 mg.mL(-1) EcEO inhibited egg hatching by 98.8% and 10.6 mg.mL(-1) EcEO inhibited H. contortus larval development by 99.71%. The lethal doses for 50% of the mice were 4153 and 622.8 mg.kg(-1), for acute toxicity orally and intraperitoneally. In the FECRT, the efficacy of EcEO and ivermectin was 66.25 and 79.16% respectively, on goat gastrointestinal nematodes eight days after treatment. EcEO showed in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity.

  10. Survey of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds

    PubMed Central

    Jelinski, Murray; Lanigan, Emily; Gilleard, John; Waldner, Cheryl; Royan, Grant

    2016-01-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds was conducted over the summer of 2014. Fecal samples were collected on 3 occasions during the summer grazing season from beef cows and calves from 14 herds. The mean number of strongylid eggs per gram of feces recovered from calves increased 9-fold (95% CI: 4.5 to 18) over the summer period, while egg counts in the cows remained constant over the same period. The prevalence and infection intensities of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in cow-calf herds in Saskatchewan were comparable to what is seen in cattle grazing in the northern regions of the United States and for which anthelmintic treatments have resulted in positive production benefits. PMID:26834267

  11. Survey of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, Murray; Lanigan, Emily; Gilleard, John; Waldner, Cheryl; Royan, Grant

    2016-02-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds was conducted over the summer of 2014. Fecal samples were collected on 3 occasions during the summer grazing season from beef cows and calves from 14 herds. The mean number of strongylid eggs per gram of feces recovered from calves increased 9-fold (95% CI: 4.5 to 18) over the summer period, while egg counts in the cows remained constant over the same period. The prevalence and infection intensities of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in cow-calf herds in Saskatchewan were comparable to what is seen in cattle grazing in the northern regions of the United States and for which anthelmintic treatments have resulted in positive production benefits.

  12. Biological control of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes using Duddingtonia flagrans in sheep under natural conditions in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-De Gives, Pedro; Zapata Nieto, Claudia; Hernández, Enrique Liébano; Arellano, María Eugenia López; Rodríguez, David Herrera; Garduño, Roberto González

    2006-10-01

    This investigation was aimed to evaluate the use of an oral bio-preparation containing Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores for the control of sheep gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes under the Mexican cold high plateau conditions. Two groups of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode naturally infected sheep, were randomly selected and located into two free-gastrointestinal nematode larvae paddocks. Group 1 received once a week a supplement containing D. flagrans chlamydospores mixed with oats and molasses. Group 2 received a similar supplement without any fungal material. After 5 months grazing animals were discarded from the experiment and two groups of free-nematode "tracer" sheep were located into the same paddocks to collect larvae from the contaminated pastures. Animals were slaughtered and necropsied and the nematodes were obtained and counted. A screening of the number of gastrointestinal nematode larvae present on the grass was performed and compared between the two grazing areas. The results showed 56% reduction in the Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta and 94% reduction in the Nematodirus sp. population of the "tracer" sheep who grazed on the D. flagrans-treated sheep area, compared to the nematode population in animals grazed on the non-treated area. The results of the number of larvae on the grazing pastures showed a 51.1% reduction for H. contortus, and 100% for Cooperia sp. in the area with fungi. In the case of Trichostrongylus sp. no reduction was observed, when compared to the control group.

  13. Biological control of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes using Duddingtonia flagrans in sheep under natural conditions in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-De Gives, Pedro; Zapata Nieto, Claudia; Hernández, Enrique Liébano; Arellano, María Eugenia López; Rodríguez, David Herrera; Garduño, Roberto González

    2006-10-01

    This investigation was aimed to evaluate the use of an oral bio-preparation containing Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores for the control of sheep gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes under the Mexican cold high plateau conditions. Two groups of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode naturally infected sheep, were randomly selected and located into two free-gastrointestinal nematode larvae paddocks. Group 1 received once a week a supplement containing D. flagrans chlamydospores mixed with oats and molasses. Group 2 received a similar supplement without any fungal material. After 5 months grazing animals were discarded from the experiment and two groups of free-nematode "tracer" sheep were located into the same paddocks to collect larvae from the contaminated pastures. Animals were slaughtered and necropsied and the nematodes were obtained and counted. A screening of the number of gastrointestinal nematode larvae present on the grass was performed and compared between the two grazing areas. The results showed 56% reduction in the Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta and 94% reduction in the Nematodirus sp. population of the "tracer" sheep who grazed on the D. flagrans-treated sheep area, compared to the nematode population in animals grazed on the non-treated area. The results of the number of larvae on the grazing pastures showed a 51.1% reduction for H. contortus, and 100% for Cooperia sp. in the area with fungi. In the case of Trichostrongylus sp. no reduction was observed, when compared to the control group. PMID:17135538

  14. [Levamisole- and tetramisole-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep].

    PubMed

    Praslicka, J; Pilko, P; Várady, M; Corba, J

    1995-02-01

    Two experiments were carried out with sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes to evaluate efficacy of anthelmintics using in vivo faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test. In experiment 1 with 28 ewes, the following efficacy of anthelmintics given at recommended dose rates was observed: albendazole 99.4%, ivermectin 99.3% and levamisole 81.8%. In experiment 2 with 18 ewes, tetramisole exhibited 71.3% efficacy. Suspected resistance to imidothiazole anthelmintics was confirmed by in vitro larval development test (LDT)--minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) values were estimated at 2.0 micrograms/ml. Infective larvae L3 cultivated from eggs produced by the population of resistant helminths were identified as Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus spp.

  15. [The prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes in hair goats of the Sanliurfa region].

    PubMed

    Altaş, Mehtap Gül; Sevgili, Murat; Gökçen, Ahmet; Aksin, Nursel; Bayburs, Hüseyin Cahit

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes in hair goats in Sanliurfa region between November 2005 and November 2006. During this period, the alimentary canal from 1 or 2 goats was obtained from the municipal slaughterhouse each week. These were brought into the laboratory and examined for the presence of nematodes. Gastro-intestinal tracts of 100 hair goats were examined. Of these, 83 (83%) were found infected with nematodes. Twenty nematode species were identified in hair goats. A total of 7641 nematodes were collected from infected hair goats. The average number of parasites for each animal was 92.06. The number of nematodes species was found to range from 1-6 in infected hair goats. The listing of 12 nematode species detected, according to their prevalence, was as follows; Marshallagia marshalli (54.21%), Teladorsagia circumcincta (72.40%), T. trifurcata (45.78%), T. occidentalis (14.45%), Haemonchus contortus (39.79%), Gongylonema pulchrum (32.53%), Nematodirus spathiger (33.73%), N. filicollis (13.25%), Trichostrongylus vitrinus (13.25%), Chabertia ovina (25.30%), Trichuris ovis (22.88%) and T. skrjabini (34.93%).

  16. Acidic chitinase primes the protective immune response to gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Vannella, Kevin M; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R; Hart, Kevin M; de Queiroz Prado, Rafael; Sciurba, Joshua; Barron, Luke; Borthwick, Lee A; Smith, Allen D; Mentink-Kane, Margaret; White, Sandra; Thompson, Robert W; Cheever, Allen W; Bock, Kevin; Moore, Ian; Fitz, Lori J; Urban, Joseph F; Wynn, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    Acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) is known to be induced by allergens and helminths, yet its role in immunity is unclear. Using AMCase-deficient mice, we show that AMCase deficiency reduced the number of group 2 innate lymphoid cells during allergen challenge but was not required for establishment of type 2 inflammation in the lung in response to allergens or helminths. In contrast, AMCase-deficient mice showed a profound defect in type 2 immunity following infection with the chitin-containing gastrointestinal nematodes Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. The impaired immunity was associated with reduced mucus production and decreased intestinal expression of the signature type 2 response genes Il13, Chil3, Retnlb, and Clca1. CD103(+) dendritic cells, which regulate T cell homing, were also reduced in mesenteric lymph nodes of infected AMCase-deficient mice. Thus, AMCase functions as a critical initiator of protective type 2 responses to intestinal nematodes but is largely dispensable for allergic responses in the lung. PMID:27043413

  17. A genome-wide survey reveals a deletion polymorphism associated with resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in Angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are a worldwide threat to animal health and production. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study between copy number variations (CNV) and resistance to GI nematodes in an Angus cattle population. Using a linear regression analysis, we iden...

  18. Recirculating elutriator for extracting gastrointestinal nematode larvae from pasture herbage samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode parasites present an important limitation to ruminant production worldwide. Methods for quantifying infective larvae of GIN on pastures are generally tedious, time-consuming, and require bulky equipment set-ups. This limitation to expedient data collection is a bottleneck...

  19. Explaining variability in first grazing season heifer growth combining individually measured parasitological and clinical indicators with exposure to gastrointestinal nematode infection based on grazing management practice.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Aurélie; Chauvin, Alain; Madouasse, Aurélien; Froger, Sébastien; Bareille, Nathalie; Chartier, Christophe

    2016-07-30

    The objective of our study was to explain the variability of average daily weight gain (ADWG) due to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection for 291 non treated first grazing season (FGS) heifers, from 12 independent groups in the western part of France, by combining parasitological and clinical indicators at individual level and grazing management indicators at group level. Parasitological indicators were faecal egg count (FEC), anti Ostertagia ostertagi antibody level (Ostertagia ODR), and pepsinogen level. Clinical indicators were diarrhea score (DISCO) and breech soiling score (BSS). At group level, grazing management practice (GMP), based on three variables (supplementation, month of turnout, grazing season duration), was clustered into three categories reflecting low, medium or high exposure (EXP) to GIN. Depending on the groups, turnout was from mid-March to early July and housing was from mid-October to late November, with a FGS duration ranging from 4 to 8.4 months. At turnout, the mean age of heifers was 8 months (range: 6-16 months) and they weighed between 175 and 268kg. In each GMP category, FEC significantly decreased between the mid-season and the housing, while Ostertagia ODR and pepsinogen level increased gradually throughout the grazing season. In contrast, clinical indicators did not show any seasonal variation. In a multivariate linear model, 22% of the ADWG variability was significantly explained by two individual indicators (Ostertagia ODR: 12.6%, DISCO: 4.8%) and by the group indicator (GMP category: 4.8%). ADWG losses due to GIN exposure (Ostertagia ODR) were estimated up to 39kg per heifer for the overall grazing season. For groups within the low EXP category the difference between animals with low (<697g/day) or high (>697g/day) ADWG was explained by the clinical indicator DISCO. In contrast, for groups within the medium and high EXP categories this difference was explained by a parasitological indicator (Ostertagia ODR). This study

  20. Fasciola hepatica: Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for diagnosis of fasciolosis in faecal samples from cattle and sheep concurrently infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidians and/or rumen flukes (paramphistomes), under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; McMahon, C; Cooper, M; Gordon, A; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-09-15

    Chronic fasciolosis is often diagnosed by faecal egg counting (FEC), following concentration of the eggs in the sample by a zinc sulphate floatation method. However, concentration by a sedimentation technique gives improved sensitivity. Interpretation of FEC results for fasciolosis is complicated by factors such as the long pre-patent period and irregular egg shedding. Thus, FEC reduction tests (FECRT), when used alone, are not completely reliable for diagnosis of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance in local fluke populations, especially when parasite burdens are small. A Fasciola hepatica coproantigen ELISA test has been introduced which more accurately reflects the presence of flukes in the host bile ducts in late pre-patent infections, and absence of flukes following successful chemotherapeutic intervention. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the specificity of the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA technique, particularly regarding potential cross-reactivity with rumen fluke (paramphistome), gastrointestinal nematode and coccidian infections. The method involved parallel testing of a large battery of faecal samples from field-infected cattle and sheep using floatation and sedimentation FECs and coproantigen analysis. No evidence was found for significant false positivity in the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA due to paramphistome, coccidian and/or gastrointestinal nematode co-infections. With sedimentation FECs less than 10 F. hepatica eggs per gram (epg), the likelihood of a positive coproantigen result for the sample progressively decreased. Diagnosis of fasciolosis should be based on consideration of both FEC and coproantigen ELISA findings, to ensure optimum sensitivity for pre-patent and low-level infections.

  1. Herbal dewormer fails to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism is the most important disease of small ruminants. Control is usually based on the use of chemical anthelmintics (dewormers); but these are prohibited from use in organic livestock, and the effectiveness of chemical anthelmintics in conventional operations ...

  2. Anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    PubMed Central

    Meenakshisundaram, Ambalathaduvar; Harikrishnan, Tirunelveli Jayagopal; Anna, Thavasi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Materials and Methods: In vitro assays such as egg hatch assay for ovicidal and larval migration inhibition and larval development assay for larvicidal properties were used to investigate in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle egg and larvae, respectively. Fecal egg count reduction test was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with mixed GI nematodes. Results: Ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria demonstrated significant (p<0.01) inhibition on egg hatching at concentrations of 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml. In in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria reduced the fecal egg count ranging between 30.82% and 47.78% at various doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg). Although there was a slight variation, all the hematological parameters were within the normal range reported for sheep. Except for alanine transaminase, the overall mean of all the serum biochemical profile was within the normal range for sheep. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained by in vitro and in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria possesses anthelmintic activity and could replace the chemical anthelmintics used presently. PMID:27051192

  3. Gastrointestinal nematodes of wild sheep (Ovis orientalis) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Eslami, A; Meydani, M; Maleki, S; Zargarzadeh, A

    1979-04-01

    A total of 250 wild sheep (Ovis orientalis) from different national parks and protected regions of Iran were examined for gastrointestinal nematodes at necropsy. Twenty five species of nematodes were found. Marshallagia marshalli, Ostertagia spp; Nematodirus spp; and Skrjabinema ovis were the most prevalent. Although all the species found are recorded from wild sheep for the first time in Iran, 88% were reported previously from domestic sheep. New host and distribution records for Nematodirus davtiani, N. gazellae and Nematodirella longissimespiculata were established during the present study.

  4. Biological control of infective larvae of a gastro-intestinal nematode (Teladorsagia circumcincta) and a small lungworm (Muellerius capillaris) by Duddingtonia flagrans in goat faeces.

    PubMed

    Paraud, C; Chartier, C

    2003-01-01

    The high prevalence of benzimidazole-resistant nematodes in French grazing dairy goat flocks led to a search for nematode-control schemes based on integrated approaches with non-chemical options, like vaccination, grazing management, or biological control using nematophagous fungi. The effect of the daily feeding of goats with spores of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans on third-stage larvae (L3) of Teladorsagia circumcincta was examined in faecal cultures. In addition, the effect of D. flagrans on the survival of first-stage larvae (L1) of Muellerius capillaris was tested. Twenty-two culled dairy goats previously raised in a zero-grazing system were twice infected at monthly intervals with 5,000 and then 7,500 T. circumcincta L3. Eight animals were infected with a benzimidazole-susceptible (BZs) strain while the remainder received a benzimidazole-resistant one (BZr). Six culled goats naturally infected with M. capillaris were purchased from private farms. All the goats were divided in two groups, one group receiving daily 5 x 10(5) chlamydospores of D. flagrans/kg body weight per goat for seven consecutive days in the food, the other group acting as control. For T. circumcincta-infected goats, individual egg counts and coprocultures (13 days, 25 degrees C) followed by L3 extraction with the Baermann method were performed. For M. capillaris-infected goats, extraction of L1 with the Baermann apparatus was individually performed on day 0 and after coprocultures on days 7, 10 and 14. Reductions in percentage development of T. circumcincta L3 in fungus groups compared with control groups ranged from 84% (BZs strain) to 90% (BZr strain). A decrease in M. capillaris L1 recovery was noted on days 7 and 10 (a reduction of 70% compared with day 0) and on day 14 (85%), but this pattern was similar in both groups, whether receiving the fungus or not. At the dosage of 5 x 10(5) spores/kg body weight, D. flagrans was highly effective in reducing the larval

  5. Exploiting the effect of dietary supplementation of small ruminants on resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Knox, M R; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J

    2006-07-31

    This paper focuses on targeted nutritional supplementation as a means to reduce the requirement for chemotherapeutic control of gastrointestinal nematode infection of small ruminants and considers the limitations to practical application. Supplementary feeding, particularly with additional dietary protein, can assist resilience to infection during times when metabolic resources are being directed towards dealing with the pathophysiological effects of infection and away from production of meat, milk and fibre. Substantial experimental evidence from studies of both sheep and goats supports this hypothesis particularly in relation to young lambs and kids after weaning and in ewes around parturition. In addition, nutritional supplementation frequently increases resistance to infection, as indicated by decreased faecal worm egg counts and worm burdens. As a result, supplementation has the potential to reduce the requirement for anthelmintic treatment. Practical application of this knowledge can, however, be quite complex in many small ruminant production systems. In general, strategic supplementation should target those times when nutrient requirements are greatest and provide those nutrients which are deficient whether protein, energy, minerals or trace elements. Complexity arises when we consider that nutrient requirements will differ between localities for different species and breed of host, at different stages of growth and reproduction, with differing seasonal availability of forage, with different species of nematodes and different levels of established infections and exposure to infective stages. As a starting point, the provision of nutrients to optimize rumen function and animal performance in the particular production system should assist in maintaining resilience to nematode infection. Provision of nutrients in excess of this requirement, if economically feasible, may yield further benefits in some situations and reduce the need for alternative control

  6. Overwintering of Bovine Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Southwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J. O. D.

    1974-01-01

    Several steers, reared in isolation until approximately six months of age, were placed on a small isolated enclosed pasture from late spring to late fall of 1970, 1971 and 1972. The pasture was left vacant and unused during the winters and early springs. The pasture had been used in previous years by cattle, and in the late spring of 1970 was grazed by cattle know to be passing gastrointestinal nematode eggs in their feces. The steers were slaughtered periodically, and the prevalence of nematode species in the abomasum, small intestine, and large intestine, was determined from random samples of up to 100 adult male worms from each segment. The following nematodes were found in the steers in 1971 and 1972 and survived winters on pasture: Ostertagia ostertagi, O. lyrata, Cooperia oncophora, C. mcmasteri, Nematodirus helvetianus and Trichuris discolor. Two nematodes Cooperia punctata and Bunostomum phlebotomum known to be present on pasture in 1970, since they were recovered from the steers in that year, were not found in the steers in 1971 and 1972. PMID:4272963

  7. Biological control of gastro-intestinal nematodes--facts, future, or fiction?

    PubMed

    Larsen, M; Nansen, P; Grønvold, J; Wolstrup, J; Henriksen, S A

    1997-11-01

    The potential of using fungi to prevent nematodosis caused by parasites with free-living larval stages is well documented today. In this respect Duddingtonia flagrans, a net-trapping, nematode-destroying fungus, appears to be the most promising candidate. Laboratory experiments and in-vivo studies, where fungal spores have survived passage through the gastro-intestinal tract of cattle and horses, plus field studies with cattle, horses and pigs, demonstrate significant reduction in the number of infective larvae that develop in the faecal environment. In field trials this reduction subsequently leads to reduced infectivity of herbage and also reduced worm burdens in grazing animals. A status of the present situation, primarily based upon work performed in Denmark within the last 6-8 years, plus an outlook for practical implementation of an integrated control strategy including the use of nematode-destroying fungi in the future is discussed.

  8. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70-100 calves or more of both genders with ≥ 200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7-10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7-10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were effective

  9. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups

  10. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70-100 calves or more of both genders with ≥ 200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7-10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7-10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were effective

  11. Gastrointestinal endoscopy: infection and disinfection.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, H J; Axon, A T

    1983-01-01

    The past decade has seen the development of an array of complex flexible fibreoptic instruments for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and an increasing use of these for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It has been recognised more recently that the use of contaminated endoscopic equipment can lead to serious and occasionally fatal infections. Infection with a wide variety of micro-organisms has been reported following oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy (OGD) and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). PMID:6414894

  12. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... in and drinking water from contaminated streams or lakes can lead to an infection and chronic diarrhea. ... or camping, never drink from streams, springs, or lakes unless local health authorities have certified the water ...

  13. Pilot project to investigate over-wintering of free-living gastrointestinal nematode larvae of sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Falzon, Laura C; Menzies, Paula I; VanLeeuwen, John; Shakya, Krishna P; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Avula, Jacob; Jansen, Jocelyn T; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the overwintering survival and infectivity of free-living gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) stages on pasture. The presence of GIN larvae was assessed on 3 sheep farms in Ontario with a reported history of clinical haemonchosis, by collecting monthly pasture samples over the winter months of 2009/2010. The infectivity of GIN larvae on spring pastures was evaluated using 16 tracer lambs. Air and soil temperature and moisture were recorded hourly. Free-living stages of Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. were isolated from herbage samples. Gastrointestinal nematodes were recovered from all tracer lambs on all farms; Teladorsagia sp. was the predominant species. Very low levels of Haemonchus contortus were recovered from 1 animal on 1 farm. The results suggest that Haemonchus larvae do not survive well on pasture, while Teladorsagia sp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. are able to overwinter on pasture in Ontario and are still infective for sheep in the spring. PMID:25082990

  14. Pilot project to investigate over-wintering of free-living gastrointestinal nematode larvae of sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Falzon, Laura C; Menzies, Paula I; VanLeeuwen, John; Shakya, Krishna P; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Avula, Jacob; Jansen, Jocelyn T; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the overwintering survival and infectivity of free-living gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) stages on pasture. The presence of GIN larvae was assessed on 3 sheep farms in Ontario with a reported history of clinical haemonchosis, by collecting monthly pasture samples over the winter months of 2009/2010. The infectivity of GIN larvae on spring pastures was evaluated using 16 tracer lambs. Air and soil temperature and moisture were recorded hourly. Free-living stages of Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. were isolated from herbage samples. Gastrointestinal nematodes were recovered from all tracer lambs on all farms; Teladorsagia sp. was the predominant species. Very low levels of Haemonchus contortus were recovered from 1 animal on 1 farm. The results suggest that Haemonchus larvae do not survive well on pasture, while Teladorsagia sp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. are able to overwinter on pasture in Ontario and are still infective for sheep in the spring.

  15. Pathogenesis of gastrointestinal infection.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Alan

    2008-06-01

    The last 30 years has seen the recognition of many intestinal pathogens, through a combination of microscopy, tissue availability and open minds. In the developing world the challenge to eradicate such infections continues, especially in infancy and early childhood. In developed communities, however, the challenge is shifting to pathogens ('super bugs') arising from our own interventions and lifestyles which will occupy many future careers.

  16. Genomic Regions Associated with Sheep Resistance to Gastrointestinal Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Magda Vieira; Sonstegard, Tad S; Van Tassell, Curtis

    2016-06-01

    Genetic markers for sheep resistance to gastrointestinal parasites have long been sought by the livestock industry as a way to select more resistant individuals and to help farmers reduce parasite transmission by identifying and removing high egg shedders from the flock. Polymorphisms related to the major histocompatibility complex and interferon (IFN)-γ genes have been the most frequently reported markers associated with infection. Recently, a new picture is emerging from genome-wide studies, showing that not only immune mechanisms are important determinants of host resistance but that gastrointestinal mucus production and hemostasis pathways may also play a role. PMID:27183838

  17. Gastrointestinal nematodes of moose (Alces alces) in relation to supplementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Milner, Jos M; Wedul, Sari J; Laaksonen, Sauli; Oksanen, Antti

    2013-01-01

    Winter supplementary feeding of wildlife is controversial because it may promote parasite and disease transmission by host aggregation. We investigated the effect of winter supplemental feeding of Scandinavian moose (Alces alces) on gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection in two counties of southern Norway by comparing fecal egg counts of moose using, and not using, feeding stations between January 2007 and March 2010. We identified three different GI nematodes based on egg morphology. All three were found in Hedmark county while in Telemark county we found only Trichuris sp. (prevalence 33%). Prevalence of Trichostrongylidae (65%) and Nematodirus sp. (26%) in Hedmark was not affected by feeding station use. However, the probability of infection varied significantly between years sampled (Trichostrongylidae) and age class (Nematodirus sp.). Fecal egg counts (FEC), a proxy for intensity of infection, of Trichostrongylidae were higher in the year when winter weather conditions were more challenging and prevalence was higher, and decreased with increasing body mass. Adult moose had higher FECs than did juvenile moose, and female juveniles had lower abundances than did male juveniles. Use of feeding stations did not affect probability of infection with any of the nematodes or intensity of infection with Trichostrongylidae. We discuss our findings in terms of parasite life histories and recommend that parasitologic surveillance be included in the monitoring of feeding programs.

  18. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus.

  19. Effect of the consumption of Lysiloma latisiliquum on the larval establishment of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.

    PubMed

    Brunet, S; de Montellano, C Martinez-Ortiz; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Capetillo-Leal, C; Hoste, H

    2008-10-20

    The consumption of tannin-rich (TR) forages has been associated with negative effects against gastrointestinal nematodes and with an improved host resilience. It has been hypothesized that tannins affect the capacity of infective larvae to establish in the mucosae of the host. In this study, we aimed at testing this hypothesis using Lysiloma latisiliquum, a tropical TR tree. The objectives were: (i) to evaluate the effect of the consumption of L. latisiliquum on the establishment of nematode third-stage larvae (L3) in goats; (ii) to define the role of tannins in these effects in vivo by using an inhibitor (polyethylene glycol, PEG); and (iii) to examine a possible indirect effect of tannins on the inflammatory response in the digestive mucosa. Eighteen Criollo goats composed three experimental groups. The control group received fresh leaves of Brosimum alicastrum, a plant with a low level of tannins. Two groups received L. latisiliquum leaves either with (L.L.+PEG) or without (L.L.) daily addition of 25 g PEG. After a 7-day adaptation period, each goat was infected with both Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (3000 L3 per species). The goats were slaughtered 5 days after infection and worm counts and histological analyses were performed. No difference in the voluntary feed intake of foliage was observed between the 3 groups. The consumption of L. latisiliquum significantly reduced the larval establishment of both nematode species compared to the control (P<0.01). For both worm species, the effects were totally alleviated with PEG (L.L.+PEG group), suggesting a major role of tannins in the observed effects. Only minor differences in the mucosal cellular response were observed between the 3 groups. These results confirm that the consumption of TR plants reduces the establishment of nematode larvae in the host and that a direct effect is principally involved.

  20. The use of FAMACHA in estimation of gastrointestinal nematodes and total worm burden in Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Konto; Abba, Yusuf; Ramli, Nur Syairah Binti; Marimuthu, Murugaiyah; Omar, Mohammed Ariff; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Sadiq, Muhammad Abubakar; Tijjani, Abdulnasir; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Lila, Mohammed Azmi Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and total worm burden of Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep was investigated among smallholder farms in Salak Tinggi district of Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 50 sheep raised in smallholder farms comprising of 27 Damara cross and 23 Barbados Blackbelly cross were categorized based on their age into young and adults. Fecal samples were collected and examined for strongyle egg count by using modified McMaster technique. Severity of infection was categorized into mild, moderate, and heavy, based on egg per gram (EPG). Five sheep were randomly selected and slaughtered to examine the presence of adult gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes through total worm count (TWC). Faffa Malan Chart (FAMACHA) score was used for investigation of worm load based on the degree of anemia. The study revealed an overall EPG prevalence of 88 %, of which 84.1 % had mild infection. There was a significant difference (p = 0.002) in EPG among the two breeds. Based on age, significant difference (p = 0. 004) in EPG was observed among Barbados Blackbelly cross, but not for Damara cross (p = 0.941). The correlation between severity of infection and the FAMACHA score was significant (r = 0.289; p = 0.042). Haemonchus spp. were the most predominant nematode found in the gastrointestinal tract, followed by Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum spps. EPG and TWC for Haemonchus were positively correlated, but not significant (r = 0.85, p = 0.066). From regression analysis, 73 % of the variability in TWC for Haemonchus could be explained by EPG. Thus, it can be concluded that FAMACHA score correlates well with severity of infection of a nematode and can be used to assess the strongyle nematode burden in the different sheep crosses. PMID:27038194

  1. A comparative study of the effects of four treatment regimes on ivermectin efficacy, body weight and pasture contamination in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Fiona; McBean, David; Greer, Andrew W; Burgess, Charlotte G S; Morrison, Alison A; Bartley, David J; Bartley, Yvonne; Devin, Leigh; Nath, Mintu; Jackson, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Refugia-based drenching regimes have been widely recommended to slow development of anthelmintic resistance but there are few comparisons between different treatment approaches in the UK. The impact of four ivermectin treatment regimes on drug efficacy, lamb body weight and nematode contamination during a 154 day grazing season were evaluated in a consecutive five year field study. Regimes were whole-flock treatment every 4 weeks (NST), targeted selective treatment (TST) based on individual performance, strategic whole-flock treatments at pre-determined times (SPT) or whole-flock treatment when clinical signs were apparent (MT). Mean numbers of ivermectin drenches administered per season were 4.0, 1.8, 2.0 and 1.4 for NST, TST, SPT and MT groups, respectively. The mean anthelmintic efficacy (AE) for each treatment group was based on faecal egg count reduction post-treatment employing a bootstrap sampling based algorithm. Mean AE was 95-98% for all groups in 2006 and mean AE (95% confidence limits) for NST declined to 62% (55%, 68%) in 2010. In comparison, AE for TST, SPT and MT in 2010 were 86% (81%, 92%), 86% (83%, 90%) and 83% (78%, 88%), respectively. Body weight in TST and SPT was similar to NST in all years (p > 0.05), however MT lambs were lighter than NST in 2006-2008 (p ⩽ 0.04). Tracer lamb worm burdens was lowest in NST but was not significantly different between other groups. Overall, both the TST and SPT regimes appeared to maintain animal performance and conserve anthelmintic efficacy compared with a neo-suppressive anthelmintic treatment regime. PMID:24533296

  2. A comparative study of the effects of four treatment regimes on ivermectin efficacy, body weight and pasture contamination in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Fiona; McBean, David; Greer, Andrew W.; Burgess, Charlotte G.S.; Morrison, Alison A.; Bartley, David J.; Bartley, Yvonne; Devin, Leigh; Nath, Mintu; Jackson, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Refugia-based drenching regimes have been widely recommended to slow development of anthelmintic resistance but there are few comparisons between different treatment approaches in the UK. The impact of four ivermectin treatment regimes on drug efficacy, lamb body weight and nematode contamination during a 154 day grazing season were evaluated in a consecutive five year field study. Regimes were whole-flock treatment every 4 weeks (NST), targeted selective treatment (TST) based on individual performance, strategic whole-flock treatments at pre-determined times (SPT) or whole-flock treatment when clinical signs were apparent (MT). Mean numbers of ivermectin drenches administered per season were 4.0, 1.8, 2.0 and 1.4 for NST, TST, SPT and MT groups, respectively. The mean anthelmintic efficacy (AE) for each treatment group was based on faecal egg count reduction post-treatment employing a bootstrap sampling based algorithm. Mean AE was 95–98% for all groups in 2006 and mean AE (95% confidence limits) for NST declined to 62% (55%, 68%) in 2010. In comparison, AE for TST, SPT and MT in 2010 were 86% (81%, 92%), 86% (83%, 90%) and 83% (78%, 88%), respectively. Body weight in TST and SPT was similar to NST in all years (p > 0.05), however MT lambs were lighter than NST in 2006–2008 (p ⩽ 0.04). Tracer lamb worm burdens was lowest in NST but was not significantly different between other groups. Overall, both the TST and SPT regimes appeared to maintain animal performance and conserve anthelmintic efficacy compared with a neo-suppressive anthelmintic treatment regime. PMID:24533296

  3. HIV infection and the gastrointestinal immune system

    PubMed Central

    Brenchley, JM; Douek, DC

    2009-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the gastrointestinal pathology observed in patients infected with HIV. The gastrointestinal tract is a major site of HIV replication, which results in massive depletion of lamina propria CD4 T cells during acute infection. Highly active antiretroviral therapy leads to incomplete suppression of viral replication and substantially delayed and only partial restoration of gastrointestinal CD4 T cells. The gastrointestinal pathology associated with HIV infection comprises significant enteropathy with increased levels of inflammation and decreased levels of mucosal repair and regeneration. Assessment of gut mucosal immune system has provided novel directions for therapeutic interventions that modify the consequences of acute HIV infection. PMID:19079157

  4. Immunity to helminths: resistance, regulation, and susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Grencis, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites are a highly successful group of pathogens that challenge the immune system in a manner distinct from rapidly replicating infectious agents. Of this group, roundworms (nematodes) that dwell in the intestines of humans and other animals are prevalent worldwide. Currently, more than one billion people are infected by at least one species, often for extended periods of time. Thus, host-protective immunity is rarely complete. The reasons for this are complex, but laboratory investigation of tractable model systems in which protective immunity is effective has provided a mechanistic understanding of resistance that is characterized almost universally by a type 2/T helper 2 response. Greater understanding of the mechanisms of susceptibility has also provided the basis for defining host immunoregulation and parasite-evasion strategies, helping place in context the changing patterns of immunological disease observed worldwide.

  5. In vivo validation of Aloe ferox (Mill). Elephantorrhiza elephantina Bruch. Skeels. and Leonotis leonurus (L) R. BR as potential anthelminthics and antiprotozoals against mixed infections of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.

    PubMed

    Maphosa, Viola; Masika, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    Aloe ferox (Mill)., Elephantorrhiza elephantina Bruch. Skeels. and Leonotis leonurus (L) R. BR. are some of the plants used by farmers in the Eastern Cape Province to control worms in goats, but information on their efficacy is lacking. The study was conducted to determine efficacy of these plants on gastrointestinal nematodes in natural mixed infections in goats. Forty-eight male goats aged 8-12 months were divided into eight groups (Treatments A-H) of six animals each, balanced in terms of liveweight and worm egg count. Treatments A to F received plant extracts, three animals in each group receiving doses of 250 mg/kg and the other three receiving 500 mg/kg at concentration of 100 mg/ml, while those in G and H received Valbazen® (11.36% albendazole) at 10 mg/kg, and 0.5 ml/kg distilled water, respectively per os. Faecal samples were collected on days 0, 3, 6 and 9 for faecal egg counts (FEC), and body weights recorded on days 1 and 9. Results showed significant reductions (P < 0.05) in strongyle eggs by A. ferox extract at dose levels of 500 mg/kg on days 3, 6 and 9, while reductions in Eimeria spp. oocysts were observed on days 3, 6 and 9 for animals that received 500 mg/kg doses. E. elephantina caused significant reduction (P < 0.05) of Trichuris spp. eggs on days 3 and 6, respectively at 250 mg/kg dose level, whereas L. leonurus also caused significant reduction (P < 0.05) in FEC of Trichuris spp. and Eimeria spp. oocysts at 250 mg/kg dose level on day 9. Albendazole caused reductions (P < 0.05) in strongyle eggs on days 3 and 6, Trichuris spp. on days 3, 6 and 9, and on coccidia, it caused a reduction (P > 0.05) on day 1, whereas on days 6 and 9, there was an increase. On total mixed infections, highest FECR% were observed with the extract of A. ferox on days 3 (53%), 6 (54%) and 9 (58%) at 500 mg/kg,whereas albendazole had efficacy levels of 39%, 44% and 29% on days 3, 6 and 9, respectively. Body weight of goats

  6. Schistosoma mansoni, nematode infections, and progression to active tuberculosis among HIV-1-infected Ugandans.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael; Miiro, George; Nkurunziza, Peter; Watera, Christine; Quigley, Maria A; Dunne, David W; Whitworth, James A G; Elliott, Alison M

    2006-05-01

    Rates of tuberculosis (TB) in Africa are highest among people infected with HIV. Searching for additional risk factors in a cohort of HIV-infected Ugandan adults, we previously found that a type 2 cytokine bias and eosinophilia were associated with progression to active TB. A possible role for helminth infection was assessed in this study. We analyzed TB incidence in 462 members of this cohort who were screened for filarial infections, gastrointestinal nematodes, and schistosomiasis. Progression to TB was not associated with gastrointestinal nematodes (rate ratio [RR], 1.18; confidence intervals [CIs], 0.66-2.10) or Mansonella perstans (RR, 0.42; CI, 0.13-1.34). A weak association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and TB was found (RR, 1.42; CI, 0.86-2.34); after adjusting for potential explanatory variables and using more stringent diagnostic criteria, the association was strengthened (RR, 2.31; 1.00-5.33). This analysis suggests an effect of S. mansoni infection on progression to active TB among HIV-1-infected Ugandans. PMID:16687687

  7. In vivo anthelmintic activity of ginger against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; Lateef, Muhammad; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2006-06-30

    This paper describes the anthelmintic activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (family Zingiberaceae) rhizome, commonly known as ginger, to justify its traditional use in veterinary medicine. Crude powder (CP) and crude aqueous extract (CAE) of dried ginger (1-3 g/kg) were administered to sheep naturally infected with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Both CP and CAE exhibited a dose- and a time-dependent anthelmintic effect with respective maximum reduction of 25.6% and 66.6% in eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces on day 10 of post-treatment. Levamisole (7.5 mg/kg), a standard anthelmintic agent, exhibited 99.2% reduction in EPG. This study shows that ginger possesses in vivo anthelmintic activity in sheep thus justifying the age-old traditional use of this plant in helminth infestation. PMID:16443342

  8. Control strategies for human intestinal nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Albonico, M; Crompton, D W; Savioli, L

    1999-01-01

    In recent years significant progress has been made in understanding the ecology, epidemiology and related morbidity and development of new tools for the control of soil-transmitted helminths. Such knowledge has recognized the impact of helminth infections on the health of infected groups and has created a rational basis for their control. Schoolchildren harbour some of the most intense helminthic infections, which produce adverse effects on health, growth and scholastic performance. However, although great effort has been put into targeting school-age children, women of child-bearing age and pre-school children are two other groups at high risk of morbidity due to intestinal nematode infections. Highly effective and safety-tested, single-dose anthelminthic drugs are now available, permitting periodical deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups at affordable prices. Four anthelminthics against all intestinal nematodes are included in the WHO Essential Drug List (albendazole, levamisole, mebendazole and pyrantel). Recently ivermectin has also been registered for use against Strongyloides stercoralis in humans. Several well-monitored country experiences have shown that chemotherapy-based control of morbidity due to soil-transmitted helminths is possible and highly cost-effective.

  9. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Maroto, R.; Jiménez, A. E.; Romero, J. J.; Alvarez, V.; De Oliveira, J. B.; Hernández, J.

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%), Strongyloides sp. (57%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (43%) presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%), Haemonchus spp. (29%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (29%) were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein. PMID:21772962

  10. Comparison of febantel tablets and Vercom paste against gastrointestinal nematodes of dogs.

    PubMed

    Greiner, E C; Brenner, D G; Cox, D D; Heaton-Jones, D L

    1992-02-01

    Thirty adult dogs with naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode infections were assigned at random to ten replicates and treated daily for 3 days with either a combination febantel/praziquantel (Vercom) paste, febantel tablets or placebo tablets. Numbers of hookworm and whipworm eggs after treatment were reduced similarly for both drug formulations when compared with pretreatment egg counts, whereas these counts increased in the controls. Vercom paste reduced the hookworm egg count by 99.9% and the whipworm egg count by 99.6%. The febantel tablet decreased the hookworm egg count by 99.9% and the whipworm egg count by 100%. As determined at necropsy, the controlled test efficacy against adult hookworms and whipworms was similar for the Vercom paste and the febantel tablets. The controlled test efficacies of Vercom paste against Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Trichuris vulpis were, respectively, 99.7%, 100% and 95.8% and those of febantel tablets were 98.2%, 100% and 99.7%. These results indicate that the nematocidal efficacy of febantel against these nematodes remains unchanged in these two formulations. No adverse reactions to either febantel tablets or to Vercom paste were observed. PMID:1561756

  11. Exploring the Gastrointestinal “Nemabiome”: Deep Amplicon Sequencing to Quantify the Species Composition of Parasitic Nematode Communities

    PubMed Central

    Avramenko, Russell W.; Redman, Elizabeth M.; Lewis, Roy; Yazwinski, Thomas A.; Wasmuth, James D.; Gilleard, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections have a considerable impact on global human health as well as animal welfare and production. Although co-infection with multiple parasite species within a host is common, there is a dearth of tools with which to study the composition of these complex parasite communities. Helminth species vary in their pathogenicity, epidemiology and drug sensitivity and the interactions that occur between co-infecting species and their hosts are poorly understood. We describe the first application of deep amplicon sequencing to study parasitic nematode communities as well as introduce the concept of the gastro-intestinal “nemabiome”. The approach is analogous to 16S rDNA deep sequencing used to explore microbial communities, but utilizes the nematode ITS-2 rDNA locus instead. Gastro-intestinal parasites of cattle were used to develop the concept, as this host has many well-defined gastro-intestinal nematode species that commonly occur as complex co-infections. Further, the availability of pure mono-parasite populations from experimentally infected cattle allowed us to prepare mock parasite communities to determine, and correct for, species representation biases in the sequence data. We demonstrate that, once these biases have been corrected, accurate relative quantitation of gastro-intestinal parasitic nematode communities in cattle fecal samples can be achieved. We have validated the accuracy of the method applied to field-samples by comparing the results of detailed morphological examination of L3 larvae populations with those of the sequencing assay. The results illustrate the insights that can be gained into the species composition of parasite communities, using grazing cattle in the mid-west USA as an example. However, both the technical approach and the concept of the ‘nemabiome’ have a wide range of potential applications in human and veterinary medicine. These include investigations of host-parasite and parasite-parasite interactions

  12. Integrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs using a bioactive feed × breed approach.

    PubMed

    Werne, S; Isensee, A; Maurer, V; Perler, E; Drewek, A; Heckendorn, F

    2013-12-01

    Forages rich in condensed tannins have repeatedly shown potential to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep. Similarly, several breeds of sheep have shown a relative resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). We hypothesised that additive or even synergic effects may arise from the combination of a relatively resistant breed and a diet rich in condensed tannins. In study I, 160 lambs of the native Red Engadine Sheep (RES) and 113 lambs of the Swiss White Alpine sheep (SWA) were artificially infected with GIN and subsequently grazed for 52 days. The lambs were then distributed to 2 groups for a 14-day experimental feeding period. One group received a diet with a proportion of 55% sainfoin and was compared to a control group on the basis of faecal egg counts (FEC). In study II, 25 RES and 27 SWA lambs grazed infectious pastures for 37 days and were subsequently fed for 13 consecutive days with approximately 100% sainfoin or control forage. In addition to the FEC determination at the start and the end of the experimental feeding, the 52 lambs in study II were slaughtered and necropsied to determine their worm burden. FEC at the end of the feeding period were significantly lower in sainfoin fed lambs compared to controls in study I (p<0.001) as well as in study II (p=0.012). Breed, animal age, live weight, sex and the interaction of breed and treatment did not affect FEC in either study. The main nematode genera found in the sacrificed lambs of study II were Haemonchus spp., Teladorsagia spp., Nematodirus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Overall, RES had a significantly lower Haemonchus spp. (p=0.035) and Trichostrongylus spp. (p=0.003) worm burden compared to SWA. Regardless of breed, sainfoin feeding significantly reduced Teladorsagia spp. (p=0.049) and Nematodirus spp. (p<0.001) worm burden. Although, we could not demonstrate additive or synergic effects when using an integrated breed × sainfoin approach, the finding that a proportion of only 55

  13. Some studies on gastrointestinal parasites infecting deer (Dorcas gazelles) in Matrouh Governorate.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Wahed, Mohammad M

    2004-12-01

    Faecal samples were collected directly after defecation from living Egyptian deer, Dorcas gazelles. 28 out of 63 (44.44 %) faecal samples harboured gastrointestinal nematode eggs. The positive faecal samples were cultured to collect the infective third stage larvae (L3) for taxonomic identification. They were Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Ostertagia ostertatgi and Oeseophagostomum venalosum. PMID:15587323

  14. Benzimidazole-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Liébano-Hernández, E; González-Olvera, M; Vázquez-Peláez, C; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; Ramírez-Vargas, G; Peralta-Lailson, M; Reyes-García, M E; Osorio, J; Sánchez-Pineda, H; López-Arellano, M E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the natural adaptation of Mexican sheep, the aim of the present study was to identify the presence or absence of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) in both Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds on local farms. Both male and female GIN-infected grazing sheep of the two breeds were selected. Sheep faecal samples were collected to obtain infective larvae (L3). This evolving stage of the parasite was used for taxonomic identification of the genus, based on its morphological characteristics. BZ anthelmintic resistance was evaluated using a nematode-compound in vitro interaction bioassay and the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technique to detect mutations of residues 198 and 200 on isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene. Three BZ-based compounds (febendazole (FBZ), tiabendazole (TBZ) and albendazole (ABZ)) at concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.062 and 0.03 mg/ml were used to estimate the anthelmintic efficacy and lethal dose (LD50, LD90 and LD99) of the drugs. Two parasitic nematodes, Haemonchus and Teladorsagia, were identified in both isolates. Also, the proportions of anthelmintic resistance identified in GIN of the two sheep breeds were 68% in isolates from the Chiapas breed and 71.8% in the Pelibuey breed. The specific lethal activity obtained with FBZ was higher than 90%. However, TBZ and ABZ showed a lethal activity lower than 50%. High variability in the discriminating dose values was found among the BZ drugs. For example, FBZ LD ranged from 0.01 to 1.20 mg/ml; on the other hand, TBZ and ABZ required a dose ranging from 0.178 to 759 mg/ml. In addition, amino acid changes of Phe (TTC) to Tyr (TAC) at codon 200 of the β-tubulin gene, showing resistance to BZ, and no changes at codon 198 Glu (GAA) to Ala (GCA) were observed for both isolates. These results confirmed the presence of a genetic mutation associated with BZ in both Chiapas and Pelibuey nematode isolates.

  15. Common Symptoms from an Uncommon Infection: Gastrointestinal Anisakiasis

    PubMed Central

    Muwanwella, Niroshan; Chandran, Sujievvan; Kandel, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians can be forgiven for thinking of anisakiasis as a rare condition low in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. Gastrointestinal anisakiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by consumption of raw or undercooked seafood infected with nematodes of the genus Anisakis. Even though the reported cases indicate that this is a rare disease, the true incidence of the disease could be potentially higher than what is reported in the literature as cases can go undiagnosed. Diagnosis and treatment of gastric anisakiasis are made by a compatible dietary history, direct visualization, and removal of the larvae via gastroscopy. Serologic testing and imaging studies are useful in the diagnosis of intestinal anisakiasis and conservative management should be considered. This disease may mimic other diseases and lead to unnecessary surgery. This emphasizes the importance of suspecting gastrointestinal anisakiasis by history taking and by other diagnostic modalities. PMID:27800471

  16. [Effect of bolus administration of albendazole into the rumen on gastrointestinal nematodes and the Dicrocoelium dendriticum trematode in sheep].

    PubMed

    Corba, J; Krupicer, I; Várady, M; Pet'ko, B

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of intraruminal albendazole (ABZ) capsules (Proftril-Captec) and the effect of treatment on productivity parameters were studied in two experiments totally on 466 ewes naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes and trematodes D. dendriticum. Ovoscopical tests revealed that treated animals remained negative during 10-12 weeks after the administration of capsules and that pasture contamination with helminths was significantly reduced. Necropsy revealed 96.9-99.2% efficacy against nematodes Nematodirus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Trichuris ovis. Priority finding is the efficacy of ABZ capsules against trematodes D. dendriticum which was in the first experiment 88.5% and in the second experiment 91.8%. During the 6-month pasture season treated ewes produced on average 2.56 kg cheese and 0.6 kg wool per ewe more than untreated controls.

  17. Gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy goats, anthelmintic resistance and practices of parasite control in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) are one of the main constraints to ruminant production worldwide. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) has been reported in goats throughout Europe, yet little is known about the AR status in Italy. The aims of the study were: i) determine the frequency of AR in GINs in goat flocks in Northern Italy, Italy, ii) survey goat farmers on the current practices of parasite control, iii) update the species composition of the gastrointestinal helminthofauna. Thirty three flocks were enrolled and 1288 individual fecal samples were collected. Based on the egg per gram (EPG), 15 flocks were selected to evaluate the presence of AR in GINs with the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). A questionnaire surveyed 110 dairy goat farmers to acquire information about farm management and drenching practices against GINs. Further, the gastrointestinal tracts of 42 goats were analyzed. Results The FECRs indicated that five of the 15 flocks had problems of AR, which was identified in all two of the anthelmintic classes tested. Resistance and suspected resistance was found in 40% of the flocks selected for AR testing that were treated with benzimidazoles while 20% of the flocks treated with eprinomectin had resistant GINs. Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus L3 were isolated from the post-treatment coprocultures of all flocks with resistance but not from the flock with suspected oxfendazole resistance. Treatments against helminths were performed once annually in 73.63% of the flocks, but 20.00% of farmers declared not regularly treating their goats every year. Annual treatments usually occurred in autumn or winter at dose rate for sheep. Te. circumcincta, H. contortus, Tr. colubriformis, Skrjabinema caprae and Oesophagostomum venulosum were the most abundant and prevalent species of the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusions Strategies to prevent the development of AR should be widely adopted in Northern Italy. Further, farmers and practitioners should be

  18. Effects of age, sex, lactation and social dominance on faecal egg count patterns of gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed eland (Taurotragus oryx).

    PubMed

    Vadlejch, J; Kotrba, R; Čadková, Z; Růžičková, A; Langrová, I

    2015-10-01

    The eland is a large African antelope that can be bred in a temperate climate, under similar conditions and production systems as cattle. However, knowledge of parasites in farmed elands outside the area of their native habitat is still limited, and information concerning factors that influence these parasites is lacking. Therefore, faecal samples from an entire herd of elands, including calves and adult females and males, were examined monthly over a one year period. Almost 84% of the animals were found to be positive for gastrointestinal nematodes. Strongyle-type eggs were most frequently detected (prevalence 75%), followed by Capillaria sp., Nematodirus sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs. Following culturing eggs to infective larvae, Teladorsagia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Nematodirus sp., Cooperia sp. and Oesophagostomum sp. were identified. Following necropsy of two calves that died during the study one abomasal nematode (Teladorsagia circumcincta), five small intestinal nematode species (Nematodirus helvetianus, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. curticei and Capillaria bovis) and two large intestinal nematodes (Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis) were recovered. From these findings, it is evident that the eland harbours nematodes that are typical for domestic cattle and small ruminants. Morphological and morphometric analyses of recovered nematodes revealed that these parasites do not require any special morphological adaptation to establish infection in elands. The faecal output of strongyle-type and Nematodirus sp. eggs was seasonal, with the highest egg production taking place during spring and summer. Calves had higher faecal egg counts (for all the monitored nematode species) than adults did. Lactation in females was significantly (P<0.0001) associated with higher strongyle nematode egg shedding. Social dominance also affected faecal egg count patterns. The lower the hierarchical position among adults (regardless of sex), the higher the risk of

  19. Effects of age, sex, lactation and social dominance on faecal egg count patterns of gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed eland (Taurotragus oryx).

    PubMed

    Vadlejch, J; Kotrba, R; Čadková, Z; Růžičková, A; Langrová, I

    2015-10-01

    The eland is a large African antelope that can be bred in a temperate climate, under similar conditions and production systems as cattle. However, knowledge of parasites in farmed elands outside the area of their native habitat is still limited, and information concerning factors that influence these parasites is lacking. Therefore, faecal samples from an entire herd of elands, including calves and adult females and males, were examined monthly over a one year period. Almost 84% of the animals were found to be positive for gastrointestinal nematodes. Strongyle-type eggs were most frequently detected (prevalence 75%), followed by Capillaria sp., Nematodirus sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs. Following culturing eggs to infective larvae, Teladorsagia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Nematodirus sp., Cooperia sp. and Oesophagostomum sp. were identified. Following necropsy of two calves that died during the study one abomasal nematode (Teladorsagia circumcincta), five small intestinal nematode species (Nematodirus helvetianus, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. curticei and Capillaria bovis) and two large intestinal nematodes (Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis) were recovered. From these findings, it is evident that the eland harbours nematodes that are typical for domestic cattle and small ruminants. Morphological and morphometric analyses of recovered nematodes revealed that these parasites do not require any special morphological adaptation to establish infection in elands. The faecal output of strongyle-type and Nematodirus sp. eggs was seasonal, with the highest egg production taking place during spring and summer. Calves had higher faecal egg counts (for all the monitored nematode species) than adults did. Lactation in females was significantly (P<0.0001) associated with higher strongyle nematode egg shedding. Social dominance also affected faecal egg count patterns. The lower the hierarchical position among adults (regardless of sex), the higher the risk of

  20. Efficacy of commonly used anthelmintics: first report of multiple drug resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    George, N; Persad, K; Sagam, R; Offiah, V N; Adesiyun, A A; Harewood, W; Lambie, N; Basu, A K

    2011-12-29

    In Trinidad, small ruminant farms are semi-intensively managed under tropical conditions which support the development and survival of the infective stages of the helminths. Local farmers use anthelmintics to control gastrointestinal nematodes frequently. Frequent use of anthelmintics has the potential to select for populations of nematodes resistance to those chemicals. Hence, an attempt was made to study the efficacy of commonly used drugs on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Three farms situated in different counties in Trinidad were selected. Sheep aged 6-15 months and not treated with anthelmintics for a minimum of six months previous and with faecal egg count (FEC)>150 eggs per gram were selected for study. They were allocated into 5 groups, each consisting 10 animals. The Group TA animals were treated once with albendazole (5mg/kg. b.wt.), group TF with fenbendazole (5mg/kg.b.wt.), group TI animals with ivermectin (200 μg/kg b.wt.), group TL with levamisol (7.5mg/kg b.wt.). The group NTC animals were not given any drug and served as control. The number of nematode eggs per gram of faeces from each animal was determined before treatment and at 14 days after treatment. The anthelmintic susceptibility to different drugs was detected by FECRT (in vivo) with EPG recorded at 14 day post-treatment. The data analysis using FECRT revealed that efficacy of albendazole (46-62%), fenbendazole (44-61%) and levamisol (53-81%) were reduced compared to ivermectin (95-97%). An attempt has also been made to find a suitable method for calculation of FECR (%).

  1. Comparative efficacy and toxic effects of carvacryl acetate and carvacrol on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes and mice.

    PubMed

    Andre, Weibson P P; Ribeiro, Wesley L C; Cavalcante, Géssica S; dos Santos, Jessica M L; Macedo, Iara T F; de Paula, Haroldo C B; de Freitas, Rivelilson M; de Morais, Selene M; de Melo, Janaina V; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L

    2016-03-15

    Carvacrol is a compound isolated from some essential oils. It has been reported to possess anthelmintic activity. Acetylation of this monoterpene has been proposed as a potential way to reduce the toxicity and enhance the pharmacological effects of carvacrol. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carvacryl acetate (CA) using in vitro and in vivo assays with gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants. The egg hatching test (EHT), larval development test (LDT) and adult worm motility (AWM) assessment were conducted to evaluate the effect of the acetylated product and pure carvacrol on Haemonchus contortus eggs, larvae and adults. The structural changes induced in adult H. contortus were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CA and carvacrol acute toxicity was evaluated in mice. Finally, the efficacy of 250 mg/kg CA and 2.5mg/kg monepantel (positive control) were evaluated in 30 sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). In vitro tests were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by comparison with Tukey's test. The efficacy was calculated by the Boot Street program using the arithmetic average. The number of eggs in feces (epg) of the groups were transformed to log (x+1) and subjected to ANOVA to compare differences among the groups by Tukey's test. The level of significance was P<0.05. CA and carvacrol inhibited larval hatching by 89.3 and 97.7% at doses of 8.0 and 1.0mg/ml, respectively. At the concentration of 2mg/ml, CA and carvacrol inhibited 100% of larval development. At a concentration of 200 μg/ml, CA and carvacrol inhibited the motility of adult worms by 100% and 58.3% at 24h post-exposure, respectively. CA caused cuticle and vulvar flap wrinkling and bubbles to emerge from the tegument. Carvacrol caused more discreet effects on the cuticle and vulvar flap. The LD10 and LD50 of CA were 566.7 mg/kg and 1544.5mg/kg, respectively. The LD10 and LD50 of carvacrol were

  2. Establishment rate of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Tapia-Escárate, D; Pomroy, W E; Scott, I; Wilson, P R; Lopez-Villalobos, N

    2015-04-15

    To investigate the establishment of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in red deer, five red deer and five sheep aged 5-6 months were challenged with a mixed burden of sheep GIN at a rate of 327L3/kg bodyweight. The LSmean (SE) establishment rates (%) for Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Cooperia curticei, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum+Chabertia spp. were 18.6 (0.03), 35.5 (0.04), 30.7 (0.04), 74.9 (0.05), 19.9 (0.06), respectively in sheep and 10.5 (0.03), 1.0 (0.04), 0.1 (0.04), 1.0 (0.05), 4.8 (0.06) respectively, in deer. Establishment rates were significantly different (p<0.05) between hosts for all genera. No Trichostrongylus colubriformis or Trichostrongylus vitrinus were seen in any deer but were present in all sheep. Trichostrongylus axei were seen in both hosts but there were relatively more which established in sheep than in deer (p<0.01). No Chabertia ovina were seen in any deer but were present in four of five sheep in low numbers. The only species of Oesophagostomum seen in either host was Oesophagostomum venulosum. These results suggest that the sheep GIN most likely to infect red deer grazing the same pastures are H. contortus, T. axei and O. venulosum.

  3. Alternative approaches for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep farming: a review.

    PubMed

    Šimpraga, Miljenko; Ljubičić, Iva; Hlede, Jadranka Pejaković; Vugrovečki, Ana Shek; Marinculić, Albert; Tkalčić, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a serious health problem and represent the most significant constraint in sheep grazing operations. Problems tend to be worse in organic sheep farming systems, as a consequence of a less restricted access of animals to outdoor environment with a higher exposure to infective larvae. In domestic animals, GIN are effectively controlled by an aggressive prophylactic administration of commercially available anthelmintics. As a consequence to a common overdose and misuse of readily available antiparasitic treatments, there is an inevitable development of populations of GIN resistant to all major classes of anthelmintics. Also, the control of GIN that is based entirely on the anthelmintic use, threatens sustainability of the sheep farming worldwide. The combination of the optimized use of anthelmintic drugs and alternative approaches seem to be a reasonable choice in sustainable parasitic control programs that offer a substantial reduction of anthelmintic treatments and conservation of anthelmintic efficacy. In that aspect, a "targeted selective treatment (TST)" directed towards animals clinically diagnosed with GIN, seems to be an effective approach to leave some parasite populations unexposed to anthelmintics (refugia) and to reduce development of anthelmintic resistance. Also, many current research efforts aim to find and validate sustainable non-chemotherapeutic approaches to GIN control, including changes in grazing management, optimized nutrition, dietary supplementation, consumption of plants with anthelmintic properties, biological control by nematophagous fungi, copper oxide wire particles (COWP), and homeopathic treatments. This manuscript outlines (outlines) and discusses relevant alternative approaches for GIN control in modern sheep farming systems.

  4. Genetic determinants of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic markers for host resistance to gastrointestinal parasites have long been sought by the livestock industry as a way to select more resistant individuals, and alternatively, to help farmers with parasite control because high egg shedders will be removed from the flock and reduce parasite trans...

  5. Nematode infection: A rare mimic of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Hotchen, Andrew; Chin, Kian; Raja, Mahzar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute appendicitis is a common condition seen in all surgical units. One rare condition that can mimic acute appendicitis is a nematode infection of the bowel. There have been few reported cases of nematode infection within the appendix and none that have been accompanied by intra-operative pictures. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 16-year-old female presented with a 12 h history of right iliac fossa pain and mild pyrexia. Bloods showed a neutrophilia and normal C-reactive protein. Laparoscopy was performed which revealed a non-inflamed appendix. The appendix was dissected and a live nematode was visualised exiting the base of the appendix. Anti-helminthics were given and the infection resolved. DISCUSSION Nematode infection is most commonly seen in Africa, Asia and South America. When seen within the United Kingdom (UK), it is seen most commonly within high-risk populations. Testing for these infections is not routine within the UK and when they are performed, the results take a considerable amount of time to return. These tests should be considered within high-risk populations so that unnecessary surgery can be avoided. CONCLUSION This case highlights the importance of considering rare causes of right iliac fossa pain including nematode infection in a young patient. The case highlights this by giving intra-operative pictures of live nematodes upon dissection of the appendix. PMID:25024022

  6. Practices to optimise gastrointestinal nematode control on sheep, goat and cattle farms in Europe using targeted (selective) treatments.

    PubMed

    Charlier, J; Morgan, E R; Rinaldi, L; van Dijk, J; Demeler, J; Höglund, J; Hertzberg, H; Van Ranst, B; Hendrickx, G; Vercruysse, J; Kenyon, F

    2014-09-13

    Due to the development of anthelmintic resistance, there have been calls for more sustainable nematode control practices. Two important concepts were introduced to study and promote the sustainable use of anthelmintics: targeted treatments (TT), where the whole flock/herd is treated based on knowledge of the risk, or parameters that quantify the severity of infection; and targeted selective treatments (TST), where only individual animals within the grazing group are treated. The aim of the TT and TST approaches is to effectively control nematode-induced production impacts while preserving anthelmintic efficacy by maintaining a pool of untreated parasites in refugia. Here, we provide an overview of recent studies that assess the use of TT/TST against gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants and investigate the economic consequences, feasibility and knowledge gaps associated with TST. We conclude that TT/TST approaches are ready to be used and provide practical benefits today. However, a major shift in mentality will be required to make these approaches common practice in parasite control.

  7. Genetic analysis of resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp. in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Passafaro, Tiago Luciano; Carrera, Juan Pablo Botero; dos Santos, Livia Loiola; Raidan, Fernanda Santos Silva; dos Santos, Dalinne Chrystian Carvalho; Cardoso, Eduardo Penteado; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Toral, Fabio Luiz Buranelo

    2015-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to obtain genetic parameters for resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes (worms) and Eimeria spp. in Nellore cattle, analyze the inclusion of resistance traits in Nellore breeding programs and evaluate genetic selection as a complementary tool in parasite control programs. Counting of ticks, gastrointestinal nematode eggs and Eimeria spp. oocysts per gram of feces totaling 4270; 3872 and 3872 records from 1188; 1142 and 1142 animals, respectively, aged 146 to 597 days were used. The animals were classified as resistant (counts equal to zero) or susceptible (counts above zero) to each parasite. The statistical models included systematics effects of contemporary groups and the mean trajectory. The random effects included additive genetic effects, direct permanent environmental effects and residual. The mean trajectory and random effects were modeled with linear Legendre polynomials for all traits except for the mean trajectory of resistance to Eimeria spp., which employed the cubic polynomial. Heritability estimates were of low to moderate magnitude and ranged from 0.06 to 0.30, 0.06 to 0.33 and 0.04 to 0.33 for resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp., respectively. The posterior mean of genetic and environmental correlations for the same trait at different ages (205, 365, 450 and 550 days) were favorable at adjacent ages and unfavorable at distant ages. In general, the posterior mean of the genetic and environmental correlations between traits of resistance were low and high-density intervals were large and included zero in many cases. The heritability estimates support the inclusion of resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp. in Nellore breeding programs. Genetic selection can increase the frequency of resistant animals and be used as a complementary tool in parasite control programs.

  8. Genetic analysis of resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp. in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Passafaro, Tiago Luciano; Carrera, Juan Pablo Botero; dos Santos, Livia Loiola; Raidan, Fernanda Santos Silva; dos Santos, Dalinne Chrystian Carvalho; Cardoso, Eduardo Penteado; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Toral, Fabio Luiz Buranelo

    2015-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to obtain genetic parameters for resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes (worms) and Eimeria spp. in Nellore cattle, analyze the inclusion of resistance traits in Nellore breeding programs and evaluate genetic selection as a complementary tool in parasite control programs. Counting of ticks, gastrointestinal nematode eggs and Eimeria spp. oocysts per gram of feces totaling 4270; 3872 and 3872 records from 1188; 1142 and 1142 animals, respectively, aged 146 to 597 days were used. The animals were classified as resistant (counts equal to zero) or susceptible (counts above zero) to each parasite. The statistical models included systematics effects of contemporary groups and the mean trajectory. The random effects included additive genetic effects, direct permanent environmental effects and residual. The mean trajectory and random effects were modeled with linear Legendre polynomials for all traits except for the mean trajectory of resistance to Eimeria spp., which employed the cubic polynomial. Heritability estimates were of low to moderate magnitude and ranged from 0.06 to 0.30, 0.06 to 0.33 and 0.04 to 0.33 for resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp., respectively. The posterior mean of genetic and environmental correlations for the same trait at different ages (205, 365, 450 and 550 days) were favorable at adjacent ages and unfavorable at distant ages. In general, the posterior mean of the genetic and environmental correlations between traits of resistance were low and high-density intervals were large and included zero in many cases. The heritability estimates support the inclusion of resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp. in Nellore breeding programs. Genetic selection can increase the frequency of resistant animals and be used as a complementary tool in parasite control programs. PMID:25899078

  9. Exploiting parallels between livestock and wildlife: Predicting the impact of climate change on gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Hannah; Hoar, Bryanne; Kutz, Susan J.; Morgan, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Global change, including climate, policy, land use and other associated environmental changes, is likely to have a major impact on parasitic disease in wildlife, altering the spatio-temporal patterns of transmission, with wide-ranging implications for wildlife, domestic animals, humans and ecosystem health. Predicting the potential impact of climate change on parasites infecting wildlife will become increasingly important in the management of species of conservation concern and control of disease at the wildlife–livestock and wildlife–human interface, but is confounded by incomplete knowledge of host–parasite interactions, logistical difficulties, small sample sizes and limited opportunities to manipulate the system. By exploiting parallels between livestock and wildlife, existing theoretical frameworks and research on livestock and their gastrointestinal nematodes can be adapted to wildlife systems. Similarities in the gastrointestinal nematodes and the life-histories of wild and domestic ruminants, coupled with a detailed knowledge of the ecology and life-cycle of the parasites, render the ruminant-GIN host–parasite system particularly amenable to a cross-disciplinary approach. PMID:25197625

  10. Exploiting parallels between livestock and wildlife: Predicting the impact of climate change on gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Rose, Hannah; Hoar, Bryanne; Kutz, Susan J; Morgan, Eric R

    2014-08-01

    Global change, including climate, policy, land use and other associated environmental changes, is likely to have a major impact on parasitic disease in wildlife, altering the spatio-temporal patterns of transmission, with wide-ranging implications for wildlife, domestic animals, humans and ecosystem health. Predicting the potential impact of climate change on parasites infecting wildlife will become increasingly important in the management of species of conservation concern and control of disease at the wildlife-livestock and wildlife-human interface, but is confounded by incomplete knowledge of host-parasite interactions, logistical difficulties, small sample sizes and limited opportunities to manipulate the system. By exploiting parallels between livestock and wildlife, existing theoretical frameworks and research on livestock and their gastrointestinal nematodes can be adapted to wildlife systems. Similarities in the gastrointestinal nematodes and the life-histories of wild and domestic ruminants, coupled with a detailed knowledge of the ecology and life-cycle of the parasites, render the ruminant-GIN host-parasite system particularly amenable to a cross-disciplinary approach.

  11. Infection with Mansonella perstans Nematodes in Buruli Ulcer Patients, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S.; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M.; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    During August 2010–December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer. PMID:24857346

  12. Infection with Mansonella perstans Nematodes in Buruli Ulcer Patients, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Richard O; Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc

    2014-06-01

    During August 2010-December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer. PMID:24857346

  13. Breeding for resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes - the potential in low-input/output small ruminant production systems.

    PubMed

    Zvinorova, P I; Halimani, T E; Muchadeyi, F C; Matika, O; Riggio, V; Dzama, K

    2016-07-30

    The control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is mainly based on the use of drugs, grazing management, use of copper oxide wire particles and bioactive forages. Resistance to anthelmintic drugs in small ruminants is documented worldwide. Host genetic resistance to parasites, has been increasingly used as a complementary control strategy, along with the conventional intervention methods mentioned above. Genetic diversity in resistance to GIN has been well studied in experimental and commercial flocks in temperate climates and more developed economies. However, there are very few report outputs from the more extensive low-input/output smallholder systems in developing and emerging countries. Furthermore, results on quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with nematode resistance from various studies have not always been consistent, mainly due to the different nematodes studied, different host breeds, ages, climates, natural infections versus artificial challenges, infection level at sampling periods, among others. The increasing use of genetic markers (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, SNPs) in GWAS or the use of whole genome sequence data and a plethora of analytic methods offer the potential to identify loci or regions associated nematode resistance. Genomic selection as a genome-wide level method overcomes the need to identify candidate genes. Benefits in genomic selection are now being realised in dairy cattle and sheep under commercial settings in the more advanced countries. However, despite the commercial benefits of using these tools, there are practical problems associated with incorporating the use of marker-assisted selection or genomic selection in low-input/output smallholder farming systems breeding schemes. Unlike anthelmintic resistance, there is no empirical evidence suggesting that nematodes will evolve rapidly in response to resistant hosts. The strategy of nematode control has evolved to a more practical manipulation of host-parasite equilibrium

  14. Breeding for resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes - the potential in low-input/output small ruminant production systems.

    PubMed

    Zvinorova, P I; Halimani, T E; Muchadeyi, F C; Matika, O; Riggio, V; Dzama, K

    2016-07-30

    The control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is mainly based on the use of drugs, grazing management, use of copper oxide wire particles and bioactive forages. Resistance to anthelmintic drugs in small ruminants is documented worldwide. Host genetic resistance to parasites, has been increasingly used as a complementary control strategy, along with the conventional intervention methods mentioned above. Genetic diversity in resistance to GIN has been well studied in experimental and commercial flocks in temperate climates and more developed economies. However, there are very few report outputs from the more extensive low-input/output smallholder systems in developing and emerging countries. Furthermore, results on quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with nematode resistance from various studies have not always been consistent, mainly due to the different nematodes studied, different host breeds, ages, climates, natural infections versus artificial challenges, infection level at sampling periods, among others. The increasing use of genetic markers (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, SNPs) in GWAS or the use of whole genome sequence data and a plethora of analytic methods offer the potential to identify loci or regions associated nematode resistance. Genomic selection as a genome-wide level method overcomes the need to identify candidate genes. Benefits in genomic selection are now being realised in dairy cattle and sheep under commercial settings in the more advanced countries. However, despite the commercial benefits of using these tools, there are practical problems associated with incorporating the use of marker-assisted selection or genomic selection in low-input/output smallholder farming systems breeding schemes. Unlike anthelmintic resistance, there is no empirical evidence suggesting that nematodes will evolve rapidly in response to resistant hosts. The strategy of nematode control has evolved to a more practical manipulation of host-parasite equilibrium

  15. Markers/parameters for the evaluation of natural resistance status of small ruminants against gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Saddiqi, H A; Sarwar, M; Iqbal, Z; Nisa, M; Shahzad, M A

    2012-06-01

    The high prevalence of anthelmintic-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) throughout the world has led to the need for alternative worm control strategies. One of the possible substitutes to reduce the problems of drug resistance and residue is the evaluation/breeding of small ruminants for greater resistance to the GINs (organically produced), which in turn would be a helpful tool to predict the performance of an animal. At present, the existing diversity in the genetic potential to resist/tolerate GINs infection both within and between breeds has been validated. Successful selection of animals to define the genotype and identified resistance is related to the employed markers. A number of phenotypic traits such as faecal egg count (FEC), worm burden, serum antibodies, peripheral eosinophilia, packed cell volume, live weight, serum protein and albumin concentrations have been used for this purpose both in natural and artificial infections. Relatively resistant/tolerant animals have also been found to have mastocytosis, globule leucocytes, high levels of histamine and immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgE concentrations. Of these traits, the principal and most practical measurement used to assess resistance status in animals undergoing similar parasite challenges is FEC. FEC has a positive/negative correlation with other biochemical, cellular and immunological parameters; however, the reliability of individual trial is often questioned and valuable information regarding the genetic makeup can be obtained from pooled data of a large number of trials and parameters. This paper covers all the aspects reported in the literature on various parameters considered to evaluate the resistance status of a range of small ruminant breeds. PMID:22558970

  16. Kinetics of capture and infection of infective larvae of trichostrongylides and free-living nematodes Panagrellus sp. by Duddingtonia flagrans.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Daniela Guedes; Araújo, Flávia Biasoli; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Damatta, Renato Augusto; de Paula Santos, Clóvis

    2011-10-01

    Duddingtonia flagrans, a nematode-trapping fungus, has been investigated as an agent for biological control against infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of production animals. The initial process of nematode-trapping fungi infection is based on an interaction between the trap structure of the fungus and the surface of the nematode cuticle. This report investigates by light and scanning electron microscopy the kinetics of capture and infection during the interaction of D. flagrans with the infective larvae (L(3)) of trichostrongylides and the free-living nematode Panagrellus sp. D. flagrans was cultivated for 7 days in a Petri dish containing agar-water. L(3) and Panagrellus sp. were inoculated in the Petri dishes and the samples consisting of agar-L(3)-fungi and agar-Panagrellus sp.-fungi were collected after 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 min and 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 h of interaction. All samples were observed by light microscopy. The samples with 1, 5, 15, and 25 h of interaction were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The interaction was monitored up to 25 h. An initial differentiation of predation structures was observed after 30 min of interaction. The presence of traps and of captured L(3) or Panagrellus sp. occurred after 70 min. The live captured nematodes were observed up to 3 h of interaction. However, after 4 h, all Panagrellus sp. were dead. It took 15 h of interaction for the fungus to invade the L(3), and the presence of hyphae inside the nematode near the region of penetration was evident. At this time, the hyphae had filled the whole body of Panagrellus sp. The complete occupation of the body of L(3) occurred at 20 h of interaction and with 25 h the nematode was completely damaged except for the cuticle. Although the double cuticle of L(3) slows the penetration of D. flagrans, it was possible to verify that the process of trap formation and capture occurs quickly when both nematodes were tested, suggesting that

  17. Measurement of phenotypic resilience to gastro-intestinal nematodes in Merino sheep and association with resistance and production variables.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gareth A; Kahn, Lewis P; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W

    2013-03-31

    A cross-over experiment was conducted to compare six different phenotypic measures of resilience to gastro-intestinal nematodes (predominantly Haemonchus contortus) in Merino sheep and their association with resistance and production levels. On each of six farms, 120 ewes born in 2006 and 120 older mixed age ewes were selected at shearing in 2007. Of these, 60 in each mob were serially treated with long-acting anthelmintics to suppress worm populations. The other 60 ewes were managed according to management practices employed on the farm (infected, INF). At shearing in 2008, the experimental sheep had their anthelmintic treatments switched. The experiment concluded at shearing in 2009. Measures of resilience were greasy fleece weight (GFW), live weight gain (LWG) and haematocrit (HCT) when infected and the difference in these variables between infected and suppressed. Resistance was determined from multiple faecal worm egg counts (WEC) when infected. Measures of resilience based on GFW, LWG and HCT were moderately correlated with each other (r=0.25-0.50) suggesting that they represent different traits. Correlations between a measure in infected animals, and the difference in the same measurement between infected and uninfected animals were higher (r=-0.37 to -0.82), indicating that measurement during infection is an adequate measure of resilience. WEC was negatively correlated with LWG and HCT during infection but not GFW. Correlations with resilience measures based on difference between infected and uninfected were positive. Surviving infected sheep were found to have higher haematocrit (HCT), and lower WEC in summer and autumn than sheep that died following the measurement. These results show that measurement of performance traits while infected is a reasonable approximation of measurement of resilience based on the difference in performance between infected and non-infected. They also show that resilience to worm infection is not a single trait, but rather a

  18. Disease transmission in an extreme environment: nematode parasites infect reindeer during the Arctic winter.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anja M; Justin Irvine, R; Wilson, Kenneth; Piertney, Stuart B; Halvorsen, Odd; Coulson, Stephen J; Stien, Audun; Albon, Steve D

    2012-07-01

    Parasitic nematodes are found in almost all wild vertebrate populations but few studies have investigated these host-parasite relationships in the wild. For parasites with free-living stages, the external environment has a major influence on life-history traits, and development and survival is generally low at sub-zero temperatures. For reindeer that inhabit the high Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, parasite transmission is expected to occur in the summer, due to the extreme environmental conditions and the reduced food intake by the host in winter. Here we show experimentally that, contrary to most parasitic nematodes, Marshallagia marshalli of Svalbard reindeer is transmitted during the Arctic winter. Winter transmission was demonstrated by removing parasites in the autumn, using a novel delayed-release anthelmintic bolus, and estimating re-infection rates in reindeer sampled in October, February and April. Larval stages of nematodes were identified using molecular tools, whereas adult stages were identified using microscopy. The abundance of M. marshalli adult worms and L4s increased significantly from October to April, indicating that reindeer were being infected with L3s from the pasture throughout the winter. To our knowledge, this study is the first to experimentally demonstrate over-winter transmission of a gastro-intestinal nematode parasite in a wild animal. Potential mechanisms associated with this unusual transmission strategy are discussed in light of our knowledge of the life-history traits of this parasite.

  19. Efficacy of an energy block containing Duddingtonia flagrans in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Sagüés, María F; Fusé, Luis A; Fernández, Alicia S; Iglesias, Lucía E; Moreno, Fabiana C; Saumell, Carlos A

    2011-09-01

    The efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans incorporated into an energy block was evaluated for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Four naturally parasitised sheep with average nematode egg counts of 2,470 eggs per gram grazed by pairs on two similar parasite-free paddocks for 30 days. During that period, one pair of sheep (treated animals, T1) received an energy block containing chlamydospores of D. flagrans at a dose of 200,000 chlamydopores/kg bw/day, while the second pair (control animals, C1) received a fungus-free energy block. The animals in both groups were taken off the paddocks after contaminating the pastures for a month with either nematode eggs plus fungal chlamydospores (T1) or nematode eggs alone (C1). Twelve parasite-free sheep were divided into two groups of six animals each, the treated group (T2) was placed on the paddock previously contaminated with parasites and fungus, while the control group (C2) was placed on the parasite-only paddock. These two groups grazed on their respective paddocks during 30 days and were then housed for 15 days, after which period they were slaughtered in order to determine the parasite burden present in each animal. Results showed that animals in group T2 harboured significantly less nematodes than their counterpart in group C2. The efficacy of D. flagrans was 92% against the total parasite burden, 100% against Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, 89.9% against Trichostrongylus colubriformis, 87.5% against Cooperia onchopora, and 90% against Trichostrongylus axei. No efficacy was detected against Nematodirus spathiger, Trichuris ovis and T. skrjabini.

  20. Anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus staigeriana encapsulated oil on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    de Aquino Mesquita, Mayara; E Silva Júnior, João Batista; Panassol, Andressa Machado; de Oliveira, Erick Falcão; Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Camurça Fernandes; de Paula, Haroldo Cesar Beserra; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2013-09-01

    The anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus staigeriana essential oil has previously been inferred through both in vitro and in vivo tests. Thus, the encapsulation process generally improves oil stability, promotes controlled release in target organs, reduces dosage, and increases efficacy. The aims of this study were to analyze and encapsulate E. staigeriana essential oil and to verify its anthelmintic activity in sheep. The encapsulation process was accomplished through emulsion using a 4% chitosan solution as the matrix. Anthelmintic activity was established through controlled testing using 18 sheep that were separated into three groups: group 1 was treated with a single dose of 365 mg/kg of E. staigeriana encapsulated oil, group 2 was treated with 200 μg/kg of ivermectin, and group 3 was treated with a 4% chitosan solution as a negative control. The sheep were euthanized and necropsied 13 days posttreatment to evaluate worm burden. Limonene was the major oil component (72.91%). The final product was a hydrogel with 36.5% (m/m) E. staigeriana essential oil per gram. Its efficacy on gastrointestinal nematodes was 60.79%. The highest efficacy was against abomasal nematodes, with 83.75% efficacy. Further studies are necessary to explore the possibility of increasing the hydrogel efficacy; nevertheless, we can state that E. staigeriana encapsulated oil had anthelmintic activity and can be used in gastrointestinal nematode control.

  1. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana Perr. (sisal) on gastrointestinal nematodes of goats.

    PubMed

    Botura, Mariana B; dos Santos, Jener David G; da Silva, Gisele D; de Lima, Hélimar G; de Oliveira, João Victor A; de Almeida, Maria Angela O; Batatinha, Maria José M; Branco, Alexsandro

    2013-02-18

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous extracts (AE), ethyl acetate extracts (EE), flavonoid fractions (FF) and saponin fractions (SF) obtained from sisal waste (Agave sisalana) against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. The activity of these extracts was evaluated by performing inhibition of egg hatch (EHA) and larval migration (LMI) assays. The EC(50) results of the EHA corresponded to 4.7, 0.1 and 0.05 mg/mL for EE, EA and FF, respectively. The SF fraction showed no ovicidal activity. The percent efficacies that were observed for the LMI were 50.3, 33.2 and 64.1% for the AE, EE and SF, respectively. The FF fraction did not show activity against the larvae. The analysis of the FF fraction indicates the presence of a homoisoflavonoid. This report suggests that the A. sisalana has activity in vitro against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. This effect is likely related to the presence of homoisoflavonoid and saponin compounds, which have different actions for specific stages of nematode development. PMID:23146415

  2. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana Perr. (sisal) on gastrointestinal nematodes of goats.

    PubMed

    Botura, Mariana B; dos Santos, Jener David G; da Silva, Gisele D; de Lima, Hélimar G; de Oliveira, João Victor A; de Almeida, Maria Angela O; Batatinha, Maria José M; Branco, Alexsandro

    2013-02-18

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous extracts (AE), ethyl acetate extracts (EE), flavonoid fractions (FF) and saponin fractions (SF) obtained from sisal waste (Agave sisalana) against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. The activity of these extracts was evaluated by performing inhibition of egg hatch (EHA) and larval migration (LMI) assays. The EC(50) results of the EHA corresponded to 4.7, 0.1 and 0.05 mg/mL for EE, EA and FF, respectively. The SF fraction showed no ovicidal activity. The percent efficacies that were observed for the LMI were 50.3, 33.2 and 64.1% for the AE, EE and SF, respectively. The FF fraction did not show activity against the larvae. The analysis of the FF fraction indicates the presence of a homoisoflavonoid. This report suggests that the A. sisalana has activity in vitro against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. This effect is likely related to the presence of homoisoflavonoid and saponin compounds, which have different actions for specific stages of nematode development.

  3. Multispecies resistance of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes to long-acting avermectin formulations in Mato Grosso do Sul.

    PubMed

    Borges, Fernando de Almeida; Borges, Dyego Gonçalves Lino; Heckler, Rafael Pereira; Neves, Juliana Paniago Lordello; Lopes, Fernando Gonçalves; Onizuka, Marcel Kenzo Vilalba

    2015-09-15

    The use of long-acting avermectins (AVMs) in cattle to treat infections with gastrointestinal nematodes was common in Brazil until its prohibition by state authorities. The prohibition; however, was rescinded in 2015, but a scientific discussion of the pros and cons of the use of these formulations is necessary. We evaluated the levels of resistance to 1.0 and 3.5% doramectin and to 3.15% ivermectin in cattle. The worms in animals treated with 3.5% doramectin were characterized by the suppression of oviposition and by a higher proportion of adult females carrying no eggs. Haemonchus placei, Cooperia punctata, C. pectinata, C. spatulata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum were resistant to the above compositions. The administration of long-acting AVM formulations did not result in a higher efficacy against these helminth populations.

  4. Current Status for Gastrointestinal Nematode Diagnosis in Small Ruminants: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Sarah Jane Margaret; Gonzalez, Jorge; Piedrafita, David

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites pose a significant economic burden particularly in small ruminant production systems. Anthelmintic resistance is a serious concern to the effective control of GIN parasites and has fuelled the focus to design and promote sustainable control of practices of parasite control. Many facets of sustainable GIN parasite control programs rely on the ability to diagnose infection both qualitatively and quantitatively. Diagnostics are required to determine anthelmintic efficacies, for targeted treatment programs and selection of animals for parasite resistant breeding. This review describes much of the research investigated to date to improve the current diagnostic for the above practices which is based on counting the number of parasite eggs in faeces. PMID:25258718

  5. Activation of a Pollenin Promoter upon Nematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, M.; de Oliveira Manes, C.-L.; Van Montagu, M.; Gheysen, G.

    2002-01-01

    Three glycine-rich protein genes of Arabidopsis thaliana (Atgrp-6, Atgrp-7, and Atgrp-8) that correspond to putative genes coding for pollenins (AtolnB;2, AtolnB;3, and AtolnB;4, respectively) are expressed predominantly in the anthers and, more specifically, in the tapetum layer. Tapetal cells are responsible for nutrition of developing pollen grains and show some functional similarities to nematode feeding sites (NFS) induced in plant roots by sedentary parasitic nematodes. The aim of this study was to analyze promoter activity of the Atgrp genes in NFS. Transformed Arabidopsis plants containing a promoter-ß-glucuronidase (gus) fusion of the Atgrp-7 gene were inoculated with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. GUS assays were performed at different time points after infection. Histochemical analysis revealed an up-regulation of Atgrp-7-gus expression 3 days after inoculation in the feeding sites of both nematodes. Maximal Atgrp-7-gus staining levels in NFS were observed 1 week after nematode infection. PMID:19265912

  6. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds.

    PubMed

    Holm, Signe A; Sörensen, Camilla R L; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection and related gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Makola, Diklar; Peura, David A; Crowe, Sheila E

    2007-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of digestive tract disorders, such as chronic active gastritis, peptic ulceration, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is dependent on many factors, including bacterial genotype, host physiology and genetics, and environmental factors such as diet. Researchers continue to explore the complexities of H. pylori infection, seeking to explain why some individuals have asymptomatic infection, whereas others experience clinical disease. The importance of treating H. pylori infection in patients with gastrointestinal problems has been confirmed in recent years, with clinical trials showing that cure of infection can prevent duodenal ulcer and, to a lesser extent, gastric ulcer recurrence; cure early stage mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; and reduce the chances of developing gastric cancer in high-risk individuals.

  8. Gastrointestinal nematode species diversity in Soay sheep kept in a natural environment without active parasite control.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rona; Melville, Lynsey; Sargison, Fiona; Kenyon, Fiona; Nussey, Dan; Watt, Kathryn; Sargison, Neil

    2016-08-30

    Molecular methods based on ITS2 sequence analysis were used to identify strongylid parasites and describe their diversity in a management intervention and anthelmintic drug treatment-free sheep flock. Fourteen different nematode parasite species were identified in the flock and the results showed a greater level of nematode species diversity than is normally reported in managed farmed flocks, with the presence of parasites such as Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Ostertagia leptospicularis, Spiculopteragia houdemeri and Trichostrongylus retortaeformis that are considered to be absent or rare in sheep kept in comparable localities. The implied prevalences of Haemonchus contortus in lambs, and of Trichostrongylus axei in lambs, ewes and rams, were higher than those in farmed sheep kept in similar regions, while those of Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus vitrinus were lower. Comparison of the patterns of nematode parasite infection between the summer and autumn sampling periods showed differences from the scenarios that are commonplace in comparable managed flocks; with T. vitrinus burdens of the lambs being higher in the summer than in the winter, and Oesophagostomum venulosum being the predominant nematode species in the adult sheep during the summer, while more-or-less absent from these groups during the winter. Rams played an important role in the epidemiology of certain parasitic nematode species. The relatively non-pathogenic O. venulosum was the only parasitic nematode species to predominate in any group during the study. This preliminary characterisation of the nematode parasite burdens of sheep extensively grazed on diverse unimproved pastures will aid in the understanding of the parasitological consequences of intensive grazing management and of the manner in which modern agriculture upsets the equilibrium between parasites and their hosts. These factors must be accounted for when defining the concept of sustainable parasite control and informing

  9. Gastrointestinal nematode species diversity in Soay sheep kept in a natural environment without active parasite control.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rona; Melville, Lynsey; Sargison, Fiona; Kenyon, Fiona; Nussey, Dan; Watt, Kathryn; Sargison, Neil

    2016-08-30

    Molecular methods based on ITS2 sequence analysis were used to identify strongylid parasites and describe their diversity in a management intervention and anthelmintic drug treatment-free sheep flock. Fourteen different nematode parasite species were identified in the flock and the results showed a greater level of nematode species diversity than is normally reported in managed farmed flocks, with the presence of parasites such as Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Ostertagia leptospicularis, Spiculopteragia houdemeri and Trichostrongylus retortaeformis that are considered to be absent or rare in sheep kept in comparable localities. The implied prevalences of Haemonchus contortus in lambs, and of Trichostrongylus axei in lambs, ewes and rams, were higher than those in farmed sheep kept in similar regions, while those of Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus vitrinus were lower. Comparison of the patterns of nematode parasite infection between the summer and autumn sampling periods showed differences from the scenarios that are commonplace in comparable managed flocks; with T. vitrinus burdens of the lambs being higher in the summer than in the winter, and Oesophagostomum venulosum being the predominant nematode species in the adult sheep during the summer, while more-or-less absent from these groups during the winter. Rams played an important role in the epidemiology of certain parasitic nematode species. The relatively non-pathogenic O. venulosum was the only parasitic nematode species to predominate in any group during the study. This preliminary characterisation of the nematode parasite burdens of sheep extensively grazed on diverse unimproved pastures will aid in the understanding of the parasitological consequences of intensive grazing management and of the manner in which modern agriculture upsets the equilibrium between parasites and their hosts. These factors must be accounted for when defining the concept of sustainable parasite control and informing

  10. [Effectiveness of fenbendazole (Panacur) in cattle invaded by gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes].

    PubMed

    Corba, J; Reisz, T; Krupicer, I; Pacenovský, J; Breza, M

    1977-04-01

    The effectiveness of the new anthelmintic fenbendazole (Panacur) produced by Hoechst, W. Germany, was tested in cattle naturally invaded by gastro-intestinal and pulmonary nematodes. The single dose of 5.7 mg per kg or 7.5 mg per kg body weight administered either in the form of a 10% suspension or in pellets containing 1.5% of the active substance gave 100% intenseffectiveness and 100% extenseffectiveness in the control of Dictyocaulus viviparus, Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp., Ostertagia spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Cooperia spp. The animals tolerated the administration of both drug forms without showing any undesirable symptoms.

  11. Nematode infection in fish from Cartagena Bay, North of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Verbel, Jesús Olivero; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Arroyo-Salgado, Bárbara

    2011-04-19

    Parasitic nematode infection indices were recorded in different fish species collected at Cartagena Bay, North of Colombia. Among 19 studied species, the Mugil genus presented the highest prevalence (83.9-100%), although Sciades herzbergii, Caranx hippos and Centropomus undecimalis were also found infected with nematodes. Parasites were found in the liver, intestinal mesenteries and encysted near the intervertebral joints, with an average parasite abundance of 4.0 ± 0.3 nematodes per fish. Morphological analysis allowed the identification of these nematodes as Contracaecum sp. A small, but positive correlation was found between parasite abundance and length (R=0.294, P<0.001) and weight (R=0.244, P<0.001). In contrast, the correlation between parasite abundance and condition factor was negative (R=-0.191, P<0.001). These results are the first describing the presence of nematodes in several fish species of this ecosystem, and it highlights the need for monitoring parasitism in Mugil species in order to avoid parasite ingestion during fish consumption.

  12. Transcriptional profiling of the ovine abomasal lymph node reveals a role for timing of the immune response in gastrointestinal nematode resistance.

    PubMed

    McRae, Kathryn M; Good, Barbara; Hanrahan, James P; McCabe, Matthew S; Cormican, Paul; Sweeney, Torres; O'Connell, Mary J; Keane, Orla M

    2016-07-15

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in grazing ruminants. The major ovine defence mechanism is acquired immunity, with protective immunity developing over time in response to infection. Nematode resistance varies both within and between breeds and is moderately heritable. A detailed understanding of the genes and mechanisms involved in protective immunity, and the factors that regulate this response, is required to aid both future breeding strategies and the development of effective and sustainable nematode control methods. The aim of this study was to compare the abomasal lymph node transcriptome of resistant and susceptible lambs in order to determine biological processes differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible individuals. Scottish Blackface lambs, with divergent phenotypes for resistance, were challenged with 30,000 Teladorsagia circumcincta larvae (L3), and abomasal lymph nodes recovered at 7 and 14days post-infection (dpi). High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from the abomasal lymph node was used to quantitatively sample the transcriptome with an average of 32 million reads per sample. A total of 194 and 144 genes were differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible lambs at 7 and 14 dpi respectively. Differentially expressed networks and biological processes were identified using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Genes involved in the inflammatory response, attraction of T lymphocytes and binding of leukocytes were more highly expressed in resistant animals at 7 dpi and in susceptible animals at 14 dpi indicating that resistant animals respond to infection earlier than susceptible animals. Twenty-four Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) within 11 differentially expressed genes, were tested for association with gastrointestinal nematode resistance in the Scottish Blackface lambs. Four SNP, in 2 genes (SLC30A2 and ALB), were suggestively associated with faecal egg count. In conclusion, a large

  13. New insights into gastrointestinal anthrax infection.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jennifer L; Yang, Tao; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial infections are the primary cause of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in both developing and developed countries, and are particularly dangerous for infants and children. Bacillus anthracis is the 'archetype zoonotic' pathogen; no other infectious disease affects such a broad range of species, including humans. Importantly, there are more case reports of GI anthrax infection in children than inhalational disease. Early diagnosis is difficult and widespread systemic disease develops rapidly. This review highlights new findings concerning the roles of the gut epithelia, commensal microbiota, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in initiation of disease and systemic dissemination in animal models of GI anthrax, the understanding of which is crucial to designing alternative therapies that target the establishment of infection.

  14. Action of sisal (Agave sisalana, Perrine) extract in the in vitro development of sheep and goat gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Roberta X; Chagas, Ana Carolina S; Botura, Mariana B; Batatinha, Maria J M; Katiki, Luciana M; Carvalho, Camila O; Bevilaqua, Cláudia M L; Branco, Alexsandro; Machado, Elane A A; Borges, Simone L; Almeida, Maria A O

    2012-06-01

    Active compounds from Agave sisalana with antiparasitic action against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) could be an alternative to diversify the range of parasite management methods in the livestock sector. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro action of A. sisalana extract on the development of sheep and goat GINs. The extract, obtained from shredded sisal leaves, was utilized at various concentrations in the egg hatch test (EHT), larval development test (LDT), larval feeding inhibition test (LFIT) and adult motility test (AMT). The LC(50) and LC(95) in the EHT were 6.90 and 24.79 mg/mL, in the LDT were 0.041 and 0.067 mg/mL and in the LFIT were 0.053 and 0.24 mg/mL, respectively, showing a dose-dependent relationship. The development and feeding inhibition on L(1) were both 100% at a dose of 0.12 mg/mL. In the AMT there was 100% inhibition at 75 mg/mL after 24h of exposure. The extract of A. sisalana therefore demonstrated significant action on L(1) at 0.12 mg/mL. So, if part of the A. sisalana extract passes through the animal's gastrointestinal system, this material can have a significant effect on the parasites in the feces. This is an interesting approach because it can drastically reduce the pasture contamination as well as the infection of herds. PMID:22469785

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of a Mexican strain of Duddingtonia flagrans as a biological control agent against gastrointestinal nematodes in goat faeces.

    PubMed

    Ojeda-Robertos, N F; Mendoza-de Gives, P; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Aguilar-Caballero, A J

    2005-06-01

    The use of Duddingtonia flagrans in the control of goat nematodes was investigated. Initially, the time of passage of chlamydospores through the digestive tract of goats was evaluated. Two groups of seven parasite-free kids were formed. Group A received a single dose of 3.5x10(6) D. flagrans chlamydospores (FTHO-8 strain) per kg of live weight. Group B did not receive any chlamydospores. Faeces were obtained from each kid daily from day 4 prior to inoculation until day 5 post-inoculation (PI) and were placed in Petri dishes containing water agar. Gastrointestinal nematode infective larvae were added to each Petri dish and incubated at 25 degrees C for 7 days. Petri dishes were examined to detect the fungus and trapped nematodes. A second trial evaluated the effect of D. flagrans on the number of gastrointestinal nematode larvae harvested from goat faecal cultures in naturally infected goats. Two groups of seven goats were formed. The treated group received a single dose of 3.5x10(6) D. flagrans chlamydospores per kg of liveweight. The control group did not receive any chlamydospores. Faeces were obtained twice daily from each kid. Two faecal cultures were made for each kid. One was incubated for 7 days and the other for 14 days. Gastrointestinal nematode larvae were recovered from each culture and counted. Percentage of larval development reduction was determined using a ratio of larvae/eggs deposited in the control and treated groups. Duddingtonia flagrans survived the digestive process of goats, and maintained its predatory activity, being observed from 21 to 81 h PI (3 to 4 days). A reduction in the infective larvae population in the treated group compared to the non-treated group was observed in both incubation periods (7 days: 5.3-36.0%; 14 days: 0-52.8%, P>0.05). Although a single inoculation of D. flagrans can induce a reduction of infective larvae collected from faeces, a different scheme of dosing may be needed to enhance the efficacy of D. flagrans in

  16. Efficacy of free and nanoencapsulated Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes and toxicity for mice.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J C; Ribeiro, W L C; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Macedo, I T F; Santos, J M L; Paula, H C B; Araújo Filho, J V; Magalhães, R D; Bevilaqua, C M L

    2014-08-29

    Herbal medicines with anthelmintic effects are alternatives for the sustainable control and prevention of disease caused by gastrointestinal parasites. The nanoencapsulation of essential oils has been proposed to enhance the absorption of their constituents and improve their efficacy. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of free and nanoencapsulated Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (EcEO) on the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in vitro and in vivo. Chitosan was used as a matrix for the formulation of a nanoemulsion. Chromatographic and physico-chemical analyses of EcEO were performed. Egg hatch (EHT) and larval development (LDT) tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of nanoencapsulated and free EcEO on the eggs and larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Acute toxicity of free and nanoencapsulated EcEO was evaluated using mice. Finally, nanoencapsulated EcEO efficacy on the control of gastrointestinal nematodes was calculated by fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) treating 30 sheep naturally infected with 250 mg/kg of free and nanoencapsulated EcEO. In vitro tests were analyzed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by comparison with the Tukey test. The efficacy of FECRT was calculated by the BootStreet program through arithmetic average, using the formula 100 (1-XT/XC). To compare the differences between epg, the data were transformed to log(x+1) and subjected to an ANOVA to compare the significant differences between groups by Tukey's. The level of significance was P<0.05. The free (4 mg/ml concentration) and nanoencapsulated (2mg/ml concentration) EcEO inhibited larvae hatching by 97.2% and 92.8%, respectively. Free and nanoencapsulated EcEO at 8 mg/ml inhibited larval development by 99.8% and 98.1%, respectively. In the acute toxicity test, the LD10 and LD50 of free EcEO was 1999 and 2653 mg/kg, respectively, while the LD10 and LD50 of nanoencapsulated EcEO was 1121 and 1681 mg/kg, respectively

  17. Efficacy of free and nanoencapsulated Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes and toxicity for mice.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J C; Ribeiro, W L C; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Macedo, I T F; Santos, J M L; Paula, H C B; Araújo Filho, J V; Magalhães, R D; Bevilaqua, C M L

    2014-08-29

    Herbal medicines with anthelmintic effects are alternatives for the sustainable control and prevention of disease caused by gastrointestinal parasites. The nanoencapsulation of essential oils has been proposed to enhance the absorption of their constituents and improve their efficacy. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of free and nanoencapsulated Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (EcEO) on the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in vitro and in vivo. Chitosan was used as a matrix for the formulation of a nanoemulsion. Chromatographic and physico-chemical analyses of EcEO were performed. Egg hatch (EHT) and larval development (LDT) tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of nanoencapsulated and free EcEO on the eggs and larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Acute toxicity of free and nanoencapsulated EcEO was evaluated using mice. Finally, nanoencapsulated EcEO efficacy on the control of gastrointestinal nematodes was calculated by fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) treating 30 sheep naturally infected with 250 mg/kg of free and nanoencapsulated EcEO. In vitro tests were analyzed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by comparison with the Tukey test. The efficacy of FECRT was calculated by the BootStreet program through arithmetic average, using the formula 100 (1-XT/XC). To compare the differences between epg, the data were transformed to log(x+1) and subjected to an ANOVA to compare the significant differences between groups by Tukey's. The level of significance was P<0.05. The free (4 mg/ml concentration) and nanoencapsulated (2mg/ml concentration) EcEO inhibited larvae hatching by 97.2% and 92.8%, respectively. Free and nanoencapsulated EcEO at 8 mg/ml inhibited larval development by 99.8% and 98.1%, respectively. In the acute toxicity test, the LD10 and LD50 of free EcEO was 1999 and 2653 mg/kg, respectively, while the LD10 and LD50 of nanoencapsulated EcEO was 1121 and 1681 mg/kg, respectively

  18. Gastrointestinal nematode burden in working equids from humid tropical areas of central Veracruz, Mexico, and its relationship with body condition and haematological values.

    PubMed

    Valdéz-Cruz, Maura Pilar; Hernández-Gil, Mariano; Galindo-Rodríguez, Leticia; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Angel

    2013-02-01

    The east coast of Veracruz, Mexico, has an important equine population used for working in rural production systems. The objectives of this study were (1) to calculate the prevalence of tropical working equids (donkeys, mules and horses) infected with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) and the GINs involved, and (2) to measure the body condition score (BCS) and haematological values for each working equid and its relationship with faecal worm egg count (EPG). One hundred and forty working equids were randomly selected from five different villages along the central coast of the state of Veracruz and faecal and blood samples were obtained from each animal. Gastrointestinal parasite burdens were determined using the McMaster technique. Packed cell volume, total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and white blood cell count were measured from each blood sample. Prevalence of infected equids was higher than 90 %. Mules had the highest median faecal worm egg counts (875 EPG), followed by horses and donkeys with 400 EPG. There was no correlation between EPG and BCS or haematological values (p > 0.05). Results suggest that despite the high prevalence and parasite burdens, equids involved in this trial are not being seriously affected. This study provides information which might help in designing future strategies to control nematode infections in working equids in the Mexican tropics; more emphasis should be placed on other inputs (nutrition perhaps), with individual anthelminthic treatment to those animals with the highest EPG or when signs present themselves.

  19. Prevalence, intensity and risk factors of infestation with major gastrointestinal nematodes in equines in and around Shashemane, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Tesfaye, Mulualem; Derso, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Prevalence, intensity and risk factors of major gastrointestinal nematode infestation in equines were studied through a cross-sectional survey in 384 equids from October 2013 to April 2014 in and around Shashemane, southern Ethiopia. Three hundred and fifteen equids (82 %) were demonstrated harbouring one or more gastrointestinal (GIT) nematodes using the faecal flotation technique. The prevalence of GIT nematode infestation was 73.4, 85 and 86.5 % for horses, mules and donkeys, respectively. The identified nematodes were strongyle type (73.4 %), Parascaris equorum (21.4 %) and Oxyuris equi (4.4 %). Species of equines had a significant (χ (2) = 9.35, P < 0.01) association with the occurrence of GIT nematode infestation. Donkeys were two times (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI 1.27-4.28, P < 0.01) more likely getting GIT nematode infestation than horses. Moreover, donkeys had the highest mean faecal egg counts (1831.2 egg per gram (EPG)) followed by mules (915.7 EPG) and horses (772.5 EPG). There was a significant association (P < 0.05) between mean EPG and body condition score in each equine species. In conclusion, this study provides information which might help in designing upcoming control strategies to control nematode infestation in equines. Moreover, suitable tropical climatic conditions, low level of management and owners' awareness, and poor animal health services are expected to contribute for high nematode infestation. Therefore, emphasis should be given to awareness creation about the strategic deworming, animal welfare and management.

  20. [The investigation of short term efficiency of oxfendazole + oxyclozanide paste and tablet formulations against gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep].

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Alparslan; Güneş, Vehbi; Iça, Anil; Sariözkan, Savaş; Düzlü, Onder; Inci, Abdullah; Albasan, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of tablet and paste formulations of Oxfendazole and Oxyclozanide combinations against subclinical gastrointestinal nematode infections and to compare the advantages and/or disadvantages of their use. Seventy-five infected sheep were selected from an enterprise located in Kayseri in 2006. The sheep were divided into 3 equal groups as paste, tablet and control groups. Fecal samples were collected from each group before drug administration. While the paste and tablet groups were administered drugs orally, no drugs were given to the controls. Fecal samples were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days after drug application and the EPG values were determined. The parasitological examination revealed that the most prevalent species was Ostertagia spp., followed by Nematodirus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. While the mean EPG value of the control group increased up to a ratio of 7.8% at day 28, the mean EPG values of drug groups decreased to 0%. Although the unit dose of paste formulation is more expensive, it was found that it could be an alternative to tablet formulation and has some advantages such as being easier to give, effective utilizing, shorter application period, fewer complications and death risk, no application failure and requires fewer personnel.

  1. Frequency of cattle farms with ivermectin resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Díaz, M A; Arnaud-Ochoa, R A; Becerra-Nava, R; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Quiroz-Romero, R H

    2015-09-15

    This study reports the percentage of cattle farms with ivermectin (IVM) resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in Veracruz, Mexico, and identifies the GIN genera involved in the resistances. It also describes management practices of anthelmintic (AH) use on the surveyed farms. Twenty-one farms were assessed by means of the faecal egg count reduction test using the McMaster technique. Only two farms had GIN populations susceptible to IVM (9.5%). The proportion of farms with IVM resistant GIN was 71.4% (15/21). Seven of these farms had less than 80% egg count reductions. Haemonchus and Cooperia were the genera most commonly found in the resistant populations, followed by Oesophagostomum. Inappropriate AH treatment practices were identified from the completed questionnaires. Further management practices such as selective treatment and quarantine treatments are proposed to further reduce the spread of IVM resistance between farms.

  2. A controlled study on gastrointestinal nematodes from two Swedish cattle farms showing field evidence of ivermectin resistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anthelmintic resistance (AR) is an increasing problem for the ruminant livestock sector worldwide. However, the extent of the problem is still relatively unknown, especially for parasitic nematodes of cattle. The effect of ivermectin (IVM) (Ivomec inj.®, Merial) was investigated in Swedish isolates of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) populations showing signs of AR in the field to further characterise the AR status by a range of in vivo and in vitro methods. Methods Three groups, each of 11 calves, were infected with an equal mixture of third stage larvae (L3) of Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi. Group A was inoculated with an IVM-susceptible laboratory isolate and groups B and C with isolates originating from ‘resistant’ cattle farms. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were monitored from 0 to 45 days post infection (d.p.i.), and L3 were harvested continuously for larval migration inhibition testing (LMIT) and species-specific PCR (ITS2). At 31 d.p.i., one calf from each group was necropsied and adult worms were recovered pre-treatment. At 35 d.p.i., calves from all groups were injected with IVM at the recommended dose (0.2 mg/kg bodyweight). At 45 d.p.i., another two animals from each group were sacrificed and established gastrointestinal worms were collected and counted. Results A few animals in all three groups were still excreting eggs (50-150 per g faeces) 10 days post IVM injection. However, there was no significant difference in the FEC reductions in groups A (95%; 95% CI 81-99), B (98%; 92-100) and C (99%; 97-100) between 35 and 44 d.p.i. Furthermore, LMIT showed no significant difference between the three groups. Approximately 100 adult O. ostertagi were found in the abomasum of one calf (group B), whereas low to moderate numbers (400-12 200) of C. oncophora remained in the small intestine of the calves in all three groups at 45 d.p.i. PCR on L3 harvested from faecal samples up to 10 days post treatment showed a ratio of 100% C. oncophora

  3. [Anthelmintic control of multiresistant nematodes in the gastrointestinal tract of imported goats].

    PubMed

    Corba, J; Várady, M; Praslicka, J; Veselý, L

    1993-01-01

    Multiple resistant strains of Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus were detected in a flock of cashmere and angora goats imported from New Zealand. The ED50 values detected by in vitro EHA test were from 0.27 to 0.36 micrograms/ml (while the reference value of sensitivity is 0.10 microgram/ml TBZ). Multiple resistance to all the types of currently used anthelmintics was confirmed by in vivo FECRT, when the efficacy of recommended doses was lower than 90% (albendazole 74%, levamisole 86%, ivermectin 83%). Two control schemes were investigated. In the simultaneous application of anthelmintics in the double or triple of recommended doses (0.4 mg/kg ivermectin s.c., 30 mg/kg levamisole and 20 mg/kg albendazole p.o.) was effective. Examination of goats 7 and 8 months after treatment revealed the repeated presence of multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. It is the first published case of intercontinental transfer of resistant strains of nematodes when importing small ruminants.

  4. Maize supplementation of Pelibuey sheep in a silvopastoral system: fodder selection, nutrient intake and resilience against gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Retama-Flores, C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Cámara-Sarmiento, R; Canul-Ku, H L

    2012-01-01

    This trial evaluated the effect of maize supplementation on the ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and the resilience against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection of hair sheep in a silvopastoral system containing tropical grasses and legume trees. In addition, it attempted to determine the metabolic cost of the natural GIN infection in supplemented and non-supplemented animals. Twenty-nine 3-month-old lambs (male and female), raised nematode free, were allocated to four groups: I-NS (infected, not supplemented, n = 8), I-S (infected, supplemented with maize at 1.5% live weight (LW), n = 7), T-NS (treated with moxidectin 0.2 mg/kg LW every 28 days, and not supplemented, n = 7) and T-S (treated with moxidectin and supplemented with maize at 1.5% LW, n = 7). During the 70-day trial, fodder intake, fodder selection, LW change (LWC), red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were measured every 14 days. Supplement consumption was recorded daily. Metabolizable energy (ME) and protein (MP) consumption from the feeds were estimated. Maize supplementation helped to improve the resilience of hair sheep lambs against GIN infections. The I-S and T-NS groups showed similar LWC, RBC, Hb and Ht (P > 0.05) and both were higher than those in the I-NS group (P < 0.05). No difference was found in EPG between the I-NS and the I-S groups (P > 0.05). No effect of sex was observed in the different variables. Although all groups showed low dry matter intake (DMI) (< 2% LW), supplemented groups (T-S and I-S) showed higher total DMI (fodder + maize; P < 0.05), hence higher ME and MP intakes than the non-supplemented groups (T-NS and I-NS). All groups showed similar fodder selection patterns. The estimated metabolic cost of parasitism was ME = 0.70 MJ/day and MP = 9.2 g/day in the I-S animals. Meanwhile, the cost in the I-NS animals was ME = 1.46 MJ/day and MP = 12.71 g/day. Maize supplementation was an economically viable strategy

  5. Infection Behavior and Overwintering Survival of Foliar Nematodes, Aphelenchoides fragariae, on Hosta

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Grewal, Parwinder S.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the pathogenicity and overwintering survival of the foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides fragariae, infecting Hosta spp. Nematodes applied to either lower or upper sides of noninjured and injured hosta leaves were able to infect and produce typical symptoms on nine cultivars. Leaves of only four cultivars (Borschi, Fragrant Blue, Patomic Pride, and Olive Bailey Langdon) showed no symptoms of nematode infection. The nematodes overwintered as juveniles and adults in soil, dry leaves, and dormant buds, but not in roots. Nematode winter survival was higher in dormant buds and soil from the polyhouse than in an open home garden. Of the nematodes found in the dormant buds, 35% to 79% were located between the first two outside layers of the buds. The nematodes tolerated 8 hr exposure to 40°C and −80°C in leaf tissues. Relative humidity influenced nematode migration from soil to leaves. The presence of nematodes only on the outer surface of foliage (leaves and petioles) confirmed the migration of A. fragariae on the surface of the plants. Of the total number of nematodes found on the foliage, 25% to 46% and 66% to 77% were alive at 90% and 100% relative humidity, respectively, suggesting that high moisture is required for the survival and upward movement of nematodes. We conclude that A. fragariae can overwinter in soil, infected dry leaves, and dormant buds and migrate in films of water on the outer surface of the plant during spring to leaves to initiate infection. PMID:19259438

  6. Nematodes Infect, But Do Not Manipulate Digging By, Sand Crabs, Lepidopa benedicti

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Meera; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    We examined sand crabs (Lepidopa benedicti) for endoparasites, and found the only parasite consistently infecting the studied population were small nematodes. Because many nematodes have complex life cycles involving multiple hosts, often strongly manipulating their hosts, we hypothesized that nematodes alter the behavior of their sand crab hosts. We predicted that more heavily infected crabs would spend more time above sand than less heavily infected crabs. Our data indicate infection by nematodes was not correlated with duration of time crabs spent above sand. We also suggest that organisms living in sandy beaches may benefit from relatively low parasite loads due to the low diversity of species in the habitat. PMID:24916475

  7. A novel approach to biocontrol: release of live insect hosts pre-infected with entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a new application approach, we tested the efficacy of releasing live insect hosts that were pre-infected with entomopathogenic nematodes against insect pests living in cryptic habitats. We hypothesized that the pre-infected hosts could carry the next generation of emerging nematode infective juv...

  8. Gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches, Struthio camelus, in different regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ederli, Nicole Brand; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The ratite group is composed of ostriches, rheas, emus, cassowaries and kiwis. Little research has been done on parasitism in these birds. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of infections by gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches in the state of Rio de Janeiro. For this, fecal samples were collected from 192 on 13 farms. From each sample, four grams of feces were used to determine the eggs per gram of feces (EPG) count, by means of the McMaster technique. Part of the feces sample was used for fecal cultures, to identify 100 larvae per sample. The results were subjected to descriptive central trend and dispersion analysis, using confidence intervals at the 5% error probability level in accordance with the Student t distribution, and Tukey's test with a 95% confidence interval. The mean EPG in the state was 1,557, and the municipality of Três Rios had the lowest average (62). The city of Campos dos Goytacazes presented the highest mean EPG of all the municipalities analyzed. The northern region presented the highest mean EPG, followed by the southern, metropolitan, coastal lowland and central regions. Libyostrongylus species were observed on all the farms: L. douglassii predominated, followed by L. dentatus and Codiostomum struthionis. PMID:26154957

  9. In vitro and In vivo anthelmintic activity of Nicotiana tabacum L. leaves against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; Lateef, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul; Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Nicotiana tabacum L. leaves was studied to rationalize its traditional use. Live Haemonchus contortus were used to assess the in vitro anthelmintic effect of a crude aqueous extract (CAE) and a methanol extract (CME) of N. tabacum. The in vitro inhibitory effect of both the extracts was evident from the paralysis and/or mortality of worms noted at 6 h post-exposure. For the in vivo studies, CAE and CME were administered in increasing doses (1.0-3.0 g/kg) to sheep naturally infected with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. A maximum reduction of 73.6% in eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces was recorded on day 5 post-treatment with CME (3.0 g/kg) while the same dose of CAE showed a 49.4% reduction. Levamisole (7.5 mg/kg), a standard anthelmintic agent, showed a 99.6% reduction in EPG. These data show that the aqueous and methanol extracts of Nicotiana tabacum exhibit dose-dependent anthelmintic activity both in vitro and in vivo, thus justifying its use in the traditional medicine system of Pakistan.

  10. Secreted proteomes of different developmental stages of the gastrointestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Sotillo, Javier; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Harcus, Yvonne; Pickering, Darren; Bouchery, Tiffany; Camberis, Mali; Tang, Shiau-Choot; Giacomin, Paul; Mulvenna, Jason; Mitreva, Makedonka; Berriman, Matthew; LeGros, Graham; Maizels, Rick M; Loukas, Alex

    2014-10-01

    Hookworms infect more than 700 million people worldwide and cause more morbidity than most other human parasitic infections. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (the rat hookworm) has been used as an experimental model for human hookworm because of its similar life cycle and ease of maintenance in laboratory rodents. Adult N. brasiliensis, like the human hookworm, lives in the intestine of the host and releases excretory/secretory products (ESP), which represent the major host-parasite interface. We performed a comparative proteomic analysis of infective larval (L3) and adult worm stages of N. brasiliensis to gain insights into the molecular bases of host-parasite relationships and determine whether N. brasiliensis could indeed serve as an appropriate model for studying human hookworm infections. Proteomic data were matched to a transcriptomic database assembled from 245,874,892 Illumina reads from different developmental stages (eggs, L3, L4, and adult) of N. brasiliensis yielding∼18,426 unigenes with 39,063 possible isoform transcripts. From this analysis, 313 proteins were identified from ESPs by LC-MS/MS-52 in the L3 and 261 in the adult worm. Most of the proteins identified in the study were stage-specific (only 13 proteins were shared by both stages); in particular, two families of proteins-astacin metalloproteases and CAP-domain containing SCP/TAPS-were highly represented in both L3 and adult ESP. These protein families are present in most nematode groups, and where studied, appear to play roles in larval migration and evasion of the host's immune response. Phylogenetic analyses of defined protein families and global gene similarity analyses showed that N. brasiliensis has a greater degree of conservation with human hookworm than other model nematodes examined. These findings validate the use of N. brasiliensis as a suitable parasite for the study of human hookworm infections in a tractable animal model.

  11. Exploring the host transcriptome for mechanisms underlying protective immunity and resistance to nematode infections in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Li, Robert W; Choudhary, Ratan K; Capuco, Anthony V; Urban, Joseph F

    2012-11-23

    Nematode infections in ruminants are a major impediment to the profitable production of meat and dairy products, especially for small farms. Gastrointestinal parasitism not only negatively impacts weight gain and milk yield, but is also a major cause of mortality in small ruminants. The current parasite control strategy involves heavy use of anthelmintics that has resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant parasite strains. This, in addition to increasing consumer demand for animal products that are free of drug residues has stimulated development of alternative strategies, including selective breeding of parasite resistant ruminants. The development of protective immunity and manifestations of resistance to nematode infections relies upon the precise expression of the host genome that is often confounded by mechanisms simultaneously required to control multiple nematode species as well as ecto- and protozoan parasites, and microbial and viral pathogens. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes represents a key step toward development of effective new parasite control strategies. Recent progress in characterizing the transcriptome of both hosts and parasites, utilizing high-throughput microarrays and RNA-seq technology, has led to the recognition of unique interactions and the identification of genes and biological pathways involved in the response to parasitism. Innovative use of the knowledge gained by these technologies should provide a basis for enhancing innate immunity while limiting the polarization of acquired immunity can negatively affect optimal responses to co-infection. Strategies for parasite control that use diet and vaccine/adjuvant combination could be evaluated by monitoring the host transcriptome for induction of appropriate mechanisms for imparting parasite resistance. Knowledge of different mechanisms of host immunity and the critical regulation of parasite development, physiology, and virulence can also selectively

  12. Field efficacy of ivermectin plus praziquantel oral paste against naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes of horses in North America and Europe.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Holste, John E; Doucet, Michèle Y; Fenger, Clara; Paul, Allan J; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Smith, Larry L; Yoon, Stephen; Marley, Sara E

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of an oral formulation of ivermectin plus praziquantel in the reduction of nematode and cestode egg counts in horses was assessed in 273 horses under field conditions at 15 sites in North America (n = 6) and Europe (n = 9). Horses were confirmed by fecal examination to have natural infections of strongyles (100%) and tapeworms (76%). Replicates of four horses were formed at each site, and in each replicate three animals received ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg body weight) plus praziquantel (1 mg/kg body weight) oral paste and one animal remained untreated or received vehicle paste. Fecal samples were collected for fecal nematode and cestode egg counting before and 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, and 16 days after treatment. Horses treated with ivermectin plus praziquantel oral paste had significantly (P <.01) lower posttreatment strongylid and cestode egg counts (reductions of 98% or more) than controls. Combined site analyses revealed that 95% or 96% of the horses positive for cestode eggs before treatment that were treated with ivermectin plus praziquantel were negative for cestode eggs at each posttreatment fecal examination. No adverse reactions attributable to ivermectin plus praziquantel oral paste treatments were observed. The results of the studies demonstrated that ivermectin plus praziquantel paste was highly effective in reducing egg shedding by gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes, and no adverse reactions were observed in horses treated under field conditions. PMID:15136982

  13. Elemental analysis of cetacean skull lesions associated with nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Pascual, S; Abollo, E; López, A

    2000-08-10

    The elemental composition of both healthy and eroded cetacean skulls associated with nematode infections was evaluated. A total of 27 samples of eroded and non-eroded prepared museum cetacean skulls were characterised by elemental (CHN), X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray diffraction methods. The inorganic composition and crystal line structure (hydroxylapatite-like minerals) were similar for both types of skull samples, but the CHN values clearly differed. The results suggest that the carbon-rich fraction is lost in eroded areas, probably as a result of glycosaminoglycan-degrading Crassicauda enzymes.

  14. Effects of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, Alicia M.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Rogerson, Jared D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of management practices on the spread and impact of parasites and infectious diseases in wildlife and domestic animals are of increasing concern worldwide, particularly in cases where management of wild species can influence disease spill-over into domestic animals. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA, winter supplemental feeding of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) may enhance parasite and disease transmission by aggregating elk on feedgrounds. In this study, we tested the effect of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in elk by comparing fecal egg/oocyst counts of fed and unfed elk. We collected fecal samples from fed and unfed elk at feedground and control sites from January to April 2006, and screened all samples for parasites. Six different parasite types were identified, and 48.7% of samples were infected with at least one parasite. Gastrointenstinal (GI) nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida), Trichuris spp., and coccidia were the most common parasites observed. For all three of these parasites, fecal egg/oocyst counts increased from January to April. Supplementally fed elk had significantly higher GI nematode egg counts than unfed elk in January and February, but significantly lower counts in April. These patterns suggest that supplemental feeding may both increase exposure and decrease susceptibility of elk to GI nematodes, resulting in differences in temporal patterns of egg shedding between fed and unfed elk.

  15. Variation in the Ovine Abomasal Lymph Node Transcriptome between Breeds Known to Differ in Resistance to the Gastrointestinal Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Albin M.; Good, Barbara; Hanrahan, James P.; McGettigan, Paul; Browne, John; Keane, Orla M.; Bahar, Bojlul; Mehta, Jai; Markey, Bryan; Lohan, Amanda; Sweeney, Torres

    2015-01-01

    Texel lambs are known to be more resistant to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection than Suffolk lambs, with a greater ability to limit infection. The objectives of this study were to: 1) profile the whole transcriptome of abomasal lymph node tissue of GIN-free Texel and Suffolk lambs; 2) identify differentially expressed genes and characterize the immune-related biological pathways and networks associated with these genes. Abomasal lymph nodes were collected from Texel (n = 6) and Suffolk (n = 4) lambs aged 19 weeks that had been GIN-free since 6 weeks of age. Whole transcriptome profiling was performed using RNA-seq on the Illumina platform. At the time of conducting this study, a well annotated Ovine genome was not available and hence the sequence reads were aligned with the Bovine (UMD3.1) genome. Identification of differentially expressed genes was followed by pathway and network analysis. The Suffolk breed accounted for significantly more of the differentially expressed genes, (276 more highly expressed in Suffolk v 162 in Texel; P < 0.001). The four most significant differentially expressed pathways were all related to immunity and were classified as: Role of Pattern Recognition Receptors in Recognition of Bacteria and Viruses, Activation of IRF by Cytosolic Pattern Recognition Receptors, Role of RIG-I-like Receptors in Antiviral Innate Immunity, and Interferon Signaling. Of significance is the fact that all of these four pathways were more highly expressed in the Suffolk. These data suggest that in a GIN-free environment, Suffolk lambs have a more active immune profile relative to the Texel: this immune profile may contribute to the poorer efficiency of response to a GIN challenge in the Suffolk breed compared to the Texel breed. PMID:25978040

  16. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches.

  17. Anthelmintic resistance to ivermectin and moxidectin in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Europe.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Thomas; Chartier, Christophe; Fanke, Jane; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Traversa, Donato; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina; Vanimisetti, Hima Bindu; Bartram, David J; Denwood, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has been increasingly reported in cattle worldwide over the last decade, although reports from Europe are more limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of injectable formulations of ivermectin and moxidectin at 0.2 mg per kg bodyweight against naturally acquired gastro-intestinal nematodes in cattle. A total of 753 animals on 40 farms were enrolled in Germany (12 farms), the UK (10 farms), Italy (10 farms), and France (8 farms). Animals were selected based on pre-treatment faecal egg counts and were allocated to one of the two treatment groups. Each treatment group consisted of between 7 and 10 animals. A post-treatment faecal egg count was performed 14 days (±2 days) after treatment. The observed percentage reduction was calculated for each treatment group based on the arithmetic mean faecal egg count before and after treatment. The resistance status was evaluated based on the reduction in arithmetic mean faecal egg count and both the lower and upper 95% confidence limits. A decreased efficacy was observed in half or more of the farms in Germany, France and the UK. For moxidectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in France, and on 1 farm in Germany and the UK. For ivermectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in the UK, and on 1 farm in Germany and France. The remaining farms with decreased efficacy were classified as having an inconclusive resistance status based on the available data. After treatment Cooperia spp. larvae were most frequently identified, though Ostertagia ostertagi was also found, in particular within the UK and Germany. The present study reports lower than expected efficacy for ivermectin and moxidectin (based on the reduction in egg excretion after treatment) on European cattle farms, with confirmed anthelmintic resistance on 12.5% of the farms.

  18. Anthelmintic resistance to ivermectin and moxidectin in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Geurden, Thomas; Chartier, Christophe; Fanke, Jane; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Traversa, Donato; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina; Vanimisetti, Hima Bindu; Bartram, David J.; Denwood, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has been increasingly reported in cattle worldwide over the last decade, although reports from Europe are more limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of injectable formulations of ivermectin and moxidectin at 0.2 mg per kg bodyweight against naturally acquired gastro-intestinal nematodes in cattle. A total of 753 animals on 40 farms were enrolled in Germany (12 farms), the UK (10 farms), Italy (10 farms), and France (8 farms). Animals were selected based on pre-treatment faecal egg counts and were allocated to one of the two treatment groups. Each treatment group consisted of between 7 and 10 animals. A post-treatment faecal egg count was performed 14 days (±2 days) after treatment. The observed percentage reduction was calculated for each treatment group based on the arithmetic mean faecal egg count before and after treatment. The resistance status was evaluated based on the reduction in arithmetic mean faecal egg count and both the lower and upper 95% confidence limits. A decreased efficacy was observed in half or more of the farms in Germany, France and the UK. For moxidectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in France, and on 1 farm in Germany and the UK. For ivermectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in the UK, and on 1 farm in Germany and France. The remaining farms with decreased efficacy were classified as having an inconclusive resistance status based on the available data. After treatment Cooperia spp. larvae were most frequently identified, though Ostertagia ostertagi was also found, in particular within the UK and Germany. The present study reports lower than expected efficacy for ivermectin and moxidectin (based on the reduction in egg excretion after treatment) on European cattle farms, with confirmed anthelmintic resistance on 12.5% of the farms. PMID:26448902

  19. Estimation of genetic parameters for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in pure blood Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Sallé, Guillaume; Skalska, Marta; David, Ingrid; Ricard, Anne; Cabaret, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Equine internal parasites, mostly cyathostomins, affect both horse welfare and performance. The appearance of anthelmintic-resistant parasites creates a pressing need for optimising drenching schemes. This optimization may be achieved by identifying genetic markers associated with host susceptibility to infection and then to drench carriers of these markers. The aim of our study was to characterise the genetics of horse resistance to strongyle infection by estimating heritability of this trait in an Arabian pure blood population. A population of 789 Arabian pure blood horses from the Michałów stud farm, Poland were measured for strongyle egg excretion twice a year, over 8 years. Low repeatability values were found for faecal egg counts. Our analyses showed that less than 10% of the observed variation for strongyle faecal egg counts in this population had a genetic origin. However, additional analyses highlighted an age-dependent increase in heritability which was 0.04 (±0.02) in young horses (up to 3 years of age) but 0.21 (±0.04) in older ones. These results suggest that a significant part of the inter-individual variation has a genetic origin. This paves the way to a genomic dissection of horse-nematode interactions which might provide predictive markers of susceptibility, allowing individualised drenching schemes.

  20. Estimation of genetic parameters for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in pure blood Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Sallé, Guillaume; Skalska, Marta; David, Ingrid; Ricard, Anne; Cabaret, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Equine internal parasites, mostly cyathostomins, affect both horse welfare and performance. The appearance of anthelmintic-resistant parasites creates a pressing need for optimising drenching schemes. This optimization may be achieved by identifying genetic markers associated with host susceptibility to infection and then to drench carriers of these markers. The aim of our study was to characterise the genetics of horse resistance to strongyle infection by estimating heritability of this trait in an Arabian pure blood population. A population of 789 Arabian pure blood horses from the Michałów stud farm, Poland were measured for strongyle egg excretion twice a year, over 8 years. Low repeatability values were found for faecal egg counts. Our analyses showed that less than 10% of the observed variation for strongyle faecal egg counts in this population had a genetic origin. However, additional analyses highlighted an age-dependent increase in heritability which was 0.04 (±0.02) in young horses (up to 3 years of age) but 0.21 (±0.04) in older ones. These results suggest that a significant part of the inter-individual variation has a genetic origin. This paves the way to a genomic dissection of horse-nematode interactions which might provide predictive markers of susceptibility, allowing individualised drenching schemes. PMID:25592965

  1. Infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) to female ticks of Boophilus annulatus (Arachnida: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Samish, M; Glazer, I

    1992-07-01

    Exposing Boophilus annulatus (Say) to different concentrations of Steinernema carpocapsae (Filipjev) infective juveniles in petri dishes (50-10,000 nematodes per dish) resulted in high mortality (greater than 90%) at nematode concentrations as low as 500 nematodes per dish within 8 d. At a concentration of 10,000 nematodes per dish, 100% of the ticks died within 2 d after infestation. After exposure to 500 nematodes per dish, complete mortality was achieved with the Heterorhabditis bacteriophora strain 'HP88' within 4 d. During the same period, only 15 and 40% mortality were recorded with the 'Mexican' and 'All' strains of S. carpocapsae, respectively. In a lethal dose analysis, S. carpocapsae strain 'DT' was the most infective strain with the lowest LD50 and LD90 values (15 and 165 infective juveniles per tick, respectively). The 'All' strain of S. carpocapsae was the least infective of the four strains tested, with LD50 and LD90 values of 372 and 9,251 infective juveniles/tick, respectively. Optimal temperature for tick control by the nematodes was between 22 and 26 degrees C. Mortality rate was reduced at 18 and 30 degrees C. The susceptibility of fully engorged ticks was not influenced by the weight of the replete females. Nematode infection did not have an adverse effect on egg laying by surviving ticks. PMID:1495070

  2. Combining the effects of supplementary feeding and copper oxide needles for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in browsing goats.

    PubMed

    Martínez Ortiz de Montellano, C; Vargas-Magaña, J J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Cob-Galera, L; May-Martínez, M; Miranda-Soberanis, R; Hoste, H; Cámara Sarmiento, R; Torres-Acosta, J F J

    2007-05-15

    The aim was to assess the benefits obtained from combining supplementary feeding and copper needles (COWP), compared to the use of both approaches independently, for the control of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in browsing kids. Forty-four nematode free Criollo kids were exposed to natural parasite infection. The kids were divided into six experimental groups: not treated, supplemented (NT-S), not treated, not supplemented (NT-NS), moxidectin treated, supplemented (M-S), moxidectin treated not supplemented (M-NS), copper treated, supplemented (COWP-S) and copper treated, non-supplemented (COWP-NS). Copper treated groups received Copinox (2 g capsules) on day 0 and on day 60 of the trial. Moxidectin treated groups received Cydectin (0.2 mg/kg of body weight s.c.) every 28 days. Three of the groups received individual supplementation (100 g of feed/day fresh basis; 74% sorghum: 26% soybean meal; NT-S, M-S and COWP-S) and the other three groups were not supplemented (NT-NS, M-NS and COWP-NS). Animals browsed native vegetation (6.5 h/day) during the wet season (154 days). Kids were weighed every 14 days to determine live weight gain (LWG) and blood and faecal samples were obtained to determine packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), peripheral eosinophil counts (PEC) and faecal egg counts (FEC). At the end of the trial, four kids of each group were euthanatized (six kids in each COWP treated group). Worm burdens, female worm lengths and prolificacy were determined. Liver samples were used to determine copper concentration and were stained with haematoxylin-eosin to determine microscopic lesions. Animals receiving the combination of supplementary feeding and COWP improved their LWG, PCV and Hb to similar levels of animals with suppressive AH treatment. This was not the case when COWP was used without supplementation. Liver copper concentration in COWP treated groups increased significantly especially in the COWP-NS kids but this was not associated with

  3. Biological Control of the Nematode Infective larvae of Trichostrongylidae Family With Filamentous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Zarrin, Majid; Rahdar, Mahmoud; Gholamian, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biological control of parasitic nematodes by microorganisms is a promising approach to control such parasites. Microorganisms such as fungi, viruses and bacteria are recognized as biocontrol agents of nematodes. Objectives: The current study mainly aimed to evaluate the in vitro Potential of various saprophyte soil-fungi in reducing the infective larvae stage of parasitic nematode Trichostrongylidae family. Materials and Methods: Sheep feces were employed to provide the required third stage larvae source for the experiments. The nematode infective larvae of Trichostrongylidae family including three species of Ostertagia circumcincta, Marshalgia marshali and Heamonchos contortus were collected by Berman apparatus. Fifteen isolates of filamentous fungi were tested in the current study. One milliliter suspension containing 200 third stage larvae of Trichostrongylidae family was separately added to the fungal cultures in 2% water-agar medium Petri-dishes. Every day the live larvae were counted with light microscope (10X) and the number of captured larvae was recorded on different days. Results: Significant differences were observed in the results of co-culture of nematodes larva and fungi after seven days. The most effective fungi against the nematodes larvae were Cladosporium sp., Trichoderma sp., Fusarium equisetti, after seven days of incubation. Conclusions: The studies on fungi could be applied as suitable tools in biocontrol of nematode infections. However, additional surveys are required to select efficient with the ability to reduce the nematode larvae in the environment. PMID:25893084

  4. A matter of timing: early, not chronic phase intestinal nematode infection restrains control of a concurrent enteric protozoan infection.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Sebastian; Held, Josephin; Stange, Joerg; Lendner, Matthias; Hepworth, Matthew R; Klotz, Christian; Lucius, Richard; Pogonka, Thomas; Hartmann, Susanne

    2010-10-01

    Infections with parasitic worms are often long lasting and associated with modulated immune responses. We analyzed the influence of the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri dwelling in the small intestine on concurrent protozoan infection with Eimeria falciformis residing in the cecum. To dissect the effects of a nematode infection in the early versus chronic phase, we infected animals with E. falciformis 6 or 28 days post H. p. bakeri infection. Only a concurrent early nematode infection led to an increased replication of the protozoan parasite, whereas a chronic worm infection had no influence on the control of E. falciformis. Increased protozoan replication correlated with the reduced production of IFN-γ, IL-12/23, CCL4, CXCL9 and CXCL10, reduced migration of T cells and increased expression of Foxp3 at the site of protozoan infection. This was accompanied by a stronger nematode-specific Th2 response in gut-draining LN. Protection of mice against challenge infections with the protozoan parasite was not altered. Hence, the detrimental effect of a nematode infection on the control of a concurrent protozoan infection is transient and occurs only in the narrow time window of the early phase of infection.

  5. In vivo anthelmintic activity of an aqueous extract from sisal waste (Agave sisalana Perr.) against gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.

    PubMed

    Botura, M B; Silva, G D; Lima, H G; Oliveira, J V A; Souza, T S; Santos, J D G; Branco, A; Moreira, E L T; Almeida, M A O; Batatinha, M J M

    2011-04-19

    The resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) of small ruminants to anthelmintics has required the investigation of new alternatives. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of an aqueous extract from sisal waste (Agave sisalana) (AESW) against GINs in goats and to observe the animals for toxic effects. Thirty animals that were naturally infected with GINs were distributed into three groups: group I, was treated with daily doses of AESW (1.7 g/kg) for eight days; Group II, the positive control, was treated with a single dose of levamisole phosphate (6.3mg/kg); and group III, the negative control, was left untreated. Faecal eggs counts (FECs), coprocultures and post-mortem worm counts were performed to assess the efficacy of the treatments. Clinical and laboratory analyses were performed to evaluate any toxic effects associated with the treatment. In the goats in groups I and II, a significant reduction (p<0.05) of the number of eggs and infective larvae (L(3)) was observed. The maximum reductions of the FECs were 50.3% and 93.6% for groups I and II, respectively, whereas the percent reductions of the total number of L(3) larvae were 80% (group I) and 85.6% (group II). There was no difference between groups I and III with respect to worm burden, and the percent reductions were 28.8% and 63.4% for Oesophagostomum columbianum and Trichostrongylus colubriformis, respectively. No reduction was detected for the Haemonchus contortus. The positive control group demonstrated a 74% reduction of the parasites that were recovered from the digestive tract. There were no changes in clinical and haematological parameters. The levels of serum urea and creatinine were higher in group I, but remained within the normal range. At necropsy, pale mucous membranes, abomasitis and enteritis were associated with parasitism. In addition, a histological analysis of the liver and kidney did not reveal any changes suggestive of toxicity. A chemical

  6. Impact of integrated gastrointestinal nematode management training for U.S. goat and sheep producers.

    PubMed

    Whitley, N C; Oh, S-H; Lee, S J; Schoenian, S; Kaplan, R M; Storey, B; Terrill, T H; Mobini, S; Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Perdue, M A

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of integrated parasite management (IPM) training, including FAMACHA(©) eyelid color scoring, on the ability of U.S. sheep and goat producers to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) on their farms. A survey was developed and provided to over 2000 producers trained from 2004 to 2008 in IPM with questions involving farm size (number of sheep/goats), location (U.S. state), impact of training on parasite control efforts and parasite problems on farm, and IPM practices used. Responses were divided into U.S. Census regions of the U.S. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to describe results. Most of the 729 respondents were from the southern region of the U.S. (54.3%) and were small-scale producers (50 or less animals; 64.8%). Nearly all of the respondents (95.1%) agreed that IPM workshop attendance made a difference in their ability to control and monitor parasitism in their herd or flock and employed IPM practices to control GIN (96.3%). The most popular practices respondents used were rotational grazing (71.2%), genetic selection (choosing a parasite resistant breed and/or culling susceptible animals; 52.7%), grain supplementation on pasture to improve nutrition (44.0%), and increased height of plants being grazed (41.8%). Although reporting using a practice decreased (P<0.05) the likelihood of reporting fewer problems, for each 1-point increase in the number of practices which producers employed to control internal parasitism in their herd or flock, they were 16% more likely to report fewer GIN problems (P<0.05). Approximately 75% of respondents indicated an economic benefit of IPM on their farm (P<0.05), and those reporting savings of over $80 were more likely to report fewer problems (P<0.05) with parasites after the training while those reporting no economic benefit were less likely to report fewer problems with GIN (P<0.001). Overall, IPM training resulted in positive impacts for

  7. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium in the biological control of gastrointestinal nematodes in female bovines bred in the semiarid region.

    PubMed

    Silva, Manoel Eduardo da; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Borges, Luana Alcântara; Oliveira, Jair Mendes de; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi; Araújo, Jackson Victor de

    2014-06-01

    Brazil has a herd of 212 million cattle and 171 million hectares of pastures that produce approximately 96 % of Brazilian beef. The Brazilian production system enables animal infection by endoparasites, which are considered one of the main obstacles for the development of this industry and are responsible for considerable economic losses. The control of parasitic diseases is performed via the administration of antiparasitic drugs, but they leave residues of the products in the treated animal, affect non-target organisms and select resistant strains of the parasites. The species D. flagrans and M. thaumasium are promising and sustainable alternatives for controlling gastrointestinal helminths of ruminants and other herbivores. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of isolates of these species, formulated in a sodium alginate matrix and administered twice a week, to reduce the number of environmental infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes that affect prepubescent zebu females. The treated animals presented fewer eggs and a lower number of infective larvae per gram of faeces (p < 0.05). The pastures occupied by treated animals showed a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) of the number of L3 and, furthermore, the genera Cooperia sp., Haemonchus sp., and Oesophagostomum sp. were the most prevalent. The average weight of the animals did not differ statistically (p > 0.05) among the treated and control groups. The use of sodium alginate pellets as vehicle for delivery of the fungus mycelia D. flagrans (isolate AC001) and M. thaumasium (isolate NF34A) proved effective in controlling trichostrongylids in prepubescent cows bred in the semi-arid region, with an effective reduction in the number of infective larvae in the pastures.

  8. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Wolken, Sonja; Ianiello, Davide; Rinaldi, Laura; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Cringoli, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g). A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg) and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many different post

  9. Crystal structure of a nematode-infecting virus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yusong R.; Hryc, Corey F.; Jakana, Joanita; Jiang, Hongbing; Wang, David; Chiu, Wah; Zhong, Weiwei; Tao, Yizhi J.

    2014-01-01

    Orsay, the first virus discovered to naturally infect Caenorhabditis elegans or any nematode, has a bipartite, positive-sense RNA genome. Sequence analyses show that Orsay is related to nodaviruses, but molecular characterizations of Orsay reveal several unique features, such as the expression of a capsid–δ fusion protein and the use of an ATG-independent mechanism for translation initiation. Here we report the crystal structure of an Orsay virus-like particle assembled from recombinant capsid protein (CP). Orsay capsid has a T = 3 icosahedral symmetry with 60 trimeric surface spikes. Each CP can be divided into three regions: an N-terminal arm that forms an extended protein interaction network at the capsid interior, an S domain with a jelly-roll, β-barrel fold forming the continuous capsid, and a P domain that forms surface spike projections. The structure of the Orsay S domain is best aligned to T = 3 plant RNA viruses but exhibits substantial differences compared with the insect-infecting alphanodaviruses, which also lack the P domain in their CPs. The Orsay P domain is remotely related to the P1 domain in calicivirus and hepatitis E virus, suggesting a possible evolutionary relationship. Removing the N-terminal arm produced a slightly expanded capsid with fewer nucleic acids packaged, suggesting that the arm is important for capsid stability and genome packaging. Because C. elegans-Orsay serves as a highly tractable model for studying viral pathogenesis, our results should provide a valuable structural framework for further studies of Orsay replication and infection. PMID:25136116

  10. Interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasite infection in wild bovids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, I explored the interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasitism in wild bovids by examining temporal patterns of nematode faecal egg shedding in species with different diet types during a drought and non-drought year. Study species included three grass and roughage feeders (buffalo, hartebeest, waterbuck), four mixed or intermediate feeders (eland, Grant's gazelle, impala, Thomson's gazelle) and two concentrate selectors (dik-dik, klipspringer). Six out of the nine focal species had higher mean faecal egg counts in the drought year compared to the normal year, and over the course of the dry year, monthly faecal egg counts were correlated with drought intensity in four species with low-quality diets, but no such relationship was found for species with high-quality diets. Comparisons of dietary crude protein and faecal egg count in impala showed that during the dry season, individuals with high faecal egg counts (???1550 eggs/g of faeces) had significantly lower crude protein levels than individuals with low (0-500 eggs/g) or moderate (550-1500 eggs/g) egg counts. These results suggest that under drought conditions, species unable to maintain adequate nutrition, mainly low-quality feeders, are less able to cope with gastrointestinal parasite infections. In particular, during dry periods, reduced protein intake seems to be associated with declining resilience and resistance to infection. ?? 2003 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Moxidectin Treatment at Peripartum on Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections in Ewes Raised under Tropical Andes High Altitude Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Duarte, J. J.; Lozano-Márquez, H.; Grajales-Lombana, H. A.; Manrique-Perdomo, C.; Martínez-Bello, D. A.; Saegerman, C.; Raes, M.; Kirschvink, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the impact of moxidectin at peripartum on nematode fecal egg count (FEC) and clinical parameters on ewes in the high altitude tropical Andes of Colombia. FEC and clinical evaluations were performed on 9 occasions in 43 naturally infected ewes before and during gestation and after lambing. Moxidectin (Mox, 200 µg kg−1) was applied at late pregnancy (T1, n = 15) or 48 hours after parturition (T2, n = 14). 14 untreated ewes served as controls (C). Suckling lambs (n = 58) remained untreated and underwent four clinical and parasitological evaluations until 8 weeks after birth. Mox efficacy equaled 99.3% (T1) and 96.9% (T2). Highest mean FEC value reflecting periparturient nematode egg rise (PPER) was recorded in C ewes at 4–6 weeks after lambing. Significant FEC reductions were found in T1 (94.8%) and T2 (96.7%) ewes (p < 0.05). All lambs showed a significant and ewes-group independent increase in FEC before weaning (p < 0.05). Clinical parameters (anemia and diarrhea) showed time- and treatment-related differences (p < 0.05). Monitoring of FEC and clinical parameters linked to gastrointestinal parasite infections allowed demonstrating that postpartum or preweaning are two critical periods to nematode infection for sheep raised under tropical Andes high altitude conditions. Use of Mox as anthelmintic treatment prevented PPER. PMID:26078913

  12. Age-related prevalence, intensity and frequency distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infection in urban slum children from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bundy, D A; Kan, S P; Rose, R

    1988-01-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth infection status of 1574 children living in a slum area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was assessed by quantitative coprology. Almost two-thirds were infected with Trichuris trichiura, 49.6% with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 5.3% with hookworm. Infection prevalence rose rapidly to a stable asymptote at 7 years of age, and the age-intensity profile was convex with maximal values in the 5-10 year age classes. This pattern was the same for males and females, but differed markedly between different ethnic groups. The frequency distributions of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly overdispersed (k values were 0.21 and 0.27, respectively), and age-dependent over the 0-8 year age classes. This suggests that the force of infection with these nematodes is lower in infants than in older children.

  13. Wastewater quality and the risk of intestinal nematode infection in sewage farming families in Hyderabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Ensink, Jeroen H.J.; Blumenthal, Ursula J.; Brooker, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The use of sewage or wastewater in agriculture is becoming increasingly common as a result of global water scarcity. Intestinal nematode infections have been identified as the main health risk associated with this practise. To protect consumer and farmer health the WHO has set an intestinal nematode water quality standard. However because of a lack of well designed studies the validity of this guideline is questioned. This paper presents the findings of a study on the risk of intestinal nematode infections in farming families occupationally exposed to untreated and partially treated wastewater in Hyderabad, India. The study found an increased risk of hookworm (OR: 3.5, 95% CI 2.2-5.5), Ascaris lumbricoides (OR: 5.3, 95% CI: 2.0-14) and Trichuris trichiura (OR: 5.6, 95% CI: 1.8-18) infection when untreated wastewater (150 intestinal nematode ova/L) was used for crop production. The use of partially treated wastewater (28 intestinal nematode ova/L) was only associated with an increased risk (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-8.6) of Ascaris lumbricoides infection. The findings of the study suggest that the current WHO intestinal nematode guideline of 1 ova/L is sufficient to protect farmer health. PMID:18840745

  14. A survey of the gastrointestinal nematodes of Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a high mountain habitat.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Jesús M; Granados, José E; Pérez, M Carmen; Márquez, Francisco J; Ferroglio, Ezio; Rossi, Luca

    2003-04-01

    We analyzed the content of the abomasum (n = 79) and small intestine (n = 83) of Spanish ibex from Sierra Nevada Natural Park, southern Spain. Fifteen species of trichostrongylid nematodes were identified, 4 of which were found for the first time in this host, i.e., Nematodirus fillicollis, N. oiratianus, Ostertagia lyrata, and O. ostertagi. Teladorsagia circumcincta and Marshallagia marshalli were the most abundant abomasal species, whereas N. abnormalis, N. davtiani, and N. oiratianus were dominant in the small intestine. Counts of both abomasal and intestinal nematodes were generally low (year-round-median = 292 and 94 worms, respectively), and significantly lower numbers of M. marshalli, N. davtiani, and N. oiratianus were found in summer. No sex-related differences in helminth abundance were found, but young ibex harbored significantly more N. davtiani and N. oiratianus than adults. The presence of scabies was not related to increased nematode counts.

  15. A 12-month survey of gastrointestinal helminth infections of lemurs kept in two zoos in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Junge, Randall E

    2010-12-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasites may be a major threat to lemurs kept in captivity, as they are a common cause of diarrhea. In this study, fecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastrointestinal nematodes were assessed for 12 mo in 40 lemurs kept under different husbandry and climatic conditions at two sites in Madagascar. Involved species were black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), eastern grey bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur griseus), greater bamboo lemurs (Prolemur simus), red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer), common brown lemurs (Eulemurfulvus), crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus), and Sclater's black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons). At site 1 (Tsimbazaza Zoological Park), lemurs were kept in small enclosures with daily cleaning of the cement soiling and without routine anthelmintic program, whereas at site 2 (Ivoloina Zoological Park), lemurs received routine anthelmintic prophylaxis and were housed in small enclosure with daily cleaning of sandy soil enclosures. A total of five genera of nematode eggs from the orders Strongylida, Oxyurida, and Enoplida were recovered and identified from 198 out of 240 samples (83%) at site 1 and 79% (189 out of 240) at site 2 with the use of a modified McMaster technique. Significant differences were found for parasites from the order Strongylida between the two sites. The differences may be due to climate conditions and the presumed life cycle of these parasites. No significant differences were found for parasites from the other orders. No significant differences were noted between sexes or between seasons. No clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis were seen in either lemur collection.

  16. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats.

    PubMed

    Kommuru, D S; Barker, T; Desai, S; Burke, J M; Ramsay, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Kamisetti, N; Terrill, T H

    2014-08-29

    Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects of internal parasites, including gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) but there have been no reports of the effects of feeding this forage on Eimeria spp. in goats. Two confinement feeding experiments were completed on recently-weaned intact bucks (24 Kiko-cross, Exp. 1; 20 Spanish, Exp. 2) to determine effects of SL pellets on an established infection of GIN and coccidia. The bucks were assigned to 1 of 2 (Exp. 1) or 3 (Exp. 2) treatment groups based upon the number of Eimeria spp. oocysts per gram (OPG) of feces. In Exp. 1, the kids were fed 1 of 2 pelleted rations ad libitum; 90% SL leaf meal+10% of a liquid molasses/lignin binder mix and a commercial pellet with 12% crude protein (CP) and 24% acid detergent fiber (n=12/treatment group, 2 animals/pen). For Exp. 2, treatment groups were fed (1) 90% SL leaf meal pellets from leaves stored 3 years (n=7), (2) 90% SL pellets from leaf meal stored less than 6 months, (n=7), and the commercial pellets (n=6) ad libitum. For both trials, fecal and blood samples were taken from individual animals every 7 days for 28 days to determine OPG and GIN eggs per gram (EPG) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. In Exp. 2, feces were scored for consistency (1=solid pellets, 5=slurry) as an indicator of coccidiosis. In Exp. 1, EPG (P<0.001) and OPG (P<0.01) were reduced by 78.7% and 96.9%, respectively, 7 days after initiation of feeding in goats on the SL pellet diet compared with animals fed the control pellets. The OPG and EPG remained lower in treatment than control animals until the end of the trial. In Exp. 2, goats fed new and old SL leaf meal pellets had 66.2% and 79.2% lower (P<0.05) EPG and 92.2% and 91.2% lower (P<0.05) OPG

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Alfalfa Cultivars Infected With Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Postnikova, Olga A.; Hult, Maria; Shao, Jonathan; Skantar, Andrea; Nemchinov, Lev G.

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69) and susceptible (cv. Lahontan) alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with respect to resistance

  18. Increased response to cadmium and Bacillus thuringiensis maize toxicity in the snail Helix aspersa infected by the nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita.

    PubMed

    Kramarz, Paulina E; de Vaufleury, Annette; Zygmunt, Piotr M S; Verdun, Cyrille

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effect of nematode infection on the response of snails to selected toxins, we infected Helix aspersa with 0-, 0.25-, 1-, or 4-fold the recommended field dose of a commercial nematode application for agricultural use. In the first experiment, the snails also were exposed to cadmium via food and soil at concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 120, or 240 mg/kg in a full-factorial design. In the second experiment, snails were infected with nematodes and also fed either Bt (expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) maize or non-Bt maize. The snails were weighed at the beginning and end (after four weeks) of the experiments, and mortality was checked daily. Neither exposure of snails to nematodes nor exposure of snails to cadmium or Bt toxin affected the survival rates of snails. The number of dead snails was highest for combinations of nematode treatments with cadmium concentrations of 120 and 240 mg/kg. In both experiments (Bt and cadmium), the growth rate decreased with increasing nematode dose. The Bt maize was not harmful to the snails in the absence of nematodes, but infected snails grew faster when fed non-Bt maize. The growth rate of snails exposed to cadmium decreased with exposure to increasing Cd concentrations and differed significantly between the no-nematode treatment and the treatments with nematode doses of one- and fourfold the recommended field dose. Snails treated with the highest dose of nematodes accumulated the highest cadmium concentrations.

  19. Nematode-associated intramural alimentary nodules in pumas are histologically similar to gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia of domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Eckstrand, C D; Barr, B C; Woods, L W; Spangler, T; Murphy, B

    2013-05-01

    Intramural alimentary nodules in the gastric pylorus and proximal duodenum are a common finding in free-ranging pumas (Puma concolor) in North America, and are often associated with the presence of an indwelling nematode (most commonly Cylicospirura spp.). This study compares the histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical appearance of three proximal gastrointestinal nodules in pumas with four cases of eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia in domestic cats. Histologically, the pattern of inflammation and repair was strikingly similar, consisting of lamillated anastomosing trabeculae of dense sclerotic collagen with interspersed inflammatory cells and reactive fibroblasts. The stromal trabeculae were histologically reminiscent of osteoid and were uniformly positive for collagenous protein by Masson's trichrome stain and negative for mineralized osteoid deposits with Von Kossa's stain. Trabecular cells expressed osteonectin, but not osteocalcin immunohistochemically. Collectively, these findings are most consistent with a stroma comprised of dense collagenous trabeculae that resembles, but is distinct, from osteoid. Both the puma and domestic cat lesions demonstrated an eosinophilic inflammatory component; however, eosinophils were present in small numbers in the puma nodules relative to the nodules in domestic cats. These entities likely represent a unique and stereotypic gastrointestinal repair response of felids, given their similar histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical profiles.

  20. In vivo effect of selected medicinal plants against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mawahib; Laing, Mark D; Nsahlai, Ignatius V

    2014-02-01

    Nematode resistance to anthelmintic drugs affects small ruminant production globally. This study evaluated in vivo effects of five plant extracts as alternative nematode treatments. Animals were divided into six groups. Each group was randomly assigned a treatment: Abamectin and Praziquantel (CAP) (positive Control), ethanol extracts of Ananas comosus (AC), Aloe ferox (AF), Allium sativum (AS), Lespedeza cuneata (LC) and Warburgia salutaris (WS). These were applied as an oral dose (100 mg kg(-1) BW), one dose per week per sheep for 42 days (Phase 1). From day 42 sheep were orally dosed for 3 consecutive days with the same treatments in the same groups (Phase 2). Rectal faecal samples were taken every 7 days up to day 63. Eggs per gram of faeces were counted in individual rectal samples, L3 larval stage was counted in faecal cultures, with four replicates per group. For plant extracts, EPG decreased (P < 0.001) with time and efficacy of plant increased (P < 0.001) with time. Ananas comosus and L. cuneata treatments had the highest efficacies of 58% and 61%, respectively, in Phase 1; and 77% and 81%, respectively, in Phase 2. Continuous treatment with these plants could further reduce nematode parasites and improve host health.

  1. Effects of a novel entomopathogenic nematode-infected host formulation on cadaver integrity, nematode yield, and suppression of Diaprepes abbreviatus and Aethina tumida.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, Maria G; Tedders, Walker L

    2010-02-01

    An alternative approach to applying entomopathogenic nematodes entails the distribution of nematodes in their infected insect hosts. Protection of the infected host from rupturing, and improving ease of handling, may be necessary to facilitate application. In this study our objective was to test the potential of a new method of formulating the infected hosts, i.e., enclosing the infected host in masking tape. Tenebrio molitor L. cadavers infected with Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David or Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) were wrapped in tape using an automatic packaging machine; the machine was developed to reduce labor and to standardize the final product. The effects of the tape formulation on the ability to protect the cadavers from mechanical damage, nematode yield, and pest control efficacy were tested. After exposure to mechanical agitation at 7-d-post-infection, S. carpocapsae cadavers in tape were more resistant to rupture than cadavers without tape, yet H. indica cadavers 7-d-post-infection were not affected by mechanical agitation (with or without tape), nor was either nematode affected when 4-d-old cadavers were tested. Experiments indicated that infective juvenile yield was not affected by the tape formulation. Laboratory experiments were conducted measuring survival of the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), or the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray, after the application of two H. indica-infected hosts with or without tape per 15 cm pot (filled with soil). A greenhouse experiment was also conducted in a similar manner measuring survival of D. abbreviatus. In all experiments, both the tape and no-tape treatments caused significant reductions in insect survival relative to the control, and no differences were detected between the nematode treatments. Fifteen days post-application, the infected host treatments caused up to 78% control in A. tumida, 91% control in D. abbreviatus in the lab, and 75% in the greenhouse. These

  2. Effects of farm management practices and environmental factors on bulk tank milk antibodies against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy farms across Canada.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Dohoo, Ian; Sanchez, Javier; Conboy, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been used as a diagnostic tool to quantify levels of gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cattle by measuring Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in milk. Higher levels of O. ostertagi antibodies measured by ELISA methods, referred to as optical density ratios (ODRs), are associated with decreased milk production in dairy cattle. On-farm management practices (e.g. pasturing techniques and anthelmintic usage) can influence the exposure of cattle to nematode infections and the magnitude of acquired worm burdens. Additionally, environmental and climatic factors, such as land elevation and precipitation, may also influence the levels of gastrointestinal parasitism. This repeated cross-sectional study investigated the effect of farm management practices and surrounding environmental factors on bulk tank (BT) ODRs in herds from provinces across Canada, and further examined the potential effects of various anthelmintic treatment protocols on BT ODRs. A total of 195 herds contributed an average of 3.5 BT samples between December 2003 and April 2005. The farm management practices were recorded from a questionnaire asking producers about their pasturing methods (confined, pastured, etc.), pasture sharing practices (e.g. mixing heifers with milking cows) and anthelmintic treatments. Environmental data were downloaded online from various governmental databases (e.g. Natural Resources Canada, Statistics Canada, Environment Canada, etc.). Statistical models, accounting for repeated measures (multiple BT ODRs for each farm) and for clustering of farms within a region (province or ecoregion), were used to analyze environmental and farm management data. Overall, the greater the exposure that heifers and milking cows had to pasture, the higher the levels of anti-parasite antibodies detected in BT samples. Treating the entire herd or treating milking cows at calving reduced BT ODR values. Farms in areas with higher number of rainy days

  3. Bronchopulmonary nematode infection of Capra pyrenaica in the Sierra Nevada massif, Spain.

    PubMed

    Alasaad, S; Morrondo, P; Dacal-Rivas, V; Soriguer, R C; Granados, J E; Serrano, E; Zhu, X Q; Rossi, L; Pérez, J M

    2009-10-14

    The present investigation examined the prevalence and abundance of bronchopulmonary nematodes in 213 randomly hunted Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica) (87 females and 126 males) in the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Spain between 2003 and 2006. Post mortem examination revealed an overall prevalence of 72% for adult nematodes (Cystocaulus ocreatus 44%, Muellerius capillaris 44%, Protostrongylus sp. 40%, and Dictyocaulus filaria 4%). The abundances were 13.45+/-3.97, 5.18+/-2.49, 6.36+/-2.16, and 2.27+/-0.46, respectively. Protostrongylid adults showed similar infection rates, which were statistically different from that of D. filaria. 20% of the examined Iberian ibexes were infected by three protostrongylid nematodes species, 24% of C. pyrenaica were affected by two protostrongylid species, while infestations with only one protostrongylid species were detected in 20% of the examined animals. The overall prevalence of larvae nematodes in the examined animals was 100%, and the overall abundance (number of the first stage larvae per gram) was 86.45+/-20.63. There was a high correlation between the two sets of data (adults and larvae). Results of the present investigation provided foundation for the effective control of bronchopulmonary nematode infection in Iberian ibex. PMID:19596519

  4. Bronchopulmonary nematode infection of Capra pyrenaica in the Sierra Nevada massif, Spain.

    PubMed

    Alasaad, S; Morrondo, P; Dacal-Rivas, V; Soriguer, R C; Granados, J E; Serrano, E; Zhu, X Q; Rossi, L; Pérez, J M

    2009-10-14

    The present investigation examined the prevalence and abundance of bronchopulmonary nematodes in 213 randomly hunted Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica) (87 females and 126 males) in the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Spain between 2003 and 2006. Post mortem examination revealed an overall prevalence of 72% for adult nematodes (Cystocaulus ocreatus 44%, Muellerius capillaris 44%, Protostrongylus sp. 40%, and Dictyocaulus filaria 4%). The abundances were 13.45+/-3.97, 5.18+/-2.49, 6.36+/-2.16, and 2.27+/-0.46, respectively. Protostrongylid adults showed similar infection rates, which were statistically different from that of D. filaria. 20% of the examined Iberian ibexes were infected by three protostrongylid nematodes species, 24% of C. pyrenaica were affected by two protostrongylid species, while infestations with only one protostrongylid species were detected in 20% of the examined animals. The overall prevalence of larvae nematodes in the examined animals was 100%, and the overall abundance (number of the first stage larvae per gram) was 86.45+/-20.63. There was a high correlation between the two sets of data (adults and larvae). Results of the present investigation provided foundation for the effective control of bronchopulmonary nematode infection in Iberian ibex.

  5. Establishment of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in free-range chickens: a longitudinal on farm study.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Daş, Gürbüz; Moors, Eva; Sohnrey, Birgit; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor establishment and development of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in chickens over two production years (PY) on a free-range farm in Lower Saxony, Germany. The data were collected between July 2010 and June 2011 (PY1) and July 2011 and January 2013 (PY2), respectively. During PY1, Lohmann Brown classic (LB classic, N = 450) was tested, while in PY2 two different genotypes (230 LB classic, 230 LB plus) were used. The hens were kept in two mobile stalls that were moved to a new position at regular intervals. In both PY1 and PY2, 20 individual faecal samples per stall were randomly collected at monthly intervals in order to calculate the number of internal parasite eggs per gram of faeces (EPG). At the end of the laying periods, approximately 10% (N = 42) or more than 50% (N = 265) of hens were subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations in PY1 and PY2, respectively. No parasite eggs were found in the faecal samples during PY1, whereas almost all of the hens (97.6%) were infected with Heterakis gallinarum (36 worms/hen) at the end of the period. In PY2, nematode eggs in faeces were found from the third month onwards at a low level, increasing considerably towards the final three months. There was no significant difference between the two genotypes of brown hens neither for EPG (P = 0.456) or for overall prevalence (P = 0.177). Mortality rate ranged from 18.3 to 27.4% but did not differ significantly between genotypes or production years. Average worm burden was 207 worms/hen in PY2. The most prevalent species were H. gallinarum (98.5%) followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Furthermore, three Capillaria species, C. obsignata, C. bursata and C. caudinflata were differentiated. In conclusion chickens kept on free-range farms are exposed to high risks of nematode infections and have high mortality rates with no obvious link to parasite infections. Once the farm environment is contaminated

  6. Trichuris muris: a model of gastrointestinal parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Klementowicz, Joanna E; Travis, Mark A; Grencis, Richard K

    2012-11-01

    Infection with soil-transmitted gastrointestinal parasites, such as Trichuris trichiura, affects more than a billion people worldwide, causing significant morbidity and health problems especially in poverty-stricken developing countries. Despite extensive research, the role of the immune system in triggering parasite expulsion is incompletely understood which hinders the development of anti-parasite therapies. Trichuris muris infection in mice serves as a useful model of T. trichiura infection in humans and has proven to be an invaluable tool in increasing our understanding of the role of the immune system in promoting either susceptibility or resistance to infection. The old paradigm of a susceptibility-associated Th1 versus a resistance-associated Th2-type response has been supplemented in recent years with cell populations such as novel innate lymphoid cells, basophils, dendritic cells and regulatory T cells proposed to play an active role in responses to T. muris infection. Moreover, new immune-controlled mechanisms of expulsion, such as increased epithelial cell turnover and mucin secretion, have been described in recent years increasing the number of possible targets for anti-parasite therapies. In this review, we give a comprehensive overview of experimental work conducted on the T. muris infection model, focusing on important findings and the most recent reports on the role of the immune system in parasite expulsion.

  7. First description of gastrointestinal nematodes of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia): the case of Camelostrongylus mentulatus as a paradigm of phylogenic and specific relationship between the parasite and its ancient host.

    PubMed

    Mayo, E; Ortiz, J; Martínez-Carrasco, C; Garijo, M M; Espeso, G; Hervías, S; Ruiz de Ybáñez, M R

    2013-09-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth fauna of 24 Barbary sheep or Aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) maintained in the Parque de Rescate de la Fauna Sahariana (PRFS, CSIC, Almeria, Spain) was analyzed. Most animals (87.5 %) were parasitized, and multiple infections were highly present. The following species were identified: Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Marshallagia marshalli, Ostertagia ostertagi, O. leptospicularis, O. lyrata, Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia trifurcata, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, T. colubriformis, T. probolorus, T. capricola, Nematodirus spathiger, N. abnormalis, N. filicollis, N. helvetianus, Trichuris spp. and Skrjabinema ovis. Teladorsagia circumcincta was the most prevalent nematode in abomasum (52.6 %) followed by C. mentulatus (50 %). However, this latter nematode had the greater mean intensity and abundance. In the small intestine, T. colubriformis and T. vitrinus had the highest prevalence (36.4 %); the last one showed also the greater mean intensity and abundance. It should be emphasized the presence of Skrjabinema ovis (prevalence 39.1 %) in the large intestine, showing the greater mean abundance and intensity, although with a low values. Camelostrongylus mentulatus could be the most primitive nematode of the family trichostrongylidae recovered in this study; attending to its high prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity, the possible specificity between this parasite and the Aoudad is discussed.

  8. Ruminant self-medication against gastrointestinal nematodes: evidence, mechanism, and origins☆

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Juan J.; Miller, James; Ungar, Eugene D.; Landau, Serge Y.; Glendinning, John

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths challenge ruminants in ways that reduce their fitness. In turn, ruminants have evolved physiological and behavioral adaptations that counteract this challenge. Ruminants display anorexia and avoidance behaviors, which tend to reduce the incidence of parasitism. In addition, ruminants appear to learn to self-medicate against gastrointestinal parasites by increasing consumption of plant secondary compounds with antiparasitic actions. This selective feeding improves health and fitness. Here, we review the evidence for self-medication in ruminants, propose a hypothesis to explain self-medicative behaviors (based on post-ingestive consequences), and discuss mechanisms (e.g., enhanced neophilia, social transmission) that may underlie the ontogeny and spread of self-medicative behaviors in social groups. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and trigger self-medication in parasitized animals will help scientists devise innovative and more sustainable management strategies for improving ruminant health and well-being. PMID:24971486

  9. Mechanized Packing and Delivery System for Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Infected Mealworm Cadavers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document describes a mechanized system to pack mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes between two sheets of masking tape. The document is also an operation manual for the machine and provides all the machine specifications, and wiring and pneumatic diagram...

  10. Potato transformation and potato cyst nematode infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    These two protocols describe the methods for generating transgenic potato plants and for evaluating potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture. These methods are useful tools that can be used in the study of the interactions between ...

  11. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection. PMID:25736976

  12. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection.

  13. First report of a mermithid nematode infecting the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stubbins, F L; Agudelo, P; Reay-Jones, F P F; Greene, J K

    2015-05-01

    Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) has become a pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.), in the United States. While several natural enemies of M. cribraria have been reported, our study is the first to report nematodes beneath the pleural membranes in the abdominal cavities of adults. Morphological and molecular analyses suggest this nematode belongs to the family Mermithidae. This first report of a nematode infection in M. cribraria adds to the current inventory of enemies attacking this insect. Our observations provide a basis for future research to examine the impact of nematodes on M. cribraria mortality and to investigate their capacity to reduce populations. PMID:25731127

  14. Activity of luxabendazole against liver flukes, gastrointestinal roundworms, and lungworms in naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Kassai, T; Takáts, C; Fok, E; Redl, P

    1988-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of luxabendazole was investigated in sheep harboring mixed naturally acquired helminth infections. Results were assessed by comparing worm counts of the treated groups (seven animals each) on days 7-8 posttreatment with those of the nontreated control group, except for protostrongylid lungworms, for which the changes in pre- and posttreatment group mean larval counts/g feces were assessed for intensity effect. A single oral treatment at doses of 10.0 or 12.5 mg/kg body wt removed 97.6% of the adult Fasciola hepatica and 63.2%-83.8% of the Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Luxabendazole at 7.5, 10.0, and 12.5 mg/kg proved 100% effective in removing adult worms of the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Nematodirus as well as tissue-associated larval stages of gastrointestinal nematodes of the abomasal mucosa. The drug showed an intensity effect of 79.7%-87.6% against Strongyloides papillosus. Luxabendazole removed all Dictyocaulus filaria and reduced the fecal excretion of larvae of protostrongylid species (Protostrongylus rufescens, Neostrongylus linearis, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Muellerius capillaris) by 97.8%-99.6%. The efficacy of luxabendazole compared favorably with that of Diplin Kombi (oxyclozanide and levamisole), which was used as a reference drug.

  15. Treatment of soil-transmitted nematode infections in children with mebendazole.

    PubMed

    Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T; Sabcharoen, A; Attanath, P; Panasoponkul, C; Radomyos, P

    1978-02-01

    Treatment of soil-transmitted nematodes with mebendazole was carried out in 137 children aged 6--15 years in Thailand. There were 100 cases of hookworm infection, 37 of ascariasis, 16 of trichuriasis and 32 of strongyloidiasis. Mebendazole was given at 100 mg twice daily for three consecutive days irrespective of age or weight. The reduction rates as seen by mean egg counts four weeks after treatment were 94.9% for hookworm infection, 100% for ascariasis and 93.9% for trichuriasis; the reduction rates of the mean larval count in 15 cases of strongyloidiasis was 82.1%. No side-effects were observed. Mebendazole was thus confirmed as effective and safe in the treatment of soil-transmitted nematode infections in children in Thailand.

  16. Field evaluations of the efficacy and safety of Emodepside plus toltrazuril (Procox® oral suspension for dogs) against naturally acquired nematode and Isospora spp. infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Altreuther, Gertraut; Gasda, Nadine; Adler, Kerstin; Hellmann, Klaus; Thurieau, Heloise; Schimmel, Annette; Hutchens, Douglas; Krieger, Klemens J

    2011-08-01

    Three controlled, blinded and randomised multicentre field studies evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new formulation containing emodepside plus toltrazuril (Procox® suspension for dogs) against naturally acquired parasite infections in dogs. In two studies dogs positive for gastrointestinal nematodes and/or Isospora spp. were treated with emodepside/toltrazuril suspension (at least 0.45 mg emodepside plus 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight) or a reference product containing either milbemycin oxime plus praziquantel (Milbemax®) or sulfadimethoxine (Kokzidiol SD®) at recommended dose rates. The third study investigated efficacy against prepatent natural Isospora spp. infections in comparison to an untreated control group by enrolling Isospora- negative dogs that were at risk to develop a patent infection during the study.No suspected adverse drug reactions were observed in any of the 403 dogs enrolled in the three studies including 234 dogs treated with emodepside/toltrazuril suspension. In dogs treated with emodepside/toltrazuril suspension against nematode infection faecal egg counts were reduced by 100 % (reference product: 99.7 %). Similarly, in the dogs that had been treated against patent Isospora spp. infection, faecal oocyst counts were reduced by 100 % (reference product: 99.0 %). In both studies, statistical analysis demonstrated non-inferiority and even superiority to the reference products (p ≤ 0.009). Dogs treated with emodepside/toltrazuril suspension during suspected prepatent Isospora spp. infection had 98.7 % lower faecal oocyst counts after treatment compared to untreated dogs (p < 0.0001).The studies demonstrated that emodepside/toltrazuril suspension is safe and highly efficacious against nematodes and Isospora spp. under field conditions. PMID:21739372

  17. [Recent findings on the genetics of gastro-intestinal nematode resistance in ruminants].

    PubMed

    Carta, A; Scala, A

    2004-06-01

    The control of helminthiases in ruminants raised in open pasture has been mainly undertaken by using prophylactic measures in the environment, but these are often inadequate due to incorrect application. With the appearance of anthelmintics, the strategy for controlling these parasitoses, passed to pharmacological treatments which became effective in reducing their impact. However, the frequent and incorrect utilisation of these molecules resulted in resistance to anthelmintics and the presence of chemical residues in animal products for human consumption. Anthelmintic resistance is widespread throughout the world, heterogeneous and probably underestimated. This has encouraged the introduction of homeopathic agents and products derived from plants whose effectiveness has not been scientifically assessed. It is well known that it is possible to detect differences in resistance to the most important parasites between breeds. In Europe, it has been reported that some ovine autochthonous breeds, Scottish Blackface and Lacaune, showed higher resistance. The implementation of breeding strategies aimed at obtaining animals with naturally low susceptibility to nematode infestations could therefore play an increasingly important role. Standard animal breeding techniques have been largely successful in improving the performance of domestic animals in the last century. Standard quantitative selection requires field data on: i) individual phenotype performance; ii) expected covariance among animals due to blood relationship between them. The whole process of predicting the breeding value of animals in order to select subsequently the genetically superior parents of the next generation is entirely based on sophisticated computations (BLUP-animal model). In sheep, the main objective is always selecting for milk yield and sometimes, in addition, milk composition. However, due to the evolution of the EU agricultural policy and consumer demand in terms of healthy and organic food

  18. [Recent findings on the genetics of gastro-intestinal nematode resistance in ruminants].

    PubMed

    Carta, A; Scala, A

    2004-06-01

    The control of helminthiases in ruminants raised in open pasture has been mainly undertaken by using prophylactic measures in the environment, but these are often inadequate due to incorrect application. With the appearance of anthelmintics, the strategy for controlling these parasitoses, passed to pharmacological treatments which became effective in reducing their impact. However, the frequent and incorrect utilisation of these molecules resulted in resistance to anthelmintics and the presence of chemical residues in animal products for human consumption. Anthelmintic resistance is widespread throughout the world, heterogeneous and probably underestimated. This has encouraged the introduction of homeopathic agents and products derived from plants whose effectiveness has not been scientifically assessed. It is well known that it is possible to detect differences in resistance to the most important parasites between breeds. In Europe, it has been reported that some ovine autochthonous breeds, Scottish Blackface and Lacaune, showed higher resistance. The implementation of breeding strategies aimed at obtaining animals with naturally low susceptibility to nematode infestations could therefore play an increasingly important role. Standard animal breeding techniques have been largely successful in improving the performance of domestic animals in the last century. Standard quantitative selection requires field data on: i) individual phenotype performance; ii) expected covariance among animals due to blood relationship between them. The whole process of predicting the breeding value of animals in order to select subsequently the genetically superior parents of the next generation is entirely based on sophisticated computations (BLUP-animal model). In sheep, the main objective is always selecting for milk yield and sometimes, in addition, milk composition. However, due to the evolution of the EU agricultural policy and consumer demand in terms of healthy and organic food

  19. Fighting while parasitized: can nematode infections affect the outcome of staged combat in beetles?

    PubMed

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals.

  20. Fighting while Parasitized: Can Nematode Infections Affect the Outcome of Staged Combat in Beetles?

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals. PMID:25830367

  1. Anthelmintic resistance on goat farms in Georgia: efficacy of anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematodes in two selected goat herds.

    PubMed

    Terrill, T H; Kaplan, R M; Larsen, M; Samples, O M; Miller, J E; Gelaye, S

    2001-06-28

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism is a major constraint to production of goats in the southeastern United States. The conventional method of control used by producers in this region is frequent use of anthelmintics during the warm season. Overuse of anthelmintics has led to an increase in the incidence of anthelmintic resistance in many parts of the world, but data on prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in GIN of goats in the southeastern United States are very limited. To address this issue, anthelmintic efficacy was determined in goat herds at the Fort Valley State University, Agricultural Research Station (FVSU-ARS) and the University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine (UGA-CVM) using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests and DrenchRite((R)) larval development assays (LDA). At FVSU-ARS, 2-year-old Spanish goat does were randomly allocated to one of nine different treatment groups (n = 10): albendazole (ABZ; 20mg/kg body weight (BW)), fenbendazole (FBZ; 20mg/kg BW), ivermectin (IVM; 0.4 mg/kg BW), doramectin (DRM; 0.4 mg/kg BW), moxidectin (MOX; 0.4 mg/kg BW), levamisole (LEV; 12 mg/kg BW), morantel tartrate (MOR; 10mg/kg BW), a combination of IVM (0.4 mg/kg BW) and ABZ (20 mg/kg BW), and untreated controls. At UGA-CVM, goats were randomly allocated to one of five different treatment groups (n = 8): ABZ (20 mg/kg BW), IVM (0.4 mg/kg BW), MOX (0.4 mg/kg BW), LEV (12 mg/kg BW), and untreated controls. All drugs in both experiments were administered orally. Anthelmintic efficacy was calculated by comparing 14-day post-treatment FEC of treated and control animals, and percent reductions were interpreted using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology guidelines for resistance. For the LDA, nematode eggs were isolated from pooled fecal samples of untreated control goats in each herd and used to perform DrenchRite((R)) assays. In the FVSU-ARS herd, MOX, LEV, the combination of IVM and ABZ, IVM, DRM, ABZ, MOR, and FBZ

  2. Root vs pod infection by root-knot nematodes on aflatoxin contamination of peanut.

    PubMed

    Timper, P; Holbrook, C; Wilson, D

    2007-01-01

    Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens produced by some Aspergillus spp. Infection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria) can lead to an increase in aflatoxin contamination of kernels when the plants are subjected to drought stress during pod maturation. It is not clear whether the increased aflatoxin contamination is primarily due to greater invasion of the galled pods by toxigenic Aspergillus spp. or whether root galling is also involved. Our objective was to determine the contribution of root and pod galling caused by root-knot nematodes to the increase in aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted in which pods and roots were physically separated. Pod set was restricted to soil-filled pans (41 cm dia. x 10 cm depth), while the roots grew underneath the pan into a pot. The experiments had a factorial arrangement of treatments: pod zone with and without nematodes, and root zone with and without nematodes. In Experiment 1, 5000 eggs of M. arenaria were added to the root zone14 days after planting (DAP) and 8000 eggs were added to the pod zone 60 and 80 DAP. In Experiment 2, 3000 eggs were added to the root zone 30 DAP and 8000 eggs were added to the pod zone every week starting 60 DAP. The four treatment combinations were replicated 10 to 13 times. Conidia of Aspergillus flavus/A. parasiticus was added to the soil surface (pods zone) at mid bloom. Plants were subjected to drought stress 40 days before harvest. In Experiment 1, adding nematodes to the pod zone had no effect on aflatoxin concentrations in the peanut kernel. However, the lack of an effect may have been to due to the low occurrence of galling on the hulls. In pots where nematodes were added to the root zone, 50 to 80% of the root system was galled. Adding nematodes to the root zone increased aflatoxin concentrations in the peanut kernels from 34 ppb in the control to 71 ppb. In Experiment 2, there was heavy pod galling with galls present

  3. Role of macrophages in the altered epithelial function during a type 2 immune response induced by enteric nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Notari, Luigi; Riera, Diana C; Sun, Rex; Bohl, Jennifer A; McLean, Leon P; Madden, Kathleen B; van Rooijen, Nico; Vanuytsel, Tim; Urban, Joseph F; Zhao, Aiping; Shea-Donohue, Terez

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic enteric nematodes induce a type 2 immune response characterized by increased production of Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, and recruitment of alternatively activated macrophages (M2) to the site of infection. Nematode infection is associated with changes in epithelial permeability and inhibition of sodium-linked glucose absorption, but the role of M2 in these effects is unknown. Clodronate-containing liposomes were administered prior to and during nematode infection to deplete macrophages and prevent the development of M2 in response to infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The inhibition of epithelial glucose absorption that is associated with nematode infection involved a macrophage-dependent reduction in SGLT1 activity, with no change in receptor expression, and a macrophage-independent down-regulation of GLUT2 expression. The reduced transport of glucose into the enterocyte is compensated partially by an up-regulation of the constitutive GLUT1 transporter consistent with stress-induced activation of HIF-1α. Thus, nematode infection results in a "lean" epithelial phenotype that features decreased SGLT1 activity, decreased expression of GLUT2 and an emergent dependence on GLUT1 for glucose uptake into the enterocyte. Macrophages do not play a role in enteric nematode infection-induced changes in epithelial barrier function. There is a greater contribution, however, of paracellular absorption of glucose to supply the energy demands of host resistance. These data provide further evidence of the ability of macrophages to alter glucose metabolism of neighboring cells.

  4. A simple and efficient protocol for the treatment of zebrafish colonies infected with parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Maley, David; Laird, Angela S; Rinkwitz, Silke; Becker, Thomas S

    2013-09-01

    Abstract Our zebrafish colony experienced a period of increased mortality rate of 6.5 times more deaths per month in a colony of over 13,000 zebrafish (Danio rerio), which developed over 3 months. We observed that before death, affected fish appeared emaciated, often with an abdominal bulge. We performed dissection on 18 fish that had this appearance and found in 15 that their gut was infected with a nematode that closely resembled Pseudocapillaria tomentosa. We devised a treatment protocol for this nematode infection, which involved addition of fenbendazole, a drug used to treat nematode infections in cattle and sheep, to the fish feed. Fenbendazole produced no severe side effects in the fish and several treatments have effectively eradicated the parasite from our colony. The mortality rate of our fish has decreased to a value of 0.7%/month (p<0.001, equal to that before the infection). We propose this protocol as an inexpensive alternative to having to rederive an entire colony from bleached eggs, and as a prophylactic measure used in quarantine facilities on a regular basis.

  5. Natural and Experimental Infection of Caenorhabditis Nematodes by Novel Viruses Related to Nodaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guang; Nuez, Isabelle; Bélicard, Tony; Jiang, Yanfang; Zhao, Guoyan; Franz, Carl J.; Goldstein, Leonard D.; Sanroman, Mabel; Miska, Eric A.; Wang, David

    2011-01-01

    An ideal model system to study antiviral immunity and host-pathogen co-evolution would combine a genetically tractable small animal with a virus capable of naturally infecting the host organism. The use of C. elegans as a model to define host-viral interactions has been limited by the lack of viruses known to infect nematodes. From wild isolates of C. elegans and C. briggsae with unusual morphological phenotypes in intestinal cells, we identified two novel RNA viruses distantly related to known nodaviruses, one infecting specifically C. elegans (Orsay virus), the other C. briggsae (Santeuil virus). Bleaching of embryos cured infected cultures demonstrating that the viruses are neither stably integrated in the host genome nor transmitted vertically. 0.2 µm filtrates of the infected cultures could infect cured animals. Infected animals continuously maintained viral infection for 6 mo (∼50 generations), demonstrating that natural cycles of horizontal virus transmission were faithfully recapitulated in laboratory culture. In addition to infecting the natural C. elegans isolate, Orsay virus readily infected laboratory C. elegans mutants defective in RNAi and yielded higher levels of viral RNA and infection symptoms as compared to infection of the corresponding wild-type N2 strain. These results demonstrated a clear role for RNAi in the defense against this virus. Furthermore, different wild C. elegans isolates displayed differential susceptibility to infection by Orsay virus, thereby affording genetic approaches to defining antiviral loci. This discovery establishes a bona fide viral infection system to explore the natural ecology of nematodes, host-pathogen co-evolution, the evolution of small RNA responses, and innate antiviral mechanisms. PMID:21283608

  6. Natural and experimental infection of Caenorhabditis nematodes by novel viruses related to nodaviruses.

    PubMed

    Félix, Marie-Anne; Ashe, Alyson; Piffaretti, Joséphine; Wu, Guang; Nuez, Isabelle; Bélicard, Tony; Jiang, Yanfang; Zhao, Guoyan; Franz, Carl J; Goldstein, Leonard D; Sanroman, Mabel; Miska, Eric A; Wang, David

    2011-01-25

    An ideal model system to study antiviral immunity and host-pathogen co-evolution would combine a genetically tractable small animal with a virus capable of naturally infecting the host organism. The use of C. elegans as a model to define host-viral interactions has been limited by the lack of viruses known to infect nematodes. From wild isolates of C. elegans and C. briggsae with unusual morphological phenotypes in intestinal cells, we identified two novel RNA viruses distantly related to known nodaviruses, one infecting specifically C. elegans (Orsay virus), the other C. briggsae (Santeuil virus). Bleaching of embryos cured infected cultures demonstrating that the viruses are neither stably integrated in the host genome nor transmitted vertically. 0.2 µm filtrates of the infected cultures could infect cured animals. Infected animals continuously maintained viral infection for 6 mo (∼50 generations), demonstrating that natural cycles of horizontal virus transmission were faithfully recapitulated in laboratory culture. In addition to infecting the natural C. elegans isolate, Orsay virus readily infected laboratory C. elegans mutants defective in RNAi and yielded higher levels of viral RNA and infection symptoms as compared to infection of the corresponding wild-type N2 strain. These results demonstrated a clear role for RNAi in the defense against this virus. Furthermore, different wild C. elegans isolates displayed differential susceptibility to infection by Orsay virus, thereby affording genetic approaches to defining antiviral loci. This discovery establishes a bona fide viral infection system to explore the natural ecology of nematodes, host-pathogen co-evolution, the evolution of small RNA responses, and innate antiviral mechanisms.

  7. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Danilo Cavalcanti; de Lima, Hélimar Gonçalves; Vaz, Ariádne Vieira; Santos, Nathália Silva; Santos, Francianne Oliveira; Dias, Êuder Reis; Botura, Mariana Borges; Branco, Alexsandro; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2016-08-15

    This study examined the in vitro effect of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The ovicidal activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CE), its partitioned hexane (HE) and aqueous extract (AE) and saponins fraction (SF), including betulinic acid (BA), a biogenetic compound from this plant found in HE, were investigated using the inhibition of egg hatch assay (EHA). Thereafter, the extracts and the SF were evaluated through the larval motility assay (LMA) and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The AE and SF promoted a complete inhibition of the egg hatch, and the effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) values was 1.9 and 1.3mg/mL, respectively. The highest percentages of inhibition in EHA observed after treatments with CE, HE and BA corresponded to 79, 48 and 17%, respectively. The extracts and SF did not show larvicidal activity in LMA and LMIA. The AE and SF demonstrated cytotoxic effects in 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl, 2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue tests; however, SF was more toxic (50% inhibitory concentration, IC50=0.20mg/mL). The chemical characterization of the SF was made through Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses, which led to the identification of two saponins known as Joazeiroside B and Lotoside A. The results obtained from the research of this saponin content provide important information about the biological activity, especially the anthelmintic effect present in the plant investigated. That also suggests the types of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for this antiparasitic activity exhibited by the plant extracts.

  8. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Danilo Cavalcanti; de Lima, Hélimar Gonçalves; Vaz, Ariádne Vieira; Santos, Nathália Silva; Santos, Francianne Oliveira; Dias, Êuder Reis; Botura, Mariana Borges; Branco, Alexsandro; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2016-08-15

    This study examined the in vitro effect of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The ovicidal activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CE), its partitioned hexane (HE) and aqueous extract (AE) and saponins fraction (SF), including betulinic acid (BA), a biogenetic compound from this plant found in HE, were investigated using the inhibition of egg hatch assay (EHA). Thereafter, the extracts and the SF were evaluated through the larval motility assay (LMA) and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The AE and SF promoted a complete inhibition of the egg hatch, and the effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) values was 1.9 and 1.3mg/mL, respectively. The highest percentages of inhibition in EHA observed after treatments with CE, HE and BA corresponded to 79, 48 and 17%, respectively. The extracts and SF did not show larvicidal activity in LMA and LMIA. The AE and SF demonstrated cytotoxic effects in 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl, 2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue tests; however, SF was more toxic (50% inhibitory concentration, IC50=0.20mg/mL). The chemical characterization of the SF was made through Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses, which led to the identification of two saponins known as Joazeiroside B and Lotoside A. The results obtained from the research of this saponin content provide important information about the biological activity, especially the anthelmintic effect present in the plant investigated. That also suggests the types of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for this antiparasitic activity exhibited by the plant extracts. PMID:27514875

  9. Infection behavior of the rhabditid nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita to the grey garden slug Deroceras reticulatum.

    PubMed

    Tan, L; Grewal, P S

    2001-12-01

    Infection behavior of the rhabditid nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita to the grey garden slug Deroceras reticulatum was studied. The dauer (enduring or nonaging) juveniles of P. hermaphrodita invade D. reticulatum within 8-16 hr following external exposure, with the posterior mantle region containing the shell cavity serving as the main portal of entry. The dauer juveniles can recover, multiply, and produce new dauer juveniles in the slug and slug feces homogenates, but not in the soil extract. These results demonstrate that P. hermaphrodita is a facultative parasite of the slug and can complete its life cycle under nonparasitic conditions associated with the host. Although the juvenile and adult nematodes can kill the slug if injected into the shell cavity of the host, only the dauer juvenile can serve as an infective stage in the natural environment.

  10. Observations on the Foliar Nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, Infecting Tuberose and Rice in India.

    PubMed

    Khan, Matiyar R; Handoo, Zafar A; Rao, Uma; Rao, S B; Prasad, J S

    2012-12-01

    The foliar nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi causes white tip disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and floral malady in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). This nematode is widely distributed in the rice fields of many states of India, including West Bengal (WB), Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) and Gujarat (GT). In order to generate information on intraspecific variations of A. besseyi as well as to confirm the identity of the nematode species infecting these important crops, morphological observation was undertaken of A. besseyi isolated from tuberose and rice from WB and rice from AP, MP and GT. The molecular study was only done for rice and tuberose populations from AP and WB. The variations were observed among the populations in the tail, esophageal and anterior regions, including the occurrence of four as well as six lateral lines in the lateral fields. The morphometrics of observed populations showed variations and those could be regarded as a consequence of host-induced or geographical variations. PCR amplification of the rDNA ITS 1 and 2 region of rice (AP) and tuberose (WB) populations of A. besseyi generated one fragment of approximately 830 bp, and the size of the ITS region was 788 bp and 791 bp for tuberose and rice population, respectively. Alignment of the two sequences showed almost 100% similarity. Blast analysis revealed a very high level of similarity of both the Indian strains to a Russian population. The Indian and Russian strains could be differentiated using restriction enzyme Bccl. Host tests revealed that rice (cv. IET 4094), oat (cv. OS-6) and teosinte (cv. TL-1) showed a typical distortion due to the infection of A. besseyi. Five germplasm lines of oat showed no infection of the nematode under field conditions. Local cultivars of onion, maize, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, and Sorghum halepense were also not infected by A. besseyi.

  11. Observations on the Foliar Nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, Infecting Tuberose and Rice in India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Matiyar R.; Handoo, Zafar A.; Rao, Uma; Rao, S. B.; Prasad, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    The foliar nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi causes white tip disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and floral malady in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). This nematode is widely distributed in the rice fields of many states of India, including West Bengal (WB), Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) and Gujarat (GT). In order to generate information on intraspecific variations of A. besseyi as well as to confirm the identity of the nematode species infecting these important crops, morphological observation was undertaken of A. besseyi isolated from tuberose and rice from WB and rice from AP, MP and GT. The molecular study was only done for rice and tuberose populations from AP and WB. The variations were observed among the populations in the tail, esophageal and anterior regions, including the occurrence of four as well as six lateral lines in the lateral fields. The morphometrics of observed populations showed variations and those could be regarded as a consequence of host-induced or geographical variations. PCR amplification of the rDNA ITS 1 and 2 region of rice (AP) and tuberose (WB) populations of A. besseyi generated one fragment of approximately 830 bp, and the size of the ITS region was 788 bp and 791 bp for tuberose and rice population, respectively. Alignment of the two sequences showed almost 100% similarity. Blast analysis revealed a very high level of similarity of both the Indian strains to a Russian population. The Indian and Russian strains could be differentiated using restriction enzyme Bccl. Host tests revealed that rice (cv. IET 4094), oat (cv. OS-6) and teosinte (cv. TL-1) showed a typical distortion due to the infection of A. besseyi. Five germplasm lines of oat showed no infection of the nematode under field conditions. Local cultivars of onion, maize, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, and Sorghum halepense were also not infected by A. besseyi. PMID:23482906

  12. Relationship between the successful infection by entomopathogenic nematodes and the host immune response.

    PubMed

    Li, X-Y; Cowles, R S; Cowles, E A; Gaugler, R; Cox-Foster, D L

    2007-03-01

    Reproduction of entomopathogenic nematodes requires that they escape recognition by a host's immune system or that they have mechanisms to escape encapsulation and melanization. We investigated the immune responses of larvae for the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella), tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica), northern masked chafer (Cyclocephala borealis), oriental beetle (Exomala orientalis) and adult house crickets (Acheta domesticus), challenged with infective juveniles from different species and strains of entomopathogenic nematodes. The in vivo immune responses of hosts were correlated with nematode specificity and survival found by infection assays. In P. japonica, 45% of injected infective juveniles from Steinernema glaseri NC strain survived; whereas the hemocytes from the beetle strongly encapsulated and melanized the Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 strain, S. glaseri FL strain, Steinernema scarabaei and Steinernema feltiae. Overall, H. bacteriophora was intensively melanized in resistant insect species (E. orientalis, P. japonica and C. borealis) and had the least ability to escape the host immune response. Steinernema glaseri NC strain suppressed the immune responses in susceptible hosts (M. sexta, E. orientalis and P. japonica), whereas S. glaseri FL strain was less successful. Using an in vitro assay, we found that hemocytes from G. mellonella, P. japonica, M. sexta and A. domestica recognized both nematode species quickly. However, many S. glaseri in M. sexta and H. bacteriophora in G. mellonella escaped from hemocyte encapsulation by 24h. These data indicate that, while host recognition underlies some of the differences between resistant and susceptible host species, escape from encapsulation following recognition can also allow successful infection. Co-injected surface-coat proteins from S. glaseri did not protect H. bacteriophora in M. sexta but did protect H. bacteriophora in E. orientalis larva; therefore

  13. Induction of ulcerative colitis in mice influences the course of infection with the nematode Trichuris muris.

    PubMed

    Vegas-Sánchez, M C; Rollán-Landeras, E; García-Rodríguez, J J; Bolás-Fernández, F

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of infection with the nematode whipworm Trichuris muris on the course of chemically induced acute ulcerative colitis in CBA/J mice, a strain proven to be highly resistant to infection with T. muris. Each mouse was infected with 50 embryonated eggs of T. muris by oral gavage. Acute colitis was triggered by administering 4% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for nine consecutive days at different times after infection. Concurrent infection and DSS administration exacerbate the severity of the colitis while favouring the permanence of parasites in the intestine. The induction of ulcerative colitis from days 54 to 62 post-infection (p.i.), when all worms had been expelled, ameliorated the course of the inflammatory disease. When ulcerative colitis was triggered earlier on, from days 27 to 35 p.i., the beneficial effects on inflammatory events were clearly shown with signs of mucosal epithelization and regeneration as early as day 1 after DSS administration. Previous infections by T. muris therefore accelerate recovery from subsequently induced inflammatory bowel disease and such an effect assists the nematode to persist in the intestinal niche.

  14. The Dynamics, Prevalence and Impact of Nematode Infections in Organically Raised Sheep in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Å; Ljungström, B-L; Nilsson, O; Waller, PJ

    2001-01-01

    A three-year survey (1997–99) was carried out on organically reared sheep flocks throughout Sweden. The aim was to determine the prevalence and intensity of nematode infections and to establish relationships between sheep management practices and parasite infections. Faecal samples from ewes and lambs were collected from 152 organic flocks around lambing-time and during the grazing-period for analysis. Results were compared with the different management practices that farmers use to prevent parasitism in their flocks. A high proportion of the flocks was infected with nematodes. The most prevalent species were Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumeincta, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis and Chabertia ovina and infections progressively increased during summer in lambs grazing on permanent pastures. Severity of parasitic infection in lambs was highly dependent on egg output from the ewes. H. contortus was found in 37% of the flocks, even at latitudes approximating the Polar Circle. Nematodirus battus was recorded for the first time in Sweden during the course of this study. Lambs turned out onto permanent pasture showed higher nematode faecal egg counts (epg) than lambs that had grazed on pastures, which had not carried sheep the previous year. This beneficial effect of lambs grazing non-infected pastures persisted if the ewes were treated with an anthelmintic before turn-out and if the lambs were kept on pastures of low infectivity after weaning. In lambs, the prevalence and the magnitude of their egg counts were higher during autumn in flocks where lambs were slaughtered after 8 months of age, compared with flocks where all lambs were slaughtered before this age. These results will be used in providing advice to farmers of ways to modify their flock management in order to minimise the use of anthelmintics, but at the same time efficiently produce prime lambs. PMID:11887398

  15. Relation between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms and syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstock, S; Kay, L; Rosenstock, C; Andersen, L; Bonnevie, O; Jorgensen, T

    1997-01-01

    Background—Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen that colonises the gastric mucosa and causes permanent gastric inflammation. 
Aims—To assess the symptoms of H pylori infection in an adult unselected population. 
Subjects—A random sample of 3589 adult Danes who were examined in 1982 and 1987 (n=2987). 
Methods—Abdominal symptoms within the preceding year were recorded at both attendances. Circulating IgG antibodies against H pylori in serum samples drawn in 1982 were measured by using in-house indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). 
Results—People with increased levels of IgG antibodies to H pylori were more likely than uninfected individuals to report heartburn (odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.54) and abdominal pain characterised by daily length (OR= 1.33, 95% CI 0.92-1.91), nocturnal occurrence (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.19-2.19), spring aggravation (OR = 1.68, 95% CI 0.70-4.05), and no relation to meals (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.43-0.91) or stress (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.95). The inclusion of people with increased levels of IgG antibodies to H pylori, but without upper dyspepsia, at study entry significantly increased the likelihood of reporting upper dyspepsia at follow up (OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.24-2.36). People with epigastric pain and increased levels of IgM antibodies to H pylori only indicative of acute H pylori infection were more likely to report nocturnal pain, heartburn, nausea, and vomiting. 
Conclusions—H pylori infection may precede the development of dyspepsia and is associated with a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms in people with no history of peptic ulcer disease. 

 Keywords: epidemiology; Helicobacter pylori; non-ulcer dyspepsia; symptomatology; upper dyspepsia PMID:9301494

  16. Two closely related members of Arabidopsis 13-LOXs, LOX3 and LOX4, reveal distinct functions in response to plantparasitic nematode infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses of two closely related members of Arabidopsis 13-lipoxygenase (13-LOX), LOX3 and LOX4, to infection by the sedentary nematodes root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) and cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) were analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings. Tissue localization of LO...

  17. Diversity, Host Specialization, and Geographic Structure of Filarial Nematodes Infecting Malagasy Bats.

    PubMed

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dellagi, Koussay; Lagadec, Erwan; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Goodman, Steven M; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae); a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae) embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae), Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae), and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae). We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors.

  18. [Survey on human soil-borne nematode infection in Xining City].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sheng-Hu; Han, Xiu-Min; Lei, Wen

    2013-02-01

    Five fields were selected from Xining City by stratified cluster sampling method for the survey. 4589 people above 3 years old were examined for nematode infections using Kato-Katz method and children under 12 years old were detected for pinworm infection using transparent tape method from June to August in 2011. The results showed that the total nematode infection rate was 3.0% (136/4 589) with the highest of 3.8% (123/3284) in rural area. The major species was Ascaris lumbricoides, and the infection rate in 15-20 age group was 1.5% (4/264), which was significantly lower than that of the age groups of 60-70 (6.9%, 23/335), above 70 (5.3%, 6/114) and of 10-15 (5.1%, 19/372)(P<0.05). The prevalence of A. lumbricoides among the preschool children (9.5%, 12/127) was statistically higher than those in other occupation groups (P<0.05), and the infection rate showed no statistical significance by gender, ethnic and degree of education (P>0.05). Pinworm infection in children under 12 years old was only 0.5% (2/437). PMID:24812844

  19. In vitro infection of sheep lice (Bovicola ovis Schrank) by Steinernematid and Heterorhabditid nematodes.

    PubMed

    James, P J; Hook, S E; Pepper, P M

    2010-11-24

    Control of sheep lice with conventional pesticides can be compromised by difficulty in contacting lice in the dense water repellent fleeces of sheep, particularly when sheep have not been recently shorn. Entomopathogenic nematodes (ENs) are motile and are able to actively seek out insect hosts. They have particular advantages for the control of pests in cryptic habitats, such as the fleeces of sheep and avoid many of the problems frequently associated with chemical controls. This study investigated whether ENs were able infect and kill Bovicola ovis and compared the effectiveness of different species at different temperatures and when applied to wool. Four species of nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema riobrave, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were tested. All were shown to infect and kill lice in Petri dish assays at 30°C. At 35°C, the percent infection for S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave was significantly higher than for the other two species and percent infection by S. feltiae was significantly greater than for H. bacteriophora (P<0.05). At 37°C the percent mortality induced by S. riobrave was significantly greater than for S. carpocapsae (P<0.05). All species were able to locate and infect lice in wool when formulated in water with 8% Tween 80. In wool assays the percent lice infected with nematodes was significantly greater for S. riobrave than H. bacteriophora at 25°C, but there were no other differences between species (P=0.05). S. carpocapsae, S. riobrave and S. feltiae caused significantly higher lice mortality than H. bacteriophora at both 25 and 35°C in wool assays, but mortality induced by the three steinernematid species did not differ significantly (P>0.05). It is concluded that of the ENs studied S. riobrave is likely to be most effective against B. ovis when applied to live sheep because of its greater tolerance to high temperatures and 'cruiser' foraging strategy. PMID:20800970

  20. A sampling of factors relative to the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of cattle in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yazwinski, Thomas A; Tucker, Chris A

    2006-11-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodosis of cattle is a parasitic condition resulting from an immense and seemingly forever-expanding array of factors. Countless determinants influence the incidence and severity of the species-specific infections that occur in cattle, determinants that affect the free-living or environmental stages of the parasites and the parasitic stages. The vast majority of animals have a subclinical or economic level of parasitism undetectable to the eye but quantified more accurately by treatment-induced improved performance (e.g., feed efficiency, nitrogen balance, weight gain, milk production). Unfortunately, the results of treatment (effectiveness and improved animal performance) sometimes can be as varied as the parasitisms that are being treated. PMID:17071350

  1. Impact of drainage and sewerage on intestinal nematode infections in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, L R S; Cancio, Jacira Azevedo; Cairncross, Sandy

    2004-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1989 among children aged between 5 and 14 years old living in nine poor urban areas of the city of Salvador (pop. 2.44 million), capital of Bahia State, in Northeast Brazil. Three of these areas had benefited from both drainage and sewerage, 3 from improved drainage only, and 3 from neither. The children studied thus belonged to 3 exposure groups regarding their level of sanitation infrastructure. An extensive questionnaire was applied to collect information on each child and on the conditions of the household, and stool examinations of the children 5-14 years old were performed to measure nematode infection. Comparison of the sewerage group with the drainage-only group and the latter with the control (no sewerage or drainage) group showed that, when the level of community sanitation was better, the prevalence of infection among children was less, but risk factors identified for infection were more numerous and more significant. Intensity of infection with Trichuris, but not with Ascaris or hookworm, was also less. The results suggest that sewerage and drainage can have a significant effect on intestinal nematode infections, by reducing transmission occurring in the public domain.

  2. Nematode larvae infecting Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 (Pisces: Teleostei) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuraiem, Bianca P; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza N; Gomes, Delir C; Clemente, Sérgio C São

    2016-05-31

    From July to December, 2013, thirty Priacanthus arenatus specimens commercialized in the cities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were acquired. The fish were necropsied and filleted to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Twenty fish (66.7%) out of the total were parasitized by nematode larvae. A total of 2024 larvae were collected; among them, 30 third-instar larvae of Anisakis sp. showed prevalence (P) = 20%, mean abundance (MA) = 1, and the mean intensity (MI) = 5, and infection sites (IS) = caecum, stomach, liver, and mesentery; and 1,994 third-instar larvae (1,757 encysted and 237 free) of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum with P = 66.7%, MA = 66.5, and MI = 99.7, and IS = spleen, caecum, stomach, liver, mesentery, and abdominal muscle. This is the first study to report H. deardorffoverstreetorum and Anisakis sp. larvae parasitizing P. arenatus.

  3. Ice-Active Substances from the Infective Juveniles of the Freeze Tolerant Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema feltiae.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farman; Wharton, David A

    2016-01-01

    Steinernema feltiae is a moderately freezing tolerant nematode, that can withstand intracellular ice formation. We investigated recrystallization inhibition, thermal hysteresis and ice nucleation activities in the infective juveniles of S. feltiae. Both the splat cooling assay and optical recrystallometry indicate the presence of ice active substances that inhibit recrystallization in the nematode extract. The substance is relatively heat stable and largely retains the recrystallization inhibition activity after heating. No thermal hysteresis activity was detected but the extract had a typical hexagonal crystal shape when grown from a single seed crystal and weak ice nucleation activity. An ice active substance is present in a low concentration, which may be involved in the freezing survival of this species by inhibiting ice recrystallization. PMID:27227961

  4. Ice-Active Substances from the Infective Juveniles of the Freeze Tolerant Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema feltiae

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Farman; Wharton, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Steinernema feltiae is a moderately freezing tolerant nematode, that can withstand intracellular ice formation. We investigated recrystallization inhibition, thermal hysteresis and ice nucleation activities in the infective juveniles of S. feltiae. Both the splat cooling assay and optical recrystallometry indicate the presence of ice active substances that inhibit recrystallization in the nematode extract. The substance is relatively heat stable and largely retains the recrystallization inhibition activity after heating. No thermal hysteresis activity was detected but the extract had a typical hexagonal crystal shape when grown from a single seed crystal and weak ice nucleation activity. An ice active substance is present in a low concentration, which may be involved in the freezing survival of this species by inhibiting ice recrystallization. PMID:27227961

  5. Systemic Suppression of the Shoot Metabolism upon Rice Root Nematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kyndt, Tina; Denil, Simon; Bauters, Lander; Van Criekinge, Wim; De Meyer, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Hirschmanniella oryzae is the most common plant-parasitic nematode in flooded rice cultivation systems. These migratory animals penetrate the plant roots and feed on the root cells, creating large cavities, extensive root necrosis and rotting. The objective of this study was to investigate the systemic response of the rice plant upon root infection by this nematode. RNA sequencing was applied on the above-ground parts of the rice plants at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. The data revealed significant modifications in the primary metabolism of the plant shoot, with a general suppression of for instance chlorophyll biosynthesis, the brassinosteroid pathway, and amino acid production. In the secondary metabolism, we detected a repression of the isoprenoid and shikimate pathways. These molecular changes can have dramatic consequences for the growth and yield of the rice plants, and could potentially change their susceptibility to above-ground pathogens and pests. PMID:25216177

  6. Nematode larvae infecting Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 (Pisces: Teleostei) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuraiem, Bianca P; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza N; Gomes, Delir C; Clemente, Sérgio C São

    2016-05-31

    From July to December, 2013, thirty Priacanthus arenatus specimens commercialized in the cities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were acquired. The fish were necropsied and filleted to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Twenty fish (66.7%) out of the total were parasitized by nematode larvae. A total of 2024 larvae were collected; among them, 30 third-instar larvae of Anisakis sp. showed prevalence (P) = 20%, mean abundance (MA) = 1, and the mean intensity (MI) = 5, and infection sites (IS) = caecum, stomach, liver, and mesentery; and 1,994 third-instar larvae (1,757 encysted and 237 free) of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum with P = 66.7%, MA = 66.5, and MI = 99.7, and IS = spleen, caecum, stomach, liver, mesentery, and abdominal muscle. This is the first study to report H. deardorffoverstreetorum and Anisakis sp. larvae parasitizing P. arenatus. PMID:27254444

  7. New approach for the strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes in grazed beef cattle during the growing phase in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heckler, R P; Borges, D G L; Vieira, M C; Conde, M H; Green, M; Amorim, M L; Echeverria, J T; Oliveira, T L; Moro, E; Van Onselen, V J; Borges, F A

    2016-05-15

    We evaluated the effect of different treatment protocols against gastrointestinal nematodes in Nelore beef cattle during the growing phase in the municipality of Terenos, MS, in central Brazil from May 2013 to April 2014 and from May 2014 to April 2015. Ninety-six Nelore calves were kept on Brachiaria brizantha grass during each trial period and were distributed into six experimental groups (replicate paddocks for each group) based on live weight and the number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG): T1 (control)-treated in May, July and September with a saline solution; T2-treated in May and November with 700 μg/kg doramectin; T3-treated in May (doramectin), July (4.7 mg/kg levamisole phosphate) and September (doramectin); T4-treated in May (doramectin), July (200 μg/kg moxidectin) and September (doramectin); T5-treated in May (doramectin), August (levamisole phosphate) and November (doramectin) and T6-treated in May (doramectin), August (moxidectin) and November (doramectin). The calves were weighed and feces were collected (for faecal culture and EPG counts) from calves every 28 days, concomitantly with the collection of forage samples. The efficacies of doramectin, moxidectin and levamisole were low, at 69.2, 65.9 and 69.4% in the first and 13.8, 92.6, and 76.5% in the second experimental periods, respectively, but only the untreated animals lost weight during the dry season. Final weight gains did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among the animals in T2 (120.8 kg), T3 (131.4 kg), T4 (131.2 kg) and T5 (134.4 kg). T6 was the only group with a significantly higher final weight gain (140.9 kg) compared to the protocol with two annual dosages (T2). The weight gain was 31.9% higher in T6 than in the untreated animals (T1). None of the protocols affected the number of larvae on the pasture. Body weight was significantly and negatively (r=-0.65) correlated with EPG counts, which were significantly lower in June (T2, T3, T4 and T6), August (T3), September (T5 and T6

  8. A revised method of examining fish for infection with zoonotic nematode larvae.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Suthar, Jaydipbhai

    2016-06-16

    The infection of fish with zoonotic nematodes, particularly anisakid nematodes is of great interest to many researchers who study food safety, human or animal health or who use them as biological tags for stock assessment studies. Accurate examination of fish for infection with anisakid larvae is crucial in making accurate estimates of their occurrence, abundance and prevalence in their fish hosts. Here we describe a new method of examining fish for infection with these parasites. In 2015, a total of 261 fish were purchased from a fish market in New South Wales, Australia. All fish were first examined by routine visual examination for infection with zoonotic nematode larvae and all data were recorded. Subsequently all internal organs were placed in a container and filled with water and incubated in the room temperature overnight. The prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of anisakids were significantly higher (p<0.05) when the revised method of examination, i.e., combining visual examination and overnight incubation in room temperature, was employed (63.98, 8.23 and 5.27, respectively) compared to routine visual examination with or without the aid of a microscope (8.81, 3.78 and 0.33, respectively). The proposed method is effective and has several advantages, such as: not using UV or HCl for fish examination, allowing the examination of a larger number of fish in shorter time; larval specimens collected being suitable for both morphological and DNA sequencing; and being simple and inexpensive. The disadvantages would be the odour of the specimens after overnight incubation as well as not being suitable for use with frozen fish. We suggest that results, conclusions or recommendations made in studies that claim no anisakid/ascaridoid larvae were found in a fish should be approached carefully if it is only based on visual examination of the fish.

  9. Lactic dehydrogenase virus infection enhances parasite egg production and inhibits eosinophil and mast cell responses in mice infected with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, M; Yamada, M; Arizono, N; Hayashi, T

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lactic dehydrogenase virus (LDV) infection on the protective immune responses to the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were studied. Mice with chronic LDV infection showed significantly higher levels of parasite egg production than non-LDV-infected (control) mice after N. brasiliensis infection. Concurrent LDV infection also suppressed peripheral blood eosinophilia and the lung mastocytosis induced by this nematode. LDV infection showed higher expression levels of the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA in lymph nodes compared with control mice before N. brasiliensis infection. In addition, the IgG2a production in LDV-infected mice was higher than that in control mice before and after N. brasiliensis infection. These results suggest that LDV infection modulates protective immune responses against N. brasiliensis infection by the activation of T-helper type 1 cells. PMID:9659227

  10. [The impact of nematode invasions on the pattern of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in wild rodents].

    PubMed

    Kuliś-Małkowska, Karolina

    2007-01-01

    Fragmentation of the environment by natural barriers (lakes, mountain ranges) and human activities (towns, major roads, agriculture) can lead to isolated subpopulations of hosts. The study was carried out in Mazury Lake District in North-East of Poland, the region rich in forests, lakes, rivers and canals, which are able to create passable such barriers. Population of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis)--dominant woodland rodents--showed local differences in helminth communities in fragmented forest habitat. The sites were chosen on the basis of the similarity of their habitat structure and type, and isolation from one another. The impact of nematode (Heligmosomoididae) infections on co-occurrence and dynamic of Cryptosporidium parvum infection was studied in both rodent species Myodes glareolus (n=781) and Apodemusflavicollis (n=302) from three different habitats. Presented results clearly revealed that natural nematode invasion could facilitate the presence of chronic infections of Cryptosporidium parvum in wild rodent populations. Also, the intrinsic (host sex and year) as well as extrinsic (season and year of study) factors have obvious effect on dynamics of infections with both groups of parasites. However, there are also some evidences that steroids hormones associated with stress and reproduction may mediate trade-offs between physiology and immune function and can affect co-occurrence of both groups of parasites. PMID:18075159

  11. Natural infection of free-range chickens with the ascarid nematode Toxocara sp.

    PubMed

    Campos-da-Silva, Danielle R; da Paz, Jeanne S; Fortunato, Viviane R; Beltrame, Marcus A V; Valli, Luis C P; Pereira, Fausto E L

    2015-11-01

    Human toxocariasis may be acquired by eating raw chicken liver. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of natural infection of chickens with Toxocara. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies as indicators of natural infection with Toxocara, in free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. An ELISA test with secretory and excretory Toxocara canis antigens was used. Negative controls were 20 industrial chickens reared in a high hygiene standard environment. Positive control serum was from a chicken infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis. Sera were adsorbed with Ascaridia galli extract to reduce cross-reactivity. Cut-off was the mean plus four times the standard deviation of optical density (OD) in negative group. One hundred and fifty-seven sera from free-range chicken were investigated. Results showed 58.5% of the chickens were positive with ELISA test; 12.7% had OD over the positive control and may be considered as true infected chickens. The results between the cut-off and the positive control may include infections with low titers of antibodies or may represent serum scar of past infection or may be the result of cross-reaction with other nematodes rather than A. galli which is used for the adsorption of sera. In conclusion, high prevalence of Toxocara sp. antibodies demonstrates natural infection of free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State which may represent a risk of infection with this nematode in people who have the habit of eating raw or undercooked chicken meat or viscera. The results also suggest that chickens may be useful as sentinels to detect soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs.

  12. Natural infection of free-range chickens with the ascarid nematode Toxocara sp.

    PubMed

    Campos-da-Silva, Danielle R; da Paz, Jeanne S; Fortunato, Viviane R; Beltrame, Marcus A V; Valli, Luis C P; Pereira, Fausto E L

    2015-11-01

    Human toxocariasis may be acquired by eating raw chicken liver. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of natural infection of chickens with Toxocara. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies as indicators of natural infection with Toxocara, in free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. An ELISA test with secretory and excretory Toxocara canis antigens was used. Negative controls were 20 industrial chickens reared in a high hygiene standard environment. Positive control serum was from a chicken infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis. Sera were adsorbed with Ascaridia galli extract to reduce cross-reactivity. Cut-off was the mean plus four times the standard deviation of optical density (OD) in negative group. One hundred and fifty-seven sera from free-range chicken were investigated. Results showed 58.5% of the chickens were positive with ELISA test; 12.7% had OD over the positive control and may be considered as true infected chickens. The results between the cut-off and the positive control may include infections with low titers of antibodies or may represent serum scar of past infection or may be the result of cross-reaction with other nematodes rather than A. galli which is used for the adsorption of sera. In conclusion, high prevalence of Toxocara sp. antibodies demonstrates natural infection of free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State which may represent a risk of infection with this nematode in people who have the habit of eating raw or undercooked chicken meat or viscera. The results also suggest that chickens may be useful as sentinels to detect soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs. PMID:26319520

  13. Spatiotemporal analysis of predation by carabid beetles (Carabidae) on nematode infected and uninfected slugs in the field.

    PubMed

    Hatteland, Bjørn Arild; Haukeland, Solveig; Roth, Steffen; Brurberg, May Bente; Vaughan, Ian P; Symondson, William O C

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of predation on parasites within prey has received relatively little attention despite the profound effects this is likely to have on both prey and parasite numbers and hence on biological control programmes where parasites are employed. The nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a commercially available biological agent against slugs. Predation on these slugs may, at the same time, result in intraguild predation on slug-parasitic nematodes. This study describes, for the first time, predation by carabid beetles on slugs and their nematode parasites on both spatial and temporal scales, using PCR-based methods. The highest nematode infection levels were found in the slugs Deroceras reticulatum and Arion silvaticus. Numbers of infected slugs decreased over time and no infected slugs were found four months after nematode application. The density of the most abundant slug, the invasive Arion vulgaris, was positively related to the activity-density of the carabid beetle, Carabus nemoralis. Predation on slugs was density and size related, with highest predation levels also on A. vulgaris. Predation on A. vulgaris decreased significantly in summer when these slugs were larger than one gram. Predation by C. nemoralis on slugs was opportunistic, without any preferences for specific species. Intraguild predation on the nematodes was low, suggesting that carabid beetles such as C. nemoralis probably do not have a significant impact on the success of biological control using P. hermaphrodita.

  14. The efficacy of anthelmintic drugs against nematodes infecting free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Jemma; Beveridge, Ian; Coulson, Graeme

    2013-07-01

    Effective anthelmintics are valuable tools for biologists conducting manipulative field experiments to examine effects of parasites on wildlife. However, before such experiments are carried out the efficacy of these drugs must be determined. We conducted three field experiments (May 2010-September 2011) on free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) at a golf course in Victoria, Australia, treating animals with the anthelmintic drugs moxidectin (subcutaneous, 1 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg), ivermectin (subcutaneous, 200 μg/kg), and albendazole (oral, 3.8 mg/kg). After treatment we monitored strongylid fecal egg counts (FECs) over time and assessed anthelmintic efficacy using fecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs). We also performed a larval development assay (LDA) to evaluate directly the efficacy in the nematode population. Unexpectedly, moxidectin and ivermectin had low efficacy with maximum FEC reductions of 82% and 28%, respectively. However, treatment with albendazole reduced FECs by 100% in all kangaroos and egg counts remained low for up to 3 mo. The results from the LDA supported the FECRTs, with low macrocyclic lactone efficacy and high albendazole efficacy. Macrocyclic lactones, at recommended dose rates, were much less effective against strongylid nematodes in kangaroos than has been reported for domestic herbivores. This may be partly due to pharmacokinetics in the host and partly due to low susceptibility in some of the nematodes infecting eastern grey kangaroos.

  15. Effect of the nematode biocide Dbx-1003 in controlling citrus nematode infecting Mandarin, and interrelationship with the co-inhabitant fungi.

    PubMed

    Noweer, E M A

    2013-01-01

    In a field experiment, the nematode-biocide, Dbx-1003, was evaluated against the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans infecting Mandarin, Citrus reticulata, Dbx-1003 20% G., was applied in October 2008 at the rate 1/2 kg/tree, and root and soil samples were collected monthly until the next October, 2009. Successive treatment of the same biocide was added in May 2009. For the comparison, Vydate 24% L, was applied as well as non-treated check trees were left. Data revealed that the biocide treatment greatly affected the citrus nematode numbers both in soil and roots, in comparing with those of Vydate or induced by Dbx-1003 was 97% and 70%; respectively in soil and roots. Rates of reproduction increase of the citrus nematode also reached 3% and 30% in both soil and roots; respectively. Vydate treatment resulted in a relatively lesser percentages. Growth of the concomitant fungus, Trichoderma sp. was increased specially in the last samples of October 2009, however those of fungi; Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp. and Rhizopus sp. were reduced, due to Dbx-1003 treatment. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. were not affected by the presence of the biocide. Vydate did not affect the co-inhabitant fungi to a great extent. PMID:25151818

  16. Nematode parasites infecting the starry batfish Halieutaea stellata (Vahl) (Lophiiformes: Ogcocephalidae) from the East and South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Zhao, W-T; Guo, Y-N; Zhang, L-P

    2016-05-01

    The starry batfish Halieutaea stellata (Vahl) is a small, benthic fish found in Indo-West Pacific Oceans. However, our present knowledge of the helminth parasites of this fish is still fragmentary. In this study, a total of 29 fish collected from the East and South China Sea were examined to determine the prevalence, intensity and species composition of helminth parasites in H. stellata. Using morphological and molecular approaches, four species of nematodes were found parasitic in this fish host, including the adults and fourth-stage larvae of Raphidascaroides nipponensis Yamaguti 1941; adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu 1949), third- and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium larval type IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge 2013 and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium amoyense (Hsü 1993). Halieutaea stellata represents a new host record for the three last-named nematodes. Raphidascaroides nipponensis with the highest prevalence (82.5%) and intensity (mean = 13.5) of infection was considered as the dominant parasite species in H. stellata. The detailed morphology of the different developmental stages of the four nematode species was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. All nematode species were also genetically characterized by sequencing and analysing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA. This study provides further data on the occurrence of nematode parasites in H. stellata and also contributes to facilitate an accurate and rapid diagnosis of the infection by these little-known nematodes. PMID:25917527

  17. Nematode parasites infecting the starry batfish Halieutaea stellata (Vahl) (Lophiiformes: Ogcocephalidae) from the East and South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Zhao, W-T; Guo, Y-N; Zhang, L-P

    2016-05-01

    The starry batfish Halieutaea stellata (Vahl) is a small, benthic fish found in Indo-West Pacific Oceans. However, our present knowledge of the helminth parasites of this fish is still fragmentary. In this study, a total of 29 fish collected from the East and South China Sea were examined to determine the prevalence, intensity and species composition of helminth parasites in H. stellata. Using morphological and molecular approaches, four species of nematodes were found parasitic in this fish host, including the adults and fourth-stage larvae of Raphidascaroides nipponensis Yamaguti 1941; adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu 1949), third- and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium larval type IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge 2013 and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium amoyense (Hsü 1993). Halieutaea stellata represents a new host record for the three last-named nematodes. Raphidascaroides nipponensis with the highest prevalence (82.5%) and intensity (mean = 13.5) of infection was considered as the dominant parasite species in H. stellata. The detailed morphology of the different developmental stages of the four nematode species was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. All nematode species were also genetically characterized by sequencing and analysing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA. This study provides further data on the occurrence of nematode parasites in H. stellata and also contributes to facilitate an accurate and rapid diagnosis of the infection by these little-known nematodes.

  18. Diversity, Host Specialization, and Geographic Structure of Filarial Nematodes Infecting Malagasy Bats

    PubMed Central

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dellagi, Koussay; Lagadec, Erwan; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Goodman, Steven M.; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae); a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae) embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae), Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae), and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae). We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors. PMID:26751792

  19. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus globulus on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of anthelminthic resistance has limited the success of traditional control programmes in several countries, thereby forcing the researchers to search for alternatives. In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus were investigated against the egg and larvae of naturally infected sheep. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the main metabolites identified in the extract. The aqueous extract of E. globulus was also investigated for in vivo anthelmintic activity in naturally infected sheep. The various blood parameters, coupled with effects on marker enzymes and antioxidant status, were evaluated during the trial period. Methanolic extract showed better ED50 (3.756 mg/ml) and ED99 (33.809 mg/ml) values in comparison with aqueous extract (ED50 = 1.502 and ED99 = 7.10 mg/ml) in the egg hatch assay. Inverse was true in larval development and larval paralysis tests. The aqueous extract's ED50 = 19.994 and ED99 = 108.931 mg/ml values in the larval development test and ED50 = 19.994 and ED99 = 108.931 mg/ml in the larval paralysis test were more potent than those of its methanolic counterpart with ED50 = 15.595 and ED99 = 94.493 mg/ml and ED50 = 15.595 and ED99 = 94.493 mg/ml, respectively. A significant amount of 66% faecal egg count reduction was observed in in vivo trail using the aqueous extract on day 21 post treatment, although in initial stages it showed 58.0 and 80% effectiveness on days 7 and 14 post treatment. Though the FCER reduction was somewhat lower in terms of comparison with albendazole, nevertheless, significant and prolong reduction was noticed. No deleterious ill effect was found in any of the haematological and biochemical parameters suggesting that the plant could be safer for use in sheep. Though significant changes were observed in SGPT, RBCs, Hb and RDWc levels, other parameters showed nonsignificant variations within the

  20. Bottom-up regulation of malaria population dynamics in mice co-infected with lung-migratory nematodes.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Emily C; Fairlie-Clarke, Karen; Allen, Judith E; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Graham, Andrea L

    2015-12-01

    When and how populations are regulated by bottom up vs. top down processes, and how those processes are affected by co-occurring species, are poorly characterised across much of ecology. We are especially interested in the community ecology of parasites that must share a host. Here, we quantify how resources and immunity affect parasite propagation in experiments in near-replicate 'mesocosms'' - i.e. mice infected with malaria (Plasmodium chabaudi) and nematodes (Nippostrongylus brasiliensis). Nematodes suppressed immune responses against malaria, and yet malaria populations were smaller in co-infected hosts. Further analyses of within-host epidemiology revealed that nematode co-infection altered malaria propagation by suppressing target cell availability. This is the first demonstration that bottom-up resource regulation may have earlier and stronger effects than top-down immune mechanisms on within-host community dynamics. Our findings demonstrate the potential power of experimental ecology to disentangle mechanisms of population regulation in complex communities. PMID:26477454

  1. Eosinophils in Gastrointestinal disorders- eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases and parasitic infections

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Pooja; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The gastrointestinal tract provides an intriguing organ for considering the eosinophil’s role in health and disease. The normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract, except for the esophagus, is populated by eosinophils that are present throughout the mucosa in varying numbers. This latter fact raises the possibility that eosinophils participate in innate mechanisms of defense. In contrast, a number of clinical studies provide a wealth of data that associates increased numbers of eosinophils with inflammatory GI diseases; these findings prompt concerns that eosinophils may have a deleterious effect on the gut. In this article we present clinical features of 4 disease processes that have been associated with eosinophilia and suggest areas requiring investigation as to their clinical significance and scientific relevance. PMID:26209893

  2. Nematode infection in Mugil incilis (Lisa) from Cartagena Bay and Totumo Marsh, north of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Baldiris-Avila, Rosa; Arroyo-Salgado, Barbara

    2005-10-01

    Nematode infection indices were recorded in Lisa, Mugil incilis, from Cartagena Bay and Totumo Marsh, north of Colombia, during an 8-mo period (February to September 2002). Parasite prevalence (74.67% vs. 53.48%), intensity (9.73 +/- 2.98 vs. 2.73 +/- 1.07), and abundance (7.49 +/- 2.21 vs. 2.04 +/- 1.17) were significantly greater in Cartagena Bay, an estuary polluted by domestic sewage and industrial discharge, compared with those of Totumo Marsh, a body of water with low levels of contamination. Parasites were found below the spine, within the liver and the intestinal mesenteries, and a small percentage in muscle. Morphological analysis of nematodes indicated the presence of the third larval stage of several species belonging to the Anisakidae. Size correlated moderately and significantly with parasite intensity in fish collected from Totumo Marsh (R = 0.336; P < 0.001); in Cartagena Bay the correlation was also significant, but low and negative (R = -0.212; P = 0.003), clearly showing differences in host-parasite ecology. Fish health status, as represented by condition factor and hepatosomatic index, did not show any correlation with the parasite prevalence in fishes collected in either sampling areas. These results suggest, for the first time, that the consumption of Lisa from the Atlantic coast of Colombia could represent a risk for human infection.

  3. Growth and meat quality of kids of indigenous Greek goats (Capra prisca) as influenced by dietary protein and gastrointestinal nematode challenge.

    PubMed

    Arsenos, G; Fortomaris, P; Papadopoulos, E; Sotiraki, S; Stamataris, C; Zygoyiannis, D

    2009-07-01

    The effect of dietary protein and gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism on growth and meat quality of growing kids was assessed using sixty (60) kids in three groups (n=20); A: control, B: regularly treated with ALBENDAZOLE(®) and C: supplemented with dietary protein. The kids grazed in a pasture contaminated with L3 larvae of GIN. Growth and condition score were assessed at 21-day intervals. After 86days all kids were slaughtered. Carcasses were assessed for conformation, fatness, ultimate pH and other meat quality characteristics. Parasitic challenge was assessed by means of faecal egg counts (FEC), pasture larvae and adult nematodes in the GI tract of kids at slaughter. Groups C and B had higher growth rates and body condition score and produced significantly heavier (P<0.05) carcasses with better (P<0.01) conformation and fatness when compared to those of group A. Total unsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were higher (P<0.05) in fat tissue of groups B and C. Group A had the highest FEC and group C had the lowest (P<0.05) FEC. The parasitic challenge of L3 on pasture reached its highest point at 42days and there were significant (P<0.01) differences between the numbers of Teladorsagia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum spp. and Chabertia spp. found in the GI tract of kids between the three groups; group A had the highest numbers. Overall, the results showed that the increased protein content in the diet of growing kids grazing on a pasture contaminated with L3 nematode larvae resulted in the production of acceptable carcasses.

  4. Genome-wide association and genome partitioning reveal novel genomic regions underlying variation in gastrointestinal nematode burden in a wild bird.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Marius A; James, Marianne C; Douglas, Alex; Piertney, Stuart B

    2015-08-01

    Identifying the genetic architecture underlying complex phenotypes is a notoriously difficult problem that often impedes progress in understanding adaptive eco-evolutionary processes in natural populations. Host-parasite interactions are fundamentally important drivers of evolutionary processes, but a lack of understanding of the genes involved in the host's response to chronic parasite insult makes it particularly difficult to understand the mechanisms of host life history trade-offs and the adaptive dynamics involved. Here, we examine the genetic basis of gastrointestinal nematode (Trichostrongylus tenuis) burden in 695 red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) individuals genotyped at 384 genome-wide SNPs. We first use genome-wide association to identify individual SNPs associated with nematode burden. We then partition genome-wide heritability to identify chromosomes with greater heritability than expected from gene content, due to harbouring a multitude of additive SNPs with individually undetectable effects. We identified five SNPs on five chromosomes that accounted for differences of up to 556 worms per bird, but together explained at best 4.9% of the phenotypic variance. These SNPs were closely linked to genes representing a range of physiological processes including the immune system, protein degradation and energy metabolism. Genome partitioning indicated genome-wide heritability of up to 29% and three chromosomes with excess heritability of up to 4.3% (total 8.9%). These results implicate SNPs and novel genomic regions underlying nematode burden in this system and suggest that this phenotype is somewhere between being based on few large-effect genes (oligogenic) and based on a large number of genes with small individual but large combined effects (polygenic). PMID:26179597

  5. Metagenomic insights into communities, functions of endophytes, and their associates with infection by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in tomato roots.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bao-Yu; Cao, Yi; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-11-25

    Endophytes are known to play important roles in plant's health and productivity. In this study, we investigated the root microbiome of tomato in association with infection by root knot nematodes. Our objectives were to observe the effects and response of the bacterial endophytes before nematode attacks and to reveal the functional attributes of microbes in plant health and nematode pathogenesis. Community analysis of root-associated microbiomes in healthy and nematode-infected tomatoes indicated that nematode infections were associated with variation and differentiation of the endophyte and rhizosphere bacterial populations in plant roots. The community of the resident endophytes in tomato root was significantly affected by nemato-pathogenesis. Remarkably, some bacterial groups in the nematode feeding structure, the root gall, were specifically enriched, suggesting an association with nematode pathogenesis. Function-based metagenomic analysis indicated that the enriched bacterial populations in root gall harbored abundant genes related to degradation of plant polysaccharides, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and biological nitrogen fixation. Our data indicated that some of the previously assumed beneficial endophytes or bacterial associates with nematode might be involved in nematode infections of the tomato roots.

  6. Metagenomic insights into communities, functions of endophytes, and their associates with infection by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in tomato roots

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bao-Yu; Cao, Yi; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes are known to play important roles in plant’s health and productivity. In this study, we investigated the root microbiome of tomato in association with infection by root knot nematodes. Our objectives were to observe the effects and response of the bacterial endophytes before nematode attacks and to reveal the functional attributes of microbes in plant health and nematode pathogenesis. Community analysis of root-associated microbiomes in healthy and nematode-infected tomatoes indicated that nematode infections were associated with variation and differentiation of the endophyte and rhizosphere bacterial populations in plant roots. The community of the resident endophytes in tomato root was significantly affected by nemato-pathogenesis. Remarkably, some bacterial groups in the nematode feeding structure, the root gall, were specifically enriched, suggesting an association with nematode pathogenesis. Function-based metagenomic analysis indicated that the enriched bacterial populations in root gall harbored abundant genes related to degradation of plant polysaccharides, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and biological nitrogen fixation. Our data indicated that some of the previously assumed beneficial endophytes or bacterial associates with nematode might be involved in nematode infections of the tomato roots. PMID:26603211

  7. Eosinophils in Gastrointestinal Disorders: Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases, Celiac Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, and Parasitic Infections.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Pooja; Furuta, Glenn T

    2015-08-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract provides an intriguing organ for considering the eosinophil's role in health and disease. The normal GI tract, except for the esophagus, is populated by eosinophils that are present throughout the mucosa, raising the possibility that eosinophils participate in innate mechanisms of defense. However, data from clinical studies associates increased numbers of eosinophils with inflammatory GI diseases, prompting concerns that eosinophils may have a deleterious effect on the gut. We present clinical features of 4 disease processes that have been associated with eosinophilia and suggest areas requiring investigation as to their clinical significance and scientific relevance.

  8. Infective Juveniles of the Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema feltiae Produce Cryoprotectants in Response to Freezing and Cold Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Farman; Wharton, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Steinernema feltiae is a moderately freeze-tolerant entomopathogenic nematode which survives intracellular freezing. We have detected by gas chromatography that infective juveniles of S. feltiae produce cryoprotectants in response to cold acclimation and to freezing. Since the survival of this nematode varies with temperature, we analyzed their cryoprotectant profiles under different acclimation and freezing regimes. The principal cryoprotectants detected were trehalose and glycerol with glucose being the minor component. The amount of cryoprotectants varied with the temperature and duration of exposure. Trehalose was accumulated in higher concentrations when nematodes were acclimated at 5°C for two weeks whereas glycerol level decreased from that of the non-acclimated controls. Nematodes were seeded with a small ice crystal and held at -1°C, a regime that does not produce freezing of the nematodes but their bodies lose water to the surrounding ice (cryoprotective dehydration). This increased the levels of both trehalose and glycerol, with glycerol reaching a higher concentration than trehalose. Nematodes frozen at -3°C, a regime that produces freezing of the nematodes and results in intracellular ice formation, had elevated glycerol levels while trehalose levels did not change. Steinernema feltiae thus has two strategies of cryoprotectant accumulation: one is an acclimation response to low temperature when the body fluids are in a cooled or supercooled state and the infective juveniles produce trehalose before freezing. During this process a portion of the glycerol is converted to trehalose. The second strategy is a rapid response to freezing which induces the production of glycerol but trehalose levels do not change. These low molecular weight compounds are surmised to act as cryoprotectants for this species and to play an important role in its freezing tolerance. PMID:26509788

  9. Infective Juveniles of the Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema feltiae Produce Cryoprotectants in Response to Freezing and Cold Acclimation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farman; Wharton, David A

    2015-01-01

    Steinernema feltiae is a moderately freeze-tolerant entomopathogenic nematode which survives intracellular freezing. We have detected by gas chromatography that infective juveniles of S. feltiae produce cryoprotectants in response to cold acclimation and to freezing. Since the survival of this nematode varies with temperature, we analyzed their cryoprotectant profiles under different acclimation and freezing regimes. The principal cryoprotectants detected were trehalose and glycerol with glucose being the minor component. The amount of cryoprotectants varied with the temperature and duration of exposure. Trehalose was accumulated in higher concentrations when nematodes were acclimated at 5°C for two weeks whereas glycerol level decreased from that of the non-acclimated controls. Nematodes were seeded with a small ice crystal and held at -1°C, a regime that does not produce freezing of the nematodes but their bodies lose water to the surrounding ice (cryoprotective dehydration). This increased the levels of both trehalose and glycerol, with glycerol reaching a higher concentration than trehalose. Nematodes frozen at -3°C, a regime that produces freezing of the nematodes and results in intracellular ice formation, had elevated glycerol levels while trehalose levels did not change. Steinernema feltiae thus has two strategies of cryoprotectant accumulation: one is an acclimation response to low temperature when the body fluids are in a cooled or supercooled state and the infective juveniles produce trehalose before freezing. During this process a portion of the glycerol is converted to trehalose. The second strategy is a rapid response to freezing which induces the production of glycerol but trehalose levels do not change. These low molecular weight compounds are surmised to act as cryoprotectants for this species and to play an important role in its freezing tolerance.

  10. Role of stress-related hormones in plant defence during early infection of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kammerhofer, Nina; Radakovic, Zoran; Regis, Jully M A; Dobrev, Petre; Vankova, Radomira; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-08-01

    Heterodera schachtii, a plant-parasitic cyst nematode, invades host roots and induces a specific syncytial feeding structure, from which it withdraws all required nutrients, causing severe yield losses. The system H. schachtii-Arabidopsis is an excellent research model for investigating plant defence mechanisms. Such responses are suppressed in well-established syncytia, whereas they are induced during early parasitism. However, the mechanisms by which the defence responses are modulated and the role of phytohormones are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of hormone-based defence responses at the onset of nematode infection. First, concentrations of main phytohormones were quantified and the expression of several hormone-related genes was analysed using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR or GeneChip. Further, the effects of individual hormones were evaluated via nematode attraction and infection assays using plants with altered endogenous hormone concentrations. Our results suggest a pivotal and positive role for ethylene during nematode attraction, whereas jasmonic acid triggers early defence responses against H. schachtii. Salicylic acid seems to be a negative regulator during later syncytium and female development. We conclude that nematodes are able to impose specific changes in hormone pools, thus modulating hormone-based defence and signal transduction in strict dependence on their parasitism stage.

  11. Role of stress-related hormones in plant defence during early infection of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kammerhofer, Nina; Radakovic, Zoran; Regis, Jully M A; Dobrev, Petre; Vankova, Radomira; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Heterodera schachtii, a plant-parasitic cyst nematode, invades host roots and induces a specific syncytial feeding structure, from which it withdraws all required nutrients, causing severe yield losses. The system H. schachtii–Arabidopsis is an excellent research model for investigating plant defence mechanisms. Such responses are suppressed in well-established syncytia, whereas they are induced during early parasitism. However, the mechanisms by which the defence responses are modulated and the role of phytohormones are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of hormone-based defence responses at the onset of nematode infection. First, concentrations of main phytohormones were quantified and the expression of several hormone-related genes was analysed using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR or GeneChip. Further, the effects of individual hormones were evaluated via nematode attraction and infection assays using plants with altered endogenous hormone concentrations. Our results suggest a pivotal and positive role for ethylene during nematode attraction, whereas jasmonic acid triggers early defence responses against H. schachtii. Salicylic acid seems to be a negative regulator during later syncytium and female development. We conclude that nematodes are able to impose specific changes in hormone pools, thus modulating hormone-based defence and signal transduction in strict dependence on their parasitism stage. PMID:25825039

  12. The alkaloid compound harmane increases the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans during bacterial infection, by modulating the nematode's innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Henrik; Bojer, Martin S; Marinus, Martin G; Xu, Tao; Struve, Carsten; Krogfelt, Karen A; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has in recent years been proven to be a powerful in vivo model for testing antimicrobial compounds. We report here that the alkaloid compound Harmane (2-methyl-β-carboline) increases the lifespan of nematodes infected with a human pathogen, the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and several other bacterial pathogens. This was shown to be unrelated to the weak antibiotic effect of Harmane. Using GFP-expressing E. coli EDL933, we showed that Harmane does not lower the colonization burden in the nematodes. We also found that the expression of the putative immune effector gene F35E12.5 was up-regulated in response to Harmane treatment. This indicates that Harmane stimulates the innate immune response of the nematode; thereby increasing its lifespan during bacterial infection. Expression of F35E12.5 is predominantly regulated through the p38 MAPK pathway; however, intriguingly the lifespan extension resulting from Harmane was higher in p38 MAPK-deficient nematodes. This indicates that Harmane has a complex effect on the innate immune system of C. elegans. Harmane could therefore be a useful tool in the further research into C. elegans immunity. Since the innate immunity of C. elegans has a high degree of evolutionary conservation, drugs such as Harmane could also be possible alternatives to classic antibiotics. The C. elegans model could prove to be useful for selection and development of such drugs.

  13. Role of macrophages in the altered epithelial function during a type 2 immune response induced by enteric nematode infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two major functions of the intestinal epithelium are to act as a physical barrier and to regulate the movement of nutrients, ions and fluid. Nematode infection induces alterations in smooth and epithelial cell function, including increased fluid in the intestinal lumen, which are attributed to a ST...

  14. Interaction between the nematode-destroying fungus Arthrobotrys robusta (Hyphomycetales) and Haemonchus contortus infective larvae in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-de Gives, P; Zavaleta-Mejia, E; Quiroz-Romero, H; Herrera-Rodriguez, D; Perdomo-Roldan, F

    1992-02-01

    In an in vitro trial, the effect of the nematode-destroying fungus Arthrobotrys robusta on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae was evaluated in petri dishes containing corn meal agar. After seven days incubation at 25 degrees C, 92.33% (+/- 4.1) predation was recorded. PMID:1561755

  15. Intracellular freezing in the infective juveniles of Steinernema feltiae: an entomopathogenic nematode.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farman; Wharton, David A

    2014-01-01

    Taking advantage of their optical transparency, we clearly observed the third stage infective juveniles (IJs) of Steinernema feltiae freezing under a cryo-stage microscope. The IJs froze when the water surrounding them froze at -2°C and below. However, they avoid inoculative freezing at -1°C, suggesting cryoprotective dehydration. Freezing was evident as a sudden darkening and cessation of IJs' movement. Freeze substitution and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the IJs of S. feltiae freeze intracellularly. Ice crystals were found in every compartment of the body. IJs frozen at high sub-zero temperatures (-1 and -3°C) survived and had small ice crystals. Those frozen at -10°C had large ice crystals and did not survive. However, the pattern of ice formation was not well-controlled and individual nematodes frozen at -3°C had both small and large ice crystals. IJs frozen by plunging directly into liquid nitrogen had small ice crystals, but did not survive. This study thus presents the evidence that S. feltiae is only the second freeze tolerant animal, after the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi, shown to withstand extensive intracellular freezing.

  16. Assessing resistance of ivermectin and moxidectin against nematodes in cattle naturally infected using three different methodologies.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Soares, Vando Edésio; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; de Matos, Lucas Vinicius Shigaki; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the faecal egg count efficacy test (FECET) to assess the resistance status of ivermectin (630 μg/kg) and moxidectin (200 μg/kg), using the controlled efficacy test as a reference, and whether the results of the EPG are equivalent to the efficacy results from the parasitological necropsies. Two experiments were conducted. The results demonstrate that it was not possible to demonstrate that the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and moxidectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies, mainly if the phenomenon of parasites resistance is not advanced in a determined field population. Maybe the FECET technique would be possibly better than the FECRT. The high anthelmintic efficacy of 200 μg/kg moxidectin, in naturally infected cattle, against field population of nematodes that are resistant to 630 μg/kg ivermectin, was observed in this study.

  17. Spatial analysis of the distribution of intestinal nematode infections in Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, S.; Kabatereine, N. B.; Tukahebwa, E. M.; Kazibwe, F.

    2004-01-01

    The spatial epidemiology of intestinal nematodes in Uganda was investigated using generalized additive models and geostatistical methods. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura was unevenly distributed in the country with prevalence greatest in southwest Uganda whereas hookworm was more homogeneously distributed. A. lumbricoides and T. Trichiura prevalence were nonlinearly related to satellite sensor-based estimates of land surface temperature; hookworm was nonlinearly associated with rainfall. Semivariogram analysis indicated that T. trichiura prevalence exhibited no spatial structure and that A. lumbricoides exhibited some spatial dependency at small spatial distances, once large-scale, mainly environmental, trends had been removed. In contrast, there was much more spatial structure in hookworm prevalence although the underlying factors are at present unclear. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to parasite spatial epidemiology and the prediction of infection distributions. PMID:15635963

  18. Comparative infectivity of three larval nematode species in three different salmonids.

    PubMed

    Haarder, Simon; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    Host specificity of parasites may depend both on ecological and physiological factors. Basic descriptions of the susceptibility/resistance of fish to specific nematodes are needed in order to reveal mechanisms in the host-parasite relation. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were orally infected with larval stages of three different anisakid nematodes-Hysterothylacium aduncum, Contracaecum osculatum, and Anisakis simplex-and parasite survival and location was subsequently recorded for up to 14 days post infection (dpi). H. aduncum was most prevalent and numerous in brown trout 2 dpi, but a large proportion of the worms were recovered dead. No tissue penetration was observed. Rainbow trout exhibited the highest susceptibility to C. osculatum larvae at 2, 7, and 14 dpi. Mean intensities and mean abundances were lower in brown trout and salmon at all time points. The pyloric cecum was penetrated in rainbow trout on two occasions. A. simplex larvae established more successfully in salmon compared to rainbow trout; brown trout exhibited the highest natural resistance. Mean intensity and mean abundance was highest in rainbow trout at 2 and 7 dpi, but not after 14 days. A range of tissues, including muscle and liver, were found penetrated by larvae, but the pyloric ceca were the preferred microhabitat for Anisakis in both rainbow trout and salmon. It can be concluded that closely related salmonids differ in susceptibility towards different anisakid larvae and these parasites select different microhabitats in the hosts. The physiological basis for this specificity is discussed. PMID:23733234

  19. Cytokine patterns in paediatric patients presenting serious gastrointestinal and respiratory bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Martínez, Monika; Rodríguez-Cruz, Leonor; Cortés-Bejar, Consuelo Del Carmen; Valencia-Chavarría, Fernando; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel; González-Torres, María Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In the adaptive immune response, the types of cytokines produced define whether there is a cellular (T1) or a humoral (T2) response. Specifically, in the T1 response, interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor β (TNF-β) are produced, whereas in the T2 response, IL-4, IL-5, IL- 6, IL-10 and IL-13 are primarily produced. Cytokines are primarily involved in the regulation of immune system cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytokine patterns (Type 1/Type 2) and TNF-α expression levels in children with severe gastrointestinal and respiratory bacterial infections. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to identify the cytokines and the infectious agents. The results obtained demonstrated that, in general, children with bacterial infections experienced an increase in IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 concentrations and a decrease in TNF-α, IL-5 and IL-6 concentrations when compared to healthy children. Specifically, type 1 cytokines and an increased TNF-α concentration were found in children with gastrointestinal infections. However, patients with respiratory infections showed increased concentrations of both T2 (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) and T1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) components. Thus, it was concluded that children with gastrointestinal infections exclusively developed a T1 response, whereas children with respiratory infections developed a T1/T2 response to fight the infection. PMID:26155128

  20. An ultrastructural study of sporidium formation during infection of a rhabditid nematode by large gun cells of Haptoglossa heteromorpha.

    PubMed

    Glockling, S L; Beakes, G W

    2000-10-01

    Recently fired gun cells of Haptoglossa heteromorpha, an aplanosporic nematode parasite, were examined ultrastructurally. The everted tubes of the fired cells had penetrated the cuticle of a nematode, and infective sporidia were developing inside the host body. The nematode cuticle was penetrated by the narrow, walled part of the tube below the needle chamber. The lower unwalled part of the tube tail formed the sporidium. The developing sporidium had a multilayered fibrous outer coating and the plasma membrane was separated from the wall in places. Sporidia contained biphasic membrane-bound vesicles that had been generated by the Golgi dictyosome during gun cell development. Immediately following gun cell firing, the nuclear envelope of the sporidium nucleus was not apparent, and the sporidium nucleus contained clusters of electron-dense particles concentrated in the nucleolar region. We compare the structures and organelles found in the mature gun cell with those in the fired cell and attempt to identify the membranous layers around the sporidium.

  1. Resistance of beef cattle of two genetic groups to ectoparasites and gastrointestinal nematodes in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M C S; Alencar, M M; Giglioti, R; Beraldo, M C D; Aníbal, F F; Correia, R O; Boschini, L; Chagas, A C S; Bilhassi, T B; Oliveira, H N

    2013-10-18

    The resistance to infestations by ectoparasites and infections by gastrointestinal nematodes was studied in 45 animals (males and females) of two genetic groups: purebred Nelore (NI, n=28) and Three-Cross (1/2 Angus+1/4 Canchim+1/4 Nelore - TC, n=17). The animals were monitored for 24 months, during which they were left to graze in tropical pastures without receiving treatment for parasites. Each month the animals were examined for infestations by external parasites, to count the numbers of cattle ticks Rhipicephalus microplus with diameter greater than 4.5mm present on the left side, horn flies (Haematobia irritans) present in the lumbar region and botfly larvae (Dermatobia hominis) present on the entire body. The H. irritans counts were performed with the aid of digital photographs. At the time of examination, fecal samples were collected to count the eggs per gram (EPG) and to perform coprocultures, and peripheral blood samples were drawn to determine the packed cell volume (PCV) and to count the eosinophils. For statistical analysis, the count data were transformed into log₁₀ (n+1), where n is the number of parasites. For PCV, significant effects (P<0.05) were found for collection month (CO), genetic group (GG) and gender (SX), with means and respective standard errors of 41.5 ± 0.65% for the NI animals, 39.3 ± 0.83% for the TC, 41.5 ± 0.72% for the females and 39.3 ± 0.77% for the males. Regarding the eosinophil counts, only the effect of sex was significant (P<0.01), with means and respective standard errors of 926.0 ± 46.2/μL, for males and 1088.0 ± 43.8/μL of blood, for females. The NI animals presented lower mean counts for all the external parasites compared to the TC animals (P<0.01). For ticks, the transformed means followed by standard errors for the NI and TC animals were 0.06 ± 0.01 and 0.34 ± 0.02, while for horn flies these were 0.92 ± 0.05 and 1.36 ± 0.06 and for botfly larvae they were 0.05 ± 0.03 and 0.45 ± 0.05, respectively

  2. Prevalence of nematode infection and faecal egg counts in free-range laying hens: relations to housing and husbandry.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, C M; Nasr, M A F; Gale, E; Petek, M; Stafford, K; Turp, M; Coles, G C

    2013-01-01

    1. Faecal samples from 19 commercial, 65 week old free-range egg laying flocks were examined to assess the prevalence and number of parasitic nematode eggs. Data were collected to characterise the housing, husbandry, behaviour and welfare of the flocks to examine possible relationships with the egg counts. 2. Eggs of at least one genus of nematode were present in the faeces of all 19 flocks. Heterakis eggs were detected in 17 (89%) flocks, Ascaridia in 16 (84%), Trichostrongylus in 9 (47%), and Syngamus in 6 (32%). Faecal egg counts (FEC) were greatest for Ascaridia and Heterakis. 3. For each nematode genus, there was no significant difference in FEC between organic (N = 9) and non-organic (N = 10) flocks, or between static (N = 8) and mobile (N = 11) flocks. 4. FEC were correlated with a range of housing, husbandry and management practices which varied between the nematode genus and included depth of the litter, percentage of hens using the range, and number of dead hens. Statistical analysis indicated relationships with FEC that included light intensity above the feeder, indoor and outdoor stocking density, fearfulness in the shed and on the range, distance to the nearest shelter, and swollen toes. 5. None of the FEC for any of the genera was correlated with weekly egg production or cumulative mortality. 6. Although nematode FEC were highly prevalent among the flocks, the overall lack of relation to other welfare and production measures suggests that these infections were not severe.

  3. Gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy in the years 2000

    PubMed Central

    Castagnola, Elio; Ruberto, Eliana; Guarino, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. To look at gut microflora features in oncology children. METHODS: We selected studies published after year 2000, excluding trials on transplanted pediatric patients. We searched English language publications in MEDLINE using the keywords: “gastrointestinal infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “gastrointestinal infection AND oncology AND children”, “liver infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “liver abscess AND chemotherapy AND child”, “neutropenic enterocolitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “thyphlitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “infectious diarrhea AND children AND oncology”, “abdominal pain AND infection AND children AND oncology”, “perianal sepsis AND children AND oncology”, “colonic pseudo-obstruction AND oncology AND child AND chemotherapy”, “microflora AND children AND malignancy”, “microbiota AND children AND malignancy”, “fungal flora AND children AND malignancy”. We also analysed evidence from several articles and book references. RESULTS: Gastrointestinal and liver infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. Antineoplastic drugs cause immunosuppression in addition to direct toxicity, predisposing to infections, although the specific risk is variable according to disease and host features. Common pathogens potentially induce severe diseases whereas opportunistic microorganisms may attack vulnerable hosts. Clinical manifestations can be subtle and not specific. In addition, several conditions are rare and diagnostic process and treatments are not standardized. Diagnosis may be challenging, however early diagnosis is needed for quick and appropriate interventions. Interestingly, the source of infection in those children can be exogenous or endogenous. Indeed, mucosal damage may allow the

  4. Research note: use of fenbendazole for the treatment of turkeys with experimentally induced nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Norton, R A; Yazwinski, T A; Johnson, Z

    1991-08-01

    Turkeys were raised under parasite-free conditions until 25 days of age at which time the birds were administered infective ova of Capillaria obsignata, Heterakis gallinarum, and Ascaridia dissimilis. At 28 days postinfection, four groups of birds were placed on rations medicated with fenbendazole at 15,30,45, or 60 ppm. These rations were given ad libitum for 6 consecutive days. At 31 days postinfection, five additional groups of birds were placed on rations medicated with fenbendazole at 15,30,45,60 or 120 ppm. These latter rations were given ad libitum for 3 consecutive days. One group of turkeys served as an unmedicated, infected control. Treatment group size ranged from 17 to 19 birds. All birds were necropsied 5 days after the medicated rations were withdrawn and nematode recovery was performed. Control birds harbored an average of 3.29 A. dissimilis, 12.06 H. gallinarum, and 65.94 C. obsignata. All but one of the fenbendazole-medicated groups showed 100% removal of A. dissimilis. The exception was that group that received fenbendazole at 15 ppm for 6 days, and that showed a 98.5% efficacy. The removal rate for H. gallinarum ranged from 78.6% (15 ppm for 3 days) to 100% (120 ppm for 3 days and 45 ppm for 6 days). The C. obsignata infections proved dose-limiting, with a removal rate ranging from 30.8% (15 ppm for 3 days) to 97.8% (45 ppm for 6 days).

  5. Soil-transmitted nematode infections and mebendazole treatment in Mafia Island schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Albonico, M; Ramsan, M; Wright, V; Jape, K; Haji, H J; Taylor, M; Savioli, L; Bickle, Q

    2002-10-01

    In August 2000, a cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted nematode infections in schoolchildren on Mafia Island. Hookworm infection was widespread (72.5% prevalence) whereas Trichuris trichiura was less prevalent (39.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides was present at a low prevalence (4.2%), mainly in urban areas. In a subsample of the study population, both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were found, although N. americanus was more prevalent. This survey was followed by a parasitological evaluation of mebendazole treatment using a single, 500-mg dose. The data on outcome were used for comparison with those from recent studies of similar treatment regimens in the neighbouring island of Pemba, Zanzibar, where periodic chemotherapy with mebendazole to schoolchildren has been implemented as part of a helminth-control programme since 1994. A higher efficacy of mebendazole against hookworm infection was found in Mafia Island (where a cure 'rate' of 31.3% and an egg-reduction 'rate' of 78.1% were recorded) when compared with that observed in Pemba Island, possibly indicating that hookworms may be developing mebendazole resistance on Pemba Island as a result of intense exposure to the drug there.

  6. Differential immune responses in mice infected with the tissue-dwelling nematode Trichinella zimbabwensis.

    PubMed

    Onkoba, W N; Chimbari, M J; Kamau, J M; Mukaratirwa, S

    2016-09-01

    To improve diagnostic tools, immunotherapies and vaccine development for trichinellosis surveillance and control there is a need to understand the host immune responses induced during infection with Trichinella zimbabwensis, a tissue-dwelling nematode. In this study, we sought to determine immune responses induced in mice during T. zimbabwensis infection. The parasite strain used (Code ISS1209) was derived from a naturally infected crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and is the main Trichinella species prevalent in southern Africa. Sixty 6- to 8-week-old female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to two equal groups: T. zimbabwensis-infected (n= 30) and the non-infected control group (n= 30). Levels of serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-4 (IL-4) as well as parasite-specific IgM, IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3 antibody responses were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cytokines and antibodies provided information on T-helper 1 (Th1)- and Th2-type, T-regulatory and antibody responses. Results showed that during the intestinal stage of infection, higher levels of parasite-specific IgM, IgG, IgG1 (P <  0.05) and IL-10 and TNF-α (P <  0.001) were observed in the Trichinella-infected group compared with the non-infected control group. In the parasite establishment and tissue migration phases, levels of IgG1 and IgG3 were elevated (P <  0.001), while those of IgM (P <  0.01) declined on days 21 and 35 post infection (pi) compared to the enteric phase. Our findings show that distinct differences in Th1- and Th2-type and T-regulatory responses are induced during the intestinal, tissue migration and larval establishment stages of T. zimbabwensis infection. PMID:26294082

  7. Mixed Infections of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Patients with Gastrointestinal Diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ju-Chun; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Li, Ju-Pi; Wu, Lii-Tzu; Wu, Hua-Shan; Sun, Yu-Chen; Lin, Mei-Ling; Lee, Ju-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Persistent Helicobacter pylori infection may induce several upper gastrointestinal diseases. Two major virulence factors of H. pylori, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), are thought to be associated with the severity of disease progression. The distribution of vacA and cag-pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) alleles varies in H. pylori isolated from patients in different geographic regions. Aim. To assess the association between mixed infection of H. pylori clinical isolates from Taiwanese patients and the severity of gastrointestinal diseases. Methods. A total of 70 patients were enrolled in this study. Six distinct and well-separated colonies were isolated from each patient and 420 colonies were analyzed to determine the genotypes of virulence genes. Results. The prevalence of mixed infections of all H. pylori-infected patients was 28.6% (20/70). The rate of mixed infections in patients with duodenal ulcer (47.6%) was much higher than that with other gastrointestinal diseases (P < 0.05). Conclusions. H. pylori mixed infections show high genetic diversity that may enhance bacterial adaptation to the hostile environment of the stomach and contribute to disease development. PMID:27738429

  8. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation. PMID:26535453

  9. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation.

  10. Effects of tannin-rich host plants on the infection and establishment of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Itamar; Salame, Liora; Dvash, Levana; Muklada, Hussein; Azaizeh, Hassan; Mreny, Raghda; Markovics, Alex; Landau, SergeYan

    2015-06-01

    Parasitized animals can self-medicate. As ingested plant phenolics, mainly tannins, reduce strongyle nematode infections in mammalian herbivores. We investigated the effect of plant extracts known to be anthelmintic in vertebrate herbivores on the recovery of the parasitic entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora infecting African cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). Nematode infective juveniles (IJs) were exposed to 0, 300, 900, 1200, 2400 ppm of Pistacia lentiscus L. (lentisk), Inula viscosa L. (strong-smelling inula), Quercus calliprinos Decne. (common oak) and Ceratonia siliqua L. (carob) extracts on growth medium (in vitro assay). In control treatments, 50-80% of IJs resumed development to J4, young and developed adult hermaphrodites, whereas all extracts, except for C. siliqua at 300 ppm, impaired IJ exsheathment and development. The highest concentration of I. viscosa extract (2400 ppm) had the strongest effect, killing 95% of exposed nematodes. Surviving nematodes did not recover, remaining at the IJ stage. Over the whole cycle, I. viscosa extract inhibited recovery to 25% or less, and did not allow full development to adulthood, whereas 65% of IJs in the control treatment recovered and resumed development, 12% reaching complete maturation within 72 h of incubation. When herbivorous S. littoralis larvae were fed with different plant extracts in vivo, I. viscosa had the strongest effect at concentrations above 300 ppm, with 90% of insect-invading IJs not developing to parasitic stages, whereas in the control treatment, 85% of IJs resumed development. Exposure to C. siliqua extract also inhibited exsheathment and development of 75% of the IJs. Half of those that resumed development reached full maturation. P. lentiscus and Q. calliprinos extracts also inhibited development of 50% IJs. Our results suggest that H. bacteriophora can be used to study herbal medication against parasites in animals. PMID:25935140

  11. Use of pathophysiological indicators for individual decision of anthelmintic treatment of ewes against gastro-intestinal nematodes in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ouzir, M; Berrag, B; Benjouad, A; Cabaret, J

    2011-08-25

    The targeted selective treatments (TST) aim at reducing the number of anthelmintic treatments but also to maintain productivity of animals. The aim of this work was to assess the validity of pathophysiological indicators for detecting individually ewes in need for treatments in two regions of Morocco with different management and climatic environment (Chaouia plain-seven farms, and Middle-Atlas-three farms). Although resistance to benzimidazoles was already present the same drug was used for TST. The indicators tested were: FAMACHA(©) (associated with anaemia), DISCO (diarrhoea score), and BODCON (body condition score). Only FAMACHA(©) and DISCO indicators were well correlated to the EPGs. DISCO only did permit a substantial reduction (up to 85%) of the number of treatment and EPG (nematode eggs per gramme) remained low on average (less than 160).

  12. Infection levels of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites of livestock cause diseases of important socio-economic concern worldwide. The present study investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in lowland and highland regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Faecal samples were collected from a total of 165 small ruminants (110 sheep and 55 goats) from February to April 2011. Analysis by a modified McMaster technique revealed that 128 animals (72% of sheep and 89% of goats) were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites. The gastrointestinal parasites found and their prevalences in sheep (S) and in goats (G) were as follows: strongyle 67.3% (S), 85.5% (G); Eimeria 17.3% (S), 16.4% (G); Strongyloides, 8.2% (S), 23.6% (G); Fasciola, 5.5% (S), 18.2% (G); Trichuris, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G); and Nematodirus, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G). Two additional genera were found in goats: Moniezia (9.1%) and Dictocaulus (3.6%). This is the first study to quantitatively examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats in PNG. The high rates of parasitism observed in the present study are likely to be associated with poor farming management practices, including lack of pasture recovery time, lack of parasite control measures and poor-quality feed.

  13. Observations on the phenotypic relationships between anti-CarLA salivary IgA antibody response, nematode infection levels and growth rates in farmed red (Cervus elaphus) and wapiti hybrid deer (Cervus elaphus canadensis).

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, C G; Johnstone, P; Shaw, R J

    2014-06-16

    Nematode parasites are one of the most significant production limiting factors in farmed deer in New Zealand. One long term strategy to reduce reliance on anthelmintics is to select deer that develop resistance to parasites. It has been shown in sheep that secretory antibody (IgA) in the saliva against a Carbohydrate Larval Antigen (CarLA) on infective larvae (L3) of a wide range of gastro-intestinal nematodes protects against reinfection. This paper describes a longitudinal slaughter study undertaken to measure anti-CarLA IgA antibody (CarLA-IgA) levels in the saliva of 5-12 month old farmed red and wapiti-cross-red deer (wapx) grazed together and to attempt to relate these levels to parasite burdens and productivity. The study showed that salivary CarLA-IgA levels peaked in June (late autumn) and October (mid spring), but the levels in wapx deer were significantly lower than in red deer. Over the May-December period 55% of red deer had CarLA-IgA values ≥2 units compared with 26% of wapx deer and over this period red deer had consistently lower adult abomasal parasite burdens than wapx deer. The average number of adult abomasal nematodes was significantly lower at each slaughter from May to December for all deer with CarLA-IgA ≥2 units vs <2 units. There were no demonstrable correlations with liveweight gain in these small groups of deer.

  14. Observations on the foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, infecting tuberose and rice in India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foliar nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi causes white tip disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and floral malady in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). This nematode is widely distributed in the rice fields of many states of India, including West Bengal (WB), Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) a...

  15. Transcriptome analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars infected with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops (Castagnone-Sereno et al. 2013) and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields...

  16. Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection.

    PubMed

    Licona-Limón, Paula; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Temann, Angela U; Gagliani, Nicola; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Ishigame, Harumichi; Hao, Liming; Herbert, De'broski R; Flavell, Richard A

    2013-10-17

    Type 2 inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial, and the importance of IL-9- versus IL-4-producing CD4⁺ effector T cells in type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9-deficient and IL-9-fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas T helper 9 (Th9) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells, caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia, and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and nonredundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host-protective type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection.

  17. Mortality of Creole kids during infection with gastrointestinal strongyles: a survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Mandonnet, N; Ducrocq, V; Arquet, R; Aumont, G

    2003-10-01

    Mortality due to strongyles infection in small ruminants is a critical component of flock productivity in a tropical climate. In goat production, few experiments have been conducted to estimate the variability of this trait. A survival analysis study was carried out in the Creole experimental flock of INRA-Gardel (Moule, Guadeloupe) to identify management and genetic factors influencing mortality of kids reared at pasture and infected with gastrointestinal strongyles, predominantly Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Survival curves from 3 and 11 mo of age were analyzed for 837 kids sired by 48 bucks and 250 does. The causes of death were recorded. Mortality due to gastrointestinal strongyles was the variable considered. The flock management included drenchings with levamisole every 8 wk. Fecal egg counts and packed cell volume were regularly measured after 7 wk of natural infection. All but 6.7% of the records were uncensored, with an average failure time of 165 d. The probability of death following gastrointestinal infection was more than three times greater in males than in females. Kids raised by their mother before weaning had a lower (P < 0.05) relative risk of dying than those reared in nursery (0.40 vs. 1). Parity of the dam and litter size effects were not significant. The risk of death was reduced by approximately 80% during the 3 wk that followed a drenching (P < 0.01). Risk decreased by about 25% for each additional kilogram of body weight at weaning. Live weight, fecal egg counts, and packed cell volume all had significant effects on risk of death when introduced as time-dependent covariates in the model (P < 0.0001 for live weight and packed cell volume, and P < 0.01 for fecal egg counts). The estimated genetic variability was small and inaccurate. These results demonstrated that risk of death from gastrointestinal infection could be reduced with appropriate flock management. High infection levels increased the risk of death, but

  18. Prevention and management of gastrointestinal infections in infants from a nutritional perspective.

    PubMed

    Purssell, Edward

    2009-01-01

    This article considers infections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This is a complex organ, which exists in a range of environments. Despite containing defence mechanisms against microorganisms, GI infections are common throughout infancy; however, the risk of infection can be reduced through careful hygiene and the encouragement of breast-feeding. Although research into the role of dietary factors in preventing or treating GI infection is in its early days, there is some evidence for the use of prebiotics and probiotics. The role of health care professionals is to give parents and carers advice to manage these infections, and to differentiate those infants at risk of dehydration, or those where diarrhoea and vomiting signifies something more serious. Informing parents and carers about the treatment and management of minor ailments will also help avoid unnecessary demand on the health service associated with regular consultation about these conditions. PMID:20120883

  19. Acid inhibition and infections outside the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Vakil, Nimish

    2009-03-01

    Acid-inhibitory agents can alter the flora of the stomach, and epidemiologic studies suggest an association between the use of these agents and the development of pneumonia. Microbiologic studies suggest that a causal association may be biologically plausible because gastric colonization with organisms can occur in patients taking acid suppressive agents. In mechanically ventilated patients, colonization of the oropharynx and stomach may predispose to Gram-negative pneumonias. Despite the associations between acid inhibitor use and pneumonia shown in some studies, the data on community-acquired pneumonias are not conclusive. In clinical practice, prudence would dictate that the need for acid inhibition with histamine-2 receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors should be carefully considered in patients who are at risk for pneumonias (elderly patients with chronic lung disease who are on immunosuppressive drugs or corticosteroids and patients with recurrent lung infections requiring frequent antibiotic therapy).

  20. Kinetics of infective juvenile production of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae in submerged monoxenic culture.

    PubMed

    Chavarría-Hernández, Norberto; Islas-López, Marco-Antonio; Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Gayosso-Canales, Martha; Rodríguez-Hernández, Adriana-Inés

    2008-08-01

    The effects of culture medium formulations on the kinetics of infective juvenile (IJ) production of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae in submerged monoxenic culture, were studied at the cylindrical-bottle scale using six culture media containing agave juice from Agave spp. among other ingredients. The IJ production kinetics was well modelled through a re-parameterised 3-parameter Gompertz model with kinetic parameters: IJ-lag phase lambda (IJ) (day), maximum IJ-stage production rate m (max )(day(-1)), and IJ-multiplication factor (C (IJ)/C (IJ,0))(max)(-). The variation of lambda (IJ) was not very important within fermentations (10.3-16.2 days); nonetheless, important effects were observed on m (max) (32.8-241.2 days(-1)) and (C (IJ)/C (IJ,0))(max) (66(-) to 611.4(-)). Particularly, maximum values of m (max) and (C (IJ)/C (IJ,0))(max) were obtained in medium A4 (0.276 l l(-1) agave juice, 17 g l(-1) yeast extract, 12 g l(-1) dried egg yolk, 0.025 l l(-1) corn oil). Also, the maximum IJ concentration (249,444 per ml) was achieved in A4-fermentations. PMID:18074155

  1. Infectivity of scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) following in vitro digestion with bovine gastrointestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Scherbel, C; Pichner, R; Groschup, M H; Mueller-Hellwig, S; Scherer, S; Dietrich, R; Maertlbauer, E; Gareis, M

    2007-01-01

    The influence of a complex microflora residing in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle on the prion protein plays a crucial role with respect to early pathogenesis and the potential infectivity of faeces resulting in contamination of the environment. It is unknown whether infectious prion proteins, considered to be very stable, are inactivated by microbial processes in the gastrointestinal tract of animals during digestion. In our previous study it was shown that the scrapie-associated prion protein was degraded by ruminal and colonic microbiota of cattle, as indicated by a loss of anti-prion antibody 3F4 immunoreactivity in Western blot. Subsequently, in this study hamster bioassays with the pre-treated samples were performed. Although the PrP(Sc) signal was reduced up to immunochemically undetectable levels within 40 h of pre-treatment, significant residual prion infectivity was retained after degradation of infected hamster brain through the gastrointestinal microflora of cattle. The data presented here show that the loss of anti-prion antibody 3F4 immunoreactivity is obviously not correlated with a biological inactivation of PrP(Sc). These results highlight the deficiency of using Western blot in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies inactivation assessment studies and, additionally, point to the possibility of environmental contamination with faeces containing PrP(Sc) following an oral ingestion of prions.

  2. Infectivity of scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) following in vitro digestion with bovine gastrointestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Scherbel, C; Pichner, R; Groschup, M H; Mueller-Hellwig, S; Scherer, S; Dietrich, R; Maertlbauer, E; Gareis, M

    2007-01-01

    The influence of a complex microflora residing in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle on the prion protein plays a crucial role with respect to early pathogenesis and the potential infectivity of faeces resulting in contamination of the environment. It is unknown whether infectious prion proteins, considered to be very stable, are inactivated by microbial processes in the gastrointestinal tract of animals during digestion. In our previous study it was shown that the scrapie-associated prion protein was degraded by ruminal and colonic microbiota of cattle, as indicated by a loss of anti-prion antibody 3F4 immunoreactivity in Western blot. Subsequently, in this study hamster bioassays with the pre-treated samples were performed. Although the PrP(Sc) signal was reduced up to immunochemically undetectable levels within 40 h of pre-treatment, significant residual prion infectivity was retained after degradation of infected hamster brain through the gastrointestinal microflora of cattle. The data presented here show that the loss of anti-prion antibody 3F4 immunoreactivity is obviously not correlated with a biological inactivation of PrP(Sc). These results highlight the deficiency of using Western blot in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies inactivation assessment studies and, additionally, point to the possibility of environmental contamination with faeces containing PrP(Sc) following an oral ingestion of prions. PMID:17542960

  3. Diagnosis before treatment: Identifying dairy farmers' determinants for the adoption of sustainable practices in gastrointestinal nematode control.

    PubMed

    Vande Velde, F; Claerebout, E; Cauberghe, V; Hudders, L; Van Loo, H; Vercruysse, J; Charlier, J

    2015-09-15

    of the predictors for young stock and adult dairy cows. The results of this study can be used to develop communication strategies to advertise sustainable nematode control on dairy farms.

  4. Diagnosis before treatment: Identifying dairy farmers' determinants for the adoption of sustainable practices in gastrointestinal nematode control.

    PubMed

    Vande Velde, F; Claerebout, E; Cauberghe, V; Hudders, L; Van Loo, H; Vercruysse, J; Charlier, J

    2015-09-15

    of the predictors for young stock and adult dairy cows. The results of this study can be used to develop communication strategies to advertise sustainable nematode control on dairy farms. PMID:26238655

  5. Physiological and parasitological responses to nematode infections of fattening cattle in the Western Pampas of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Suarez, V H; Lorenzo, R M; Busetti, M R; Santucho, G M

    1999-02-25

    The epidemiology of nematode infection was studied in fattening grazing cattle from weaning (April 1994) to market at the end of their second autumn (July 1995). Sixty Aberdeen Angus calves of seven months of age were randomly allocated by weight to two groups: GT, treated every three weeks with doramectin (200 mcg/kg); and GI, an infected group, only treated with fenbendazole (7.5 mg/kg) at weaning and on the 1st of October. The two groups were grazed together on contaminated lucerne pastures until July, on 'clean' oat pastures until October and again on contaminated lucerne until the end of the trial. Fecal egg counts (epg), herbage larvae (L3), serum pepsinogen (Pep) and blood eosinophils (Eo) were evaluated monthly. Eight steers were slaughtered for worm recovery, three in July 1994, three in December 1994 and two in July 1995. Grazing feed intake was estimated by fecal output (chromic oxide method)/l-diet digestibility and to measure non-specific response, Brucella antibodies were detected at 11 and 40 days post-vaccination in early winter. Fecal egg counts, Pep and Eo of GI increased (P<0.01) from April to July when there was a moderate-to-high level of infection. Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus and Cooperia were the predominant genera. By late winter, all parameters decreased on oat 'clean' pastures and increased again when cattle returned to moderately infected lucerne. During summer, the parameters measured reflected the negligible numbers of L3 on pastures until early autumn. At this time, increased numbers of L3 were followed by a moderate rise (P<0.01) of epg, Pep and Eo values. During winter, GT showed higher (P<0.04) Brucella antibody IgG titers while feed intake of GI was 24.9% depressed (P<0.02). There were total cumulative weight-gain (WG) differences (P<0.001) between groups (GT=263.1 kg; GI=214.3 kg). During the second autumn, the mean WG of GT steers was 16.6 kg greater (P<0.04) than that of GI. Vaccination titres against Brucella suggested non

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of pyrantel-oxantel for the treatment of soil-transmitted nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Albonico, Marco; Bickle, Quentin; Haji, Hamad J; Ramsan, Mahdi; Khatib, Khatib J; Montresor, Antonio; Savioli, Lorenzo; Taylor, Martin

    2002-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of pyrantel-oxantel (10 mg/kg) with mebendazole (500 mg) was performed on 1329 schoolchildren aged 6-9 years on Pemba Island in September-October 2000 to evaluate alternative single-dose drugs for regular treatment of intestinal nematode infections. Both mebendazole and pyrantel-oxantel were very effective in eliminating Ascaris lumbricoides infection, inducing cure rates of more than 96% and reducing the mean egg counts by more than 95%. Both drugs had a moderate efficacy against Trichuris trichiura infection, but pyrantel-oxantel had a higher cure rate (31.5% vs. 23.3%, P < 0.01), though the reductions in egg counts did not differ significantly and were more than 80%. Pyrantel-oxantel and mebendazole had a similar, poor efficacy in curing hookworm infections and had a moderate effect in reducing the egg counts by 67% and 68%, respectively. Pyrantel-oxantel (10 mg/kg) offers a valuable alternative to mebendazole as a single-dose treatment for the control of intestinal nematode infections in children in endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, due to its comparable efficacy, its low cost and its suitability for use in young children.

  7. Powerful colloidal silver nanoparticles for the prevention of gastrointestinal bacterial infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Tam Le, Thi; Quy Nguyen, Van; Hoang Tran, Huy; Dang, Duc Anh; Tran, Quang Huy; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2012-12-01

    In this work we have demonstrated a powerful disinfectant ability of colloidal silver nanoparticles (NPs) for the prevention of gastrointestinal bacterial infections. The silver NPs colloid was synthesized by a UV-enhanced chemical precipitation. Two gastrointestinal bacterial strains of Escherichia coli (ATCC 43888-O157:k-:H7) and Vibrio cholerae (O1) were used to verify the antibacterial activity of the as-prepared silver NPs colloid by means of surface disinfection assay in agar plates and turbidity assay in liquid media. Transmission electron microscopy was also employed to analyze the ultrastructural changes of bacterial cells caused by silver NPs. Noticeably, our silver NPs colloid displayed a highly effective bactericidal effect against two tested gastrointestinal bacterial strains at a silver concentration as low as ˜3 mg l-1. More importantly, the silver NPs colloid showed an enhancement of antibacterial activity and long-lasting disinfectant effect as compared to conventional chloramin B (5%) disinfection agent. These advantages of the as-prepared colloidal silver NPs make them very promising for environmental treatments contaminated with gastrointestinal bacteria and other infectious pathogens. Moreover, the powerful disinfectant activity of silver-containing materials can also help in controlling and preventing further outbreak of diseases.

  8. Malnutrition and Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Infections in Children: A Public Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Leonor; Cervantes, Elsa; Ortiz, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, particularly in children. Increasing evidence suggests that protein-calorie malnutrition is the underlying reason for the increased susceptibility to infections observed in these areas. Moreover, certain infectious diseases also cause malnutrition, which can result in a vicious cycle. Malnutrition and bacterial gastrointestinal and respiratory infections represent a serious public health problem. The increased incidence and severity of infections in malnourished children is largely due to the deterioration of immune function; limited production and/or diminished functional capacity of all cellular components of the immune system have been reported in malnutrition. In this review, we analyze the cyclical relationship between malnutrition, immune response dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infectious disease, and metabolic responses that further alter nutritional status. The consequences of malnutrition are diverse and included: increased susceptibility to infection, impaired child development, increased mortality rate and individuals who come to function in suboptimal ways. PMID:21695035

  9. Genetic diversity and infection levels of anisakid nematodes parasitic in fish and marine mammals from Boreal and Austral hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2007-08-19

    Anisakid nematodes have complex life-cycles that include invertebrate and vertebrate hosts at various levels of the marine food chain. Different types of habitat disturbances of the marine ecosystem (pollution, overfishing, by-catch) could impoverish the host population size, resulting in concomitant and detrimental effects on parasitic nematode populations. This in turn would lead to the loss of genetic diversity of these parasites at both the species and population levels. In order to test for a correlation existing between the genetic diversity of anisakid nematodes and habitat disturbance, the genetic variability, estimated by nuclear markers (19 allozyme loci), was evaluated among several anisakid populations from fish and marine mammals in various areas of the Boreal and Austral regions. Antarctic and sub-antarctic populations showed significantly (P<0.001) higher levels of genetic diversity (on average, He=0.23) than those from the Arctic and sub-Arctic populations and species (on average, He=0.07). Correlations between the degree of genetic variability and the levels of parasitic infections within their hosts were considered. Data revealed higher intensities in anisakid infections in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic hosts, presumably resulting from a lower degree of habitat disturbance in less stressed areas. The absence of disturbance presumably allowed anisakid species to reach a larger population size, with a reduced probability of genetic drift in their gene pools. This suggests that anisakid nematodes, and their levels of genetic diversity may be suitable indicators of the integrity of marine food webs and of the general biodiversity of a marine ecosystem.

  10. Nematode infection triggers the de novo formation of unloading phloem that allows macromolecular trafficking of green fluorescent protein into syncytia.

    PubMed

    Hoth, Stefan; Schneidereit, Alexander; Lauterbach, Christian; Scholz-Starke, Joachim; Sauer, Norbert

    2005-05-01

    Syncytial feeding complexes induced by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii represent strong metabolic sinks for photoassimilates. These newly formed structures were described to be symplastically isolated from the surrounding root tissue and their mechanism of carbohydrate import has repeatedly been under investigation. Here, we present analyses of the symplastic connectivity between the root phloem and these syncytia in nematode-infected Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants expressing the gene of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or of different GFP fusions under the control of the companion cell (CC)-specific AtSUC2 promoter. In the same plants, phloem differentiation during syncytium formation was monitored using cell-specific antibodies for CCs or sieve elements (SEs). Our results demonstrate that free, CC-derived GFP moved freely from the phloem into the syncytial domain. No or only marginal cell-to-cell passage of GFP was observed into other root cells adjacent to these syncytia. In contrast, membrane-anchored GFP variants as well as soluble GFP fusions with increased molecular masses were restricted to the SE-CC complex. The presented data also show that nematode infection triggers the de novo formation of phloem containing an approximately 3-fold excess of SEs over CCs. This newly formed phloem exhibits typical properties of unloading phloem previously described in other sink tissues. Our results reveal the existence of a symplastic pathway between phloem CCs and nematode-induced syncytia. The plasmodesmata responsible for this symplastic connectivity allow the cell-to-cell movement of macromolecules up to 30 kD and are likely to represent the major or exclusive path for the supply of assimilates from the phloem into the syncytial complex. PMID:15849304

  11. Multiple Simultaneous Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Del Pilar-Morales, Esteban A; Cardona-Rodríguez, Zaydalee; Bertrán-Pasarell, Jorge; Soto-Malave, Ruth; De León-Borras, Rafeal

    2016-06-01

    Patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at high risk for gastrointestinal infections causing diarrhea, particularly when those infections are parasitic in nature. This propensity is more pronounced in AIDS, where opportunistic parasitic infections may cause severe diarrhea, marked absorptive dysfunction, and significant risk of mortality. There are scant data regarding parasitic infections among HIV patients in the developed world; most studies and research come from povertystricken areas of South Africa, India, Iran, and the South Pacific. Although multiple infections with the same or different parasites have been reported, simultaneous infections are rare. We present the case of a 35-year-old man who developed a co-infection with Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Strongyloides, simultaneously, the diagnosis being made after the judicious evaluation of a stool sample. Given the associated morbidity, prompt diagnosis and treatment are needed to avoid further complications in patients with HIV. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of triple parasitic infection in a patient with HIV.

  12. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects ...

  13. The effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on infection with the nematodes Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves.

    PubMed

    Muturi, K N; Scaife, J R; Lomax, M A; Jackson, F; Huntley, J; Coop, R L

    2005-05-15

    Diet-induced changes in the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of immune cells influences the immune phenotype that develops following infection. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating dietary PUFA supply on tissue fatty acids composition and immunity to a mixed infection with an abomasal and an intestinal nematode parasite in calves. Calves (n=24) were allocated into two treatment groups and fed 25 g/day of either fish oil (n-3 group) or a binary mixture of palm/rapeseed oil (normal group) as a supplement in milk replacer. Within each treatment group eight calves were infected with 2000 L3 Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora, three times per week for 8 weeks, the remaining calves were pair-fed uninfected controls. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were carried out twice weekly. At slaughter, the whole gut was removed intact for worm counts and tissue samples were taken for fatty acid analysis. Samples of abomasum, duodenum and mid-gut were also collected for immunohistological analysis. FEC were not significantly influenced by oil supplement but tended to remain higher in the palm/rapeseed oil-fed group (normal infected). The number of intestinal immature worms was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the n-3 group. Mucosal mast cell (MMC) and eosinophil numbers were significantly increased (p<0.05) by infection and were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the intestinal tissue of the fish oil supplemented and infected group (n-3 infected group). These results suggest that feeding an n-3 PUFA-rich supplement (fish oil) can influence cellular mediators of immunity to nematode infection. This is the first report of the establishment of patency and the subsequent development of immunity to a mixed infection with O. ostertagi and C. oncophora in calves undergoing early rumen development. The trend in the FEC, MMC and eosinophil numbers in the n-3 group suggests that decreasing the dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio may be a worthwhile immunonutritional

  14. Use of Ivermectin as Endoparasiticide in Tropical Cattle Herds Generates Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes and the Tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Alegría-López, M A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine simultaneously the status of resistance against ivermectin (IVM) in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) ticks in 12 cattle farms where IVM was used for the control of GIN in the Mexican tropics. Six farms had frequent use of IVM (≥ 4 times per year) and six farms had low frequency of IVM use (1-2 times per year). The fecal egg count reduction test and the larval immersion test were used to determine the resistant status of GIN and R. microplus against IVM, respectively. The results indicated that 100% of the surveyed farms had IVM-resistant GIN (reduction % from 0 to 67%). The genera involved were Haemonchus, Cooperia, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, and Oesophagostomum. Although the IVM was never used for the control of ticks, 50% of the surveyed farms presented GIN and R. microplus simultaneously resistant to IVM. Furthermore, two R. microplus populations showed high resistance ratio (RR) to IVM (farm TAT: RR50% = 7 and RR99% = 40.1; and farm SLS: RR50% = 2.4; RR99% = 11.0). A high frequency of IVM use (≥ 4 times per year) seemed to promote IVM resistance amongst R. microplus ticks compared with the farms with low frequency of IVM use (1-2 times per year; 66.6 vs. 25.0%, respectively). However, the number of surveyed farms was insufficient to show clear statistical inferences (odds ratio = 6.00; 95% CI = 0.341-105.5). The use of IVM for the control of GIN promoted simultaneously the development of IVM resistance in the GIN and R. microplus populations of the cattle herds surveyed. PMID:26336306

  15. Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah and Hirschmann (Tylenchida: Meloidoginidae) Infection in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Molina, J. P.; Dolinski, C.; Souza, R. M.; Lewis, E. E.

    2007-01-01

    Some studies suggest that entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) affect plant-parasitic nematode populations. Here, the effects of live and dead IJ of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora JPM4, H. baujardi LPP7, Steinernema feltiae SN and S. carpocapsae All were evaluated against eggs and J2 of the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. According to treatment, 100 IJ were applied with 350 eggs, 350 J2 or 175 eggs + 175 J2 to tomato plants. Bioassays were conducted in March to May and repeated in September to November 2005. Both experiments lasted 9 weeks, and the variable evaluated was number of galls per plant. When eggs were used for infections in the first trial, plants exhibited lower gall number compared to control when live and dead H. baujardi IJ and live S. feltiae IJ were added (9.7, 4.5, 7.3 and 85.7 galls, respectively). In the second trial, live S. feltiae and S. carpocapasae IJ influenced gall formation compared to control (14.33, 14.57 and 168.02 galls, respectively). When J2 were used for infections, plants with live H. baujardi IJ presented less galls when compared to control in both trials (38.3 and 355.7 galls in the first trial and 145.2 and 326.2 in the second one, respectively). Infection with a mixture of J2 and eggs resulted in fewer galls than when live S. feltiae IJ were present in both trials, compared to control (38.3 and 44.2 galls vs. 275.3 and 192.2 galls, respectively). We conclude that H. baujardi and S. feltiae apparently may be inhibiting egg hatching and J2 infection. PMID:19259509

  16. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Gastrointestinal Parasite Infection in a Developing Nation Environment

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Douglas R.; Benshoff, Matthew; Cáceres, Mercedes; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Cortes, Loreto; Martin, Christopher F.; Schmulson, Max; Peña, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Postinfectious IBS is defined in the industrialized world as IBS onset following a sentinel gastrointestinal infection. In developing nations, where repeated bacterial and parasitic gastrointestinal infections are common, the IBS pathophysiology may be altered. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between intestinal parasite infection and IBS in the “nonsterile” developing world environment. IBS subjects were identified from a population-based sample of 1624 participants using the Rome II Modular Questionnaire. Stool samples from cases and randomly selected controls were examined for ova and parasites. Logistic regression models explored the relationship between IBS and parasite infection. The overall IBS prevalence among participants was 13.2% (9.3% males, 15.9% females). There was no difference in parasite carriage between IBS cases and controls, 16.6% versus 15.4% (P = 0.78), nor among IBS subtypes. The pathophysiology of post-infectious IBS may be altered in the developing world as compared to industrialized nations and warrants investigation. PMID:22474433

  17. Probiotics and respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections in Finnish military conscripts - a randomised placebo-controlled double-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Kalima, K; Lehtoranta, L; He, L; Pitkäniemi, J; Lundell, R; Julkunen, I; Roivainen, M; Närkiö, M; Mäkelä, M J; Siitonen, S; Korpela, R; Pitkäranta, A

    2016-09-01

    Military conscripts are susceptible to respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. In previous studies probiotics have shown potency to reduce upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The aim was to study whether probiotic intervention has an impact on seasonal occurrence of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in two different conscript groups. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled study (https://clinicaltrials.gov NCT01651195), a total of 983 healthy adults were enrolled from two intakes of conscripts. Conscripts were randomised to receive either a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12 (BB12) or a control chewing tablet twice daily for 150 days (recruits) or for 90 days (reserve officer candidates). Clinical examinations were carried out and daily symptom diaries were collected. Outcome measures were the number of days with respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and symptom incidence, number and duration of infection episodes, number of antibiotic treatments received and number of days out of service because of the infection. Statistically no significant differences were found between the intervention groups either in the risk of symptom incidence or duration. However, probiotic intervention was associated with reduction of specific respiratory infection symptoms in military recruits, but not in reserve officer candidates. Probiotics did not significantly reduce overall respiratory and gastrointestinal infection morbidity. PMID:27048835

  18. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii

    PubMed Central

    Fosu-Nyarko, John; Nicol, Paul; Naz, Fareeha; Gill, Reetinder; Jones, Michael G. K.

    2016-01-01

    The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668) with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii. PMID:26824923

  19. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii.

    PubMed

    Fosu-Nyarko, John; Nicol, Paul; Naz, Fareeha; Gill, Reetinder; Jones, Michael G K

    2016-01-01

    The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668) with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii. PMID:26824923

  20. Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections among Young Population in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra; Fontes, Gilberto; Dos Santos, Célia Dias; Dos Santos, Rafael Vital; da Rocha, Eliana Maria Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem that is frequently associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation, and the nutritional status of the population. Objective. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible association of parasitic infections, sanitary conditions, hygiene practices, and the nutritional and socioeconomic status of a poor youth population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 367 children and adolescents inhabiting a substandard settlement in the urban area of Maceió (Alagoas State, Brazil). Data collection included socioeconomic status, anthropometric measurements, fecal sample examinations, and laboratory blood analysis. The identification of factors associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections was undertaken through bi- and multivariate analyses. Results. Stool sample analysis obtained from 300 individuals revealed that 204 (68%) were infected with at least one parasite species and of these 130 (63.7%) were polyparasitized. No significant associations were identified between low height for age (stunted), parasitic infections, and polyparasitism. There was also no association between family income and parasitosis. However, low socioeconomic status proved to be a potential risk factor for parasitic infections. Conclusion. Actions must be taken to improve sanitation, housing, and environmental conditions in order to eliminate the risk factors for parasitic infections, and thereby guarantee a better quality of life for this population. PMID:27528878

  1. Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections among Young Population in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra; Fontes, Gilberto; dos Santos, Célia Dias; dos Santos, Rafael Vital

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem that is frequently associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation, and the nutritional status of the population. Objective. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible association of parasitic infections, sanitary conditions, hygiene practices, and the nutritional and socioeconomic status of a poor youth population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 367 children and adolescents inhabiting a substandard settlement in the urban area of Maceió (Alagoas State, Brazil). Data collection included socioeconomic status, anthropometric measurements, fecal sample examinations, and laboratory blood analysis. The identification of factors associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections was undertaken through bi- and multivariate analyses. Results. Stool sample analysis obtained from 300 individuals revealed that 204 (68%) were infected with at least one parasite species and of these 130 (63.7%) were polyparasitized. No significant associations were identified between low height for age (stunted), parasitic infections, and polyparasitism. There was also no association between family income and parasitosis. However, low socioeconomic status proved to be a potential risk factor for parasitic infections. Conclusion. Actions must be taken to improve sanitation, housing, and environmental conditions in order to eliminate the risk factors for parasitic infections, and thereby guarantee a better quality of life for this population. PMID:27528878

  2. Dynamics and establishment of Clostridium difficile infection in the murine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Koenigsknecht, Mark J; Theriot, Casey M; Bergin, Ingrid L; Schumacher, Cassie A; Schloss, Patrick D; Young, Vincent B

    2015-03-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) following antibiotic therapy is a major public health threat. While antibiotic disruption of the indigenous microbiota underlies the majority of cases of CDI, the early dynamics of infection in the disturbed intestinal ecosystem are poorly characterized. This study defines the dynamics of infection with C. difficile strain VPI 10463 throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract using a murine model of infection. After inducing susceptibility to C. difficile colonization via antibiotic administration, we followed the dynamics of spore germination, colonization, sporulation, toxin activity, and disease progression throughout the GI tract. C. difficile spores were able to germinate within 6 h postchallenge, resulting in the establishment of vegetative bacteria in the distal GI tract. Spores and cytotoxin activity were detected by 24 h postchallenge, and histopathologic colitis developed by 30 h. Within 36 h, all infected mice succumbed to infection. We correlated the establishment of infection with changes in the microbiota and bile acid profile of the small and large intestines. Antibiotic administration resulted in significant changes to the microbiota in the small and large intestines, as well as a significant shift in the abundance of primary and secondary bile acids. Ex vivo analysis suggested the small intestine as the site of spore germination. This study provides an integrated understanding of the timing and location of the events surrounding C. difficile colonization and identifies potential targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  3. Microbial population dynamics in the hemolymph of Manduca sexta infected with Xenorhabdus nematophila and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    PubMed

    Singh, Swati; Reese, Jordan M; Casanova-Torres, Angel M; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi; Forst, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Xenorhabdus nematophila engages in a mutualistic association with the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae. The nematode invades and traverses the gut of susceptible insects. X. nematophila is released in the insect blood (hemolymph), where it suppresses host immune responses and functions as a pathogen. X. nematophila produces diverse antimicrobials in laboratory cultures. The natural competitors that X. nematophila encounters in the hemolymph and the role of antimicrobials in interspecies competition in the host are poorly understood. We show that gut microbes translocate into the hemolymph when the nematode penetrates the insect intestine. During natural infection, Staphylococcus saprophyticus was initially present and subsequently disappeared from the hemolymph, while Enterococcus faecalis proliferated. S. saprophyticus was sensitive to X. nematophila antibiotics and was eliminated from the hemolymph when coinjected with X. nematophila. In contrast, E. faecalis was relatively resistant to X. nematophila antibiotics. When injected by itself, E. faecalis persisted (~10(3) CFU/ml), but when coinjected with X. nematophila, it proliferated to ~10(9) CFU/ml. Injection of E. faecalis into the insect caused the upregulation of an insect antimicrobial peptide, while the transcript levels were suppressed when E. faecalis was coinjected with X. nematophila. Its relative antibiotic resistance together with suppression of the host immune system by X. nematophila may account for the growth of E. faecalis. At higher injected levels (10(6) CFU/insect), E. faecalis could kill insects, suggesting that it may contribute to virulence in an X. nematophila infection. These findings provide new insights into the competitive events that occur early in infection after S. carpocapsae invades the host hemocoel. PMID:24814780

  4. Regulation of Rac1 and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Response to Infection of Gastrointestinal Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Ablack, Amber; Hall, Emily H.; Butcher, Lindsay D.; Bhattacharyya, Asima; Eckmann, Lars; Harris, Paul R.; Das, Soumita; Ernst, Peter B.; Crowe, Sheila E.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during infection is an immediate host defense leading to microbial killing. APE1 is a multifunctional protein induced by ROS and after induction, protects against ROS-mediated DNA damage. Rac1 and NAPDH oxidase (Nox1) are important contributors of ROS generation following infection and associated with gastrointestinal epithelial injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if APE1 regulates the function of Rac1 and Nox1 during oxidative stress. Gastric or colonic epithelial cells (wild-type or with suppressed APE1) were infected with Helicobacter pylori or Salmonella enterica and assessed for Rac1 and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production. Rac1 and APE1 interactions were measured by co-immunoprecipitation, confocal microscopy and proximity ligation assay (PLA) in cell lines or in biopsy specimens. Significantly greater levels of ROS were produced by APE1-deficient human gastric and colonic cell lines and primary gastric epithelial cells compared to control cells after infection with either gastric or enteric pathogens. H. pylori activated Rac1 and Nox1 in all cell types, but activation was higher in APE1 suppressed cells. APE1 overexpression decreased H. pylori-induced ROS generation, Rac1 activation, and Nox1 expression. We determined that the effects of APE1 were mediated through its N-terminal lysine residues interacting with Rac1, leading to inhibition of Nox1 expression and ROS generation. APE1 is a negative regulator of oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal epithelium during bacterial infection by modulating Rac1 and Nox1. Our results implicate APE1 in novel molecular interactions that regulate early stress responses elicited by microbial infections. PMID:26761793

  5. Resistance to Gastrointestinal nematodse of cattle: Identification of genomic regions affecting resistance and potential mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode infections remain a major economic drain on the efficient raising of cattle throughout the world. The recent demonstrations of the appearance of drug resistance in these parasites underscores the problems associated with a complete reliance on anthelmintics to control econ...

  6. Infectivity, distribution, and persistence of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae all strain (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) applied by sprinklers or boom sprayer to dry-pick cranberries.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A E; Fitzpatrick, S M; Webster, J M

    1999-06-01

    We evaluated infectivity, distribution, and persistence of commercially produced Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) All strain applied through solid set sprinkler irrigation or boom sprayer to 2 dry-pick cranberry farms on peat soil in British Columbia in 1993. Most infectivity assays used Galleria mellonella (L.) larvae. When possible, larvae of the target pest, Otiorynchus sulcatas (F.) were used as assay organisms. Nematodes in almost all samples of nematode suspensions diluted from shipping containers, from spray tanks, or collected in cups after passage through application equipment were infective to G. mellonella larvae. When O. sulcatus larvae were used as assay organisms, 93% (n = 14) of assays from the spray tank and 67% (n = 12) of assays after application showed infectivity. In the spring, sprinklers delivered nematodes to only 15 of 20 sample points on the 0.2-ha plot; delivery by the boom sprayer was better but 2 of 20 points on the 0.2-ha plot received approximately twice as many nematodes as the other points. In the fall, nematode delivery by both systems was more even. However, the average number of nematodes per milliliter of sprayed water collected from the 20 samples on each farm after each application did not correspond to the rates of nematodes applied. Persistence of nematodes in the soil was encouraging, but percentage of infectivity was lower than expected. After application in the spring, assays using G. mellonella larvae showed the presence of infective nematodes in soil samples (0-5 and 5-10 cm deep) on each sampling day (0, 3, 7, and 25) after application by boom sprayer, and on days 0, 3, and 7 after application through sprinklers. In the fall, G. mellonella assays showed infective nematodes in soil samples on each sampling day (0, 3, 7, and 25) after application by boom sprayer, and on days 0, 3, 7, 35, 60, 135, and 250 after application through sprinklers. In the spring, when assays lasted 4 d, percentage of infectivity rose to a

  7. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in a Group of Egyptian Children With Upper Gastro-Intestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    El-Mazary, Abdel-Azeem M.; Elfoly, Mostafa A.; Ahmed, Magdy F.; Abdel-Hamed, Waleed M.; Hassan, Zmzm M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a life threatening condition in children. Common sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children include mucosal lesions and variceal hemorrhage. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative spiral-shaped bacterium that is found in the gastric mucous layer or adherent to the epithelial lining of the stomach. It causes more than 90% of duodenal ulcers and up to 70-80% of gastric ulcers. The relationship between H. pylori infection and upper GIT bleeding in children is still un-clear. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of H. pylori infection in children presented with upper GIT bleeding and correlation between H. pylori infection and endoscopic findings of the cause of bleeding. Methods The study included 70 children presented with upper GIT bleeding indicated for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy admitted in pediatric department, Minia University Hospital, Egypt during the period from February 2010 to December 2012. Thirty healthy children were included as a control group with age and sex matched. After medical history taking and physical examination all children were exposed for laboratory investigations (CBC, prothrombin time and concentration, liver function tests, hepatitis viral markers, blood urea and serum creatinine and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test). Upper endoscopy was done for patients only. Patients were classified into variceal and non variceal groups according to upper endoscopy. Results Helico-pylori infection was significantly higher in children with non-variceal bleeding than controls (P = 0.02) and children with variceal bleeding (P = 0.03) with no significant difference between children with variceal bleeding and controls (P = 0.9). Both weights and BMIs centile were significantly lower in variceal and non-variceal groups than controls (P = 0.01 & 0.001 and 0.01 & 0.001 respectively). AST, ALT and direct bilirubin levels were significantly higher in variceal group than

  8. No association between Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections among gastrointestinal clinic attendees in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, M. A.; Passaro, D. J.; Watanabe, J.; Parsonnet, J.; Small, P.; Miyagu, J.; Rodriquez, C.; Astete, M.; Gilman, R. H.

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection can cause hypochlorhydria, a positive risk factor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. This study examined the association between HP and MTB infections among persons attending the Policlinico Peruano Japonés Gastrointestinal Clinic in Lima, Peru. From 23 June 2000 to 18 August 2000, consenting 18-55 year olds who attended the clinic for gastric biopsy gave blood for HP serologic testing, underwent tuberculin skin testing (TST) and completed a social and medical history. Of 128 participating patients, 78 (61%) were TST positive for MTB, and 107 (84%) were infected with HP by serology. Of the patients who were HP positive, 67 (63%) developed positive TST reactions compared to 11 (52%) of 21 HP-seronegative subjects (OR 1.29; 95% CI 0.54-3.11; P = 0.6). There was no association after adjusting for covariates of H. pylori infection (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.23-2.71; P = 0.7). However, study power was limited by high prevalence of the two infections. PMID:12613749

  9. No association between Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections among gastrointestinal clinic attendees in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Torres, M A; Passaro, D J; Watanabe, J; Parsonnet, J; Small, P; Miyagu, J; Rodriquez, C; Astete, M; Gilman, R H

    2003-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection can cause hypochlorhydria, a positive risk factor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. This study examined the association between HP and MTB infections among persons attending the Policlinico Peruano Japonés Gastrointestinal Clinic in Lima, Peru. From 23 June 2000 to 18 August 2000, consenting 18-55 year olds who attended the clinic for gastric biopsy gave blood for HP serologic testing, underwent tuberculin skin testing (TST) and completed a social and medical history. Of 128 participating patients, 78 (61%) were TST positive for MTB, and 107 (84%) were infected with HP by serology. Of the patients who were HP positive, 67 (63%) developed positive TST reactions compared to 11 (52%) of 21 HP-seronegative subjects (OR 1.29; 95% CI 0.54-3.11; P = 0.6). There was no association after adjusting for covariates of H. pylori infection (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.23-2.71; P = 0.7). However, study power was limited by high prevalence of the two infections.

  10. Comparative efficacy of ivermectin pour-on, albendazole, oxfendazole and fenbendazole against Ostertagia ostertagi inhibited larvae, other gastrointestinal nematodes and lungworm of cattle.

    PubMed

    Williams, J C; DeRosa, A; Nakamura, Y; Loyacano, A F

    1997-12-15

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the current efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), oxfendazole (OXF) and fenbendazole (FBZ) compared with ivermectin pour-on (IVM-PO) against inhibited early fourth-stage larvae (IEL4) of Ostertagia ostertagi, other gastrointestinal nematodes and lungworm of cattle during spring in Louisiana. Twenty-five crossbred beef heifer calves of 235 kg average weight and 10-12 months of age were acquired in late winter and grazed for 9 weeks on pasture contaminated with O. ostertagi and other nematodes until May 15. The cattle were weighed and randomly allotted into 5 groups of 5 calves on May 16 (day 0) and treatments were as follows: group 1, nontreated controls (CONT); group 2, IVM-PO on mid-backline at 500 micrograms/kg; group 3, ABZ suspension (oral) at 10 mg/kg; group 4, OXF suspension (oral) at 4.5 mg/kg; group 5, FBZ suspension (oral) at 5 mg/kg. After treatment and confinement in separate pens for each group, approximately equal numbers of cattle from each group were necropsied daily between days 29-31. Mean numbers of O. ostertagi developmental stages present in CONT were: adult, 5234; developing (DL4), 3130; IEL4, 44,077. The mean percentage of IEL4 was 84.1. Cooperia spp. were the second most prevalent in CONT (20,307) and smaller numbers of abomasal and intestinal species and Dictyocaulus viviparus were present in nearly all CONT. Percent reductions for the four compounds against O. ostertagi adult, DL4 and IEL4, respectively, were IVM-PO: 99.7, 98.3, 98.1; ABZ: 74.1, 76.5, 75.3; OXF: 78.5, 42.1, 32.0; FBZ: 63.6, 17.7, 39.7. Efficacy of IVM-PO was greater (P < 0.05) against all O. ostertagi stages than the benzimidazole (BZ) drugs, except for ABZ (DL4). There were no significant differences in group means (except for C. punctata adult males, P < 0.05 lower for IVM-PO) or wide variation in reduction percentages for other abomasal and intestinal species and D. viviparus between IVM-PO and BZ drugs. The low efficacy of all three BZ

  11. Occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes infecting cereals in Sicily, Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2008 and 2009, a survey on specific composition, frequency and geographical distribution of cyst nematodes living on cereals was conducted in Sicily (Italy). Heterodera latipons Franklin and H. hordecalis Andersson appeared to be the most common species in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) a...

  12. Root transformation of Glycine max with responsive promoters to nematode infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines), an obligate parasite of plants, is the most damaging pathogen of soybean, causing $469 to $818 million in soybean yield losses annually in the United States. However, there are no soybean cultivars available that are resistant to all SCN populati...

  13. Drinking Water Quality and the Geospatial Distribution of Notified Gastro-Intestinal Infections

    PubMed Central

    GRILC, Eva; GALE, Ivanka; VERŠIČ, Aleš; ŽAGAR, Tina; SOČAN, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Even brief episodes of fecal contamination of drinking water can lead directly to illness in the consumers. In water-borne outbreaks, the connection between poor microbial water quality and disease can be quickly identified. The impact of non-compliant drinking water samples due to E. coli taken for regular monitoring on the incidence of notified acute gastrointestinal infections has not yet been studied. Methods The objective of this study was to analyse the geographical distribution of notified acute gastrointestinal infections (AGI) in Slovenia in 2010, with hotspot identification. The second aim of the study was to correlate the fecal contamination of water supply system on the settlement level with the distribution of notified AGI cases. Spatial analysis using geo-information technology and other methods were used. Results Hot spots with the highest proportion of notified AGI cases were mainly identified in areas with small supply zones. The risk for getting AGI was drinking water contaminated with E. coli from supply zones with 50–1000 users: RR was 1.25 and significantly greater than one (p-value less than 0.001). Conclusion This study showed the correlation between the frequency of notified AGI cases and non-compliant results in drinking water monitoring. PMID:27646727

  14. Development of a transformation system for Hirsutella spp. and visualization of the mode of nematode infection by GFP-labeled H. minnesotensis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingzu; Park, Sook-Young; Kang, Seogchan; Liu, Xingzhong; Qiu, Junzhi; Xiang, Meichun

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutella rhossiliensis and H. minnesotensis are endoparasitic fungi of the second-stage juvenile (J2) of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in nature. They also parasitize both H. glycines J2 and Caenorhabditis elegans on agar plates. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation conditions were established for these Hirsutella spp. The resulting transformants were similar to the corresponding wild-type strains. The infection processes of H. glycines J2 and C. elegans second larval stage (L2) by H. minnesotensis expressing ZsGreen were microscopically analyzed. Conidia of H. minnesotensis adhered to passing nematodes within 8 h post-inoculation (hpi), formed an infection peg between 8 and 12 hpi, and penetrated the nematode cuticle between 12 and 24 hpi for C. elegans L2 and between 12 and 32 hpi for H. glycines J2. Hyphal proliferation inside of the nematode coelom was observed at approximately 32 hpi for C. elegans L2 and at approximately 40 hpi for H. glycines J2. The fungus consumed the whole body and grew out to produce conidia at approximately 156 and 204 hpi for C. elegans L2 and H. glycines J2, respectively. The efficient transformation protocol and a better understanding of infection process provide a solid foundation for studying the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying fungal parasitism of nematodes. PMID:26190283

  15. Nematode Peptides with Host-Directed Anti-inflammatory Activity Rescue Caenorhabditis elegans from a Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mei-Perng; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Nathan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is among a growing number of bacterial pathogens that are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been investigated as an alternative approach to treat microbial infections, as generally, there is a lower likelihood that a pathogen will develop resistance to AMPs. In this study, 36 candidate Caenorhabditis elegans genes that encode secreted peptides of <150 amino acids and previously shown to be overexpressed during infection by B. pseudomallei were identified from the expression profile of infected nematodes. RNA interference (RNAi)-based knockdown of 12/34 peptide-encoding genes resulted in enhanced nematode susceptibility to B. pseudomallei without affecting worm fitness. A microdilution test demonstrated that two peptides, NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3, exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity in a dose dependent manner on different pathogens. Time kill analysis proposed that these peptides were bacteriostatic against B. pseudomallei at concentrations up to 8× MIC90. The SYTOX green assay demonstrated that NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 did not disrupt the B. pseudomallei membrane. Instead, gel retardation assays revealed that both peptides were able to bind to DNA and interfere with bacterial viability. In parallel, microscopic examination showed induction of cellular filamentation, a hallmark of DNA synthesis inhibition, of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 treated cells. In addition, the peptides also regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in B. pseudomallei infected macrophage cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 as anti-B. pseudomallei peptides based on their function as immune modulators. PMID:27672387

  16. Nematode Peptides with Host-Directed Anti-inflammatory Activity Rescue Caenorhabditis elegans from a Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mei-Perng; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Nathan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is among a growing number of bacterial pathogens that are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been investigated as an alternative approach to treat microbial infections, as generally, there is a lower likelihood that a pathogen will develop resistance to AMPs. In this study, 36 candidate Caenorhabditis elegans genes that encode secreted peptides of <150 amino acids and previously shown to be overexpressed during infection by B. pseudomallei were identified from the expression profile of infected nematodes. RNA interference (RNAi)-based knockdown of 12/34 peptide-encoding genes resulted in enhanced nematode susceptibility to B. pseudomallei without affecting worm fitness. A microdilution test demonstrated that two peptides, NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3, exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity in a dose dependent manner on different pathogens. Time kill analysis proposed that these peptides were bacteriostatic against B. pseudomallei at concentrations up to 8× MIC90. The SYTOX green assay demonstrated that NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 did not disrupt the B. pseudomallei membrane. Instead, gel retardation assays revealed that both peptides were able to bind to DNA and interfere with bacterial viability. In parallel, microscopic examination showed induction of cellular filamentation, a hallmark of DNA synthesis inhibition, of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 treated cells. In addition, the peptides also regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in B. pseudomallei infected macrophage cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 as anti-B. pseudomallei peptides based on their function as immune modulators.

  17. Nematode Peptides with Host-Directed Anti-inflammatory Activity Rescue Caenorhabditis elegans from a Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mei-Perng; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Nathan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is among a growing number of bacterial pathogens that are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been investigated as an alternative approach to treat microbial infections, as generally, there is a lower likelihood that a pathogen will develop resistance to AMPs. In this study, 36 candidate Caenorhabditis elegans genes that encode secreted peptides of <150 amino acids and previously shown to be overexpressed during infection by B. pseudomallei were identified from the expression profile of infected nematodes. RNA interference (RNAi)-based knockdown of 12/34 peptide-encoding genes resulted in enhanced nematode susceptibility to B. pseudomallei without affecting worm fitness. A microdilution test demonstrated that two peptides, NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3, exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity in a dose dependent manner on different pathogens. Time kill analysis proposed that these peptides were bacteriostatic against B. pseudomallei at concentrations up to 8× MIC90. The SYTOX green assay demonstrated that NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 did not disrupt the B. pseudomallei membrane. Instead, gel retardation assays revealed that both peptides were able to bind to DNA and interfere with bacterial viability. In parallel, microscopic examination showed induction of cellular filamentation, a hallmark of DNA synthesis inhibition, of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 treated cells. In addition, the peptides also regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in B. pseudomallei infected macrophage cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 as anti-B. pseudomallei peptides based on their function as immune modulators.

  18. Nematode Peptides with Host-Directed Anti-inflammatory Activity Rescue Caenorhabditis elegans from a Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mei-Perng; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Nathan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is among a growing number of bacterial pathogens that are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been investigated as an alternative approach to treat microbial infections, as generally, there is a lower likelihood that a pathogen will develop resistance to AMPs. In this study, 36 candidate Caenorhabditis elegans genes that encode secreted peptides of <150 amino acids and previously shown to be overexpressed during infection by B. pseudomallei were identified from the expression profile of infected nematodes. RNA interference (RNAi)-based knockdown of 12/34 peptide-encoding genes resulted in enhanced nematode susceptibility to B. pseudomallei without affecting worm fitness. A microdilution test demonstrated that two peptides, NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3, exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity in a dose dependent manner on different pathogens. Time kill analysis proposed that these peptides were bacteriostatic against B. pseudomallei at concentrations up to 8× MIC90. The SYTOX green assay demonstrated that NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 did not disrupt the B. pseudomallei membrane. Instead, gel retardation assays revealed that both peptides were able to bind to DNA and interfere with bacterial viability. In parallel, microscopic examination showed induction of cellular filamentation, a hallmark of DNA synthesis inhibition, of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 treated cells. In addition, the peptides also regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in B. pseudomallei infected macrophage cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 as anti-B. pseudomallei peptides based on their function as immune modulators. PMID:27672387

  19. Lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate potently regulates root-knot nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to block infection.

    PubMed

    Dong, Linlin; Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Li; Gao, Ying; Zhong, Lina; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops can be severely damaged due to parasitism by the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, but are protected when intercropped with crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Root exudate may be the determining factor for this protection. An experiment using pots linked by a tube and Petri dish experiments were undertaken to confirm that tomato-crown daisy intercropping root exudate decreased the number of nematodes and alleviated nematode damage, and to determine crown daisy root exudate-regulated nematode chemotaxis. Following a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, it was found that the intercropping protection was derived from the potent bioactivity of a specific root exudate component of crown daisy, namely lauric acid. The Mi-flp-18 gene, encoding an FMRFamide-like peptide neuromodulator, regulated nematode chemotaxis and infection by RNA interference. Moreover, it was shown that lauric acid acts as both a lethal trap and a repellent for M. incognita by specifically regulating Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of lauric acid (0.5-2.0mM) attract M. incognita and consequently cause death, while high concentrations (4.0mM) repel M. incognita. This study elucidates how lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate regulates nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to alleviate nematode damage, and presents a general methodology for studying signalling systems affected by plant root exudates in the rhizosphere. This could lead to the development of economical and feasible strategies for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes, and provide an alternative to the use of pesticides in farming systems. PMID:24170741

  20. Coadministration of sodium alginate pellets containing the fungi Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium on cyathostomin infective larvae after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses.

    PubMed

    Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; da Silveira, Wendeo Ferreira; Dornelas e Silva, Vinicius Herold; Carretta Júnior, Moacir; Borges, Luana Alcântara; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Benjamin, Laércio dos Anjos; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro; de Paula, Alessandra Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    The predatory nematophagous fungi have been used as an alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes of domestic animals in natural and laboratory conditions. However, it is unclear if the association of some of these species could bring some kind of advantage, from a biological standpoint. In this context, this study consisted of two tests in vitro: in assay A, the assessment of the viability of the association of pellets in sodium alginate matrix containing the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34) and its predatory activity on infective larvae (L3) of cyathostomin after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses and assay B, assessment of the cyathostomin L3 reduction percentage in coprocultures. Twelve crossbred horses, females, with a mean weight of 356 kg and previously dewormed were divided in three groups with four animals each: group 1, each animal received 50 g of pellets containing mycelial mass of the fungus D. flagrans and 50 g of pellets of the fungus M. thaumasium, associated and in a single oral dose; group 2, 100 g of pellets containing D. flagrans and 100 g of pellets containing M. thaumasium, associated and in a single oral dose; group 3, control. Faecal samples were collected from animals in the treated and control groups at time intervals of 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h after the administration of treatments and placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar (assay A) and cups for coprocultures (assay B). Subsequently, 1000 cyathostomin L3 were added to each Petri dish (assay A) and 1000 cyathostomin eggs were added to each coproculture (assay B) of fungi-treated and control groups. At the end of 15 days, there was observed that the two associations of pellets containing the fungi tested showed predatory activity after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses (assay A). In assay B, all the intervals studied showed reduction rate in the number of L3 recovered from coprocultures

  1. Coadministration of sodium alginate pellets containing the fungi Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium on cyathostomin infective larvae after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses.

    PubMed

    Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; da Silveira, Wendeo Ferreira; Dornelas e Silva, Vinicius Herold; Carretta Júnior, Moacir; Borges, Luana Alcântara; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Benjamin, Laércio dos Anjos; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro; de Paula, Alessandra Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    The predatory nematophagous fungi have been used as an alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes of domestic animals in natural and laboratory conditions. However, it is unclear if the association of some of these species could bring some kind of advantage, from a biological standpoint. In this context, this study consisted of two tests in vitro: in assay A, the assessment of the viability of the association of pellets in sodium alginate matrix containing the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34) and its predatory activity on infective larvae (L3) of cyathostomin after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses and assay B, assessment of the cyathostomin L3 reduction percentage in coprocultures. Twelve crossbred horses, females, with a mean weight of 356 kg and previously dewormed were divided in three groups with four animals each: group 1, each animal received 50 g of pellets containing mycelial mass of the fungus D. flagrans and 50 g of pellets of the fungus M. thaumasium, associated and in a single oral dose; group 2, 100 g of pellets containing D. flagrans and 100 g of pellets containing M. thaumasium, associated and in a single oral dose; group 3, control. Faecal samples were collected from animals in the treated and control groups at time intervals of 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h after the administration of treatments and placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar (assay A) and cups for coprocultures (assay B). Subsequently, 1000 cyathostomin L3 were added to each Petri dish (assay A) and 1000 cyathostomin eggs were added to each coproculture (assay B) of fungi-treated and control groups. At the end of 15 days, there was observed that the two associations of pellets containing the fungi tested showed predatory activity after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses (assay A). In assay B, all the intervals studied showed reduction rate in the number of L3 recovered from coprocultures

  2. Effect of soil type on infectivity and persistence of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema scarabaei, Steinernema glaseri, Heterorhabditis zealandica, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.

    PubMed

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M

    2006-05-01

    We tested the effect of soil type on the performance of the entomopathogenic pathogenic nematodes Steinernema scarabaei, Steinernema glaseri, Heterorhabditis zealandica, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Soil types used were loamy sand, sandy loam, loam, silt loam, clay loam, acidic sand, and a highly organic potting mix. Infectivity was tested by exposing third-instar Anomala orientalis or Popillia japonica to nematodes in laboratory and greenhouse experiments and determining nematode establishment in the larvae and larval mortality. Infectivity of H. bacteriophora and H. zealandica was the highest in potting mix, did not differ among loamy sand and the loams, and was the lowest in acidic sand. Infectivity of S. glaseri was significantly lower in acidic sand than in loamy sand in a laboratory experiment but not in a greenhouse experiment, and did not differ among the other soils. Infectivity of S. scarabaei was lower in silt loam and clay loam than in loamy sand in a greenhouse experiment but not in a laboratory experiment, but was the lowest in acidic sand and potting mix. Persistence was determined in laboratory experiments by baiting nematode-inoculated soil with Galleria mellonella larvae. Persistence of both Heterorhabditis spp. and S. glaseri was the shortest in potting mix and showed no clear differences among the other substrates. Persistence of S. scarabaei was high in all substrates and its recovery declined significantly over time only in clay loam. In conclusion, generalizations on nematode performance in different soil types have to be done carefully as the effect of soil parameters including soil texture, pH, and organic matter may vary with nematode species.

  3. Effect of soil type on infectivity and persistence of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema scarabaei, Steinernema glaseri, Heterorhabditis zealandica, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.

    PubMed

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M

    2006-05-01

    We tested the effect of soil type on the performance of the entomopathogenic pathogenic nematodes Steinernema scarabaei, Steinernema glaseri, Heterorhabditis zealandica, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Soil types used were loamy sand, sandy loam, loam, silt loam, clay loam, acidic sand, and a highly organic potting mix. Infectivity was tested by exposing third-instar Anomala orientalis or Popillia japonica to nematodes in laboratory and greenhouse experiments and determining nematode establishment in the larvae and larval mortality. Infectivity of H. bacteriophora and H. zealandica was the highest in potting mix, did not differ among loamy sand and the loams, and was the lowest in acidic sand. Infectivity of S. glaseri was significantly lower in acidic sand than in loamy sand in a laboratory experiment but not in a greenhouse experiment, and did not differ among the other soils. Infectivity of S. scarabaei was lower in silt loam and clay loam than in loamy sand in a greenhouse experiment but not in a laboratory experiment, but was the lowest in acidic sand and potting mix. Persistence was determined in laboratory experiments by baiting nematode-inoculated soil with Galleria mellonella larvae. Persistence of both Heterorhabditis spp. and S. glaseri was the shortest in potting mix and showed no clear differences among the other substrates. Persistence of S. scarabaei was high in all substrates and its recovery declined significantly over time only in clay loam. In conclusion, generalizations on nematode performance in different soil types have to be done carefully as the effect of soil parameters including soil texture, pH, and organic matter may vary with nematode species. PMID:16563427

  4. Exosomes secreted by nematode parasites transfer small RNAs to mammalian cells and modulate innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Buck, Amy H; Coakley, Gillian; Simbari, Fabio; McSorley, Henry J; Quintana, Juan F; Le Bihan, Thierry; Kumar, Sujai; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Lear, Marissa; Harcus, Yvonne; Ceroni, Alessandro; Babayan, Simon A; Blaxter, Mark; Ivens, Alasdair; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-11-25

    In mammalian systems RNA can move between cells via vesicles. Here we demonstrate that the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus, which infects mice, secretes vesicles containing microRNAs (miRNAs) and Y RNAs as well as a nematode Argonaute protein. These vesicles are of intestinal origin and are enriched for homologues of mammalian exosome proteins. Administration of the nematode exosomes to mice suppresses Type 2 innate responses and eosinophilia induced by the allergen Alternaria. Microarray analysis of mouse cells incubated with nematode exosomes in vitro identifies Il33r and Dusp1 as suppressed genes, and Dusp1 can be repressed by nematode miRNAs based on a reporter assay. We further identify miRNAs from the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis in the serum of infected mice, suggesting that miRNA secretion into host tissues is conserved among parasitic nematodes. These results reveal exosomes as another mechanism by which helminths manipulate their hosts and provide a mechanistic framework for RNA transfer between animal species.

  5. Gastrointestinal parasites of free-range chickens.

    PubMed

    Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tobiańska, Berenika; Tarasewicz, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasitic gastrointestinal infections in free-range chickens from the West Pomerania province. Experimental material for the study was taken from 10 farms. Breeds raised in farms participating in the study included miniature chickens called Polish Lilliputians and Green- legged Partridge. A total of 104 samples of faeces were examined. The Willis-Schlaff flotation method was used to assess the prevalence of infection, and McMaster's method to evaluate the intensity. The presence of gastrointestinal parasites was found in 9 of the 10 farms. Oocysts of the genus Eimeria and eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Trichostrongylus tenuis were isolated from the chicken faeces. Coccidiosis was found to be dominant parasitosis. The prevalence of infections on these farms with protozoa of Eimeria spp. was on average 32.7%, while for nematode species they amounted to 9.6% for Ascaridia galli, 5.7% for Heterakis gallinarum and 12.5% for Trichostrongylus tenuis. The results indicate the need to take preventive measures, designed to eliminate/reduce the risk of parasitoses in poultry from free-range systems. Focus should be placed on the hygiene of the farming conditions.

  6. Experimental infection of selected arthropods with spirurid nematodes Spirocerca lupi Railliet & Henry, 1911 and Gongylonema ingluvicola Molin, 1857.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Pillay, E; Munsammy, K

    2010-12-01

    Gongylonema ingluvicola and Spirocerca lupi are spirurid nematodes that require arthropod intermediate hosts in order to complete their life cycle. Beetles of the family Scarabaeidae are reported to serve as intermediate hosts for both these parasites. In this study selected species of beetles of the family Scarabaeidae as well as other groups of arthropods were screened for susceptibility to infection with S. lupi and G. ingluvicola. Arthropods were exposed to infective eggs of both parasites for a determined period of time and dissected/digested to determine the presence or absence of pre-infective and infective larvae. All the five species of dung beetles exposed to infection with S. lupi, namely, Pachylomerus femoralis, Scarabaeus rugosus, Gymnopleurus humanus, Kheper nigroaeneus and Anachalcos convexus were susceptible and, of the two species exposed to G. ingluvicola, only Gy. humanus was susceptible. Spirocerca lupi eggs developed in millipede species, Daratoagonus cristulatus, and remained as encysted larvae, while in Orthoporoides kyrhocephalus no development was observed. Spirocerca lupi larvae were not detected in the cricket species Gryllus assimilis, or the cockroach species Periplaneta americana, and, similarly, G. ingluvicola larvae were not detected in the millipede species O. kyrhocephalus. The difference in the susceptibility of the arthropods to the two parasite species may depend on their feeding biology.

  7. Nematodes of armadillos in Paraguay: a description of a new species Aspidodera esperanzae (Nematoda: Aspidoderidae).

    PubMed

    Fujita, O; Abe, N; Oku, Y; Sanabria, L; Inchaustti, A; Kamiya, M

    1995-12-01

    Twelve species of nematodes comprising 9 genera were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of 2 Euphractus sexcinctus and 2 Dasypus novemcinctus captured in the Department of San Pedro, Paraguay. All armadillos were infected with 1 or more species of nematode. The following nematodes were recovered: Mazzia mazzia, Spirura guianensis, Trichohelix tuberculata, Ancylostoma sp., Moennigia complexus, Moennigia pintoi, Ascaris dasypodina, Cruzia tentaculata, Aspidodera fasciata, Aspidodera scoleciformis, Aspidodera esperanzae n. sp., and Heterakinae gen. sp. This report describes a new species of the Aspidodera nematode, Aspidodera esperanzae n. sp., the first species to be reported bearing cephalic cordons made up of 7 longitudinal loops in the subfamily of Aspidoderinae. This study also documents a new host record for S. guianensis and shows a new geographical distribution in Paraguay for M. mazzia, S. guianensis, T. tuberculata, M. complexus, and M. pintoi.

  8. Redirection of auxin flow in Arabidopsis thaliana roots after infection by root-knot nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Kyndt, Tina; Goverse, Aska; Haegeman, Annelies; Warmerdam, Sonja; Wanjau, Cecilia; Jahani, Mona; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic root-knot nematodes induce the formation of giant cells within the plant root, and it has been recognized that auxin accumulates in these feeding sites. Here, we studied the role of the auxin transport system governed by AUX1/LAX3 influx proteins and different PIN efflux proteins during feeding site development in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Data generated via promoter–reporter line and protein localization analyses evoke a model in which auxin is being imported at the basipetal side of the feeding site by the concerted action of the influx proteins AUX1 and LAX3, and the efflux protein PIN3. Mutants in auxin influx proteins AUX1 and LAX3 bear significantly fewer and smaller galls, revealing that auxin import into the feeding sites is needed for their development and expansion. The feeding site development in auxin export (PIN) mutants was only slightly hampered. Expression of some PINs appears to be suppressed in galls, probably to prevent auxin drainage. Nevertheless, a functional PIN4 gene seems to be a prerequisite for proper nematode development and gall expansion, most likely by removing excessive auxin to stabilize the hormone level in the feeding site. Our data also indicate a role of local auxin peaks in nematode attraction towards the root. PMID:27312670

  9. Redirection of auxin flow in Arabidopsis thaliana roots after infection by root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Kyndt, Tina; Goverse, Aska; Haegeman, Annelies; Warmerdam, Sonja; Wanjau, Cecilia; Jahani, Mona; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2016-08-01

    Plant-parasitic root-knot nematodes induce the formation of giant cells within the plant root, and it has been recognized that auxin accumulates in these feeding sites. Here, we studied the role of the auxin transport system governed by AUX1/LAX3 influx proteins and different PIN efflux proteins during feeding site development in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Data generated via promoter-reporter line and protein localization analyses evoke a model in which auxin is being imported at the basipetal side of the feeding site by the concerted action of the influx proteins AUX1 and LAX3, and the efflux protein PIN3. Mutants in auxin influx proteins AUX1 and LAX3 bear significantly fewer and smaller galls, revealing that auxin import into the feeding sites is needed for their development and expansion. The feeding site development in auxin export (PIN) mutants was only slightly hampered. Expression of some PINs appears to be suppressed in galls, probably to prevent auxin drainage. Nevertheless, a functional PIN4 gene seems to be a prerequisite for proper nematode development and gall expansion, most likely by removing excessive auxin to stabilize the hormone level in the feeding site. Our data also indicate a role of local auxin peaks in nematode attraction towards the root. PMID:27312670

  10. The expression of a naturally occurring, truncated allele of an α-SNAP gene suppresses plant parasitic nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Matsye, Prachi D; Lawrence, Gary W; Youssef, Reham M; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Lawrence, Katheryn S; Matthews, Benjamin F; Klink, Vincent P

    2012-09-01

    Transcriptional mapping experiments of the major soybean cyst nematode resistance locus, rhg1, identified expression of the vesicular transport machinery component, α soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP), occurring during defense. Sequencing the α-SNAP coding regions from the resistant genotypes G. max ([Peking/PI 548402]) and G. max ([PI 437654]) revealed they are identical, but differ from the susceptible G. max ([Williams 82/PI 518671]) by the presence of several single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using G. max ([Williams 82/PI 518671]) as a reference, a G → T(2,822) transversion in the genomic DNA sequence at a functional splice site of the α-SNAP([Peking/PI 548402]) allele produced an additional 17 nucleotides of mRNA sequence that contains an in-frame stop codon caused by a downstream G → A(2,832) transition. The G. max ([Peking/PI 548402]) genotype has cell wall appositions (CWAs), structures identified as forming as part of a defense response by the activity of the vesicular transport machinery. In contrast, the 17 nt α-SNAP([Peking/PI 548402]) mRNA motif is not found in G. max ([PI 88788]) that exhibits defense to H. glycines, but lack CWAs. The α-SNAP([PI 88788]) promoter contains sequence elements that are nearly identical to the α-SNAP([Peking/PI 548402]) allele, but differs from the G. max ([Williams 82/PI 518671]) ortholog. Overexpressing the α-SNAP([Peking/PI 548402]) allele in the susceptible G. max ([Williams 82/PI 518671]) genotype suppressed H. glycines infection. The experiments indicate a role for the vesicular transport machinery during infection of soybean by the soybean cyst nematode. However, increased GmEREBP1, PR1, PR2, PR5 gene activity but suppressed PR3 expression accompanied the overexpression of the α-SNAP([Peking/PI 548402]) allele prior to infection.

  11. Molecular characteristics and efficacy of 16D10 siRNAs in inhibiting root-knot nematode infection in transgenic grape hairy roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) infect many annual and perennial crops and are the most devastating soil-born pests in vineyards. To develop a biotech-based solution for controlling RKNs in grapes, we evaluated the efficacy of plant-derived RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of a conserved RKN effector ge...

  12. Endemic Serratia marcescens infection in a neonatal intensive care nursery associated with gastrointestinal colonization.

    PubMed

    Newport, M T; John, J F; Michel, Y M; Levkoff, A H

    1985-01-01

    Serratia marcescens (SM) produced a prolonged outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit of high level gastrointestinal colonization (10(9) SM/g feces) which in the early part of the outbreak predisposed to respiratory infection. The early outbreak featured a strain of SM carrying a 54 X 10(6) dalton conjugative plasmid which mediated resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin and beta-lactam agents. The second part of the outbreak involved primarily gastrointestinal colonization with SM strains that were plasmid-free. Acquisition of SM was related to very low birth weight (less than 1500 g). Among very low birth weight neonates, SM colonization was associated with pneumonia, patent ductus arteriosus, congestive heart failure and septicemia. Among neonates greater than 1500 g, SM colonization was associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, use of a respirator, patent ductus arteriosus and congestive heart failure. Respirator contamination, respiratory tract colonization and consequent pneumonia were reduced by more frequent changing of respirator tubing. Colonized sinks remained chronically colonized with multiresistant SM.

  13. Comparative analyses of transcriptomic profiles of the bovine small intestine in response to both a primary infection and a drug-attenuated reinfection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cooperia oncophora is an economically important gastrointestinal nematode in ruminants. Acquired resistance to Cooperia oncophora infection in cattle develops rapidly as a result of prior infections. Naïve cattle, when given a primary infection of high-dose infective L3 larvae, develop a strong immu...

  14. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated to Red Maasai x Dorper resistance to gastrointestinal parasite infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is a main health constraint that affects small ruminant production. Death may occur in severely affected animals, decreasing profits even further. Anthelmintic drugs are used to control parasites in hosts and their long-term use has led to a massive selectio...

  15. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)associated to Red Maasai x Dorper resistance to gastrointestinal parasite infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is a main health constraint that affects small ruminant production. Anthelmintic drugs are used to control parasites, however long-term use led to selection pressure, resulting in parasite resistance against all current chemical interventions available in th...

  16. Identification of oversulphated galactosaminoglycans in intestinal-mucosal mast cells of rats infected with the nematode worm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Kusche, M; Lindahl, U; Enerbäck, L; Rodén, L

    1988-01-01

    The oversulphated galactosaminoglycans synthesized by rat mucosal mast cells were isolated from the small intestine of animals infected with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which causes proliferation of these cells. The 35S-labelled polysaccharides were degraded by digestion with chondroitinase ABC, and the structures of the disaccharide products were determined by cleavage with mercuric acetate followed by electrophoretic characterization of the resultant sulphated monosaccharides. It was concluded that about half of the disulphated disaccharide units in the polysaccharide consisted of chondroitin sulphate E-type structures [GlcA-GalNAc(4,6-di-OSO3)], in which both sulphate groups were located on the N-acetylgalactosamine unit. The remainder consisted of isomeric structures with one sulphate group on the N-acetylgalactosamine residue and one on the hexuronic acid unit and presumably represented the dermatan sulphate-type sequence [IdoA(2-OSO3)-GalNAc(4-OSO3)]. PMID:3178741

  17. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in diverse species of domestic ruminants inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Choubisa, S L; Jaroli, V J

    2013-10-01

    A total of 415 adult domesticated ruminants, 130 cattle (Bos taurus), 108 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), 94 goats (Capra hircus) and 83 sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India were investigated for evidence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. In southern Rajasthan humid ecosystem is predominant and has number of perennial freshwater bodies. Fresh faecal samples of these animals were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with saline and 1 % Lugol's iodine and formalin ether concentration. Of these 296 (71.32 %) were found to be infected with different species of gastrointestinal parasites. The highest (93.84 %) prevalence of these parasitic infections was found in cattle followed by goats (82.97 %), sheep (55.42 %) and buffaloes (46.29 %). Except cattle no other ruminants revealed protozoan infection. A total 8 species of gastrointestinal parasites were encountered. Among these parasites Fasciola hepatica was the commonest (15.18 %) followed by Haemonchus contortus (11.32 %), Ancylostoma duodenale (10.36 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.15 %), Amphistome species (7.95 %), Moniezia expansa (6.98 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.57 %) and Balantidium coli (3.37 %). The prevalence rate of these parasitic infections also varied seasonally. The highest prevalence rate was found in rainy season (84.21 %) followed by winter (73.9 %) and summer (52.8 %). The possible causes for variation in prevalence of parasitic infections are also discussed. PMID:24431582

  18. Evidence of Differences between the Communities of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Colonizing Galls and Roots of Prunus persica Infected by the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita▿

    PubMed Central

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Roldán, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play important roles as plant protection agents, reducing or suppressing nematode colonization. However, it has never been investigated whether the galls produced in roots by nematode infection are colonized by AMF. This study tested whether galls produced by Meloidogyne incognita infection in Prunus persica roots are colonized by AMF. We also determined the changes in AMF composition and biodiversity mediated by infection with this root-knot nematode. DNA from galls and roots of plants infected by M. incognita and from roots of noninfected plants was extracted, amplified, cloned, and sequenced using AMF-specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis using the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data set revealed 22 different AMF sequence types (17 Glomus sequence types, 3 Paraglomus sequence types, 1 Scutellospora sequence type, and 1 Acaulospora sequence type). The highest AMF diversity was found in uninfected roots, followed by infected roots and galls. This study indicates that the galls produced in P. persica roots due to infection with M. incognita were colonized extensively by a community of AMF, belonging to the families Paraglomeraceae and Glomeraceae, that was different from the community detected in roots. Although the function of the AMF in the galls is still unknown, we hypothesize that they act as protection agents against opportunistic pathogens. PMID:21984233

  19. Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2011-04-01

    Sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes were fed on three farms with a combination of specially prepared extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) for 8 days containing each 60 g coconut and onion extract, combined with milk powder and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) propylencarbonate (PC). In all cases, the worm stages disappeared from the feces and were also not found 9 and 20 days after the end of the feeding with this plant combination. Since all treated animals increased their body weight considerably (when compared to untreated animals), worm reduction was apparently as effective as it was shown in previous laboratory trials with rats and mice (Klimpel et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; Abdel-Ghaffar et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; in this volume). PMID:21120531

  20. Efficacy of mebendazole and levamisole alone or in combination against intestinal nematode infections after repeated targeted mebendazole treatment in Zanzibar.

    PubMed Central

    Albonico, M.; Bickle, Q.; Ramsan, M.; Montresor, A.; Savioli, L.; Taylor, M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of and resistance to mebendazole (500 mg) and levamisole (40 or 80 mg), alone or in combination, for the treatment of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections on Pemba Island - an area exposed to periodic school-based mebendazole treatment since 1994. METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out in 914 children enrolled from the first and fifth grades of primary schools. Stool samples collected at baseline and 21 days after treatment were examined by the Kato-Katz technique to assess the prevalence and intensity of helminth infection. FINDINGS: Efficacies of mebendazole and levamisole as single treatments against intestinal nematode infections were comparable with those in previous trials, but mebendazole treatment of hookworm infections gave significantly lower cure (7.6%) and egg reduction (52.1%) rates than reported in a study undertaken before the beginning of periodic chemotherapy (cure rate, 22.4%; egg reduction rate, 82.4%). Combined treatment with mebendazole and levamisole had a significantly higher efficacy against hookworm infections (cure rate, 26.1%; egg reduction rate, 88.7%) than either drug given alone. No difference in mebendazole efficacy was found in children who had been treated repeatedly compared with those who had not been treated previously. CONCLUSION: The overall efficacy of mebendazole against hookworm infections after periodic chemotherapy is reduced. The efficacy of benzimidazoles in chemotherapy-based control programmes should be monitored closely. Combined treatment with mebendazole and levamisole may be useful as a tool to delay the development of benzimidazole resistance. PMID:12856052

  1. Enteric reovirus infection as a probe to study immunotoxicity of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Cuff, C F; Fulton, J R; Barnett, J B; Boyce, C S

    1998-04-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains a complex immune system that defends the host against a wide range of pathogens and toxins. The GI tract is also exposed to many environmental toxins that could adversely affect intestinal immunity, and few systems to study immunotoxicity of the GI tract have been described. We demonstrate that intestinal reovirus infection can be used as a system to assess the effects of toxins on intestinal and systemic immunity. Mice were given various doses of cyclophosphamide (CY) for 5 days at doses ranging from 100 to 500 mg/kg by the oral route or 200 mg/kg by the intraperitoneal route. On day 3 of dosing, mice were orally infected with reovirus serotype 1, strain Lang. The effects of CY on viral clearance, intestinal and systemic immune responses, and distribution of intestinal lymphocytes were assessed. Mice treated with CY failed to clear the virus in a dose-dependent manner, and serum anti-reovirus antibody titers were suppressed. Virus-specific IgA in cultures of intestinal tissue from CY-treated mice was significantly reduced compared to controls, although total IgA production was not affected. The virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell response in spleen was also suppressed in CY-treated animals. Cyclophosphamide treatment reduced the number and percentage of B-cells in Peyer's patches. Reovirus infection did not increase cellularity of Peyer's patches in CY-treated mice. Cyclophosphamide treatment also had little effect on the phenotype of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. These data demonstrate that intestinal reovirus infection is useful in studying exposure of the GI tract to immunotoxic agents. PMID:9579022

  2. Distribution of infective gastrointestinal helminth larvae in tropical erect grass under different feeding systems for lambs.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Jalise Fabíola; Poli, Cesar Henrique Espírito Candal; Bremm, Carolina; de Castro, Juliane Machado; Fajardo, Neuza Maria; Sarout, Bruna Nunes Marsiglio; Castilhos, Zélia Maria de Souza

    2015-08-01

    This study examined tropical pasture contamination dynamics under different feeding systems for finishing lambs. The experiment aimed to evaluate the vertical distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infective larvae (L3) in erect grass subjected to grazing and to assess the parasite load and its impact on lamb performance in three production systems. Three treatments based on Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. IZ-5) were as follows: T1, grass only; T2, grass with 1.5% of body weight (BW) nutrient concentrate supplementation; and T3, grass with 2.5% BW concentrate supplementation. The randomized block design had three replicates of three treatments, with six lambs per replicate. L3 were recovered from three pasture strata (upper, middle, and bottom), each representing one third of the sward height, and correlated with microclimatic data. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among treatments in the L3 recovery. Despite different grass heights between treatments and microclimates within the sward, the L3 concentration generally did not differ significantly among the three strata within a treatment (P > 0.05). Pasture microclimate did not correlate with larval recovery. At the end of the experiment, the animal fecal egg count was similar among treatments (P > 0.05). The results indicated that different lamb feeding systems in a tropical erect grassland caused differences in grass height but did not affect the distribution of infective larvae among strata. Larvae were found from the base to the top of the grass sward.

  3. Preliminary description of a new entomoparasitic nematode infecting Lutzomyia longipalpis sand fly, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World.

    PubMed

    Secundino, Nágila F C; Araújo, Márcio S S; Oliveira, Gustavo H B; Massara, Cristiano L; Carvalho, Omar S; Lanfredi, Reinalda M; Pimenta, Paulo F P

    2002-05-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies are vectors of important pathogens world-wide, including Leishmania spp. in the Neotropics. Entomoparasites have been described from phlebotomines, including virus, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, nematodes, and mites, some of which are capable of killing the host. In the present study, interference, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopies were used for the first time to detect and morphologically characterize a new entomoparasite infecting Lutzomyia longipalpis. Several filiform larvae and eggs in different stages were encountered in the abdomen of female and male insects. Pairs of large egg-bearing nematodes found within cyst-like structures or free in the hemocel accompanied by larvae could be the adult sexual stages. This entomoparasite infects sand flies naturally in the field. We believe that stress caused by the colonization procedure produced an increase in the infection rate among sand flies affecting their development. These findings could be applied to future biological control studies of sand fly vectors. PMID:12234540

  4. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of Drosophila larvae infected by entomopathogenic nematodes shows involvement of complement, recognition and extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Arefin, Badrul; Kucerova, Lucie; Dobes, Pavel; Markus, Robert; Strnad, Hynek; Wang, Zhi; Hyrsl, Pavel; Zurovec, Michal; Theopold, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) which infects its host by accessing the hemolymph where it releases endosymbiotic bacteria of the species Photorhabdus luminescens. We performed a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the Drosophila response to EPN infection at the time point at which the nematodes reached the hemolymph either via the cuticle or the gut and the bacteria had started to multiply. Many of the most strongly induced genes have been implicated in immune responses in other infection models. Mapping of the complete set of differentially regulated genes showed the hallmarks of a wound response, but also identified a large fraction of EPN-specific transcripts. Several genes identified by transcriptome profiling or their homologues play protective roles during nematode infections. Genes that positively contribute to controlling nematobacterial infections encode: a homolog of thioester-containing complement protein 3, a basement membrane component (glutactin), a recognition protein (GNBP-like 3) and possibly several small peptides. Of note is that several of these genes have not previously been implicated in immune responses.

  5. Antigenic role of the endosymbionts of filarial nematodes: IgG response against the Wolbachia surface protein in cats infected with Dirofilaria immitis.

    PubMed Central

    Bazzocchi, C; Ceciliani, F; McCall, J W; Ricci, I; Genchi, C; Bandi, C

    2000-01-01

    Filarial nematodes harbour intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria, which have been assigned to the genus Wolbachia. These bacteria appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of filarial diseases through their lipopolysaccharides. In view of the presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in the body of filarial nematodes, one might also expect that proteins from these bacteria play an antigenic role in humans and animals affected by filariases. To test this hypothesis, we produced in recombinant form the surface protein WSP and a portion of the cell-cycle protein FTSZ from the Wolbachia of Dirofilaria immitis. Western immunoblot assays were then performed using cat sera to test the immunogenicity of these proteins. Sera were collected from owners' cats, which were either sero-negative or sero-positive for D. immitis and from cats before and after experimental infection with D. immitis. FTSZ was recognized in Western blots by sera from both positive and negative cats and from both uninfected and experimentally infected cats. WSP was recognized only by sera from positive cats and from cats experimentally infected with D. immitis; this protein was not recognized by sera from negative cats and from cats before experimental infection with D. immitis. The results of Western blot assays on WSP thus support the hypothesis that infection with filarial nematodes induces the production of antibodies against Wolbachia proteins. PMID:11197127

  6. New Insights into the Evolution of Wolbachia Infections in Filarial Nematodes Inferred from a Large Range of Screened Species

    PubMed Central

    Barbuto, Michela; Martin, Coralie; Lo, Nathan; Uni, Shigehiko; Landmann, Frederic; Baccei, Sara G.; Guerrero, Ricardo; de Souza Lima, Sueli; Bandi, Claudio; Wanji, Samuel; Diagne, Moustapha; Casiraghi, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background Wolbachia are intriguing symbiotic endobacteria with a peculiar host range that includes arthropods and a single nematode family, the Onchocercidae encompassing agents of filariases. This raises the question of the origin of infection in filariae. Wolbachia infect the female germline and the hypodermis. Some evidences lead to the theory that Wolbachia act as mutualist and coevolved with filariae from one infection event: their removal sterilizes female filariae; all the specimens of a positive species are infected; Wolbachia are vertically inherited; a few species lost the symbiont. However, most data on Wolbachia and filaria relationships derive from studies on few species of Onchocercinae and Dirofilariinae, from mammals. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the Wolbachia distribution testing 35 filarial species, including 28 species and 7 genera and/or subgenera newly screened, using PCR, immunohistochemical staining, whole mount fluorescent analysis, and cocladogenesis analysis. (i) Among the newly screened Onchocercinae from mammals eight species harbour Wolbachia but for some of them, bacteria are absent in the hypodermis, or in variable density. (ii) Wolbachia are not detected in the pathological model Monanema martini and in 8, upon 9, species of Cercopithifilaria. (iii) Supergroup F Wolbachia is identified in two newly screened Mansonella species and in Cercopithifilaria japonica. (iv) Type F Wolbachia infect the intestinal cells and somatic female genital tract. (v) Among Oswaldofilariinae, Waltonellinae and Splendidofilariinae, from saurian, anuran and bird respectively, Wolbachia are not detected. Conclusions/Significance The absence of Wolbachia in 63% of onchocercids, notably in the ancestral Oswaldofilariinae estimated 140 mya old, the diverse tissues or specimens distribution, and a recent lateral transfer in supergroup F Wolbachia, modify the current view on the role and evolution of the endosymbiont and their hosts. Further

  7. Novel gene expression responses in the ovine abomasal mucosa to infection with the gastric nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Infection of sheep with the gastric nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta results in distinct Th2-type changes in the mucosa, including mucous neck cell and mast cell hyperplasia, eosinophilia, recruitment of IgA/IgE producing cells and neutrophils, altered T-cell subsets and mucosal hypertrophy. To address the protective mechanisms generated in animals on previous exposure to this parasite, gene expression profiling was carried out using samples of abomasal mucosa collected pre- and post- challenge from animals of differing immune status, using an experimental model of T. circumcincta infection. Recently developed ovine cDNA arrays were used to compare the abomasal responses of sheep immunised by trickle infection with worm-naïve sheep, following a single oral challenge of 50 000 T. circumcincta L3. Key changes were validated using qRT-PCR techniques. Immune animals demonstrated highly significant increases in levels of transcripts normally associated with cytotoxicity such as granulysin and granzymes A, B and H, as well as mucous-cell derived transcripts, predominantly calcium-activated chloride channel 1 (CLCA1). Challenge infection also induced up-regulation of transcripts potentially involved in initiating or modulating the immune response, such as heat shock proteins, complement factors and the chemokine CCL2. In contrast, there was marked infection-associated down-regulation of gene expression of members of the gastric lysozyme family. The changes in gene expression levels described here may reflect roles in direct anti-parasitic effects, immuno-modulation or tissue repair. (Funding; DEFRA/SHEFC (VT0102) and the BBSRC (BB/E01867X/1)). PMID:21682880

  8. Antibody expressing pea seeds as fodder for prevention of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Jana; Saalbach, Isolde; Jahn, Doreen; Giersberg, Martin; Haehnel, Sigrun; Wedel, Julia; Macek, Jeanette; Zoufal, Karen; Glünder, Gerhard; Falkenburg, Dieter; Kipriyanov, Sergey M

    2009-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis caused by protozoans of genus Eimeria is a chicken parasitic disease of great economical importance. Conventional disease control strategies depend on vaccination and prophylactic use of anticoccidial drugs. Alternative solution to prevent and treat coccidiosis could be provided by passive immunization using orally delivered neutralizing antibodies. We investigated the possibility to mitigate the parasitic infection by feeding poultry with antibody expressing transgenic crop seeds. Results Using the phage display antibody library, we generated a panel of anti-Eimeria scFv antibody fragments with high sporozoite-neutralizing activity. These antibodies were expressed either transiently in agrobacteria-infiltrated tobacco leaves or stably in seeds of transgenic pea plants. Comparison of the scFv antibodies purified either from tobacco leaves or from the pea seeds demonstrated no difference in their antigen-binding activity and molecular form compositions. Force-feeding experiments demonstrated that oral delivery of flour prepared from the transgenic pea seeds had higher parasite neutralizing activity in vivo than the purified antibody fragments isolated from tobacco. The pea seed content was found to protect antibodies against degradation by gastrointestinal proteases (>100-fold gain in stability). Ad libitum feeding of chickens demonstrated that the transgenic seeds were well consumed and not shunned. Furthermore, feeding poultry with shred prepared from the antibody expressing pea seeds led to significant mitigation of infection caused both by high and low challenge doses of Eimeria oocysts. Conclusion The results suggest that our strategy offers a general approach to control parasitic infections in production animals using cost-effective antibody expression in crop seeds affordable for the animal health market. PMID:19747368

  9. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry) evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania). The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal) irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance). PMID:22166041

  10. SIV Infection-Mediated Changes in Gastrointestinal Bacterial Microbiome and Virome Are Associated with Immunodeficiency and Prevented by Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Handley, Scott A; Desai, Chandni; Zhao, Guoyan; Droit, Lindsay; Monaco, Cynthia L; Schroeder, Andrew C; Nkolola, Joseph P; Norman, Megan E; Miller, Andrew D; Wang, David; Barouch, Dan H; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-01

    AIDS caused by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with gastrointestinal disease, systemic immune activation, and, in cross-sectional studies, changes in the enteric virome. Here we performed a longitudinal study of a vaccine cohort to define the natural history of changes in the fecal metagenome in SIV-infected monkeys. Matched rhesus macaques were either uninfected or intrarectally challenged with SIV, with a subset receiving the Ad26 vaccine, an adenovirus vector expressing the viral Env/Gag/Pol antigens. Progression of SIV infection to AIDS was associated with increased detection of potentially pathogenic viruses and bacterial enteropathogens. Specifically, adenoviruses were associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal disease and AIDS-related mortality. Viral and bacterial enteropathogens were largely absent from animals protected by the vaccine. These data suggest that the SIV-associated gastrointestinal disease is associated with the presence of both viral and bacterial enteropathogens and that protection against SIV infection by vaccination prevents enteropathogen emergence. PMID:26962943

  11. Comparative study of the metal accumulation in Hysterothalycium reliquens (nematode) and Paraphilometroides nemipteri (nematode) as compared with their doubly infected host, Nemipterus peronii (Notched threadfin bream).

    PubMed

    Mazhar, Roshan; Shazili, Noor Azhar; Harrison, Faizah Shaharom

    2014-10-01

    In February 2013, forty-seven Notched threadfin bream, the Nemipterus peronii, were sampled from the eastern coastal waters of the South China Sea. The concentration of various elements, namely cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), Lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and Zinc (Zn) were analyzed in the liver, muscle, and kidney organs of the host, as well as in their parasites Hysterothalycium reliquens (nematode) and the Paraphilometroides nemipteri (nematode), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The former group of parasites showed highest accumulation capacity for Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Ni, and Zn while the latter group had high accumulation potential of As, Hg, Cd, Al, Pb, and Sr. The divergence in heavy-metal accumulation profiles of both nematodes is linked with the specificity of microhabitats, cuticle morphology, and interspecific competition. The outcome of this study indicates that both parasite models can be used for biomonitoring of metal pollution in marine ecosystems.

  12. Larval migration of the ascarid nematode Toxocara canis following infection and re-infection in the gerbil Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Flecher, M C; Musso, C; Martins, I V F; Pereira, F E L

    2016-09-01

    A morphological and immunohistochemical study of larval migration patterns was performed in gerbils that were infected once (primary infected group) or twice (secondary infected group) with 1500 eggs of Toxocara canis. Animals from the primary infected and the re-infected group were killed at different times after infection, and larvae were counted in the intestines, liver, lungs and brain. Fragments of all organs were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for histology and immunohistochemistry analyses (using polyclonal anti-Toxocara serum raised in rabbits infected with T. canis). In the primary infected group, larvae were more abundant in the intestine at 24 h, in the liver and lungs between 24 and 72 h and in the brain after 96 h; larvae predominated in the brain for up to 60 days after infection. In the re-infected group, an increase in the number of larvae in the liver and a reduction in the number of larvae in the brain was observed up to 60 days after re-infection. Inflammatory reactions were absent or limited. Eosinophils and loose granulomata were observed around the larvae and their antigens in the primary infected group and were more severe. Many eosinophils and typical epithelioid granulomata were observed around larvae in the re-infected group. These results demonstrate that the migration pattern of T. canis larvae in gerbils is similar to that in mice and rats, exhibiting a late neurotropic stage. In the re-infected group, there was histological evidence of an adaptive T-helper 2 (Th-2) response, and larvae were apparently retained within granulomata in the liver, without obvious signs of destruction. PMID:26337823

  13. Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

    2010-01-01

    The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide.

  14. A Compositional Look at the Human Gastrointestinal Microbiome and Immune Activation Parameters in HIV Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Ece A.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Losurdo, John; Swanson, Garth; Siewe, Basile; Forsyth, Christopher; French, Audrey; DeMarais, Patricia; Sun, Yan; Koenig, Lars; Cox, Stephen; Engen, Phillip; Chakradeo, Prachi; Abbasi, Rawan; Gorenz, Annika; Burns, Charles; Landay, Alan

    2014-01-01

    HIV progression is characterized by immune activation and microbial translocation. One factor that may be contributing to HIV progression could be a dysbiotic microbiome. We therefore hypothesized that the GI mucosal microbiome is altered in HIV patients and this alteration correlates with immune activation in HIV. 121 specimens were collected from 21 HIV positive and 22 control human subjects during colonoscopy. The composition of the lower gastrointestinal tract mucosal and luminal bacterial microbiome was characterized using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was correlated to clinical parameters as well as immune activation and circulating bacterial products in HIV patients on ART. The composition of the HIV microbiome was significantly different than that of controls; it was less diverse in the right colon and terminal ileum, and was characterized by loss of bacterial taxa that are typically considered commensals. In HIV samples, there was a gain of some pathogenic bacterial taxa. This is the first report characterizing the terminal ileal and colonic mucosal microbiome in HIV patients with next generation sequencing. Limitations include use of HIV-infected subjects on HAART therapy. PMID:24586144

  15. A compositional look at the human gastrointestinal microbiome and immune activation parameters in HIV infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Ece A; Keshavarzian, Ali; Losurdo, John; Swanson, Garth; Siewe, Basile; Forsyth, Christopher; French, Audrey; Demarais, Patricia; Sun, Yan; Koenig, Lars; Cox, Stephen; Engen, Phillip; Chakradeo, Prachi; Abbasi, Rawan; Gorenz, Annika; Burns, Charles; Landay, Alan

    2014-02-01

    HIV progression is characterized by immune activation and microbial translocation. One factor that may be contributing to HIV progression could be a dysbiotic microbiome. We therefore hypothesized that the GI mucosal microbiome is altered in HIV patients and this alteration correlates with immune activation in HIV. 121 specimens were collected from 21 HIV positive and 22 control human subjects during colonoscopy. The composition of the lower gastrointestinal tract mucosal and luminal bacterial microbiome was characterized using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was correlated to clinical parameters as well as immune activation and circulating bacterial products in HIV patients on ART. The composition of the HIV microbiome was significantly different than that of controls; it was less diverse in the right colon and terminal ileum, and was characterized by loss of bacterial taxa that are typically considered commensals. In HIV samples, there was a gain of some pathogenic bacterial taxa. This is the first report characterizing the terminal ileal and colonic mucosal microbiome in HIV patients with next generation sequencing. Limitations include use of HIV-infected subjects on HAART therapy. PMID:24586144

  16. A compositional look at the human gastrointestinal microbiome and immune activation parameters in HIV infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Ece A; Keshavarzian, Ali; Losurdo, John; Swanson, Garth; Siewe, Basile; Forsyth, Christopher; French, Audrey; Demarais, Patricia; Sun, Yan; Koenig, Lars; Cox, Stephen; Engen, Phillip; Chakradeo, Prachi; Abbasi, Rawan; Gorenz, Annika; Burns, Charles; Landay, Alan

    2014-02-01

    HIV progression is characterized by immune activation and microbial translocation. One factor that may be contributing to HIV progression could be a dysbiotic microbiome. We therefore hypothesized that the GI mucosal microbiome is altered in HIV patients and this alteration correlates with immune activation in HIV. 121 specimens were collected from 21 HIV positive and 22 control human subjects during colonoscopy. The composition of the lower gastrointestinal tract mucosal and luminal bacterial microbiome was characterized using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was correlated to clinical parameters as well as immune activation and circulating bacterial products in HIV patients on ART. The composition of the HIV microbiome was significantly different than that of controls; it was less diverse in the right colon and terminal ileum, and was characterized by loss of bacterial taxa that are typically considered commensals. In HIV samples, there was a gain of some pathogenic bacterial taxa. This is the first report characterizing the terminal ileal and colonic mucosal microbiome in HIV patients with next generation sequencing. Limitations include use of HIV-infected subjects on HAART therapy.

  17. Distribution of infective gastrointestinal helminth larvae in tropical erect grass under different feeding systems for lambs.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Jalise Fabíola; Poli, Cesar Henrique Espírito Candal; Bremm, Carolina; de Castro, Juliane Machado; Fajardo, Neuza Maria; Sarout, Bruna Nunes Marsiglio; Castilhos, Zélia Maria de Souza

    2015-08-01

    This study examined tropical pasture contamination dynamics under different feeding systems for finishing lambs. The experiment aimed to evaluate the vertical distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infective larvae (L3) in erect grass subjected to grazing and to assess the parasite load and its impact on lamb performance in three production systems. Three treatments based on Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. IZ-5) were as follows: T1, grass only; T2, grass with 1.5% of body weight (BW) nutrient concentrate supplementation; and T3, grass with 2.5% BW concentrate supplementation. The randomized block design had three replicates of three treatments, with six lambs per replicate. L3 were recovered from three pasture strata (upper, middle, and bottom), each representing one third of the sward height, and correlated with microclimatic data. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among treatments in the L3 recovery. Despite different grass heights between treatments and microclimates within the sward, the L3 concentration generally did not differ significantly among the three strata within a treatment (P > 0.05). Pasture microclimate did not correlate with larval recovery. At the end of the experiment, the animal fecal egg count was similar among treatments (P > 0.05). The results indicated that different lamb feeding systems in a tropical erect grassland caused differences in grass height but did not affect the distribution of infective larvae among strata. Larvae were found from the base to the top of the grass sward. PMID:26003429

  18. Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression☆

    PubMed Central

    Lloberas, Mercedes; Alvarez, Luis; Entrocasso, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo; Ballent, Mariana; Mate, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The high level of resistance to the macrocyclic lactones has encouraged the search for strategies to optimize their potential as antiparasitic agents. There is a need for pharmaco-parasitological studies addressing the kinetic-dynamic differences between various macrocyclic lactones under standardized in vivo conditions. The current work evaluated the relationship among systemic drug exposure, target tissue availabilities and the pattern of drug accumulation within resistant Haemonchus contortus for moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin. Drug concentrations in plasma, target tissues and parasites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the efficacy of the three molecules was evaluated in lambs infected with resistant nematodes by classical parasitological methods. Furthermore, the comparative determination of the level of expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp2) in H. contortus recovered from lambs treated with each drug was performed by real time PCR. A longer persistence of moxidectin (P < 0.05) concentrations in plasma was observed. The concentrations of the three compounds in the mucosal tissue and digestive contents were significant higher than those measured in plasma. Drug concentrations were in a range between 452 ng/g (0.5 day post-treatment) and 32 ng/g (2 days post-treatment) in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents (abomasal and intestinal). Concentrations of the three compounds in H. contortus were in a similar range to those observed in the abomasal contents (positive correlation P = 0.0002). Lower moxidectin concentrations were recovered within adult H. contortus compared to abamectin and ivermectin at day 2 post-treatment. However, the efficacy against H. contortus was 20.1% (ivermectin), 39.7% (abamectin) and 89.6% (moxidectin). Only the ivermectin treatment induced an enhancement on the expression of P-gp2 in the recovered adult H. contortus, reaching higher values at 12 and 24 h post-administration compared to

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean Genotypes in Response to Soybean Cyst Nematode Infection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shalu; Chittem, Kishore; Brueggeman, Robert; Osorno, Juan M; Richards, Jonathan; Nelson, Berlin D

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) reproduces on the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and can cause reductions in plant growth and seed yield. The molecular changes in common bean roots caused by SCN infection are unknown. Identification of genetic factors associated with SCN resistance could help in development of improved bean varieties with high SCN resistance. Gene expression profiling was conducted on common bean roots infected by SCN HG type 0 using next generation RNA sequencing technology. Two pinto bean genotypes, PI533561 and GTS-900, resistant and susceptible to SCN infection, respectively, were used as RNA sources eight days post inoculation. Total reads generated ranged between ~ 3.2 and 5.7 million per library and were mapped to the common bean reference genome. Approximately 70-90% of filtered RNA-seq reads uniquely mapped to the reference genome. In the inoculated roots of resistant genotype PI533561, a total of 353 genes were differentially expressed with 154 up-regulated genes and 199 down-regulated genes when compared to the transcriptome of non- inoculated roots. On the other hand, 990 genes were differentially expressed in SCN-inoculated roots of susceptible genotype GTS-900 with 406 up-regulated and 584 down-regulated genes when compared to non-inoculated roots. Genes encoding nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat resistance (NLR) proteins, WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and heat shock proteins involved in diverse biological processes were differentially expressed in both resistant and susceptible genotypes. Overall, suppression of the photosystem was observed in both the responses. Furthermore, RNA-seq results were validated through quantitative real time PCR. This is the first report describing genes/transcripts involved in SCN-common bean interaction and the results will have important implications for further characterization of SCN resistance genes in common bean

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean Genotypes in Response to Soybean Cyst Nematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shalu; Chittem, Kishore; Brueggeman, Robert; Osorno, Juan M.; Richards, Jonathan; Nelson, Berlin D.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) reproduces on the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and can cause reductions in plant growth and seed yield. The molecular changes in common bean roots caused by SCN infection are unknown. Identification of genetic factors associated with SCN resistance could help in development of improved bean varieties with high SCN resistance. Gene expression profiling was conducted on common bean roots infected by SCN HG type 0 using next generation RNA sequencing technology. Two pinto bean genotypes, PI533561 and GTS-900, resistant and susceptible to SCN infection, respectively, were used as RNA sources eight days post inoculation. Total reads generated ranged between ~ 3.2 and 5.7 million per library and were mapped to the common bean reference genome. Approximately 70–90% of filtered RNA-seq reads uniquely mapped to the reference genome. In the inoculated roots of resistant genotype PI533561, a total of 353 genes were differentially expressed with 154 up-regulated genes and 199 down-regulated genes when compared to the transcriptome of non- inoculated roots. On the other hand, 990 genes were differentially expressed in SCN-inoculated roots of susceptible genotype GTS-900 with 406 up-regulated and 584 down-regulated genes when compared to non-inoculated roots. Genes encoding nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat resistance (NLR) proteins, WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and heat shock proteins involved in diverse biological processes were differentially expressed in both resistant and susceptible genotypes. Overall, suppression of the photosystem was observed in both the responses. Furthermore, RNA-seq results were validated through quantitative real time PCR. This is the first report describing genes/transcripts involved in SCN-common bean interaction and the results will have important implications for further characterization of SCN resistance genes in common bean

  1. 16D10 siRNAs inhibit root-knot nematode infection in transgenic grape hairy roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop a biotech-based solution for controlling Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) in grapes, we evaluated the efficacy of plant-derived RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of a conserved RKN effector gene, 16D10, for nematode resistance in transgenic grape hairy roots. Two hairpin-based silencing constru...

  2. Behaviour of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juveniles exposed to nematode FMRFamide-like peptides in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes depend upon a family of neuropeptides, the FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), to regulate locomotion and behavior. To exploit FLPs as leads to novel nematode control agents, an understanding of how specific FLPs affect behavior, and what differences exist between species, is i...

  3. [Acid oligosaccharides as the active principle of aqueous carrot extracts for prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal infections].

    PubMed

    Kastner, U; Glasl, S; Follrich, B; Guggenbichler, J P; Jurenitsch, J

    2002-01-01

    Adherence of microorganisms to the intestinal mucosa is an important and initial step in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal infections and mediated by carbohydrate structures on the cell surface. Adherence can be blocked by carbohydrate receptor analogues. Aqueous extracts from carrots (carrot soup) contain acidic oligosaccharides, which are able to block adherence of various enteropathogenic microorganisms to HEp-2 cells and human intestinal mucosa in vitro. Dependent on the grade of polymerisation the most potent blocking ability was seen for trigalacturonic acid. Clinical studies revealed, that aqueous carrot extracts are significantly superior to the basic glucose-electrolyt-solution for oral rehydration in acute gastrointestional infections of children.

  4. Output of gastrointestinal nematode eggs in the feces of captive gazelles (Gazella dama mhorr, Gazella cuvieri and Gazella dorcas neglecta) in a semiarid region of southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Juana; Ruiz de Ybáñez, Rocío; Abaigar, Teresa; Goyena, Marina; Garijo, Magdalena; Espeso, Gerardo; Cano, Mar

    2006-09-01

    Feces from 62 captive African gazelles, including Mhorr gazelles (Gazella dama mhorr), Cuvier's gazelles (Gazella cuvieri), and Dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas neglecta), were examined over the course of a year to quantitate nematode egg excretion patterns. Strongyloides sp. eggs appeared only in G. dama during the rainy season. Trichostrongylidae egg excretion showed a marked seasonal variation, with very low levels during the dry and hot period, a finding that is probably attributable to hypobiosis of the predominant species (Camelostrongylus mentulatus). Eggs of the Nematodirus sp., predominantly Nematodirus spathiger, were excreted throughout the year. No seasonal pattern was observed in Trichuris sp. egg excretion. PMID:17319122

  5. Gastrointestinal Fistulas in Acute Pancreatitis With Infected Pancreatic or Peripancreatic Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Tong, Zhihui; Yang, Dongliang; Ke, Lu; Shen, Xiao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Gang; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) fistula is a well-recognized complication of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, it has been reported in limited literature. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and outcome of GI fistulas in AP patients complicated with infected pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis (IPN). Between 2010 and 2013 AP patients with IPN who diagnosed with GI fistula in our center were analyzed in this retrospective study. And we also conducted a comparison between patients with and without GI fistula regarding the baseline characteristics and outcomes. Over 4 years, a total of 928 AP patients were admitted into our center, of whom 119 patients with IPN were diagnosed with GI fistula and they developed 160 GI fistulas in total. Colonic fistula found in 72 patients was the most common form of GI fistula followed with duodenal fistula. All duodenal fistulas were managed by nonsurgical management. Ileostomy or colostomy was performed for 44 (61.1%) of 72 colonic fistulas. Twenty-one (29.2%) colonic fistulas were successfully treated by percutaneous drainage or continuous negative pressure irrigation. Mortality of patients with GI fistula did not differ significantly from those without GI fistula (28.6% vs 21.9%, P = 0.22). However, a significantly higher mortality (34.7%) was observed in those with colonic fistula. GI fistula is a common finding in patients of AP with IPN. Most of these fistulas can be successfully managed with different procedures depending on their sites of origin. Colonic fistula is related with higher mortality than those without GI fistula. PMID:27057908

  6. Field evaluation of the efficacy and the safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestations in dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Grandemange, E; Claerebout, E; Genchi, C; Franc, M

    2007-04-10

    In five multicentre field trials, the efficacy and safety of a combination of oxantel/pyrantel/praziquantel (Dolpac), Vetoquinol SA) in the treatment of naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode and/or cestode infestation in dogs was evaluated in northern and southern Europe. Forty-eight investigators from France, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Spain enrolled 329 dogs to be treated with the tested combination; 235 of these dogs complied with the inclusion criteria of the protocol and had a tested helminth identified on Day 0. A pooled analysis was performed on each of the following helminth species: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Taenia spp. and Dipylidium caninum, which were isolated on Day 0. The main efficacy criterion was the egg per gram (epg) percent reduction of the nematodes and the absence of proglottids and or eggs for the cestodes. After treatment, dogs were examined on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21. The efficacy of the combination against Toxocara canis was 99.1%, 98.8% and 98.9% on Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21, respectively. At the same occasions the efficacy was, respectively, 99.2%, 99.2% and 99.3% against Ancylostoma caninum, 97.3%, 97.2% and 98.4% against Trichuris vulpis, 98.4%, 98.8% and 98.8% against Uncinaria stenocephala, 98.9%, 99.5% and 99.9% against Toxascaris leonina, 97.1%, 100% and 100% against Dipylidium caninum and 100% against Taenia spp. PMID:17184919

  7. Changes in hematology, serum biochemistry, and gastrointestinal nematode infection in lambs fed sericea lespedeza with or without dietary sodium molybdate.

    PubMed

    Acharya, M; Burke, J M; Coffey, K P; Kegley, E B; Miller, J E; Huff, G R; Smyth, E; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Rosenkrans, C

    2015-04-01

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a legume rich in condensed tannins that can be grazed or fed to small ruminants for parasite control. Condensed tannins, a secondary plant compound in SL, may lead to unintended consequences such as changes in production. In our preliminary research, there was consistently a reduction in serum and liver concentrations of Mo. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of SL with or without Mo supplementation on changes in BW, hematology, and serum biochemistry in lambs. Thirty ram lambs weaned in May (84 ± 1.5 d of age; 27 ± 1.1 kg) were blocked by BW, breed type (full or three-fourths Katahdin), and EBV of parasite resistance and randomly assigned to be fed 900 g of alfalfa-based supplement (CON; n = 10) or SL-based supplement (n = 20) for 103 d. Supplements were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and to meet trace mineral requirements. Within the SL diet, half of the lambs received 490 mg sodium molybdate weekly (SLMO). Body condition scores and BW were determined every 14 d and blood and feces collected to determine hematological and serum biochemical profiles and fecal egg counts (FEC). Data were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures and orthogonal contrasts. The white blood cell counts tended to be reduced in SL- and SLMO-fed lambs compared with CON-fed lambs (P < 0.06), which was associated with a reduction in neutrophils (P < 0.001). Red blood cell counts were also reduced in SL but not SLMO lambs compared with CON lambs (P < 0.04). There was a reduction in blood packed cell volume (P < 0.04) and serum concentrations of albumin (P < 0.001) and creatinine (P < 0.02) in both SL and SLMO lambs compared with CON lambs. Similarly, concentrations of blood urea nitrogen were reduced in both SL and SLMO lambs, but differences among dietary treatments disappeared after 42 d of feeding (treatment × day, P < 0.004). Serum concentrations of total proteins were reduced only in SLMO lambs compared with other lambs (P < 0.001). Body weight and FEC were similar among dietary treatments. Means of all measurements were within a normal range, even though there were subtle but significant differences between dietary groups. Feeding a diet high in condensed tannin-rich SL did not lead to serious effects on hematology or serum biochemistry in lambs.

  8. Prevalence and pathogenesis of some filarial nematodes infecting donkeys in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, A. M.; Ahmed, N. E.; Elakabawy, L. M.; Ramadan, M. Y.; Elmadawy, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The primary objective of the present study is to determine the commonness of filarial parasites in donkeys in Egypt, identification of the filarial species tainting them and the delivered pathogenic impact connected with the infestation. Materials and Methods: A total of 188 donkeys were examined for filarial infection. The blood samples and scraping of the cutaneous bleeding lesions were collected, stained, and inspected for microfilariae all through the period from March 2011 to October 2013. The adult worms were perceived in tissue samples acquired from skin scraping, testes, eyes, tendons, peritoneal and pleural cavities, and the ligamentum nuchae. Results: On the basis of morphological identification, 163 of 188 donkeys (86.70%) were infected with Onchocerca cervicalis (82.98%), Setaria equina (31.11%), Parafilaria multipapillosa (5.32%), and Onchocerca reticulata (4.26%). There was no significant effect of the sex on the incidence of all the encounteredfilarial worms except for S. equina, where the infection rate prevailed in males versus females (40.82% vs. 35.90%). In addition, age group of 5-15 years old exhibited a fundamentally higher predominance (p< 0.05) of the recognized filarial worms versus those of < 5 years old and >15 years old. Conclusion: The preliminary results add to our comprehension of filarial species infecting donkeys in Egypt, their impact on animal execution and production. Accentuation must be taken for avoidance, control of filarial disease, and improvement of the management system of donkeys.

  9. PREVALENCE OF ANISAKID NEMATODE LARVAE INFECTING SOME MARINE FISHES FROM THE LIBYAN COAST.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hamed H; Bowashi, Salem Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    This study examined eight hundred ninety six marine fishes belonging to nine different fish species; Synodus saurus; Merluccius merluccius; Trachurus mediterraneus; Serranus cabrilla; Mullus surmuletus; Diplodus annularis; Spicara maena; Siganus rirulatus and Liza ramada. The fishes were bought from fish markets at five different sites on Libyan coast, from January to December 2013, for study the anisakids larvae among them. The results showed that 344/896 fishes (38.4%) were infected with Anisakids larvae. S. saurus was the highly infected (80.9%), followed by T mediterraneus (77.5%) but, S. cabrilla, S. maena, M merluccius, M surmuletus, and D. annularis were least anisakid infected showed rates of 58.2%, 53.8%, 43.7%, 36.7% & 3.6%, respectively. No parasites were in S. rirulatus and L, ramada. Ten species of Anisakids larvae was detected during the present study. Two Pseudoterranova sp. Larvae, two types of Anisakis larvae, Anisakis simplex larva and Anisakis sp. Larva, two types of Contracaecum sp. Larvae and four Hysterothylacium larvae. Females showed higher prevalence than males. The number of anisakid larvae varied according to body length and weight of infected fish, without significant difference between prevalence and seasons, but, a significant difference was between prevalence and regions.

  10. Prevalence and pathogenesis of some filarial nematodes infecting donkeys in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, A. M.; Ahmed, N. E.; Elakabawy, L. M.; Ramadan, M. Y.; Elmadawy, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The primary objective of the present study is to determine the commonness of filarial parasites in donkeys in Egypt, identification of the filarial species tainting them and the delivered pathogenic impact connected with the infestation. Materials and Methods: A total of 188 donkeys were examined for filarial infection. The blood samples and scraping of the cutaneous bleeding lesions were collected, stained, and inspected for microfilariae all through the period from March 2011 to October 2013. The adult worms were perceived in tissue samples acquired from skin scraping, testes, eyes, tendons, peritoneal and pleural cavities, and the ligamentum nuchae. Results: On the basis of morphological identification, 163 of 188 donkeys (86.70%) were infected with Onchocerca cervicalis (82.98%), Setaria equina (31.11%), Parafilaria multipapillosa (5.32%), and Onchocerca reticulata (4.26%). There was no significant effect of the sex on the incidence of all the encounteredfilarial worms except for S. equina, where the infection rate prevailed in males versus females (40.82% vs. 35.90%). In addition, age group of 5-15 years old exhibited a fundamentally higher predominance (p< 0.05) of the recognized filarial worms versus those of < 5 years old and >15 years old. Conclusion: The preliminary results add to our comprehension of filarial species infecting donkeys in Egypt, their impact on animal execution and production. Accentuation must be taken for avoidance, control of filarial disease, and improvement of the management system of donkeys. PMID:27651679

  11. PREVALENCE OF ANISAKID NEMATODE LARVAE INFECTING SOME MARINE FISHES FROM THE LIBYAN COAST.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hamed H; Bowashi, Salem Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    This study examined eight hundred ninety six marine fishes belonging to nine different fish species; Synodus saurus; Merluccius merluccius; Trachurus mediterraneus; Serranus cabrilla; Mullus surmuletus; Diplodus annularis; Spicara maena; Siganus rirulatus and Liza ramada. The fishes were bought from fish markets at five different sites on Libyan coast, from January to December 2013, for study the anisakids larvae among them. The results showed that 344/896 fishes (38.4%) were infected with Anisakids larvae. S. saurus was the highly infected (80.9%), followed by T mediterraneus (77.5%) but, S. cabrilla, S. maena, M merluccius, M surmuletus, and D. annularis were least anisakid infected showed rates of 58.2%, 53.8%, 43.7%, 36.7% & 3.6%, respectively. No parasites were in S. rirulatus and L, ramada. Ten species of Anisakids larvae was detected during the present study. Two Pseudoterranova sp. Larvae, two types of Anisakis larvae, Anisakis simplex larva and Anisakis sp. Larva, two types of Contracaecum sp. Larvae and four Hysterothylacium larvae. Females showed higher prevalence than males. The number of anisakid larvae varied according to body length and weight of infected fish, without significant difference between prevalence and seasons, but, a significant difference was between prevalence and regions. PMID:26939239

  12. The effect of day of emergence from the insect cadaver on the behavior and environmental tolerances of infective juveniles of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis megidis (strain UK211).

    PubMed

    O'Leary, S A; Stack, C M; Chubb, M A; Burnell, A M

    1998-08-01

    Infective juveniles (IJs) of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are obligate parasites of insect larvae. Inside the host they develop into sexually mature adult stages and complete their life cycle. Two or 3 adult nematode generations can occur in the insect host. The increase in nematode population density in the insect cadaver, together with limiting nutrient conditions, result in the formation of IJs. These IJs emerge into the soil to search for a new host. It typically takes 7-8 days for all IJs to emerge from a parasitized insect. We have investigated the effect of the day of emergence of IJs from insect cadavers on the environmental tolerance and behavior of the EPN Heterorhabditis megidis strain UK211. The IJs that emerge early display good initial host-finding ability and increased temperature tolerance but disperse poorly and have poor tolerance to desiccation. Conversely, the IJs that emerge later display poor initial host-finding ability and poor temperature tolerance but they disperse well and possess increased desiccation tolerance. These phenotypic differences are likely to facilitate early-emerging IJs in locating and infecting hosts in the vicinity of the cadaver, whereas IJs that emerge late are adapted to disperse away from their natal cadaver. We hypothesize that adaptive phenotypic plasticity rather than allelic variability may provide the genetic basis for the different physiological and behavioral phenotypes of the early- and late-emerging IJs. PMID:9714191

  13. Intensity of nematode infections in cyclic and non-cyclic rock partridge (Alectoris graeca saxatilis) populations.

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, A; Manfredi, M T; Rosso, F; Rosà, R; Cattadori, I; Hudson, P

    1999-12-01

    Populations of rock partridge (Alectoris graeca saxatilis), in the Trentino province of Italy, exhibit cyclic fluctuations in abundance associated with relatively dry habitat. One of the hypothesis to explain these cycles is that survival of some free living parasitic stages and rates of infection are greater in these areas leading to higher parasite burden. This hypothesis was examined by investigating the intensity of parasite infection in cyclic and non cyclic rock partridge populations. Analyses of 87 intestine samples collected from shot rock partridges during 1994 and 1995 identified 8 species of helminths parasites: Ascaridia compar (P = 33.33%; I = 9.28 +/- 1.78), Heterakis tenuicauda (P = 19.54%; I = 10.29 +/- 4.58), Heterakis gallinarum (P = 1.15%; I = 1.0 +/- 0.0), Heterakis altaica (P = 1.15%; I = 17 +/- 0.0), Aonchoteca caudinflata (P = 6.89; I = 2.17 +/- 0.65), Postharmostomum commutatum (P = 5.75; I = 7.0 +/- 3.48), Brachylaema fuscata (P = 1.15; I = 7.0 +/- 0.0), Platynosomum alectoris (P = 2.29; I = 5.5 +/- 1.5). Cestoda, recorded with a prevalence of 5.75, were not identified to species level. A. compar and H. tenuicauda were prevalent in the rock partridge populations and there was no positive association between these species. Intensity of infection in both species was not influenced by host age, sex or year of study but levels of infection with A. compar burdens were significantly greater in cyclic populations than in non cyclic populations and there was a tendency for H. tenuicauda to be greater in cyclic populations. There was no negative relationship between intensity of infection with A. compar or H. tenuicauda and host body mass. These data provide some support for the hypothesis that these parasites may play a role in generating rock partridge population cycles. PMID:10870561

  14. RNA-Seq Based Identification of Candidate Parasitism Genes of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) during Incompatible Infection to Aegilops variabilis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Minghui; Long, Hai; Zhao, Yun; Li, Lin; Xu, Delin; Zhang, Haili; Liu, Feng; Deng, Guangbing; Pan, Zhifen; Yu, Maoqun

    2015-01-01

    One of the reasons for the progressive yield decline observed in cereals production is the rapid build-up of populations of the cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae). These nematodes secrete so-call effectors into their host plant to suppress the plant defense responses, alter plant signaling pathways and then induce the formation of syncytium after infection. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism and parasitism during incompatible infection. To gain insight into its repertoire of parasitism genes, we investigated the transcriptome of the early parasitic second-stage (30 hours, 3 days and 9 days post infection) juveniles of the CCN as well as the CCN infected tissue of the host Aegilops variabilis by Illumina sequencing. Among all assembled unigenes, 681 putative genes of parasitic nematode were found, in which 56 putative effectors were identified, including novel pioneer genes and genes corresponding to previously reported effectors. All the 681 CCN unigenes were mapped to 229 GO terms and 200 KEGG pathways, including growth, development and several stimulus-related signaling pathways. Sixteen clusters were involved in the CCN unigene expression atlas at the early stages during infection process, and three of which were significantly gene-enriched. Besides, the protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed 35 node unigenes which may play an important role in the plant-CCN interaction. Moreover, in a comparison of differentially expressed genes between the pre-parasitic juveniles and the early parasitic juveniles, we found that hydrolase activity was up-regulated in pre J2s whereas binding activity was upregulated in infective J2s. RT-qPCR analysis on some selected genes showed detectable expression, indicating possible secretion of the proteins and putative role in infection. This study provided better insights into the incompatible interaction between H. avenae and the host plant Ae. varabilis. Moreover, RNAi targets with

  15. RNA-Seq Based Identification of Candidate Parasitism Genes of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) during Incompatible Infection to Aegilops variabilis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minghui; Long, Hai; Zhao, Yun; Li, Lin; Xu, Delin; Zhang, Haili; Liu, Feng; Deng, Guangbing; Pan, Zhifen; Yu, Maoqun

    2015-01-01

    One of the reasons for the progressive yield decline observed in cereals production is the rapid build-up of populations of the cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae). These nematodes secrete so-call effectors into their host plant to suppress the plant defense responses, alter plant signaling pathways and then induce the formation of syncytium after infection. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism and parasitism during incompatible infection. To gain insight into its repertoire of parasitism genes, we investigated the transcriptome of the early parasitic second-stage (30 hours, 3 days and 9 days post infection) juveniles of the CCN as well as the CCN infected tissue of the host Aegilops variabilis by Illumina sequencing. Among all assembled unigenes, 681 putative genes of parasitic nematode were found, in which 56 putative effectors were identified, including novel pioneer genes and genes corresponding to previously reported effectors. All the 681 CCN unigenes were mapped to 229 GO terms and 200 KEGG pathways, including growth, development and several stimulus-related signaling pathways. Sixteen clusters were involved in the CCN unigene expression atlas at the early stages during infection process, and three of which were significantly gene-enriched. Besides, the protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed 35 node unigenes which may play an important role in the plant-CCN interaction. Moreover, in a comparison of differentially expressed genes between the pre-parasitic juveniles and the early parasitic juveniles, we found that hydrolase activity was up-regulated in pre J2s whereas binding activity was upregulated in infective J2s. RT-qPCR analysis on some selected genes showed detectable expression, indicating possible secretion of the proteins and putative role in infection. This study provided better insights into the incompatible interaction between H. avenae and the host plant Ae. varabilis. Moreover, RNAi targets with

  16. Comparison of the metal accumulation capacity between the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis and larval nematodes of the genus Eustrongylides sp. infecting barbel (Barbus barbus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metal uptake and accumulation in fish parasites largely depends on the parasite group with acanthocephalans showing the highest accumulation rates. Additionally, developmental stage (larvae or adult) as well as parasite location in the host are suggested to be decisive factors for metal bioconcentration in parasites. By using barbel (Barbus barbus) simultaneously infected with nematode larvae in the body cavity and adult acanthocephalans in the intestine, the relative importance of all of these factors was compared in the same host. Methods Eleven elements Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se), Tin (Sn), Vanadium (V) and Zinc (Zn) were analyzed in barbel tissues (muscle, intestine, liver) as well as in their acanthocephalan parasites Pomphorhynchus laevis and the larval nematode Eustrongylides sp. (L4) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results Nine elements were detected in significantly higher levels in the parasites compared to host tissues. The element composition among parasites was found to be strongly dependent on parasite taxa/developmental stage and localization within the host. Intestinal acanthocephalans accumulated mainly toxic elements (As, Cd, Pb), whereas the intraperitoneal nematodes bioconcentrated essential elements (Co, Cu, Fe, Se, Zn). Conclusion Our results suggest that in addition to acanthocephalans, nematodes such as Eustrongylides sp. can also be applied as bioindicators for metal pollution. Using both parasite taxa simultaneously levels of a wide variety of elements (essential and non essential) can easily be obtained. Therefore this host-parasite system can be suggested as an appropriate tool for future metal monitoring studies, if double infected fish hosts are available. PMID:23332036

  17. In Vivo Production of Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    In nature, entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are obligate parasites of insects. The nematodes are used widely as biopesticides for suppression of insect pests. More than a dozen entomopathogenic nematode species have been commercialized for use in biological control. Most nematodes intended for commercial application are produced in artificial media via solid or liquid fermentation. However, for laboratory research and small greenhouse or field trials, in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes is the common method of propagation. Additionally, small companies continue to produce nematodes using in vivo methods for application in niche markets. Advances in mechanization and alternative production routes (e.g., production geared toward application of nematodes in infected host cadavers) can improve efficiency and economy of scale. The objective of this chapter is to describe basic and advanced procedures for in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:27565497

  18. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms

    PubMed Central

    Chintoan-Uta, C.; Morgan, E. R.; Skuce, P. J.; Coles, G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml−1 ± 0.13 µg ml−1) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms. PMID:24552838

  19. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.

    PubMed

    Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

    2014-04-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.

  20. Gastrointestinal manifestations of postnatal cytomegalovirus infection in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit over a five year period.

    PubMed

    Cheong, J L Y; Cowan, F M; Modi, N

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen cases of postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection were identified in a neonatal intensive care unit population over a five year period. Eleven of these infants had gastrointestinal signs at the time of presentation. These ranged from minor and transient (abdominal distension and enteral feed intolerance) to severe and life threatening (protein losing enteropathy, diarrhoea, and hypernatraemic dehydration). An initial diagnosis of necrotising enterocolitis was common, but no infant showed intestinal or hepatic portal pneumatosis. The gestational age of the infants was 24-38 weeks. All had received fresh maternal breast milk. It is suggested that CMV enteritis is added to the spectrum of clinical manifestations of postnatal CMV infection. Signs suggestive of necrotising enterocolitis with atypical features should prompt investigations for CMV infection.

  1. The Pasteur effect in rat jejunum and the influence of nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Scofield, A M

    1978-01-01

    1. The Pasteur effect was shown after 15 min but not after 30 min incubation of jejunal rings from normal rats. 2. During 15-30 min incubation, the rate of anaerobic lactate production decreased, while aerobic lactate production remained unchanged. Thus oxygen was necessary to maintain the functional integrity of the tissue during this period. 3. After infection with either Nematospiroides dubius or Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, the Pasteur effect could not usually be shown, mainly due to a reduced rate of anaerobic lactate production. 4. The possible relationship of the loss of the Pasteur effect to the immune response is discussed.

  2. Intestinal mucosal mast cells in normal and nematode-infected rat intestines are in intimate contact with peptidergic nerves.

    PubMed Central

    Stead, R H; Tomioka, M; Quinonez, G; Simon, G T; Felten, S Y; Bienenstock, J

    1987-01-01

    Inflammatory or allergic conditions, as well as situations where healing and repair processes occur, are characterized by the presence of increased numbers of mast cells. Previous work on the effect of neuropeptides on mast cell mediator release showed that only substance P caused such release from intestinal mucosal mast cells [Shanahan, F., Denburg, J. A., Fox, J., Bienenstock, J. & Befus, A. D. (1985) J. Immunol. 135, 1331-1337]. Accordingly, we investigated the microanatomical relationship between mast cells and enteric nerves in normal rat intestine and parasite-infected rat intestine, in which mucosal mast cell hyperplasia occurs. Combined immunohistochemistry for neuron-specific enolase and staining with alcian blue at pH 0.5 was employed on paraffin-embedded sections of normal and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rat jejunum. Sixty-seven percent of intestinal mucosal mast cells were touching subepithelial nerves, and an additional 20% were within 2 micron of nerves. Assessment of the proportion of the lamina propria occupied by mast cells (12.5%), the average mast cell area (121 +/- 28 microns 2), and the density of enteric nerves (one per 788 +/- 151 microns 2) suggested that the association was 5 times greater than would be expected by chance alone (P less than 0.0001). In consecutive sections, the nerves in contact with mast cells were also shown to contain substance P and/or calcitonin-gene-related peptide. Electron microscopy confirmed this association: 8% of the mast cells in infected rats exhibited membrane-membrane contact with unmyelinated axons containing 70- to 170-nm dense-core vesicles, and an additional 31% were situated less than 250 nm from nerves. Other mast cells appeared to embrace nerve bundles through the projection of lamellopodia. These data provide systematic quantitative evidence that a structural foundation for communication between the immune and nervous systems exists in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Images PMID:2437589

  3. Molecular Characteristics and Efficacy of 16D10 siRNAs in Inhibiting Root-Knot Nematode Infection in Transgenic Grape Hairy Roots

    PubMed Central

    Chronis, Demosthenis; Wang, Xiaohong; Cousins, Peter; Zhong, Gan-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) infect many annual and perennial crops and are the most devastating soil-born pests in vineyards. To develop a biotech-based solution for controlling RKNs in grapes, we evaluated the efficacy of plant-derived RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of a conserved RKN effector gene, 16D10, for nematode resistance in transgenic grape hairy roots. Two hairpin-based silencing constructs, containing a stem sequence of 42 bp (pART27-42) or 271 bp (pART27-271) of the 16D10 gene, were transformed into grape hairy roots and compared for their small interfering RNA (siRNA) production and efficacy on suppression of nematode infection. Transgenic hairy root lines carrying either of the two RNAi constructs showed less susceptibility to nematode infection compared with control. Small RNA libraries from four pART27-42 and two pART27-271 hairy root lines were sequenced using an Illumina sequencing technology. The pART27-42 lines produced hundred times more 16D10-specific siRNAs than the pART27-271 lines. On average the 16D10 siRNA population had higher GC content than the 16D10 stem sequences in the RNAi constructs, supporting previous observation that plant dicer-like enzymes prefer GC-rich sequences as substrates for siRNA production. The stems of the 16D10 RNAi constructs were not equally processed into siRNAs. Several hot spots for siRNA production were found in similar positions of the hairpin stems in pART27-42 and pART27-271. Interestingly, stem sequences at the loop terminus produced more siRNAs than those at the stem base. Furthermore, the relative abundance of guide and passenger single-stranded RNAs from putative siRNA duplexes was largely correlated with their 5′ end thermodynamic strength. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a plant-derived RNAi approach for generation of novel nematode resistance in grapes and revealed several interesting molecular characteristics of transgene siRNAs important for optimizing plant RNAi constructs

  4. Surveillance of travel-associated gastrointestinal infections in Norway, 2009-2010: are they all actually imported?

    PubMed

    Guzman-Herrador, B; Vold, L; Nygard, K

    2012-10-11

    The Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS) includes variables related to travel for clinicians to fill when notifying travel-associated infections. We measured the completeness and validated the travel-history information for salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and shigellosis reported in 2009-2010. Of all 8,978 selected infections in MSIS, 8,122 (91%) were reported with place of infection of which 5,236 (65%) were notified as acquired abroad, including 5,017 with symptoms. Of these, 2,972 (59%) notifications had information on both date of arrival in Norway and date of symptom onset, so time between travel and illness onset could be assessed. Taking in account the incubation period, of the 1,435 infections reported as travel-associated and for which symptom onset occurred after return to Norway, 1,404 (98%) would have indeed been acquired abroad. We found a high level of completeness for the variable 'place of infection'. Our evaluation suggests that the validity of this information is high. However, incomplete data in the variables 'return date to Norway' and 'date of symptoms onset', only allowed assessment of the biological plausibility of being infected abroad for 59% of the cases. We encourage clinicians to report more complete travel information. High quality information on travel-associated gastrointestinal infections is crucial for understanding trends in domestic and imported cases and evaluating implemented control measures.

  5. Efficacy of Emodepside/Praziquantel Spot-on (Profender®) against adult Aelurostrongylus abstrusus Nematodes in Experimentally Infected Cats.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Claudia; Wolken, Sonja; Schnyder, Manuela; Basso, Walter; Deplazes, Peter; Di Cesare, Angela; Deuster, Katrin; Schaper, Roland

    2015-08-01

    The adulticidal efficacy of a topical combination of emodepside 2.1 % (w/v) plus praziquantel 8.6 % (w/v) (Profender® spot-on for cats, Bayer) against adult Aelurostrongylus abstrusus nematodes was evaluated in two randomised, placebo-controlled laboratory efficacy studies. Each study involved 16 cats experimentally inoculated with L3 (800 and 600 each in studies no. 1 and 2, respectively) and randomised into two study groups of 8 cats each after onset of patency. While cats in the treatment group in study no. 1 received a single spot-on application at the minimum therapeutic dose (3 mg/kg emodepside and 12 mg/kg praziquantel), cats in study no. 2 were treated twice with an interval of 14 days. The faecal output of first stage larvae was monitored throughout the study. Necropsy was conducted 4 or 5 weeks after the (first) treatment and the worm counts were used for efficacy calculations. The control groups showed a geometric mean of the total worm count (live and dead worms) of 28.8 (study no. 1) and 17.6 (study no. 2), respectively. All control animals were infected. While the single treatment in study no. 1 resulted in a reduction of the total worm burden by 73.0 % (p = 0.0070), the treatment protocol in study no. 2 was 99.2 % effective (p = 0.0035). Based on live worm counts, the efficacy in study no. 2 was 100 % (p = 0.0030). It is concluded that two applications of Profender® spot-on given two weeks apart represent a safe and highly efficacious treatment regime against feline aelurostrongylosis. PMID:26152416

  6. Formulation of Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The enduring stages of entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are infective juveniles, which require a high humidity and sufficient ventilation for survival. Formulations must account for these requirements. Nematodes may be formulated inside the insects in which they reproduced or they need to be cleaned and mixed with a suitable binder to maintain humidity but allowing for gas exchange. Another method for formulation is the encapsulation in beads of Ca-alginate. Generic procedures for these formulation techniques are described. PMID:27565496

  7. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal

    PubMed Central

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D’Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  8. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  9. ntegrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) using sericea lespedeza (SL), FAMACHA, and copper oxide wire particles (COWP) in weaned goats in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of effective anthelmintics for control of GIN in goats has led to the need for an integrated management approach. FAMACHA is an effective tool for selective deworming of Haemonchus contortus-infected goats, while COWP and SL grazing have reduced H. contortus infection. The objective was to exam...

  10. Direct and indirect costs of co-infection in the wild: Linking gastrointestinal parasite communities, host hematology, and immune function☆

    PubMed Central

    Budischak, Sarah A.; Jolles, Anna E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.

    2012-01-01

    Most animals are concurrently infected with multiple parasites, and interactions among these parasites may influence both disease dynamics and host fitness. However, the sublethal costs of parasite infections are difficult to measure and the effects of concomitant infections with multiple parasite species on individual physiology and fitness are poorly described for wild hosts. To understand the direct and indirect physiological costs of co-infection, we investigated the relationships among gastrointestinal parasite richness, species identity, and abundance and host hematological parameters, body condition, and investment in lymphocyte defenses. Using aggregate-scale parasite data from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), we found few direct or indirect associations between infection and hematology in male hosts, and no significant associations were observed in female hosts or with respect to body condition in either sex. These results suggest that only strong physiological effects are detectable with aggregate-scale parasite data, and that hematological variables may be more sensitive to changes in condition than standard body fat condition indices. Analyses accounting for parasite species identity in female buffalo revealed that different parasites show distinct relationships with host hematology, body condition, and immune investment. However, four of six species-specific associations were obscured when parasites were considered in combination. Overall, fitness-related physiological mediators such as hematological indices may provide assessments of direct and indirect effects of parasite infection, particularly when parasite species identity and community composition are considered. PMID:24533308

  11. A survey of gastro-intestinal parasitic infection in domestic and wild birds in Chittagong and Greater Sylhet, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Haque, Enamul; Shaikat, Amir Hossan; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Alim, Abdul; Skerratt, Lee Francis; Islam, Ariful; Tun, Hein Min; Dissanayake, Ravi; Day, Tapan Kumar; Debnath, Nitish Chandra; Yamage, Mat

    2014-11-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal parasitic infection as determined by faecal examination was conducted among domestic and wild birds in Bangladesh. Birds were sampled from households, wet markets and wetlands in Chittagong and Greater Sylhet districts during April 2012 to February 2013. Mist nets were used to catch resident wild and migratory birds. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection ranged among locations from 25 to 55% in indigenous domestic ducks (live bird samples=304), 20% in resident wild birds (environmental faecal samples=40) and 40% in migratory birds (live bird samples=35). The prevalence of parasitic infection was significantly higher in indigenous domestic ducks collected during summer (39%) than winter (22%) (p=0.04). In domestic indigenous ducks and Muscovy ducks, both single and multiple types of parasitic infections were found. However, other domestic birds and wild birds often had a single type of parasitic infection. Ascaridia spp. with an average egg load of 50-900, was commonly detected in faecal samples of domestic and wild birds in this study. Other identified parasites were Capillaria spp. and Heterakis spp. both in domestic and wild birds. Improvement of biosecurity measures for household duck farms through educating and motivating household farmers could help mitigate the effects of parasitic infection on production.

  12. Transcription of Biotic Stress Associated Genes in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.) Differs in Response to Cyst and Root-Knot Nematode Infection

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Afsana; Mercer, Chris F.; Leung, Susanna; Dijkwel, Paul P.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription of four members of the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) gene family of white clover (Trifolium repens L.), designated as Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5, was investigated at both local infection (roots) and systemic (leaf tissue) sites in white clover in response to infection with the clover root knot nematode (CRKN) Meloidogyne trifoliophila and the clover cyst nematode (CCN) Heterodera trifolii. Invasion by the CRKN resulted in a significant decrease in transcript abundance of Tr-KPI4 locally at both 4 days post-infection (dpi) and at 8 dpi, and an increase in transcription of Tr-KPI1 systemically at 8 dpi. In contrast, an increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally at 4 and 8 dpi, and an increase of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 at 8 dpi systemically was observed in response to infection with the CCN. Challenge of a resistant (R) genotype and a susceptible (S) genotype of white clover with the CCN revealed a significant increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally in the R genotype, while an increase in abundance of only Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 was observed in the S genotype, and only at 4 dpi. The transcript abundance of a member of the1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE (ACC) SYNTHASE gene family from white clover (Tr-ACS1) was significantly down-regulated locally in response to CRKN infection at 4 and 8 dpi and at 4 dpi, systemically, while abundance increased locally and systemically at 8 dpi in response to CCN challenge. Conversely, the abundance of the jasmonic acid (JA) signalling gene, CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE PROTEIN 1 from white clover (Tr-COI1) increased significantly at 8 dpi locally in response to CRKN infection, but decreased at 8 dpi in response to CCN infection. The significance of this differential regulation of transcription is discussed with respect to differences in infection strategy of the two nematode species. PMID:26393362

  13. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with dyspepsia in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ayana, Segni M; Swai, Birgitta; Maro, Venance P; Kibiki, Gibson S

    2014-01-01

    Dyspepsia is a common presenting complaint of various upper gastrointestinal disorders. The symptoms of causes of dyspepsia often overlap and this makes etiological diagnosis difficult. Endoscopy is the ideal procedure for identifying organic diseases of the foregut. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with various upper gastrointestinal pathologies. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine endoscopic findings and H. pylori status in two hundred and eight consecutive dyspeptic adult patients between June 2009 and April 2010 at Kilimanjaro Christian medical Centre, a referral and teaching hospital in northern Tanzania. The most commonly identified endoscopic findings were gastritis (61.10%), Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (57%), and Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) (24.1%). Gastric cancer was identified in 6.7% of patients and all of them were aged 40 years and above (p = 0.00). H. pylori infection was detected in 65% (n = 130) of patients. H. pylori infection was present in 57% (n = 24) of patients who were tested within six months after eradication therapy. Gastritis and duodenal ulcer were statistically significantly associated with H. pylori (p < 0.001). No association was found between GERD and H. pylori infection (p > 0.05). Gastritis, GERD, and PUD are the leading causes of dyspepsia. H. pylori infection is present in significant proportion of dyspeptic patients. Patients with Gastritis and PUD should undergo empirical eradication therapy if a confirmatory test is not available. Patients with dyspepsia who are over 40 years of age should undergo Endoscopy (EGD) for initial work up. Study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of H. pylori is recommended to guide choices for evidence based treatment option. PMID:26867268

  14. Philometrid nematodes infecting fishes from the Everglades National Park, Florida, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah

    2010-09-01

    The following three species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from marine perciform fishes of the Everglades National Park (northern Gulf of Mexico), Florida, U.S.A.: Philometra brevispicula sp. n. (male and females) from the subcutaneous tissue of mouth of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus) (Lutjanidae), Philometroides grandipapillatus sp. n. (only females) from pectoral fin muscle of the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) (Carangidae), and Caranginema americanum Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza et Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 (females) from the subcutaneous fascia of trunk muscle in crevalle jack C. hippos. Philometra brevispicula is mainly characterized by small cephalic papillae of the external circle, the absence of oesophageal teeth and the presence of small caudal projections in gravid female, markedly short spicules (45 microm) in male, and by its location in the host. Philometroides grandipapillatus differs from congeners mainly in the shape of the cephalic region (narrow, conspicuously protruding), large cephalic papillae of the external circle and the absence of caudal projections in female, and by the site of infection in the host. Caranginema americanum is for the first time recorded from the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  15. A Review of Gastrointestinal Outbreaks in Schools: Effective Infection Control Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marilyn B.; Greig, Judy D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to review documented outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in schools, published in the last 10 years, to identify etiology, mode of transmission, the number of children affected, morbidity and mortality patterns, and interventions for control and prevention. Methods: Searches of electronic databases,…

  16. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy...

  17. Diversity and prevalence of metastrongyloid nematodes infecting the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) in European zoos.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, Mads F; Meyland-Smith, Frederik; Willesen, Jakob L; Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Monrad, Jesper

    2010-09-20

    Metastrongyloid induced pneumonia has been described sporadically in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens). Early descriptions in pandas recently imported to the USA from China involved parasites morphologically similar to Angiostrongylus spp. and Crenosomatidae. More recently, four cases of severe verminous pneumonia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum have been reported from European zoos. A coprological survey of the red panda population within European zoos was conducted in 2008. Faecal samples from 115 pandas originating from 54 zoos were collected on 3 consecutive days. Using Baermann technique, 40 animals (35%) from 20 zoos (37%) were found to shed metastrongyloid first stage larvae (L(1)). Based on their morphology and size, the L(1) observed could be divided into three morphologically distinct types: (1) a Crenosoma sp. type (n=5, overall prevalence: 4.3%), (2) an A. vasorum type (n=3, 2.6%), and (3) an unidentified metastrongyloid species, similar to, but morphologically distinct from A. vasorum (n=32, 27.8%). Further confirmation of species identification was provided by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene, which confirmed three different species. The novel Crenosoma species was most genetically analogous to Crenosoma mephitidis and the unidentified metastrongyloid species was most similar to Stenurus minor and Torynurus convulutus. Routine and quarantine health care of red pandas in captivity should take account of the risk of Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma infection in endemic areas, but should also be cognisant of the widespread presence of an apparently less pathogenic species of lungworm. The identity of the two potentially novel species is subject to further work.

  18. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens (Gallus domesticus) in and around Shimoga.

    PubMed

    Javaregowda, Ananda K; Kavitha Rani, B; Revanna, Suresh Patel; Udupa, Ganesh

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted for 1 year from March 2010 to February 2011 to identify gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens and to estimate its prevalence in and around Shimoga, a malnad region of Karnataka. A total of 250 gastro-intestinal tracts were collected from backyard chickens for the detection of gastrointestinal parasites. Among the 250 birds screened, 183 (73.2 %) were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites by gross examination of gastrointestinal tract. Out of 183 positive cases, 94 (51.36 %) were found positive for cestodes, includes 73 (77.6 %) Raillietina tetragona, 12 (12.8 %) Raillietina echinobothrida and 9 (9.6 %) Raillietina cesticillus. Whereas, 53 (28.96 %) were found harbouring nematode parasites includes 33 (62.3 %) had Ascaridia galli, 12 (22.6 %) had Heterakis gallinarum and 8 (15.1 %) had both A. galli and H. gallinarum infection. The remaining 36 (19.67 %) had mixed infections of both cestode and nematode parasites. The microscopic examination of the gut contents and faecal samples showed presence of coccidian oocysts and eggs of A. galli, H. gallinarum and Capillaria spp. respectively. PMID:27605824

  19. A Survey of Seasonal Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections in Donkeys from a Semiarid Sub-Saharan Region, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed Abdurhman; Ahmed, Nasredin Khogali; Bashar, Ahmed Elhag; Seri, Hisham Ismail; El Tigani-Asil, El Tigani Ahmed; Abakar, Adam Dawoud

    2016-01-01

    Out of 92 donkeys examined for gastrointestinal parasites, 90 animals were found infected by one or more gastrointestinal parasites with an overall prevalence rate of 97.78%. The distributions of the recovered parasites in the different parts of the body were as follows: stomach, 92.4%, small intestine, 19.6%, caecum, 88%, colon, 80.4%, rectum, 73.9%, and cranial mesenteric artery, 64.1%. A significant difference was found between mean parasite counts and seasons. Hot wet season had higher mean parasites count (5411.5 ± 1694.4) in comparison with hot dry (1795.9 ± 399.6) and cool dry (1719.9 ± 522.4) seasons. Although there was no significant difference between age and mean parasite count, animals more than four years old had high mean count (3361.3 ± 921.8) in comparison with 2330 ± 744.3 and 2030.2 ± 873.1 for young and adults animals, respectively. No significant positive or negative correlation was found between total parasite counts of infected animals and any of the climatic factors. The parasites identified were Habronema spp. (40.2%), Trichostrongylus axei (30.4%), Parascaris equorum (18.5%), Anoplocephala perfoliata (4.35%), Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus (8.7%), large strongyles (84%), small strongyles (72%), and Oxyuris equi (1.1%). PMID:27298739

  20. A Survey of Seasonal Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections in Donkeys from a Semiarid Sub-Saharan Region, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ahmed Abdurhman; Ahmed, Nasredin Khogali; Bashar, Ahmed Elhag; Seri, Hisham Ismail; El Tigani-Asil, El Tigani Ahmed; Abakar, Adam Dawoud

    2016-01-01

    Out of 92 donkeys examined for gastrointestinal parasites, 90 animals were found infected by one or more gastrointestinal parasites with an overall prevalence rate of 97.78%. The distributions of the recovered parasites in the different parts of the body were as follows: stomach, 92.4%, small intestine, 19.6%, caecum, 88%, colon, 80.4%, rectum, 73.9%, and cranial mesenteric artery, 64.1%. A significant difference was found between mean parasite counts and seasons. Hot wet season had higher mean parasites count (5411.5 ± 1694.4) in comparison with hot dry (1795.9 ± 399.6) and cool dry (1719.9 ± 522.4) seasons. Although there was no significant difference between age and mean parasite count, animals more than four years old had high mean count (3361.3 ± 921.8) in comparison with 2330 ± 744.3 and 2030.2 ± 873.1 for young and adults animals, respectively. No significant positive or negative correlation was found between total parasite counts of infected animals and any of the climatic factors. The parasites identified were Habronema spp. (40.2%), Trichostrongylus axei (30.4%), Parascaris equorum (18.5%), Anoplocephala perfoliata (4.35%), Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus (8.7%), large strongyles (84%), small strongyles (72%), and Oxyuris equi (1.1%). PMID:27298739

  1. Evaluation of three formulations of fenbendazole (10% suspension, 0.5% pellets, and 20% premix) against nematode infections in cattle.

    PubMed

    Blagburn, B L; Hanrahan, L A; Hendrix, C M; Lindsay, D S

    1986-03-01

    Anthelmintic efficacies of 3 formulations of fenbendazole were evaluated in cattle naturally parasitized with nematodes: a 10% oral suspension, 0.5% pellets as a top dressing on feed, and a 20% premix. All formulations of fenbendazole were greater than 99% effective in removing adults of Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia spp, Cooperia spp, and Oesophagostomum radiatum. Fenbendazole was greater than 96% effective in removing adults of Strongyloides papillosus and greater than 85% effective in the removal of Trichuris sp. Fenbendazole was greater than 96% effective against immature nematodes, which were thought to be primarily Cooperia spp. Adverse reactions were not observed in calves treated with the 3 formulations of fenbendazole.

  2. Glycol Methacrylate Embedding for the Histochemical Study of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania Infantum

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, A.J.W.; de Amorim, I.F.G.; Pinheiro, L.J.; Madeira, I.M.V.M.; Souza, C.C.; Chiarini-Garcia, H.; Caliari, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    In canine visceral leishmaniasis a diffuse chronic inflammatory exudate and an intense parasite load throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been previously reported. However, these studies did not allow a properly description of canine cellular morphology details. The aim of our study was to better characterize these cells in carrying out a qualitative and quantitative histological study in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum by examining gut tissues embedded in glycol methacrylate. Twelve infected adult dogs were classified in asymptomatic and symptomatic. Five uninfected dogs were used as controls. After necropsy, three samples of each gut segment, including oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum were collected and fixed in Carnoy’s solution for glycol methacrylate protocols. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue borate, and periodic acid-Schiff stain. Leishmania amastigotes were detected by immunohistochemistry employed in both glycol methacrylate and paraffin embedded tissues. The quantitative histological analysis showed higher numbers of plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages in lamina propria of all segments of GIT of infected dogs compared with controls. The parasite load was more intense and cecum and colon, independently of the clinical status of these dogs. Importantly, glycol methacrylate embedded tissue stained with toluidine blue borate clearly revealed mast cell morphology, even after mast cell degranulation. Infected dogs showed lower numbers of mast cells in all gut segments than controls. Despite the glycol methacrylate (GMA) protocol requires more attention and care than the conventional paraffin processing, this embedding procedure proved to be especially suitable for the present histological study, where it allowed to preserve and observe cell morphology in fine detail. PMID:26708180

  3. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in ovine population of Kashmir Valley

    PubMed Central

    Tramboo, S. R.; Shahardar, R. A.; Allaie, I. M.; Wani, Z. A.; Bushra, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI) helminth parasitism is one of the major constraints for profitable sheep production. Due to variations in the prevalence of GI helminths from region to region, it becomes important to map out accurately the parasitic fauna of a particular region for development of suitable control measures. Materials and Methods: An extensive study of GI helminths was carried out in Budgam district of Kashmir Valley over a period of 1 year. A total of 1200 fresh ovine faecal samples from both sexes of young ones and adults were collected in sterilized plastic bags and examined by standard sedimentation and floatation techniques. Positive faecal samples (15-20%) in each season were examined by Stoll’s dilution method to determine the parasitic load. A total of 120 faecal samples (30 samples in each season) positive for strongyle eggs were subjected to coproculture using Petridish method and the third stage larvae were harvested to find out prevalence of different genera of strongyle worms. Results: The overall prevalence of GI helminths was found to be 77% with platyhelminths and nemathelminthes in 26.58 and 60.92% animals, respectively. The overall prevalence of mixed GI helminths was found to be 8.67%. Eggs of various helminths encountered in the present study were those of Fasciola spp. (3.58%), Dicrocoelium spp. (11.58%), paramphistomes (4.83%), Moniezia spp. (7.92%), strongyle worms including Nematodirus spp. (57.75%), Strongyloides spp. (1.67%), and Trichuris spp. (1.5%). On coprocultural examination Haemonchus spp. (55%) was found to be most predominant strongyle worm followed by Trichostrongylus spp. (17.5%), Ostertagia spp. (11.67%), Oesophagostomum spp. (9.17%), and Chabertia spp. (6.67%). On seasonal basis, highest prevalence of GI helminths was recorded in summer (83.00%) followed by spring (78.67%), winter (76.33%), and autumn (70.00%), the difference being statistically non-significant (p>0.05). The prevalence of platyhelminths (Fasciola

  4. Substitution of benzimidazole-resistant nematodes for susceptible nematodes in grazing lambs.

    PubMed

    Moussavou-Boussougou, M-N; Silvestre, A; Cortet, J; Sauve, C; Cabaret, J

    2007-04-01

    Multi-drug-resistant gastrointestinal nematode parasite populations are becoming more and more prevalent. Since anthelmintic treatments are of limited effectiveness, one solution could be to replace the anthelmintic-resistant population by a susceptible population, in order to re-establish the possibility of drug-based anthelmintic control. We investigated this substitution strategy in 4 paddocks of 0.7 ha, each of which was seeded with a benzimidazole-resistant Teladorsagia circumcincta population. The proportion of benzimidazole-resistant worms in these paddocks ranged from 20% to 89%. A 2-step replacement was performed: first, the paddocks were not grazed for 6 months (from December to July), and then the grass was cut to eliminate any residual infective larvae, before contaminating each of the paddocks with 10 seeder lambs experimentally infected with a benzimidazole-susceptible strain of T. circumcincta (from July to November). At the end of the experiment, all the populations on the 4 paddocks were phenotypically benzimidazole-susceptible, but genotyping indicated that 2 populations harboured 1% and 3% resistant worms respectively. This study demonstrates that nematode replacement is feasible in temperate areas, using semi-intensive stock management, even when the initial levels of benzimidazole-resistance are very high. Further research should next assess replacing the whole community to cope with the species diversity observed under field conditions. PMID:17096872

  5. Cattle and Nematodes Under Global Change: Transmission Models as an Ally.

    PubMed

    Verschave, Sien H; Charlier, Johannes; Rose, Hannah; Claerebout, Edwin; Morgan, Eric R

    2016-09-01

    Nematode infections are an important economic constraint to cattle farming. Future risk levels and transmission dynamics will be affected by changes in climate and farm management. The prospect of altered parasite epidemiology in combination with anthelmintic resistance requires the adaptation of current control approaches. Mathematical models that simulate disease dynamics under changing climate and farm management can help to guide the optimization of helminth control strategies. Recent efforts have increasingly employed such models to assess the impact of predicted climate scenarios on future infection pressure for gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in cattle, and to evaluate possible adaptive control measures. This review aims to consolidate progress in this field to facilitate further modeling and application. PMID:27255526

  6. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN NAHAVAND, WESTERN IRAN.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Hamed; Haghighi, Ali; Rostami, Ali; Azargashb, Eznollah; Tabaei, Seyyed Javad Seyyed; Solgi, Abbas; Zebardast, Nozhat

    2016-01-01

    We studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs), their risk factors and associated symptoms among patients with gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 1,301 participants aged 22 days-90 years were enrolled in this study. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and stool examination to investigate intestinal parasite infections. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs) was 32.2% (419/1,301). Three hundred and fifty nine cases/1,301 (27.6%) were infected with a single parasite and 60/1,301 cases (4.6%) presented polyparasitism. The most common IP was Blastocystis sp. 350/1,301 (26.9%), followed by Entamoeba coli 38/1,301 (2.92%), Giardia lamblia 30/1,301 (2.3%) and Cryptosporidium spp. 17/1,301 (1.3%). Regarding the socio-demographic variables, educational status (p = 0.001), contact with domestic animals and soil (p = 0.02), age above 15 years (p = 0.001) and seasons (p = 0.001) were significantly associated to intestinal parasitic infections. Concerning clinical characteristics, the presence of IPs was significantly associated to diarrhea (OR = 1.57; CI 95% = 1.24-1.98; p < 0.001) and dysentery (OR = 1.94; CI 95% = 1.03-3.66; p < 0.04). Our findings suggest that IPs are one of the main causal agents of gastrointestinal disorders. Improving the knowledge on local risk factors such as poverty, low level of education, poor sanitation, contact with soil and contact with domestic animal is warranted. PMID:27253744

  7. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN NAHAVAND, WESTERN IRAN

    PubMed Central

    KIANI, Hamed; HAGHIGHI, Ali; ROSTAMI, Ali; AZARGASHB, Eznollah; TABAEI, Seyyed Javad Seyyed; SOLGI, Abbas; ZEBARDAST, Nozhat

    2016-01-01

    We studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs), their risk factors and associated symptoms among patients with gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 1,301 participants aged 22 days-90 years were enrolled in this study. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and stool examination to investigate intestinal parasite infections. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs) was 32.2% (419/1,301). Three hundred and fifty nine cases/1,301 (27.6%) were infected with a single parasite and 60/1,301 cases (4.6%) presented polyparasitism. The most common IP was Blastocystis sp. 350/1,301 (26.9%), followed by Entamoeba coli 38/1,301 (2.92%), Giardia lamblia 30/1,301 (2.3%) and Cryptosporidium spp. 17/1,301 (1.3%). Regarding the socio-demographic variables, educational status (p = 0.001), contact with domestic animals and soil (p = 0.02), age above 15 years (p = 0.001) and seasons (p = 0.001) were significantly associated to intestinal parasitic infections. Concerning clinical characteristics, the presence of IPs was significantly associated to diarrhea (OR = 1.57; CI 95% = 1.24-1.98; p < 0.001) and dysentery (OR = 1.94; CI 95% = 1.03-3.66; p < 0.04). Our findings suggest that IPs are one of the main causal agents of gastrointestinal disorders. Improving the knowledge on local risk factors such as poverty, low level of education, poor sanitation, contact with soil and contact with domestic animal is warranted. PMID:27253744

  8. PATHOGENICITY OF Blastocystis sp. TO THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF MICE: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INOCULUM SIZE AND PERIOD OF INFECTION.

    PubMed

    Pavanelli, Mariana F; Kaneshima, Edilson Nobuyoshi; Uda, Carla F; Colli, Cristiane M; Falavigna-Guilherm, Ana L; Gomes, Mônica L

    2015-12-01

    The pathogenic potential of Blastocystis sp. in experimental models requires further investigation. In this work, the pathogenicity of this parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of male Swiss mice was evaluated according to the inoculum size and period of infection. Animals were infected intragastrically, with 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 Blastocystis sp. vacuolar forms obtained from a mixture of eight human isolates cultured axenically in Jones' medium. After seven, 14, 21, 28 and 60 days of infection, the animals were sacrificed and fragments of the small intestine (duodenum), large intestine, and cecum were subjected to histopathological analysis. Blastocystis sp. triggered an inflammatory response in the different tissues analyzed, with a predominance of mononuclear cells. The parasite was found in the muscular layer of the cecum, showing its invasive character. Larger inocula triggered inflammatory processes earlier (seven days) than smaller ones (from 21 days). We conclude that, in the proposed model, the pathogenicity of Blastocystis sp. isolates that were studied is related to inoculum size and period of infection. PMID:27049699

  9. PATHOGENICITY OF Blastocystis sp. TO THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF MICE: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INOCULUM SIZE AND PERIOD OF INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    PAVANELLI, Mariana F.; KANESHIMA, Edilson Nobuyoshi; UDA, Carla F.; COLLI, Cristiane M.; FALAVIGNA-GUILHERM, Ana L.; GOMES, Mônica L.

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic potential of Blastocystis sp. in experimental models requires further investigation. In this work, the pathogenicity of this parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of male Swiss mice was evaluated according to the inoculum size and period of infection. Animals were infected intragastrically, with 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 Blastocystis sp. vacuolar forms obtained from a mixture of eight human isolates cultured axenically in Jones' medium. After seven, 14, 21, 28 and 60 days of infection, the animals were sacrificed and fragments of the small intestine (duodenum), large intestine, and cecum were subjected to histopathological analysis. Blastocystis sp. triggered an inflammatory response in the different tissues analyzed, with a predominance of mononuclear cells. The parasite was found in the muscular layer of the cecum, showing its invasive character. Larger inocula triggered inflammatory processes earlier (seven days) than smaller ones (from 21 days). We conclude that, in the proposed model, the pathogenicity of Blastocystis sp. isolates that were studied is related to inoculum size and period of infection. PMID:27049699

  10. PATHOGENICITY OF Blastocystis sp. TO THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF MICE: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INOCULUM SIZE AND PERIOD OF INFECTION.

    PubMed

    Pavanelli, Mariana F; Kaneshima, Edilson Nobuyoshi; Uda, Carla F; Colli, Cristiane M; Falavigna-Guilherm, Ana L; Gomes, Mônica L

    2015-12-01

    The pathogenic potential of Blastocystis sp. in experimental models requires further investigation. In this work, the pathogenicity of this parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of male Swiss mice was evaluated according to the inoculum size and period of infection. Animals were infected intragastrically, with 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 Blastocystis sp. vacuolar forms obtained from a mixture of eight human isolates cultured axenically in Jones' medium. After seven, 14, 21, 28 and 60 days of infection, the animals were sacrificed and fragments of the small intestine (duodenum), large intestine, and cecum were subjected to histopathological analysis. Blastocystis sp. triggered an inflammatory response in the different tissues analyzed, with a predominance of mononuclear cells. The parasite was found in the muscular layer of the cecum, showing its invasive character. Larger inocula triggered inflammatory processes earlier (seven days) than smaller ones (from 21 days). We conclude that, in the proposed model, the pathogenicity of Blastocystis sp. isolates that were studied is related to inoculum size and period of infection.

  11. A Survey of Dung Beetles Infected with Larval Nematodes with Particular Note on Copris lunaris Beetles as a Vector for Gongylonema sp. in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mikaeili, Elmira; Mobedi, Iraj; Kia, Eshratbeigom; Masoomi, Lotfali; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Dung beetles (family Scarabaeidae) are one of the largest families of beetles worldwide. Due to biological behavior of these arthropods, they are considered to play an important role in the life cycle of some helminths. In the present study, dung beetles collected from cattle pastures in rural areas of Ardabil province, north-west of Iran were examined for infection with larval stages of helminths. According to the results, nematodes of 2 genera were identified including Rhabditis and Gongylonema. The more common species was Rhabditis sp. which was found in 9 species of beetles. Out of 15 different species of dung beetles, Copris lunaris was the only scarabaeid to be found naturally infected with the larval stages of Gongylonema sp. Our new findings introduce C. lunaris as a potential biological vector for transmission of Gongylonema sp. to vertebrates in the surveyed region. PMID:19290086

  12. [Resistance to anthelmintics in nematodes in sheep and goats].

    PubMed

    Praslicka, J; Corba, J

    1995-08-01

    The article offers a brief view on the most important theoretical knowledge of resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to anthelmintic drugs in sheep and goats. Besides the definition and basic terms, factors of development and occurrence of resistance on farm are analyzed. Furthermore, methods for detection of resistant nematodes as well as complex of recommended preventive measures are given.

  13. Biological control of nematode parasites in sheep.

    PubMed

    Larsen, M

    2006-04-01

    In a world in which sheep producers are facing increasing problems due to the rapid spread of anthelmintic resistance, the battle against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes is a difficult one. One of the potential new tools for integrated control strategies is biological control by means of the nematode-destroying microfungus Duddingtonia flagrans. This fungus forms sticky traps that catch developing larval stages of parasitic nematodes in the fecal environment. When resting spores (chlamydospores) of this fungus are fed daily to grazing animals for a period of time, the pasture infectivity and thus, the worm burden of grazing animals are lowered, especially in young lambs. Research has been conducted throughout the world covering many different climates and management systems. An Australian parasite model showed that if the fungus performs efficiently (> or =90% reduction in worm burden) for 2 or 3 mo, it should contribute significantly to a reduction in the number of dead lambs otherwise occurring when managed only by anthelmintic treatment and grazing management. Feeding or field trials have clearly demonstrated that dosing with a few hundred thousand spores per kilogram of live BW not only reduced the number of infective larvae but also increased the BW of the lambs compared with controls not given fungus. Initial Australian work with feeding spores by means of a block formulation or a slow-release device has shown some promise, but further work is needed to fully develop these delivery systems. In tropical Malaysia, small paddock trials and field studies resulted in significant improvements, in terms of lower worm burdens and increased live BW, when feeding half a million spores daily to grazing lambs. Additional benefits have been observed when the fungus is employed in combination with a fast rotational grazing system. Research has also demonstrated that spores can be delivered in slightly moist feed block material, but only if such blocks are consumed

  14. Non-communicable disease in HIV infection in low- and middle-income countries: gastrointestinal, hepatic, and nutritional aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Paul; Saloojee, Haroon; Chen, Jennifer Y; Chung, Raymond T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to outline the interaction between HIV and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, and nutritional disorders in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and to identify research priorities. Non-communicable GI tract disorders are only moderately influenced by HIV, and peptic ulceration is actually less common. However, the impact of HIV on GI cancers needs further investigation. HIV interacts strongly with environmental enteropathy, exacerbating malabsorption of nutrients and drugs. HIV has two major effects on non-communicable liver disease: drug-induced liver injury and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (particularly in persons of African genetic descent). The effect of HIV on nutrition was one of the first markers of the epidemic in the 1980s, and HIV continues to have major nutritional consequences. Childhood malnutrition and HIV frequently co-exist in some regions, e.g., southern Africa, resulting in powerful negative interactions with poorer responses to standard nutritional rehabilitation. HIV and nutritional care need to be better integrated, but many questions on how best to do this remain unanswered. Across the spectrum of gastrointestinal, hepatic, and nutritional disorders in HIV infection, there is increasing evidence that the microbiome may play an important role in disease pathogenesis, but work in this area, especially in LMICs, is in its infancy. PMID:25117963

  15. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors.

  16. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. PMID:27211240

  17. Local and Long-Distance Calling: Conversations between the Gut Microbiota and Intra- and Extra-Gastrointestinal Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Joshua E.; Powell, Whitney L.; Schmidt, Nathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of health from infectious diseases depends upon both mucosal and systemic immunity via the collaborative effort of innate and adaptive immune responses. The proficiency of host immunity stems from robust defense mechanisms—physical barriers and specialized immune cells—and a failure of these mechanisms leads to pathology. Intriguingly, immunocompetence to pathogens can be shaped by the gut microbiome as recent publications highlight a dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome and host susceptibility to infection. Modulation of host immunity to enteric pathogens has long been studied where gut bacteria shape multiple facts of both innate and adaptive immunity. Conversely, the impact of gut commensals on host immunity to extra-gastrointestinal (GI) tract infections has only recently been recognized. In this context, the gut microbiome can augment host immunity to extra-GI tract bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. This review explores the research that affords insight into the role of the gut microbiome in various infectious diseases, with a particular emphasis on extra-GI tract infections. A better understanding of the link between the gut microbiome and infectious disease will be critical for improving global health in the years ahead. PMID:27148490

  18. Frequency of Cryptosporidium spp. as cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Switzerland and possible sources of infection.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, A; Marder, H P; Munzinger, J; Siegrist, H H

    2000-09-01

    Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum is not routinely done in laboratories of clinical microbiology and there is no obligation to communicate isolations of this pathogen to health authorities. For these reasons, frequency of cryptosporidiosis and sources of infection are only poorly known in Switzerland. To obtain more concise information in this field, feces from 5179 hospitalized and 1256 ambulatory patients with suspected gastrointestinal infections were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. over the period of one year in two laboratories. In toto, 13 patients with cryptosporidiosis were detected which results a frequency of 0.2%. Furthermore, it was shown by a projection that about 340 cases of cryptosporidiosis have to expected yearly in Switzerland, resulting an estimated morbidity of 4.85 cases per 100,000 persons. With regard to risk factors, the available patient data did not allow solid statistical conclusions. However, known risk factors such as immunosuppression, travelling abroad (33.3%) and contact to symptomatic persons were unquestionably demonstrated. Oysters, raw milk and cream from raw milk had to be strongly taken into consideration as food vehicles of transmission. Tap water from municipal nets has not to be considered as relevant source of sporadic infections. The obtained data indicate that cryptosporidiosis is a disease of low epidemiological significance in Switzerland. To a great extent, cryptosporidiosis could be prevented by best known measures of personal hygiene, avoiding certain raw food-stuffs and being aware of safe catering on travels.

  19. A population based study of Helicobacter pylori infection in a European country: the San Marino Study. Relations with gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Gasbarrini, G; Pretolani, S; Bonvicini, F; Gatto, M R; Tonelli, E; Mégraud, F; Mayo, K; Ghironzi, G; Giulianelli, G; Grassi, M

    1995-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is present worldwide but few large population studies exist on the epidemiology of the infection. A random cross sectional study was performed of H pylori infection in the adult population of San Marino, a European country with high gastric cancer rate, to assess its prevalence and to evaluate its relations with gastrointestinal disease. In 2237 subjects (77% of the initial sample) H pylori IgG antibodies were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. A questionnaire including questions about occupation, place of birth, and smoking was given to all subjects. Dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer in the subjects, relatives, and partners as well as use of drug, dental treatment/prostheses, and gastrointestinal endoscopies, were evaluated by multivariate analysis. H pylori prevalence was of 51%, increased with age from 23% (20-29 years) to 68% (> or = 70 years), and was higher among manual workers. H pylori was independently associated with ulcer (OR = 1.63, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.16 to 2.27), H2 antagonists (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.10), and benzodiazepines (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.42), dental prostheses (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.49), gastroscopy in the past five years (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.14), peptic ulcer in siblings (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.09 to 2.12), gastric cancer in father (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.52). The association of seropositivity with history of ulcer, gastric cancer in family, gastroscopy, and H2 antagonists suggests that H pylori is an epidemiological key factor in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases in this area. PMID:7615270

  20. Gastrointestinal viral load and enteroendocrine cell number are associated with altered survival in HIV-1 infected individuals.

    PubMed

    van Marle, Guido; Sharkey, Keith A; Gill, M John; Church, Deirdre L

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects and destroys cells of the immune system leading to an overt immune deficiency known as HIV acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The gut associated lymphoid tissue is one of the major lymphoid tissues targeted by HIV-1, and is considered a reservoir for HIV-1 replication and of major importance in CD4+ T-cell depletion. In addition to immunodeficiency, HIV-1 infection also directly causes gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, also known as HIV enteropathy. This enteropathy can manifest itself as many pathological changes in the GI tract. The objective of this study was to determine the association of gut HIV-1 infection markers with long-term survival in a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled pre-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy). We examined survival over 15-years in a cohort of 42 HIV-infected cases: In addition to CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 plasma viral load, multiple gut compartment (duodenum and colon) biopsies were taken by endoscopy every 6 months during the initial 3-year period. HIV-1 was cultured from tissues and phenotyped and viral loads in the gut tissues were determined. Moreover, the tissues were subjected to an extensive assessment of enteroendocrine cell distribution and pathology. The collected data was used for survival analyses, which showed that patients with higher gut tissue viral load levels had a significantly worse survival prognosis. Moreover, lower numbers of serotonin (duodenum) and somatostatin (duodenum and colon) immunoreactive cell counts in the gut tissues of patients was associated with significant lower survival prognosis. Our study, suggested that HIV-1 pathogenesis and survival prognosis is associated with altered enteroendocrine cell numbers, which could point to a potential role for enteroendocrine function in HIV infection and pathogenesis. PMID:24146801

  1. Gastrointestinal Viral Load and Enteroendocrine Cell Number Are Associated with Altered Survival in HIV-1 Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    van Marle, Guido; Sharkey, Keith A.; Gill, M. John; Church, Deirdre L.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects and destroys cells of the immune system leading to an overt immune deficiency known as HIV acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The gut associated lymphoid tissue is one of the major lymphoid tissues targeted by HIV-1, and is considered a reservoir for HIV-1 replication and of major importance in CD4+ T-cell depletion. In addition to immunodeficiency, HIV-1 infection also directly causes gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, also known as HIV enteropathy. This enteropathy can manifest itself as many pathological changes in the GI tract. The objective of this study was to determine the association of gut HIV-1 infection markers with long-term survival in a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled pre-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy). We examined survival over 15-years in a cohort of 42 HIV-infected cases: In addition to CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 plasma viral load, multiple gut compartment (duodenum and colon) biopsies were taken by endoscopy every 6 months during the initial 3-year period. HIV-1 was cultured from tissues and phenotyped and viral loads in the gut tissues were determined. Moreover, the tissues were subjected to an extensive assessment of enteroendocrine cell distribution and pathology. The collected data was used for survival analyses, which showed that patients with higher gut tissue viral load levels had a significantly worse survival prognosis. Moreover, lower numbers of serotonin (duodenum) and somatostatin (duodenum and colon) immunoreactive cell counts in the gut tissues of patients was associated with significant lower survival prognosis. Our study, suggested that HIV-1 pathogenesis and survival prognosis is associated with altered enteroendocrine cell numbers, which could point to a potential role for enteroendocrine function in HIV infection and pathogenesis. PMID:24146801

  2. Rapid diagnosis of the infection of pine tree with pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) by use of host-tree volatiles.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji Eun; Kim, Junheon; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2012-08-01

    Attraction of the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus nematode toward 18 volatiles of Pinus species was evaluated by a Petri-dish bioassay under laboratory conditions to develop a rapid diagnostic kit. Among these compounds, α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor showed significantly higher attractiveness to B. xylophilus in both the reproductive and dispersal stages, whereas these compounds were not active against Bursaphelenchus mucronatus . A trap tube was developed as a diagnostic kit, which consisted of a tube filled with 0.8% agar and a matrix impregnated with an attractant: α-pinene, β-pinene, or camphor. All tested compounds attracted a significantly higher number of B. xylophilus than that in the control treatment. No significant difference was observed among attractants. The cotton-ball matrix was significantly more effective than the filter-paper matrix for attracting B. xylophilus in the artificial pupal chamber bioassay. In a bioassay with pine wood nematode (PWN)-infected pine tree logs, B. xylophilus was initially attracted after an 8 h trap period and the number of B. xylophilus increased with time. The trap tube using camphor and the cotton-ball matrix were most effective for attracting B. xylophilus . The semiochemical-based tube-trapping method is simple to use, requires minimal labor, and is economical and effective for detecting B. xylophilus living in host pine trees during field sampling. PMID:22725097

  3. Evaluation of the Gastrointestinal Tract as Potential Route of Primary Polyomavirus Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gang; Zeng, Gang; Huang, Yuchen; Ramaswami, Bala; Randhawa, Parmjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background Detection of Polyomavirus (PyV) DNA in metropolitan rivers worldwide has led to the suggestion that primary viral infection can occur by the oral route. The aim of this study was to test this notion experimentally. Methods Mouse PyV (MPyV) was used to infect C57BL/6J mice by the nasal or intragastric route. Viral load kinetics was studied 3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days post-infection (dpi) using quantitative PCR. Results Following nasal infection, MPyV DNA was readily detected in many organs including lung, heart, aorta, colon, and stool with viral loads in the range of 103–106 copies/mg wet weight that peaked 7–10 dpi. Complete viral clearance occurred in the serum and kidney by 28 dpi, while clearance in other organs was partial with a 10–100 fold decrease in viral load. In contrast, following intragastric infection peak detection of PyV was delayed to 21 dpi, and viral loads were up to 3 logs lower. There was no detectable virus in the heart, colon, or stool. Conclusions The intragastric route of MPyV infection is successful, not as efficacious as the respiratory route, and associated with delayed viral dissemination as well as a lower peak MPyV load in individual organs. PMID:26939117

  4. Parasitic Nematodes - From Genomes to Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases caused by parasitic nematodes in domestic and companion animals are major factors that decrease production and quality of the agricultural products. Methods available for the control of the parasitic nematode infections are mainly based on chemical treatment, non-chemical management pra...

  5. Interspecific nematode signals regulate dispersal behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2) of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective ...

  6. Nematode CLE signaling in Arabidopsis requires CLAVATA2 and CORYNE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ESR(CLE)-like effector proteins. These proteins have been shown to act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful nematode infection; however, the receptors for nematode CLE-like peptides have not been identified. Her...

  7. Management of the Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans

    PubMed Central

    Verdejo-Lucas, S.; McKenry, M. V.

    2004-01-01

    Of the many nematode species that parasitize citrus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans is the most important on a worldwide basis. Management of the citrus nematode remains problematic as no one tactic gives adequate control of the nematode. An overall management strategy must include such components as site selection, use of non-infected nursery stock, use of at lease one post-plant nematode control tactic, and careful management of other elements of the environment that may stress the trees. Nematicides continue to play a key role in management of this pest. Optimum results require careful attention to application techniques. PMID:19262822

  8. Gastrointestinal helminths of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in center of Iran.

    PubMed

    Anvari-Tafti, M; Sazmand, A; Hekmatimoghaddam, S; Moobedi, I

    2013-03-01

    Camels are multipurpose animals in Iran. As parasitic diseases are the major cause of impaired meat and milk production in this animal, the present study aimed at determining gastrointestinal helminthic infections of Iranian camels in the center of the country. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract of 144 carcasses of one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Yazd, Esfahan and Kerman provinces' abattoirs were examined for adult helminths. Camels were from both sexes and different ages. Recovered parasites were identified according to described keys by light microscope. Of 144 tested camels, 117 were infected with at least one helminth species (81.3%). A total of 28 worm species from 14 genera were identified in the digestive tract of infected animals, including 26 species of nematodes and two species of cestodes. The infection rates in stomach, small intestine, and caecum/large intestine were 86.3%, 91.5% and 11.1%, respectively. However, no worm was found in the oesophagus. The recovered worms with infection rates are discussed in this paper. In the present study, Haemonchus tataricus, Trichostrongylus hamatus and Trichuris infundibulus are reported from Iranian dromedaries for the first time. Regarding high prevalence of infection, using anthelminthic drugs seemed necessary to improve the health and productivity of camels. On the other hand, the high rate of zoonotic species indicated that camels have important role in maintaining and transmitting infection to humans.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of nematode-nematophagous microbe interactions: basis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ji, Xinglai; Niu, Xuemei; Yang, Jinkui; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of nematode-nematophagous microbe interactions: basis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ji, Xinglai; Niu, Xuemei; Yang, Jinkui; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies. PMID:25938277

  11. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in healthy Jamaican carriers of HTLV-I.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R D; Murphy, E L; Wilks, R J; Neva, F A; Terry, S I; Hanchard, B; Figueroa, J P; Blattner, W A

    1991-12-01

    A subsample (1.6%; n = 13,260) of a healthy Jamaican population of food-handlers, studied by Murphy et al. (1991), who were serologically positive (n = 99) or negative (n = 113) for HTLV-I was investigated for intestinal parasitic infection using coprological methods. Helminth infection included Ascaris lumbricoides (2.8%), Trichuris trichiura (7.1%) and hookworms (6.1%). Entamoeba coli was found in 21.8% of samples, while E. hartmanni, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Chilomastix mesnili each occurred in less than 10% of responders. T. trichiura displayed a higher prevalence (10.6 vs 3%) (chi 2 = 4.623; P = 0.03) in the HTLV-I negative group. G. lamblia was detected more frequently among HTLV-I carriers compared to controls (9.1 and 3.5%, respectively), but the association was not statistically significant (chi 2 = 2.825; P = 0.09). Infection with intestinal parasites is likely to occur independent of HTLV-I status: however, possible HTLV-I-induced immunosuppression may lead to higher intensity infections of certain organisms thus facilitating easier detection using parasitological methods. The immunomodulatory potential of HTLV-I infection in the aetiology of non-malignant diseases requires further investigation. PMID:1758014

  12. Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease Associated with Overwhelming Polymicrobial Gastrointestinal Infection with Transformation to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Evan C; Sheffler, Robert L; Wang, James; Ngauy, Viseth

    2016-05-01

    Immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID) is an extra-nodal B-cell lymphoma most commonly described in the Mediterranean, Africa, and Asia. It is associated with poverty and poor sanitation, and is rarely encountered in developed countries. A 26-year-old previously healthy, Marshallese male was transferred to our facility with a 6-month history of watery diarrhea, weakness, and cachexia refractory to multiple short courses of oral antibiotics. Stool cultures grew Campylobacter jejuni and Vibrio fluvialis. Endoscopic evaluation showed histologic evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis and gross evidence of whipworm infection found in the colon. Mesenteric lymph node biopsy cultures grew Escherichia coli. Histopathology and immunohistochemical stains of the small intestine were consistent with IPSID. He subsequently transformed to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with tonsillar involvement despite treatment with rituximab and an extended course of antibiotics. Systemic chemotherapy with six cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisone, and lenalidomide, resulted in remission of his diffuse B cell lymphoma. This case is illustrative of IPSID developing in a previously healthy individual due to overwhelming polymicrobial gastrointestinal infection by C. jejuni and other enteric pathogens with subsequent transformation to an aggressive DLBCL. IPSID should be considered in residents of developing countries presenting with refractory chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. PMID:26903604

  13. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in HIV-Infected Patients: Female Sex and Smoking as Risk Factors in an Outpatient Cohort in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Annelisa Silva e Alves de Carvalho; Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Falco, Marianne de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and associated factors in an outpatient cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) followed between October 2009 and July 2011. We evaluated nausea and/or vomiting, dyspepsia, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, and flatulence. The outcome variable was the presence of three or more GIS. Sociodemographic (sex, skin color, age, income, years of schooling), lifestyle (smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity level), clinical (antiretroviral therapy, time of HIV infection, CD4 lymphocyte count, viral load), and anthropometric (nutritional status and waist circumference) variables were investigated. Data on sociodemographic and lifestyle variables were collected through a pre-tested and standardized questionnaire. CD4 count was determined by flow cytometry and viral load by branched DNA (bDNA) assays for HIV-1. All variables were analyzed at a p<0.05 significance level. Among 290 patients, the incidence of three or more GIS was 28.8% (95% CI 23.17 to 33.84) and 74.48% presented at least one symptom. Female gender (IR 2.29, 95% CI 1.63 to 3.22) and smoking status (IR 1.93, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.88) were risk factors for the presence of three or more GIS after multivariate Poisson regression. A high incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms was found among PLWHA, and it was significantly associated with female sex and tobacco use. Those results reinforce the relevance of investigating the presence of GIS in PLWHA as it may affect treatment adherence. PMID:27749931

  14. Infections with gastrointestinal parasitic helminths indigenous to Japan and their treatment historically studied in an attempt to control the diseases in countries where they are still rampant: (1) the Jomon to Edo periods.

    PubMed

    Maki, Jun; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Kuwada, Masahiro; Caceres, Armando; Sekiya, Hiroshi; Tamai, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasitic helminthes were historically surveyed from the Jomon period to the end of the Edo period in Japan. The parasitic helminthes whose eggs or symptoms were shown in the remains and bibliographies are the roundworm, whipworm, liver fluke, Yokogawa's fluke and the cestode, Diphyllobothrium sp. The first two are soil-transmitted nematodes and the other three parasitic helminths are those with which people are infected following eating raw fish. The infection routes provide valuable information on the environments, life-style and customs in those days. The eggs of the soil-transmitted parasites have the thick shells resistant to the environments. Humans are infected with the parasites after the eggs are orally ingested with soil, dust, vegetables grown with night soil or manure. When the custom of the night soil was started in the history of Japan was discussed with this infection route. In ancient times, feces are thought to have been discarded. In the Medieval Period, they were started to be used as a fertilizer. No mature types of manure were used until the modern times (already in the Edo period). To our idea, no recoveries of eggs of hookworms causing severe anemia do not necessarily mean that people were not infected with the parasites in those days because the eggs are covered with thin shells liable to rupture. The latter fact of the eggs of the platihelminths, C. sinensis, M. yokogawai and D. latum has something to do with Japanese traditional eating customs, unequivocally demonstrating that they ate raw fish from the Nara Period, at latest, until today. Whether eggs of the cestode (D. latum) are found in Jomon remains, Momijiyama Iseki, Hokkaido should be investigated. If no eggs of the cestode are found in their toilet site or elsewhere, it could be concluded that they did not have the custom of eating raw salmon. Such a conclusion would be itself a new fact. One of the effective treatments for the cestode (D. latum

  15. The reindeer abomasal nematode (Ostertagia gruehneri) is naturally transmitted to sheep when sharing pastures.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Saana-Maaria; Thamsborg, Stig M; Laaksonen, Sauli; Oksanen, Antti

    2014-11-01

    The increasing number of sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Finland, often alternately corralled with winter-fed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), creates potential for cross-infection of gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to elucidate this possibility with 43 animals. Eleven reindeer and 8 sheep had shared a corral by turns, reindeer during winters, and sheep in summers. Another 12 reindeer had no known contact with sheep. Twelve sheep had no close contact to other ruminants. Both reindeer groups were free-ranging during summers. During slaughter in September to November, 2003, abomasa and parts of intestines were collected. Gastrointestinal nematodes were counted and identified. The species found were the following: in reindeer, Ostertagia gruehneri/Ostertagia arctica, Mazamastrongylus dagestanica, Nematodirus tarandi, Nematodirella longissimespiculata and Bunostomum trigonocephalum; in sheep, Teladorsagia circumcincta/Teladorsagia trifurcata, O. gruehneri/O. arctica, Nematodirus filicollis and N. spathiger. In the sheep sharing corral with reindeer, the only abomasal nematode species found was O. gruehneri, a reindeer parasite. The generation interval of O. gruehneri in Finnish reindeer appears to be shorter than in Canadian Arctic caribou, where complete larval inhibition leading to only one generation yearly has been reported.

  16. The reindeer abomasal nematode (Ostertagia gruehneri) is naturally transmitted to sheep when sharing pastures.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Saana-Maaria; Thamsborg, Stig M; Laaksonen, Sauli; Oksanen, Antti

    2014-11-01

    The increasing number of sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Finland, often alternately corralled with winter-fed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), creates potential for cross-infection of gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to elucidate this possibility with 43 animals. Eleven reindeer and 8 sheep had shared a corral by turns, reindeer during winters, and sheep in summers. Another 12 reindeer had no known contact with sheep. Twelve sheep had no close contact to other ruminants. Both reindeer groups were free-ranging during summers. During slaughter in September to November, 2003, abomasa and parts of intestines were collected. Gastrointestinal nematodes were counted and identified. The species found were the following: in reindeer, Ostertagia gruehneri/Ostertagia arctica, Mazamastrongylus dagestanica, Nematodirus tarandi, Nematodirella longissimespiculata and Bunostomum trigonocephalum; in sheep, Teladorsagia circumcincta/Teladorsagia trifurcata, O. gruehneri/O. arctica, Nematodirus filicollis and N. spathiger. In the sheep sharing corral with reindeer, the only abomasal nematode species found was O. gruehneri, a reindeer parasite. The generation interval of O. gruehneri in Finnish reindeer appears to be shorter than in Canadian Arctic caribou, where complete larval inhibition leading to only one generation yearly has been reported. PMID:25106839

  17. The Gastrointestinal Tract as a Potential Infection Reservoir of Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponemes in Beef Cattle and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S. D.; Duncan, J. S.; Grove-White, D. H.; Angell, J. W.; Evans, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  18. Influence of soil temperature and moisture on the infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae) against larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Rohde, Cristhiane; Moino, Alcides; Silva, Marco A T da; Carvalho, Fabiano D; Ferreira, Cleidson S

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is considered one of the main pests that affect fruit production in the world. This insect spends part of its life cycle in the soil, making it a target for entomopathogenic nematodes. This work aimed at evaluating the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the infectivity of Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 and Steinernema carpocapsae ALL to third-instars of C. capitata, and to compare the efficiency of these isolates at five different soil temperatures (19, 22, 25, 28, and 31°C) and three levels of relative soil moisture (100, 75, and 50% of field capacity). Ten C. capitata larvae were transferred to plastic jars (12 cm × 6 cm) containing 100 g soil, followed by the application of an aqueous suspension containing 125 infective juveniles (IJ)/cm². In the control treatment, 3 ml of distilled water was applied. Mortality evaluations were made five days later and were confirmed by observations of the characteristic symptoms and cadaver dissection. The infectivity was directly proportional to temperature increase, with maximum percent mortality of 86.7% and 80.0% for S. carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis sp., respectively, at 31°C. At 25°C, the highest mortality for both species was obtained at 75% of field capacity (96.7% and 26.7% for S. carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis sp., respectively).

  19. A highly conserved, inhibitable astacin metalloprotease from Teladorsagia circumcincta is required for cuticle formation and nematode development☆

    PubMed Central

    Stepek, Gillian; McCormack, Gillian; Winter, Alan D.; Page, Antony P.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes cause chronic, debilitating infections in both livestock and humans worldwide, and many have developed multiple resistance to the currently available anthelmintics. The protective collagenous cuticle of these parasites is required for nematode survival and its synthesis has been studied extensively in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. The collagen synthesis pathway is a complex, multi-step process involving numerous key enzymes, including the astacin metalloproteases. Nematode astacinsare crucial for C. elegans development, having specific roles in hatching, moulting and cuticle synthesis. NAS-35 (also called DPY-31) is a homologue of a vertebrate procollagen C-proteinase and performs a central role in cuticle formation of C. elegans as its mutation causes temperature-sensitive lethality and cuticle defects. The characterisation of DPY-31 from the ovine gastrointestinal nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta and its ability to rescue the C. elegans mutant is described. Compounds with a hydroxamate functional group have previously been shown to be potent inhibitors of procollagen C-proteinases and were therefore examined for inhibitory activity against the T. circumcincta enzyme. Phenotypic screening against T. circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and C. elegans larval stages identified compounds that caused body morphology phenotypes consistent with the inhibition of proteases involved in cuticle collagen synthesis. These compounds correspondingly inhibited the activity of recombinant T. circumcincta DPY-31, supporting the hypothesis that this enzyme may represent a potentially novel anthelmintic drug target. PMID:25736599

  20. Gastrointestinal Infections in Deployed Forces in the Middle East Theater: An Historical 60 Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark S.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Sanders, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea has been among the most common maladies of military deployments throughout time. The U.S. military experienced a significant burden from this disease in the middle eastern and north African campaigns of World War II (WWII). This article compares patterns of disease experienced in WWII with the recent military deployments to the same region for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Remarkable similarities in the prevalence and risk factors were noted, which belie the assumed improvements in prevention against these infections. In both campaigns, peaks of diarrhea occurred shortly after arrival of new personnel, which were seasonally associated and were linked to initial lapses in field sanitation and hygiene. It is important to reassess current strategies, especially, in light of emerging evidence of the chronic sequelae of these common infections to include a reemphasis on or reexamination of vaccine development, rapid field diagnostics, treatment algorithms, and antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26350450

  1. Gastrointestinal Infections in Deployed Forces in the Middle East Theater: An Historical 60 Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Savarino, Stephen J; Sanders, John W

    2015-11-01

    Infectious diarrhea has been among the most common maladies of military deployments throughout time. The U.S. military experienced a significant burden from this disease in the middle eastern and north African campaigns of World War II (WWII). This article compares patterns of disease experienced in WWII with the recent military deployments to the same region for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Remarkable similarities in the prevalence and risk factors were noted, which belie the assumed improvements in prevention against these infections. In both campaigns, peaks of diarrhea occurred shortly after arrival of new personnel, which were seasonally associated and were linked to initial lapses in field sanitation and hygiene. It is important to reassess current strategies, especially, in light of emerging evidence of the chronic sequelae of these common infections to include a reemphasis on or reexamination of vaccine development, rapid field diagnostics, treatment algorithms, and antimicrobial prophylaxis.

  2. The role of nematophagous fungi in the biological control of nematode parasites of livestock.

    PubMed

    Waller, P J; Larsen, M

    1993-07-01

    The control of nematode parasites of livestock is presently based entirely on anthelmintic treatment and grazing management. On their own, these methods are not sustainable because parasites invariably develop resistance to anthelmintics and because of increasing public concern about chemical residues in livestock products and the environment. Although alternative, non-chemotherapeutic control strategies, such as vaccines and genetic selection for resistance are the focus of considerable research activity worldwide, biological control of nematode parasites has been virtually ignored. The little work that has been done is restricted largely to western Europe and involves virtually just one fungal species, namely Arthrobotrys oligospora. More recent studies indicate other known nematophagous fungal species are more efficient predators of infective larvae in sheep faeces than A. oligospora, and others have a greater capacity to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. These findings plus the relatively sparse numbers of microbial competitors in the fresh faecal environment, compared with the plant rhizosphere where biological control of plant parasites is proving a particularly intractable problem, engenders optimism that the biological control of animal parasitic nematodes may become a practical reality. Such control will never be a substitute for chemotherapy, where the primary purpose is worm removal from the host, but should be incorporated together with other options into integrated pest management systems to provide sustainable nematode control of livestock into the twenty-first century.

  3. Evolutionary Expansion of WRKY Gene Family in Banana and Its Expression Profile during the Infection of Root Lesion Nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae.

    PubMed

    Kaliyappan, Raja; Viswanathan, Sriram; Suthanthiram, Backiyarani; Subbaraya, Uma; Marimuthu Somasundram, Saraswathi; Muthu, Mayilvaganan

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors orchestrate the reprogrammed expression of the complex network of defense genes at various biotic and abiotic stresses. Within the last 96 million years, three rounds of Musa polyploidization events had occurred from selective pressure causing duplication of MusaWRKYs with new activities. Here, we identified a total of 153 WRKY transcription factors available from the DH Pahang genome. Based on their phylogenetic relationship, the MusaWRKYs available with complete gene sequence were classified into the seven common WRKY sub-groups. Synteny analyses data revealed paralogous relationships, with 17 MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from the duplication events that had occurred within the Musa lineage. We also found 15 other MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from much older duplication events that had occurred along Arecales and Poales lineage of commelinids. Based on the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates, the fate of duplicated MusaWRKY genes was predicted to have undergone sub-functionalization in which the duplicated gene copies retain a subset of the ancestral gene function. Also, to understand the regulatory roles of MusaWRKY during a biotic stress, Illumina sequencing was performed on resistant and susceptible cultivars during the infection of root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae. The differential WRKY gene expression analysis in nematode resistant and susceptible cultivars during challenged and unchallenged conditions had distinguished: 1) MusaWRKYs participating in general banana defense mechanism against P.coffeae common to both susceptible and resistant cultivars, 2) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the pathogen survival as suppressors of plant triggered immunity, 3) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the host defense as activators of plant triggered immunity and 4) cultivar specific MusaWRKY regulation. Mainly, MusaWRKY52, -69 and -92 are found to be P.coffeae specific and can act as activators or repressors in a

  4. Evolutionary Expansion of WRKY Gene Family in Banana and Its Expression Profile during the Infection of Root Lesion Nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae

    PubMed Central

    Suthanthiram, Backiyarani; Subbaraya, Uma; Marimuthu Somasundram, Saraswathi; Muthu, Mayilvaganan

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors orchestrate the reprogrammed expression of the complex network of defense genes at various biotic and abiotic stresses. Within the last 96 million years, three rounds of Musa polyploidization events had occurred from selective pressure causing duplication of MusaWRKYs with new activities. Here, we identified a total of 153 WRKY transcription factors available from the DH Pahang genome. Based on their phylogenetic relationship, the MusaWRKYs available with complete gene sequence were classified into the seven common WRKY sub-groups. Synteny analyses data revealed paralogous relationships, with 17 MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from the duplication events that had occurred within the Musa lineage. We also found 15 other MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from much older duplication events that had occurred along Arecales and Poales lineage of commelinids. Based on the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates, the fate of duplicated MusaWRKY genes was predicted to have undergone sub-functionalization in which the duplicated gene copies retain a subset of the ancestral gene function. Also, to understand the regulatory roles of MusaWRKY during a biotic stress, Illumina sequencing was performed on resistant and susceptible cultivars during the infection of root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae. The differential WRKY gene expression analysis in nematode resistant and susceptible cultivars during challenged and unchallenged conditions had distinguished: 1) MusaWRKYs participating in general banana defense mechanism against P.coffeae common to both susceptible and resistant cultivars, 2) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the pathogen survival as suppressors of plant triggered immunity, 3) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the host defense as activators of plant triggered immunity and 4) cultivar specific MusaWRKY regulation. Mainly, MusaWRKY52, -69 and -92 are found to be P.coffeae specific and can act as activators or repressors in a

  5. Noncommunicable diseases in HIV infection in low- and middle-income countries: gastrointestinal, hepatic, and nutritional aspects.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Paul; Saloojee, Haroon; Chen, Jennifer Y; Chung, Raymond T

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to outline the interaction between HIV and noncommunicable diseases affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, and nutritional disorders in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and to identify research priorities. Noncommunicable GI tract disorders are only moderately influenced by HIV, and peptic ulceration is actually less common. However, the impact of HIV on GI cancers needs further investigation. HIV interacts strongly with environmental enteropathy, exacerbating malabsorption of nutrients and drugs. HIV has 2 major effects on noncommunicable liver disease: drug-induced liver injury and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (particularly in persons of African genetic descent). The effect of HIV on nutrition was one of the first markers of the epidemic in the 1980s, and HIV continues to have major nutritional consequences. Childhood malnutrition and HIV frequently coexist in some regions, for example, southern Africa, resulting in powerful negative interactions with poorer responses to standard nutritional rehabilitation. HIV and nutritional care need to be better integrated, but many questions on how best to do this remain unanswered. Across the spectrum of GI, hepatic, and nutritional disorders in HIV infection, there is increasing evidence that the microbiome may play an important role in disease pathogenesis, but work in this area, especially in low- and middle-income countries, is in its infancy. PMID:25117963

  6. Efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Kok, Dawie J; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Alva, Roberto; Irwin, Jennifer; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) at 0.12 mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10mg fipronil+12 mg S-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ≥ 99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (P<0.01). All cats accepted the treatment well based on health observations post-treatment and daily health observations. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability of the novel

  7. Efficacy against nematode and cestode infections and safety of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination product in domestic cats under field conditions in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Capári, Balazs; Duscher, Georg; Keidane, Dace; Kirkova, Zvezdelina; Petkevičius, Saulius; Rapti, Dhimiter; Wagner, Annegret; Wagner, Thomas; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Tielemans, Eric; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Kley, Katrin; Knaus, Martin

    2014-04-28

    A novel topical combination product (BROADLINE(®), Merial) composed of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was evaluated for safety and efficacy against nematode and cestode infections in domestic cats. The study comprised a multi-centre, positive control, blinded, field study, using a randomized block design based on order of presentation for allocation. In total 196 client-owned cats, confirmed as positive for naturally acquired infections of nematodes and/or cestodes by pre-treatment faecal examination, were studied in seven countries in Europe. Pre-treatment faecal examination revealed the presence of Toxocara, hookworm, Capillaria and/or spirurid nematode infections in 129, 73, 33 or 1 cat(s), respectively; infections with taeniid and Dipylidium cestodes were demonstrated in 39 and 17 cats, respectively. Cats were allocated randomly to one of two treatments in a ratio of 2, topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial; 130 cats); and 1, topical PROFENDER(®) Spot-On (Bayer; 66 cats) and treated once on Day 0. For evaluation of efficacy, two faecal samples were collected, one prior to treatment (Day -4 ± 4 days) and one at the end of the study (Day 14 ± 5 days). These were examined for fecal forms of nematode and cestode parasites. For evaluation of safety, cats were examined by a veterinarian before treatment and at the end of the study, and cat owners recorded the health status of their cats daily until the end of the study. For cats treated with Broadline(®), the efficacy was >99.9%, 100%, and 99.6% for Toxocara, hookworms, and Capillaria, respectively; and the efficacy was >99.9%, >99.9%, and 98.5%, respectively, for the cats treated with Profender(®) (p<0.001 for all nematodes and both treatments). Efficacy was 100% for both cestodes for both treatments (p<0.001). No treatment related adverse experiences were observed throughout the study. For

  8. Efficacy against nematode and cestode infections and safety of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination product in domestic cats under field conditions in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Capári, Balazs; Duscher, Georg; Keidane, Dace; Kirkova, Zvezdelina; Petkevičius, Saulius; Rapti, Dhimiter; Wagner, Annegret; Wagner, Thomas; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Tielemans, Eric; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Kley, Katrin; Knaus, Martin

    2014-04-28

    A novel topical combination product (BROADLINE(®), Merial) composed of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel was evaluated for safety and efficacy against nematode and cestode infections in domestic cats. The study comprised a multi-centre, positive control, blinded, field study, using a randomized block design based on order of presentation for allocation. In total 196 client-owned cats, confirmed as positive for naturally acquired infections of nematodes and/or cestodes by pre-treatment faecal examination, were studied in seven countries in Europe. Pre-treatment faecal examination revealed the presence of Toxocara, hookworm, Capillaria and/or spirurid nematode infections in 129, 73, 33 or 1 cat(s), respectively; infections with taeniid and Dipylidium cestodes were demonstrated in 39 and 17 cats, respectively. Cats were allocated randomly to one of two treatments in a ratio of 2, topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial; 130 cats); and 1, topical PROFENDER(®) Spot-On (Bayer; 66 cats) and treated once on Day 0. For evaluation of efficacy, two faecal samples were collected, one prior to treatment (Day -4 ± 4 days) and one at the end of the study (Day 14 ± 5 days). These were examined for fecal forms of nematode and cestode parasites. For evaluation of safety, cats were examined by a veterinarian before treatment and at the end of the study, and cat owners recorded the health status of their cats daily until the end of the study. For cats treated with Broadline(®), the efficacy was >99.9%, 100%, and 99.6% for Toxocara, hookworms, and Capillaria, respectively; and the efficacy was >99.9%, >99.9%, and 98.5%, respectively, for the cats treated with Profender(®) (p<0.001 for all nematodes and both treatments). Efficacy was 100% for both cestodes for both treatments (p<0.001). No treatment related adverse experiences were observed throughout the study. For

  9. Protein deficiency alters impact of intestinal nematode infection on intestinal, visceral and lymphoid organ histopathology in lactating mice.

    PubMed

    Starr, Lisa M; Odiere, Maurice R; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E

    2014-05-01

    Protein deficiency impairs local and systemic immune responses to Heligmosomoides bakeri infection but little is known about their individual and interactive impacts on tissue architecture of maternal lymphoid (thymus, spleen) and visceral (small intestine, kidney, liver, pancreas) organs during the demanding period of lactation. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, pregnant CD1 mice were fed a 24% protein sufficient (PS) or a 6% protein deficient (PD) isoenergetic diet beginning on day 14 of pregnancy and were infected with 100 H. bakeri larvae four times or exposed to four sham infections. On day 20 of lactation, maternal organs were examined histologically and serum analytes were assayed as indicators of organ function. The absence of villus atrophy in response to infection was associated with increased crypt depth and infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils but only in lactating dams fed adequate protein. Infection-induced lobular liver inflammation was reduced in PD dams, however, abnormalities in the kidney caused by protein deficiency were absent in infected dams. Bilirubin and creatinine were highest in PD infected mice. Infection-induced splenomegaly was not due to an increase in the lymphoid compartment of the spleen. During lactation, infection and protein deficiency have interactive effects on extra-intestinal pathologies.

  10. Intestinal epithelial cell secretion of RELM-beta protects against gastrointestinal worm infection.

    PubMed

    Herbert, De'Broski R; Yang, Jun-Qi; Hogan, Simon P; Groschwitz, Kathryn; Khodoun, Marat; Munitz, Ariel; Orekov, Tatyana; Perkins, Charles; Wang, Quan; Brombacher, Frank; Urban, Joseph F; Rothenberg, Marc E; Finkelman, Fred D

    2009-12-21

    Th2 cells drive protective immunity against most parasitic helminths, but few mechanisms have been demonstrated that facilitate pathogen clearance. We show that IL-4 and IL-13 protect against intestinal lumen-dwelling worms primarily by inducing intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to differentiate into goblet cells that secrete resistin-like molecule (RELM) beta. RELM-beta is essential for normal spontaneous expulsion and IL-4-induced expulsion of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus, which both live in the intestinal lumen, but it does not contribute to immunity against Trichinella spiralis, which lives within IEC. RELM-beta is nontoxic for H. polygyrus in vitro but directly inhibits the ability of worms to feed on host tissues during infection. This decreases H. polygyrus adenosine triphosphate content and fecundity. Importantly, RELM-beta-driven immunity does not require T or B cells, alternative macrophage activation, or increased gut permeability. Thus, we demonstrate a novel mechanism for host protection at the mucosal interface that explains how stimulation of epithelial cells by IL-4 and IL-13 contributes to protection against parasitic helminthes that dwell in the intestinal lumen.

  11. Gastrointestinal dysbiosis and the use of fecal microbial transplantation in Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, L Patrick; Beck, Paul L; MacDonald, Justin A

    2015-01-01

    The impact of antibiotics on the human gut microbiota is a significant concern. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea has been on the rise for the past few decades with the increasing usage of antibiotics. Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have become one of the most prominent types of infectious diarrheal disease, with dramatically increased incidence in both the hospital and community setting worldwide. Studies show that variability in the innate host response may in part impact upon CDI severity in patients. That being said, CDI is a disease that shows the most prominent links to alterations to the gut microbiota, in both cause and treatment. With recurrence rates still relatively high, it is important to explore alternative therapies to CDI. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and other types of bacteriotherapy have become exciting avenues of treatment for CDI. Recent clinical trials have generated excitement for the use of FMT as a therapeutic option for CDI; however, the exact components of the human gut microbiota needed for protection against CDI have remained elusive. Additional investigations on the effects of antibiotics on the human gut microbiota and subsequent CDI will help reduce the socioeconomic burden of CDI and potentially lead to new therapeutic modalities. PMID:26600975

  12. Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes in lambs in a steppe environment (North-Eastern Algeria).

    PubMed

    Meradi, Salah; Cabaret, Jacques; Bentounsi, Bourhane

    2016-01-01

    Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes was studied in 30 permanent grazing lambs on a large farm in the North-East of Algeria. The steppe climate has cold winters and hot and dry summers. The lambs were monitored monthly for gastrointestinal nematodes using nematode faecal egg counts, from February 2008 to February 2009. Every 2 months, two of the original 30 permanent lambs were necropsied after being held in pens for three weeks so that recently ingested infective larvae could develop into adults. The highest percentage of fourth stage larvae (L4), reaching 48% of the total worm burden, was recorded in abomasal contents in June. Teladorsagia and other Ostertagiinae constituted the highest percentage of L4 larvae (71%), whereas the percentage of Trichostrongylus (17.4%) or Haemonchus (11.6%) remained low. The dynamics of infection observed here (highest faecal egg count in August) and the stage composition of worm burden (highest percentage of L4 in June) provide strong evidence that arrested development had occurred. PMID:27608531

  13. Arrested development of abomasal trichostrongylid nematodes in lambs in a steppe environment (North-Eastern Algeria)