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Sample records for gastrointestinal protozoa bacteria

  1. Infection status of hospitalized diarrheal patients with gastrointestinal protozoa, bacteria, and viruses in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lim, Yi-Young; Jeon, Ji-Hye; Yu, Jae-Ran; Kim, Tong-Soo; Lee, Won-Ja; Cho, Seung-Hak; Lee, Deog-Yong; Park, Mi-Seon; Jeong, Hye-Sook; Chen, Doo-Sung; Ji, Yeong-Mi; Kwon, Mi-Hwa

    2010-06-01

    To understand protozoan, viral, and bacterial infections in diarrheal patients, we analyzed positivity and mixed-infection status with 3 protozoans, 4 viruses, and 10 bacteria in hospitalized diarrheal patients during 2004-2006 in the Republic of Korea. A total of 76,652 stool samples were collected from 96 hospitals across the nation. The positivity for protozoa, viruses, and bacteria was 129, 1,759, and 1,797 per 10,000 persons, respectively. Especially, Cryptosporidium parvum was highly mixed-infected with rotavirus among pediatric diarrheal patients (29.5 per 100 C. parvum positive cases), and Entamoeba histolytica was mixed-infected with Clostridium perfringens (10.3 per 100 E. histolytica positive cases) in protozoan-diarrheal patients. Those infected with rotavirus and C. perfringens constituted relatively high proportions among mixed infection cases from January to April. The positivity for rotavirus among viral infection for those aged < or = 5 years was significantly higher, while C. perfringens among bacterial infection was higher for > or = 50 years. The information for association of viral and bacterial infections with enteropathogenic protozoa in diarrheal patients may contribute to improvement of care for diarrhea as well as development of control strategies for diarrheal diseases in Korea.

  2. Bacteria, fungi and protozoa paper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Bacteria and fungi in source and treated drinking waterThis dataset is associated with the following publication:King , D., S. Pfaller , M. Donohue , S. Vesper , E. Villegas , M. Ware , S. Glassmeyer , M. Vogal, E. Furlong, and D. Kolpin. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the United States and implications for human health. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier BV, AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, 562: 987–995, (2016).

  3. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Denoncourt, Alix M.; Paquet, Valérie E.; Charette, Steve J.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse. PMID:24904553

  4. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Denoncourt, Alix M; Paquet, Valérie E; Charette, Steve J

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse.

  5. Molecular and chemical dialogues in bacteria-protozoa interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-dwelling Pseudomonas fluorescens produce lipopeptide surfactants (LPs) with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Recent studies suggested that LPs provide protection to P. fluorescens strain SS101 against grazing by the predatory protozoa Naegleria americana, both in vitro and in rhizospher...

  6. Accumulation of reserve carbohydrate by rumen protozoa and bacteria in competition for glucose.

    PubMed

    Denton, Bethany L; Diese, Leanne E; Firkins, Jeffrey L; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if rumen protozoa could form large amounts of reserve carbohydrate compared to the amounts formed by bacteria when competing for glucose in batch cultures. We separated large protozoa and small bacteria from rumen fluid by filtration and centrifugation, recombined equal protein masses of each group into one mixture, and subsequently harvested (reseparated) these groups at intervals after glucose dosing. This method allowed us to monitor reserve carbohydrate accumulation of protozoa and bacteria individually. When mixtures were dosed with a moderate concentration of glucose (4.62 or 5 mM) (n = 2 each), protozoa accumulated large amounts of reserve carbohydrate; 58.7% (standard error of the mean [SEM], 2.2%) glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate at time of peak reserve carbohydrate concentrations. Only 1.7% (SEM, 2.2%) was recovered in bacterial reserve carbohydrate, which was less than that for protozoa (P < 0.001). When provided a high concentration of glucose (20 mM) (n = 4 each), 24.1% (SEM, 2.2%) of glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate, which was still higher (P = 0.001) than the 5.0% (SEM, 2.2%) glucose carbon recovered from bacterial reserve carbohydrate. Our novel competition experiments directly demonstrate that mixed protozoa can sequester sugar away from bacteria by accumulating reserve carbohydrate, giving protozoa a competitive advantage and stabilizing fermentation in the rumen. Similar experiments could be used to investigate the importance of starch sequestration.

  7. Detection of intestinal protozoa in paediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms by multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Maas, L; Dorigo-Zetsma, J W; de Groot, C J; Bouter, S; Plötz, F B; van Ewijk, B E

    2014-06-01

    The performance of a multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of Blastocystis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium species and Entamoeba species in faecal samples was evaluated in an observational prospective study. Paediatric patients (0-18 years) presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and suspected of having enteroparasitic disease were included. A questionnaire on gastrointestinal symptoms and the chosen treatment was completed at the start of the study and after 6 weeks. Of 163 paediatric patients (mean age, 7.8 years), 114 (70%) had a PCR-positive faecal sample. D. fragilis was detected most frequently, in 101 patients, followed by Blastocystis in 49. In faecal samples of 47 patients, more than one protozoan was detected, mainly the combination of D. fragilis and Blastocystis. Reported gastrointestinal symptoms were abdominal pain (78%), nausea (30%), and altered bowel habits (28%). Eighty-nine of the PCR-positive patients were treated with antibiotics. A significant reduction in abdominal pain was observed both in treated and in untreated patients. This study demonstrated that multiplex real-time PCR detects a high percentage of intestinal protozoa in paediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. However, interpretation and determination of the clinical relevance of a positive PCR result in this population are still difficult.

  8. Occurrence of gastrointestinal protozoa in Didelphis albiventris (opossum) in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Régis A; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Lunardi, Fabiane; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitism by gastrointestinal protozoa in Didelphis albiventris (opossum) in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state. Fecal samples from six free living opossums were collected for research of parasites. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate and parasites were identified microscopically based on (oo)cyst size and morphology. Cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. and Eimeria sp. were observed in four of the six opossums. All four infected marsupials showed mild infection by protozoa. This is the first report of Giardia sp. in D. albiventris.

  9. Influence of different anoxic time exposures on active biomass, protozoa and filamentous bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Perez, S; Fermoso, F G; Arnaiz, C

    Medium-sized wastewater treatment plants are considered too small to implement anaerobic digestion technologies and too large for extensive treatments. A promising option as a sewage sludge reduction method is the inclusion of anoxic time exposures. In the present study, three different anoxic time exposures of 12, 6 and 4 hours have been studied to reduce sewage sludge production. The best anoxic time exposure was observed under anoxic/oxic cycles of 6 hours, which reduced 29.63% of the biomass production compared with the oxic control conditions. The sludge under different anoxic time exposures, even with a lower active biomass concentration than the oxic control conditions, showed a much higher metabolic activity than the oxic control conditions. Microbiological results suggested that both protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria decrease under anoxic time exposures compared to oxic control conditions. The anoxic time exposures 6/6 showed the highest reduction in both protozoa density, 37.5%, and abundance of filamentous bacteria, 41.1%, in comparison to the oxic control conditions. The groups of crawling ciliates, carnivorous ciliates and filamentous bacteria were highly influenced by the anoxic time exposures. Protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria have been shown as promising bioindicators of biomass production reduction.

  10. Free-living protozoa in the gastrointestinal tract and feces of pigs: Exploration of an unknown world and towards a protocol for the recovery of free-living protozoa.

    PubMed

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-07-30

    Associations with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in food-related environments. To date however no information is available on the presence of FLP in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pigs, which represents an important reservoir for zoonotic foodborne bacteria and hence a potential location for associations with FLP. This is at least partly due to the lack of adequate protocols to recover FLP from intestinal content and feces. In the present study different protocols to recover FLP from the porcine GIT and feces were tested. The most effective protocols were then applied to explore the presence of live FLP in the pig GIT and feces. A filtration based protocol was identified as the most suitable method to recover viable FLP from the porcine GIT and feces. Cultivable FLP were recovered from different parts of the GIT, suggesting at least a transient presence of FLP in this habitat. Free-living amoebae species (Acanthamoeba spp., Hyperamoeba sp., Vannella sp., Vermamoeba vermiformis, hartmannellids and vahlkampfiids) but also ciliates (Colpoda sp. and Tetrahymena/Glaucoma lookalike) and flagellates (cercomonads, bodonids and glissomonads) were recovered and cultured from pig intestinal content. Acanthamoeba hatchetti and Filamoeba sinensis were isolated for the first time from pig intestinal content. Despite high gastric acidity, non-cyst forming amoeba species were also detected which suggests survival of their trophozoites in the animal GIT.

  11. Removal of bacteria, protozoa and viruses through a multiple-barrier household water disinfection system.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-García, A C; Díaz-Ávalos, C; Solano-Ortiz, R; Tapia-Palacios, M A; Vázquez-Salvador, N; Espinosa-García, S; Sarmiento-Silva, R E; Mazari-Hiriart, M

    2014-03-01

    Municipal water disinfection systems in some areas are not always able to meet water consumer needs, such as ensuring distributed water quality, because household water management can be a contributing factor in water re-contamination. This fact is related to the storage options that are common in places where water is scarce or is distributed over limited time periods. The aim of this study is to assess the removal capacity of a multiple-barrier water disinfection device for protozoa, bacteria, and viruses. Water samples were taken from households in Mexico City and spiked with a known amount of protozoa (Giardia cyst, Cryptosporidium oocyst), bacteria (Escherichia coli), and viruses (rotavirus, adenovirus, F-specific ribonucleic acid (FRNA) coliphage). Each inoculated sample was processed through a multiple-barrier device. The efficiency of the multiple-barrier device to remove E. coli was close to 100%, and more than 87% of Cryptosporidium oocysts and more than 98% of Giardia cysts were removed. Close to 100% of coliphages were removed, 99.6% of the adenovirus was removed, and the rotavirus was almost totally removed. An effect of site by zone was detected; this observation is important because the water characteristics could indicate the efficiency of the multiple-barrier disinfection device.

  12. [Lysozyme-antilysozyme interactions in protozoa-bacteria communities (a model Tetrahymena-Escherichia community)].

    PubMed

    Bukharin, O V; Nemtseva, N V

    2001-01-01

    Lysozyme and antilysozyme activities present in a wide range of microorganisms determine the so-called lysozyme-antilysozyme system of hydrobionts, which greatly contribute to the formation of aquatic biocenoses. However, the mechanism of the functioning of this system in natural freshwater communities remains obscure. The experimental investigation of lysozyme-antilysozyme interactions in a model Tetrahymena--Escherichia community showed that the antilysozyme activity of Escherichia coli leads to incomplete phagocytosis, thus enhancing bacterial survival in a mixed culture with infusoria. The selection and reproduction of bacterial cells resistant to grazing by infusoria determine the character of host-parasite interactions and allow bacteria to survive. It was demonstrated that the antilysozyme activity of microorganisms, which is responsible for bacterial persistency in natural biocenoses, is involved in the maintenance of protozoa-bacteria communities in bodies of water.

  13. Separation of Bacteria, Protozoa and Carbon Nanotubes by Density Gradient Centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Monika; Petersen, Elijah J.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Holden, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable production and use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled materials require efficient assessment of CNT environmental hazards, including the potential for CNT bioaccumulation and biomagnification in environmental receptors. Microbes, as abundant organisms responsible for nutrient cycling in soil and water, are important ecological receptors for studying the effects of CNTs. Quantification of CNT association with microbial cells requires efficient separation of CNT-associated cells from individually dispersed CNTs and CNT agglomerates. Here, we designed, optimized, and demonstrated procedures for separating bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) from unbound multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and MWCNT agglomerates using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. We demonstrate separation of protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila) from MWCNTs, bacterial agglomerates, and protozoan fecal pellets by centrifugation in an iodixanol solution. The presence of MWCNTs in the density gradients after centrifugation was determined by quantification of 14C-labeled MWCNTs; the recovery of microbes from the density gradient media was confirmed by optical microscopy. Protozoan intracellular contents of MWCNTs and of bacteria were also unaffected by the designed separation process. The optimized methods contribute to improved efficiency and accuracy in quantifying MWCNT association with bacteria and MWCNT accumulation in protozoan cells, thus supporting improved assessment of CNT bioaccumulation. PMID:27917301

  14. Intestinal protozoa.

    PubMed

    Juckett, G

    1996-06-01

    Giardia is the best known cause of protozoal gastrointestinal disease in North America, producing significant but not life-threatening gastrointestinal distress and diarrhea. Although diagnosis of giardiasis may be challenging, treatment is usually successful. Entamoeba histolytica poses a rarer but far more difficult clinical challenge. Dysentery caused by E. histolytica may be the most feared intestinal protozoal infection, although Cryptosporidium parvum, Balantidium coli, Isospora belli, Sarcocystis species and other newly described protozoa also may cause diarrhea in healthy individuals and may result in intractable, life-threatening illness in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or other immunosuppressive diseases. Certain protozoa once considered relatively unimportant, such as Cryptosporidium, are now recognized as significant causes of morbidity even in the United States, since transmission readily occurs through contaminated water.

  15. Diversity of bacteria, archaea and protozoa in a perchlorate treating bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Anupama, V N; Prajeesh, P V G; Anju, S; Priya, P; Krishnakumar, B

    2015-08-01

    A microbial consortium reducing high level of perchlorate was developed and in a fed batch bioreactor using acetate as substrate perchlorate was reduced at 0.25 g/g vss. day. Under stable performance, the microbial community structure of the reactor was analyzed through molecular and phenotypic methods. The diversity of bacteria and archaea were analyzed through whole cell Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), whereas higher trophic community was analyzed phenotypically. FISH analysis revealed the presence of alpha, beta, gamma and delta proteobacteria in the sludge, dominated by beta proteobacteria (68.7%). DGGE analysis of bacteria revealed the presence of a single known perchlorate reducing bacterium-Dechloromonas, nitrate reducers like Thaeura and Azoarcus and a number of other genera so far not reported as perchlorate or nitrate reducing. The archaea community was represented by an acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta harundinacea. We have also observed the presence of an acetate consuming flagellate, Polytomella sp. in significant number in the reactor. Archaea and protozoa community in perchlorate treating bioreactor is reported first time in this study and point out further the significance of non perchlorate reducing but acetate scavenging microbial groups in acetate fed perchlorate treating reactors.

  16. Prevalence and significance of gastrointestinal helminths and protozoa in South American Camelids in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, Hubertus; Kohler, Lucia

    2006-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of endoparasitic infections in South American Camelids (SAC) in Switzerland. Qualitative and quantitative coproscopic examinations were performed in 38 farms during the grazing period. Management practices with possible interference with parasitic infections were analyzed. On the farm level prevalences of endoparasitic infections were: trichostrongyles 87%; Trichuris sp. 74%; Capillaria sp. 68%; Nematodirus battus 63%; Nematodirus sp. 53%; Dicrocoelium dendriticum 34%; Moniezia sp. 8%; Fasciola hepatica 5%; protostrongylids 5%; Eimeria macusaniensis 68%. The level of helminth egg excretion was generally low. The highest values were recorded for trichostrongyles with an average of all investigated farms of 53 eggs per gram of faeces. The mean trichostrongyle egg output was approximately three-fold in SAC on farms that also kept sheep and/or goats, although this difference was not significant (P = 0.11). Clinical trichostrongylidosis was not reported from any of the farms. The low infection level with gastrointestinal nematodes is attributed to the defaecation behaviour of the SAC depositing their faeces focally on small spots on pasture. As a consequence, pasture infectivity is largely restricted to the area adjacent to the dung piles. Dicrocoeliosis is regarded as the most relevant parasitic infection of llamas and alpacas in Switzerland causing severe clinical symptoms and death in untreated animals. Sixteen per cent of the owners regularily treated their herds against dicrocoeliosis using praziquantel at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight orally.

  17. Effect of Peganum harmala or its beta-carboline alkaloids on certain antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria and protozoa from poultry.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Najma; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin; Hasnain, Shahida; Hess, Michael

    2008-11-01

    In the present study the antimicrobial potential of various extracts from 12 medicinal plants has been investigated in vitro on multiple antibiotic resistant pathogens and some selected protozoa isolated from poultry. The initial examination was performed on E. coli (n = 10) using disc and agar well diffusion assays. Only two plants, Peganum harmala (seeds) and Eucalyptus globulus (leaves) showed positive responses. The active extracts were also investigated against an additional 19 bacteria and the clonal cultures of three protozoa (Histomonas meleagridis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Blastocystis sp.). Only Peganum harmala was found to inhibit the growth of all bacteria and protozoa at 0.38-1.55 mg/mL and 0.63-1.65 mg/mL, respectively. To investigate the potential role of alkaloids in crude extracts of Peganum harmala, four known beta-carbolin alkaloids were quantified and their antimicrobial activity was compared using a microdilution assay. Harmaline was found to be in the highest concentration followed by harmine and harmalol, whereas harmane could not be detected. The activity of the pure alkaloids was in the order harmane > harmaline > harmalol > or = harmine for all bacteria, while for protozoa, it was different depending on the microorganism. It is concluded that Peganum harmala or its alkaloids could probably be used for the control of antibiotic resistant isolates of bacteria as well as protozoa.

  18. Top-down effects of a lytic bacteriophage and protozoa on bacteria in aqueous and biofilm phases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji; Örmälä-Odegrip, Anni-Maria; Mappes, Johanna; Laakso, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Lytic bacteriophages and protozoan predators are the major causes of bacterial mortality in natural microbial communities, which also makes them potential candidates for biological control of bacterial pathogens. However, little is known about the relative impact of bacteriophages and protozoa on the dynamics of bacterial biomass in aqueous and biofilm phases. Here, we studied the temporal and spatial dynamics of bacterial biomass in a microcosm experiment where opportunistic pathogenic bacteria Serratia marcescens was exposed to particle-feeding ciliates, surface-feeding amoebas, and lytic bacteriophages for 8 weeks, ca. 1300 generations. We found that ciliates were the most efficient enemy type in reducing bacterial biomass in the open water, but least efficient in reducing the biofilm biomass. Biofilm was rather resistant against bacterivores, but amoebae had a significant long-term negative effect on bacterial biomass both in the open-water phase and biofilm. Bacteriophages had only a minor long-term effect on bacterial biomass in open-water and biofilm phases. However, separate short-term experiments with the ancestral bacteriophages and bacteria revealed that bacteriophages crash the bacterial biomass dramatically in the open-water phase within the first 24 h. Thereafter, the bacteria evolve phage-resistance that largely prevents top-down effects. The combination of all three enemy types was most effective in reducing biofilm biomass, whereas in the open-water phase the ciliates dominated the trophic effects. Our results highlight the importance of enemy feeding mode on determining the spatial distribution and abundance of bacterial biomass. Moreover, the enemy type can be crucially important predictor of whether the rapid defense evolution can significantly affect top-down regulation of bacteria. PMID:25512841

  19. Rates of digestion of bacteria by marine phagotrophic protozoa: temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Sherr, B F; Sherr, E B; Rassoulzadegan, F

    1988-05-01

    The effect of temperature on length of time for digestion of bacteria was evaluated, by using fluorescently labeled bacteria (FLB), for phagotrophic flagellates and ciliates isolated from coastal northwest Mediterranean waters. Accumulation of FLB in protozoan food vacuoles was followed until a plateau of FLB per cell occurred; then after a 1:10 dilution of FLB with unlabeled bacteria, disappearance of FLB in food vacuoles was monitored. For both 3- to 5-mum flagellates and 10- to 40-mum ciliates, the absolute linear slopes of FLB uptake and disappearance were nearly identical in individual experiments over a temperature range of 12 to 22 degrees C. We inferred from these results that the leveling off of the uptake curves resulted when equilibrium between ingestion and digestion of bacteria was attained. The time to leveling off then represented the average time needed for complete digestion of the bacteria ingested at the start of the experiment, and the inverse of this time represented a bacterial digestion rate. The digestion rate increased exponentially from 12 to 22 degrees C for both a mixed flagellate assemblage and the oligotrichous ciliate Strombidium sulcatum, with a Q(10) of 2.8 for the flagellates and 2.0 for the ciliate. Although bacterial ingestion rates varied greatly, depending on protozoan cell size, total bacterial abundance, and temperature, digestion times appeared to be significantly influenced only by protozoan cell size (or type of protozoan) and by temperature.

  20. Nanomaterials' Influences on the Emergence of Life and Their Toxic Effects on Bacteria and Protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, Randall Edward

    This research investigates the unique properties of nanomaterials (NMs) with highly catalytic surfaces that make them ideal for the production of organic molecules but also confer toxic properties of some NMs. Iron-sulphide NMs were used in a hydrothermal reactor that released hydrogen sulphide and other metal ions in the effluent, as analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), iron sulphide NM surfaces indicate severe weathering as a result of environmental conditions including high pressure (100 bar H2) and moderate temperatures (130°C). The effluent's chemical properties from the reactor experiment generated chimney structures from newly formed iron-sulphide NMs in a ferrous rich 'Hadean Ocean' solution. Using ESEM, we show that structural changes occur under different pHs, temperatures, and silicate concentrations. The presence of 5-mer peptides also shows distinct structural differences during the formation of iron-sulphide NM chimneys. Nano-titanium dioxide NMs (nTiO2) were used to show the toxicity of nTiO2 encrusted Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) fed to Tetrahymena thermophila (TT) protozoa under aerobic conditions. The control TT showed limited toxicity when grown in the presence of nTiO2, and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) revealed the initial accumulation of nTiO2 in food vacuoles (FVs) of control TT cells that were not observed in the TT grown with nTiO2-encrusted PA. After 22 h, very little nTiO2 is observed in the control TT FVs as compared with the TT grown with nTiO2-encrusted PA FVs which had about 30% of the FV filled with nTiO2. Toxicity to nTiO2 was observed as reduced growth yields for both the control and the PA fed TT, but also as a reduction in growth rate for TT grown with nTiO2-encrusted PA. To understand biological weathering of NMs, the use of STEM energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was enhanced to analyze single nano-sized particles

  1. Is Predominant Clonal Evolution a Common Evolutionary Adaptation to Parasitism in Pathogenic Parasitic Protozoa, Fungi, Bacteria, and Viruses?

    PubMed

    Tibayrenc, M; Ayala, F J

    2017-01-01

    We propose that predominant clonal evolution (PCE) in microbial pathogens be defined as restrained recombination on an evolutionary scale, with genetic exchange scarce enough to not break the prevalent pattern of clonal population structure. The main features of PCE are (1) strong linkage disequilibrium, (2) the widespread occurrence of stable genetic clusters blurred by occasional bouts of genetic exchange ('near-clades'), (3) the existence of a "clonality threshold", beyond which recombination is efficiently countered by PCE, and near-clades irreversibly diverge. We hypothesize that the PCE features are not mainly due to natural selection but also chiefly originate from in-built genetic properties of pathogens. We show that the PCE model obtains even in microbes that have been considered as 'highly recombining', such as Neisseria meningitidis, and that some clonality features are observed even in Plasmodium, which has been long described as panmictic. Lastly, we provide evidence that PCE features are also observed in viruses, taking into account their extremely fast genetic turnover. The PCE model provides a convenient population genetic framework for any kind of micropathogen. It makes it possible to describe convenient units of analysis (clones and near-clades) for all applied studies. Due to PCE features, these units of analysis are stable in space and time, and clearly delimited. The PCE model opens up the possibility of revisiting the problem of species definition in these organisms. We hypothesize that PCE constitutes a major evolutionary strategy for protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and viruses to adapt to parasitism.

  2. Microbial Indicators, Opportunistic Bacteria, and Pathogenic Protozoa for Monitoring Urban Wastewater Reused for Irrigation in the Proximity of a Megacity.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Salazar, María Alejandra; Díaz-Ávalos, Carlos; Castañón-Martínez, María Teresa; Tapia-Palacios, Marco Antonio; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa

    2016-12-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, with a population of approximately 580 million inhabitants, less than 20 % of wastewater is treated. Megacities in this region face common challenges and problems related with water quality and sanitation, which require urgent actions, such as changes in the sustainable use of water resources. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world, with over 20 million inhabitants, and is no exception to the challenges of sustainable water management. For more than 100 years, wastewater from Mexico City has been transported north to the Mezquital Valley, which is ranked as the largest wastewater-irrigated area in the world. In this study, bacteria and pathogenic protozoa were analyzed to determine the association between the presence of such microorganisms and water types (WTs) across sampling sites and seasons in Mexico City and the Mezquital Valley. Our results show a difference in microbiological water quality between sampling sites and WTs. There is no significant interaction between sampling sites and seasons in terms of bacterial concentration, demonstrating that water quality remains constant at each site regardless of whether it is the dry or the rainy season. The results illustrate the quantity of these microorganisms in wastewater, provide a current diagnosis of water quality across the area which could affect the health of residents in both Mexico City and the Mezquital Valley, and demonstrate the need to transition in the short term to treat wastewater from a local to a regional scale.

  3. Protist-Bacteria Associations: Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria Are Prevalent as Digestion-Resistant Bacteria in Ciliated Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jun; Qing, Yao; Zou, Songbao; Fu, Rao; Su, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qianqian

    2016-01-01

    Protistan bacterivory, a microbial process involving ingestion and digestion, is ecologically important in the microbial loop in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. While bacterial resistance to protistan ingestion has been relatively well understood, little is known about protistan digestion in which some ingested bacteria could not be digested in cells of major protistan grazers in the natural environment. Here we report the phylogenetic identities of digestion-resistant bacteria (DRB) that could survive starvation and form relatively stable associations with 11 marine and one freshwater ciliate species. Using clone library and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, we found that the protistan predators could host a high diversity of DRB, most of which represented novel bacterial taxa that have not been cultivated. The localization inside host cells, quantity, and viability of these bacteria were checked using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The DRB were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Parcubacteria (OD1), Planctomycetes, and Proteobacteria, with Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria being the most frequently occurring classes. The dominance of Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria corresponds well to a previous study of Global Ocean Sampling metagenomic data showing the widespread types of bacterial type VI and IV secretion systems (T6SS and T4SS) in these two taxa, suggesting a putatively significant role of secretion systems in promoting marine protist-bacteria associations. In the DRB assemblages, opportunistic bacteria such as Alteromonadaceae, Pseudoalteromonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae often presented with high proportions, indicating these bacteria could evade protistan grazing thus persist and accumulate in the community, which, however, contrasts with their well-known rarity in nature. This begs the question whether viral lysis is significant in killing these indigestible bacteria in microbial communities. Taken together, our study on

  4. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): Guideline for the evaluation of drug efficacy against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoa in livestock and companion animals.

    PubMed

    Geurden, T; Olson, M E; O'Handley, R M; Schetters, T; Bowman, D; Vercruysse, J

    2014-08-29

    The current guideline was written to aid in the design, implementation and interpretation of studies for the assessment of drug efficacy against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoan parasites, with Giardia spp. as the leading example. The information provided in this guideline deals with aspects of how to conduct controlled studies using experimental infection models (dose determination and dose confirmation) and efficacy studies in commercial facilities (field effectiveness studies). Furthermore, the selection of suitable animals, housing, infection procedure, choice of diagnostic technique and data analysis are discussed. This guideline is intended to assist investigators in conducting specific studies, to provide specific information for registration authorities involved in the decision-making process, to assist in the approval and registration of new drugs and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of uniform procedures. The primary parameter for drug efficacy is the reduction in either parasite excretion or parasite counts and a minimum efficacy of 90% is required against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoa. A supporting efficacy parameter is a significant difference in the proportion of infected animals between treated and non-treated groups. Persistent efficacy is considered as an additional claim to therapeutic efficacy.

  5. Influence of an oxic settling anoxic system on biomass yield, protozoa and filamentous bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Perez, Santiago; Fermoso, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    An oxic settling anoxic system coupled with an activated sludge process has been studied to reduce sewage sludge production. The reduction of sludge yield, excess sludge production and active biomass yield were 51.7%, 52.9% and 67.1%, respectively, compared with the control system. The oxic reactor of the oxic settling anoxic system, even with a lower active biomass concentration than the oxic reactor of control system, showed a higher metabolic activity in their active biomass. Diversity and crawling ciliates group have been shown as promising bioindicators of active biomass yield reduction. The identification of floc-forming bacteria in the control system suggested that oxic settling anoxic system will improve settling properties compared to a Conventional Activated Sludge process.

  6. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  7. Characterization of the efficiency and uncertainty of skimmed milk flocculation for the simultaneous concentration and quantification of water-borne viruses, bacteria and protozoa.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Cárdenas-Youngs, Yexenia; Calvo, Miquel; da Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Amorós, Inmaculada; Moreno, Yolanda; Moreno-Mesonero, Laura; Rosell, Rosa; Ganges, Llilianne; Araujo, Rosa; Girones, Rosina

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the use of skimmed milk flocculation (SMF) to simultaneously concentrate viruses, bacteria and protozoa was evaluated. We selected strains of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori. The viruses selected were adenovirus (HAdV 35), rotavirus (RoV SA-11), the bacteriophage MS2 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The protozoa tested were Acanthamoeba, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The mean recoveries with q(RT)PCR were 66% (HAdV 35), 24% (MS2), 28% (RoV SA-11), 15% (BVDV), 60% (E. coli), 30% (H. pylori) and 21% (Acanthamoeba castellanii). When testing the infectivity, the mean recoveries were 59% (HAdV 35), 12% (MS2), 26% (RoV SA-11) and 0.7% (BVDV). The protozoa Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum were studied by immunofluorescence with recoveries of 18% and 13%, respectively. Although q(RT)PCR consistently showed higher quantification values (as expected), q(RT)PCR and the infectivity assays showed similar recoveries for HAdV 35 and RoV SA-11. Additionally, we investigated modelling the variability and uncertainty of the recovery with this method to extrapolate the quantification obtained by q(RT)PCR and estimate the real concentration. The 95% prediction intervals of the real concentration of the microorganisms inoculated were calculated using a general non-parametric bootstrap procedure adapted in our context to estimate the technical error of the measurements. SMF shows recoveries with a low variability that permits the use of a mathematical approximation to predict the concentration of the pathogen and indicator with acceptable low intervals. The values of uncertainty may be used for a quantitative microbial risk analysis or diagnostic purposes.

  8. Waterborne transmission and the evolution of virulence among gastrointestinal bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, P. W.

    1991-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are primary contributors to millions of deaths annually. Yet, little is known about the evolutionary reasons for the differences in virulence among gastrointestinal pathogens. Applying the comparative, cost/benefit approach of evolutionary biology this paper proposes that waterborne transmission should favour evolution towards high virulence. This hypothesis is supported by a cross-specific test, which shows that waterborne transmission is strongly correlated with the virulence of bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens of humans. Alternative explanations of this correlation are not supported by available data. These findings bear on public health policy because they draw attention to a previously unrecognized long-range benefit gained from purification of water supplies; diarrhoeal pathogens may evolve to lower levels of virulence. PMID:1993456

  9. Communication between gastrointestinal bacteria and the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Javier A; Julio-Pieper, Marcela; Forsythe, Paul; Kunze, Wolfgang; Dinan, Timothy G; Bienenstock, John; Cryan, John F

    2012-12-01

    In the past few years, intestinal microbiota has emerged as a novel target for the treatment of gut-brain axis alterations. These include functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which can be comorbid with stress-related psychiatric conditions. Thus, modulation of the microbiota (e.g. with the use of probiotics) could be proposed as a novel strategy not only for the treatment of IBS but also as an adjuvant for psychiatric treatment of anxiety and depression.

  10. The role of conjugative transposons in spreading antibiotic resistance between bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Scott, K P

    2002-12-01

    There is huge potential for genetic exchange to occur within the dense, diverse anaerobic microbial population inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and animals. However, the incidence of conjugative transposons (CTns) and the antibiotic resistance genes they carry has not been well studied among this population. Since any incoming bacteria, including pathogens, can access this reservoir of genes, this oversight would appear to be an important one. Recent evidence has shown that anaerobic bacteria native to the rumen or hindgut harbour both novel antibiotic resistance genes and novel conjugative transposons. These CTns, and previously characterized CTns, can be transferred to a wide range of commensal bacteria under laboratory and in vivo conditions. The main evidence that gene transfer occurs widely in vivo between GIT bacteria, and between GIT bacteria and pathogenic bacteria, is that identical resistance genes are present in diverse bacterial species from different hosts.

  11. Cellulolytic and proteolytic ability of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract and composting of a hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    da Cruz Ramos, Geomárcia Feitosa; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Passarini, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano; Vieira Silveira, Marghuel A; Okamoto, Débora Noma; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Zezzo, Larissa Vieira; Marem, Alyne; Santos Rocha, Rafael Costa; da Cruz, João Batista; Juliano, Luiz; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto

    2016-03-01

    The bioprospection for cellulase and protease producers is a promise strategy for the discovery of potential biocatalysts for use in hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials as well as proteic residues. These enzymes can increment and turn viable the production of second generation ethanol from different and alternative sources. In this context, the goal of this study was the investigation of cellulolytic and proteolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a hippopotamus as well as from its composting process. It is important to highlight that hippopotamus gastrointestinal samples were a non-typical sources of efficient hydrolytic bacteria with potential for application in biotechnological industries, like biofuel production. Looking for this, a total of 159 bacteria were isolated, which were submitted to qualitative and quantitative enzymatic assays. Proteolytic analyzes were conducted through the evaluation of fluorescent probes. Qualitative assays for cellulolytic abilities revealed 70 positive hits. After quantitative analyzes, 44 % of these positive hits were selected, but five (5) strains showed cellulolytic activity up to 11,8 FPU/mL. Regarding to proteolytic activities, six (6) strains showed activity above 10 %, which overpassed results described in the literature. Molecular analyzes based on the identification of 16S rDNA, revealed that all the selected bacterial isolates were affiliated to Bacillus genus. In summary, these results strongly indicate that the isolated bacteria from a hippopotamus can be a potential source of interesting biocatalysts with cellulolytic and proteolytic activities, with relevance for industrial applications.

  12. Optimization of a Reusable Hollow-Fiber Ultrafilter for Simultaneous Concentration of Enteric Bacteria, Protozoa, and Viruses from Water

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Morales, Hugo A.; Vidal, Guadalupe; Olszewski, John; Rock, Channah M.; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Oshima, Kevin H.; Smith, Geoffrey B.

    2003-01-01

    The detection and identification of pathogens from water samples remain challenging due to variations in recovery rates and the cost of procedures. Ultrafiltration offers the possibility to concentrate viral, bacterial, and protozoan organisms in a single process by using size-exclusion-based filtration. In this study, two hollow-fiber ultrafilters with 50,000-molecular-weight cutoffs were evaluated to concentrate microorganisms from 2- and 10-liter water samples. When known quantities (105 to 106 CFU/liter) of two species of enteric bacteria were introduced and concentrated from 2 liters of sterile water, the addition of 0.1% Tween 80 increased Escherichia coli strain K-12 recoveries from 70 to 84% and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis recoveries from 36 to 72%. An E. coli antibiotic-resistant strain, XL1-Blue, was recovered at a level (87%) similar to that for strain K-12 (96%) from 10 liters of sterile water. When E. coli XL1-Blue was introduced into 10 liters of nonsterile Rio Grande water with higher turbidity levels (23 to 29 nephelometric turbidity units) at two inoculum levels (9 × 105 and 2.4 × 103 per liter), the recovery efficiencies were 89 and 92%, respectively. The simultaneous addition of E. coli XL1-Blue (9 × 105 CFU/liter), Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (10 oocysts/liter), phage T1 (105 PFU/liter), and phage PP7 (105 PFU/liter) to 10 liters of Rio Grande surface water resulted in mean recoveries of 96, 54, 59, and 46%, respectively. Using a variety of surface waters from around the United States, we obtained recovery efficiencies for bacteria and viruses that were similar to those observed with the Rio Grande samples, but recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts was decreased, averaging 32% (the site of collection of these samples had previously been identified as problematic for oocyst recovery). Results indicate that the use of ultrafiltration for simultaneous recovery of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens from variable surface waters

  13. Introduction to Pathogenic Protozoa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    1 1 Introduction Mary K. Klassen-Fischer and Ronald C. Neafie Introduction Protozoa Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic animals first dis...phylogeny of protozoa , see Table 1.1. A recent trend is to replace the term “ protozoa ” with “protista.” For these topics we retain “pro- tozoa” and...JUN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Introduction to Pathogenic Protozoa 5a. CONTRACT

  14. Protease activities of rumen protozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, C W; Lovelock, L K; Krumholz, L; Buchanan-Smith, J G

    1984-01-01

    Intact, metabolically active rumen protozoa prepared by gravity sedimentation and washing in a mineral solution at 10 to 15 degrees C had comparatively low proteolytic activity on azocasein and low endogenous proteolytic activity. Protozoa washed in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) at 4 degrees C and stored on ice autolysed when they were warmed to 39 degrees C. They also exhibited low proteolytic activity on azocasein, but they had a high endogenous proteolytic activity with a pH optimum of 5.8. The endogenous proteolytic activity was inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors, for example, iodoacetate (63.1%) and the aspartic proteinase inhibitor, pepstatin (43.9%). Inhibitors specific for serine proteinases and metalloproteinases were without effect. The serine and cysteine proteinase inhibitors of microbial origin, including antipain, chymostatin, and leupeptin, caused up to 67% inhibition of endogenous proteolysis. Hydrolysis of casein by protozoa autolysates was also inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Some of the inhibitors decreased endogenous deamination, in particular, phosphoramidon, which had little inhibitory effect on proteolysis. Protozoal and bacterial preparations exhibited low hydrolytic activities on synthetic proteinase and carboxypeptidase substrates, although the protozoa had 10 to 78 times greater hydrolytic activity (per milligram of protein) than bacteria on the synthetic aminopeptidase substrates L-leucine-p-nitroanilide, L-leucine-beta-naphthylamide, and L-leucinamide. The aminopeptidase activity was partially inhibited by bestatin. It was concluded that cysteine proteinases and, to a lesser extent, aspartic proteinases are primarily responsible for proteolysis in autolysates of rumen protozoa. The protozoal autolysates had high aminopeptidase activity; low deaminase activity was observed on endogenous amino acids. PMID:6364968

  15. Enhancing the culturability of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of farmed adult turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Mengxin; Hou, Zhanhui; Qu, Yanmei; Liu, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Eighteen agar media were tested for the culture of gut-associated bacteria from farmed adult turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), including 16 agar media with or without 1% gastrointestinal (GI) supernatant, or with 2% or 4% GI supernatant. A total of 1 711 colonies were analyzed and 24 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. The greatest bacterial diversity was isolated on Zobell 2216E/Zobell 2216E+ agar media, whereas MRS/MRS+ agar media produced a low diversity of colonies. Agar media with GI supernatant (1%, 2%, or 4%) showed increased diversity and yielded different profiles of OTUs from the corresponding original media, suggesting that GI supernatant provides substances that enhance the culture efficiency of bacteria from the turbot GI tract. The large majority of the colonies (82%) were γ-Proteobacteria, whereas 15.6% and 2.4% of colonies were Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, respectively. At the genus level, 49.4% of all colonies were assigned to Vibrio. Other potential pathogens, including Pseudomonas, Photobacterium, and Enterobacter, and potential probiotics, including Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Pseudomonas, were also isolated on agar media. Most cultured bacteria belonged to species that were first described in the turbot GI tract. The impact of these species on turbot physiology and health should be investigated further.

  16. Effect of mannoproteins on the growth, gastrointestinal viability, and adherence to Caco-2 cells of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ganan, M; Carrascosa, A V; de Pascual-Teresa, S; Martinez-Rodriguez, A J

    2012-03-01

    Yeast cell wall (YCW) preparations and yeast mannoprotein extracts have been effective against some enteropathogenic bacteria as Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella, and they can affect the population of beneficial lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this work, we studied the effect of a mannoprotein extract on five strains of LAB. This extract was metabolised by the bacteria, enhancing their survival in simulated gastrointestinal juice, and increasing the adherence of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. salivarius, and Enterococcus faecium to Caco-2 cells. Yeast mannoproteins are promising naturally occurring compounds that could be used to enhance LAB intestinal populations and control pathogens.

  17. M-Cell Targeting of Whole Killed Bacteria Induces Protective Immunity against Gastrointestinal Pathogens▿

    PubMed Central

    Chionh, Yok-Teng; Wee, Janet L. K.; Every, Alison L.; Ng, Garrett Z.; Sutton, Philip

    2009-01-01

    As the majority of human pathogens infect via a mucosal surface, delivery of killed vaccines by mucosal routes could potentially improve protection against many such organisms. Our ability to develop effective killed mucosal vaccines is inhibited by a lack of adjuvants that are safe and effective in humans. The Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin specifically binds M cells lining the murine gastrointestinal tract. We explored the potential for M-cell-targeted vaccination of whole, killed Helicobacter pylori, the main causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, and Campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of diarrhea. Oral delivery of UEA-I-agglutinated H. pylori or C. jejuni induced a significant increase in both serum and intestinal antibody levels. This elevated response (i) required the use of whole bacteria, as it did not occur with lysate; (ii) was not mediated by formation of particulate clumps, as agglutination with a lectin with a different glycan specificity had no effect; and (iii) was not due to lectin-mediated, nonspecific immunostimulatory activity, as UEA-I codelivery with nonagglutinated bacteria did not enhance the response. Vaccination with UEA-I-agglutinated, killed whole H. pylori induced a protective response against subsequent live challenge that was as effective as that induced by cholera toxin adjuvant. Moreover, vaccination against C. jejuni by this approach resulted in complete protection against challenge in almost all animals. We believe that this is the first demonstration that targeting of whole killed bacteria to mucosal M cells can induce protective immunity without the addition of an immunostimulatory adjuvant. PMID:19380476

  18. M-cell targeting of whole killed bacteria induces protective immunity against gastrointestinal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chionh, Yok-Teng; Wee, Janet L K; Every, Alison L; Ng, Garrett Z; Sutton, Philip

    2009-07-01

    As the majority of human pathogens infect via a mucosal surface, delivery of killed vaccines by mucosal routes could potentially improve protection against many such organisms. Our ability to develop effective killed mucosal vaccines is inhibited by a lack of adjuvants that are safe and effective in humans. The Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin specifically binds M cells lining the murine gastrointestinal tract. We explored the potential for M-cell-targeted vaccination of whole, killed Helicobacter pylori, the main causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, and Campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of diarrhea. Oral delivery of UEA-I-agglutinated H. pylori or C. jejuni induced a significant increase in both serum and intestinal antibody levels. This elevated response (i) required the use of whole bacteria, as it did not occur with lysate; (ii) was not mediated by formation of particulate clumps, as agglutination with a lectin with a different glycan specificity had no effect; and (iii) was not due to lectin-mediated, nonspecific immunostimulatory activity, as UEA-I codelivery with nonagglutinated bacteria did not enhance the response. Vaccination with UEA-I-agglutinated, killed whole H. pylori induced a protective response against subsequent live challenge that was as effective as that induced by cholera toxin adjuvant. Moreover, vaccination against C. jejuni by this approach resulted in complete protection against challenge in almost all animals. We believe that this is the first demonstration that targeting of whole killed bacteria to mucosal M cells can induce protective immunity without the addition of an immunostimulatory adjuvant.

  19. Bacteria and methanogens differ along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Wright, André-Denis G; Li, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus). The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera). The phyla Firmicutes (51.2%) and Bacteroidetes (39.4%) were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (P<0.01) different from the other sampled regions along the GIT. Secondly, Prevotella spp., Anaerovibrio spp., and unidentified bacteria within the families Veillonellaceae and Paraprevotellaceae were more abundant in the rumen than in the other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae, Succinivibrio spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. were more predominant in the colon than in other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroides spp. were more prevalent in the ileum, cecum and fecal pellets. For methanogens in the rumen and cecum, a total of 375,647 high quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and assigned to 113 core OTUs. Methanobrevibacter millerae was the dominant species accounting for 77.3±7.4 (S.E) % and 68.9±4.4 (S.E) % of total sequences in the rumen and cecum of roe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004). These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum.

  20. Involvement of protozoa in anaerobic wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Priya, M; Haridas, Ajit; Manilal, V B

    2007-12-01

    It is only very rarely recognised in literature that anaerobic reactors may contain protozoa in addition to various bacterial and archeal groups. The role of protozoa in anaerobic degradation was studied in anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and batch tests. Anaerobic protozoa, especially the ciliated protozoa, have direct influence on the performance of CSTR at all organic loading rates (1-2g CODl(-1)d(-1)) and retention times (5-10 days). The studies revealed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal is strongly correlated to ciliate density in CSTR fed with oleate (suspended COD) and acetate (soluble COD). There was no significant difference in COD removal between reactors fed suspended COD and those fed soluble COD. However, the diversity and number of ciliates is greater in CSTR fed with particulate feed. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) representing biomass was significantly lower (16-34%) in CSTR with protozoa. In batch tests, increased COD removal and methane production was observed in sludge having ciliates as compared with sludge without protozoa. Methane production increased linearly with number of ciliates (R(2)=0.96) in batch tests with protozoa. Direct utilization of COD by flagellates and ciliates was observed in bacteria-suppressed cultures. The technological importance of these results is that reactors with protozoa-rich sludge can enhance the rate of mineralization of complex wastewater, especially wastewater containing particulate COD.

  1. Symbiosis and Rumen Protozoa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Raymond D.

    1970-01-01

    Protozoa inhabiting the rumen of large grazing animals can be used to illustrate symbiotic animal associations. Gives a key to the ciliates most commonly found, several drawings, and a chart relating rumen fauna to the phylogenetic tree of the hosts. (EB)

  2. PHB-degrading bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of aquatic animals as protective actors against luminescent vibriosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; De Schryver, Peter; Van Delsen, Bart; Maignien, Loïs; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2010-10-01

    The use of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was shown to be successful in increasing the resistance of brine shrimp against pathogenic infections. In this study, we isolated for the first time PHB-degrading bacteria from a gastrointestinal environment. Pure strains of PHB-degrading bacteria were isolated from Siberian sturgeon, European sea bass and giant river prawn. The capability of selected isolates to degrade PHB was confirmed in at least two of three setups: (1) growth in minimal medium containing PHB as the sole carbon (C) source, (2) production of clearing zones on minimal agar containing PHB as the sole C source and (3) degradation of PHB (as determined by HPLC analysis) in 10% Luria-Bertani medium containing PHB. Challenge tests showed that the PHB-degrading activity of the selected isolates increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged to a pathogenic Vibrio campbellii strain by a factor 2-3. Finally, one of the PHB-degrading isolates from sturgeon showed a double biocontrol effect because it was also able to inactivate acylhomoserine lactones, a type of quorum-sensing molecule that regulates the virulence of different pathogenic bacteria. Thus, the combined supplementation of a PHB-degrading bacterium and PHB as a synbioticum provides perspectives for improving the gastrointestinal health of aquatic animals.

  3. The Gastrointestinal Tract of the White-Throated Woodrat (Neotoma albigula) Harbors Distinct Consortia of Oxalate-Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Kevin D.; Dearing, M. Denise

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota inhabiting the mammalian gut is a functional organ that provides a number of services for the host. One factor that may regulate the composition and function of gut microbial communities is dietary toxins. Oxalate is a toxic plant secondary compound (PSC) produced in all major taxa of vascular plants and is consumed by a variety of animals. The mammalian herbivore Neotoma albigula is capable of consuming and degrading large quantities of dietary oxalate. We isolated and characterized oxalate-degrading bacteria from the gut contents of wild-caught animals and used high-throughput sequencing to determine the distribution of potential oxalate-degrading taxa along the gastrointestinal tract. Isolates spanned three genera: Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Enterococcus. Over half of the isolates exhibited significant oxalate degradation in vitro, and all Lactobacillus isolates contained the oxc gene, one of the genes responsible for oxalate degradation. Although diverse potential oxalate-degrading genera were distributed throughout the gastrointestinal tract, they were most concentrated in the foregut, where dietary oxalate first enters the gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesize that unique environmental conditions present in each gut region provide diverse niches that select for particular functional taxa and communities. PMID:24362432

  4. Nitazoxanide, a broad-spectrum thiazolide anti-infective agent for the treatment of gastrointestinal infections.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Andrew; Mueller, Joachim; Esposito, Marco

    2006-05-01

    Colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract by anaerobic bacteria, protozoa, trematodes, cestodes and/or nematodes and other infectious pathogens, including viruses, represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa, South America and southeast Asia, as well as other parts of the world. Nitazoxanide is a member of the thiazolide class of drugs with a documented broad spectrum of activity against parasites and anaerobic bacteria. Moreover, the drug has recently been reported to have a profound activity against hepatitis C virus infection. In addition, nitazoxanide exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, which have prompted clinical investigations for its use in Crohn's disease. Studies with nitazoxanide derivatives have determined that there must be significantly different mechanisms of action acting on intracellular versus extracellular pathogens. An impressive number of clinical studies have shown that the drug has an excellent bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract, is fast acting and highly effective against gastrointestinal bacteria, protozoa and helminthes. A recent Phase II study has demonstrated viral response (hepatitis C) to monotherapy, with a low toxicity and an excellent safety profile over 24 weeks of treatment. Pre-clinical studies have indicated that there is a potential for application of this drug against other diseases, not primarily affecting the liver or the gastrointestinal tract.

  5. N-nitrosation of medicinal drugs catalysed by bacteria from human saliva and gastro-intestinal tract, including Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Ziebarth, D; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H

    1997-02-01

    Micro-organisms commonly present in human saliva and three DSM strains (Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni and Neisseria cinerea), which can be isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract, were assayed in vitro for their capacity to catalyse N-nitrosation of a series of medicinal drugs and other compounds. Following incubation at pH 7.2 in the presence of nitrate (or nitrite) for up to 24 (48) h, the yield of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) was quantified by HPLC equipped with a post-column derivatization device, allowing the sensitive detection of acid-labile and acid-stable NOC. Eleven out of the 23 test compounds underwent bacteria-catalysed nitrosation by salivary bacteria, the yield of the respective nitrosation products varying 800-fold. 4-(Methylamino)antipyrine exhibited the highest rate of nitrosation, followed by dichlofenac > metamizole > piperazine > five other drugs, whilst L-proline and L-thioproline had the lowest nitrosation rate. Ten drugs including aminophenazone, cimetidine and nicotine, did not inhibit bacterial growth, allowing transitory nitrite to be formed, but no N-nitroso derivatives were detected. Three drugs inhibited the proliferation of bacteria and neither nitrite nor any NOC were formed. Using metamizole as an easily nitrosatable precursor, two strains, Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori, were shown to catalyse nitrosation in the presence of nitrite at pH 7.2. As compared to Neisseria cinerea used as a nitrosation-proficient control strain, H. pylori was 30-100 times less effective, whilst C. jejuni had intermediary activity. The results of our sensitive nitrosation assay further confirm that bacteria isolated from human sources, possessing nitrate reductase and/or nitrosating enzymes such as cytochrome cd1-nitrite reductase (Calmels et al., Carcinogenesis, 17, 533-536, 1996), can contribute to intragastric nitrosamine formation in the anacidic stomach when nitrosatable precursors from exogenous and endogenous sources

  6. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    PubMed

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately.

  7. Photomovements in Ciliated Protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Hans-Werner

    Ciliates are unicellular, nonphotosynthetic organisms which show a number of light-induced responses. Orientation with respect to the direction of light, phototaxis, has been demonstrated in some species of ciliates. Most of these species bear conspicuous cell organelles such as subpellicular pigment granules, a colored stigma, a watchglass organelle, or a compound crystalline organelle. Several lines of evidence suggest that these kinds of organelles are prerequisites for phototactic orientation of the cells. Photoreceptor molecules presumedly mediating the photobehavior of two species have been identified. The ecological advantage of light-induced responses in ciliated protozoa is still debated. In some cases the organisms may utilize this behavior either to approach their potential prey, to escape their predators, to escape damaging light, or to meet a mating partner. Several species of ciliates display inverse phototactic behavior at different stages of their life cycle.

  8. Effect of garlic powder on the growth of commensal bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Filocamo, Angela; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; Bisignano, Carlo; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Narbad, Arjan

    2012-06-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is considered one of the best disease-preventive foods. We evaluated in vitro the effect of a commercial garlic powder (GP), at concentrations of 0.1% and 1% (w/v), upon the viability of representative gut bacteria. In pure culture studies, Lactobacillus casei DSMZ 20011 was essentially found to be resistant to GP whereas a rapid killing effect of between 1 and 3 log CFU/ml reduction in cell numbers was observed with Bacteroides ovatus, Bifidobacterium longum DSMZ 20090 and Clostridium nexile A2-232. After 6h incubation, bacterial numbers increased steadily and once the strains became resistant they retained their resistant phenotype upon sub-culturing. A colonic model was also used to evaluate the effect of GP on a mixed bacterial population representing the microbiota of the distal colon. Lactic acid bacteria were found to be more resistant to GP compared to the clostridial members of the gut microbiota. While for most bacteria the antimicrobial effect was transient, the lactobacilli showed a degree of resistance to garlic, indicating that its consumption may favour the growth of these beneficial bacterial species in the gut. Garlic intake has the potential to temporarily modulate the gut microbiota.

  9. Selective grazing of methanotrophs by protozoa in a rice field soil.

    PubMed

    Murase, Jun; Frenzel, Peter

    2008-09-01

    Biological methane oxidation is a key process in the methane cycle of wetland ecosystems. The methanotrophic biomass may be grazed by protozoa, thus linking the methane cycle to the soil microbial food web. In the present study, the edibility of different methanotrophs for soil protozoa was compared. The number of methanotroph-feeding protozoa in a rice field soil was estimated by determining the most-probable number (MPN) using methanotrophs as food bacteria; naked amoebae and flagellates were the dominant protozoa. Among ten methanotrophic strains examined as a food source, seven yielded a number of protozoa comparable with the yield with Escherichia coli [10(4) MPN (g soil dry weight)(-1)], and three out of four Methylocystis spp. yielded significantly fewer numbers [10(2)-10(3) MPN (g soil dry weight)(-1)]. The lower edibility of the Methylocystis spp. was not explained either by their growth phase or by harmful effects on protozoa. Incubation of the soil under methane resulted in a higher number of protozoa actively grazing on methanotrophs, especially on the less-edible group. Protozoa isolated from the soil demonstrated a grazing preference on the different methanotrophs consistent with the results of MPN counts. The results indicate that selective grazing by protozoa may be a biological factor affecting the methanotrophic community in a wetland soil.

  10. Immunity in urogenital protozoa.

    PubMed

    Malla, N; Goyal, K; Dhanda, R S; Yadav, M

    2014-09-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity play a significant role in urogenital infections. Innate immunity is provided by the epithelial cells and mucus lining along with acidic pH, which forms a strong physical barrier against the pathogens in female reproductive tract. Cells of innate immune system, antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, chemokines and adaptive immunity in the reproductive tract are evolved during infection, and a pro-inflammatory response is generated to fight against the invading pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, a primary urogenital protozoa, the etiological agent of human trichomoniasis, a curable sexually transmitted infection. The involvement of the urogenital tract by other protozoal infections such as P. falciparum, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Entamoeba histolytica and Acanthamoeba infection is rarely reported. Trichomonas induce pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses in infected subjects. Multifactorial pathogenic mechanisms including parasite adherence, cysteine proteases, lipophosphoglycan, free radical, cytokine generation and Toll-like receptors appear to interplay with the induction of local and systemic immune responses that ultimately determine the outcome of the infection. However, the involvement of urogenital pathogen-specific immune mechanisms and effect of normal local resident flora on the outcome (symptomatic vs. asymptomatic) of infection are poorly understood. Moreover, immune interactions in trichomoniasis subjects co-infected with bacterial and viral pathogens need to be elucidated.

  11. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Guilherme L; Correa, Raquel F; Cunha, Raquel S; Cardoso, Alexander M; Chaia, Catia; Clementino, Maysa M; Garcia, Eloi S; de Souza, Wanderley; Frasés, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic aerobic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (MUG), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside (MUC), and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (MUX). Our results indicate that the snail A. fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes.

  12. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Guilherme L.; Correa, Raquel F.; Cunha, Raquel S.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Chaia, Catia; Clementino, Maysa M.; Garcia, Eloi S.; de Souza, Wanderley; Frasés, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic aerobic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (MUG), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside (MUC), and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (MUX). Our results indicate that the snail A. fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes. PMID:26347735

  13. Colonizing the embryonic zebrafish gut with anaerobic bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Toh, Michael C; Goodyear, Mara; Daigneault, Michelle; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Van Raay, Terence J

    2013-06-01

    The zebrafish has become increasingly popular for microbiological research. It has been used as an infection model for a variety of pathogens, and is also emerging as a tool for studying interactions between a host and its resident microbial communities. The mouse microbiota has been transplanted into the zebrafish gut, but to our knowledge, there has been no attempt to introduce a bacterial community derived from the human gut. We explored two methods for colonizing the developing gut of 5-day-old germ-free zebrafish larvae with a defined anaerobic microbial community derived from a single human fecal sample. Both environmental exposure (static immersion) and direct microinjection into the gut resulted in the establishment of two species-Lactobacillus paracasei and Eubacterium limosum-from a community of 30 strains consisting of 22 anaerobic species. Of particular interest is E. limosum, which, as a strict anaerobe, represents a group of bacteria which until now have not been shown to colonize the developing zebrafish gut. Our success here indicates that further investigation of zebrafish as a tool for studying human gut microbial communities is warranted.

  14. The Protozoa, A Kingdom By Default?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Will H.; Powell, Martha J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the concepts of kingdoms of organisms are substantial and Protozoa is loosely characterized. Presents a case explaining how Protozoa interface with other kingdoms of organisms now recognized. (Contains 55 references.) (ASK)

  15. Presence of Selected Methanogens, Fibrolytic Bacteria, and Proteobacteria in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Neonatal Dairy Calves from Birth to 72 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Cesar E.; Bereza-Malcolm, Lara T.; De Groef, Bert; Franks, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    The microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract of a young calf are essential for the anatomical and physiological development that permits a transition from milk to solid feed. Selected methanogens, fibrolytic bacteria, and proteobacteria were quantified in the rumen fluid and tissue, abomasum fluid, cecum fluid and tissue, and feces of Holstein bull calves on day 0 (0–20 mins after birth), day 1 (24 ± 1 h after birth), day 2 (48 ± 1 h after birth), and day 3 (72 ± 1 h after birth). Methanogens, fibrolytic bacteria, and Geobacter spp. were found to be already present from birth, indicating that microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract occurred before or during delivery. The abundance of methanogens and Geobacter spp. differed between the days tested and between compartments of the digestive tract and feces, but such difference was not observed for fibrolytic bacteria. Our findings suggests that methanogens might have an alternative hydrogen provider such as Geobacter spp. during these early stages of postnatal development. In addition, fibrolytic bacteria were present in the rumen well before the availability of fibrous substrates, suggesting that they might use nutrients other than cellulose and hemicellose. PMID:26186002

  16. Explore the World Using Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, O. Roger, Ed.; Druger, Marvin, Ed.

    This book is a joint publication of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the Society of Protozoologists and is the result of efforts to find a way in which protozoa research can be used to teach biology. This program puts cutting edge science into the hands of science teachers and enables students to experience a variety of…

  17. Intestinal protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in western Iran.

    PubMed

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, S; Rezaian, M; Hooshyar, H; Mowlavi, G R; Babaei, Z; Anwar, M A

    2004-10-01

    A total of 12 gastrointestinal tracts of wild boars (Sus scrofa) from western Iran (Luristan) were examined for protozoan infection between September 2000 and November 2001. Of 12 boars examined, 67% harbored one or more species of the following protozoa: Balantidium coli (25%), Tritrichomonas suis (25%), Blastocystis sp. (25%), Entamoeba polecki (17%), Entamoeba suis (8%), Iodamoeba butschlii (17%), and Chilomastix mesnili (8%). Four of these protozoan species also are reported in humans, and persons living in rural areas where wild boars are abundant should take precaution to avoid infection.

  18. Prevalence of protozoa species in drinking and environmental water sources in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Shanan, Salah; Abd, Hadi; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Protozoa are eukaryotic cells distributed worldwide in nature and are receiving increasing attention as reservoirs and potential vectors for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. In the environment, on the other hand, many genera of the protozoa are human and animal pathogens. Only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Sudan. It is necessary to establish a molecular identification of species of the protozoa from drinking and environmental water. 600 water samples were collected from five states (Gadarif, Khartoum, Kordofan, Juba, and Wad Madani) in Sudan and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. 57 out of 600 water samples were PCR positive for protozoa. 38 out of the 57 positive samples were identified by sequencing to contain 66 protozoa species including 19 (28.8%) amoebae, 17 (25.7%) Apicomplexa, 25 (37.9%) ciliates, and 5 (7.6%) flagellates. This study utilized molecular methods identified species belonging to all phyla of protozoa and presented a fast and accurate molecular detection and identification of pathogenic as well as free-living protozoa in water uncovering hazards facing public health.

  19. Effects of altered temperature and precipitation on desert protozoa associated with biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, B.J.; Housman, D.C.; Zaki, A.M.; Shamout, Y.; Adl, S.M.; Belnap, J.; Neher, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are diverse assemblages of bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, lichens, and mosses that cover much of arid land soils. The objective of this study was to quantify protozoa associated with biological soil crusts and test the response of protozoa to increased temperature and precipitation as is predicted by some global climate models. Protozoa were more abundant when associated with cyanobacteria/lichen crusts than with cyanobacteria crusts alone. Amoebae, flagellates, and ciliates originating from the Colorado Plateau desert (cool desert, primarily winter precipitation) declined 50-, 10-, and 100-fold, respectively, when moved in field mesocosms to the Chihuahuan Desert (hot desert, primarily summer rain). However, this was not observed in protozoa collected from the Chihuahuan Desert and moved to the Sonoran desert (hot desert, also summer rain, but warmer than Chihuahuan Desert). Protozoa in culture began to encyst at 37??C. Cysts survived the upper end of daily temperatures (37-55??C), and could be stimulated to excyst if temperatures were reduced to 15??C or lower. Results from this study suggest that cool desert protozoa are influenced negatively by increased summer precipitation during excessive summer temperatures, and that desert protozoa may be adapted to a specific desert's temperature and precipitation regime. ?? 2006 by the International Society of Protistologists.

  20. Niche metabolism in parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Ginger, Michael L

    2006-01-29

    Complete or partial genome sequences have recently become available for several medically and evolutionarily important parasitic protozoa. Through the application of bioinformatics complete metabolic repertoires for these parasites can be predicted. For experimentally intractable parasites insight provided by metabolic maps generated in silico has been startling. At its more extreme end, such bioinformatics reckoning facilitated the discovery in some parasites of mitochondria remodelled beyond previous recognition, and the identification of a non-photosynthetic chloroplast relic in malarial parasites. However, for experimentally tractable parasites, mapping of the general metabolic terrain is only a first step in understanding how the parasite modulates its streamlined, yet still often puzzlingly complex, metabolism in order to complete life cycles within host, vector, or environment. This review provides a comparative overview and discussion of metabolic strategies used by several different parasitic protozoa in order to subvert and survive host defences, and illustrates how genomic data contribute to the elucidation of parasite metabolism.

  1. Short communication: Latin-style fresh cheese enhances lactic acid bacteria survival but not Listeria monocytogenes resistance under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Silva, C C G; Domingos-Lopes, M F P; Magalhães, V A F; Freitas, D A S R; Coelho, M C; Rosa, H J D; Dapkevicius, M L N E

    2015-07-01

    Different studies in humans have provided evidence about the health benefits of probiotics. However, most probiotic strains do not maintain good viability in the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, Latin-style fresh cheese produced with potential probiotic bacteria was tested to evaluate this cheese type as a food carrier for the delivery of viable microorganisms after exposure to simulated GIT conditions. The resistance of 28 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains and Listeria monocytogenes upon exposure to acidic conditions (pH 2.5) and bile and pancreatic enzymes (0.3% of bile salts and 0.1% of pancreatin) was evaluated in vitro. When compared with fresh cultures, fresh cheese greatly improved LAB survival to simulated GIT conditions, as no loss of viability was observed in either acidic conditions (pH 2.5) or bile salts and pancreatin environment over a 3-h period. In opposition, L. monocytogenes did not survive after 1h under acidic conditions. These data demonstrated that Latin-style fresh cheese could play an important role in probiotic protection against gastrointestinal juices, enhancing delivery within the gut and thereby maximizing potential health benefits of LAB.

  2. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and characterization of potential probiotic strains with antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Quilodrán-Vega, Sandra Rayén; Villena, Julio; Valdebenito, José; Salas, María José; Parra, Cristian; Ruiz, Alvaro; Kitazawa, Haruki; García, Apolinaria

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are usually isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. The search of probiotics in human milk is a recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. To our knowledge, no reports regarding the potential probiotic effect of bacteria from swine milk have been published. In this work, we isolated several lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and evaluated them for them potential as probiotics. Among the isolated strains, Lactobacillus curvatus TUCO-5E showed antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens. TUCO-5E was able to reduce the growth of enterotoxigenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains as well as pathogenic salmonella. In vitro exclusion and displacement assays in intestinal epithelial cells showed a remarkable antagonistic effect for L. curvatus TUCO-5E against Salmonella sp. strain TUCO-I7 and Salmonella enterica ATCC 13096. Moreover, by using a mouse model of Salmonella infection, we were able to demonstrate that preventative administration of L. curvatus TUCO-5E for 5 consecutive days was capable of decreasing the number of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the liver and spleen of treated mice, compared with the controls, and prevented dissemination of the pathogen to the blood stream. Therefore, we have demonstrated here that swine milk is an interesting source of beneficial bacteria. In addition, the results of this work suggest that L. curvatus TUCO-5E is a good candidate to study in vivo the protective effect of probiotics against intestinal infection and damage induced by Salmonella infection in the porcine host.

  3. Encapsulation of probiotic bacteria with alginate-starch and evaluation of survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Sultana, K; Godward, G; Reynolds, N; Arumugaswamy, R; Peiris, P; Kailasapathy, K

    2000-12-05

    A modified method using calcium alginate for the microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria is reported in this study. Incorporation of Hi-Maize starch (a prebiotic) improved encapsulation of viable bacteria as compared to when the bacteria were encapsulated without the starch. Inclusion of glycerol (a cryo-protectant) with alginate mix increased the survival of bacteria when frozen at -20 degrees C. The acidification kinetics of encapsulated bacteria showed that the rate of acid produced was lower than that of free cultures. The encapsulated bacteria, however, did not demonstrate a significant increase in survival when subjected to in vitro high acid and bile salt conditions. A preliminary study was carried out in order to monitor the effects of encapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt over a period of 8 weeks. This study showed that the survival of encapsulated cultures of L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. showed a decline in viable count of about 0.5 log over a period of 8 weeks while there was a decline of about 1 log in cultures which were incorporated as free cells in yoghurt. The encapsulation method used in this study did not result in uniform bead size, and hence additional experiments need to be designed using uniform bead size in order to assess the role of different encapsulation parameters, such as bead size and alginate concentration, in providing protection to the bacteria.

  4. Testing protozoacidal activity of ligand-lytic peptides against termite gut protozoa in vitro (protozoa culture) and in vivo (microinjection into termite hindgut).

    PubMed

    Husseneder, Claudia; Sethi, Amit; Foil, Lane; Delatte, Jennifer

    2010-12-29

    We are developing a novel approach to subterranean termite control that would lead to reduced reliance on the use of chemical pesticides. Subterranean termites are dependent on protozoa in the hindguts of workers to efficiently digest wood. Lytic peptides have been shown to kill a variety of protozoan parasites (Mutwiri et al. 2000) and also protozoa in the gut of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Husseneder and Collier 2009). Lytic peptides are part of the nonspecific immune system of eukaryotes, and destroy the membranes of microorganisms (Leuschner and Hansel 2004). Most lytic peptides are not likely to harm higher eukaryotes, because they do not affect the electrically neutral cholesterol-containing cell membranes of higher eukaryotes (Javadpour et al. 1996). Lytic peptide action can be targeted to specific cell types by the addition of a ligand. For example, Hansel et al. (2007) reported that lytic peptides conjugated with cancer cell membrane receptor ligands could be used to destroy breast cancer cells, while lytic peptides alone or conjugated with non-specific peptides were not effective. Lytic peptides also have been conjugated to human hormones that bind to receptors on tumor cells for targeted destruction of prostate and testicular cancer cells (Leuschner and Hansel 2004). In this article we present techniques used to demonstrate the protozoacidal activity of a lytic peptide (Hecate) coupled to a heptapeptide ligand that binds to the surface membrane of protozoa from the gut of the Formosan subterranean termite. These techniques include extirpation of the gut from termite workers, anaerobic culture of gut protozoa (Pseudotrichonympha grassii, Holomastigotoides hartmanni,Spirotrichonympha leidyi), microscopic confirmation that the ligand marked with a fluorescent dye binds to the termite gut protozoa and other free-living protozoa but not to bacteria or gut tissue. We also demonstrate that the same ligand coupled to a lytic

  5. Bacteria within the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota Correlated with Improved Growth and Feed Conversion: Challenges Presented for the Identification of Performance Enhancing Probiotic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Dragana; Hughes, Robert J; Geier, Mark S; Moore, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Identification of bacteria associated with desirable productivity outcomes in animals may offer a direct approach to the identification of probiotic bacteria for use in animal production. We performed three controlled chicken trials (n = 96) to investigate caecal microbiota differences between the best and poorest performing birds using four performance measures; feed conversion ratio (FCR), utilization of energy from the feed measured as apparent metabolisable energy, gain rate (GR), and amount of feed eaten (FE). The shifts in microbiota composition associated with the performance measures were very different between the three trials. Analysis of the caecal microbiota revealed that the high and low FCR birds had significant differences in the abundance of some bacteria as demonstrated by shifts in microbiota alpha and beta diversity. Trials 1 and 2 showed significant overall community shifts, however, the microbial changes driving the difference between good and poor performers were very different. Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae families and genera Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium and multiple lineages of genus Clostridium (from families Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae) were highly abundant in good FCR birds in Trial 1. Different microbiota was associated with FCR in Trial 2; Catabacteriaceae and unknown Clostridiales family members were increased in good FCR and genera Clostridium (from family Clostridiaceae) and Lactobacillus were associated with poor FCR. Trial 3 had only mild microbiota differences associated with all four performance measures. Overall, the genus Lactobacillus was correlated with feed intake which resulted in poor FCR performance. The genus Faecalibacterium correlated with improved FCR, increased GR and reduced FE. There was overlap in phylotypes correlated with improved FCR and GR, while different microbial cohorts appeared to be correlated with FE. Even under controlled conditions different

  6. Bacteria within the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota Correlated with Improved Growth and Feed Conversion: Challenges Presented for the Identification of Performance Enhancing Probiotic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Dragana; Hughes, Robert J.; Geier, Mark S.; Moore, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of bacteria associated with desirable productivity outcomes in animals may offer a direct approach to the identification of probiotic bacteria for use in animal production. We performed three controlled chicken trials (n = 96) to investigate caecal microbiota differences between the best and poorest performing birds using four performance measures; feed conversion ratio (FCR), utilization of energy from the feed measured as apparent metabolisable energy, gain rate (GR), and amount of feed eaten (FE). The shifts in microbiota composition associated with the performance measures were very different between the three trials. Analysis of the caecal microbiota revealed that the high and low FCR birds had significant differences in the abundance of some bacteria as demonstrated by shifts in microbiota alpha and beta diversity. Trials 1 and 2 showed significant overall community shifts, however, the microbial changes driving the difference between good and poor performers were very different. Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae families and genera Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium and multiple lineages of genus Clostridium (from families Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae) were highly abundant in good FCR birds in Trial 1. Different microbiota was associated with FCR in Trial 2; Catabacteriaceae and unknown Clostridiales family members were increased in good FCR and genera Clostridium (from family Clostridiaceae) and Lactobacillus were associated with poor FCR. Trial 3 had only mild microbiota differences associated with all four performance measures. Overall, the genus Lactobacillus was correlated with feed intake which resulted in poor FCR performance. The genus Faecalibacterium correlated with improved FCR, increased GR and reduced FE. There was overlap in phylotypes correlated with improved FCR and GR, while different microbial cohorts appeared to be correlated with FE. Even under controlled conditions different

  7. August Weismann embraces the protozoa.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Frederick B

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the contents and institutional context of August Weismann's long essay on Amphimixis (1891). Therein he presented detailed discussions of his on-going studies of reduction division and parthenogenesis, but more to the point, he included an elaborate examination of Émile Maupas's two major publications in protozoology. To understand the relevance of this part to the other two, the author briefly reviews highpoints in earlier nineteenth century protozoology and concludes that only in the mid-1870s and 1880s did protozoa add an important dimension to heredity theory. Otto Bütschli and then Maupas provided Weismann with a deeper understanding of how conjugation and fertilization were related but not identical processes. This allowed him to integrate the two into a fuller understanding of evolution by natural selection.

  8. Not plants or animals: a brief history of the origin of Kingdoms Protozoa, Protista and Protoctista.

    PubMed

    Scamardella, J M

    1999-12-01

    In the wake of Darwin's evolutionary ideas, mid-nineteenth century naturalists realized the shortcomings of the long established two-kingdom system of organismal classification. Placement in a natural scheme of Protozoa, Protophyta, Phytozoa and Bacteria, microorganisms that exhibited plant-like and animal-like characteristics but obviously differed in organization from larger plants and animals, challenged traditional classification. The attempts of naturalists to classify these organisms outside the constraints of the plant and animal kingdoms led to concepts of additional kingdoms (Protozoa, Protista, Protoctista, etc.) to accommodate the nature of these organisms as not true plants or animals.

  9. Identification of Protozoa in Dairy Lagoon Wastewater that Consume Escherichia coli O157:H7 Preferentially

    PubMed Central

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157), an agent of life threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome, resides in ruminants and is released in feces at numbers as high as 10 million cells/gram. EcO157 could survive in manure for as long as 21 months, but we observed a 90% decrease in cells of an outbreak strain of EcO157 within half a day in wastewater from dairy lagoons. Although chemical, environmental and biological factors may be responsible for this decrease, we observed an 11-fold increase in native protozoa when wastewater was re-inoculated with 2×107 cells of EcO157/mL. These protozoa engulfed the green fluorescent protein labeled EcO157 within 2 hours after inoculation, but expelled vacuoles filled with live EcO157 cells within 3 days into surrounding wastewater, whereas other protozoa retained the EcO157-filled vacuoles for 7 days. EcO157 was not detected by confocal microscopy either inside or outside protozoa after 7 days. Mixed cultures of protozoa enriched from wastewater consumed EcO157 preferentially as compared to native aerobic bacteria, but failed to eliminate them when EcO157 cells declined to 104/mL. We isolated three protozoa from mixed cultures and typed them by 18S sequencing as Vorticella microstoma, Platyophyra sp. and Colpoda aspera. While all three protozoa internalized EcO157, only Platyophyra and Colpoda acted as predators. Similar to mixed cultures, these protozoa failed to eliminate EcO157 from PBS containing no other supplemental nutrients or prey. However, spiking PBS with cereal grass medium as nutrients induced predation of EcO157 by Platyophyra sp. after 3 days or enhanced predation by Colpoda after 5 days. Therefore, attempts to enrich protozoa to decrease EcO157 from dairy lagoons, may correspond to an increase in protozoa similar to Vorticella and possibly facilitate transport of bacterial pathogens to food crops grown in proximity. PMID:21187934

  10. Identification of protozoa in dairy lagoon wastewater that consume Escherichia coli O157:H7 preferentially.

    PubMed

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Sarreal, Chester Z; Mandrell, Robert E

    2010-12-20

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157), an agent of life threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome, resides in ruminants and is released in feces at numbers as high as 10 million cells/gram. EcO157 could survive in manure for as long as 21 months, but we observed a 90% decrease in cells of an outbreak strain of EcO157 within half a day in wastewater from dairy lagoons. Although chemical, environmental and biological factors may be responsible for this decrease, we observed an 11-fold increase in native protozoa when wastewater was re-inoculated with 2×10(7) cells of EcO157/mL. These protozoa engulfed the green fluorescent protein labeled EcO157 within 2 hours after inoculation, but expelled vacuoles filled with live EcO157 cells within 3 days into surrounding wastewater, whereas other protozoa retained the EcO157-filled vacuoles for 7 days. EcO157 was not detected by confocal microscopy either inside or outside protozoa after 7 days. Mixed cultures of protozoa enriched from wastewater consumed EcO157 preferentially as compared to native aerobic bacteria, but failed to eliminate them when EcO157 cells declined to 10(4)/mL. We isolated three protozoa from mixed cultures and typed them by 18S sequencing as Vorticella microstoma, Platyophyra sp. and Colpoda aspera. While all three protozoa internalized EcO157, only Platyophyra and Colpoda acted as predators. Similar to mixed cultures, these protozoa failed to eliminate EcO157 from PBS containing no other supplemental nutrients or prey. However, spiking PBS with cereal grass medium as nutrients induced predation of EcO157 by Platyophyra sp. after 3 days or enhanced predation by Colpoda after 5 days. Therefore, attempts to enrich protozoa to decrease EcO157 from dairy lagoons, may correspond to an increase in protozoa similar to Vorticella and possibly facilitate transport of bacterial pathogens to food crops grown in proximity.

  11. Protein trafficking in kinetoplastid protozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, C; Häusler, T; Blattner, J

    1995-01-01

    The kinetoplastid protozoa infect hosts ranging from invertebrates to plants and mammals, causing diseases of medical and economic importance. They are the earliest-branching organisms in eucaryotic evolution to have either mitochondria or peroxisome-like microbodies. Investigation of their protein trafficking enables us to identify characteristics that have been conserved throughout eucaryotic evolution and also reveals how far variations, or alternative mechanisms, are possible. Protein trafficking in kinetoplastids is in many respects similar to that in higher eucaryotes, including mammals and yeasts. Differences in signal sequence specificities exist, however, for all subcellular locations so far examined in detail--microbodies, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum--with signals being more degenerate, or shorter, than those of their higher eucaryotic counterparts. Some components of the normal array of trafficking mechanisms may be missing in most (if not all) kinetoplastids: examples are clathrin-coated vesicles, recycling receptors, and mannose 6-phosphate-mediated lysosomal targeting. Other aspects and structures are unique to the kinetoplastids or are as yet unexplained. Some of these peculiarities may eventually prove to be weak points that can be used as targets for chemotherapy; others may turn out to be much more widespread than currently suspected. PMID:7565409

  12. Amoebae and other protozoa in material samples from moisture-damaged buildings.

    PubMed

    Yli-Pirilä, Terhi; Kusnetsov, Jaana; Haatainen, Susanna; Hänninen, Marja; Jalava, Pasi; Reiman, Marjut; Seuri, Markku; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Nevalainen, Aino

    2004-11-01

    Mold growth in buildings has been shown to be associated with adverse health effects. The fungal and bacterial growth on moistened building materials has been studied, but little attention has been paid to the other organisms spawning in the damaged materials. We examined moist building materials for protozoa, concentrating on amoebae. Material samples (n = 124) from moisture-damaged buildings were analyzed for amoebae, fungi, and bacteria. Amoebae were detected in 22% of the samples, and they were found to favor cooccurrence with bacteria and the fungi Acremonium spp., Aspergillus versicolor, Chaetomium spp., and Trichoderma spp. In addition, 11 seriously damaged samples were screened for other protozoa. Ciliates and flagellates were found in almost every sample analyzed. Amoebae are known to host pathogenic bacteria, such as chlamydiae, legionellae, and mycobacteria and they may have a role in the complex of exposure that contributes to the health effects associated with moisture damage in buildings.

  13. Changing Dietary Calcium-Phosphorus Level and Cereal Source Selectively Alters Abundance of Bacteria and Metabolites in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tracts of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Evelyne; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Wagner, Martin; Ritzmann, Mathias; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-01-01

    Several dietary ingredients may affect the bacterial community structure and metabolism in the porcine gut and may therefore influence animals' health and performance. This study investigated the effects of cereal source and calcium-phosphorus (CaP) level in the diet on bacterial microbiota and metabolites, nutrient intake, and gut environment in weaned pigs. Pigs (n = 8/treatment) were fed wheat-barley- or corn-based diets with an adequate or high CaP level for 14 days. Effects on microbiota in the stomach, ileum, and midcolon were assessed using quantitative PCR. Data showed that Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter spp., and Helicobacter spp., which all contain highly immune reactive lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were abundant at all gut sites. Diet effects on bacteria and metabolites were moderate and occurred mainly in the upper gut, whereas no effects on bacteria, fermentation products, and LPS could be observed in the colon. Differences in carbohydrate intake with corn versus wheat-barley diets selectively stimulated Bifidobacterium in the stomach and ileum. There was a growth advantage for a few bacterial groups in the stomach and ileum of pigs fed the high versus adequate CaP level (i.e., gastric Enterobacteriaceae and ileal Enterococcus, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas, and Campylobacter). Interestingly, gastrointestinal pH was not affected by dietary CaP level. The present findings demonstrate the stability of the bacterial community and gut environment toward dietary changes even in young pigs. The results on stimulation of gastric and ileal Bifidobacterium by corn diets may be employed in nutritional strategies to support gut health after weaning. PMID:24038702

  14. Extensive T-Cell Epitope Repertoire Sharing among Human Proteome, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, and Pathogenic Bacteria: Implications for the Definition of Self.

    PubMed

    Bremel, Robert D; Homan, E Jane

    2015-01-01

    T-cell receptor binding to MHC-bound peptides plays a key role in discrimination between self and non-self. Only a subset, typically a pentamer, of amino acids in a MHC-bound peptide form the motif exposed to the T-cell receptor. We categorize and compare the T-cell exposed amino acid motif repertoire of the total proteomes of two groups of bacteria, comprising pathogens and gastrointestinal microbiome organisms, with the human proteome and immunoglobulins. Given the maximum 20(5), or 3.2 million of such motifs that bind T-cell receptors, there is considerable overlap in motif usage. We show that the human proteome, exclusive of immunoglobulins, only comprises three quarters of the possible motifs, of which 65.3% are also present in both composite bacterial proteomes. Very few motifs are unique to the human proteome. Immunoglobulin variable regions carry a broad diversity of T-cell exposed motifs (TCEMs) that provides a stratified random sample of the motifs found in pathogens, microbiome, and the human proteome. Individual bacterial genera and species vary in the content of immunoglobulin and human proteome matched motifs that they carry. Mycobacteria and Burkholderia spp carry a particularly high content of such matched motifs. Some bacteria retain a unique motif signature and motif sharing pattern with the human proteome. The implication is that distinguishing self from non-self does not depend on individual TCEMs, but on a complex and dynamic overlay of signals wherein the same TCEM may play different roles in different organisms, and the frequency with which a particular TCEM appears influences its effect. The patterns observed provide clues to bacterial immune evasion and to strategies for intervention, including vaccine design. The breadth and distinct frequency patterns of the immunoglobulin-derived peptides suggest a role of immunoglobulins in maintaining a broadly responsive T-cell repertoire.

  15. Blood protozoa of imported birds.

    PubMed

    Manwell, R D; Rossi, G S

    1975-02-01

    Large numbers of birds, until recently, were brought into the United States each year. Countries of origin were varied, and included those of Australasia, Africa, South America, and the Caribbean islands, as well as other places. With them of course come their parasites, some of which may be potential pathogens to domestic avifauna. In part for this reason, a survey was undertaken of blood parasites of birds from pet shops and importers. So far a total of 1234 birds belonging to 186 species has been examined. Several new species and subspecies of avian Plasmodium have been found in the course of this study, including P. octamerium Manwell, 1968 in a Pintail Whydah, Vidua macoura, from Africa; P paranucleophilum Manwell & Sessler, 1971 in a South American tanager, Tachyphonus sp; and P. nucleophilum toucani Manwell & Sessler 1971 in a Swainson's Toucan, Ramphastos s. swainsonii. Plasmodium huffi Muniz, Soares & Battista is undoubtedly a synonym pro parte for the last. Plasmodium tenue Laveran & Maruliaz, long thought to be a synonym of Plasmodium vaughani Novy & MacNeal, was rediscovered and found to be a valid species. Plasmodium nucleophilum, infrequently seen in the New World, occurred in many Asian and African birds, and especially in starlings. Infections with other species of Plasmodium were common. Haemoproteus was the commonest blood parasite; Leucocytozoon was very rare as was Atoxoplasma (Lankesterella). The 2 families of birds best represented were the Fringillidae and the Psittacidae, but no blood parasites were seen in the latter. It is clear that imported birds are often infected with blood protozoa, some of which are unknown from native birds.

  16. Putative bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa in immunosuppressed patients.

    PubMed

    Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Girginkardesler, Nogay; Celik, Pınar; Yereli, Kor; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be "flagellated protozoa" have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these putative protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells.

  17. Regulation of Gene Expression in Protozoa Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Consuelo; Esther Ramirez, M.; Calixto-Galvez, Mercedes; Medel, Olivia; Rodríguez, Mario A.

    2010-01-01

    Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. PMID:20204171

  18. Mobility of protozoa through narrow channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shor, Leslie M; LeBoeuf, Eugene J; Wikswo, John P; Kosson, David S

    2005-08-01

    Microbes in the environment are profoundly affected by chemical and physical heterogeneities occurring on a spatial scale of millimeters to micrometers. Physical refuges are critical for maintaining stable bacterial populations in the presence of high predation pressure by protozoa. The effects of microscale heterogeneity, however, are difficult to replicate and observe using conventional experimental techniques. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of spatial constraints on the mobility of six species of marine protozoa. Microfluidic devices were created with small channels similar in size to pore spaces in soil or sediment systems. Individuals from each species of protozoa tested were able to rapidly discover and move within these channels. The time required for locating the channel entrance from the source well increased with protozoan size and decreased with channel height. Protozoa of every species were able to pass constrictions with dimensions equal to or smaller than the individual's unconstrained cross-sectional area. Channel geometry was also an important factor affecting protozoan mobility. Linear rates of motion for various species of protozoa varied by channel size. In relatively wide channels, typical rates of motion were 300 to 500 microm s(-1) (or about 1 m per hour). As the channel dimensions decreased, however, motilities slowed more than an order of magnitude to 20 microm s(-1). Protozoa were consistently observed to exhibit several strategies for successfully traversing channel reductions. The empirical results and qualitative observations resulting from this research help define the physical limitations on protozoan grazing, a critical process affecting microbes in the environment.

  19. Protozoa enhance foraging efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for mineral nitrogen from organic matter in soil to the benefit of host plants.

    PubMed

    Koller, Robert; Rodriguez, Alia; Robin, Christophe; Scheu, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Dead organic matter (OM) is a major source of nitrogen (N) for plants. The majority of plants support N uptake by symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Mineralization of N is regulated by microfauna, in particular, protozoa grazing on bacteria. We hypothesized that AM fungi and protozoa interactively facilitate plant N nutrition from OM. In soil systems consisting of an OM patch and a root compartment, plant N uptake and consequences for plant carbon (C) allocation were investigated using stable isotopes. Protozoa mobilized N by consuming bacteria, and the mobilized N was translocated via AM fungi to the host plant. The presence of protozoa in both the OM and root compartment stimulated photosynthesis and the translocation of C from the host plant via AM fungi into the OM patch. This stimulated microbial activity in the OM patch, plant N uptake from OM and doubled plant growth. The results indicate that protozoa increase plant growth by both mobilization of N from OM and by protozoa-root interactions, resulting in increased C allocation to roots and into the rhizosphere, thereby increasing plant nutrient exploitation. Hence, mycorrhizal plants need to interact with protozoa to fully exploit N resources from OM.

  20. [Inhibition of carbohydrate metabilsm enzymes by pentachlorophenol in cells of pectinolytic bacteria from gastrointestinal tract of animals and effect of clinoptilolite adsorbents on this process].

    PubMed

    Kalachniuk, L H; Rusnak, N I; Kalachniuk, H I; Marounek, M; Savka, O H; Mel'nychuk, D O

    2006-01-01

    Changes in functional activity of specific enzyme reactions in the cells of pectinolytic bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of animals in vitro cultivated in the medium containing pectin or glucose were studied against a background of the low dose effect of the wide spread biocide pentachlorophenol alone as well as in combination with the natural sorbents clinoptilolites. Regardless of the absence of transketolase reaction in the cells of all studied strains, they metabolized highly the above substrates that are dissimilar in chemical structure and produced different products of their degradation. It has been shown that the high metabolic level in the cells is provided by the function of the unique enzymatic reaction catalyzed by 2-keto-3-desoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.14) that permits to use effectively the metabolic pathway of Entner-Doudoroff. Cells could also utilize the same substrates via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, therefore they possess the other key reaction that is catalyzed by fructosobiphosphate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.13). Even a low dose of PCP (20 microM) decreased sharply activity of the mentioned key enzymes and intermediates' production in the cells of the studied strains with the use of both substrates. However, presence of clinoptilolites in the medium reduced significantly the biocide inhibition effect. Furthermore, in the medium with glucose, protection of intracellular metabolism with the help of sorbents was registered more clearly than with pectin. This can evidence for more mobile and simpler possibilities of accelerated production of necessary intermediates from glucose that are capable to induce activation of the key enzymatic reactions in cells utilizing selectively the substrates (which are different in accessibility and other characteristics) under the toxic agent effect.

  1. Putative Bronchopulmonary Flagellated Protozoa in Immunosuppressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Çelik, Pınar; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be “flagellated protozoa” have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these putative protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells. PMID:24804259

  2. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out.

  3. Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    1993-01-01

    The demarcation of protist kingdoms is reviewed, a complete revised classification down to the level of subclass is provided for the kingdoms Protozoa, Archezoa, and Chromista, and the phylogenetic basis of the revised classification is outlined. Removal of Archezoa because of their ancestral absence of mitochondria, peroxisomes, and Golgi dictyosomes makes the kingdom Protozoa much more homogeneous: they all either have mitochondria and peroxisomes or have secondarily lost them. Predominantly phagotrophic, Protozoa are distinguished from the mainly photosynthetic kingdom Chromista (Chlorarachniophyta, Cryptista, Heterokonta, and Haptophyta) by the absence of epiciliary retronemes (rigid thrust-reversing tubular ciliary hairs) and by the lack of two additional membranes outside their chloroplast envelopes. The kingdom Protozoa has two subkingdoms: Adictyozoa, without Golgi dictyosomes, containing only the phylum Percolozoa (flagellates and amoeboflagellates); and Dictyozoa, made up of 17 phyla with Golgi dictyosomes. Dictyozoa are divided into two branches: (i) Parabasalia, a single phylum with hydrogenosomes and 70S ribosomes but no mitochondria, Golgi dictyosomes associated with striated roots, and a kinetid of four or five cilia; and (ii) Bikonta (16 unicellular or plasmodial phyla with mitochondria and bikinetids and in which Golgi dictyosomes are not associated with striated ciliary roots), which are divided into two infrakingdoms: Euglenozoa (flagellates with discoid mitochondrial cristae and trans-splicing of miniexons for all nuclear genes) and Neozoa (15 phyla of more advanced protozoa with tubular or flat [usually nondiscoid] mitochondrial cristae and cis-spliced spliceosomal introns). Neozoa are divided into seven parvkingdoms: (i) Ciliomyxa (three predominantly ciliated phyla with tubular mitochondrial cristae but no cortical alveoli, i.e., Opalozoa [flagellates with tubular cristae], Mycetozoa [slime molds], and Choanozoa [choanoflagellates, with

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis: the effects of fermented milk with Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-2494 and lactic acid bacteria on gastrointestinal discomfort in the general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Eales, Jacqui; Gibson, Peter; Whorwell, Peter; Kellow, John; Yellowlees, Ann; Perry, Richard H. J.; Edwards, Mary; King, Sarah; Wood, Hannah; Glanville, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that probiotics may improve gastrointestinal discomfort. Not all probiotics exhibit the same effects and consequently meta-analyses on probiotics should be confined to well-defined strains or strain combinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a probiotic fermented milk (PFM) that includes Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) CNCM I-2494 and lactic acid bacteria on gastrointestinal discomfort in the general adult population. Methods: Double-blind randomized controlled trials in the general adult population comparing PFM with a control dairy product for at least 4 weeks were searched from multiple literature databases (up to February 2015). Meta-analyses using random-effects models, with individual participant data were undertaken to calculate an odds ratio (OR) or standard mean difference (SMD), with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The search strategy identified 12,439 documents. Overall, three trials with a total of 598 adults (female = 96.5%) met the inclusion criteria. Consumption of the PFM product was associated with a significant improvement in overall gastrointestinal discomfort compared with the control product (OR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.07–2.05), with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 10.24 (95% CI 5.64–55.93). PFM was also superior to the control in reducing digestive symptoms, as measured using a composite score (SMD = −0.21; 95% CI −0.37 to −0.05). Sensitivity analyses produced similar results, and the heterogeneity between studies was minimal. Conclusions: This meta-analysis shows that the consumption of PFM with B. lactis CNCM I-2494 and lactic acid bacteria is associated with a modest but consistent and significant improvement of outcomes related to gastrointestinal discomfort in healthy adults. PMID:28286561

  5. Understanding drug resistance in human intestinal protozoa.

    PubMed

    El-Taweel, Hend Aly

    2015-05-01

    Infections with intestinal protozoa continue to be a major health problem in many areas of the world. The widespread use of a limited number of therapeutic agents for their management and control raises concerns about development of drug resistance. Generally, the use of any antimicrobial agent should be accompanied by meticulous monitoring of its efficacy and measures to minimize resistance formation. Evidence for the occurrence of drug resistance in different intestinal protozoa comes from case studies and clinical trials, sometimes with a limited number of patients. Large-scale field-based assessment of drug resistance and drug sensitivity testing of clinical isolates are needed. Furthermore, the association of drug resistance with certain geographic isolates or genotypes deserves consideration. Drug resistance has been triggered in vitro and has been linked to modification of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, nitroreductases, antioxidant defense, or cytoskeletal system. Further mechanistic studies will have important implications in the development of second generation therapeutic agents.

  6. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Charles J; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described.

  7. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Charles J.; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described. PMID:26635774

  8. Structural genomics of pathogenic protozoa: an overview.

    PubMed

    Fan, Erkang; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Gelb, Michael H; Buckner, Frederick S; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Phizicky, Eric; Dumont, Mark; Mehlin, Christopher; Grayhack, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Mark; Verlinde, Christophe; Detitta, George; Meldrum, Deirdre R; Merritt, Ethan A; Earnest, Thomas; Soltis, Michael; Zucker, Frank; Myler, Peter J; Schoenfeld, Lori; Kim, David; Worthey, Liz; Lacount, Doug; Vignali, Marissa; Li, Jizhen; Mondal, Somnath; Massey, Archna; Carroll, Brian; Gulde, Stacey; Luft, Joseph; Desoto, Larry; Holl, Mark; Caruthers, Jonathan; Bosch, Jürgen; Robien, Mark; Arakaki, Tracy; Holmes, Margaret; Le Trong, Isolde; Hol, Wim G J

    2008-01-01

    The Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa (SGPP) Consortium aimed to determine crystal structures of proteins from trypanosomatid and malaria parasites in a high throughput manner. The pipeline of target selection, protein production, crystallization, and structure determination, is sketched. Special emphasis is given to a number of technology developments including domain prediction, the use of "co-crystallants," and capillary crystallization. "Fragment cocktail crystallography" for medical structural genomics is also described.

  9. Pollution tolerant protozoa in polluted wetland.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Di; Chen, Ying; Wang, Li; Yao, Lin; Pan, Xu-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2017-02-16

    This study for the first time confirmed that eight dominating protozoan species, Cryptomonas erosa, Euglena axyuris, Euglena caudate, Euglena gasterosteus, Euglena acus, Vorticella campanula, Vorticella convallaria and Epistylis lacustris, were the pollution tolerant species at chemical oxygen demand 54-104mg/L. These species cannot be used as indicator for clean water quality as commonly believed. The protozoa can be actively participating in the energy transfer chain between nano-planktonic and higher plants in polluted wetlands.

  10. Drug Targets and Mechanisms of Resistance in the Anaerobic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.

    2001-01-01

    been investigated using laboratory-induced resistant isolates. Instead of downregulation of the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and ferredoxin pathway as seen in G. duodenalis and T. vaginalis, E. histolytica induces oxidative stress mechanisms, including superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin. The review examines the value of investigating both clinical and laboratory-induced syngeneic drug-resistant isolates and dissection of the complementary data obtained. Comparison of resistance mechanisms in anaerobic bacteria and the parasitic protozoa is discussed as well as the value of studies of the epidemiology of resistance. PMID:11148007

  11. Clinical Significance of Enteric Protozoa in the Immunosuppressed Human Population

    PubMed Central

    Stark, D.; Barratt, J. L. N.; van Hal, S.; Marriott, D.; Harkness, J.; Ellis, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Globally, the number of immunosuppressed people increases each year, with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic continuing to spread unabated in many parts of the world. Immunosuppression may also occur in malnourished persons, patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignancy, and those receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Components of the immune system can be functionally or genetically abnormal as a result of acquired (e.g., caused by HIV infection, lymphoma, or high-dose steroids or other immunosuppressive medications) or congenital illnesses, with more than 120 congenital immunodeficiencies described to date that either affect humoral immunity or compromise T-cell function. All individuals affected by immunosuppression are at risk of infection by opportunistic parasites (such as the microsporidia) as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease (such as Giardia). The outcome of infection by enteric protozoan parasites is dependent on absolute CD4+ cell counts, with lower counts being associated with more severe disease, more atypical disease, and a greater risk of disseminated disease. This review summarizes our current state of knowledge on the significance of enteric parasitic protozoa as a cause of disease in immunosuppressed persons and also provides guidance on recent advances in diagnosis and therapy for the control of these important parasites. PMID:19822892

  12. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa.

    PubMed

    Booyse, Dirk; Dehority, Burk A

    2011-07-15

    Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species occur in domestic sheep globally.

  13. Study of the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on rumen fermentation and microbial protein contribution to the chyme.

    PubMed

    Belanche, A; Abecia, L; Holtrop, G; Guada, J A; Castrillo, C; de la Fuente, G; Balcells, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on rumen fermentation and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis under different diets. Of 20 twin paired lambs, 1 lamb of each pair was isolated from the ewe within 24 h after birth and reared in a protozoa-free environment (n = 10), whereas their respective twin-siblings remained with the ewe (faunated, n = 10). When lambs reached 6 mo of age, 5 animals of each group were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 experimental diets consisting of either alfalfa hay as the sole diet, or 50:50 mixed with ground barley grain according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. After 15 d of adaptation to the diet, the animals were euthanized and total rumen and abomasal contents were sampled to estimate rumen microbial synthesis using C(31) alkane as flow marker. Different ((15)N and purine bases) and a novel (recombinant DNA sequences) microbial markers, combined with several microbial reference extracts (rumen protozoa, liquid and solid associated bacteria) were evaluated. Absence of rumen protozoa modified the rumen fermentation pattern and decreased total tract OM and NDF digestibility in 2.0 and 5.1 percentage points, respectively. The effect of defaunation on microbial N flow was weak, however, and was dependent on the microbial marker and microbial reference extract considered. Faunated lambs fed with mixed diet showed the greatest rumen protozoal concentration and the least efficient microbial protein synthesis (29% less than the other treatments), whereas protozoa-free lambs fed with mixed diet presented the smallest ammonia concentration and 34% greater efficiency of N utilization than the other treatments. Although (15)N gave the most precise estimates of microbial synthesis, the use of recombinant DNA sequences represents an alternative that allows separate quantification of the bacteria and protozoa contributions. This marker showed that presence of protozoa decrease the

  14. Effect of protozoan predation on relative abundance of fast- and slow-growing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, J.L.; Alexander, M.

    1989-01-01

    Survival of six bacterial species with different growth rates was tested in raw sewage and sewage rendered free of protozoa. When the six species were inoculated at the same densities into sewage containing protozoa, the three slow-growing species were rapidly eliminated, and two of the three fast-growing species survived in detectable numbers. It is suggested that in environments with intense protozoan predation, protozoa may alter composition of bacterial communities by eliminating slow-growing bacteria.

  15. Ultrastructure of cyst differentiation in parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; González-Lázaro, Mónica; González-Robles, Arturo; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto; Bonilla, Patricia; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2007-05-01

    Cysts represent a phase in the life cycle of biphasic parasitic protozoa that allow them to survive under adverse environmental conditions. Two events are required for the morphological differentiation from trophozoite to cyst and from cyst to trophozoite: the encystation and excystation processes. In this paper, we present a review of the ultrastructure of the encystation and excystation processes in Entamoeba invadens, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and Giardia lamblia. The comparative electron microscopical observations of these events here reported provide a morphological background to better understand recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of the differentiation phenomena in these microorganisms.

  16. [Protozoa and protozoan infections of humans in Central Europe].

    PubMed

    Walochnik, Julia; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    This article is a condensed review of the medically relevant protozoa in Central Europe and the infections and diseases caused by them. Information is given on modes and sources of infection, organs involved in the disease, prevalence, diagnostics, therapy, and prophylaxis. Moreover, travel-associated infections with protozoa are briefly outlined.

  17. Detection of Intestinal Protozoa in the Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    McHardy, Ian H.; Wu, Max; Shimizu-Cohen, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in diagnostic technology, microscopic examination of stool specimens remains central to the diagnosis of most pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Microscopy is, however, labor-intensive and requires a skilled technologist. New, highly sensitive diagnostic methods have been developed for protozoa endemic to developed countries, including Giardia lamblia (syn. G. intestinalis/G. duodenalis) and Cryptosporidium spp., using technologies that, if expanded, could effectively complement or even replace microscopic approaches. To date, the scope of such novel technologies is limited and may not include common protozoa such as Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, or Cyclospora cayetanensis. This minireview describes canonical approaches for the detection of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while highlighting recent developments and FDA-approved tools for clinical diagnosis of common intestinal protozoa. PMID:24197877

  18. Detection of intestinal protozoa in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    McHardy, Ian H; Wu, Max; Shimizu-Cohen, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger; Humphries, Romney M

    2014-03-01

    Despite recent advances in diagnostic technology, microscopic examination of stool specimens remains central to the diagnosis of most pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Microscopy is, however, labor-intensive and requires a skilled technologist. New, highly sensitive diagnostic methods have been developed for protozoa endemic to developed countries, including Giardia lamblia (syn. G. intestinalis/G. duodenalis) and Cryptosporidium spp., using technologies that, if expanded, could effectively complement or even replace microscopic approaches. To date, the scope of such novel technologies is limited and may not include common protozoa such as Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, or Cyclospora cayetanensis. This minireview describes canonical approaches for the detection of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while highlighting recent developments and FDA-approved tools for clinical diagnosis of common intestinal protozoa.

  19. Asymptomatic Effluent Protozoa Colonization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated.

  20. Anaerobic protozoa and their growth in biomethanation systems.

    PubMed

    Priya, M; Haridas, Ajit; Manilal, V B

    2008-04-01

    This study was to investigate growth of protozoa and its influence on biodegradation in anaerobic treatment systems. It was done by specifically controlling and monitoring growth of protozoa versus degradation in continuous stirred anaerobic reactors and batch anaerobic reactors. Occurrence of a diverse protozoa population such as the ciliates, Prorodon, Vorticella, Cyclidium, Spathidium, Loxodes, Metopus were observed in stable anaerobic systems and the flagellates, Rhynchomonas, Naeglaria, Amoeboflagellates, Tetramitus, Trepomonas and Bodo during increased VFA concentration and affected periods of biomethanation. The abundance of ciliates in the anaerobic system had significant correlation with the reduction of MLSS, increased rate of COD removal and higher methane production. The results of this study thus tend to relate increased anaerobic degradation with the abundance of protozoa, mainly ciliates, which indicate their possible involvement in the process. Present study also reveals that performance of anaerobic process can be assessed by monitoring the protozoa population in the system.

  1. Natural cysteine protease inhibitors in protozoa: Fifteen years of the chagasin family.

    PubMed

    Costa, Tatiana F R; Lima, Ana Paula C A

    2016-03-01

    Chagasin-type inhibitors comprise natural inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteases that are distributed among Protist, Bacteria and Archaea. Chagasin was identified in the pathogenic protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi as an approximately 11 kDa protein that is a tight-binding and highly thermostable inhibitor of papain, cysteine cathepsins and endogenous parasite cysteine proteases. It displays an Imunoglobulin-like fold with three exposed loops to one side of the molecule, where amino acid residues present in conserved motifs at the tips of each loop contact target proteases. Differently from cystatins, the loop 2 of chagasin enters the active-site cleft, making direct contact with the catalytic residues, while loops 4 and 6 embrace the enzyme from the sides. Orthologues of chagasin are named Inhibitors of Cysteine Peptidases (ICP), and share conserved overall tri-dimensional structure and mode of binding to proteases. ICPs are tentatively distributed in three families: in family I42 are grouped chagasin-type inhibitors that share conserved residues at the exposed loops; family I71 contains Plasmodium ICPs, which are large proteins having a chagasin-like domain at the C-terminus, with lower similarity to chagasin in the conserved motif at loop 2; family I81 contains Toxoplasma ICP. Recombinant ICPs tested so far can inactivate protozoa cathepsin-like proteases and their mammalian counterparts. Studies on their biological roles were carried out in a few species, mainly using transgenic protozoa, and the conclusions vary. However, in all cases, alterations in the levels of expression of chagasin/ICPs led to substantial changes in one or more steps of parasite biology, with higher incidence in influencing their interaction with the hosts. We will cover most of the findings on chagasin/ICP structural and functional properties and overview the current knowledge on their roles in protozoa.

  2. Comparison of disinfectants for biofilm, protozoa and Legionella control.

    PubMed

    Loret, J F; Robert, S; Thomas, V; Cooper, A J; McCoy, W F; Lévi, Y

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of different disinfectants applicable to Legionella control in domestic water systems. A domestic water supply simulation unit that allowed simulation of real-world conditions was developed for this purpose. The system, consisting of seven identical rigs, was used to compare treatment efficiency under equivalent conditions of system design, materials, hydraulics, water quality, temperature and initial contamination. During the study, each of six loops received continuous application of one of the following disinfectants: chlorine, electro-chlorination, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ozone, or copper/silver. The seventh loop was used as a control and remained untreated. Performance evaluation of these disinfectants was based on their ability to reduce not only Legionella, but also protozoa and biofilms, which contribute to the establishment and dissemination of these bacteria in water systems, and their resistance to treatments. Regarding these criteria, chlorine dioxide and chlorine (as bleach or obtained by electro-chlorination) were the most effective treatments in this study. However, in comparison with chlorine, chlorine dioxide showed a longer residual activity in the system, which constituted an advantage in the perspective of an application to extensive pipework systems.

  3. Effect of progressive inoculation of fauna-free sheep with holotrich protozoa and total-fauna on rumen fermentation, microbial diversity and methane emissions

    PubMed Central

    Belanche, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Newbold, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Rumen methanogenesis represents an energy waste for the ruminant and an important source of greenhouse gas; thus, integrated studies are needed to fully understand this process. Eight fauna-free sheep were used to investigate the effect of successive inoculation with holotrich protozoa then with total fauna on rumen methanogenesis. Holotrichs inoculation neither altered rumen fermentation rate nor diet digestibility, but increased concentrations of acetate (+15%), butyrate (+57%), anaerobic fungi (+0.82 log), methanogens (+0.41 log) and methanogenesis (+54%). Further inoculation with total fauna increased rumen concentrations of protozoa (+1.0 log), bacteria (+0.29 log), anaerobic fungi (+0.78 log), VFA (+8%), ammonia and fibre digestibility (+17%) without affecting levels of methanogens or methanogenesis. Rumen methanogens population was fairly stable in terms of structure and diversity, while the bacterial community was highly affected by the treatments. Inoculation with holotrich protozoa increased bacterial diversity. Further inoculation with total fauna lowered bacterial diversity but increased concentrations of certain propionate and lactate-producing bacteria, suggesting that alternative H2 sinks could be relevant. This experiment suggests that holotrich protozoa have a greater impact on rumen methanogenesis than entodiniomorphids. Thus, further research is warranted to understand the effect of holotrich protozoa on methane formation and evaluate their elimination from the rumen as a potential methane mitigation strategy. PMID:25764558

  4. Effect of progressive inoculation of fauna-free sheep with holotrich protozoa and total-fauna on rumen fermentation, microbial diversity and methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Belanche, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-03-01

    Rumen methanogenesis represents an energy waste for the ruminant and an important source of greenhouse gas; thus, integrated studies are needed to fully understand this process. Eight fauna-free sheep were used to investigate the effect of successive inoculation with holotrich protozoa then with total fauna on rumen methanogenesis. Holotrichs inoculation neither altered rumen fermentation rate nor diet digestibility, but increased concentrations of acetate (+15%), butyrate (+57%), anaerobic fungi (+0.82 log), methanogens (+0.41 log) and methanogenesis (+54%). Further inoculation with total fauna increased rumen concentrations of protozoa (+1.0 log), bacteria (+0.29 log), anaerobic fungi (+0.78 log), VFA (+8%), ammonia and fibre digestibility (+17%) without affecting levels of methanogens or methanogenesis. Rumen methanogens population was fairly stable in terms of structure and diversity, while the bacterial community was highly affected by the treatments. Inoculation with holotrich protozoa increased bacterial diversity. Further inoculation with total fauna lowered bacterial diversity but increased concentrations of certain propionate and lactate-producing bacteria, suggesting that alternative H2 sinks could be relevant. This experiment suggests that holotrich protozoa have a greater impact on rumen methanogenesis than entodiniomorphids. Thus, further research is warranted to understand the effect of holotrich protozoa on methane formation and evaluate their elimination from the rumen as a potential methane mitigation strategy.

  5. Blood protozoa of free-living birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; McDiarmid, Archibald

    1969-01-01

    Blood protozoa were first reported from wild birds in 1884. Since then numerous surveys throughout the world have demonstrated their presence in a wide variety of hosts and localities with continuing designations of new species. Taxonomic determinations include parasites in the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Babesia, Lankesterella and Trypanosoma. Transmission of Plasmodium by mosquitoes was demonstrated with a bird parasite before these insects were proven as vectors of human malaria. All the genera under consideration require an insect vector to complete their life-cycles and susceptible vectors have been demonstrated. Most experimental work on the blood protozoa of birds has been carried on with captive birds. An extensive volume of research has been conducted on Plasmodium because of its close similarity to malaria in man. Field studies that would provide information on the epizootiology of occurrence of these parasites in wild populations have been very limited, mainly confined to single blood film surveys. Such data are inadequate to provide an understanding of true prevalence or incidence or of factual knowledge of their impact on the wild population. Mechanisms for procuring such information are available in some cases and can be developed to fit other situations. Isodiagnosis, inoculation of blood from wild birds into susceptible captive hosts, has revealed a prevalence of over 60 % for Plasmodium in situations where microscope examination of single peripheral blood preparations yielded less than 1 %. Culture of bone marrow collected by biopsy demonstrates high prevalence of trypanosomes even when none are evident from microscopic examination of blood. Often preparations of tissues collected at necropsy reveal Leucocytozoon and Lankesterella when examination of peripheral blood gave no indication of infection. Methods developed by bird ringers provide techniques for obtaining repeat examinations of free-living birds that can yield further

  6. Gastrointestinal manifestations.

    PubMed

    Tanowitz, H B; Simon, D; Weiss, L M; Noyer, C; Coyle, C; Wittner, M

    1996-11-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is a common problem in the setting of HIV-1 infection. As patients live longer and other opportunistic pathogens are suppressed, these problems are becoming even more important in the quality of life.

  7. Enhancing flora balance in the gastrointestinal tract of mice by lactic acid bacteria from Chinese sourdough and enzyme activities indicative of metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate by the flora.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong; Yu, Xiaomin; Wu, Yaoping; Chen, Xingxing; Wei, Hua; Shah, Nagendra P; Xu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of administration of 5 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Chinese sourdough on the flora balance of gastrointestinal tract of mice. We specifically measured Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus by plate count and real-time PCR methods, and α-glucosidase, lactate dehydrogenase, esterase, and aminopeptidase activities as indicative of metabolism of sugar, fat, and protein from LAB isolated from feces of mice in vitro. The results showed that administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC0201 and Lactobacillus fermentum LFE0302 lowered the uricacid index of serum. Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC0201, L. fermentum LFE0302, as well as Lactobacillus curvatus LCU0401 administration resulted in a reduction in the opportunistic pathogens (i.e., Enterococcus and Enterobacter), meanwhile, administration of L. fermentum LFE0302 and Lactobacillus sp. ULA0104 resulted in an increase in the counts of Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus fermentum LFE0302 administration increased starch digestion of intestinal flora after 4wk of feeding and also resulted in increased α-glucosidase activity in the intestinal flora after 3wk of feeding. We found a similar trend in esterase activity after administration of L. acidophilus LAC0201 for 3wk. Hence, our study suggested that LAB from Chinese sourdough might be used as potential probiotics to strengthen the flora balance in gastrointestinal tract and positively change the metabolism of nutrients through bacterial enzyme activities.

  8. [Gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Lanas, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    In the Digestive Disease Week in 2015 there have been some new contributions in the field of gastrointestinal bleeding that deserve to be highlighted. Treatment of celecoxib with a proton pump inhibitor is safer than treatment with nonselective NSAID and a proton pump inhibitor in high risk gastrointestinal and cardiovascular patients who mostly also take acetylsalicylic acid. Several studies confirm the need to restart the antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy at an early stage after a gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The need for urgent endoscopy before 6-12 h after the onset of upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode may be beneficial in patients with hemodynamic instability and high risk for comorbidity. It is confirmed that in Western but not in Japanese populations, gastrointestinal bleeding episodes admitted to hospital during weekend days are associated with a worse prognosis associated with delays in the clinical management of the events. The strategy of a restrictive policy on blood transfusions during an upper GI bleeding event has been challenged. Several studies have shown the benefit of identifying the bleeding vessel in non varicose underlying gastric lesions by Doppler ultrasound which allows direct endoscopic therapy in the patient with upper GI bleeding. Finally, it has been reported that lower gastrointestinal bleeding diverticula band ligation or hemoclipping are both safe and have the same long-term outcomes.

  9. Probiotics and Chronic Gastrointestinal Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarner, Francisco

    Human beings are associated in a symbiotic relationship with a huge population of microorganisms. During millennia, a considerable number of microbes have evolved and adapted to live and grow in the human intestine. The intestinal habitat of an individual contains billions of microorganisms including bacteria, protozoa, archaea, fungi, and viruses (Guarner and Malagelada, 2003; Ley et al., 2006), and the number of microbial cells within the gut lumen appears to be ten times larger than the number of eukaryotic cells of the human body. Some of these bacteria are potential pathogens and can be a source of infection and sepsis under some circumstances, for instance when the integrity of the bowel barrier is physically or functionally breached. However, growing evidence suggests that important health benefits to the human host derive from the constant interaction with its microbial guests. Recognition of these benefits in recent years is drawing particular attention to the functional implications of the gut microbial communities in host physiology.

  10. Protozoa and digestive tract parameters of the impala.

    PubMed

    Booyse, Dirk; Dehority, Burk A

    2011-10-12

    Intestinal contents were collected from eight impala at three different localities during the winter hunting season (2005-2009), as well as from another 24 animals from a one-year trial at a game farm called Ditholo (2003-2004). Gas production, protozoa counts and several other physiological parameters were measured from both rumen and caecum or colon contents. Only higher ophryoscolecid and Isotrichidae species of protozoa were counted and identified. Ostracodinium gracile was present in all 32 impala. Eudiplodinium maggii was present in 31 animals and Eudiplodinium impalae and Epidinium (either ecaudatum or caudatum) in 30 animals. Dasytricha ruminantium was present in only 11 of the impala. Concentrations of protozoa were correlated with the season of sample collection and highly correlated with the animals living on the game farm. Gas production (mL/g of wet rumen ingesta) was weakly correlated with protozoa concentration but not with the season of collection.

  11. Exploring Leeuwenhoek's legacy: the abundance and diversity of protozoa.

    PubMed

    Finlay, B J; Esteban, G F

    2001-09-01

    Towards the end of the 17th century, Leeuwenhoek built "magnifying glasses" that enabled him to see and describe protozoa for the first time. Continued exploration of the natural history of protozoa during the past 300 years has progressed far beyond simply documenting morphospecies (global total probably <20,000). We now realize that protozoan 'biodiversity' is multi-faceted (e.g. sibling species, variant genotypes and syntrophic consortia). Realization of their extraordinary abundance has secured for protozoa the position of dominant phagotrophs and regenerators of nutrients within microbial food webs. And studies of protozoa in the natural environment have done much to effect a paradigm shift in our understanding of why specific microbes live where they do and how they got there in the first place. In particular, the hypothesis of ubiquitous dispersal of protozoan species does seem to be supported by the evidence provided by morphospecies, sibling species and even individual genotypes.

  12. Rickettsiae, protozoa, and opisthokonta/metazoa.

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobiales (formerly named Rickettsiales) cause in rare instances meningitis and meningovasculitis, respectively. In case of history of exposure, infection by Rhizobiales needs to be considered since both diagnosis and therapy may be extremely difficult and pathogen-specific. The same applies to protozoa; in this chapter, Babesia species, free-living amoebae and Entamoeba histolytica infection, including severe meningitis and brain abscess, infection by Trypanosoma species (South American and African trypanosomiasis) are discussed with respect to history, epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as differential diagnosis and therapy. Parasitic flatworms and roundworms, potentially able to invade the central nervous system, trematodes (flukes), cestodes (in particular, Cysticercus cellulosae), but also nematodes (in particular, Strongyloides spp. in the immunocompromised) are of worldwide importance. In contrast, filarial worms, Toxocara spp., Trichinella spp., Gnathostoma and Angiostrongylus spp. are seen only in certain geographically confined areas. Even more regionally confined are infestations of the central nervous system by metazoa, in particular, tongue worms (=arthropods) or larvae of flies (=maggots). The aim of this chapter is (1) to alert the neurologist to these infections, and (2) to enable the attending emergency neurologist to take a knowledgeable history, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as therapeutic management possibilities.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and ceftiofur in plasma, interstitial fluid, and gastrointestinal tract of calves after subcutaneous injection, and bactericidal impacts on representative enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Foster, D M; Jacob, M E; Warren, C D; Papich, M G

    2016-02-01

    This study's objectives were to determine intestinal antimicrobial concentrations in calves administered enrofloxacin or ceftiofur sodium subcutaneously, and their impact on representative enteric bacteria. Ultrafiltration devices were implanted in the ileum and colon of 12 steers, which received either enrofloxacin or ceftiofur sodium. Samples were collected over 48 h after drug administration for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis. Enterococcus faecalis or Salmonella enterica (5 × 10(5) CFU/mL of each) were exposed in vitro to peak and tail (48 h postadministration) concentrations of both drugs at each location for 24 h to determine inhibition of growth and change in MIC. Enrofloxacin had tissue penetration factors of 1.6 and 2.5 in the ileum and colon, while ciprofloxacin, an active metabolite of enrofloxacin, was less able to cross into the intestine (tissue penetration factors of 0.7 and 1.7). Ceftiofur was rapidly eliminated leading to tissue penetration factors of 0.39 and 0.25. All concentrations of enrofloxacin were bactericidal for S. enterica and significantly reduced E. faecalis. Peak ceftiofur concentration was bactericidal for S. enterica, and tail concentrations significantly reduced growth. E. faecalis experienced growth at all ceftiofur concentrations. The MICs for both organisms exposed to peak and tail concentrations of antimicrobials were unchanged at the end of the study. Enrofloxacin and ceftiofur achieved intestinal concentrations capable of reducing intestinal bacteria, yet the short exposure of ceftiofur in the intestine may select for resistant organisms.

  14. Production of human metabolites by gastrointestinal bacteria as a potential source of post-mortem alteration of antemortem drug/metabolite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Martindale, Stephanie M; Powers, Robert H; Bell, Suzanne C

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bacterial species are capable of transforming complex chemical substances. Several of these species, native to the human gastrointestinal tract, are active in postmortem decomposition. They have potential to cause biotransformations affecting compound-to-metabolite ratios within the human body, especially after death. Investigation of postmortem effects could supply valuable information, especially concerning compound identification and confirmation. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of Escherichia coli, Bacteroides fragilis, and Clostridium perfringens on diazepam and flunitrazepam in Reinforced Clostridial Medium, and to compare bacterial biotransformation products to those of human metabolism. A decrease in diazepam concentration between pre- and post-incubation was observed for samples inoculated with Escherichia coli (14.7-20.2%) as well as Bacteroides fragilis (13.9-25.7%); however there was no corresponding increase in concentration for the monitored human metabolites. Flunitrazepam demonstrated a greater concentration loss when incubated with individual bacterial species as well as mixed culture (79.2-100.0%). Samples incubated with Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, and mixed culture resulted in nearly complete conversion of flunitrazepam. Increased 7-aminoflunitrazepam concentrations accounted for the majority of the conversion; however discrepancies in the mass balance of the reaction suggested the possibility of a minor metabolite that was not monitored in the current analysis. These experiments served as a pilot study and proof of concept that can be adapted and applied to a realm of possibilities. Ultimately, this methodology would be ideal to study compounds that are too toxic or lethal for animal and human metabolic investigations.

  15. [Gastrointestinal bezoars].

    PubMed

    Espinoza González, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    Gastrointestinal bezoars are a concretion of indigested material that can be found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and some animals. This material forms an intraluminal mass, more commonly located in the stomach. During a large period of history animal bezoars were considered antidotes to poisons and diseases. We report a historical overview since bezoars stones were thought to have medicinal properties. This magic conception was introduced in South America by Spanish conquerors. In Chile, bezoars are commonly found in a camelid named guanaco (Lama guanicoe). People at Central Chile and the Patagonia believed that bezoar stones had magical properties and they were traded at very high prices. In Santiago, during the eighteenth century the Jesuit apothecary sold preparations of bezoar stones. The human bezoars may be formed by non-digestible material like cellulose (phytobezoar), hair (trichobezoar), conglomerations of medications or his vehicles (pharmacobezoar or medication bezoar), milk and mucus component (lactobezoar) or other varieties of substances. This condition may be asymptomatic or can produce abdominal pain, ulceration, gastrointestinal bleeding, gastric outlet obstruction, perforation and mechanical intestinal obstruction. We report their classification, diagnostic modalities and treatment.

  16. Evaluation of Luminex xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Analyte-Specific Reagents for High-Throughput, Simultaneous Detection of Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasites of Clinical and Public Health Importance

    PubMed Central

    Navidad, Jose F.; Griswold, David J.; Gradus, M. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) can be caused by a range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, microscopy, biochemical assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), are laborious and time-consuming and lack sensitivity. Combined, the array of tests performed on a single specimen can increase the turnaround time (TAT) significantly. We validated a 19plex laboratory-developed gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) using Luminex xTAG analyte-specific reagents (ASRs) to simultaneously screen directly in fecal specimens for diarrhea-causing pathogens, including bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli [ETEC], Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC], E. coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and toxigenic Clostridium difficile), parasites (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica), and viruses (norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus 40/41, and rotavirus A). Performance characteristics of GPP ASRs were determined using 48 reference isolates and 254 clinical specimens. Stool specimens from individuals with diarrhea were tested for pathogens using conventional and molecular methods. Using the predictive methods as standards, the sensitivities of the GPP ASRs were 100% for adenovirus 40/41, norovirus, rotavirus A, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., and E. coli O157:H7; 95% for Giardia lamblia; 94% for ETEC and STEC; 93% for Shigella spp.; 92% for Salmonella spp.; 91% for C. difficile A/B toxins; and 90% for Campylobacter jejuni. The overall comparative performance of the GPP ASRs with conventional methods in clinical samples was 94.5% (range, 90% to 97%), with 99% (99.0% to 99.9%) specificity. Implementation of the GPP ASRs enables our public health laboratory to offer highly sensitive and specific screening and identification of the major ADD-causing pathogens

  17. Evaluation of Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen analyte-specific reagents for high-throughput, simultaneous detection of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of clinical and public health importance.

    PubMed

    Navidad, Jose F; Griswold, David J; Gradus, M Stephen; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib

    2013-09-01

    Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) can be caused by a range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, microscopy, biochemical assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), are laborious and time-consuming and lack sensitivity. Combined, the array of tests performed on a single specimen can increase the turnaround time (TAT) significantly. We validated a 19plex laboratory-developed gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) using Luminex xTAG analyte-specific reagents (ASRs) to simultaneously screen directly in fecal specimens for diarrhea-causing pathogens, including bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli [ETEC], Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC], E. coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and toxigenic Clostridium difficile), parasites (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica), and viruses (norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus 40/41, and rotavirus A). Performance characteristics of GPP ASRs were determined using 48 reference isolates and 254 clinical specimens. Stool specimens from individuals with diarrhea were tested for pathogens using conventional and molecular methods. Using the predictive methods as standards, the sensitivities of the GPP ASRs were 100% for adenovirus 40/41, norovirus, rotavirus A, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., and E. coli O157:H7; 95% for Giardia lamblia; 94% for ETEC and STEC; 93% for Shigella spp.; 92% for Salmonella spp.; 91% for C. difficile A/B toxins; and 90% for Campylobacter jejuni. The overall comparative performance of the GPP ASRs with conventional methods in clinical samples was 94.5% (range, 90% to 97%), with 99% (99.0% to 99.9%) specificity. Implementation of the GPP ASRs enables our public health laboratory to offer highly sensitive and specific screening and identification of the major ADD-causing pathogens.

  18. A new α-galactosidase from symbiotic Flavobacterium sp. TN17 reveals four residues essential for α-galactosidase activity of gastrointestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junpei; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Cao, Yanan; Meng, Kun; Yang, Peilong; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Xiaoyan; Yao, Bin

    2010-12-01

    The α-galactosidase gene, galA17, was cloned from Flavobacterium sp. TN17, a symbiotic bacterium isolated from the gut of Batocera horsfieldi larvae. The 2,205-bp full-length gene encodes a 734-residue polypeptide (GalA17) containing a putative 28-residue signal peptide and a catalytic domain belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 36 (GH 36). The deduced amino acid sequence of galA17 was most similar to a putative α-galactosidase from Pedobacter sp. BAL39 (EDM38577; 66.6% identity) and a characterized α-galactosidase from Carnobacterium piscicola BA (AAL27305; 30.1%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that GalA17 was similar to GH 36 α-galactosidases from symbiotic bacteria sharing two putative catalytic motifs, KWD and SDXXDXXXR, in which D480, S548, D549, and R556 were essential for α-galactosidase activity based on site-directed mutagenesis. Purified recombinant GalA17 showed apparent optimal activity at pH 5.5 and 45°C; exhibited strong resistance to digestion by trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, collagenase, and proteinase K; and efficiently hydrolyzed several synthetic and natural substrates (p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactopyranoside, stachyose, melibiose, raffinose, soybean meal, locust bean gum, and guar gum).

  19. Preliminary study on applicability of microsatellite DNA primers from parasite protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi in free-living protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Yu, Yuhe; Shen, Yunfen; Miao, Wei; Feng, Weisong

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, we took the lead in studying on specificity of the microsatellite DNA loci and applicability of microsatellite DNA primers in protozoa. In order to study characters of microsatellites in free-living protozoa, eight microsatellite loci primers developed from Trypanosoma cruzi (MCLE01, SCLE10, MCLE08, SCLE11, MCLF10, MCLG10, MCL03, MCL05) were employed to amplify microsatellite in four free-living protozoa, including Bodo designis, Euglena gracilis FACHB848, Paramecium bruzise and Tetrahymena thermophila BF1. In the amplification systems of P. bruzise, four loci (SCLE10, SCLE11, MCLF10, MCL03) were amplified successfully, and four amplification fragments were in proper size. In genome of E. gracilis FACHB848, five of eight primers brought five clear amplification bands. In B. designis, three (No.4, 5 and 7) of eight loci produced clear and sharp products without stutter bands, whereas no bands appeared in T. thermophila BF1. Further, eight 300 500 bp amplification fragments were cloned and sequenced. Nevertheless, all sequenced products did not contain corresponding microsatellite sequence, although Bodo is in the same order and has the nearest phylogenetic relation with Trypanosoma among these four species. Thus, the microsatellite DNA primers can not be applied among order or more far taxa, and the specificity of microsatellite DNA is very high in protozoa. The results of this study will contribute to our understanding of microsatellite DNA in protozoa.

  20. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatid protozoa: the bacterium division is controlled during the host cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Catta-Preta, Carolina M C; Brum, Felipe L; da Silva, Camila C; Zuma, Aline A; Elias, Maria C; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; Motta, Maria Cristina M

    2015-01-01

    Mutualism is defined as a beneficial relationship for the associated partners and usually assumes that the symbiont number is controlled. Some trypanosomatid protozoa co-evolve with a bacterial symbiont that divides in coordination with the host in a way that results in its equal distribution between daughter cells. The mechanism that controls this synchrony is largely unknown, and its comprehension might provide clues to understand how eukaryotic cells evolved when acquiring symbionts that later became organelles. Here, we approached this question by studying the effects of inhibitors that affect the host exclusively in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Strigomonas culicis and Angomonas deanei. We found that inhibiting host protein synthesis using cycloheximide or host DNA replication using aphidicolin did not affect the duplication of bacterial DNA. Although the bacteria had autonomy to duplicate their DNA when host protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, they could not complete cytokinesis. Aphidicolin promoted the inhibition of the trypanosomatid cell cycle in the G1/S phase, leading to symbiont filamentation in S. culicis but not in A. deanei. Treatment with camptothecin blocked the host protozoa cell cycle in the G2 phase and induced the formation of filamentous symbionts in both species. Oryzalin, which affects host microtubule polymerization, blocked trypanosomatid mitosis and abrogated symbiont division. Our results indicate that host factors produced during the cell division cycle are essential for symbiont segregation and may control the bacterial cell number.

  1. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatid protozoa: the bacterium division is controlled during the host cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Catta-Preta, Carolina M. C.; Brum, Felipe L.; da Silva, Camila C.; Zuma, Aline A.; Elias, Maria C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; Motta, Maria Cristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Mutualism is defined as a beneficial relationship for the associated partners and usually assumes that the symbiont number is controlled. Some trypanosomatid protozoa co-evolve with a bacterial symbiont that divides in coordination with the host in a way that results in its equal distribution between daughter cells. The mechanism that controls this synchrony is largely unknown, and its comprehension might provide clues to understand how eukaryotic cells evolved when acquiring symbionts that later became organelles. Here, we approached this question by studying the effects of inhibitors that affect the host exclusively in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Strigomonas culicis and Angomonas deanei. We found that inhibiting host protein synthesis using cycloheximide or host DNA replication using aphidicolin did not affect the duplication of bacterial DNA. Although the bacteria had autonomy to duplicate their DNA when host protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, they could not complete cytokinesis. Aphidicolin promoted the inhibition of the trypanosomatid cell cycle in the G1/S phase, leading to symbiont filamentation in S. culicis but not in A. deanei. Treatment with camptothecin blocked the host protozoa cell cycle in the G2 phase and induced the formation of filamentous symbionts in both species. Oryzalin, which affects host microtubule polymerization, blocked trypanosomatid mitosis and abrogated symbiont division. Our results indicate that host factors produced during the cell division cycle are essential for symbiont segregation and may control the bacterial cell number. PMID:26082757

  2. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Liesbeth; Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future. PMID:23440107

  3. The gastrointestinal microbiome: a malleable, third genome of mammals

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Ian M.; Threadgill, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The nonpathogenic, mutualistic bacteria of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract provide a number of benefits to the host. Recent reports have shown how the aggregate genomes of gastrointestinal bacteria provide novel benefits by functioning as the third major genome in mammals along with the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Consequently, efforts are underway to elucidate the complexity of the organisms comprising the unique ecosystem of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as those associated with other epidermal surfaces. The current knowledge of the gastrointestinal microbiome, its relationship to human health and disease with a particular focus on mammalian physiology, and efforts to alter its composition as a novel therapeutic approach are reviewed. PMID:19629594

  4. Free-Living Protozoa in Two Unchlorinated Drinking Water Supplies, Identified by Phylogenic Analysis of 18S rRNA Gene Sequences▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Valster, Rinske M.; Wullings, Bart A.; Bakker, Geo; Smidt, Hauke; van der Kooij, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Free-living protozoan communities in water supplies may include hosts for Legionella pneumophila and other undesired bacteria, as well as pathogens. This study aimed at identifying free-living protozoa in two unchlorinated groundwater supplies, using cultivation-independent molecular approaches. For this purpose, samples (<20°C) of treated water, distributed water, and distribution system biofilms were collected from supply A, with a low concentration of natural organic matter (NOM) (<0.5 ppm of C), and from supply B, with a high NOM concentration (7.9 ppm of C). Eukaryotic communities were studied using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library analyses of partial 18S rRNA gene fragments and a Hartmannella vermiformis-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR). In both supplies, highly diverse eukaryotic communities were observed, including free-living protozoa, fungi, and metazoa. Sequences of protozoa clustered with Amoebozoa (10 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]), Cercozoa (39 OTUs), Choanozoa (26 OTUs), Ciliophora (29 OTUs), Euglenozoa (13 OTUs), Myzozoa (5 OTUs), and Stramenopiles (5 OTUs). A large variety of protozoa were present in both supplies, but the estimated values for protozoan richness did not differ significantly. H. vermiformis was observed in both supplies but was not a predominant protozoan. One OTU with the highest similarity to Acanthamoeba polyphaga, an opportunistic human pathogen and a host for undesired bacteria, was observed in supply A. The high level of NOM in supply B corresponded with an elevated level of active biomass and with elevated concentrations of H. vermiformis in distributed water. Hence, the application of qPCR may be promising in elucidating the relationship between drinking water quality and the presence of specific protozoa. PMID:19465529

  5. Gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in Kashan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohsen, A; Hossein, H

    2009-04-01

    Considering the role of parasites in contamination of human beings and domestic animals and lack of information in the region, the present study was performed to investigate the infection status of helminthes and protozoa of stray cats in central Iran. A cross - sectional study was conducted on 113 stray cats trapped from different geographic regions of Kashan during four seasons and were necropsied. Different organs including: kidney, heart, liver, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and abdominal cavity were inspected for helminthes and protozoa infection. Animal's characters including: genus, weight, and season, location, microscopic and macroscopic findings were recorded in a special form. Data were classified and statistically analyzed with a confidence interval of 95%. Chi- Squire Test was used to show the relationship between different factors and parasitic infection. From a total 113 stray cats examined, 67(59.3%) were male and 46(40.7%) were female. Fifteen species of endoparasite including helminthes and protozoa were detected in intestine and fecal sample of the examined cats. There were six protozoa, five cestodes and four nematodes. All endoparasite were localized in the gastrointestinal tract. Overall 108 cats (95.6%) have been infected with at least one of the endoparasites. Prevalences of parasites found were Nematodea: Toxocara cati 13.3%, Physaloptera preputialis 39.8%, Rictularia 52.2% and Uncinaria stenocephala 1.8%; Cestodea: Mesocestoides lineatus 7.1%, Taenia taeniaformis 15%, Diplopylidium nolleri 64.6%, Dipylidium caninum 68.1% and Joyeuxiella echinorhyncoides 85%; Sporozoea: Isospora rivolta 5.3%, Isospora felis 5.3%, Sarcocystis spp 8%, Blastocystis spp 16.8% and Zoomastigophorea: Giardia felis 0.9% and Trichomonas spp 1.8%. Contamination rate for zoonotic parasites of cat was greater than expected in Kashan region. In this respect, appropriate control measures should be taken and it is recommended to determine the most appropriate preventive

  6. Detection of some intestinal protozoa in commercial fresh juices.

    PubMed

    Mossallam, Shereen F

    2010-04-01

    Fresh fruit juices are popular, but not always safe. For assessing the likelihood of infection with newly emerging intestinal protozoa, commercial fresh orange, lemon, sugar cane, strawberry, and mango juices were screened by wet mounts, Weber's modified trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Protozoa viability was done by fluorescein-diacetate/propidium-iodide staining, and infectivity was performed in Swiss albino mice. Results showed that 35.43% were contaminated with one or more of Cryptosporidia, Microsporidia, and Cyclospora, as well as Giardia spp. Strawberry was the most contaminated juice (54.28%), while orange was the slightest (22.86%). Cryptosporidia was the highest contaminant (61.29%), and Cyclospora was the least (14.52%). Microsporidia spp. was the most robust contaminant which retained its viability and infectivity in juices in which it was detected. Moderately acidic strawberry and mango juices and alkaline sugar cane juice pose a possible threat, due to harboring the highest viable and infectious protozoa. Regarding highly acidic juices, viability and infectivity decreased in lemon, yet was not still risk free. Orange juice was comparatively safe, as viability dramatically declined, while infectivity was completely abolished. Hence consumers, especially high risk group, are placed at hazard of contracting intestinal protozoa infections, especially through moderately acidic and alkaline juices.

  7. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  8. Animals of the Sea: Coelenterates, Protozoa, and Sponges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    These three units are designed for use with standard science curricula. These publications, relating to animals of the sea, are: Protozoa, Sponges, and Coelenterates. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. Objectives to be attained from the unit on…

  9. Alternative mounting media for preservation of some protozoa.

    PubMed

    Criado-Fornelio, A; Heredero-Bermejo, I; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2014-10-01

    Protozoa resistant stages are disintegrated when mounted in toluene-based media. To overcome such problem, three toluene-free mountants were tested on preserve Acanthamoeba spp and gregarines. Two commercial glues based on cyanoacrylate or trimethoxysilane were suitable for preserving both cysts and trophozoites. Hoyer's medium showed good results for mounting gregarine oocysts.

  10. Enteric Protozoa in the Developed World: a Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie M.; Stark, Damien; Harkness, John

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Several enteric protozoa cause severe morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals worldwide. In developed settings, enteric protozoa are often ignored as a cause of diarrheal illness due to better hygiene conditions, and as such, very little effort is used toward laboratory diagnosis. Although these protozoa contribute to the high burden of infectious diseases, estimates of their true prevalence are sometimes affected by the lack of sensitive diagnostic techniques to detect them in clinical and environmental specimens. Despite recent advances in the epidemiology, molecular biology, and treatment of protozoan illnesses, gaps in knowledge still exist, requiring further research. There is evidence that climate-related changes will contribute to their burden due to displacement of ecosystems and human and animal populations, increases in atmospheric temperature, flooding and other environmental conditions suitable for transmission, and the need for the reuse of alternative water sources to meet growing population needs. This review discusses the common enteric protozoa from a public health perspective, highlighting their epidemiology, modes of transmission, prevention, and control. It also discusses the potential impact of climate changes on their epidemiology and the issues surrounding waterborne transmission and suggests a multidisciplinary approach to their prevention and control. PMID:22763633

  11. Detection of Protozoa in Surface and Finished Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are known to be the host to approximately 1500 infectious agents, out of which 66 are protozoa and 287 are helminths. Therefore, from a global perspective helminths and protozoan parasites account for approximately one fourth of the total infectious diseases of humans. A s...

  12. Protozoa graze on the 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)-degrading bacterium Aminobacter sp. MSH1 introduced into waterworks sand filters.

    PubMed

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Albers, Christian N; Aamand, Jens

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater contamination by pesticide residues often leads to the closure of drinking water wells, making the development of new techniques to remediate drinking water resources of considerable interest. Pesticide-degrading bacteria were recently added to a waterworks sand filter in an attempt to remediate pesticide-polluted drinking water. The density of the introduced bacteria, however, decreased rapidly, which was partly attributed to predation by protozoa in the sand filter. This study investigated the effects of indigenous sand filter protozoa on the population density and degradation efficiency of degrader bacteria introduced into sand from a waterworks sand filter. The 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)-degrading bacterium Aminobacter sp. MSH1 was used as a model organism. The introduction of MSH1 at high cell densities was followed by a >1000-fold increase in the protozoan population size and at the same time a 29 % reduction in Aminobacter cell numbers. The protozoan population in the systems that had MSH1 added at a lower density only increased 50-fold, and a decrease in Aminobacter numbers was not detectable. Furthermore, a reduction in the number of Aminobacter and in BAM degradation efficiency was seen in flow-through sand filter columns inoculated with MSH1 and fed BAM-contaminated water, when comparing sand columns containing the indigenous microbial filter community, i.e. containing protozoa, to columns with sterilised sand. These results suggest that degrader bacteria introduced into waterworks sand filters are adversely affected by grazing from the indigenous protozoa, reducing the size of the degrader population and the sand filter degradation efficiency.

  13. Technical note: Protozoa-specific antibodies raised in sheep plasma bind to their target protozoa in the rumen.

    PubMed

    Williams, Y J; Rea, S M; Popovski, S; Skillman, L C; Wright, A-D G

    2014-12-01

    Binding of IgG antibodies to Entodinium spp. in the rumen of sheep (Ovis aries) was investigated by adding IgG, purified from plasma, directly into the rumen. Plasma IgG was sourced from sheep that had or had not been immunized with a vaccine containing whole fixed Entodinium spp. cells. Ruminal fluid was sampled approximately 2 h after each antibody dosing. Binding of protozoa by a specific antibody was detected using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. An antibody titer in the ruminal fluid was determined by ELISA, and the concentration of ruminal fluid ammonia-N and ruminal pH were also determined. Entodinium spp. and total protozoa from IgG-infused sheep were enumerated by microscopic counts. Two-hourly additions of IgG maintained a low antibody titer in the rumen for 12 h and the binding of the antibody to the rumen protozoa was demonstrated. Increased ammonia-N concentrations and altered ruminal fluid pH patterns indicated that additional fermentation of protein was occurring in the rumen after addition of IgG. No reduction in numbers of Entodinium spp. was observed (P>0.05). Although binding of antibodies to protozoa has been demonstrated in the rumen, it is unclear how much cell death occurred. On the balance of probability, it would appear that the antibody was degraded or partially degraded, and the impact of this on protozoal populations and the measurement of a specific titer is also unclear.

  14. The role of protozoa-driven selection in shaping human genetic variability.

    PubMed

    Pozzoli, Uberto; Fumagalli, Matteo; Cagliani, Rachele; Comi, Giacomo P; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2010-03-01

    Protozoa exert a strong selective pressure in humans. The selection signatures left by these pathogens can be exploited to identify genetic modulators of infection susceptibility. We show that protozoa diversity in different geographic locations is a good measure of protozoa-driven selective pressure; protozoa diversity captured selection signatures at known malaria resistance loci and identified several selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in immune and hemolytic anemia genes. A genome-wide search enabled us to identify 5180 variants mapping to 1145 genes that are subjected to protozoa-driven selective pressure. We provide a genome-wide estimate of protozoa-driven selective pressure and identify candidate susceptibility genes for protozoa-borne diseases.

  15. Detection of selected intestinal helminths and protozoa at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia using multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Basuni, M; Mohamed, Z; Ahmad, M; Zakaria, N Z; Noordin, R

    2012-09-01

    Intestinal parasites are the causative agents of a number of important human infections in developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected helminths and protozoan infections among patients admitted with gastrointestinal disorders at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia using multiplex real-time PCR. In addition microscopic examination was also performed following direct smear, zinc sulphate concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques; and the presence of protozoan parasites was confirmed using trichrome and acid-fast stains. Of the 225 faecal samples analysed, 26.2% were positive for intestinal parasites by the multiplex real-time PCR, while 5.3% were positive by microscopy. As compared to microscopy, the multiplex real-time PCR detected 5.8 and 4.5 times more positives for the selected helminth and protozoan infections respectively. Among the selected helminths detected in this study, hookworm was the most prevalent by real-time PCR, while Ascaris lumbricoides was detected the most by microscopy. Meanwhile, among the selected protozoa detected in this study, Entamoeba histolytica was the most prevalent by real-time PCR, however microscopy detected equal number of cases with E. histolytica and Giardia lamblia. This study showed that real-time PCR can be used to obtain a more accurate prevalence data on intestinal helminths and protozoa.

  16. Preliminary study on the requirements of Entodinium exiguum and E. caudatum for live or dead bacteria when cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fondevila, M; Dehority, B A

    2001-01-01

    Whether live bacteria are required to culture the rumen protozoa Entodinium exiguum and E. caudatum in vitro was studied. Treatments were protozoa plus antibiotics (PA), PA plus autoclaved bacteria (PAB) or protozoa plus live bacteria (PLB). Generation times at 24 h were 22.8 and 31.0 h for E. exiguum and E. caudatum. Protozoal concentrations were unaffected by the absence of bacteria up to 48 h. After 72 h, E. exiguum, concentrations were higher in PLB than PA or PAB. With E. caudatum differences between PLB and PA were only observed at 96 h. Thus, a requirement for live bacteria appears to be manifested in culture periods longer than 48 (E. exiguum) and 72 (E. caudatum) h. Although differences between PLB and PAB indicate a metabolic dependence for bacteria or a long-term antibiotic effect, non-significant differences between PAB and PA suggest that the effect is also related to a nutritive bacterial contribution.

  17. Protozoa and digestive tract parameters in blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), with description of Entodinium taurinus n. sp.

    PubMed

    Booyse, Dirk G; Dehority, Burk A

    2012-11-01

    Rumen contents from four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and six black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou) were collected from two locations during two winter culling seasons. A total of 16 species of protozoa were found in blue wildebeest with Dasytricha ruminantium, Opisthotrichum janus and Ostracodinium gracile occurring in all four animals. In black wildebeest, 23 species of protozoa were observed with only Diplodinium bubalidis (caudal spine morphotype) and Ostracodinium damaliscus being present in all animals. In the blue wildebeest, the total number of species in an individual animal varied from 9 to 11 and in the black wildebeest, the number ranged from 4 to 14. Concentrations of cells per ml ranged from 1110 to 5880 in the blue wildebeest and 3120 to 6240 in the black wildebeest. This study is the first report on protozoa species in the blue and black wildebeest. A new species of Entodinium is described, Entodinium taurinus n. sp., observed in the rumen contents of three blue wildebeest. Several physical parameters of the digestive tract were also measured, including distribution, pH and density of gastrointestinal contents in different sections of the total tract. In vitro gas production was estimated for rumen, cecum and colon contents.

  18. Characteristics of Factors of Protozoa Blastocystis hominis Persistence.

    PubMed

    Potaturkina-Nesterova, N I; Il'ina, N A; Bugero, N V; Nesterov, A S

    2016-10-01

    Persistence activity manifested in the expression of anti-lysozyme, anti-lactoferrin, and antihistone factors promoting inactivation of natural anti-infection resistance factors in the body was revealed in Blastocystis hominis protozoa. Activities of these factors were ranged. The frequency of these factors in clinical isolates of blastocyst decreased in the following order: anti-lactoferrin activity (84.5±3.7%)→anti-lysozyme activity (64.8±5.7%)→anti-histone activity (48.1±2.3%). In healthy humans, the corresponding parameters were 7.3±1.3, 5.3±0.9, and 3.3±0.4%, respectively (p<0.05). It was shown that the studied activities in highly virulent blastocysts were higher than in groups of medium-, low-, and avirulent protozoa.

  19. Stalked protozoa identification by image analysis and multivariable statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Amaral, A L; Ginoris, Y P; Nicolau, A; Coelho, M A Z; Ferreira, E C

    2008-06-01

    Protozoa are considered good indicators of the treatment quality in activated sludge systems as they are sensitive to physical, chemical and operational processes. Therefore, it is possible to correlate the predominance of certain species or groups and several operational parameters of the plant. This work presents a semiautomatic image analysis procedure for the recognition of the stalked protozoa species most frequently found in wastewater treatment plants by determining the geometrical, morphological and signature data and subsequent processing by discriminant analysis and neural network techniques. Geometrical descriptors were found to be responsible for the best identification ability and the identification of the crucial Opercularia and Vorticella microstoma microorganisms provided some degree of confidence to establish their presence in wastewater treatment plants.

  20. Optical detection of parasitic protozoa in sol-gel matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livage, Jacques; Barreau, J. Y.; Da Costa, J. M.; Desportes, I.

    1994-10-01

    Whole cell parasitic protozoa have been entrapped within sol-gel porous silica matrices. Stationary phase promastigote cells of Leishmania donovani infantum are mixed with a silica sol before gelation occurs. They remain trapped within the growing oxide network and their cellular organization appears to be well preserved. Moreover protozoa retain their antigenic properties in the porous gel. They are still able to detect parasite specific antibodies in serum samples from infected patients via an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antigen- antibody associations occurring in the gel are optically detected via the reactions of a peroxidase conjugate with ortho-phenylenediamine leading to the formation of a yellow coloration. A clear-cut difference in optical density is measured between positive and negative sera. Such an entrapment of antigenic species into porous sol-gel matrices avoids the main problems due to non specific binding and could be advantageously used in diagnostic kits.

  1. The genealogic tree of mycobacteria reveals a long-standing sympatric life into free-living protozoa.

    PubMed

    Lamrabet, Otmane; Merhej, Vicky; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Free-living protozoa allow horizontal gene transfer with and between the microorganisms that they host. They host mycobacteria for which the sources of transferred genes remain unknown. Using BLASTp, we searched within the genomes of 15 mycobacteria for homologous genes with 34 amoeba-resistant bacteria and the free-living protozoa Dictyostelium discoideum. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed that eight mycobacterial open-reading frames (ORFs) were probably acquired via horizontal transfer from beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and from Firmicutes, but the transfer histories could not be reliably established in details. One further ORF encoding a pyridine nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductase (pyr-redox) placed non-tuberculous mycobacteria in a clade with Legionella spp., Francisella spp., Coxiella burnetii, the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila and D. discoideum with a high reliability. Co-culturing Mycobacterium avium and Legionella pneumophila with the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga demonstrated that these two bacteria could live together in amoebae for five days, indicating the biological relevance of intra-amoebal transfer of the pyr-redox gene. In conclusion, the results of this study support the hypothesis that protists can serve as a source and a place for gene transfer in mycobacteria.

  2. The Genealogic Tree of Mycobacteria Reveals a Long-Standing Sympatric Life into Free-Living Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Lamrabet, Otmane; Merhej, Vicky; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Free-living protozoa allow horizontal gene transfer with and between the microorganisms that they host. They host mycobacteria for which the sources of transferred genes remain unknown. Using BLASTp, we searched within the genomes of 15 mycobacteria for homologous genes with 34 amoeba-resistant bacteria and the free-living protozoa Dictyostelium discoideum. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed that eight mycobacterial open-reading frames (ORFs) were probably acquired via horizontal transfer from beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and from Firmicutes, but the transfer histories could not be reliably established in details. One further ORF encoding a pyridine nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductase (pyr-redox) placed non-tuberculous mycobacteria in a clade with Legionella spp., Francisella spp., Coxiella burnetii, the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila and D. discoideum with a high reliability. Co-culturing Mycobacterium avium and Legionella pneumophila with the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga demonstrated that these two bacteria could live together in amoebae for five days, indicating the biological relevance of intra-amoebal transfer of the pyr-redox gene. In conclusion, the results of this study support the hypothesis that protists can serve as a source and a place for gene transfer in mycobacteria. PMID:22511965

  3. 77 FR 64597 - Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... gastrointestinal illness in Persian Gulf Veterans was caused by the presence of bacteria in the intestines and whether eradication of these bacteria reduces symptoms of chronic diarrhea. Affected Public:...

  4. 78 FR 6404 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... gastrointestinal illness in Persian Gulf Veterans was caused by ] the presence of bacteria in the intestines and whether eradication of these bacteria reduces symptoms of chronic diarrhea. An agency may not conduct...

  5. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed.

  6. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming.

    PubMed

    Hook, S E; Dijkstra, J; Wright, A-D G; McBride, B W; France, J

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematical models have been designed to model rumen protozoa in both the free-living and attached phases, and the data used in the models were acquired using classical techniques. It has therefore become necessary to provide an updated model that more accurately represents these microorganisms and incorporates the recent literature on distribution, sequestration, and generation times. This paper represents a novel approach to synthesizing experimental data on rumen microorganisms in a quantitative and structured manner. The development of a linear programming model of rumen protozoa in an approximate steady state will be described and applied to data from healthy ruminants consuming commonly fed diets. In the model, protozoa associated with the liquid phase and protozoa attached to particulate matter or sequestered against the rumen wall are distinguished. Growth, passage, death, and transfer of protozoa between both pools are represented. The results from the model application using the contrasting diets of increased forage content versus increased starch content indicate that the majority of rumen protozoa, 63 to 90%, are found in the attached phase, either attached to feed particles or sequestered on the rumen wall. A slightly greater proportion of protozoa are found in the attached phase in animals fed a hay diet compared with a starch diet. This suggests that experimental protocols that only sample protozoa from the rumen fluid could be significantly underestimating the size of the protozoal population of the rumen. Further data are required on the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of healthy animals to improve model development, but the model described herein

  7. Impact of transition from microscopy to molecular screening for detection of intestinal protozoa in Dutch patients.

    PubMed

    Svraka-Latifovic, S; Bouter, S; Naus, H; Bakker, L J; Timmerman, C P; Dorigo-Zetsma, J W

    2014-11-01

    Detection of intestinal protozoa by PCR methods has been described as being sensitive and specific, and as improving the diagnostic yield. Here we present the outcome of the transition from microscopy to molecular screening for detection of a select group of intestinal protozoa in faeces in our laboratory. Introduction of molecular screening for intestinal protozoa resulted in higher sensitivity, reduced hands-on-time, reduced time-to-results, leading to improved diagnostic efficiency.

  8. Stages of Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinoid tumor is cancer that forms in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract ... Rectum . Enlarge Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors form in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, most often in the ...

  9. Studies on the production of conjugated linoleic acid from linoleic and vaccenic acids by mixed rumen protozoa.

    PubMed

    Or-Rashid, Mamun M; AlZahal, Ousama; McBride, Brian W

    2008-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the capability of mixed rumen protozoa to synthesize conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from linoleic (LA) and vaccenic acids (VA). Rumen contents were collected from fistulated cows. The protozoal fraction was separated and washed several times with MB9 buffer and then resuspended in autoclaved rumen fluid. The suspensions were anaerobically incubated up to 18 h at 38.5 degrees C with substrates in the presence (P-AB) or the absence of antibacterial-agents (P-No-AB). Neither P-AB nor P-No-AB suspensions were capable of producing CLA from VA (11t-18:1). Linoleic acid was catabolized by P-No-AB to a greater extent than P-AB. Different isomers of CLA were synthesized by P-AB from LA. The 9c11t-CLA was predominant. Thirty seven percent of the maximum accumulated 9c11t-CLA was found in the P-AB suspension as early as 0.1 h into the incubation period. Accumulation of 10t12c-CLA in P-AB suspension was approximately 10.0 times lower than that of 9c11t-CLA. There were no significant productions of VA, 10t-18:1, and 18:0 in P-AB compared with the control, indicating that rumen protozoa have no ability to biohydrogenate CLA isomers. On the other hand, the concentrations of 10t-18:1, VA, and 18:0 in P-No-AB were greater (P < 0.05) compared with those in P-AB, indicating the role of symbiotic bacteria associated with P-No-AB in biohydrogenating CLA isomers. We concluded that mixed rumen protozoa are capable of synthesizing CLA from LA through isomerization reactions. However, they are incapable of metabolizing CLA further. They are also incapable of vaccenic acid biohydrogenation and/or desaturation.

  10. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  11. Highly divergent mitochondrion-related organelles in anaerobic parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Makiuchi, Takashi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2014-05-01

    The mitochondria have arisen as a consequence of endosymbiosis of an ancestral α-proteobacterium with a methane-producing archae. The main function of the canonical aerobic mitochondria include ATP generation via oxidative phosphorylation, heme and phospholipid synthesis, calcium homeostasis, programmed cell death, and the formation of iron-sulfur clusters. Under oxygen-restricted conditions, the mitochondrion has often undergone remarkable reductive alterations of its content and function, leading to the generation of mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), such as mitosomes, hydrogenosomes, and mithochondrion-like organelles, which are found in a wide range of anaerobic/microaerophilic eukaryotes that include several medically important parasitic protists such as Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Blastocystis hominis, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi, as well as free-living protists such as Sawyeria marylandensis, Neocallimastix patriciarum, and Mastigamoeba balamuthi. The transformation from canonical aerobic mitochondria to MROs apparently have occurred in independent lineages, and resulted in the diversity of their components and functions. Due to medical and veterinary importance of the MRO-possessing human- and animal-pathogenic protozoa, their genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and biochemical evidence has been accumulated. Detailed analyses of the constituents and functions of the MROs in such anaerobic pathogenic protozoa, which reside oxygen-deprived or oxygen-poor environments such as the mammalian intestine and the genital organs, should illuminate the current evolutionary status of the MROs in these organisms, and give insight to environmental constraints that drive the evolution of eukaryotes and their organelles. In this review, we summarize and discuss the diverse metabolic functions and protein transport systems of the MROs from anaerobic parasitic protozoa.

  12. [Trypanosomatid (Protozoa, Kinetoplastida) parasites of sloths (Mannmalia, Xenarthra)].

    PubMed

    Rotureau, B

    2006-07-01

    Worldwide famous for their slothfulness, sloths are xenarthran mammals living in the tropical forests of the New World. In these highly biodiverse habitats, sloths are implicated in long-term interactions with many organisms. They are especially involved in the parasitic cycles of various trypanosomatids including human parasites. This review describes the different species of the genera Leishmania, Endotrypanum and Trypanosoma that infect sloths. The improvement of the preventive method efficacy against synanthropozoonotic diseases due to several of these protozoa relies on studies on the ecology and biology of wild reservoir hosts such as sloths.

  13. Amoeba-resisting bacteria found in multilamellar bodies secreted by Dictyostelium discoideum: social amoebae can also package bacteria.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Valérie E; Charette, Steve J

    2016-03-01

    Many bacteria can resist phagocytic digestion by various protozoa. Some of these bacteria (all human pathogens) are known to be packaged in multilamellar bodies produced in the phagocytic pathway of the protozoa and that are secreted into the extracellular milieu. Packaged bacteria are protected from harsh conditions, and the packaging process is suspected to promote bacterial persistence in the environment. To date, only a limited number of protozoa, belonging to free-living amoebae and ciliates, have been shown to perform bacteria packaging. It is still unknown if social amoebae can do bacteria packaging. The link between the capacity of 136 bacterial isolates to resist the grazing of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and to be packaged by this amoeba was investigated in the present study. The 45 bacterial isolates displaying a resisting phenotype were tested for their capacity to be packaged. A total of seven isolates from Cupriavidus, Micrococcus, Microbacterium and Rathayibacter genera seemed to be packaged and secreted by D. discoideum based on immunofluorescence results. Electron microscopy confirmed that the Cupriavidus and Rathayibacter isolates were formally packaged. These results show that social amoebae can package some bacteria from the environment revealing a new aspect of microbial ecology.

  14. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in primate bushmeat and pets in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Pourrut, X; Diffo, J L D; Somo, R M; Bilong Bilong, C F; Delaporte, E; LeBreton, M; Gonzalez, J P

    2011-01-10

    To document the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Cameroonian monkeys and to assess the risk of transmission to humans, we sampled 125 primates belonging to 15 species, of which 78 had been captured for bushmeat in the wild, and 47 were pets kept in urban areas. Seven nematode species, one trematode, one cestode and three protozoa were detected. Eight different parasite species were found in Cercopithecus nictitans and six in C. neglectus, C. pogonias and Cercocebus agilis. Helminths were found in 77% of monkeys, and protozoa in 36%. Trichuris sp. and Entamoeba coli were the most frequent parasites, being found in 54% and 36% of animals, respectively. Helminths were more frequent in adults than in juveniles, while the prevalence of protozoa was not age-related. No significant gender difference was found. Bushmeat monkeys had a significantly higher prevalence of helminth infection than pets (92% versus 51%), whereas there was no significant difference in the prevalence of protozoa (32% versus 43%). Among helminth species, Strongyloides fulleborni was more prevalent in bushmeat monkeys than in pets (55% versus 15%), as were Ancylostoma spp. (62% versus 9%). As these parasites are transmitted transcutaneously by infectious larva, they have a high potential for transmission to humans, during butchering. One pet monkey kept in an urban household in Yaoundé was infected by Schistosoma mansoni. The potential public health implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia.

    PubMed

    Craig, L E; Hardam, E E; Hertzke, D M; Flatland, B; Rohrbach, B W; Moore, R R

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study of cases of a unique intramural inflammatory mass within the feline gastrointestinal tract was performed in order to describe and characterize the lesion. Twenty-five cases were identified from archival surgical and postmortem tissues. The lesion most often occurred as an ulcerated intramural mass at the pyloric sphincter (n = 12) or the ileocecocolic junction or colon (n = 9); the remaining cases were in the small intestine. Seven cases also had lymph node involvement. The lesions were characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, large reactive fibroblasts, and trabeculae of dense collagen. Intralesional bacteria were identified in 56% of the cases overall and all of the ileocecocolic junction and colon lesions. Fifty-eight percent of cats tested had peripheral eosinophilia. Cats treated with prednisone had a significantly longer survival time than those receiving other treatments. We propose that this is a unique fibroblastic response of the feline gastrointestinal tract to eosinophilic inflammation that in some cases is associated with bacteria. The lesion is often grossly and sometimes histologically mistaken for neoplasia.

  16. Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2010-06-23

    I discuss eukaryotic deep phylogeny and reclassify the basal eukaryotic kingdom Protozoa and derived kingdom Chromista in the light of multigene trees. I transfer the formerly protozoan Heliozoa and infrakingdoms Alveolata and Rhizaria into Chromista, which is sister to kingdom Plantae and arguably originated by synergistic double internal enslavement of green algal and red algal cells. I establish new subkingdoms (Harosa; Hacrobia) for the expanded Chromista. The protozoan phylum Euglenozoa differs immensely from other eukaryotes in its nuclear genome organization (trans-spliced multicistronic transcripts), mitochondrial DNA organization, cytochrome c-type biogenesis, cell structure and arguably primitive mitochondrial protein-import and nuclear DNA prereplication machineries. The bacteria-like absence of mitochondrial outer-membrane channel Tom40 and DNA replication origin-recognition complexes from trypanosomatid Euglenozoa roots the eukaryotic tree between Euglenozoa and all other eukaryotes (neokaryotes), or within Euglenozoa. Given their unique properties, I segregate Euglenozoa from infrakingdom Excavata (now comprising only phyla Percolozoa, Loukozoa, Metamonada), grouping infrakingdoms Euglenozoa and Excavata as the ancestral protozoan subkingdom Eozoa. I place phylum Apusozoa within the derived protozoan subkingdom Sarcomastigota. Clarifying early eukaryote evolution requires intensive study of properties distinguishing Euglenozoa from neokaryotes and Eozoa from neozoa (eukaryotes except Eozoa; ancestrally defined by haem lyase).

  17. Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    I discuss eukaryotic deep phylogeny and reclassify the basal eukaryotic kingdom Protozoa and derived kingdom Chromista in the light of multigene trees. I transfer the formerly protozoan Heliozoa and infrakingdoms Alveolata and Rhizaria into Chromista, which is sister to kingdom Plantae and arguably originated by synergistic double internal enslavement of green algal and red algal cells. I establish new subkingdoms (Harosa; Hacrobia) for the expanded Chromista. The protozoan phylum Euglenozoa differs immensely from other eukaryotes in its nuclear genome organization (trans-spliced multicistronic transcripts), mitochondrial DNA organization, cytochrome c-type biogenesis, cell structure and arguably primitive mitochondrial protein-import and nuclear DNA prereplication machineries. The bacteria-like absence of mitochondrial outer-membrane channel Tom40 and DNA replication origin-recognition complexes from trypanosomatid Euglenozoa roots the eukaryotic tree between Euglenozoa and all other eukaryotes (neokaryotes), or within Euglenozoa. Given their unique properties, I segregate Euglenozoa from infrakingdom Excavata (now comprising only phyla Percolozoa, Loukozoa, Metamonada), grouping infrakingdoms Euglenozoa and Excavata as the ancestral protozoan subkingdom Eozoa. I place phylum Apusozoa within the derived protozoan subkingdom Sarcomastigota. Clarifying early eukaryote evolution requires intensive study of properties distinguishing Euglenozoa from neokaryotes and Eozoa from neozoa (eukaryotes except Eozoa; ancestrally defined by haem lyase). PMID:20031978

  18. Bioaugmentation Mitigates the Impact of Estrogen on Coliform-Grazing Protozoa in Slow Sand Filters.

    PubMed

    Haig, Sarah-Jane; Gauchotte-Lindsay, Caroline; Collins, Gavin; Quince, Christopher

    2016-03-15

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens, is a growing issue for human and animal health as they have been shown to cause reproductive and developmental abnormalities in wildlife and plants and have been linked to male infertility disorders in humans. Intensive farming and weather events, such as storms, flash flooding, and landslides, contribute estrogen to waterways used to supply drinking water. This paper explores the impact of estrogen exposure on the performance of slow sand filters (SSFs) used for water treatment. The feasibility and efficacy of SSF bioaugmentation with estrogen-degrading bacteria was also investigated, to determine whether removal of natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol, and estriol) and overall SSF performance for drinking water treatment could be improved. Strains for SSF augmentation were isolated from full-scale, municipal SSFs so as to optimize survival in the laboratory-scale SSFs used. Concentrations of the natural estrogens, determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed augmented SSFs reduced the overall estrogenic potency of the supplied water by 25% on average and removed significantly more estrone and estradiol than nonaugmented filters. A negative correlation was found between coliform removal and estrogen concentration in nonaugmented filters. This was due to the toxic inhibition of protozoa, indicating that high estrogen concentrations can have functional implications for SSFs (such as impairing coliform removal). Consequently, we suggest that high estrogen concentrations could impact significantly on water quality production and, in particular, on pathogen removal in biological water filters.

  19. Bioaugmentation Mitigates the Impact of Estrogen on Coliform-Grazing Protozoa in Slow Sand Filters

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens, is a growing issue for human and animal health as they have been shown to cause reproductive and developmental abnormalities in wildlife and plants and have been linked to male infertility disorders in humans. Intensive farming and weather events, such as storms, flash flooding, and landslides, contribute estrogen to waterways used to supply drinking water. This paper explores the impact of estrogen exposure on the performance of slow sand filters (SSFs) used for water treatment. The feasibility and efficacy of SSF bioaugmentation with estrogen-degrading bacteria was also investigated, to determine whether removal of natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol, and estriol) and overall SSF performance for drinking water treatment could be improved. Strains for SSF augmentation were isolated from full-scale, municipal SSFs so as to optimize survival in the laboratory-scale SSFs used. Concentrations of the natural estrogens, determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed augmented SSFs reduced the overall estrogenic potency of the supplied water by 25% on average and removed significantly more estrone and estradiol than nonaugmented filters. A negative correlation was found between coliform removal and estrogen concentration in nonaugmented filters. This was due to the toxic inhibition of protozoa, indicating that high estrogen concentrations can have functional implications for SSFs (such as impairing coliform removal). Consequently, we suggest that high estrogen concentrations could impact significantly on water quality production and, in particular, on pathogen removal in biological water filters. PMID:26895622

  20. Transport behavior of groundwater protozoa and protozoan-sized microspheres in sandy aquifer sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Kinner, N.E.; Bunn, A.; MacDonald, D.; Metge, D.

    1995-01-01

    Transport behaviors of unidentified flagellated protozoa (flagellates) and flagellate-sized carboxylated microspheres in sandy, organically contaminated aquifer sediments were investigated in a small-scale (1 to 4-m travel distance) natural-gradient tracer test on Cape Cod and in flow-through columns packed with sieved (0.5-to 1.0-mm grain size) aquifer sediments. The minute (average in situ cell size, 2 to 3 ??m) flagellates, which are relatively abundant in the Cape Cod aquifer, were isolated from core samples, grown in a grass extract medium, labeled with hydroethidine (a vital eukaryotic stain), and coinjected into aquifer sediments along with bromide, a conservative tracer. The 2-??m flagellates appeared to be near the optimal size for transport, judging from flowthrough column experiments involving a polydispersed (0.7 to 6.2 ??m in diameter) suspension of carboxylated microspheres. However, immobilization within the aquifer sediments accounted for a log unit reduction over the first meter of travel compared with a log unit reduction over the first 10 m of travel for indigenous, free-living groundwater bacteria in earlier tests. High rates of flagellate immobilization in the presence of aquifer sediments also was observed in the laboratory. However, immobilization rates for the laboratory-grown flagellates (initially 4 to 5 ??m) injected into the aquifer were not constant and decreased noticeably with increasing time and distance of travel. The decrease in propensity for grain surfaces was accompanied by a decrease in cell size, as the flagellates presumably readapted to aquifer conditions. Retardation and apparent dispersion were generally at least twofold greater than those observed earlier for indigenous groundwater bacteria but were much closer to those observed for highly surface active carboxylated latex microspheres. Field and laboratory results suggest that 2- ??m carboxylated microspheres may be useful as analogs in investigating several abiotic

  1. Molecular diagnosis of infectious diarrhea: focus on enteric protozoa.

    PubMed

    Verkerke, Hans P; Sobuz, Shihab U; Petri, William A

    2014-11-01

    Robust detection of enteric protozoa is a critical step toward determining the etiology of diarrhea. Widespread use of conventional microscopy, culturing and antigen detection in both industrial and developing countries is limited by relatively low sensitivity and specificity. Refinements of these conventional approaches that reduce turnaround time and instrumentation have yielded strong alternatives for clinical and research use. However, advances in molecular diagnostics for protozoal, bacterial, viral and helminth infections offer significant advantages in studies seeking to understand pathogenesis, transmission and long-term consequences of infectious diarrhea. Quantitation of enteropathogen burden and highly multiplexed platforms for molecular detection dramatically improve predictive power in emerging models of diarrheal etiology, while eliminating the expense of multiple tests.

  2. Clinical and immunological characteristics associated with the presence of protozoa in sputum smears.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between protozoa in spontaneously expectorated sputum samples and a range of clinical and immunological variables. Clinical details including age, gender, smoking status, and use of oral or inhaled steroids were recorded for a cohort of 199 patients whose spontaneously expectorated sputum samples were submitted to a Cytology Laboratory in Spain between January 2005 and December 2006. Slides were scanned for protozoa under light microscopy and scanned for monocytes/small macrophages highlighted by immunocytochemistry (CD68 monoclonal antibody). One hundred ninety-one patients provided adequate sputum samples, of whom 70 had protozoa in their sputum. There was a strong relationship between the presence of protozoa and monocytes/small macrophages identified under light microscopy (P < 0.001). A binary logistic regression model also indicated a relationship between protozoa and both smoking status and steroid use. The diagnoses in those with protozoa included infection (including tuberculosis), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung fibrosis, asthma, chronic liver disease, immunosuppression, cancer, pancreatic or renal disease, heart failure, and AIDS. The identified association between protozoa and monocytes/small macrophages in sputum suggests an immune response and warrants further investigation to clarify whether or not these organisms have any pathological significance in this wide range of conditions.

  3. Anaerobic bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria ... Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  4. Influence of rumen protozoa on methane emission in ruminants: a meta-analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Nozière, P; Morgavi, D P; Doreau, M; Martin, C

    2014-11-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of protozoa concentration on methane emission from ruminants. A database was built from 59 publications reporting data from 76 in vivo experiments. The experiments included in the database recorded methane production and rumen protozoa concentration measured on the same groups of animals. Quantitative data such as diet chemical composition, rumen fermentation and microbial parameters, and qualitative information such as methane mitigation strategies were also collected. In the database, 31% of the experiments reported a concomitant reduction of both protozoa concentration and methane emission (g/kg dry matter intake). Nearly all of these experiments tested lipids as methane mitigation strategies. By contrast, 21% of the experiments reported a variation in methane emission without changes in protozoa numbers, indicating that methanogenesis is also regulated by other mechanisms not involving protozoa. Experiments that used chemical compounds as an antimethanogenic treatment belonged to this group. The relationship between methane emission and protozoa concentration was studied with a variance-covariance model, with experiment as a fixed effect. The experiments included in the analysis had a within-experiment variation of protozoa concentration higher than 5.3 log10 cells/ml corresponding to the average s.e.m. of the database for this variable. To detect potential interfering factors for the relationship, the influence of several qualitative and quantitative secondary factors was tested. This meta-analysis showed a significant linear relationship between methane emission and protozoa concentration: methane (g/kg dry matter intake)=-30.7+8.14×protozoa (log10 cells/ml) with 28 experiments (91 treatments), residual mean square error=1.94 and adjusted R 2=0.90. The proportion of butyrate in the rumen positively influenced the least square means of this relationship.

  5. Relative diversity and community structure analysis of rumen protozoa according to T-RFLP and microscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Tymensen, Lisa; Barkley, Cindy; McAllister, Tim A

    2012-01-01

    Protozoa are common inhabitants of the rumen where they play roles in host nutrition and methanogenesis. Knowledge of how changes in the composition of protozoa communities affect these processes is limited in part due to a lack of efficient methods for protozoa community analysis. In this study, a terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene was developed for comparative analysis of rumen protozoa communities. Comparison of diversity and structure of protozoa communities from hay-fed versus silage/grain-fed cattle via T-RFLP analysis yielded similar overall results to microscopy analysis. According to both methods, Entodinium spp. were more abundant in the silage/grain-fed cattle and protozoa diversity (as calculated using the Shannon index) was higher for the hay-fed cattle due to greater species evenness. Type B protozoa were more prevalent in the hay-fed cattle, whereas Type A protozoa were more prevalent in the silage/grain-fed cattle. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) indicated that the protozoa communities from hay-fed and silage/grain-fed cattle were different, and multivariate analysis indicated that pen mates (i.e., cattle fed the same diet and housed together) tended to have similar protozoa communities types. In summary, we present a T-RFLP method for analyzing rumen protozoa communities which complements traditional microscopy approaches but has the advantage of being amenable to high-throughput.

  6. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Prasanna; Wu, Guang-Yao; Zhu, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract is the most common extranodal site involved by lymphoma with the majority being non-Hodgkin type. Although lymphoma can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, the most frequent sites in order of its occurrence are the stomach followed by small intestine and ileocecal region. Gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is usually secondary to the widespread nodal diseases and primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is relatively rare. Gastrointestinal lymphomas are usually not clinically specific and indistinguishable from other benign and malignant conditions. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common pathological type of gastrointestinal lymphoma in essentially all sites of the gastrointestinal tract, although recently the frequency of other forms has also increased in certain regions of the world. Although some radiological features such as bulky lymph nodes and maintenance of fat plane are more suggestive of lymphoma, they are not specific, thus mandating histopathological analysis for its definitive diagnosis. There has been a tremendous leap in the diagnosis, staging and management of gastrointestinal lymphoma in the last two decades attributed to a better insight into its etiology and molecular aspect as well as the knowledge about its critical signaling pathways. PMID:21390139

  7. Advances in gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lanas, Ángel

    2016-09-01

    The main innovations of the latest meeting of the Gastroenterological Association (2016) concerning upper gastrointestinal bleeding from the clinician's perspective can be summarised as follows: a) The Glasgow-Blatchford scale has the best accuracy in predicting the need for surgical intervention and hospital mortality; b) Prognostic scales for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding are also useful for lower gastrointestinal bleeding; c) Preliminary data suggest that treatment with hemospray does not seem to be superior to current standard treatment in controlling active peptic ulcer bleeding; d) Either famotidine or a proton pump inhibitor may be effective in preventing haemorrhagic recurrence in patients taking aspirin, but this finding needs to be confirmed in further studies; e) There was confirmation of the need to re-introduce antiplatelet therapy as early as possible in patients with antiplatelet-associated gastrointestinal bleeding in order to prevent cardiovascular mortality; f) Routine clinical practice suggests that gastrointestinal or cardiovascular complications with celecoxib or traditional NSAIDs are very low; g) Dabigatran is associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding compared with apixaban or warfarin. At least half of the episodes are located in the lower gastrointestinal tract; h) Implant devices for external ventricular circulatory support are associated with early gastrointestinal bleeding in up to one third of patients; the bleeding is often secondary to arteriovenous malformations.

  8. Radiologic diagnosis of gastrointestinal perforation.

    PubMed

    Rubesin, Stephen E; Levine, Marc S

    2003-11-01

    Perforations of the gastrointestinal tract have many causes. Holes in the wall of gastrointestinal organs can be created by blunt or penetrating trauma, iatrogenic injury, inflammatory conditions that penetrate the serosa or adventitia, extrinsic neoplasms that invade the gastrointestinal tract, or primary neoplasms that penetrate outside the wall of gastrointestinal organs. This article provides a radiologic approach for investigating the wide variety of gastrointestinal perforations. General principles about contrast agents and studies are reviewed, and then perforations in specific gastrointestinal organs are discussed.

  9. Comparison of fermentation of diets of variable composition and microbial populations in the rumen of sheep and Rusitec fermenters. II. Protozoa population and diversity of bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M E; Ranilla, M J; Tejido, M L; Saro, C; Carro, M D

    2010-08-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep and 8 Rusitec fermenters were used to determine the effects of dietary characteristics on microbial populations and bacterial diversity. The purpose of the study was to assess how closely fermenters can mimic the differences between diets found in vivo. The 4 experimental diets contained forage to concentrate (F:C) ratios of 70:30 (high forage; HF) or 30:70 (high concentrate; HC) with either alfalfa hay (A) or grass hay (G) as the forage. Total bacterial numbers were greater in the rumen of sheep fed HF diets compared with those fed HC diets, whereas the opposite was found in fermenters. The numbers of cellulolytic bacteria were not affected by F:C ratio in any fermentation system, but cellulolytic numbers were 2.7 and 1.8 times greater in sheep than in fermenters for HF and HC diets, respectively. Neither total bacterial nor cellulolytic numbers were affected by the type of forage in sheep or fermenters. Decreasing F:C ratio increased total protozoa and Entodiniae numbers in sheep by about 29 and 25%, respectively, but it had no effect in fermenters. Isotrichidae and Ophryoscolecinae numbers in sheep were not affected by changing F:C ratio, but both disappeared completely from fermenters fed HC diets. Total protozoa and Entodiniae numbers were greater in sheep fed A diets than in those fed G diets, whereas the opposite was found in fermenters. Results indicate that under the conditions of the present study, protozoa population in Rusitec fermenters was not representative of that in the rumen of sheep fed the same diets. In addition, protozoa numbers in fermenters were 121 and 226 times lower than those in the sheep rumen for HF and HC diets, respectively. The automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used to analyze the diversity of liquid- and solid-associated bacteria in both systems. A total of 170 peaks were detected in the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis

  10. Gastrointestinal parasitism of goats in hilly region of Meghalaya, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Meena; Laha, R.; Goswami, A.; Goswami, A.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infections in goats of hilly region of Meghalaya. Materials and Methods: A total of 834 fecal samples of goats were screened for 1 year (2014-2015) using flotation techniques. Results: The overall prevalence of GI parasitic infections in goats was 28.65%. Season-wise highest infections were recorded during rainy season (34.92%) followed by cool (26.87%), hot (26.62%), and cold (20.39%) seasons. Helminths and protozoa infections were recorded in 63.60% and 23.02% animals, respectively. Among the helminths, Strongyle spp. (32.63%) was recorded highest followed by Trichuris spp. (12.55%), Moniezia spp. (10.04%), and Trichuris spp. (8.36%). Among protozoa, only Eimeria spp. was detected. Seven different species of Eimeria spp. were identified, viz., Eimeria christenseni, Eimeria hirci, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, Eimeria arloingi, and Eimeria kocharii for the first time from Meghalaya. Maximum egg per gram and oocyst per gram of feces were recorded in the month of August (932.4) and September (674.05), respectively. Mixed infections were recorded in 13.38% samples. Coproculture of goat fecal samples revealed the presence of Haemonchus contortus (72.16%), Oesophagostomum spp. (14.41%), Strongyloides spp. (8.91%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (4.50%) larvae. Conclusion: This study indicates that GI helminths and protozoa infections are prevalent in goats of this hilly region of Meghalaya, throughout the year and highly prevalent during rainy season. PMID:28246451

  11. Is there, and should there be, apoptosis in bacteria?

    PubMed

    Häcker, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis is a well-studied form of cell death in metazoans, where it has a clear role during the life of the (multicellular) animal. Some situations of cell death in unicellular eukaryotes (protozoa and yeast) have also been referred to as apoptosis. In recent years apoptosis has further been identified in bacteria several times. As a bacterial response to external stimuli, apoptosis could be important not only for the bacteria but also to the host. Here I will discuss why I believe that the term apoptosis should be avoided for these situations in bacteria, no matter how interesting the molecular background or how biologically important the underlying mechanism may be.

  12. Gastrointestinal Malignancy and the Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Maria T.; Peek, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial species participate in the genesis of a substantial number of malignancies—in conservative estimates, at least 15% of all cancer cases are attributable to infectious agents. Little is known about the contribution of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome to the development of malignancies. Resident microbes can promote carcinogenesis by inducing inflammation, increasing cell proliferation, altering stem cell dynamics, and producing metabolites such as butyrate, which affect DNA integrity and immune regulation. Studies in humans and rodent models of cancer have identified effector species and relationships among members of the microbial community in the stomach and colon that increase the risk for malignancy. Strategies to manipulate the microbiome, or the immune response to such bacteria, could be developed to prevent or treat certain GI cancers. PMID:24406471

  13. Multiplex PCR detection of waterborne intestinal protozoa: microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Joung, Migyo; Yoon, Sejoung; Choi, Kyoungjin; Park, Woo-Yoon; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2010-12-01

    Recently, emerging waterborne protozoa, such as microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium, have become a challenge to human health worldwide. Rapid, simple, and economical detection methods for these major waterborne protozoa in environmental and clinical samples are necessary to control infection and improve public health. In the present study, we developed a multiplex PCR test that is able to detect all these 3 major waterborne protozoa at the same time. Detection limits of the multiplex PCR method ranged from 10(1) to 10(2) oocysts or spores. The primers for microsporidia or Cryptosporidium used in this study can detect both Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, or both Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, respectively. Restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products with BsaBI or BsiEI makes it possible to distinguish the 2 species of microsporidia or Cryptosporidium, respectively. This simple, rapid, and cost-effective multiplex PCR method will be useful for detecting outbreaks or sporadic cases of waterborne protozoa infections.

  14. Biodiversity and distribution of helminths and protozoa in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", México.

    PubMed

    Güiris, A D M; Rojas, H N M; Berovides, A V; Sosa, P J; Pérez, E M E; Cruz, A E; Chávez, H C; Moguel, A J A; Jimenez-Coello, M; Ortega-Pacheco, A

    2010-06-24

    A cross sectional survey was performed to identify gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve known as "La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", Mexico (El Triunfo and La Sepultura). During a three-year survey, fecal samples from 90 horses and parasites from 2 necropsied animals were collected. Five families from the Nematoda class: Ascaridae, Kathlanidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae and Trichostrongylidae were found, whereas, only one family from the class Cestoda, was observed: Anoplocephalidae. One family from the class Insecta, was observed: Gasterophiilidae. The number of species of parasites ranged from 13 to 18 with an average of 15 per animal. Adult parasites were recovered from the large intestine luminal contents at necropsy. Species recovered included: Strongylus vulgaris, S. equinus, S. edentatus, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Coronocyclus coronatum, C. labiatus, C. labratus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus insigne, C. leptostomus, Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, Cylicostephanus asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, Petrovinema poculatum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, Triodontophorus serratus and T. tenuicollis. One species of Diptera were recovered from stomach and identified: Gasterophilus intestinalis. Furthermore, different species of protozoa were recovered from fresh horse-dung and identified in four classes: Sporozoa, Litostomatea, Ciliasida and Suctoria. Nine families: Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Balantidiidae, Buetschliidae, Blepharocorythidae, Cycloposthiidae, Spirodiniididae, Ditoxidae, Acinetidae; and 31 ciliates species were recorded: Allantosoma dicorniger, A. intestinalis, Alloiozona trizona, Blepharosphaera intestinalis, Blepharoprosthium pireum, Blepharoconus benbrooki, Bundleia postciliata, Didesmis ovalis, D. quadrata, Sulcoarcus pellucidulus, Blepharocorys angusta, B. cardionucleata, B. curvigula, B. juvata, B

  15. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater - results, quality control, and interpretation methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes large enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bac...

  16. Osteoporosis and Gastrointestinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weinerman, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is often overlooked or simply forgotten as a cause of osteoporosis. Yet, the consequences of osteoporotic fractures can be devastating. Although the bulk of the published experience regarding osteoporosis is derived from the postmenopausal population, this review will focus on gastrointestinal disorders implicated in osteoporosis, with an emphasis on inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. The unique aspects of gastrointestinal diseases associated with osteoporosis include early onset of disease (and, therefore, prolonged exposure to risk factors for developing osteoporosis, particularly with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease), malabsorption, and maldigestion of nutrients necessary for bone health and maintenance (eg, calcium, vitamin D), as well as the impact of glucocorticoids. These factors, when added to smoking, a sedentary lifestyle, hypogonadism, and a family history of osteoporosis, accumulate into an imposing package of predictors for osteoporotic fracture. This paper will review the identification and treatment strategies for patients with gastrointestinal disorders and osteoporosis. PMID:20978554

  17. Vasculitis and gastrointestinal involvement.

    PubMed

    Casella, G; Bronzino, B; Cutrino, L; Montani, N; Somma, A; Baldini, V

    2006-06-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal involvement is relatively observed in patients with vasculitis processes. Vasculitis can be primary (necrotising or hypersensitivity) or secondary to another primary disease. Gastrointestinal involvement is present in up to 50% of the various forms of systemic vasculitis. Primary or secondary vasculitic process, according to the classification in necrotizing and hypersensitivity vasculitis, are described in this paper. A review of the literature on the the subject is also presented.

  18. Epidemiology and control of human gastrointestinal parasites in children

    PubMed Central

    Harhay, Michael O; Horton, John; Olliaro, Piero L

    2010-01-01

    Parasites found in the human gastrointestinal tract can be largely categorized into two groups, protozoa and helminths. The soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura) are the most prevalent, infecting an estimated one-sixth of the global population. Infection rates are highest in children living in sub-Saharan Africa, followed by Asia and then Latin America and the Caribbean. The current momentum towards global drug delivery for their control is at a historical high through the efforts of numerous initiatives increasingly acting in coordination with donors, governments and local communities. Together, they have delivered enormous quantities of drugs, especially anthelmintics to children through nationwide annual or biannual mass drug administration largely coordinated through schools. However, a much larger and rapidly growing childhood population in these regions remains untreated and suffering from more than one parasite. Mass drug administration has profound potential for control but is not without considerable challenges and concerns. A principal barrier is funding. Stimulating a research and development pipeline, supporting the necessary clinical trials to refine treatment, in addition to procuring and deploying drugs (and sustaining these supply chains), requires substantial funding and resources that do not presently exist. Limited options for chemotherapy raise concerns about drug resistance developing through overuse, however, satisfactory pharmacoepidemiology and monitoring for drug resistance requires more developed health infrastructures than are generally available. Further, the limited pharmacopeia does not include any effective second-line options if resistance emerges, and the research and development pipeline is severely depressed. Herein, we discuss the major gastrointestinal protozoa and helminths reviewing their impact on child health, changing epidemiology and how this relates to their control. PMID

  19. Asbestos and Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert W.; Foliart, Donna E.; Wong, Otto

    1985-01-01

    Exposure to asbestos is among several factors cited as possible causes of esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer. More than 45 published studies have presented mortality data on asbestos-exposed workers. For each cohort, we listed the observed and expected rates of deaths from types of gastrointestinal cancer based on the latest published follow-up. Summary standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were then derived. Finally, we calculated summary SMRs for total gastrointestinal tract cancer for three occupational groups: asbestos factory workers, insulators/shipyard workers and asbestos miners. Statistically significant elevations in summary SMRs were found for esophageal, stomach and total gastrointestinal tract cancer in all asbestos-exposed workers. Esophageal cancer summary SMRs remained significantly elevated when data were reanalyzed to include only those cohorts with death certificate diagnoses for cause of observed deaths. However, summary SMRs were not statistically significant for stomach and total gastrointestinal tract cancer after reanalysis. Summary SMRs by occupational group showed a significant elevation for total gastrointestinal cancer in insulators/shipyard workers. The elevation was not significant after reanalysis. Based on the results after reanalysis, the elevations in summary SMRs for stomach and total gastrointestinal tract cancer are of a magnitude that could result from diagnostic and investigator error. We conclude that more studies are required before stomach and colorectal cancers are documented as asbestos-related diseases. PMID:4036114

  20. Angiography and the gastrointestinal bleeder

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, S.

    1982-05-01

    The role of angiography in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage is discussed. Three categories of gastrointestinal bleeding are considered: upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastroesophageal varices, upper gastrointestinal bleeding of arterial or capillary origin, and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The advantages and disadvantages of angiography are compared with those of radionuclide scanning and endoscopy or colonoscopy. It is anticipated that, as radionuclide scans are more widely employed, angiography will eventually be performed only in those patients with positive scans.

  1. Antibiotics and gene transfer in swine gut bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract hosts a diverse collection bacteria, most of which are beneficial for host health. This bacterial community also supports a community of viruses that infect bacteria (called bacteriophages or phages). Phages transfer genes between bacteria, and phage-media...

  2. Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The current literature regarding the effects of the gaseous signal molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the gastrointestinal system is reviewed. Bacterial, host and pharmaceutical-derived H2S are all considered and presented according to the physiological or pathophysiological effects of the gaseous signal molecule. These subjects include the toxicology of intestinal H2S with emphasis on bacterial-derived H2S, especially from sulfate-reducing bacteria, the role of endogenous and exogenous H2S in intestinal inflammation, and the roles of H2S in gastrointestinal motility, secretion and nociception. Recent Advances: While its pro- and anti-inflammatory, smooth muscle relaxant, prosecretory, and pro- and antinociceptive actions continue to remain the major effects of H2S in this system; recent findings have expanded the potential molecular targets for H2S in the gastrointestinal tract. Critical Issues: Numerous discrepancies remain in the literature, and definitive molecular targets in this system have not been supported by the use of competitive antagonism. Future Directions: Future work will hopefully resolve discrepancies in the literature and identify molecular targets and mechanisms of action for H2S. It is clear from the current literature that the long-appreciated relationship between H2S and the gastrointestinal tract continues to be strong as we endeavor to unravel its mysteries. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 818–830. PMID:23582008

  3. Altering the Gastrointestinal Flora in Patients with Functional Bowel Disorders: A Way Ahead?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders are very common in the Western world, but unfortunately the underlying mechanisms behind these disorders are incompletely understood. Treatment options are limited and the economic consequences for society are profound. Recent data suggest an involvement of bacteria in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Probiotics are promising new treatment alternatives, which will be reviewed in this supplement. PMID:21180549

  4. Effect of nylon bag and protozoa on in vitro corn starch disappearance.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, J T; van Vuuren, A M; Dijkstra, J

    2008-03-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags with a pore size of 37 microm, and washed in cold water. Samples of washed cornstarch were incubated in 40-mL tubes with faunated and defaunated ruminal fluid. An additional amount of washed corn, in nylon bags, was inserted in each incubation tube. Incubations were carried out for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h, and starch residue in tube and nylon bag was determined. In general, starch disappearance from the nylon bag was less than from the tube, and was less with faunated than defaunated rumen fluid, but corn variety did not affect starch disappearance. When no protozoa were present, the disappearance of starch from the bags was higher after 6 and 12 h incubation compared with presence of protozoa. However, in the tubes, there was no difference in starch disappearance due to presence or absence of protozoa. Estimated lag time was higher in presence (4.6 h) then absence (3.6 h) of protozoa. It was concluded that the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on starch disappearance differs within or outside nylon bags. The reduced disappearance rate of starch inside the nylon bags in the presence of protozoa helps to explain the underestimation of starch degradation based on the in sacco procedure when compared with in vivo data upon incubation of slowly degradable starch sources.

  5. DNA evidence for global dispersal and probable endemicity of protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Bass, David; Richards, Thomas A; Matthai, Lena; Marsh, Victoria; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background It is much debated whether microbes are easily dispersed globally or whether they, like many macro-organisms, have historical biogeographies. The ubiquitous dispersal hypothesis states that microbes are so numerous and so easily dispersed worldwide that all should be globally distributed and found wherever growing conditions suit them. This has been broadly upheld for protists (microbial eukaryotes) by most morphological and some molecular analyses. However, morphology and most previously used evolutionary markers evolve too slowly to test this important hypothesis adequately. Results Here we use a fast-evolving marker (ITS1 rDNA) to map global diversity and distribution of three different clades of cercomonad Protozoa (Eocercomonas and Paracercomonas: phylum Cercozoa) by sequencing multiple environmental gene libraries constructed from 47–80 globally-dispersed samples per group. Even with this enhanced resolution, identical ITS sequences (ITS-types) were retrieved from widely separated sites and on all continents for several genotypes, implying relatively rapid global dispersal. Some identical ITS-types were even recovered from both marine and non-marine samples, habitats that generally harbour significantly different protist communities. Conversely, other ITS-types had either patchy or restricted distributions. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that geographic dispersal in macro-organisms and microbes is not fundamentally different: some taxa show restricted and/or patchy distributions while others are clearly cosmopolitan. These results are concordant with the 'moderate endemicity model' of microbial biogeography. Rare or continentally endemic microbes may be ecologically significant and potentially of conservational concern. We also demonstrate that strains with identical 18S but different ITS1 rDNA sequences can differ significantly in terms of morphological and important physiological characteristics, providing strong additional support for

  6. Multiplexed Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay To Detect Intestinal Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Crannell, Zachary; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Nair, Gayatri; Mejia, Rojelio; White, A Clinton; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-02-02

    This work describes a proof-of-concept multiplex recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay with lateral flow readout that is capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating DNA from any of the diarrhea-causing protozoa Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. Together, these parasites contribute significantly to the global burden of diarrheal illness. Differential diagnosis of these parasites is traditionally accomplished via stool microscopy. However, microscopy is insensitive and can miss up to half of all cases. DNA-based diagnostics such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are far more sensitive; however, they rely on expensive thermal cycling equipment, limiting their availability to centralized reference laboratories. Isothermal DNA amplification platforms, such as the RPA platform used in this study, alleviate the need for thermal cycling equipment and have the potential to broaden access to more sensitive diagnostics. Until now, multiplex RPA assays have not been developed that are capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating infections caused by different pathogens. We developed a multiplex RPA assay to detect the presence of DNA from Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. The multiplex assay was characterized using synthetic DNA, where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 403, 425, and 368 gene copies per reaction of the synthetic Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba targets, respectively (roughly 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than for the same targets in a singleplex RPA assay). The multiplex assay was also characterized using DNA extracted from live parasites spiked into stool samples where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 444, 6, and 9 parasites per reaction for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba parasites, respectively. This proof-of-concept assay may be reconfigured to detect a wide variety of targets by re-designing the primer and probe sequences.

  7. Asbestos and gastrointestinal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.W.; Foliart, D.E.; Wong, O.

    1985-07-01

    Exposure to asbestos is among several factors cited as possible causes of esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer. More than 45 published studies have presented mortality data on asbestos-exposed workers. For each cohort, the authors listed the observed and expected rates of deaths from types of gastrointestinal cancer based on the latest published follow-up. Summary standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were then derived. Finally, summary SMRs were calculated for total gastrointestinal tract cancer for three occupational groups: asbestos factory workers, insulators/shipyard workers and asbestos miners. Statistically significant elevations in summary SMRs were found for esophageal, stomach and total gastrointestinal tract cancer in all asbestos-exposed workers. Esophageal cancer summary SMR remained significantly elevated when data were reanalyzed to include only those cohorts with death certificate diagnoses for cause of observed deaths. However, summary SMRs were not statistically significant for stomach and total gastrointestinal tract cancer after reanalysis. Summary SMRs by occupational group showed a significant elevation for total gastrointestinal cancer in insulators/shipyard workers. The elevation was not significant after reanalysis. 59 references, 5 tables.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide in gastrointestinal and liver physiopathology.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Sabrina; Mencarelli, Andrea

    2011-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a gas that can be formed by the action of two enzymes, cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE) and cystathionine beta synthase (CBS). H(2)S has been known for hundreds of years for its poisoning effect, however the idea that H(2)S is not only a poison, but can exert a physiological role in mammalian organisms, originates from the evidence that this gaseous mediator is produced endogenously. In addition to H(2)S synthesis by gastrointestinal tissue, the intestinal mucosa, particularly in the large intestine, is regularly exposed to high concentrations of H(2)S that are generated by some species of bacteria and through the reduction of unabsorbed intestinal inorganic sulphate. This review reports on the effects of H(2)S in the gastrointestinal tract and liver and provides information on the therapeutic applications of H(2)S-donating drugs.

  9. Dientamoeba fragilis, One of the Neglected Intestinal Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a single-celled protozoan, closely related to the trichomonads. Reported worldwide as causing human gastrointestinal symptoms, D. fragilis is very common and is second only to Blastocystis spp. Dientamoebiasis equals or exceeds the incidence of giardiasis. This minireview includes diagnostic options, clinical relevance, therapy, an animal model, the confirmed cyst stage, and sequencing data. The development of a rodent model, fulfilling Koch's postulates, and the confirmation of a cyst stage have clarified transmission routes, including fecal-oral transmission. The prevalence of D. fragilis varies between 0% to over 82%; results depend on the geographic location, group studied, and diagnostic methods used. PMID:27053676

  10. Dientamoeba fragilis, One of the Neglected Intestinal Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lynne S

    2016-09-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a single-celled protozoan, closely related to the trichomonads. Reported worldwide as causing human gastrointestinal symptoms, D. fragilis is very common and is second only to Blastocystis spp. Dientamoebiasis equals or exceeds the incidence of giardiasis. This minireview includes diagnostic options, clinical relevance, therapy, an animal model, the confirmed cyst stage, and sequencing data. The development of a rodent model, fulfilling Koch's postulates, and the confirmation of a cyst stage have clarified transmission routes, including fecal-oral transmission. The prevalence of D. fragilis varies between 0% to over 82%; results depend on the geographic location, group studied, and diagnostic methods used.

  11. Gastrointestinal Stent Update

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The use of self-expanding metallic stents in the upper gastrointestinal tract, placed under radiologic imaging or endoscopic guidance, is the current treatment of choice for the palliation of malignant gastrointestinal outlet obstructions. Advances in metallic stent design and delivery systems have progressed to the stage where this treatment is now considered a minimally invasive therapy. Metallic stent placement will broaden further into the field of nonsurgical therapy for the gastrointestinal tract. To date, metallic stents placed in the esophagus, gastric outlet, colorectum, and bile ducts are not intended to be curative, but rather to provide a palliative treatment for obstructions. The evolution of metallic stent technology will render such procedures not only palliative but also therapeutic, by enabling local drug delivery, and the use of biodegradable materials will reduce procedure-related complications. PMID:21103290

  12. Bacteria and free-living amoeba in the Lascaux Cave.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Fabiola; Alabouvette, Claude; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-01-01

    The Lascaux Cave was discovered in 1940, and by 1960 it had received up to 1800 daily visitors. In 1963, the cave was closed and in 2001 it was invaded by a Fusarium solani species complex which was treated for four years with benzalkonium chloride. However, Lascaux Cave bacteria have only been poorly investigated. Here we show that the cave is now a reservoir of potential pathogenic bacteria and protozoa which can be found in outbreaks linked to air-conditioning systems and cooling towers in community hospitals and public buildings.

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinoid tumor is cancer that forms in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract ... Rectum . Enlarge Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors form in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, most often in the ...

  14. Treatment Options for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinoid tumor is cancer that forms in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract ... Rectum . Enlarge Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors form in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, most often in the ...

  15. General Information about Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinoid tumor is cancer that forms in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract ... Rectum . Enlarge Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors form in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, most often in the ...

  16. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow.

    PubMed

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 10(5) vs. 2.18 × 10(5) mL(-1) of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow.

  17. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow

    PubMed Central

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 105 vs. 2.18 × 105 mL-1 of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow. PMID:25610581

  18. Apollo gastrointestinal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, B. L.; Huang, C. T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Fecal bile acid patterns for the Apollo 17 flight were studied to determine the cause of diarrhea on the mission. The fecal sterol analysis gave no indication of an infectious diarrhea, or specific, or nonspecific etiology occurring during the entire flight. It is assumed that the gastrointestinal problems encountered are the consequences of altered physiology, perhaps secondary to physical or emotional stress of flight.

  19. Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders continue to be a prevalent set of conditions faced by the healthcare team and have a significant emotional and economic impact. In this review, the authors highlight some of the common functional disorders seen in pediatric patients (functional dyspepsia, irrita...

  20. Gastrointestinal endoscopy in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Savas, Nurten

    2014-11-07

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy has a major diagnostic and therapeutic role in most gastrointestinal disorders; however, limited information is available about clinical efficacy and safety in pregnant patients. The major risks of endoscopy during pregnancy include potential harm to the fetus because of hypoxia, premature labor, trauma and teratogenesis. In some cases, endoscopic procedures may be postponed until after delivery. When emergency or urgent indications are present, endoscopic procedures may be considered with some precautions. United States Food and Drug Administration category B drugs may be used in low doses. Endoscopic procedures during pregnancy may include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, enteroscopy of the small bowel or video capsule endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography. All gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in pregnant patients should be performed in hospitals by expert endoscopists and an obstetrician should be informed about all endoscopic procedures. The endoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy may be safe for the fetus and pregnant patient, and may be performed during pregnancy when strong indications are present. Colonoscopy for pregnant patients may be considered for strong indications during the second trimester. Although therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be considered during pregnancy, this procedure should be performed only for strong indications and attempts should be made to minimize radiation exposure.

  1. Gastrointestinal endoscopy in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Savas, Nurten

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy has a major diagnostic and therapeutic role in most gastrointestinal disorders; however, limited information is available about clinical efficacy and safety in pregnant patients. The major risks of endoscopy during pregnancy include potential harm to the fetus because of hypoxia, premature labor, trauma and teratogenesis. In some cases, endoscopic procedures may be postponed until after delivery. When emergency or urgent indications are present, endoscopic procedures may be considered with some precautions. United States Food and Drug Administration category B drugs may be used in low doses. Endoscopic procedures during pregnancy may include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, enteroscopy of the small bowel or video capsule endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography. All gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in pregnant patients should be performed in hospitals by expert endoscopists and an obstetrician should be informed about all endoscopic procedures. The endoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy may be safe for the fetus and pregnant patient, and may be performed during pregnancy when strong indications are present. Colonoscopy for pregnant patients may be considered for strong indications during the second trimester. Although therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be considered during pregnancy, this procedure should be performed only for strong indications and attempts should be made to minimize radiation exposure. PMID:25386072

  2. Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the scope and importance of gastrointestinal bleeding in runners and other athletes, discussing causes, sites, and implications of exercise-related bleeding. Practical tips to mitigate the problem, potentially more troublesome in women because of lower iron stores, are presented (e.g., gradual conditioning and avoidance of prerace…

  3. Comparisons of Salmonella conjugation and virulence gene hyperexpression mediated by rumen protozoa from domestic and exotic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Matt T; Xiong, Nalee; Dier, Jeffery D; Anderson, Kristi L; Rasmussen, Mark A; Franklin, Sharon K; Carlson, Steve A

    2011-08-05

    Recent studies have identified a phenomenon in which ciliated protozoa engulf Salmonella and the intra-protozoal environment hyperactivates virulence gene expression and provides a venue for conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids. The former observation is relegated to Salmonella bearing the SGI1 multiresistance integron while the latter phenomenon appears to be a more generalized event for recipient Salmonella. Our previous studies have assessed virulence gene hyperexpression only with protozoa from the bovine rumen while conjugal transfer has been demonstrated in rumen protozoa from cattle and goats. The present study examined virulence gene hyperexpression for Salmonella exposed to rumen protozoa obtained from cattle, sheep, goats, or two African ruminants (giraffe and bongo). Conjugal transfer was also assessed in these protozoa using Salmonella as the recipient. Virulence gene hyperexpression was only observed following exposure to the rumen protozoa from cattle and sheep while elevated virulence was also observed in these animals. Conjugal transfer events were, however, observed in all protozoa evaluated. It therefore appears that the protozoa-based hypervirulence is not universal to all ruminants while conjugal transfer is more ubiquitous.

  4. Seasonal and vertical distribution of the ciliated protozoa and micrometazoa in Kaštela Bay (central Adriatic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojanić, N.; Šolić, M.; Krstulović, N.; Marasović, I.; Ninčević, Ž.; Vidjak, O.

    2001-07-01

    Seasonal and vertical distribution of tintinnids, non-loricate ciliates and micrometazoa were studied in Kaštela Bay (central Adriatic Sea) throughout 1995. The species composition of tintinnids and copepods were studied as well. This is the first estimation of non-loricate ciliate biomass in the coastal area of the central Adriatic. Non-loricate ciliates were quantitatively the best represented ciliated protozoa, whereas nauplii were the most numerous micrometazoan organisms. Temperature affected the distribution of most micrometazoan components of the zooplankton and that of non-loricate ciliates. The temperature-dependent presence of individual size categories of non-loricate ciliates was also established. Apart from the interaction between microzooplankton groups, the influence of biotic factors, such as phytoplankton, bacteria, non-pigmented nanoflagellates (NNF) and mesozooplankton, was also discussed. The abundance of ciliates was controlled by both food supply (phytoplankton and NNF) and micrometazoan grazing. The results point to very complex trophic relationships within the planktonic community, suggesting that microzooplankton could be an important link between the microbial food web and higher trophic levels.

  5. Gastrointestinal parasite infestation.

    PubMed

    Abd El Bagi, Mohamed E; Sammak, Bassam M; Mohamed, Abdulrahman E; Al Karawi, Mohamed A; Al Shahed, Mona; Al Thagafi, Mohamed A

    2004-03-01

    Twenty-five percent of the world's population could be suffering parasitic infestation. Highest prevalence is in underdeveloped agricultural and rural areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. In some areas incidence may reach 90% of the population. In contrast, some major economic projects intended to promote local development have, paradoxically, caused parasitic proliferation, e.g. bilharziasis in Egypt and Sudan and Chagas disease in Brazil. The commonest cosmopolitan gastrointestinal parasite is Entamoeba histolytica. Some intestinal parasite are endemic in temperate climates, e.g. Entrobius vermicularis. The AIDS epidemic has increased the prevalence and severity of parasitic disease, particularly Strongyloides stercolaris. Tropical parasites are seen in Western people who travel to tropical countries. Radiology has acquired a major role in diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal parasite infestations and their complications.

  6. [Microbiota and gastrointestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Polanco Allué, I

    2015-12-01

    The bacterial colonisation is established immediately after birth, through direct contact with maternal microbiota, and may be influenced during lactation. There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of the immune system, leading to intra- or extra-intestinal diseases. A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood and adolescence is important to gastrointestinal health, including protection against pathogens, inhibition of pathogens, nutrient processing (synthesis of vitamin K), stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of host fat storage. Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favouring the health of the host. A review is presented on the modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention, and adjuvant treatment of some paediatric gastrointestinal diseases.

  7. Importance of passive diffusion in the uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by phagotrophic protozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawinski, E.B.; Farrington, J.W.; Moffett, J.W.

    2000-05-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments were conducted with a 10-{micro}m marine scuticociliate (Uronema sp.), bacterial prey (Halomonas halodurans), and a suite of 21 CB congeners spanning a range of aqueous solubilities. The dominant pathway of CB uptake by both grazing and nongrazing protozoa was diffusion. Organic-carbon-normalized CB concentrations (in the protozoan cell) were equivalent in grazing and nongrazing protozoa for all congeners studied. Rate constants for uptake into and loss from the protozoan cell were independently determined by using [3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-{sup 14}C]tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC no. 77), 0.38 {+-} 0.03 min{sup {minus}1} and (1.1 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}5} (g of organic carbon){minus}{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Magnitudes of the uptake and loss processes were calculated and compared by using a numerical model. The model result was consistent with data from the bioaccumulation experiment and supported the hypothesis that diffusive uptake is faster than ingestive uptake in phagotrophic unicellular protozoa.

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawash, Yousry A.; Dorgham, Laila Sh.; Amir, El-Amir M.; Sharaf, Osama F.

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases) from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits. Enteric protozoa were detected in 21 cases and 14 controls. Blastocystis spp. were the most predominant parasite (16% in cases versus 8% in controls), followed by Giardia duodenalis (10% in cases versus 12% in controls) and Cryptosporidium spp. (10% in cases versus 6% in controls). Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in two cases, while Entamoeba histolytica was described in one case and one control. Intestinal parasitism was positively associated with the male gender, urban residence, and travel history. Clinical symptoms of nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly varied between the parasitized cases and controls (P value ≤ 0.05). Given the results, we recommend screening all diarrheal feces for intestinal protozoa in the study's population, particularly those with CRF. PMID:26491455

  9. Recognition of Protozoa and Metazoa using image analysis tools, discriminant analysis, neural networks and decision trees.

    PubMed

    Ginoris, Y P; Amaral, A L; Nicolau, A; Coelho, M A Z; Ferreira, E C

    2007-07-09

    Protozoa and metazoa are considered good indicators of the treatment quality in activated sludge systems due to the fact that these organisms are fairly sensitive to physical, chemical and operational processes. Therefore, it is possible to establish close relationships between the predominance of certain species or groups of species and several operational parameters of the plant, such as the biotic indices, namely the Sludge Biotic Index (SBI). This procedure requires the identification, classification and enumeration of the different species, which is usually achieved manually implying both time and expertise availability. Digital image analysis combined with multivariate statistical techniques has proved to be a useful tool to classify and quantify organisms in an automatic and not subjective way. This work presents a semi-automatic image analysis procedure for protozoa and metazoa recognition developed in Matlab language. The obtained morphological descriptors were analyzed using discriminant analysis, neural network and decision trees multivariable statistical techniques to identify and classify each protozoan or metazoan. The obtained procedure was quite adequate for distinguishing between the non-sessile protozoa classes and also for the metazoa classes, with high values for the overall species recognition with the exception of sessile protozoa. In terms of the wastewater conditions assessment the obtained results were found to be suitable for the prediction of these conditions. Finally, the discriminant analysis and neural networks results were found to be quite similar whereas the decision trees technique was less appropriate.

  10. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  11. Detection of zoonotic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in wild boars from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety regulations require the control of presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence ...

  12. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development.

  13. Management of gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Hilsden, R. J.; Shaffer, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a common problem that requires prompt recognition and management to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. Management goals are stabilization of the patient with vigorous fluid resuscitation followed by investigation and definitive treatment of the bleeding source. Endoscopy is often the initial diagnostic test and allows therapeutic measures to be performed at the same time. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8563510

  14. Bacterial biofilms in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Probert, H M; Gibson, G R

    2002-09-01

    Microbial biofilms were first described in 1936 and subsequent research has unveiled their ubiquity and physiological distinction from free-living (planktonic) microorganisms. In light of their emerging significance this review examines the bacterial biofilms within the human gastrointestinal tract. Attention is paid to the nature of these mucosally- associated populations, focusing on the protected environment afforded by the continual secretion of mucus by host epithelial cells. It also examines the attributes possessed by various bacterial species that facilitate habitation of this microenvironment. Additionally, contrasts are drawn between planktonic bacteria of the lumen and sessile (biofilm) bacteria growing in close association with host cells and food particles. In particular the different fermentation profiles exhibited by these two fractions are discussed. The potential role of these communities in host health and disease, as well as the stabilisation of the lumenal population, is also considered. Reference is made to the state of mutualism that exists between these little understood populations and the host epithelia, thus highlighting their ecological significance in terms of gastrointestinal health.

  15. The effect of dietary phosphorus and calcium level, phytase supplementation, and ileal infusion of pectin on the chemical composition and carbohydrase activity of fecal bacteria and the level of microbial metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler, B U; Mosenthin, R; Baumgärtel, T; Rodehutscord, M

    2008-07-01

    < 0.001) polygalacturonase activity. In conclusion, these data indicate that bacterial P and Ca assimilation and metabolic activity depend on P and Ca availability in the large intestine and on the availability of fermentable substrate, such as pectin. Thus, increasing dietary P and Ca levels increases bacterial P and Ca assimilation due to greater intestinal P and Ca availability, whereas decreasing intestinal P availability for bacteria through phytase addition to low-P diets reduces bacterial P incorporation and seems to decrease bacterial activity.

  16. Preferential Feeding by the Ciliates Chilodonella and Tetrahymena spp. and Effects of These Protozoa on Bacterial Biofilm Structure and Composition▿

    PubMed Central

    Dopheide, Andrew; Lear, Gavin; Stott, Rebecca; Lewis, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    Protozoa are important components of microbial food webs, but protozoan feeding preferences and their effects in the context of bacterial biofilms are not well understood. The feeding interactions of two contrasting ciliates, the free-swimming filter feeder Tetrahymena sp. and the surface-associated predator Chilodonella sp., were investigated using biofilm-forming bacteria genetically modified to express fluorescent proteins. According to microscopy, both ciliates readily consumed cells from both Pseudomonas costantinii and Serratia plymuthica biofilms. When offered a choice between spatially separated biofilms, each ciliate showed a preference for P. costantinii biofilms. Experiments with bacterial cell extracts indicated that both ciliates used dissolved chemical cues to locate biofilms. Chilodonella sp. evidently used bacterial chemical cues as a basis for preferential feeding decisions, but it was unclear whether Tetrahymena sp. did also. Confocal microscopy of live biofilms revealed that Tetrahymena sp. had a major impact on biofilm morphology, forming holes and channels throughout S. plymuthica biofilms and reducing P. costantinii biofilms to isolated, grazing-resistant microcolonies. Grazing by Chilodonella sp. resulted in the development of less-defined trails through S. plymuthica biofilms and caused P. costantinii biofilms to become homogeneous scatterings of cells. It was not clear whether the observed feeding preferences for spatially separated P. costantinii biofilms over S. plymuthica biofilms resulted in selective targeting of P. costantinii cells in mixed biofilms. Grazing of mixed biofilms resulted in the depletion of both types of bacteria, with Tetrahymena sp. having a larger impact than Chilodonella sp., and effects similar to those seen in grazed single-species biofilms. PMID:21602372

  17. Rumen protozoa and methanogenesis: not a simple cause-effect relationship.

    PubMed

    Morgavi, Diego P; Martin, Cécile; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Ranilla, Maria José

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the interactions between hydrogen producers and consumers in the rumen ecosystem is important for ruminant production and methane mitigation. The present study explored the relationships between rumen protozoa, methanogens and fermentation characteristics. A total of six donor sheep harbouring (F, faunated) or not (D, defaunated) protozoa in their rumens (D animals were kept without protozoa for a period of a few months (D - ) or for more than 2 years (D+)) were used in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro the absence of protozoa decreased NH3 and butyrate production and had no effect on methane. In contrast, the liquid-associated bacterial and methanogens fraction of D+ inocula produced more methane than D -  and F inoculum (P < 0·05). In vivo fermentation parameters of donor animals showed the same trend on NH3 and butyrate and showed that D+ animals were high methane emitters, while D -  were the lowest ( - 35 %). The concentration of dissolved dihydrogen measured after feeding followed the opposite trend. Methane emissions did not correlate with the relative abundance of methanogens in the rumen measured by quantitative PCR, but there was a trend for higher methanogens concentration in the solid-associated population of D+ animals compared with D -  animals. In contrast, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of methanogens' methyl coenzyme-M reductase A gene showed a clear clustering in liquid-associated fractions for all three groups of donors but fewer differences in solid-associated fractions. These results show that the absence of protozoa may affect differently the methanogen community and methane emissions in wethers.

  18. Can fungal zoospores be the source of energy for the rumen protozoa Eudiplodinium maggii?

    PubMed

    Miltko, Renata; Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Kowalik, Barbara; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2014-10-01

    Results of our earlier studies showed the ability of ciliates Eudiplodinium maggii to digest and metabolize commercial chitin. The natural source of this polysaccharide in the rumen are fungi. The objectives of present research were to determine the effect of fungal zoospores on the survival and population density of E. maggii to quantify the concentration of chitin in the cells of protozoa and to examine the ability of E. maggii, to ferment chitin of fungal zoospores. The cultivation experiment showed that the survival of protozoa was shorter than 4 days when the culture medium was composed of buffer solution and lyophilized fungal spores. An enrichment of this medium with wheat gluten prolonged the survival of ciliates up to 8 days. The supplementation of the last medium with meadow hay enabled the protozoa to survive for 28 days but a positive effect was observed only during the last 8 days of experiment. The chitin content was 0.27 ng and 0.21-0.35 ng per single zoospore and ciliate, respectively. An increase in the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was found when protozoa were incubated with zoospores. The production rate of VFA was 46.3 pM/protozoan per h whereas the endogenous production did not exceed 31 pM/protozoan per h. The molar proportion of acetic acid was 77.7% and these of butyric and propionic acids-12.2 and 11.0%, respectively. The obtained results make it evident that carbohydrates present in fungal zoospores were utilized by protozoa in energy yielding processes.

  19. Transmission of specific groups of bacteria through water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Grabińska-Łoniewska, Anna; Wardzyńska, Grazyna; Pajor, Elzbieta; Korsak, Dorota; Boryń, Krystyna

    2007-01-01

    Microbial contamination of a water distribution system was examined. The number and the taxonomy of non-pigmented and pigmented heterotrophic bacteria (HB), number of bacteria (Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus sp., Campylobacter sp., Yersinia sp., representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and C. pefringens) in the bulk water phase, biomass of zoogloeal aggregates of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and rotifers (ZABFAPR) (separated from the above on 5 microm pore size filters) and in pipe sediments was determined. An increased number of HB occurred at the sampling sites situated as close as 4.2 km to the Water Treatment Plant (WTP), and was especially significant at 10.3 km. It was shown that the main reservoir of hygienically relevant bacteria did not occur in the water phase which is monitored in routine control analyses carried out by the WTP laboratories, but in the ZABFAPR biomass not monitored so far.

  20. The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    2002-03-01

    ancestrally biciliate clade, named 'bikonts'. The apparently conflicting rRNA and protein trees can be reconciled with each other and this ultrastructural interpretation if long-branch distortions, some mechanistically explicable, are allowed for. Bikonts comprise two groups: corticoflagellates, with a younger anterior cilium, no centrosomal cone and ancestrally a semi-rigid cell cortex with a microtubular band on either side of the posterior mature centriole; and Rhizaria [a new infrakingdom comprising Cercozoa (now including Ascetosporea classis nov.), Retaria phylum nov., Heliozoa and Apusozoa phylum nov.], having a centrosomal cone or radiating microtubules and two microtubular roots and a soft surface, frequently with reticulopodia. Corticoflagellates comprise photokaryotes (Plantae and chromalveolates, both ancestrally with cortical alveoli) and Excavata (a new protozoan infrakingdom comprising Loukozoa, Discicristata and Archezoa, ancestrally with three microtubular roots). All basal eukaryotic radiations were of mitochondrial aerobes; hydrogenosomes evolved polyphyletically from mitochondria long afterwards, the persistence of their double envelope long after their genomes disappeared being a striking instance of membrane heredity. I discuss the relationship between the 13 protozoan phyla recognized here and revise higher protozoan classification by updating as subkingdoms Lankester's 1878 division of Protozoa into Corticata (Excavata, Alveolata; with prominent cortical microtubules and ancestrally localized cytostome--the Parabasalia probably secondarily internalized the cytoskeleton) and Gymnomyxa [infrakingdoms Sarcomastigota (Choanozoa, Amoebozoa) and Rhizaria; both ancestrally with a non-cortical cytoskeleton of radiating singlet microtubules and a relatively soft cell surface with diffused feeding]. As the eukaryote root almost certainly lies within Gymnomyxa, probably among the Sarcomastigota, Corticata are derived. Following the single symbiogenetic origin of

  1. Protozoan Cysts Act as a Survival Niche and Protective Shelter for Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lambrecht, Ellen; Baré, Julie; Chavatte, Natascha; Bert, Wim; Sabbe, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The production of cysts, an integral part of the life cycle of many free-living protozoa, allows these organisms to survive adverse environmental conditions. Given the prevalence of free-living protozoa in food-related environments, it is hypothesized that these organisms play an important yet currently underinvestigated role in the epidemiology of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Intracystic bacterial survival is highly relevant, as this would allow bacteria to survive the stringent cleaning and disinfection measures applied in food-related environments. The present study shows that strains of widespread and important foodborne bacteria (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes) survive inside cysts of the ubiquitous amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii, even when exposed to either antibiotic treatment (100 μg/ml gentamicin) or highly acidic conditions (pH 0.2) and resume active growth in broth media following excystment. Strain- and species-specific differences in survival periods were observed, with Salmonella enterica surviving up to 3 weeks inside amoebal cysts. Up to 53% of the cysts were infected with pathogenic bacteria, which were located in the cyst cytosol. Our study suggests that the role of free-living protozoa and especially their cysts in the persistence and epidemiology of foodborne bacterial pathogens in food-related environments may be much more important than hitherto assumed. PMID:26070667

  2. Plague Masquerading as Gastrointestinal Illness

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Harry F.; Montes, Jean M.; Mann, Jonathan M.

    1986-01-01

    In clinical descriptions of human plague, fever and tender lymphadenitis are emphasized and gastrointestinal manifestations are rarely mentioned. A review of 71 human plague cases showed that gastrointestinal symptoms occurred commonly (57%). Vomiting (39%) was the most frequent symptom, with nausea (34%), diarrhea (28%) and abdominal pain (17%) occurring less often. Physicians treating patients who reside in or have recently visited plague-endemic areas should include plague in the differential diagnosis in the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and fever. PMID:3788132

  3. Hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Henry T; Lynch, Jane F; Shaw, Trudy G

    2011-07-01

    The rapid growth of molecular genetics and its attendant germline mutation discoveries has enabled identification of persons who are at an inordinately high cancer risk and, therefore, ideal candidates for prevention. However, one must fully appreciate the extensive genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity that exists in hereditary cancer. Once the causative germline mutation has been identified in a patient, high-risk members of the family can be similarly tested and identified and provided highly targeted surveillance and management opportunities. DNA testing can change the individual's presumed risk status and affect decision making by patients and their physicians regarding surveillance and management. Our purpose is to describe familial/hereditary cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, including familial Barrett's esophagus, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, familial adenomatous polyposis and desmoid tumors, Lynch syndrome, small bowel cancer, and familial pancreatic cancer. We use our discussion of Lynch syndrome as a model for diagnostic and clinical translation strategies for all hereditary gastrointestinal tract cancers, which clearly can then be extended to cancer of all anatomic sites. Highly pertinent questions from the patient's perspective include the following: What kind of counseling will be provided to a patient with a Lynch syndrome mutation, and should that counseling be mandatory? Does the proband have the responsibility to inform relatives about the familial mutation, even if the relatives do not want to know whether they carry it? Is the patient is responsible for notifying family members that a parent or sibling has Lynch syndrome? Can notification be forced and, if so, under what circumstances? These questions point out the need for criteria regarding which family members to inform and how to inform them.

  4. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis has historically been considered a pulmonary disease, but with the increasing life expectancy of these patients, gastrointestinal manifestations are becoming more important. Furthermore, nutritional status is closely linked to pulmonary function and, thus, overall mortality. This article discusses gastrointestinal manifestations (which involve nutritional, pancreatic, hepatobiliary, and, in particular, gastrointestinal tract issues) of cystic fibrosis as well as management of the disease. In addition, the article discusses studies that have been critical to our understanding of gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. PMID:27330503

  5. Management of gastrointestinal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, S; Watts, D; Kinnear, M

    2002-01-01

    A variety of endoscopic haemostatic techniques have enabled major advances in the management of not only bleeding peptic ulcers and bleeding varices, but also in a variety of bleeding lesions in the small intestine and in the colon. Indeed, the development and widespread implementation of endoscopic haemostasis has been one of the most important developments in clinical gastroenterology in the past two decades. An increasingly ageing cohort of patients with multiple co-morbidity are being treated and therefore improving the outcome of gastrointestinal bleeding continues to pose major challenges. PMID:11796865

  6. Protozoacidal Trojan-Horse: use of a ligand-lytic peptide for selective destruction of symbiotic protozoa within termite guts.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Amit; Delatte, Jennifer; Foil, Lane; Husseneder, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    For novel biotechnology-based termite control, we developed a cellulose bait containing freeze-dried genetically engineered yeast which expresses a protozoacidal lytic peptide attached to a protozoa-recognizing ligand. The yeast acts as a 'Trojan-Horse' that kills the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, which leads to the death of termites, presumably due to inefficient cellulose digestion. The ligand targets the lytic peptide specifically to protozoa, thereby increasing its protozoacidal efficiency while protecting non-target organisms. After ingestion of the bait, the yeast propagates in the termite's gut and is spread throughout the termite colony via social interactions. This novel paratransgenesis-based strategy could be a good supplement for current termite control using fortified biological control agents in addition to chemical insecticides. Moreover, this ligand-lytic peptide system could be used for drug development to selectively target disease-causing protozoa in humans or other vertebrates.

  7. Protozoacidal Trojan-Horse: Use of a Ligand-Lytic Peptide for Selective Destruction of Symbiotic Protozoa within Termite Guts

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Amit; Delatte, Jennifer; Foil, Lane; Husseneder, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    For novel biotechnology-based termite control, we developed a cellulose bait containing freeze-dried genetically engineered yeast which expresses a protozoacidal lytic peptide attached to a protozoa-recognizing ligand. The yeast acts as a ‘Trojan-Horse’ that kills the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, which leads to the death of termites, presumably due to inefficient cellulose digestion. The ligand targets the lytic peptide specifically to protozoa, thereby increasing its protozoacidal efficiency while protecting non-target organisms. After ingestion of the bait, the yeast propagates in the termite's gut and is spread throughout the termite colony via social interactions. This novel paratransgenesis-based strategy could be a good supplement for current termite control using fortified biological control agents in addition to chemical insecticides. Moreover, this ligand-lytic peptide system could be used for drug development to selectively target disease-causing protozoa in humans or other vertebrates. PMID:25198727

  8. Encapsulation of probiotic bacteria in biopolymeric system.

    PubMed

    Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Avik; Khan, Ruhul A; Riedl, Bernard; Lacroix, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Encapsulation of probiotic bacteria is generally used to enhance the viability during processing, and also for the target delivery in gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics are used with the fermented dairy products, pharmaceutical products, and health supplements. They play a great role in maintaining human health. The survival of these bacteria in the human gastrointestinal system is questionable. In order to protect the viability of the probiotic bacteria, several types of biopolymers such as alginate, chitosan, gelatin, whey protein isolate, cellulose derivatives are used for encapsulation and several methods of encapsulation such as spray drying, extrusion, emulsion have been reported. This review focuses on the method of encapsulation and the use of different biopolymeric system for encapsulation of probiotics.

  9. Gastrointestinal Headache; a Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    T Noghani, Majid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Fazljoo, Sayed Mohammad Baqer; Keshavarz, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    There are studies reporting primary headaches to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders, and some report resolution of headache following the treatment of the associated gastrointestinal disorder. Headache disorders are classified by The International Headache Society as primary or secondary; however, among the secondary headaches, those attributed to gastrointestinal disorders are not appreciated. Therefore, we aimed to review the literature to provide evidence for headaches, which originate from the gastrointestinal system. Gastrointestinal disorders that are reported to be associated with primary headaches include dyspepsia, gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD), constipation, functional abdominal pain, inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disorders (IBD), celiac disease, and helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection. Some studies have demonstrated remission or improvement of headache following the treatment of the accompanying gastrointestinal disorders. Hypotheses explaining this association are considered to be central sensitization and parasympathetic referred pain, serotonin pathways, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, systemic vasculopathy, and food allergy. Traditional Persian physicians, namely Ebn-e-Sina (Avicenna) and Râzi (Rhazes) believed in a type of headache originating from disorders of the stomach and named it as an individual entity, the "Participatory Headache of Gastric Origin". We suggest providing a unique diagnostic entity for headaches coexisting with any gastrointestinal abnormality that are improved or cured along with the treatment of the gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:27800536

  10. Gastrointestinal Headache; a Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    T Noghani, Majid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Fazljoo, Sayed Mohammad Baqer; Keshavarz, Mansoor

    2016-11-01

    There are studies reporting primary headaches to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders, and some report resolution of headache following the treatment of the associated gastrointestinal disorder. Headache disorders are classified by The International Headache Society as primary or secondary; however, among the secondary headaches, those attributed to gastrointestinal disorders are not appreciated. Therefore, we aimed to review the literature to provide evidence for headaches, which originate from the gastrointestinal system. Gastrointestinal disorders that are reported to be associated with primary headaches include dyspepsia, gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD), constipation, functional abdominal pain, inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disorders (IBD), celiac disease, and helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection. Some studies have demonstrated remission or improvement of headache following the treatment of the accompanying gastrointestinal disorders. Hypotheses explaining this association are considered to be central sensitization and parasympathetic referred pain, serotonin pathways, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, systemic vasculopathy, and food allergy. Traditional Persian physicians, namely Ebn-e-Sina (Avicenna) and Râzi (Rhazes) believed in a type of headache originating from disorders of the stomach and named it as an individual entity, the "Participatory Headache of Gastric Origin". We suggest providing a unique diagnostic entity for headaches coexisting with any gastrointestinal abnormality that are improved or cured along with the treatment of the gastrointestinal disorder.

  11. Technical note: A method for isolating glycogen granules from ruminal protozoa for further characterization.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2016-03-01

    Evaluation of physical, chemical, and enzymatic hydrolysis characteristics of protozoal glycogen is best performed on a pure substrate to avoid interference from other cell components. A method for isolating protozoal glycogen granules without use of detergents or other potentially contaminating chemicals was developed. Rumen inoculum was incubated anerobically in vitro with glucose. Glycogen-laden protozoa produced in the fermentation, primarily isotrichids, were allowed to sediment in a separatory funnel and were dispensed. The protozoa were processed through repeated centrifugations and sonication to isolate glycogen granules largely free of feed and cellular debris. The final water-insoluble lyophilized product analyzed as 98.3% α-glucan with very rare starch granules and 1.9% protein. Observed losses of glycogen granules during the clean-up process indicate that this procedure should not be used for quantitative assessment of protozoal glycogen from fermentations. Further optimization of this procedure to enhance the amount of glycogen obtained per fermentation may be possible.

  12. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y; Hayes, Richard B

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through chronic inflammation. High-throughput genetic-based assays now make it possible to comprehensively survey the human oral microbiome, the totality of bacteria in the oral cavity. Establishing the association of the oral microbiome with cancer risk may lead to significant advances in understanding of cancer etiology, potentially opening a new research paradigm for cancer prevention.

  13. The first 1000 cultured species of the human gastrointestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-01-01

    The microorganisms that inhabit the human gastrointestinal tract comprise a complex ecosystem with functions that significantly contribute to our systemic metabolism and have an impact on health and disease. In line with its importance, the human gastrointestinal microbiota has been extensively studied. Despite the fact that a significant part of the intestinal microorganisms has not yet been cultured, presently over 1000 different microbial species that can reside in the human gastrointestinal tract have been identified. This review provides a systematic overview and detailed references of the total of 1057 intestinal species of Eukarya (92), Archaea (8) and Bacteria (957), based on the phylogenetic framework of their small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Moreover, it unifies knowledge about the prevalence, abundance, stability, physiology, genetics and the association with human health of these gastrointestinal microorganisms, which is currently scattered over a vast amount of literature published in the last 150 years. This detailed physiological and genetic information is expected to be instrumental in advancing our knowledge of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Moreover, it opens avenues for future comparative and functional metagenomic and other high-throughput approaches that need a systematic and physiological basis to have an impact. PMID:24861948

  14. Sensory neuron regulation of gastrointestinal inflammation and bacterial host defence.

    PubMed

    Lai, N Y; Mills, K; Chiu, I M

    2017-02-02

    Sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract have multifaceted roles in maintaining homeostasis, detecting danger and initiating protective responses. The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by three types of sensory neurons: dorsal root ganglia, nodose/jugular ganglia and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. Here, we examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and host defence. Sensory neurons are equipped with molecular sensors that enable neuronal detection of diverse environmental signals including thermal and mechanical stimuli, inflammatory mediators and tissue damage. Emerging evidence shows that sensory neurons participate in host-microbe interactions. Sensory neurons are able to detect pathogenic and commensal bacteria through specific metabolites, cell-wall components, and toxins. Here, we review recent work on the mechanisms of bacterial detection by distinct subtypes of gut-innervating sensory neurons. Upon activation, sensory neurons communicate to the immune system to modulate tissue inflammation through antidromic signalling and efferent neural circuits. We discuss how this neuro-immune regulation is orchestrated through transient receptor potential ion channels and sensory neuropeptides including substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. Recent studies also highlight a role for sensory neurons in regulating host defence against enteric bacterial pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter rodentium and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Understanding how sensory neurons respond to gastrointestinal flora and communicate with immune cells to regulate host defence enhances our knowledge of host physiology and may form the basis for new approaches to treat gastrointestinal diseases.

  15. Detection of protozoa in water samples by formalin/ether concentration method.

    PubMed

    Lora-Suarez, Fabiana; Rivera, Raul; Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    Methods to detect protozoa in water samples are expensive and laborious. We evaluated the formalin/ether concentration method to detect Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Toxoplasma in water. In order to test the properties of the method, we spiked water samples with different amounts of each protozoa (0, 10 and 50 cysts or oocysts) in a volume of 10 L of water. Immunofluorescence assay was used for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Toxoplasma oocysts were identified by morphology. The mean percent of recovery in 10 repetitions of the entire method, in 10 samples spiked with ten parasites and read by three different observers, were for Cryptosporidium 71.3 ± 12, for Giardia 63 ± 10 and for Toxoplasma 91.6 ± 9 and the relative standard deviation of the method was of 17.5, 17.2 and 9.8, respectively. Intraobserver variation as measured by intraclass correlation coefficient, was fair for Toxoplasma, moderate for Cryptosporidium and almost perfect for Giardia. The method was then applied in 77 samples of raw and drinkable water in three different plant of water treatment. Cryptosporidium was found in 28 of 77 samples (36%) and Giardia in 31 of 77 samples (40%). Theses results identified significant differences in treatment process to reduce the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. In conclusion, the formalin ether method to concentrate protozoa in water is a new alternative for low resources countries, where is urgently need to monitor and follow the presence of theses protozoa in drinkable water.

  16. Body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa and their seasonal shift in coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Xu, Guangjian; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Henglong

    2016-10-01

    Community-based assessment of protozoa is usually performed at a taxon-dependent resolution. As an inherent 'taxon-free' trait, however, body-size spectrum has proved to be a highly informative indicator to summarize the functional structure of a community in both community research and monitoring programs in aquatic ecosystems. To demonstrate the relationships between the taxon-free resolution of protozoan communities and water conditions, the body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa and their seasonal shift and environmental drivers were explored based on an annual dataset collected monthly from coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. Body sizes were calculated in equivalent spherical diameter (ESD). Among a total of 8 body-size ranks, S2 (19-27μm), S3 (28-36μm), S4 (37-50μm) and S5 (53-71μm) were the top four levels in frequency of occurrence, while rank S1 (13-17μm), S2 and S4 were the dominant levels in abundance. These dominants showed a clear seasonal succession: S2/S4 (spring)→S2/S4 (summer)→S4 (autumn)→S2 (winter) in frequency of occurrence; S1 (spring)→S4 (summer)→S2 (autumn)→S1 (winter) in abundance. Bootstrapped average analysis showed a clear seasonal shift in body-size spectra of the protozoa during a 1-year cycle, and the best-matching analysis demonstrated that the temporal variations in frequency of occurrence and abundance were significantly correlated with water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), alone or in combination with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients. Thus, the body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa were seasonally shaped and might be used as a time and cost efficient bioindicator of water quality in marine ecosystems.

  17. Intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected patients in Apulia, South Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Brandonisio, O.; Maggi, P.; Panaro, M. A.; Lisi, S.; Andriola, A.; Acquafredda, A.; Angarano, G.

    1999-01-01

    Protozoa are important enteric pathogens in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in 154 HIV-infected patients, with or without diarrhoea, in our region (Apulia, South Italy) was evaluated between December 1993 and February 1998. In the majority of patients CD4+ T cell count was below 200/microl. The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoa was 43/154 (27.92%). Twenty-eight (43.08%) out of 65 patients with diarrhoea and 15 (16-85%) out of 89 non-diarrhoeic patients were parasitized. In particular, in the group of 65 patients with diarrhoea the following protozoa were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum in 14 (21.54%), Blastocystis hominis in 7 (10.77%), microsporidia in 6 (9.23%), Giardia lamblia in 4 (6.15%) and Isospora belli in 1 (1.54%). Three patients were Cryptosporidium parvum-microsporidia co-infected. In patients without intestinal symptoms, prevalence was 3/89 (3.37%) for Cryptosporidium parvum, 9/89 (10.11%) for Blastocystis hominis, 1/89 (1.12%) for microsporidia and 2/89 (2.25%) for Giardia lamblia. A significant (P<0.001) correlation was observed between protozoan infection and the presence of diarrhoea. In particular, Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidia infections were significantly (P<0.001) and P = 0.046, respectively) associated with diarrhoeal illness. Moreover, the majority of cases of cryptosporidiosis were first diagnosed in the periods of heaviest rainfall. Therefore, drinking water contamination may be a possible source of human infection in our area. PMID:10694157

  18. Macro, micro and nano domains in the membrane of parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Wanderley

    2007-09-01

    The structural organization of the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells is briefly revised taking into consideration the organization of proteins and lipids and the concept of microdomains, lipid rafts and detergent resistant membranes. The biochemical data available concerning the presence of microdomains in parasitic protozoa is reviewed and emphasis is given on the identification of special domains recognized by morphological approaches, especially with the use of the freeze-fracture technique.

  19. RNA-binding proteins related to stress response and differentiation in protozoa.

    PubMed

    Alves, Lysangela Ronalte; Goldenberg, Samuel

    2016-02-26

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are key regulators of gene expression. There are several distinct families of RBPs and they are involved in the cellular response to environmental changes, cell differentiation and cell death. The RBPs can differentially combine with RNA molecules and form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, defining the function and fate of RNA molecules in the cell. RBPs display diverse domains that allow them to be categorized into distinct families. They play important roles in the cellular response to physiological stress, in cell differentiation, and, it is believed, in the cellular localization of certain mRNAs. In several protozoa, a physiological stress (nutritional, temperature or pH) triggers differentiation to a distinct developmental stage. Most of the RBPs characterized in protozoa arise from trypanosomatids. In these protozoa gene expression regulation is mostly post-transcriptional, which suggests that some RBPs might display regulatory functions distinct from those described for other eukaryotes. mRNA stability can be altered as a response to stress. Transcripts are sequestered to RNA granules that ultimately modulate their availability to the translation machinery, storage or degradation, depending on the associated proteins. These aggregates of mRNPs containing mRNAs that are not being translated colocalize in cytoplasmic foci, and their numbers and size vary according to cell conditions such as oxidative stress, nutritional status and treatment with drugs that inhibit translation.

  20. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

    PubMed

    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated.

  1. The effect of acid drinking water on rumen protozoa in the blesbok (Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi).

    PubMed

    Booyse, D G; Dehority, B A; Myburgh, J G

    2015-12-07

    Rumen contents were collected from ten adult female blesbok, five from a mine area with only acid drinking water available and five from a control group consuming normal, non-polluted drinking water. The mean concentration of total protozoa in the normal water group was almost double that in the acid drinking water group, 24.9 x 10(3) versus 14.7 x 10(3). Percent of Entodinium was higher and Diplodinium lower in those animals drinking the acid water. The number of different protozoa species present in animals from both locations was fairly similar. Diplodinium bubalidis, Ostracodinium gracile and Diplodinium consors were present in the highest percentage in the normal water group, 18.8, 18.4 and 17.7 %, respectively. The same three species, plus Entodinium dubardi, were also highest in the acid water group, O. gracile, 21.3 %; D. consors, 12.6 %; E. dubardi, 11.4 % and D. bubalidis, 10.3 %. Seventeen species of protozoa found in this study were a new host record for the blesbok, bringing the total number of species reported from the blesbok to 29.

  2. Identification and Analysis of Putative Homologues of Mechanosensitive Channels in Pathogenic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Prole, David L.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanosensitive channels play important roles in the physiology of many organisms, and their dysfunction can affect cell survival. This suggests that they might be therapeutic targets in pathogenic organisms. Pathogenic protozoa lead to diseases such as malaria, dysentery, leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis that are responsible for millions of deaths each year worldwide. We analyzed the genomes of pathogenic protozoa and show the existence within them of genes encoding putative homologues of mechanosensitive channels. Entamoeba histolytica, Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis have genes encoding homologues of Piezo channels, while most pathogenic protozoa have genes encoding homologues of mechanosensitive small-conductance (MscS) and K+-dependent (MscK) channels. In contrast, all parasites examined lack genes encoding mechanosensitive large-conductance (MscL), mini-conductance (MscM) and degenerin/epithelial Na+ (DEG/ENaC) channels. Multiple sequence alignments of evolutionarily distant protozoan, amoeban, plant, insect and vertebrate Piezo channel subunits define an absolutely conserved motif that may be involved in channel conductance or gating. MscS channels are not present in humans, and the sequences of protozoan and human homologues of Piezo channels differ substantially. This suggests the possibility for specific targeting of mechanosensitive channels of pathogens by therapeutic drugs. PMID:23785469

  3. Identification and analysis of putative homologues of mechanosensitive channels in pathogenic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Prole, David L; Taylor, Colin W

    2013-01-01

    Mechanosensitive channels play important roles in the physiology of many organisms, and their dysfunction can affect cell survival. This suggests that they might be therapeutic targets in pathogenic organisms. Pathogenic protozoa lead to diseases such as malaria, dysentery, leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis that are responsible for millions of deaths each year worldwide. We analyzed the genomes of pathogenic protozoa and show the existence within them of genes encoding putative homologues of mechanosensitive channels. Entamoeba histolytica, Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis have genes encoding homologues of Piezo channels, while most pathogenic protozoa have genes encoding homologues of mechanosensitive small-conductance (MscS) and K(+)-dependent (MscK) channels. In contrast, all parasites examined lack genes encoding mechanosensitive large-conductance (MscL), mini-conductance (MscM) and degenerin/epithelial Na(+) (DEG/ENaC) channels. Multiple sequence alignments of evolutionarily distant protozoan, amoeban, plant, insect and vertebrate Piezo channel subunits define an absolutely conserved motif that may be involved in channel conductance or gating. MscS channels are not present in humans, and the sequences of protozoan and human homologues of Piezo channels differ substantially. This suggests the possibility for specific targeting of mechanosensitive channels of pathogens by therapeutic drugs.

  4. Parasitological diagnosis combining an internally controlled real-time PCR assay for the detection of four protozoa in stool samples with a testing algorithm for microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, L E S; Wallinga, J A; Ruijs, G J H M; Bruins, M J; Verweij, J J

    2009-09-01

    Molecular detection of gastrointestinal protozoa is more sensitive and more specific than microscopy but, to date, has not routinely replaced time-consuming microscopic analysis. Two internally controlled real-time PCR assays for the combined detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Dientamoeba fragilis in single faecal samples were compared with Triple Faeces Test (TFT) microscopy results from 397 patient samples. Additionally, an algorithm for complete parasitological diagnosis was created. Real-time PCR revealed 152 (38.3%) positive cases, 18 of which were double infections: one (0.3%) sample was positive for E. histolytica, 44 (11.1%) samples were positive for G. lamblia, 122 (30.7%) samples were positive for D. fragilis, and three (0.8%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium. TFT microscopy yielded 96 (24.2%) positive cases, including five double infections: one sample was positive for E. histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, 29 (7.3%) samples were positive for G. lamblia, 69 (17.4%) samples were positive for D. fragilis, and two (0.5%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium hominis/Cryptosporidium parvum. Retrospective analysis of the clinical patient information of 2887 TFT sets showed that eosinophilia, elevated IgE levels, adoption and travelling to (sub)tropical areas are predisposing factors for infection with non-protozoal gastrointestinal parasites. The proposed diagnostic algorithm includes application of real-time PCR to all samples, with the addition of microscopy on an unpreserved faecal sample in cases of a predisposing factor, or a repeat request for parasitological examination. Application of real-time PCR improved the diagnostic yield by 18%. A single stool sample is sufficient for complete parasitological diagnosis when an algorithm based on clinical information is applied.

  5. Hereditary gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hata, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Yoko; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kazama, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Tanaka, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Kishikawa, Junko; Nagai, Yuzo; Anzai, Hiroyuki; Shinagawa, Takahide; Arakawa, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-10-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, including gastric and colorectal cancer, is a major cause of death worldwide. A substantial proportion of patients with GI cancer have a familial history, and several causative genes have been identified. Gene carriers with these hereditary GI syndromes often harbor several kinds of cancer at an early age, and genetic testing and specific surveillance may save their lives through early detection. Gastroenterologists and GI surgeons should be familiar with these syndromes, even though they are not always associated with a high penetrance of GI cancer. In this review, we provide an overview and discuss the diagnosis, genetic testing, and management of four major hereditary GI cancers: familial adenomatous polyposis, Lynch syndrome, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

  6. Dysbiosis in gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Christopher; Lin, Henry

    2016-02-01

    The recent development of advanced sequencing techniques has revealed the complexity and diverse functions of the gut microbiota. Furthermore, alterations in the composition or balance of the intestinal microbiota, or dysbiosis, are associated with many gastrointestinal diseases. The looming question is whether dysbiosis is a cause or effect of these diseases. In this review, we will evaluate the contribution of intestinal microbiota in obesity, fatty liver, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Promising results from microbiota or metabolite transfer experiments in animals suggest the microbiota may be sufficient to reproduce disease features in the appropriate host in certain disorders. Less compelling causal associations may reflect complex, multi-factorial disease pathogenesis, in which dysbiosis is a necessary condition. Understanding the contributions of the microbiota in GI diseases should offer novel insight into disease pathophysiology and deliver new treatment strategies such as therapeutic manipulation of the microbiota.

  7. [Gastrointestinal dysmotility in children].

    PubMed

    Fluge, G; Olafsdottir, E

    2001-03-20

    Motility disorders were previously impossible to penetrate, but new technics have made it possible to investigate these disorders. An overview of neurophysiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract is given, and various conditions representing primary and secondary motility disorders are discussed. Diagnostic procedures and treatment options are presented. The clinical picture of such disorders is demonstrated by two cases. A girl born in 1995, having megacystis microcolon hypoperistalsis syndrome was the first Norwegian individual to have an intestinal transplantation, which was performed in London, UK. A girl with hypoganglionosis is also reported. Since May 1998, manometry of the oesophagus was performed in 44 children, and pathological findings were demonstrated in 18 of these patients. The motoric activity of the stomach was investigated in 17 patients using two-dimensional ultrasound and electrogastrography pre- and post-prandially. Disturbed function was found in nine of these children. Anorectal manometry was performed in 147 individuals, and Hirschsprung's disease was diagnosed in four.

  8. Gastrointestinal infections in children.

    PubMed

    Mönkemüller, K E; Wilcox, C M

    2001-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Children living in developing countries are particularly susceptible to infectious diarrhea because of poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Although the magnitude of diarrheal illnesses in developed countries is less, costly hospital admissions are still frequent. The causal agent of infectious diarrhea is most frequently related to age, geographical location, lifestyle habits, use of antibiotics, associated medical conditions, social circumstances, and degree of immune competence. In this article we present some of the most important articles published in the field during the last year. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease has been shown in adults and children. Information about the natural history of H. pylori, symptomatology, and diagnostic therapeutic approaches for children are being generated constantly; we discuss some of the most relevant information in this review.

  9. Magnetic Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Describes the history of Richard Blakemore's discovery of magnetotaxic organisms. Discusses possible reasons why the magnetic response in bacteria developed. Proposes research experiments integrating biology and physics in which students investigate problems using cultures of magnetotaxic organisms. (MDH)

  10. Gastrointestinal parasites in rural dogs and cats in Selangor and Pahang states in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Romano; Lee, Soo Ching; Yap, Nan Jiun; Tan, Tiong Kai; Aidil, Roslan Muhammad; Chua, Kek Heng; Aziz, Shafie; Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff Wan; Ahmad, Arine Fadzlun; Mahmud, Rohela; Lian, Yvonne Lim Ai

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the current prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in dogs and cats, a total of 105 fresh faecal samples were collected from rural areas in Peninsular Malaysia. Each faecal sample was examined for the presence of GI parasites by microscopic examination after formalin-ether concentration technique and for protozoa, trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were employed. The overall prevalence of GI parasitic infection was 88.6% (95% CI = 82.5-94.7) in which 88.3% of dogs and 89.3% of cats were infected with at least one parasites species, respectively. There were 14 different GI parasites species (nematodes, cestodes and protozoa) detected, including Ancylostoma spp. (62.9%), Toxocara spp. (32.4%), Trichuris vulpis (21.0%), Spirometra spp. (9.5%), Toxascaris leonina (5.7%), Dipylidium caninum (4.8%), Ascaris spp. (2.9%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.0%) and others. General prevalence of GI parasites showed a significant difference between helminth (84.4%) and protozoa (34.3%) infections. Monoparasitism (38.1%) was less frequent than polyparasitism (46.7%). As several of these GI parasites are recognized as zoonotic agents, the results of this investigation revealed that local populations may be exposed to a broad spectrum of zoonotic agents by means of environmental contamination with dogs and cats faeces and this information should be used to mitigate public health risks. Prevention and control measures have to be taken in order to reduce the prevalence rates especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities where animals live in close proximity to people, poor levels of hygiene and overcrowding together with a lack in veterinary attention and zoonotic awareness.

  11. Disorders of gastrointestinal hypomotility

    PubMed Central

    Bielefeldt, Klaus; Tuteja, Ashok; Nusrat, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Ingestion and digestion of food as well as expulsion of residual material from our gastrointestinal tract requires normal propulsive, i.e. motor, function. Hypomotility refers to inherited or acquired changes that come with decreased contractile forces or slower transit. It not only often causes symptoms but also may compromise nutritional status or lead to other complications. While severe forms, such as pseudo-obstruction or ileus, may have a tremendous functional impact, the less severe forms of hypomotility may well be more relevant, as they contribute to common disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic constipation, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Clinical testing can identify changes in contractile activity, defined by lower amplitudes or abnormal patterns, and the related effects on transit. However, such biomarkers show a limited correlation with overall symptom severity as experienced by patients. Similarly, targeting hypomotility with pharmacological interventions often alters gut motor function but does not consistently improve symptoms. Novel diagnostic approaches may change this apparent paradox and enable us to obtain more comprehensive information by integrating data on electrical activity, mechanical forces, patterns, wall stiffness, and motions with information of the flow of luminal contents. New drugs with more selective effects or more specific delivery may improve benefits and limit adverse effects. Lastly, the complex regulation of gastrointestinal motility involves the brain-gut axis as a reciprocal pathway for afferent and efferent signaling. Considering the role of visceral input in emotion and the effects of emotion on visceral activity, understanding and managing hypomotility disorders requires an integrative approach based on the mind-body continuum or biopsychosocial model of diseases. PMID:27583135

  12. Spatio-temporal variability of periphytic protozoa related to environment in the Niyang River, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiping; Ye, Shaowen; Yang, Xuefeng; Guo, Chuanbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Fan, Liqing; Zhang, Liangsong; Sovan, Lek; Li, Zhongjie

    2016-06-01

    The Niyang River, a main tributary of the Yarlung Zangbo River, is an important and typical plateau river ecosystem in Tibet, China. At present, few studies have focused on its aquatic living resources and river ecology. In this study, the composition, abundance, and diversity of periphytic protozoa were investigated across four seasons from 2008 to 2009 to better understand their spatio-temporal patterns and relationship to the environment. Our investigation shows that periphytic protozoa in the Niyang River contained 15 genera, belonged to Tubulinea, Alveolata, Discosea and Rhizaria, Alveolata possessed most genera, up to nine, with highest share in abundance, exceeding 50%, Difflugia and Glaucoma were dominant genera. Moreover, four diversity indices of periphytic protozoa, including species richness, total abundance, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou's evenness index, displayed a significant descending trend as the seasons continued, in the order of winter, spring, summer and autumn; with a significant difference existing between winter and summer (or autumn) for Shannon-Wiener diversity index and species richness (P<0.05). Four of these diversity indices also presented a V-shaped pattern between the upper middle course of the Niyang River and the confluence of the Niyang River and Yarlung Zangbo River, with the lowest value occurred in the middle course of the Niyang River. However, no significant variation was found through the Niyang River (P>0.05). In addition, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) shows that the densities of Difflugia, Glaucomais, Enchelydium, Cyphoderia, and Enchelys correlate with water temperature, alkalinity, hardness, pH, and dissolved oxygen, respectively. Lastly, the relationship between periphytic protozoa diversity and the environmental factors of the Niyang River can be predicted using classification and regression trees (CART) annalysis, which suggests that the total abundance and Shannon-Wiener diversity index would be

  13. What Are the Key Statistics about Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors What Are the Key Statistics About Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors? Although the exact number ... a Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor? What Are the Key Statistics About Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors? What’s New in Gastrointestinal ...

  14. Autistic disorder and gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Karoly; Perman, Jay A

    2002-10-01

    Autistic disorder is a pervasive developmental disorder manifested in the first 3 years of life by dysfunction in social interaction and communication. Many efforts have been made to explore the biologic basis of this disorder, but the etiology remains unknown. Recent publications describing upper gastrointestinal abnormalities and ileocolitis have focused attention on gastrointestinal function and morphology in these children. High prevalence of histologic abnormalities in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon, and dysfunction of liver conjugation capacity and intestinal permeability were reported. Three surveys conducted in the United States described high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autistic disorder. Treatment of the digestive problems may have positive effects on their behavior.

  15. Gastrointestinal parasitic burdens in UK tortoises: a survey of tortoise owners and potential risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hedley, J; Eatwell, K; Shaw, D J

    2013-11-30

    Despite gastrointestinal parasites being commonly diagnosed in captive tortoises throughout the UK, there is a lack of data regarding the prevalence. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in tortoises in the UK, and to investigate the factors affecting the prevalence of these parasites. Owners were invited to submit a faecal sample from their tortoise in conjunction with a completed questionnaire covering details of signalment and husbandry. Data from the questionnaires were analysed at the end of the study. Faecal analysis was performed on samples from Testudo hermanni, Testudo graeca and Testudo horsfieldii. This involved examination of direct wet preparations, a modified McMaster technique, passive NaCl flotation and Cryptosporidium staining. Of the 142 samples used, 130 were examined by the first three methods. 49 per cent were positive for one or more parasites. Of the positive samples, 67 per cent were positive for oxyurids, 28 per cent were positive for ascarids and 28 per cent were positive for protozoa (Balantidium, Nyctotherus or flagellates). Only 1/113 (0.8 per cent) samples was positive for Cryptosporidium. The most important risk factors for parasites were sex (F) and length of time (<5 years) in owner's possession. This survey showed that gastrointestinal parasites are frequently detected in the faecal samples of captive tortoises in the UK, but their prevalence may be influenced by various factors including sex, length of time owned, age and species.

  16. Gastrointestinal flora and gastrointestinal status in children with autism -- comparisons to typical children and correlation with autism severity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with autism have often been reported to have gastrointestinal problems that are more frequent and more severe than in children from the general population. Methods Gastrointestinal flora and gastrointestinal status were assessed from stool samples of 58 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 39 healthy typical children of similar ages. Stool testing included bacterial and yeast culture tests, lysozyme, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, elastase, digestion markers, short chain fatty acids (SCFA's), pH, and blood presence. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed with a modified six-item GI Severity Index (6-GSI) questionnaire, and autistic symptoms were assessed with the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). Results Gastrointestinal symptoms (assessed by the 6-GSI) were strongly correlated with the severity of autism (assessed by the ATEC), (r = 0.59, p < 0.001). Children with 6-GSI scores above 3 had much higher ATEC Total scores than those with 6-GSI-scores of 3 or lower (81.5 +/- 28 vs. 49.0 +/- 21, p = 0.00002). Children with autism had much lower levels of total short chain fatty acids (-27%, p = 0.00002), including lower levels of acetate, proprionate, and valerate; this difference was greater in the children with autism taking probiotics, but also significant in those not taking probiotics. Children with autism had lower levels of species of Bifidobacter (-43%, p = 0.002) and higher levels of species of Lactobacillus (+100%, p = 0.00002), but similar levels of other bacteria and yeast using standard culture growth-based techniques. Lysozyme was somewhat lower in children with autism (-27%, p = 0.04), possibly associated with probiotic usage. Other markers of digestive function were similar in both groups. Conclusions The strong correlation of gastrointestinal symptoms with autism severity indicates that children with more severe autism are likely to have more severe gastrointestinal symptoms and vice versa. It is possible that

  17. Evaluation of feed grade sodium bisulfate impact on gastrointestinal tract microbiota ecology in broilers via a pyrosequencing platform

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gastrointestinal microbial community in broiler chicken consists of many different species of bacteria and the overall microbiota can be various from bird to bird. In order to control pathogenic bacteria in broiler and improve gut health, numerous potential dietary amendments such as prebiotics...

  18. Methanotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, R S; Hanson, T E

    1996-01-01

    Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, whereas type II methanotrophs, which employ the serine pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, form a coherent cluster within the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Methanotrophic bacteria are ubiquitous. The growth of type II bacteria appears to be favored in environments that contain relatively high levels of methane, low levels of dissolved oxygen, and limiting concentrations of combined nitrogen and/or copper. Type I methanotrophs appear to be dominant in environments in which methane is limiting and combined nitrogen and copper levels are relatively high. These bacteria serve as biofilters for the oxidation of methane produced in anaerobic environments, and when oxygen is present in soils, atmospheric methane is oxidized. Their activities in nature are greatly influenced by agricultural practices and other human activities. Recent evidence indicates that naturally occurring, uncultured methanotrophs represent new genera. Methanotrophs that are capable of oxidizing methane at atmospheric levels exhibit methane oxidation kinetics different from those of methanotrophs available in pure cultures. A limited number of methanotrophs have the genetic capacity to synthesize a soluble methane monooxygenase which catalyzes the rapid oxidation of environmental pollutants including trichloroethylene. PMID:8801441

  19. Hedgehog signaling and gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saqui-Salces, Milena; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2017-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical for embryonic development and in differentiation, proliferation, and maintenance of multiple adult tissues. De-regulation of the Hh pathway is associated with birth defects and cancer. In the gastrointestinal tract, Hh ligands Sonic (Shh) and Indian (Ihh), as well as the receptor Patched (Ptch1), and transcription factors of Glioblastoma family (Gli) are all expressed during development. In the adult, Shh expression is restricted to the stomach and colon, while Ihh expression occurs throughout the luminal gastrointestinal tract, its expression being highest in the proximal duodenum. Several studies have demonstrated a requirement for Hh signaling during gastrointestinal tract development. However to date, the specific role of the Hh pathway in the adult stomach and intestine is not completely understood. The current review will place into context the implications of recent published data related to the biochemistry and cell biology of Hh signaling on the luminal gastrointestinal tract during development, normal physiology and subsequently carcinogenesis. PMID:20307590

  20. Epigenetic mechanisms and gastrointestinal development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review considers the hypothesis that nutrition during infancy affects developmental epigenetics in the gut, causing metabolic imprinting of gastrointestinal (GI) structure and function. Fundamentals of epigenetic gene regulation are reviewed, with an emphasis on the epigenetic mechanism of DNA ...

  1. The Gastrointestinal Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Engen, Phillip A.; Green, Stefan J.; Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The excessive use of alcohol is a global problem causing many adverse pathological health effects and a significant financial health care burden. This review addresses the effect of alcohol consumption on the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Although data are limited in humans, studies highlight the importance of changes in the intestinal microbiota in alcohol-related disorders. Alcohol-induced changes in the GIT microbiota composition and metabolic function may contribute to the well-established link between alcohol-induced oxidative stress, intestinal hyperpermeability to luminal bacterial products, and the subsequent development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), as well as other diseases. In addition, clinical and preclinical data suggest that alcohol-related disorders are associated with quantitative and qualitative dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota and may be associated with increased GIT inflammation, intestinal hyperpermeability resulting in endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and tissue damage/organ pathologies including ALD. Thus, gut-directed interventions, such as probiotic and synbiotic modulation of the intestinal microbiota, should be considered and evaluated for prevention and treatment of alcohol-associated pathologies. PMID:26695747

  2. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts.

    PubMed

    Dioverti, M Veronica; Cawcutt, Kelly A; Abidi, Maheen; Sohail, M Rizwan; Walker, Randall C; Osmon, Douglas R

    2015-12-01

    Invasive mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts, but it carries a high mortality rate. Primary gastrointestinal disease is the least frequent form of presentation. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical in the management; however, symptoms are typically non-specific in gastrointestinal disease, leading to delayed therapy. To describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts, we reviewed all cases of primary gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts reported in English literature as well as in our Institution from January 1st 1991 to December 31st 2013 for a total of 31 patients. About 52% of patients underwent solid organ transplant (SOT), while the rest had an underlying haematologic malignancy. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom, followed by gastrointestinal bleeding and fever. Gastric disease was more common in SOT, whereas those with haematologic malignancy presented with intestinal disease (P = 0.002). Although gastrointestinal mucormycosis remains an uncommon condition in immunocompromised hosts, it carries significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in cases with intestinal involvement. A high index of suspicion is of utmost importance to institute early and appropriate therapy and improve outcomes.

  3. Lipomas of the gastrointestinal system.

    PubMed

    Dolai, Matilda; Andrejić, Bojana; Ivanov, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Lipomas are rare benign tumors in the gastrointestinal system. Within the gastrointestinal system, 65% of the lipomas are located in the colon (sigmoid part of the colon or rectum) and rarely in the stomach and esophagus. The paper presents two gastrointestinal lipomas. First is the case of lipoma of the sigmoid colon and the other one is gastric lipoma. In both cases the material was sent for histopathological analysis due to suspicion of malignancy of the lesions. In both cases, the histopathologic analysis showed tumor made of mature adipocytes, localized in the submucosa both of the stomach and intestine. Hypercellularity and/or atypia of the cell was found in neither case. Lipomas are shown because of its atypical localization and clinically suspicious malignancy in the stomach and sigmoid colon. These cases show that the applied methods of preoperative diagnosis of tumors in the gastrointestinal system are not sufficient to determine the origin and biological behavior of tumors. Histopathological diagnosis provides a correct insight into the nature of tumors and determine the course of treatment. This paper presents a rare localization of lipomas in the gastrointestinal system. The preoperative diagnosis of lesions in the gastrointestinal system may not be sufficient to determine the origin and biological behavior of the lesions, hence the histopathological diagnosis gives an accurate insight into the nature of the change, preventing the possibility of further aggressive therapy.

  4. [Effects of adding straw carbon source to root knot nematode diseased soil on soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Hui; Lian, Jian-Hong; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Li

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment with successive planting of tomato was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of winter wheat straw (2.08 g x kg(-1), 1N; 4.16 g x kg(-1), 2N; and 8.32 g x kg(-1), 4N) to the soil seriously suffered from root knot nematode disease on the soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance. Adding straw carbon source had significant effects on the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the abundance of soil protozoa, which all decreased in the order of 4N > 2N > 1N > CK. The community structure of soil protozoa also changed significantly under straw addition. In the treatments with straw addition, the average proportion of fagellate, amoeba, and ciliates accounted for 36.0%, 59.5%, and 4.5% of the total protozoa, respectively. Under the same adding amounts of wheat straw, there was an increase in the soil MBC and MBN contents, MBC/MBN ratio, and protozoa abundance with increasing cultivation period.

  5. Eukaryotic inhibitors or activators elicit responses to chemosensory compounds by ruminal isotrichid and entodiniomorphid protozoa.

    PubMed

    Diaz, H L; Barr, K N; Godden, K R; Plank, J E; Zapata, I; Schappacher, A N; Wick, M P; Firkins, J L

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate potential signaling pathways regulating rumen protozoal chemotaxis using eukaryotic inhibitors potentially coordinated with phagocytosis as assessed by fluorescent bead uptake kinetics. Wortmannin (inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase), insulin, genistein (purported inhibitor of a receptor tyrosine kinase), U73122 (inhibitor of phospholipase C), and sodium nitroprusside (Snp, nitric oxide generator, activating protein kinase G) were preincubated with mixed ruminal protozoa for 3h before assessing uptake of fluorescent beads and chemosensory behavior to glucose, peptides, and their combination; peptides were also combined with guanosine triphosphate (GTP; a chemorepellent). Entodiniomorphids were chemoattracted to both glucose and peptides, but chemoattraction to glucose was increased by Snp and wortmannin without effect on chemoattraction to peptides. Rate of fluorescent bead uptake by an Entodinium caudatum culture decreased when beads were added simultaneously with feeding and incubated with wortmannin (statistical interaction). Wortmannin also decreased the proportion of mixed entodiniomorphids consuming beads. Isotrichid protozoa exhibited greater chemotaxis to glucose but, compared with entodiniomorphids, were chemorepelled to peptides. Wortmannin increased chemotaxis by entodiniomorphids but decreased chemotaxis to glucose by isotrichids. Motility assays documented that Snp and wortmannin decreased net swimming speed (distance among 2 points per second) but not total swimming speed (including turns) by entodiniomorphids. Wortmannin decreased both net and total swimming behavior in isotrichids. Results mechanistically explain the isotrichid migratory ecology to rapidly take up newly ingested sugars and subsequent sedimentation back to the ventral reticulorumen. In contrast, entodiniomorphids apparently integrate cellular motility with feeding behavior to consume small particulates and thereby stay associated and pass with the

  6. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Aledavood, Amir; Nasiri, Mohammad Reza Ghavam; Memar, Bahram; Shahidsales, Soodabeh; Raziee, Hamid Reza; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Mohtashami, Samira

    2012-01-01

    Background: Extranodal lymphoma may arise anywhere outside lymph nodes mostly in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as non-Hodgkin's disease. We reviewed the clinicopathological features and treatment results of patients with primary GI lymphoma. Materials and Methods: A total number of 30 cases with primary GI lymphoma were included in this study. Patients referred to the Radiation Oncology Department of Omid Hospital (Mashhad, Iran) during a 5-year period (2006-11). Clinical, paraclinical, and radiological data was collected from medical records of the patients. Results: Out of the 30 patients with primary GI lymphoma in the study, 12 were female (40%) and 18 were male (60%) (male to female ratio: 3/2). B symptoms were present in 27 patients (90%). Antidiuretic hormone (LDH) levels were elevated in 9 patients (32.1%). The most common primary site was stomach in 14 cases (46.7%). Other common sites included small intestine and colon each in 8 patients (26.7%). All patients had histopathologically proven non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The most common histologic subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) in 16 patients (53.3%). In addition, 28 patients (93.3%) received chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisolone (CHOP regimen). The median course of chemotherapy was 6 cources. Moreover, 8 patients (26.7%) received radiotherapy with cobalt 60. The median follow-up time was 26 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 53% and the median survival time was 60 months. Conclusion: Primary GI lymphoma is commonly seen in stomach and small intestine and mostly is DLBCL or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. PMID:23626617

  7. Gastrointestinal Physiology and Function.

    PubMed

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Johnson, Anthony C; Grundy, David

    2017-02-08

    The gastrointestinal (GI) system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of ingested food and liquids. Due to the complexity of the GI tract and the substantial volume of material that could be covered under the scope of GI physiology, this chapter briefly reviews the overall function of the GI tract, and discusses the major factors affecting GI physiology and function, including the intestinal microbiota, chronic stress, inflammation, and aging with a focus on the neural regulation of the GI tract and an emphasis on basic brain-gut interactions that serve to modulate the GI tract. GI diseases refer to diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum. The major symptoms of common GI disorders include recurrent abdominal pain and bloating, heartburn, indigestion/dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation. GI disorders rank among the most prevalent disorders, with the most common including esophageal and swallowing disorders, gastric and peptic ulcer disease, gastroparesis or delayed gastric emptying, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Many GI disorders are difficult to diagnose and their symptoms are not effectively managed. Thus, basic research is required to drive the development of novel therapeutics which are urgently needed. One approach is to enhance our understanding of gut physiology and pathophysiology especially as it relates to gut-brain communications since they have clinical relevance to a number of GI complaints and represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of conditions including inflammatory diseases of the GI tract such as IBD and functional gut disorders such as IBS.

  8. Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rasquin-Weber, A; Hyman, P; Cucchiara, S; Fleisher, D; Hyams, J; Milla, P; Staiano, A

    1999-01-01

    This is the first attempt at defining criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected differs from the one used in the adult population in that it is organized according to main complaints instead of being organ-targeted. Because the child is still developing, some disorders such as toddler's diarrhea (or functional diarrhea) are linked to certain physiologic stages; others may result from behavioral responses to sphincter function acquisition such as fecal retention; others will only be recognizable after the child is cognitively mature enough to report the symptoms (e.g., dyspepsia). Infant regurgitation, rumination, and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine, and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention, and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Some disorders, such as IBS and dyspepsia and functional abdominal pain, are exact replications of the adult criteria because there are enough data to confirm that they represent specific and similar disorders in pediatrics. Other disorders not included in the pediatric classification, such as functional biliary disorders, do occur in children; however, existing data are insufficient to warrant including them at the present time. For these disorders, it is suggested that, for the time being, clinicians refer to the criteria established for the adult population.


Keywords: infant vomiting; cyclic vomiting syndrome; functional dyspepsia in children; irritable bowel syndrome in children; functional abdominal pain in children; functional

  9. Current and future perspectives on the chemotherapy of the parasitic protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Moya, Ignace A; Su, Zhengding; Honek, John F

    2009-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica are clinically important protozoa that affect humans. T. vaginalis produces sexually transmitted infections and E. histolytica is the causative agent of amebic dysentery. Metronidazole, a compound first used to treat T. vaginalis in 1959, is still the main drug used worldwide to treat these pathogens. It is essential to find new biochemical differences in these organisms that could be exploited to develop new antiprotozoal chemotherapeutics. Recent findings associated with T. vaginalis and E. histolytica biochemistry and host-pathogen interactions are surveyed. Knowledge concerning the biochemistry of these parasites is serving to form the foundation for the development of new approaches to control these important human pathogens.

  10. Isolation and assessment of gut bacteria from the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), for paratransgenesis research and application.

    PubMed

    Tikhe, Chinmay V; Sethi, Amit; Delatte, Jennifer; Husseneder, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Paratransgenesis targeting the gut protozoa is being developed as an alternative method for the control of the Formosan subterranean termite (FST). This method involves killing the cellulose-digesting gut protozoa using a previously developed antiprotozoal peptide consisting of a target specific ligand coupled to an antimicrobial peptide (Hecate). In the future, we intend to genetically engineer termite gut bacteria as "Trojan Horses" to express and spread ligand-Hecate in the termite colony. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of bacteria strains isolated from the gut of FST as "Trojan Horses." We isolated 135 bacteria from the guts of workers from 3 termite colonies. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified 20 species. We tested 5 bacteria species that were previously described as part of the termite gut community for their tolerance against Hecate and ligand-Hecate. Results showed that the minimum concentration required to inhibit bacteria growth was always higher than the concentration required to kill the gut protozoa. Out of the 5 bacteria tested, we engineered Trabulsiella odontotermitis, a termite specific bacterium, to express green fluorescent protein as a proof of concept that the bacteria can be engineered to express foreign proteins. Engineered T. odontotermitis was fed to FST to study if the bacteria are ingested. This feeding experiment confirmed that engineered T. odontotermitis is ingested by termites and can survive in the gut for at least 48 h. Here we report that T. odontotermitis is a suitable delivery and expression system for paratransgenesis in a termite species.

  11. An approach to analyzing environmental drivers to spatial variations in annual distribution of periphytic protozoa in coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangjian; Xu, Henglong

    2016-03-15

    The environmental drivers to the spatial variation in annual distribution were studied based on an annual dataset of periphytic protozoa using multivariate approaches. Samples were monthly collected at four stations within a pollution gradient in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China during a 1-year period. The second-stage (2STAGE) analyses showed that the internal patterns of the annual distribution were changed along the pollution gradient in terms of abundance. The dominant species represented different succession dynamics among four sampling stations during a 1-year cycle. Best matching analysis demonstrated that the spatial variations in annual distribution of the protozoa were significantly correlated with ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), alone or in combination with salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO). Based on the results, we suggest that the nutrients, salinity and DO may be the main drivers to shape the spatial variations in annual distribution of periphytic protozoa.

  12. Bacteria Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Science Applications, Inc.'s ATP Photometer makes a rapid and accurate count of the bacteria in a body fluid sample. Instrument provides information on the presence and quantity of bacteria by measuring the amount of light emitted by the reaction between two substances. Substances are ATP adenosine triphosphate and luciferase. The reactants are applied to a human body sample and the ATP Photometer observes the intensity of the light emitted displaying its findings in a numerical output. Total time lapse is usually less than 10 minutes, which represents a significant time savings in comparison of other techniques. Other applications are measuring organisms in fresh and ocean waters, determining bacterial contamination of foodstuffs, biological process control in the beverage industry, and in assay of activated sewage sludge.

  13. Gastrointestinal Amyloidosis Presenting with Multiple Episodes of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang Hyeon Kang, Eun Ju; Park, Jee Won; Jo, Jung Hyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Kang, Myong Jin; Park, Byeong Ho

    2009-05-15

    Amyloidosis is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid protein in various organs. Gastrointestinal involvement in amyloidosis is common, but a diagnosis of amyloidosis is often delayed. Severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage in amyloidosis is rare but can be fatal in some cases. We experienced a case of a 49-year-old man who presented with recurrent massive hematochezia. Although embolization was performed eight times for bleeding from different sites of the small intestine, hematochezia did not cease. We report the case, with a review of the literature.

  14. Gastrointestinal Dissemination and Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus following Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Kernbauer, Elisabeth; Maurer, Katie; Torres, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations that alter virulence and antibiotic susceptibility arise and persist during Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. However, an experimental system demonstrating transmission following bacteremia has been lacking, and thus implications of within-host adaptation for between-host transmission are unknown. We report that S. aureus disseminates to the gastrointestinal tract of mice following intravenous injection and readily transmits to cohoused naive mice. Both intestinal dissemination and transmission were linked to the production of virulence factors based on gene deletion studies of the sae and agr two-component systems. Furthermore, antimicrobial selection for antibiotic-resistant S. aureus displaced susceptible S. aureus from the intestine of infected hosts, which led to the preferential transmission and dominance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among cohoused untreated mice. These findings establish an animal model to investigate gastrointestinal dissemination and transmission of S. aureus and suggest that adaptation during the course of systemic infection has implications beyond the level of a single host. PMID:25385792

  15. Bioaccumulation of human waterborne protozoa by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): interest for water biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Geffard, A; Bigot, A

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii are ubiquitous pathogens, which waterborne transmission has been largely demonstrated. Since they can be found in various watercourses, interactions with aquatic organisms are possible. Protozoan detection for watercourses biomonitoring is currently based on large water filtration. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is a choice biological model in ecotoxicological studies which are already in use to detect chemical contaminations in watercourses. In the present study, the zebra mussel was tested as a new tool for detecting water contamination by protozoa. In vivo exposures were conducted in laboratory experiments. Zebra mussel was exposed to various protozoan concentrations for one week. Detection of protozoa was realized by Taqman real time qPCR. Our experiments evidenced C. parvum, G. duodenalis and T. gondii oocyst bioaccumulation by mussels proportionally to ambient contamination, and significant T. gondii prevalence was observed in muscle tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates T. gondii oocyst accumulation by zebra mussel. The results from this study highlight the capacity of zebra mussels to reveal ambient biological contamination, and thus to be used as a new effective tool in sanitary biomonitoring of water bodies.

  16. Enteric protozoa of cats and their zoonotic potential-a field study from Austria.

    PubMed

    Hinney, Barbara; Ederer, Christina; Stengl, Carina; Wilding, Katrin; Štrkolcová, Gabriela; Harl, Josef; Flechl, Eva; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2015-05-01

    Domestic cats can be infected with a variety of enteric protozoa. Genotyping of protozoan species, especially Giardia as the most common, can improve assessment of their relevance as zoonotic agents. For an overview on the occurrence of feline enteric protozoa, 298 faecal samples of cats from private households, catteries and animal shelters in Austria were collected. All samples were examined by flotation and using a rapid test for Giardia (FASTest). For the detection of Tritrichomonas blagburni, freshly voided faeces (n = 40) were processed using a commercial culturing system (InPouch TF-Feline). Genotyping was done at the β-giardin gene loci (each sample) and triosephosphate isomerase gene loci (positive samples) for Giardia and at the 18S rRNA gene (positive samples) for Cryptosporidium. Thirty-seven samples (12.4%) were positive for Giardia by flotation and/or using a rapid test. Cryptosporidium was present in 1.7%, Cystoisospora in 4.0%, Sarcocystis in 0.3% and T. blagburni in 2.5% of the samples. Genotyping revealed Giardia cati, the potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium felis. Most of the infected cats had no diarrhoea. Cats from shelters were significantly more often infected than owned cats (p = 0.01). When comparing Giardia detection methods, the rapid test had a higher sensitivity than flotation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were mostly independent from the other two tests.

  17. Detection of pathogenic protozoa in the diagnostic laboratory: result reproducibility, specimen pooling, and competency assessment.

    PubMed

    Libman, M D; Gyorkos, T W; Kokoskin, E; Maclean, J D

    2008-07-01

    Stool microscopy as performed in clinical parasitology laboratories is a complex procedure with subjective interpretation. Quality assurance (QA) programs often emphasize proficiency testing as an assessment tool. We describe a result reproducibility assessment tool, which can form part of a broader QA program, and which is based on the blinded resubmission of selected clinical samples, using concordance between the reports of the initial and resubmitted specimen as an indicator. Specimens preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin can be stored for several months for use in such a program. The presence of multiple protozoa in one specimen does not affect concordance. Some dilution of specimens occurs in this process, and this may explain poor concordance when specimens with low protozoal concentrations are resubmitted. Evaluation of this tool in a large parasitology laboratory revealed concordance rates for pathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis) of about 80%, which may be considered for use as a benchmark value. We also used this tool to demonstrate that when pairs of specimens from one patient are pooled to create a single specimen, concordance between the results of the individual and pooled specimens is high.

  18. Legionella-protozoa-nematode interactions in aquatic biofilms and influence of Mip on Caenorhabditis elegans colonization.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Janine; Krüger, Stefanie; Fontvieille, Dominique; Ünal, Can M; Michel, Rolf; Labrosse, Aurélie; Steinert, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaireś disease, is naturally found in aquatic habitats. The intracellular life cycle within protozoa pre-adapted the "accidental" human pathogen to also infect human professional phagocytes like alveolar macrophages. Previous studies employing the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that also nematodes might serve as a natural host for L. pneumophila. Here, we report for the first time from a natural co-habitation of L. pneumophila and environmental nematode species within biofilms of a warm water spring. In addition, we identified the protozoan species Oxytricha bifaria, Stylonychia mytilus, Ciliophrya sp. which have never been described as potential interaction partners of L. pneumophila before. Modeling and dissection of the Legionella-protozoa-nematode interaction revealed that C. elegans ruptures Legionella-infected amoebal cells and by this means incorporate the pathogen. Further infection studies revealed that the macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) protein of L. pneumophila, which is known to bind collagen IV during human lung infection, promotes the colonization of the intestinal tract of L4 larvae of C. elegans and negatively influences the life span of the worms. The Mip-negative L. pneumophila mutant exhibited a 32-fold reduced colonization rate of the nematodes after 48h when compared to the wild-type strain. Taken together, these studies suggest that nematodes may serve as natural hosts for L. pneumophila, promote their persistence and dissemination in the environment, and co-evolutionarily pre-adapt the pathogen for interactions with extracellular constituents of human lung tissue.

  19. Heavy metals generate reactive oxygen species in terrestrial and aquatic ciliated protozoa.

    PubMed

    Rico, Daniel; Martín-González, Ana; Díaz, Silvia; de Lucas, Pilar; Gutiérrez, Juan-Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction by exposure to heavy metals (Cd, Cu or Zn) in diverse free-living ciliated protozoa (Tetrahymena sp. and three strains of Colpoda steinii, isolated from freshwater and soils with different level of metal pollution) has been evaluated. Using specific fluorophores, such as 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, hydroethidine and dihydrorhodamine 123, and a fluorescence microscope with the program MetaMorph Imaging System 4.0, we have analyzed both the average fluorescence emission and the heterogeneous distribution of fluorescence in control and treated cells. This is the first time that these fluorophores are used to detect ROS production in ciliated protozoa. All metals generate ROS, mainly superoxide and peroxides, showing a remarkable inter- and intra-specific variations. Likewise, resistance against each metal was also very diverse. Cu and specially Cd, the most toxic heavy metal for these ciliates, are the best oxidative stress inducers. However, a correlation between fluorescence emission intensity and cellular metal sensitivity for each strain cannot be established. Results are discussed and compared with similar findings previously published in other unicellular and pluricellular organisms.

  20. Isolation of new Brazilian giant viruses from environmental samples using a panel of protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Dornas, Fábio P.; Khalil, Jacques Y. B.; Pagnier, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Abrahão, Jônatas; La Scola, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The Megavirales are a newly described order capable of infecting different types of eukaryotic hosts. For the most part, the natural host is unknown. Several methods have been used to detect these viruses, with large discrepancies between molecular methods and co-cultures. To isolate giant viruses, we propose the use of different species of amoeba as a cellular support. The aim of this work was to isolate new Brazilian giant viruses by comparing the protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. polyphaga, A. griffini, and Vermamoeba vermiformis (VV) as a platform for cellular isolation using environmental samples. One hundred samples were collected from 3 different areas in September 2014 in the Pampulha lagoon of Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais, Brazil. PCR was used to identify the isolated viruses, along with hemacolor staining, labelling fluorescence and electron microscopy. A total of 69 viruses were isolated. The highest ratio of isolation was found in A. polyphaga (46.38%) and the lowest in VV (0%). Mimiviruses were the most frequently isolated. One Marseillevirus and one Pandoravirus were also isolated. With Brazilian environmental samples, we demonstrated the high rate of lineage A mimiviruses. This work demonstrates how these viruses survive and circulate in nature as well the differences between protozoa as a platform for cellular isolation. PMID:26500630

  1. Isolation of new Brazilian giant viruses from environmental samples using a panel of protozoa.

    PubMed

    Dornas, Fábio P; Khalil, Jacques Y B; Pagnier, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Abrahão, Jônatas; La Scola, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The Megavirales are a newly described order capable of infecting different types of eukaryotic hosts. For the most part, the natural host is unknown. Several methods have been used to detect these viruses, with large discrepancies between molecular methods and co-cultures. To isolate giant viruses, we propose the use of different species of amoeba as a cellular support. The aim of this work was to isolate new Brazilian giant viruses by comparing the protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. polyphaga, A. griffini, and Vermamoeba vermiformis (VV) as a platform for cellular isolation using environmental samples. One hundred samples were collected from 3 different areas in September 2014 in the Pampulha lagoon of Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais, Brazil. PCR was used to identify the isolated viruses, along with hemacolor staining, labelling fluorescence and electron microscopy. A total of 69 viruses were isolated. The highest ratio of isolation was found in A. polyphaga (46.38%) and the lowest in VV (0%). Mimiviruses were the most frequently isolated. One Marseillevirus and one Pandoravirus were also isolated. With Brazilian environmental samples, we demonstrated the high rate of lineage A mimiviruses. This work demonstrates how these viruses survive and circulate in nature as well the differences between protozoa as a platform for cellular isolation.

  2. Gastrointestinal Symptoms of Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, Emmet B.; Lowe, Daniel K.; Goss, J. Richard; Wayne, Robert

    1984-01-01

    A survey of 707 participants in the 13th Annual Trail's End Marathon in Seaside, Oregon, showed a high incidence of gastrointestinal disturbances, predominantly of the lower tract, associated with long-distance running. The urge to defecate, both during and immediately after running, occurred in over a third of runners. Bowel movements (35%) and diarrhea (19%) were relatively common after running, and runners occasionally interrupted hard runs or races for bowel movements (18%) or diarrhea (10%). Lower gastrointestinal disturbances were more frequent in women than in men and in younger than in older runners. Awareness of the frequency and nature of gastrointestinal symptoms documented by this survey will assist physicians in evaluating abdominal complaints in runners. PMID:6506684

  3. Gastrointestinal symptoms of marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Keeffe, E B; Lowe, D K; Goss, J R; Wayne, R

    1984-10-01

    A survey of 707 participants in the 13th Annual Trail's End Marathon in Seaside, Oregon, showed a high incidence of gastrointestinal disturbances, predominantly of the lower tract, associated with long-distance running. The urge to defecate, both during and immediately after running, occurred in over a third of runners. Bowel movements (35%) and diarrhea (19%) were relatively common after running, and runners occasionally interrupted hard runs or races for bowel movements (18%) or diarrhea (10%). Lower gastrointestinal disturbances were more frequent in women than in men and in younger than in older runners. Awareness of the frequency and nature of gastrointestinal symptoms documented by this survey will assist physicians in evaluating abdominal complaints in runners.

  4. The gastrointestinal tract microbiome, probiotics, and mood.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Bambling, Matthew; Alford, Hollie

    2014-12-01

    Mental health is closely linked to physical health. Depression (e.g., major depression) is highly prevalent worldwide and a major cause of disability. In a subgroup with treatment-resistant depression, standard pharmacotherapy interventions provide small if any incremental improvement in patient outcomes and may also require the application of an alternate approach. Therefore, in addition to the standard pharmacotherapies prescribed, patients will also be advised on the benefits of psychological counseling, electroconvulsive therapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation or increasing physical activity and reducing harmful substance consumption. Numerous nutraceuticals have a beneficial role in treatment-resistant depression and include, herbal medicines of which Hypericum perforatum is the best studied, omega-3 fatty acid preparations, S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe), various mineral formulations (e.g., magnesium) and folate (singly or in combination with B group vitamins) are prescribed to a lesser extent. Furthermore, a largely neglected area of research activity has been the role of live probiotic cultures that contribute to repairing dysbiosis (a leaky gut barrier abnormality) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this commentary, we build a hypothesis that in addition suggests that GIT metabolites that are elaborated by the microbiome cohort may provide novel and significant avenues for efficacious therapeutic interventions for mood disorders. We posit that the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract is implicit as an important participant for the amelioration of adverse mood conditions via the diverse metabolic activities provided by live beneficial bacteria (probiotics) as an active adjuvant treatment. This activity is in part triggered by a controlled release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hence further questions the antioxidant/oxidative stress postulate.

  5. Blood thinners and gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Monjur

    2016-01-01

    As the number of diagnostic and therapeutic gastrointestinal endoscopies is increasing, and there is an increase in number of patients taking blood thinners, we are seeing more and more patients on blood thinners prior to endoscopic procedures. Gastrointestinal bleeding or thromboembolism can occur in this category of patients in the periendoscopic period. To better manage these patients, endoscopists should have a clear concept about the various blood thinners in the market. Patients’ risk of thromboembolism off anticoagulation, and the risk of bleeding from endoscopic procedures should be assessed prior to endoscopy. The endoscopic procedure should be done when it is safe to do it. PMID:27668068

  6. Computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents computed tomography of the major disease states involving the gastrointestinal tract, mesentery, and peritoneal cavity. Computed Tomography of the Gastrointestinal Tract combined experience of l5 authorities includes illustrations (most of these radiographs).

  7. [The composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora].

    PubMed

    Lei, D; Lin, Y; Jiang, X; Lan, L; Zhang, W; Wang, B X

    2017-03-02

    Objective: To explore the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora. Method: Twenty-four specimens were collected from pregnant Kunming mouse including 8 mice of early embryonic (12-13 days) gastrointestinal tissues, 8 cases of late embryonic (19-20 days)gastrointestinal tissues, 8 of late pregnancy placental tissues.The 24 samples were extracted by DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Result: The level of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actino-bacteria and Firmicutes were predominantin all specimens.The relative content of predominant bacterial phyla in each group: Proteobacteria (95.00%, 88.14%, 87.26%), Bacteroidetes(1.71%, 2.15%, 2.63%), Actino-Bacteria(1.16%, 4.10%, 3.38%), Firmicutes(0.75%, 2.62%, 2.01%). At the level of family, there were nine predominant bacterial families in which Enterobacteriaeae, Shewanel laceae and Moraxellaceae were dominant.The relative content of dominant bacterial family in eachgroup: Enterobacteriaeae (46.99%, 44.34%, 41.08%), Shewanellaceae (21.99%, 21.10%, 19.05%), Moraxellaceae(9.18%, 7.09%, 5.64%). From the species of flora, the flora from fetal gastrointestinal in early pregnancy and late pregnancy (65.44% and 62.73%) were the same as that from placenta tissue in the late pregnancy.From the abundance of bacteria, at the level of family, the same content of bacteria in three groups accounted for 78.16%, 72.53% and 65.78% respectively. Conclusion: It was proved that the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora were colonized. At the same time the bacteria are classified.

  8. What's New in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stromal Tumor (GIST) About Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor What’s New in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Research and Treatment? There ... the Key Statistics About Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors? What’s New in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Research and Treatment? More ...

  9. Mucoadhesion and the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Varum, Felipe J O; McConnell, Emma L; Sousa, Joao J S; Veiga, Francisco; Basit, Abdul W

    2008-01-01

    The concept of mucoadhesion is one that has the potential to improve the highly variable residence times experienced by drugs and dosage forms at various sites in the gastrointestinal tract, and consequently, to reduce variability and improve efficacy. Intimate contact with the mucosa should enhance absorption or improve topical therapy. A variety of approaches have been investigated for mucoadhesion in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly for the stomach and small intestine. Despite interesting results in these sites, mucoadhesive approaches have not yet shown success in humans. The potential of the lower gut for these applications has been largely neglected, although the large intestine in particular may benefit, and the colon has several factors that suggest mucoadhesion could be successful there, including lower motility and the possibility of a lower mucus turnover and thicker mucus layer. In vitro studies on colonic mucoadhesion show promise, and rectal administration has shown some positive results in vivo. This review considers the background to mucoadhesion with respect to the physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the principles that underlie this concept. Mucoadhesive approaches to gastrointestinal drug delivery will be examined, with particular attention given to the lower gut.

  10. [Motility and functional gastrointestinal disorders].

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    This article discusses the studies on functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders presented at the 2014 Digestive Diseases Week conference that are of greatest interest to us. New data have been provided on the clinical importance of functional gastrointestinal disorders, with recent prevalence data for irritable bowel syndrome and fecal incontinence. We know more about the pathophysiological mechanisms of the various functional disorders, especially irritable bowel syndrome, which has had the largest number of studies. Thus, we have gained new data on microinflammation, genetics, microbiota, psychological aspects, etc. Symptoms such as abdominal distension have gained interest in the scientific community, both in terms of patients with irritable bowel syndrome and those with constipation. From the diagnostic point of view, the search continues for a biomarker for functional gastrointestinal disorders, especially for irritable bowel syndrome. In the therapeutic area, the importance of diet for these patients (FODMAP, fructans, etc.) is once again confirmed, and data is provided that backs the efficacy of already marketed drugs such as linaclotide, which rule out the use of other drugs such as mesalazine for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. This year, new forms of drug administration have been presented, including metoclopramide nasal sprays and granisetron transdermal patches for patients with gastroparesis. Lastly, a curiosity that caught our attention was the use of a vibrating capsule to stimulate gastrointestinal transit in patients with constipation.

  11. Development of a novel method for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample.

    PubMed

    Haramoto, Eiji; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Asami, Mari; Akiba, Michihiro

    2012-06-01

    A novel method, electronegative membrane-vortex (EMV) method, was developed for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample. Viruses and protozoa in a water sample were mixed with a cation solution and adsorbed on an electronegative membrane. Concentrated virus and protozoa samples were obtained as supernatant and pellet fractions, respectively, by vigorous vortex mixing of the membrane and centrifugation of the eluted material. The highest recovery efficiencies of model microbes from river water and tap water by this EMV method were obtained using a mixed cellulose ester membrane with a pore size of 0.45 μm (Millipore) as the electronegative membrane and MgCl(2) as the cation solution. The recovery was 27.7-86.5% for poliovirus, 25.7-68.3% for coliphage Qβ, 28.0-60.0% for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 35.0-53.0% for Giardia cysts. The EMV method detected successfully indigenous viruses and protozoa in wastewater and river water samples from the Kofu basin, Japan, showing an overall positive rate of 100% (43/43) for human adenovirus, 79% (34/43) for norovirus GI, 65% (28/43) for norovirus GII, 23% (10/43) for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 60% (26/43) for Giardia cysts. By direct DNA sequencing, a total of four genotypes (AI, AII, B, and G) of Giardia intestinalis were identified in the water samples, indicating that the river water was contaminated with feces from various mammals, including humans.

  12. Phylogeny of choanozoa, apusozoa, and other protozoa and early eukaryote megaevolution.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E-Y

    2003-05-01

    The primary diversification of eukaryotes involved protozoa, especially zooflagellates-flagellate protozoa without plastids. Understanding the origins of the higher eukaryotic kingdoms (two purely heterotrophic, Animalia and Fungi, and two primarily photosynthetic, Plantae and Chromista) depends on clarifying evolutionary relationships among the phyla of the ancestral kingdom Protozoa. We therefore sequenced 18S rRNA genes from 10 strains from the protozoan phyla Choanozoa and Apusozoa. Eukaryote diversity is encompassed by three early-radiating, arguably monophyletic groups: Amoebozoa, opisthokonts, and bikonts. Our taxon-rich rRNA phylogeny for eukaryotes allowing for intersite rate variation strongly supports the opisthokont clade (animals, Choanozoa, Fungi). It agrees with the view that Choanozoa are sisters of or ancestral to animals and reveals a novel nonflagellate choanozoan lineage, Ministeriida, sister either to choanoflagellates, traditionally considered animal ancestors, or to animals. Maximum likelihood trees suggest that within animals Placozoa are derived from medusozoan Cnidaria (we therefore place Placozoa as a class within subphylum Medusozoa of the Cnidaria) and hexactinellid sponges evolved from demosponges. The bikont and amoebozoan radiations are both very ill resolved. Bikonts comprise the kingdoms Plantae and Chromista and three major protozoan groups: alveolates, excavates, and Rhizaria. Our analysis weakly suggests that Apusozoa, represented by Ancyromonas and the apusomonads ( Apusomonas and the highly diverse and much more ancient genus Amastigomonas, from which it evolved), are not closely related to other Rhizaria and may be the most divergent bikont lineages. Although Ancyromonas and apusomonads appear deeply divergent in 18S rRNA trees, the trees neither refute nor support the monophyly of Apusozoa. The bikont phylum Cercozoa weakly but consistently appears as sister to Retaria (Foraminifera; Radiolaria), together forming a hitherto

  13. The gastrointestinal mucus system in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Malin E.V.; Sjövall, Henrik; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2013-01-01

    Mucins—large, highly glycosylated proteins—are important for the luminal protection of the gastrointestinal tract. Enterocytes have their apical surface covered by transmembrane mucins and goblet cells produce the secreted gel-forming mucins that form mucus. The small intestine has a single unattached mucus layer. In cystic fibrosis, this layer becomes attached, accounting for the intestinal manifestations of this disease. The stomach and colon have two layers of mucus; the inner layer is attached and the outer layer is less dense and unattached. In the colon, the outer mucus layer is the habitat for commensal bacteria. The inner mucus layer is impervious to bacteria and is renewed every hour by surface goblet cells. The crypt goblet cells have the ability to restitute the mucus layer by secretion, for example after an ischaemic challenge. Proteases of certain parasites and some bacteria can cleave mucins and dissolve the mucus as part of their pathogenicity. The inner mucus layer can, however, also become penetrable to bacteria by several other mechanisms, including aberrations in the immune system. When bacteria reach the epithelial surface, the immune system is activated and inflammation is triggered. This mechanism might occur in some types of ulcerative colitis. PMID:23478383

  14. The gastrointestinal mucus system in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Malin E V; Sjövall, Henrik; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2013-06-01

    Mucins--large, highly glycosylated proteins--are important for the luminal protection of the gastrointestinal tract. Enterocytes have their apical surface covered by transmembrane mucins and goblet cells produce the secreted gel-forming mucins that form mucus. The small intestine has a single unattached mucus layer, which in cystic fibrosis becomes attached, accounting for the intestinal manifestations of this disease. The stomach and colon have two layers of mucus; the inner layer is attached and the outer layer is less dense and unattached. In the colon, the outer mucus layer is the habitat for commensal bacteria. The inner mucus layer is impervious to bacteria and is renewed every hour by surface goblet cells. The crypt goblet cells have the ability to restitute the mucus layer by secretion, for example after an ischaemic challenge. Proteases of certain parasites and some bacteria can cleave mucins and dissolve the mucus as part of their pathogenicity. The inner mucus layer can, however, also become penetrable to bacteria by several other mechanisms, including aberrations in the immune system. When bacteria reach the epithelial surface, the immune system is activated and inflammation is triggered. This mechanism might occur in some types of ulcerative colitis.

  15. Age-related changes in select fecal bacteria in foals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult horses depend on the microbial community in the hindgut to produce VFAs that are utilized for energy. Microbial colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of foals is essential to develop a healthy symbiotic relationship and prevent proliferation of pathogenic bacteria. However, colonization i...

  16. Chemotaxis toward carbohydrates and peptides by mixed ruminal protozoa when fed, fasted, or incubated with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Diaz, H L; Karnati, S K R; Lyons, M A; Dehority, B A; Firkins, J L

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well-characterized chemotaxis and migratory behavior between the dorsal and ventral locations of the rumen by isotrichids, we hypothesized that chemotaxis toward soluble nutrients maintains entodiniomorphid protozoa in the particulate fraction. The objectives of these experiments were to compare the dose-responsive chemotaxis (1) toward different glucose concentrations when ruminal samples were harvested from fed versus fasted cows; (2) toward increasing concentrations of glucose compared with xylose when protozoa were harvested from a fed cow; (3) toward peptides of bacterial, protozoal, and soy origin; and (4) toward glucose when mixed ruminal protozoa were previously incubated for 0, 3, or 6h in the presence of emulsified polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; Liposyn II, Hospira, Lake Forest, IL). In experiment 1, isotrichid protozoa decreased chemotaxis toward increasing glucose concentration when cows were fasted. Entodiniomorphids exhibited chemotaxis to similar concentrations of glucose as did isotrichids, but to a lesser magnitude of response. In experiment 2, xylose was chemotactic to both groups. Xylose might draw fibrolytic entodiniomorphid protozoa toward newly ingested feed. In contrast, even though isotrichids should not use xylose as an energy source, they were highly chemoattracted to xylose. In experiment 3, entodiniomorphids were not selectively chemoattracted toward bacterial or protozoal peptides compared with soy peptides. In experiment 4, despite isotrichid populations decreasing in abundance with increasing time of incubation in PUFA, chemotaxis to glucose remained unchanged. In contrast, entodiniomorphids recovered chemotaxis to glucose with increased time of PUFA incubation. Current results support isotrichid chemotaxis to sugars but also our hypothesis that a more moderate chemotaxis toward glucose and peptides explains how they swim in the fluid but pass from the rumen with the potentially digestible fraction of

  17. The protozoa dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina contains selenoproteins and the relevant translation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Takashi; Beika, Asa; Hattori, Asuka; Kohno, Yoshinori; Kato, Koichi H; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2003-01-03

    In the phylogenetic tree, selenoproteins and the corresponding translation machinery are found in Archaea, Eubacteria, and animals, but not in fungi and higher plants. As very little is known about Protozoa, we searched for the presence of selenoproteins in the primitive dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina, belonging to the Protoctista kingdom. Four selenoproteins could be obtained from O. marina cells cultured in the presence of 75Se. Using O. marina or bovine liver cytosolic extracts, we could serylate and selenylate in vitro total O. marina tRNAs. Moreover, the existence of a tRNA(Sec) could be deduced from in vivo experiments. Lastly, an anti-serum against the specialized mammalian translation elongation factor mSelB reacted with a protein of 48-kDa molecular mass. Altogether, our data showed that O. marina contains selenoproteins and suggests that the corresponding translation machinery is related to that found in animals.

  18. Rethinking niche evolution: experiments with natural communities of Protozoa in pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas E; Moran, Emma R; terHorst, Casey P

    2014-08-01

    Classic niche theory predicts that competing species will evolve to use different resources and interact less, whereas recent niche-converge ideas predict that species evolve to use similar resources and interact more. Most data supporting niche evolution are based on observations of contemporary niche use, whereas experimental support is quite sparse. We followed the evolution of four species of Protozoa during succession in the water-filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, and found that evolution in multispecies systems follows a surprising pattern. Over several hundred generations, weak competitors evolved to be stronger, while strong competitors evolved to become weaker, which does not conform to expectations of either niche divergence or convergence. Evolution in this system appears to occur in response to characteristics of a suite of several competitors in the community, rather than pairwise interactions. Ecologists may need to rethink the roles of competition and evolution in structuring communities.

  19. Cytochemical techniques and energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy applied to the study of parasitic protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Ulysses

    2001-01-01

    The study of parasitic protozoa plays a major role in cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology. Numerous cytochemical techniques have been developed in order to unequivocally identify the nature of subcellular compartments. Enzyme and immuno-cytochemistry allow the detection of, respectively, enzymatic activity products and antigens in particular sites within the cell. Energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy permits the detection of specific elements within such compartments. These approaches are particularly useful for studies employing antimicrobial agents where cellular compartments may be destroyed or remarkably altered and thus hardly identified by standard methods of observation. In this regard cytochemical and spectroscopic techniques provide valuable data allowing the determination of the mechanisms of action of such compounds. PMID:12734583

  20. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat.

  1. Uptake, localization and clearance of quantum dots in ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Monika; Kahru, Anne; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2014-07-01

    Protozoa as phagocytizing cells have been shown to integrate engineered nanoparticles (NPs), while the mechanism, dynamics and extent of such uptake are unclear. Here our fluorescence microscopy data showed that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with primary size of 12 nm were readily phagocytized into the food vacuoles of Tetrahymena thermophila in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Twenty hours after the exposure to QDs in sublethal concentration the clearance of the QDs from the cells was incomplete suggesting that phagocytosis of QDs into food vacuoles was not the only pathway of uptake by T. thermophila. This was further proven by the results that the inhibition of phagocytosis did not block the internalization of QDs into protozoans. This study provides a new insight into uptake and cellular trafficking of subtoxic concentrations of nanoparticles that may, due to prolonged retention times in the cells, pose risks by potentially becoming available to higher trophic levels.

  2. A Case of Ciliate Protozoa Colpoda Spp. (Ciliata: Colpodidae) Detected In Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Costache, C; Bursaşiu, S; Filipaş, C; Colosi, I

    2011-01-01

    In the urine of a patient with chronic prostatitis, renal microlithiasis and acute cystitis we found the ciliate protozoa Colpoda spp., both in vegetative and cystic form. The entry point was most likely the urinary tract. Keeping in mind that only four more cases of Colpoda spp. existent in human urine have already been described, and that in the case of our patient the ciliate was present at repeated examinations of his urine, we presumed that it is not only a spurious infection of the urogenital tract. It still remains to be analyzed whether this ciliate belongs to a species of Colpoda adapted to parasitism in homeothermae and whether it can be pathogenic for humans. PMID:22347320

  3. Use of multiple functional traits of protozoa for bioassessment of marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Guangjian; Xu, Henglong

    2017-03-27

    Ecological parameters based on multiply functional traits have many advantages for monitoring programs by reducing "signal to noise" ratios of observed species data. To identify potential indicators for bioassessment of marine pollution in function space, the functional patterns of protozoan communities and relationships with environmental changes were studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea during a 1-year period. The results showed that: (1) the spatial variability in functional trait distributions of the protozoa was significantly associated with changes in environmental variables, especially chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients on spatial scale; (2) the functional traits, especially food resources and feeding type, were significantly correlated with COD and nutrients; and (3) the functional diversity indices were generally related to nutrients or COD. Based on the results, we suggest that the functional traits and diversity indices of protozoan communities may be used as more effective indicators for bioassessment of marine pollution.

  4. Detection by PCR of pathogenic protozoa in raw and drinkable water samples in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Lora, Fabiana; Zuluaga, Juan David; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the presence of DNA of Giardia, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium by PCR, and of Giardia and Cryptosporidium genera by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), in water samples, before, during, and after plant treatment for drinkable water. We applied this method in 38 samples of 10 l of water taken from each of the water treatment steps and in 8 samples taken at home (only for Toxoplasma PCR) in Quindio region in Colombia. There were 8 positive samples for Cryptosporidium parvum (21 %), 4 for Cryptosporidium hominis (10.5 %), 27 for Toxoplasma gondii (58.6 %), 2 for Giardia duodenalis assemblage A (5.2 %), and 5 for G. duodenalis assemblage B (13.1 %). By IFAT, 23 % were positive for Giardia and 21 % for Cryptosporidium. An almost perfect agreement was found between IFAT and combined results of PCR, by Kappa composite proportion analysis. PCR positive samples were significantly more frequent in untreated raw water for C. parvum (p = 0.02). High mean of fecal coliforms, high pH values, and low mean of chlorine residuals were strongly correlated with PCR positivity for G. duodenalis assemblage B. High pH value was correlated with PCR positivity for C. parvum. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences was possible, showing water and human clinical sequences for Toxoplasma within the same phylogenetic group for B1 repeated sequence. PCR assay is complementary to IFAT assay for monitoring of protozoa in raw and drinkable water, enabling species identification and to look for phylogenetic analysis in protozoa from human and environmental sources.

  5. The role of the gastrointestinal microbiome in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sheh, Alexander; Fox, James G

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of Helicobacter pylori overturned the conventional dogma that the stomach was a sterile organ and that pH values < 4 were capable of sterilizing the stomach. H. pylori are an etiological agent associated with gastritis, hypochlorhydria, duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. It is now appreciated that the human stomach supports a bacterial community with possibly 100s of bacterial species that influence stomach homeostasis. Other bacteria colonizing the stomach may also influence H. pylori-associated gastric pathogenesis by creating reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and modulating inflammatory responses. In this review, we summarize the available literature concerning the gastric microbiota in humans, mice, and Mongolian gerbils. We also discuss the gastric perturbations, many involving H. pylori, that facilitate the colonization by bacteria from other compartments of the gastrointestinal tract, and identify risk factors known to affect gastric homeostasis that contribute to changes in the microbiota. PMID:23962822

  6. Transversal mixing in the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainchtein, Dmitri; Orthey, Perry; Parkman, Henry

    2015-11-01

    We discuss results of numerical simulations and analytical modeling of transversal intraluminal mixing in the GI tract produced by segmentation and peristaltic contractions. Particles that start in different parts of the small intestine are traced over several contractions and mixing is described using the particles' probability distribution function. We show that there is optimal set of parameters of contractions, such as the depth and frequency, that produces the most efficient mixing. We show that contractions create well-defined advection patterns in transversal direction. The research is inspired by several applications. First, there is the study of bacteria populating the walls of the intestine, which rely on fluid mixing for nutrients. Second, there are gastrointestinal diseases, such as Crohn's disease, which can be treated effectively using a drug delivery capsule through GI tract, for which it is needed to know how long it takes for a released drug to reach the intestinal wall. And finally, certain neurological and muscular deceases change the parameters of contractions, thus reducing the efficiency of mixing. Understanding an admissible range of the parameters (when mixing is still sufficient for biological purposes) may indicate when the medical action is required.

  7. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Vance D.; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to abnormalities in systemic immune function, patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the pre-AIDS syndromes have significant abnormalities in the distribution of T-cell subsets in the intestinal tract. Such immune deficits predispose such patients to opportunistic infections and tumors, many of which involve the gastrointestinal tract. For example, Candida albicans often causes stomatitis and esophagitis. Intestinal infections with parasites (Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia) or bacteria (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare) are associated with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, whereas viruses like cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus cause mucosal ulcerations. Clinically debilitating chronic diarrhea develops in many AIDS patients for which no clear cause can be identified. Enteric pathogens like Salmonella and Campylobacter can be associated with bacteremias. Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma involving the intestinal tract are now well-recognized complications of AIDS. Although AIDS is not associated with a pathognomonic liver lesion, opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma or lymphoma may involve the liver. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:3825111

  8. Intravital Computer Morphometry on Protozoa: A Method for Monitoring of the Morphofunctional Disorders in Cells Exposed in the Cell Phone Communication Electromagnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Uskalova, D V; Igolkina, Yu V; Sarapultseva, E I

    2016-08-01

    Morphofunctional disorders in unicellular aquatic protozoa - Spirostomum ambiguum infusorians after 30-, 60-, and 360-min exposure in electromagnetic field at a radiation frequency of 1 GHz and energy flow density of 50 μW/cm(2) were analyzed by intravital computer morphometry. Significant disorders in morphometric values correlated with low mobility of the protozoa. The results suggested the use of intravital computer morphometry on the protozoa for early diagnosis of radiation-induced effects of the mobile communication electromagnetic field, for example, low mobility of spermatozoa.

  9. Gastrointestinal lesions associated with spondyloarthropathies

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Ambrogio; Renna, Sara; Perricone, Giovanni; Cottone, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Subclinical gut inflammation has been described in up to two-thirds of patients with spondyloarthropathies (SpA). Arthritis represents an extra-intestinal manifestation of several gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Whipple’s disease, Behcet’s disease, celiac disease, intestinal bypass surgery, parasitic infections of the gut and pseudomembranous colitis. Moreover about two-thirds of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users demonstrate intestinal inflammation. Arthritis may manifest as a peripheral or axial arthritis. The spondyloarthropathy family consists of the following entities: ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloarthritis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, spondyloarthritis associated with IBD, juvenile onset spondyloarthritis. This topic reviews the major gastrointestinal manifestations that can occur in patients with SpA and in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs users. PMID:19468992

  10. Quality control in gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Barba, Ector Jaime; Arenas-Moya, Diego; Vázquez-Guerrero, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the Mexican legal framework, identifying the vectors that characterize quality and control in gastrointestinal surgery. Quality is contemplated in the health protection rights determined according to the Mexican Constitution, established in the general health law and included as a specific goal in the actual National Development Plan and Health Sector Plan. Quality control implies planning, verification and application of corrective measures. Mexico has implemented several quality strategies such as certification of hospitals and regulatory agreements by the General Salubrity Council, creation of the National Health Quality Committee, generation of Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Certification of Medical Specialties, among others. Quality control in gastrointestinal surgery must begin at the time of medical education and continue during professional activities of surgeons, encouraging multidisciplinary teamwork, knowledge, abilities, attitudes, values and skills that promote homogeneous, safe and quality health services for the Mexican population.

  11. Advances in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David G.; Banks, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly moving technological advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy have enhanced an endoscopist’s ability to diagnose and treat lesions within the gastrointestinal tract. The improvement in image quality created by the advent of high-definition and magnification endoscopy, alongside image enhancement, produces images of superb quality and detail that empower the endoscopist to identify important lesions that have previously been undetectable. Additionally, we are now seeing technologies emerge, such as optical coherence tomography and confocal laser endomicroscopy, that allow the endoscopist to visualize individual cells on a microscopic level and provide a real time, in vivo histological assessment. Within this article we discuss these technologies, as well as some of the results from their early use in clinical studies. PMID:26918137

  12. Glutamine and the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, T R; Bazargan, N; Leader, L M; Martindale, R G

    2000-09-01

    The amino acid glutamine has become one of the most intensively studied nutrients in the field of nutrition and metabolic support. A variety of studies in cell culture systems, animal models of gut mucosal atrophy, injury/repair and adaptation and a limited number of clinical trials demonstrate trophic and cytoprotective effects of glutamine in small bowel and colonic mucosal cells. Although the routine clinical use of glutamine-enriched parenteral and enteral nutrient solutions remains controversial, available data demonstrate both the safety and metabolic and clinical efficacy of glutamine treatment in selected patient groups. Basic investigations are elucidating underlying mechanisms of glutamine action in intestinal cells. These will inform preclinical and clinical investigations designed to determine glutamine efficacy in selected gastrointestinal disorders. Emerging clinical trials will further define the utility of adjunctive glutamine supplementation as a component of specialized nutrition support in gastrointestinal disease.

  13. Paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valéria; Tóth, Ambrus; Szilasi, Zsuzsanna; Tihanyi, Balazs; Zaránd, Attila; Harsanyi, Laszlo; Szállási, Zoltán

    2016-06-01

    It has been demonstrated recently in several solid tumors that thrombocytosis at diagnosis may correlate with tumor invasion, metastatic progression and worse outcome. Several details of the pathomechanism of the relationship of thrombocytosis and cancer have been elucidated; however, the complete process is not clearly understood. Several hypotheses have been proposed. Recently, it was suggested that in ovarian cancer elevated IL-6 production by the tumor may induce increased megakaryopoiesis via hepatic thrombopoietin production leading to thrombocytosis. The importance of the prognostic power of elevated platelet count is still debated in gastrointestinal cancer. The aims of this review were to evaluate the prognostic significance of thrombocytosis in gastrointestinal tumors, to see whether clinical practice confirmed the hypotheses and to reveal the causes of the inconsistent findings.

  14. Gastrointestinal complications postthoracotomy and postvagotomy.

    PubMed

    Kokoska, E R; Naunheim, K S

    1998-08-01

    Postthoracotomy gastrointestinal complications, although relatively uncommon, can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is necessary to identify patients who are at high risk for gastrointestinal complications during the preoperative evaluation. Appropriate stress ulcer prophylaxis should be provided to high-risk patients, and enteral feeds should be initiated as early in the postoperative course as possible. Postoperative hypotension and massive blood transfusions can be avoided with early reexploration in the case of postoperative hemorrhage. Finally, unexplained abdominal pain must not be ignored; a high index of suspicion should be maintained, with early and liberal use of diagnostic tools such as standard radiography, CT, endoscopy, and angiography. Consultation should be requested from a surgeon experienced in abdominal catastrophes. Early laparotomy with aggressive operative management can be lifesaving therapy but must be not applied in a cavalier fashion, as many of these disorders can and should be managed conservatively.

  15. Gastrointestinal endoscopy: infection and disinfection.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, H J; Axon, A T

    1983-01-01

    The past decade has seen the development of an array of complex flexible fibreoptic instruments for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and an increasing use of these for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It has been recognised more recently that the use of contaminated endoscopic equipment can lead to serious and occasionally fatal infections. Infection with a wide variety of micro-organisms has been reported following oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy (OGD) and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). PMID:6414894

  16. Diet and Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Abnet, Christian C.; Corley, Douglas A.; Freedman, Neal D.; Kamangar, Farin

    2015-01-01

    Diet is believed to modulate cancer risk and this relationship has been widely studied in the gastrointestinal tract. Observational epidemiologic studies have provided most of the evidence for the effects of diet on cancer risk, because clinical trials to determine nutritional exposures are often impossible, impractical, or unaffordable. Although a few foods or nutrients are thought to protect against specific types of cancer, it seems clear that the strength and even direction of dietary associations (increasing or decreasing risk) is organ site- and even histology-specific, along the gastrointestinal tract. Although some hypotheses are supported by a substantial body of observational data (drinking hot maté contributes to esophageal cancer), there is not much data to support others. We discuss some highly touted hypotheses and draw interim conclusions about what is known, and what could be done to improve the level of evidence. The complex nature of diet and its associations can be productively investigated with disease-specific studies. However, public health recommendations for normal-risk individuals regarding diet and gastrointestinal cancer should probably emphasize the importance of eating for overall health, rather than eating specific foods to reduce risk for specific cancers. PMID:25680671

  17. [Collagen diseases with gastrointestinal manifestations].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Ohara, Mikiko; Imai, Kohzoh

    2004-06-01

    Collagen vascular diseases are known to present with a diverse array of gastrointestinal manifestations. These can be classified as: 1) gastrointestinal damage due to the collagen vascular disease itself; 2) adverse events caused by pharmacotherapies; or 3) gastrointestinal infections following immunosuppression due to corticosteroid (CS) administration. The first group includes lupus enteritis and protein-losing gastroenteropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), reflux esophagitis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and pneumatosis cystoids intestinalis in systemic sclerosis, amyloidosis in rheumatoid arthritis, bowel ulcer and bleeding in rheumatoid vasculitis and microscopic polyangiitis, and ileocecal ulcer in Behcet disease. In particular, colonic ulcers associated with SLE represent refractory lesions resistant to CS. Analysis of reported cases showing colonic lesions with SLE (22 cases in Japan) revealed that mean duration of SLE was 9.9 years and 77% of colonic lesions were observed in the rectum and sigmoid colon. Half of the patients developed intestinal perforation or penetration, and 6 of the 11 patients with perforation died. The second group includes lesions in the small and large intestine due to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and CSs, in addition to peptic ulcers. As perforation in CS-treated patients displays relatively high incidence with poor prognosis, careful attention to such complications is needed. The third group includes candidal esophagitis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis. Prompt diagnosis is required to prevent colonic bleeding and perforation due to CMV.

  18. Cannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PERTWEE, R

    2001-01-01

    The enteric nervous system of several species, including the mouse, rat, guinea pig and humans, contains cannabinoid CB1 receptors that depress gastrointestinal motility, mainly by inhibiting ongoing contractile transmitter release. Signs of this depressant effect are, in the whole organism, delayed gastric emptying and inhibition of the transit of non-absorbable markers through the small intestine and, in isolated strips of ileal tissue, inhibition of evoked acetylcholine release, peristalsis, and cholinergic and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) contractions of longitudinal or circular smooth muscle. These are contractions evoked electrically or by agents that are thought to stimulate contractile transmitter release either in tissue taken from morphine pretreated animals (naloxone) or in unpretreated tissue (γ-aminobutyric acid and 5-hydroxytryptamine). The inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on gastric emptying and intestinal transit are mediated to some extent by CB1 receptors in the brain as well as by enteric CB1 receptors. Gastric acid secretion is also inhibited in response to CB1 receptor activation, although the detailed underlying mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Cannabinoid receptor agonists delay gastric emptying in humans as well as in rodents and probably also inhibit human gastric acid secretion. Cannabinoid pretreatment induces tolerance to the inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on gastrointestinal motility. Findings that the CB1 selective antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716A produces in vivo and in vitro signs of increased motility of rodent small intestine probably reflect the presence in the enteric nervous system of a population of CB1 receptors that are precoupled to their effector mechanisms. SR141716A has been reported not to behave in this manner in the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparation (MPLM) of human ileum unless this has first been rendered cannabinoid tolerant. Nor has it been

  19. Interpretability of the PedsQL gastrointestinal symptoms scales and gastrointestinal worry scales in pediatric patients with functional and organic gastrointestinal diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigates the clinical interpretability of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventor (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and Worry Scales in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic gastrointestinal diseases in comparison with healthy controls....

  20. Design and validation of four new primers for next-generation sequencing to target the 18S rRNA genes of gastrointestinal ciliate protozoa.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-09-01

    Four new primers and one published primer were used to PCR amplify hypervariable regions within the protozoal 18S rRNA gene to determine which primer pair provided the best identification and statistical analysis. PCR amplicons of 394 to 498 bases were generated from three primer sets, sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with Titanium, and analyzed using the BLAST database (NCBI) and MOTHUR version 1.29. The protozoal diversity of rumen contents from moose in Alaska was assessed. In the present study, primer set 1, P-SSU-316F and GIC758R (amplicon of 482 bases), gave the best representation of diversity using BLAST classification, and the set amplified Entodinium simplex and Ostracodinium spp., which were not amplified by the other two primer sets. Primer set 2, GIC1080F and GIC1578R (amplicon of 498 bases), had similar BLAST results and a slightly higher percentage of sequences that were identified with a higher sequence identity. Primer sets 1 and 2 are recommended for use in ruminants. However, primer set 1 may be inadequate to determine protozoal diversity in nonruminants. The amplicons created by primer set 1 were indistinguishable for certain species within the genera Bandia, Blepharocorys, Polycosta, and Tetratoxum and between Hemiprorodon gymnoprosthium and Prorodonopsis coli, none of which are normally found in the rumen.

  1. Design and Validation of Four New Primers for Next-Generation Sequencing To Target the 18S rRNA Genes of Gastrointestinal Ciliate Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Wright, André-Denis G.

    2014-01-01

    Four new primers and one published primer were used to PCR amplify hypervariable regions within the protozoal 18S rRNA gene to determine which primer pair provided the best identification and statistical analysis. PCR amplicons of 394 to 498 bases were generated from three primer sets, sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with Titanium, and analyzed using the BLAST database (NCBI) and MOTHUR version 1.29. The protozoal diversity of rumen contents from moose in Alaska was assessed. In the present study, primer set 1, P-SSU-316F and GIC758R (amplicon of 482 bases), gave the best representation of diversity using BLAST classification, and the set amplified Entodinium simplex and Ostracodinium spp., which were not amplified by the other two primer sets. Primer set 2, GIC1080F and GIC1578R (amplicon of 498 bases), had similar BLAST results and a slightly higher percentage of sequences that were identified with a higher sequence identity. Primer sets 1 and 2 are recommended for use in ruminants. However, primer set 1 may be inadequate to determine protozoal diversity in nonruminants. The amplicons created by primer set 1 were indistinguishable for certain species within the genera Bandia, Blepharocorys, Polycosta, and Tetratoxum and between Hemiprorodon gymnoprosthium and Prorodonopsis coli, none of which are normally found in the rumen. PMID:24973070

  2. Back To Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Explores new research about bacteria. Discusses bacterial genomes, archaea, unusual environments, evolution, pathogens, bacterial movement, biofilms, bacteria in the body, and a bacterial obsession. Contains 29 references. (JRH)

  3. Phenolic Composition, Fermentation Profile, Protozoa Population and Methane Production from Sheanut (Butryospermum Parkii) Byproducts In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Raghavendra; Mani, Saravanan; Baruah, Luna; Sampath, K. T.

    2012-01-01

    Sheanut cake (SNC), expeller (SNE) and solvent extractions (SNSE) samples were evaluated to determine their suitability in animal feeding. The CP content was highest in SNSE (16.2%) followed by SNE (14.7%) and SNC (11.6%). However, metabolizable energy (ME, MJ/kg) was maximum in SNC (8.2) followed by SNE (7.9) and SNSE (7.0). The tannin phenol content was about 7.0 per cent and mostly in the form of hydrolyzable tannin (HT), whereas condensed tannin (CT) was less than one per cent. The in vitro gas production profiles indicated similar y max (maximum potential of gas production) among the 3 by-products. However, the rate of degradation (k) was maximum in SNC followed by SNE and SNSE. The t1/2 (time taken for reaching half asymptote) was lowest in SNC (14.4 h) followed by SNE (18.7 h) and SNSE (21.9 h). The increment in the in vitro gas volume (ml/200 mg DM) with PEG (polyethylene glycol)-6000 (as a tannin binder) addition was 12.0 in SNC, 9.6 in SNE and 11.0 in SNSE, respectively. The highest ratio of CH4 (ml) reduction per ml of the total gas, an indicator of the potential of tannin, was recorded in SNE (0.482) followed by SNC (0.301) and SNSE (0.261). There was significant (p<0.05) reduction in entodinia population and total protozoa population. Differential protozoa counts revealed that Entodinia populations increased to a greater extent than Holotricha when PEG was added. This is the first report on the antimethanogenic property of sheanut byproducts. It could be concluded that all the three forms of SN byproducts are medium source of protein and energy for ruminants. There is a great potential for SN by-products to be incorporated in ruminant feeding not only as a source of energy and protein, but also to protect the protein from rumen degradation and suppress enteric methanogenesis. PMID:25049494

  4. Influence of Legionella pneumophila and other water bacteria on the survival and growth of Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    PubMed

    Anacarso, I; Guerrieri, E; Bondi, M; de Niederhäusern, S; Iseppi, R; Sabia, C; Contri, M; Borella, P; Messi, P

    2010-10-01

    We investigated in solid medium, in water microcosm co-cultures and by light and transmission electron microscopy the influence of Legionella pneumophila Lp-1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 25416 and Pseudomonas fluorescens SSD35 on the growth and survival of Acanthamoeba polyphaga. The infection with L. pneumophila was microscopically characterized by the presence of few bacteria inside protozoa at 4th h, and by the beginning of disruptive effects in late phase of trial. In water microcosm studies, performed at different temperature, the more significant interactions were observed at 30°C. In these conditions, L. pneumophila caused a marked reduction in trophozoite and cyst counts from the 4th day until the end of incubation (11 days). B. cepacia showed, by microscopic observation, few and generally single rods within protozoan phagosomes and caused a light reduction of trophozoite viability and cyst formation in co-cultures. A more invasive type of endocytosis, characterized by an early invasion with the presence of a high bacteria number inside amoebae, was observed for Pseudomonas strains. P. fluorescens produced a violent lysis of the host, whereas P. aeruginosa did not cause lysis or suffering. These results underline that water bacteria other than legionella are capable of intracellular survival in Acanthamoeba, influencing the protozoa viable cycle.

  5. A Study of Intestinal Protozoa Including Non-Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica from Patients in a Group of Mental Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Sargeaunt, Peter G.; Williams, John E.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-five per cent of 174 patients residing in three mental hospitals were found to be infected with protozoa. Seven per cent of the patients were infected with Entameba histolytica. Isoenzyme characterization of the E. histolytica grown in culture showed that there were no pathogenic zymodemes of this organism in any of the specimens tested. (Am J Public Health 1982;72:178-180.) ImagesFIGURE 1 PMID:6275721

  6. Occurrence of organic chlorinated pesticides and their ecological effects on soil protozoa in the agricultural soils of North Western Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yajuan; Lu, Yonglong; Meng, Fanqiao; Guo, Feifan; Zheng, Xiaoqi

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence of ∑HCHs, ∑DDTs, protozoa abundance and their community structure in surface soils of orchards, vegetable lands, and barren lands in northern west outskirts of Beijing were detected in order to investigate the protozoa responses to low dose organic chlorinated Pesticides (OCPs) after long-term field-based exposure. Significant differences in total concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were found among the three general groups ranking in decreasing order of concentration from orchard>vegetable lands >barren lands. Ciliate was the rare group in surface soils of all the sampling groups. The abundance of flagellate, ciliate, and amoebae in vegetable soils were significantly higher than those in orchard soils. The abundance of all the taxa of protozoa was strongly negative correlated with the residue level of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs (P<0.05) in agricultural soils. However, no negative correlation between the residue levels of OCPs and protozoa abundance was shown in both the orchard and the barren soils. This field study demonstrated a considerable long-term impact of the OCPs residue on the abundance of protozoa in soils, and that the abundance of soil protozoa was much more influenced by land use type in association with different soil properties.

  7. Bioaccumulation of pathogenic bacteria and amoeba by zebra mussels and their presence in watercourses.

    PubMed

    Mosteo, R; Goñi, P; Miguel, N; Abadías, J; Valero, P; Ormad, M P

    2016-01-01

    Dreissena polymorpha (the zebra mussel) has been invading freshwater bodies in Europe since the beginning of the nineteenth century. Filter-feeding organisms can accumulate and concentrate both chemical and biological contaminants in their tissues. Therefore, zebra mussels are recognized as indicators of freshwater quality. In this work, the capacity of the zebra mussel to accumulate human pathogenic bacteria and protozoa has been evaluated and the sanitary risk associated with their presence in surface water has also been assessed. The results show a good correlation between the pathogenic bacteria concentration in zebra mussels and in watercourses. Zebra mussels could therefore be used as an indicator of biological contamination. The bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Salmonella spp.) and parasites (Cryptosporidium oocysts and free-living amoebae) detected in these mussels reflect a potential sanitary risk in water.

  8. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment.

    PubMed

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Hoy; Permin, Anders; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Andersen, Leif Percival

    2015-10-01

    The number of children in daycare centers (DCCs) is rising. This increases exposure to microorganisms and infectious diseases. Little is known about which bacteria and viruses are present in the DCC environment and where they are located. In the study described in this article, the authors set out to determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and viruses and to find the most contaminated fomites in DCCs. Fifteen locations in each DCC were sampled for bacteria, respiratory viruses, and gastrointestinal viruses. The locations were in the toilet, kitchen, and playroom areas and included nursery pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys.

  9. Cancer stem cells in human gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriya, Chiharu; Igarashi, Hisayoshi; Saitoh, Anri; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Imai, Kohzoh

    2016-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, drug and radiation resistance, invasive growth, metastasis, and tumor relapse, which are the main causes of cancer-related deaths. Gastrointestinal cancers are the most common malignancies and still the most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Because gastrointestinal CSCs are also thought to be resistant to conventional therapies, an effective and novel cancer treatment is imperative. The first reported CSCs in a gastrointestinal tumor were found in colorectal cancer in 2007. Subsequently, CSCs were reported in other gastrointestinal cancers, such as esophagus, stomach, liver, and pancreas. Specific phenotypes could be used to distinguish CSCs from non-CSCs. For example, gastrointestinal CSCs express unique surface markers, exist in a side-population fraction, show high aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity, form tumorspheres when cultured in non-adherent conditions, and demonstrate high tumorigenic potential in immunocompromised mice. The signal transduction pathways in gastrointestinal CSCs are similar to those involved in normal embryonic development. Moreover, CSCs are modified by the aberrant expression of several microRNAs. Thus, it is very difficult to target gastrointestinal CSCs. This review focuses on the current research on gastrointestinal CSCs and future strategies to abolish the gastrointestinal CSC phenotype.

  10. Control of protozoa contamination and lipid accumulation in Neochloris oleoabundans culture: Effects of pH and dissolved inorganic carbon.

    PubMed

    Peng, Licheng; Lan, Christopher Q; Zhang, Zisheng; Sarch, Cody; Laporte, Matt

    2015-12-01

    Combined effects of pH (i.e., 7.5, 8.5, and 9.5) and bicarbonate (i.e., 0, 80 and 160mM NaHCO3) on lipid accumulation and on biological contaminant viability in a protozoa-contaminated culture of the freshwater microalga Neochloris oleoabundans were studied. Cultures grown in the media containing 160mM NaHCO3 at pH 9.5 obtained the highest biomass concentration (DCWmax=1.32g/L), lipid content (LC=327mg/g), which corresponded to a lipid productivity of 56mg/(L·d), and the culture was protozoa free one day after inoculation. Other cultures, 160mM NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 (DCWmax=1.32g/L, LC=223mg/g), and 80mM NaHCO3 at pH 9.5 (DCWmax=1.25g/L, LC=264mg/g) could delay protozoan growth, but not inhibit it completely. These results suggest 160mM NaHCO3 or slightly above at pH levels of 8.5-9.5 may be used in outdoor cultivation processes of freshwater N. oleoabundans to control protozoa contamination while maintain a high lipid content.

  11. Effect of ciliate protozoa on the activity of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and fibre breakdown in the rumen ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Williams, A G; Withers, S E

    1991-02-01

    The effect of ciliate protozoa on the activity of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in microbial populations from the digesta solids and liquor fractions of rumen contents was examined after the refaunation of ciliate-free sheep with an A-type rumen protozoal population. Although the culturable rumen bacterial population was reduced after refaunation the number of fibrolytic micro-organisms detected was higher; the xylanolytic bacterial population and numbers of fungal zoospores were increased after refaunation. The proportion of propionic acid was lower in the refaunated animals, whereas the concentration of ammonia and the acidic metabolites acetate, butyrate and valerate were all increased. The range of enzyme activities present in the digesta subpopulations were the same in defaunated and refaunated animals. The activities of the polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, however, were increased in the microbial populations associated with the digesta solids after refaunation, and at 16 h after feeding the activities were 4-8 times (beta-D-xylosidase 20 times) higher than the levels detected in the adherent population from defaunated sheep. The protozoa, either directly through their own enzymes or indirectly as a consequence of their effects on the population size and activity of the other fibrolytic micro-organisms present, have an important role in determining the level of activity of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in the rumen ecosystem. Although the extent of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) hay digestion was similar after 24 h in the absence or presence of protozoa, the initial ruminal degradation was higher in refaunated sheep.

  12. Cutaneous manifestation of gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Kerstetter, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) and cutaneous systems are closely linked in origin. Skin manifestations are frequently seen as a part of different GI syndromes. Gastroenterologists play an important role in recognizing the symptoms, patient workup and arriving at appropriate diagnoses, often in consultation with dermatologists. This review discusses the diseases with both cutaneous and intestinal involvement. Hereditary polyposis GI cancers, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers (CRCs), hamartomatous disorders, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are reviewed with emphasis on the genetic basis, diagnostic, histologic findings, screening modalities, and therapeutic options. PMID:27034812

  13. Gastrointestinal Complications After Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Irene T.

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is increasingly being performed in the medically complicated obese population as convincing data continue to mount, documenting the success of surgery not only in achieving meaningful weight loss but also in correcting obesity-related illnesses. Several surgical procedures with varying degrees of success and complications are currently being performed. This article discusses the short- and long-term gastrointestinal complications for the 4 most common bariatric surgical procedures: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. PMID:27118949

  14. Immunobiology of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Galant, S P

    1976-06-01

    The interplay between the gut and immune abnormality appears to be a logical extension of the thesis that secretory IgA is the major immunologic line of defense between the outside environment and the host. Thus immunologic deficiency, particularly of IgA and combined T- and B-lymphocyte abnormalites, profoundly influences gut integrity. Conversely, gut pathology is bound to interfere with immunologic function, so that both humoral and cellular immunity may be impaired. Finally, hypersensitivity phenomena in the gut, resulting in immune injury, may cause gastrointestinal disturbances. As better diagnostic tools have become available, more direct evidence of hypersensitivity immune injury has been described.

  15. Interactions of some common pathogenic bacteria with Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    PubMed

    Huws, Sharon A; Morley, Robert J; Jones, Martin V; Brown, Michael R W; Smith, Anthony W

    2008-05-01

    Protozoan grazing is a major trophic pathway whereby the biomass re-enters the food web. Nonetheless, not all bacteria are digested by protozoa and the number known to evade digestion, resulting in their environmental augmentation, is increasing. We investigated the interactions of Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), with the amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga. There was evidence of predation of all bacterial species except L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, where extracellular numbers were significantly higher when cultured with amoebae compared with growth in the absence of amoebae. Intracellular growth kinetic experiments and fluorescent confocal microscopy suggest that S. aureus survived and may even multiply within A. polyphaga, whereas there was no apparent intra-amoebal replication of L. monocytogenes and higher numbers were likely sustained on metabolic waste products released during coculture.

  16. Presence of parasitic protozoa and helminth in sewage and efficiency of sewage treatment in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Ayed, L; Schijven, J; Alouini, Z; Jemli, M; Sabbahi, S

    2009-08-01

    Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts were enumerated in raw and treated wastewater in Tunisia in order to determine their removal by wastewater treatment and to provide quantitative data for developing regulations for wastewater quality that are currently lacking. Raw and treated wastewater samples were collected from 17 plants in Tunisia during 2006-2007 and analyzed for parasites using the modified Bailenger method. Two groups of parasites, namely, Ascaris sp., Entamoeba coli, Enterobius vermicularis, and Taenia sp. (group 1) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp., and Taenia sp. (group 2) could statistically be distinguished according to their removal by wastewater treatment. Group 1 parasites were removed by 1.1 log(10) (92.4%) and group 2 parasites by 0.61 log(10) (76%). The ubiquitous presence of parasitic protozoa in Tunisian wastewater and ineffective wastewater treatment lead to their proliferation in surface waters with a high probability of exposure of human and animals to these parasites and consequent adverse health effects, as is apparent from epidemiologic data as well. This study provides a quantitative basis for risk assessment studies and development of mitigation strategies, such as improving wastewater treatment efficiency.

  17. A retrospective molecular study of select intestinal protozoa in healthy pet cats from Italy.

    PubMed

    Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona; Mugnaini, Linda; Zambernardi, Lucia; Guerrini, Alessandro; Gazzola, Valentina; Papini, Roberto Amerigo

    2015-02-01

    The feline gut can harbour a number of protozoan parasites. Recent genetic studies have highlighted new epidemiological findings about species of Cryptosporidium, assemblages of Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii. Furthermore, epidemiological studies suggest the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats is on the increase worldwide. The prevalence of selected intestinal protozoa was determined by PCR using DNA previously extracted from the faeces of 146 privately owned healthy cats from Italy. Molecular genotyping on T gondii, G duodenalis and Cryptosporidium DNA was achieved. PCR assays were positive in 32 (22.9%) samples. Three animals (2.0%) were positive for T foetus and Cryptosporidium DNA, 15 specimens (10.3%) were positive for T gondii and 11 (7.5%) for G duodenalis. Co-infections were never observed. Results of the typing analysis allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium felis in all cases. The specimens positive for T gondii hinted at clonal genotype I (n = 7), genotype II (n = 1) and genotype III (n = 7). The G duodenalis isolates were referable to assemblages F (n = 9) and C (n = 2). In conclusion, the results obtained in this study add to the literature regarding the epidemiology of these parasites by confirming their presence in the faeces of healthy pet cats.

  18. Ciliated protozoa community of a combined UASB-activated sludge system in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Rossetto, Renato; Guimarães, José Roberto; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the abundance and taxonomic composition of ciliated protozoa in the activated sludge of a full-scale combined anaerobic-aerobic system operating in a tropical country and (2) to study the relationship between the effluent quality, the physicochemical variables, and the ciliates present in the operating system. The total ciliate fauna of the activated sludge of the Piçarrão Wastewater Treatment Plant (Piçarrão WWTP) was composed of 36 morphospecies belonging to 33 genera. These included 21 species observed in the activated sludge samples on the day of collection and 15 species found in cultures. The activated sludge of the Piçarrão WWTP contained a diversified ciliate community composed mainly of indicator organisms. The most frequently occurring morphospecies were Aspidisca cicada, Vorticella spp., Gastronauta aloisi, Acineria uncinata, and Epistylis plicatilis complex. These results showed that satisfactory operating conditions prevailed at the Piçarrão WWTP. In the combined UASB-activated sludge system, the presence of Aspidisca cicada suggests the occurrence of denitrification in the process while the presence of Acineria uncinata and G. alosi indicates the removal of carbonaceous organic matter.

  19. Plant-like proteins in protozoa, metazoa and fungi imply universal plastid endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shu; Guo, Jian-Hua; Du, Jun-Bo; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, plant-like proteins in protozoa, metazoa and fungi have been identified. Analysis of them suggests that for millions of years universal plastid endosymbiosis and gene transfer occurred in ancestors of metazoa/fungi, and some transferred fragments have been reserved till now even in modern mammals. Most eukaryotes once contained plastids in the ancient era, and some of them lost plastids later. Functions of homologues in cyanobacterial genomes and eukaryotic genomes are in consensus, and are most involved in organic compound metabolism. With emergence of organelles and subcellular structures in the eukaryotic cell, the locations of these proteins diversified. Furthermore, some novel functions were adopted, especially in vertebrates. Analysis also implies that plastids acquired through a mechanism of secondary endosymbiosis may be preserved even until the multicellular era in simple animals. Phylogenetic trees of some proteins suggest that in ancient times the common ancestor of photosynthetic protist Euglena and parasite Trypanosoma once engulfed a green alga, and then it lost the plastid, but recently some euglenids engulfed algae again. Plastid endosymbiosis is a more general process than we originally thought, and may happen more than one time in one species.

  20. Phylogeny and classification of Cercomonadida (Protozoa, Cercozoa): Cercomonas, Eocercomonas, Paracercomonas, and Cavernomonas gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Bass, David; Howe, Alexis T; Mylnikov, Alexandre P; Vickerman, Keith; Chao, Ema E; Edwards Smallbone, James; Snell, Jemma; Cabral, Charles; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Cercomonads (=Cercomonadida) are biflagellate gliding bacterivorous protozoa, abundant and diverse in soil and freshwater. We establish 56 new species based on 165 cultures, differential interference contrast microscopy, and 18S and ITS2 rDNA sequencing, and a new genus Cavernomonas studied by scanning electron microscopy. We fundamentally revise the phylogeny and classification of cercomonad Cercozoa. We describe 40 Cercomonas species (35 novel), six Eocercomonas (five novel), two Cavernomonas, and 18 Paracercomonas species (14 novel). We obtained additional cercomonad clade A (Cercomonas, Eocercomonas, Cavernomonas) sequences from multiple environmental DNA libraries. The most commonly cultivated genotypes are not the commonest in environmental DNA, suggesting that cercomonad ecology is far more complex than implied by laboratory cultures. Cercomonads have never been isolated from saline environments, although some species can grow in semi-saline media in the laboratory, and environmental DNA libraries regularly detect them in coastal marine sediments. The first ultrastructural study of an anaerobic cercozoan, Paracercomonas anaerobica sp. nov., a highly divergent cercomonad, shows much simpler ciliary roots than in clade A cercomonads, a ciliary hub-lattice and axosome, and mitochondria with tubular cristae, consistent with it being only facultatively anaerobic. We also describe Agitata tremulans gen. et sp. nov., previously misidentified as Cercobodo (=Dimastigamoeba) agilis Moroff.

  1. Deep Insight into the Phosphatomes of Parasitic Protozoa and a Web Resource ProtozPhosDB.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Tamanna; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation dynamically regulates the function of proteins by maintaining a balance between protein kinase and phosphatase activity. A comprehensive understanding of the role phosphatases in cellular signaling is lacking in case of protozoans of medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The drugs used to treat protozoal diseases have many undesired effects and the development of resistance, highlights the need for new effective and safer antiprotozoal agents. In the present study we have analyzed phosphatomes of 15 protozoans of medical significance. We identified ~2000 phosphatases, out of which 21% are uncharacterized proteins. A significant positive correlation between phosphatome and proteome size was observed except for E. histolytica, having highest density of phosphatases irrespective of its proteome size. A difference in the number of phosphatases among different genera shows the variation in the signaling pathways they are involved in. The phosphatome of parasites is dominated by ser/thr phosphatases contrary to the vertebrate host dominated by tyrosine phosphatases. Phosphatases were widely distributed throughout the cell suggesting physiological adaptation of the parasite to regulate its host. 20% to 45% phosphatome of different protozoa consists of ectophosphatases, i.e. crucial for the survival of parasites. A database and a webserver "ProtozPhosDB" can be used to explore the phosphatomes of protozoans of medical significance.

  2. Transient Superdiffusion and Long-Range Correlations in the Motility Patterns of Trypanosomatid Flagellate Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Scariot, Débora B.; Guimarães, Renato R.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Mendes, Renio S.; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a diffusive analysis of the motion of flagellate protozoa species. These parasites are the etiological agents of neglected tropical diseases: leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis, African sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei, and Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. By tracking the positions of these parasites and evaluating the variance related to the radial positions, we find that their motions are characterized by a short-time transient superdiffusive behavior. Also, the probability distributions of the radial positions are self-similar and can be approximated by a stretched Gaussian distribution. We further investigate the probability distributions of the radial velocities of individual trajectories. Among several candidates, we find that the generalized gamma distribution shows a good agreement with these distributions. The velocity time series have long-range correlations, displaying a strong persistent behavior (Hurst exponents close to one). The prevalence of “universal” patterns across all analyzed species indicates that similar mechanisms may be ruling the motion of these parasites, despite their differences in morphological traits. In addition, further analysis of these patterns could become a useful tool for investigating the activity of new candidate drugs against these and others neglected tropical diseases. PMID:27007779

  3. Deep Insight into the Phosphatomes of Parasitic Protozoa and a Web Resource ProtozPhosDB

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Tamanna; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation dynamically regulates the function of proteins by maintaining a balance between protein kinase and phosphatase activity. A comprehensive understanding of the role phosphatases in cellular signaling is lacking in case of protozoans of medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The drugs used to treat protozoal diseases have many undesired effects and the development of resistance, highlights the need for new effective and safer antiprotozoal agents. In the present study we have analyzed phosphatomes of 15 protozoans of medical significance. We identified ~2000 phosphatases, out of which 21% are uncharacterized proteins. A significant positive correlation between phosphatome and proteome size was observed except for E. histolytica, having highest density of phosphatases irrespective of its proteome size. A difference in the number of phosphatases among different genera shows the variation in the signaling pathways they are involved in. The phosphatome of parasites is dominated by ser/thr phosphatases contrary to the vertebrate host dominated by tyrosine phosphatases. Phosphatases were widely distributed throughout the cell suggesting physiological adaptation of the parasite to regulate its host. 20% to 45% phosphatome of different protozoa consists of ectophosphatases, i.e. crucial for the survival of parasites. A database and a webserver “ProtozPhosDB” can be used to explore the phosphatomes of protozoans of medical significance. PMID:27930683

  4. Litter quality as driving factor for plant nutrition via grazing of protozoa on soil microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Koller, Robert; Robin, Christophe; Bonkowski, Michael; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Plant residues provide a major source of nitrogen (N) for plant growth. Litter N mineralization varies with litter carbon-to-nitrogen (C-to-N) ratio and presence of bacterial-feeding fauna. We assessed the effect of amoebae, major bacterial feeders in soil, on mineralization of litter of low (high quality) and high C-to-N ratio (low quality) and evaluated consequences for plant growth. We used stable isotopes to determine plant N uptake from litter and plant C partitioning. Stable isotope probing of phospholipid fatty acids was used to follow incorporation of plant C into microorganisms. Amoebae increased plant N uptake independent of litter quality and thereby the biomass of shoots and roots by 33% and 66%, respectively. Plant allocation of total (13)C to roots in low (42%) exceeded that of high-quality litter treatments (26%). Amoebae increased plant allocation of (13)C to roots by 37%. Microbial community structure and incorporation of (13)C into PLFAs varied significantly with litter quality and in the low-quality litter treatment also with the presence of amoebae. Overall, the results suggest that in particular at low nutrient conditions, root-derived C fosters the mobilization of bacterial N by protozoa, thereby increasing plant growth when microorganisms and plants compete for nutrients.

  5. Effect of chlorine and temperature on free-living protozoa in operational man-made water systems (cooling towers and hot sanitary water systems) in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Canals, Oriol; Serrano-Suárez, Alejandra; Salvadó, Humbert; Méndez, Javier; Cervero-Aragó, Sílvia; Ruiz de Porras, Vicenç; Dellundé, Jordi; Araujo, Rosa

    2015-05-01

    In recent decades, free-living protozoa (FLP) have gained prominence as the focus of research studies due to their pathogenicity to humans and their close relationship with the survival and growth of pathogenic amoeba-resisting bacteria. In the present work, we studied the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems, i.e. cooling towers (CT) and hot sanitary water systems (HSWS), related to a high risk of Legionella spp. outbreaks, as well as the effect of the biocides used, i.e. chlorine in CT and high temperature in HSWS, on FLP. In CT samples, high-chlorine concentrations (7.5 ± 1.5 mg chlorine L(-1)) reduced the presence of FLP by 63.8 % compared to samples with low-chlorine concentrations (0.04 ± 0.08 mg chlorine L(-1)). Flagellates and amoebae were observed in samples collected with a level of 8 mg chlorine L(-1), which would indicate that some FLP, including the free-living amoeba (FLA) Acanthamoeba spp., are resistant to the discontinuous chlorine disinfection method used in the CT studied. Regarding HSWS samples, the amount of FLP detected in high-temperatures samples (53.1 ± 5.7 °C) was 38 % lower than in low-temperature samples (27.8 ± 5.8 °C). The effect of high temperature on FLP was chiefly observed in the results obtained by the culture method, in which there was a clear reduction in the presence of FLP at temperatures higher than 50 °C, but not in those obtained by PCR. The findings presented here show that the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems should be taken into account in future regulations.

  6. Bacterial Succession in the Broiler Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Blair; Tannock, Gerald; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2016-01-01

    A feeding trial was performed with broilers receiving a diet of wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), or maize-based concentrates supplemented with 15% or 30% crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS-15 or CKMS-30, respectively). The aim of the study was to investigate the bacterial community compositions of the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum contents in relation to the feeding strategy and age (8, 15, 22, 25, 29, or 36 days). Among the four dietary treatments, bacterial diversity was analyzed for MBF and CKMS-30 by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Since the diets had no significant influence on bacterial diversity, data were pooled for downstream analysis. With increasing age, a clear succession of bacterial communities and increased bacterial diversity were observed. Lactobacillaceae (belonging mainly to the genus Lactobacillus) represented most of the Firmicutes at all ages and in all segments of the gut except the cecum. The development of a “mature” microbiota in broilers occurred during the period from days 15 to 22. Striking increases in the relative abundances of Lactobacillus salivarius (17 to 36%) and clostridia (11 to 18%), and a concomitant decrease in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus reuteri, were found in the ileum after day 15. The concentration of deconjugated bile salts increased in association with the increased populations of L. salivarius and clostridia. Both L. salivarius and clostridia deconjugate bile acids, and increases in the abundances of these bacteria might be associated with growth reduction and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders occurring in the critical period of broiler life between days 20 and 30. PMID:26873323

  7. Vasculitides of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Eric; Luk, Adriana; Chetty, Runjan; Butany, Jagdish

    2009-05-01

    Systemic vasculitis is often not considered as a possible diagnosis by clinicians because of its low prevalence compared with other more common diseases. Vasculitis can affect any end organ, and it is therefore often missed early on in disease progression. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of vasculitis are considered rare and the presentation is often nonspecific. However, if there is significant involvement of the major vessels of the gastrointestinal system, life-threatening sequelae, including perforation and bowel ischemia, may occur. This makes early and immediate management crucial to improve long-term morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of various GI vasculitides often relies on correlation of clinical manifestations with pathology and additional investigations. This paper reviews the various vasculitides that affect the GI tract, including systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease, Henoch Schönlein purpura, polyarteritis nodosa, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis, and Behcet's disease. Segmental arterial mediolysis, mistakenly believed to be a vasculitis, is also discussed.

  8. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  9. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs. PMID:28348480

  10. Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses the most interesting presentations at Digestive Disease Week, held in San Diego, in the field of functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders. One of the most important contributions was undoubtedly the presentation of the new Rome IV diagnostic criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders. We therefore devote some space in this article to explaining these new criteria in the most common functional disorders. In fact, there has already been discussion of data comparing Rome IV and Rome III criteria in the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome, confirming that the new criteria are somewhat more restrictive. From the physiopathological point of view, several studies have shown that the aggregation of physiopathological alterations increases symptom severity in distinct functional disorders. From the therapeutic point of view, more data were presented on the efficacy of acotiamide and its mechanisms of action in functional dyspepsia, the safety and efficacy of domperidone in patients with gastroparesis, and the efficacy of linaclotide both in irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. In irritable bowel syndrome, more data have come to light on the favourable results of a low FODMAP diet, with emphasis on its role in modifying the microbiota. Finally, long-term efficacy data were presented on the distinct treatment options in achalasia.

  11. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang

    2017-03-14

    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs.

  12. β-Glucan as an encapsulating agent: Effect on probiotic survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Shah, Asima; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Masoodi, F A

    2016-01-01

    Three strains of probiotics Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus plantarum were encapsulated in β-glucan matrix using emulsion technique. Further the encapsulated cells were studied for their tolerance in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and its storage stability. The average encapsulation efficiency of β-glucan-probiotic beads was found to be 74.01%. The surface morphology of β-glucan containing bacteria was studied using SEM. The noteworthy absorptions in the FT-IR spectra between 1300-900 cm(-1) and 2918-2925 cm(-1) corresponds to the presence of bacteria into the glucan matrix. Also, the thermal stability of β-glucan was evaluated using Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The efficiency of β-glucan in protecting the surviability of probiotic cells under simulated gastrointestinal conditions was studied. Results revealed significant (p<0.05) improvement to tolerance when the encapsulated cells were subjected to stresses like low pH, heat treatment, simulated intestinal conditions and storage.

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Be Prevented? Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What Are the ... few known risk factors for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Being older These tumors can occur in people ...

  14. What Happens After Treatment for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumor Is No Longer Working Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Gastrointestinal ... For some people with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), treatment may remove or destroy the cancer. Completing ...

  15. What Are the Key Statistics about Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor What Are the Key Statistics About Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors? Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) ... They are slightly more common in men. Survival statistics for GIST are discussed in “ Survival rates for ...

  16. Synbiotic Microcapsules That Enhance Microbial Viability during Nonrefrigerated Storage and Gastrointestinal Transit

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Ross; Weerakkody, Rangika; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, MaryAnn

    2006-01-01

    A Bifidobacterium infantis strain was microencapsulated within a film-forming protein-carbohydrate-oil emulsion. This novel encapsulant incorporated prebiotics and substantially protected the bacterium during nonrefrigerated storage and gastrointestinal transit. The dried microcapsules were small (15 to 20 μm), had low water activity (0.2 to 0.3), and rapidly released the bacteria in simulated intestinal fluid. PMID:16517688

  17. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shu-Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu-Tian

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

  18. Upper gastrointestinal fiberoptic endoscopy in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Prolla, J C; Diehl, A S; Bemvenuti, G A; Loguercio, S V; Magalhães, D S; Silveira, T R

    1983-11-01

    Upper gastrointestinal fiberendoscopy in pediatric patients is done safely and under local anesthesia in most instances. This study of 47 children confirmed the value of fiberendoscopy in establishing the etiology of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and the presence of esophageal varices. It also contributed significantly to the management of patients with disphagia, pyrosis, epigastric pain, and ingestion of foreign bodies. No significant morbidity was caused.

  19. The Nervous System and Gastrointestinal Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altaf, Muhammad A.; Sood, Manu R.

    2008-01-01

    The enteric nervous system is an integrative brain with collection of neurons in the gastrointestinal tract which is capable of functioning independently of the central nervous system (CNS). The enteric nervous system modulates motility, secretions, microcirculation, immune and inflammatory responses of the gastrointestinal tract. Dysphagia,…

  20. Skull metastasis from rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

    PubMed

    Gil-Arnaiz, Irene; Martínez-Trufero, Javier; Pazo-Cid, Roberto Antonio; Felipo, Francesc; Lecumberri, María José; Calderero, Verónica

    2009-09-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Rectum localisation is infrequent for these neoplasms, accounting for about 5% of all cases. Distant metastases of GIST are also rare. We present a patient with special features: the tumour is localised in rectum and it has an uncommon metastatic site, the skull, implying a complex differential diagnosis approach.

  1. Biotic interactions and sunlight affect persistence of fecal indicator bacteria and microbial source tracking genetic markers in the Upper Mississippi River

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary quality of recreational waters is assessed by enumerating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (Escherichia coli and enterococci); organisms present in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, hence providing no information about the pollution source. Micro...

  2. Generation of Lactobacillus plantarum strains with improved potential to target gastrointestinal disorders related to sugar malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Šeme, Helena; Bogovič Matijašić, Bojana; Švigelj, Karmen; Langerholc, Tomaž; Fujs, Štefan; Horvat, Jaka; Zlatić, Emil; Gjuračić, Krešimir; Petković, Hrvoje; Štempelj, Mateja; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda; Kosec, Gregor

    2017-04-01

    Malabsorption of dietary sugars is a common cause of gastrointestinal discomfort, affecting up to one in three people with debilitating symptoms, such as abdominal pain, osmotic diarrhoea, bloating and flatulence. Besides dietary interventions, it has been suggested that ingestion of lactobacilli may alleviate these symptoms. The objectives of this study were to generate strains with improved potential to ameliorate sugar malabsorption related gastrointestinal disorders. Initial selection was made from 183 natural isolates of lactic acid bacteria, on the basis of broad sugar fermentation ability, absence of gas production, gastrointestinal survival and susceptibility to important medical antimicrobials. Two strains of L. plantarum (KR6 and M5) exhibited favourable characteristics for all criteria, and were further optimised through random mutagenesis and selection approaches. Ultraviolet light (UV) exposure resulted in mutants characterized by better survival (for 1.9 log and 1.4 log) in gastrointestinal conditions. Subsequent exposure to ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) provided mutants with greater tolerance to glucose induced catabolic repression. UV and UV-EMS mutants of L. plantarum M5 showed improved adhesion ability. As a result of this optimisation, L. plantarum MP2026 and L. plantarum MP2420 have been identified as promising candidates for probiotics, intended for alleviation of gastrointestinal discomfort originating from sugar malabsorption.

  3. Adhesion properties of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus kefiri to gastrointestinal mucus.

    PubMed

    Carasi, Paula; Ambrosis, Nicolás M; De Antoni, Graciela L; Bressollier, Philippe; Urdaci, María C; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the mucus-binding properties of aggregating and non-aggregating potentially probiotic strains of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiri, using different substrates. All the strains were able to adhere to commercial gastric mucin (MUCIN) and extracted mucus from small intestine (SIM) and colon (CM). The extraction of surface proteins from bacteria using LiCl or NaOH significantly reduced the adhesion of three selected strains (CIDCA 8348, CIDCA 83115 and JCM 5818); although a significant proportion (up to 50%) of S-layer proteins were not completely eliminated after treatments. The surface (S-layer) protein extracts from all the strains of Lb. kefiri were capable of binding to MUCIN, SIM or CM, and no differences were observed among them. The addition of their own surface protein extract increased adhesion of CIDCA 8348 and 83115 to MUCIN and SIM, meanwhile no changes in adhesion were observed for JCM 5818. None of the seven sugars tested had the ability to inhibit the adhesion of whole bacteria to the three mucus extracts. Noteworthy, the degree of bacterial adhesion reached in the presence of their own surface protein (S-layer) extract decreased to basal levels in the presence of some sugars, suggesting an interaction between the added sugar and the surface proteins. In conclusion, the ability of these food-isolated bacteria to adhere to gastrointestinal mucus becomes an essential issue regarding the biotechnological potentiality of Lb. kefiri for the food industry.

  4. Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    COJOCARU, M.; COJOCARU, Inimioara Mihaela; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In an autoimmune disease, the immune system attacks and harms the body's own tissues. The systemic autoimmune diseases include collagen vascular diseases, the systemic vasculitides, Wegener granulomatosis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. These disorders can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary system and pancreas. They can cause a variety of gastrointestinal manifestations that are influenced by the pathophysiologic characteristics of the underlying disease process. There is a wide variation of gastrointestinal manifestations from these autoimmune disorders including, but not limited to: oral ulcers, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, fecal incontinence, pseudo-obstruction, perforation and gastrointestinal bleeding. Clinical workup should be initiated by the patient's subjective complaints. In this review, we analyze the effects of autoimmune diseases on the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21977190

  5. The origin of human milk bacteria: is there a bacterial entero-mammary pathway during late pregnancy and lactation?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan M

    2014-11-01

    Human milk is a source of bacteria to the infant gut; however, the origin of milk bacteria, as well as their impact on neonatal gut microbiota establishment, remains largely unknown. In the past years, results provided by different research groups suggest that certain bacteria from the maternal gastrointestinal tract could translocate through a mechanism involving mononuclear immune cells, migrate to the mammary glands via an endogenous cellular route (the bacterial entero-mammary pathway), and subsequently colonize the gastrointestinal tract of the breast-fed neonate. If such findings are confirmed in the future, we could exert a positive influence on infant health by modulating the maternal gut microbiota.

  6. Metabolic Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT): Host, Commensal, Probiotics, and Bacteriophage Influences.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2015-12-17

    Life on this planet has been intricately associated with bacterial activity at all levels of evolution and bacteria represent the earliest form of autonomous existence. Plants such as those from the Leguminosae family that form root nodules while harboring nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria are a primordial example of symbiotic existence. Similarly, cooperative activities between bacteria and animals can also be observed in multiple domains, including the most inhospitable geographical regions of the planet such as Antarctica and the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. In humans bacteria are often classified as either beneficial or pathogenic and in this regard we posit that this artificial nomenclature is overly simplistic and as such almost misinterprets the complex activities and inter-relationships that bacteria have with the environment as well as the human host and the plethora of biochemical activities that continue to be identified. We further suggest that in humans there are neither pathogenic nor beneficial bacteria, just bacteria embraced by those that tolerate the host and those that do not. The densest and most complex association exists in the human gastrointestinal tract, followed by the oral cavity, respiratory tract, and skin, where bacteria-pre- and post-birth-instruct the human cell in the fundamental language of molecular biology that normally leads to immunological tolerance over a lifetime. The overall effect of this complex output is the elaboration of a beneficial milieu, an environment that is of equal or greater importance than the bacterium in maintaining homeostasis.

  7. What Happens after Treatment for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors? For some people with gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumor, treatment may remove or destroy the cancer. Completing treatment can be both stressful and exciting. ...

  8. Interventional Management of Gastrointestinal Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Se Hwan; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Park, Sun Jin; Park, Ho Chul

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) fistulas are frequently very serious complications that are associated with high morbidity and mortality. GI fistulas can cause a wide array of pathophysiological effects by allowing abnormal diversion of the GI contents, including digestive fluid, water, electrolytes, and nutrients, from either one intestine to another or from the intestine to the skin. As an alternative to surgery, recent technical advances in interventional radiology and percutaneous techniques have been shown as advantageous to lower the morbidity and mortality rate, and allow for superior accessibility to the fistulous tracts via the use of fistulography. In addition, new interventional management techniques continue to emerge. We describe the clinical and imaging features of GI fistulas and outline the interventional management of GI fistulas. PMID:19039271

  9. Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, David E.; Overduin, Joost

    2007-01-01

    Despite substantial fluctuations in daily food intake, animals maintain a remarkably stable body weight, because overall caloric ingestion and expenditure are exquisitely matched over long periods of time, through the process of energy homeostasis. The brain receives hormonal, neural, and metabolic signals pertaining to body-energy status and, in response to these inputs, coordinates adaptive alterations of energy intake and expenditure. To regulate food consumption, the brain must modulate appetite, and the core of appetite regulation lies in the gut-brain axis. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding the neuroendocrine regulation of food intake by the gastrointestinal system, focusing on gastric distention, intestinal and pancreatic satiation peptides, and the orexigenic gastric hormone ghrelin. We highlight mechanisms governing nutrient sensing and peptide secretion by enteroendocrine cells, including novel taste-like pathways. The increasingly nuanced understanding of the mechanisms mediating gut-peptide regulation and action provides promising targets for new strategies to combat obesity and diabetes. PMID:17200702

  10. Mast cells in gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Stephan C

    2016-05-05

    Mast cells are constitutively found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The three major physiological functions of GI mast cells comprise of - as far as we know - regulation of GI functions, namely epithelial and endothelial functions, crosstalk with the enteric nervous system, and contribution to the host defense against bacterial, viral and parasitic agents. A number of chronic GI diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and food allergies, are thought to be associated with mast cell hyperplasia and humoral activity. Clinical conditions characterized by a decrease in mast cell functionality are not known so far. In the present review, we summarize current evidence which show that human mast cells play a central role at the GI barrier, both in health and disease.

  11. Radiological Features of Gastrointestinal Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lo Re, Giuseppe; Federica, Vernuccio; Midiri, Federico; Picone, Dario; La Tona, Giuseppe; Galia, Massimo; Lo Casto, Antonio; Lagalla, Roberto; Midiri, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal lymphomas represent 5–20% of extranodal lymphomas and mainly occur in the stomach and small intestine. Clinical findings are not specific, thus often determining a delay in the diagnosis. Imaging features at conventional and cross-sectional imaging must be known by the radiologist since he/she plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and disease assessment, thus assisting in the choice of the optimal treatment to patients. This review focuses on the wide variety of imaging presentation of esophageal, gastric, and small and large bowel lymphoma presenting their main imaging appearances at conventional and cross-sectional imaging, mainly focusing on computed tomography and magnetic resonance, helping in the choice of the best imaging technique for the disease characterization and assessment and the recognition of potential complications. PMID:26819598

  12. Visceral Pain and Gastrointestinal Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Chichlowski, Maciej; Rudolph, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A complex set of interactions between the microbiome, gut and brain modulate responses to visceral pain. These interactions occur at the level of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and via local neural, endocrine or immune activity; as well as by the production of factors transported through the circulatory system, like bacterial metabolites or hormones. Various psychological, infectious and other stressors can disrupt this harmonious relationship and alter both the microbiome and visceral pain responses. There are critical sensitive periods that can impact visceral pain responses in adulthood. In this review we provide a brief background of the intestinal microbiome and emerging concepts of the bidirectional interactions between the microbiome, gut and brain. We also discuss recent work in animal models, and human clinical trials using prebiotics and probiotics that alter the microbiome with resultant alterations in visceral pain responses. PMID:25829337

  13. Interventional management of gastrointestinal fistulas.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Se Hwan; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Park, Sun Jin; Park, Ho Chul

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) fistulas are frequently very serious complications that are associated with high morbidity and mortality. GI fistulas can cause a wide array of pathophysiological effects by allowing abnormal diversion of the GI contents, including digestive fluid, water, electrolytes, and nutrients, from either one intestine to another or from the intestine to the skin. As an alternative to surgery, recent technical advances in interventional radiology and percutaneous techniques have been shown as advantageous to lower the morbidity and mortality rate, and allow for superior accessibility to the fistulous tracts via the use of fistulography. In addition, new interventional management techniques continue to emerge. We describe the clinical and imaging features of GI fistulas and outline the interventional management of GI fistulas.

  14. [Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders].

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders presented at Digestive Diseases Week (DDW), 2015. Researchers are still seeking biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome and have presented new data. One study confirmed that the use of low-dose antidepressants has an antinociceptive effect without altering the psychological features of patients with functional dyspepsia. A contribution that could have immediate application is the use of transcutaneous electroacupuncture, which has demonstrated effectiveness in controlling nausea in patients with gastroparesis. New data have come to light on the importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome, although the effectiveness of a low-FODMAP diet seems to be losing momentum with time. Multiple data were presented on the long-term efficacy of rifaximin therapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhoea. In addition, among other contributions, and more as a curiosity, a study evaluated the effect of histamine in the diet of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  15. Gastrointestinal manifestations in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, E

    1996-08-01

    CFTR, or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the gene product that is defective in cystic fibrosis, is present in the apical membrane of the epithelial cells from the stomach to the colon. In the foregut, the clinical manifestations are not directly related to the primary defect of the CFTR chloride channel. The most troublesome complaints and symptoms originate from the oesophagus as peptic oesophagitis or oesophageal varices. In the small intestinal wall, the clinical expression of CF depends largely on the decreased secretion of fluid and chloride ions, the increased permeability of the paracellular space between adjacent enterocytes and the sticky mucous cover over the enterocytes. As a rule, the brush border enzyme activities are normal and there is some enhanced active transport as shown for glucose and alanine. The results of continuous enteral feeding of CF patients clearly show that the small intestinal mucosa, in the daily situation, is not functioning at maximal capacity. Although CFTR expression in the colon is lower, the large intestine may be the site of several serious complications such as rectal prolapse, meconium ileus equivalent, intussusception, volvulus and silent appendicitis. In recent years colonic strictures, after the use of high-dose pancreatic enzymes, are being increasingly reported; the condition has recently been called CF fibrosing colonopathy. The CF gastrointestinal content itself differs mainly from the normal condition by the lower acidity in the foregut and the accretion of mucins and proteins, eventually resulting in intestinal obstruction, in the ileum and colon. Better understanding of the CF gastrointestinal phenotype may contribute to improvement of the overall wellbeing of these patients.

  16. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Yvette A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Fritz, Heather M.; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E.; Melli, Ann C.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  17. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions.

    PubMed

    Girard, Yvette A; Johnson, Christine K; Fritz, Heather M; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E; Melli, Ann C; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  18. The Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP): a biological resource for protistan genomics.

    PubMed

    Gachon, Claire M M; Day, John G; Campbell, Christine N; Pröschold, Thomas; Saxon, Rachel J; Küpper, Frithjof C

    2007-12-30

    CCAP, the largest European protistan culture collection, is based at the Scottish Association for Marine Science near Oban, Scotland (http://www.ccap.ac.uk). The Collection comprises more than 2700 strains in the public domain, of which 1050 are marine algae, 1300 freshwater algae, and 350 protozoa. The primary mission of CCAP is to maintain and distribute defined cultures and their associated information to its customers. It also has a support and advisory function on all aspects of protistan science. In addition, it is involved in the training of students and researchers in algal identification and culture techniques. In light of the increasing number of fully sequenced protists, the CCAP is striving to provide targeted services and support to workers involved in all aspects of genomic research. At present, the Collection holds several hundred strains of genomic model taxa including: Acanthamoeba, Cafeteria, Cercomonas, Chlamydomonas, Chlorella, Cyanophora, Dictyostelium, Dunaliella, Ectocarpus, Emiliania, Euglena, Micromonas, Naegleria, Nephroselmis, Paramecium, Pavlova, Phaeodactylum, Porphyra, Pseudendoclonium, Pylaiella, Rhodomonas, Scenedesmus, Staurastrum, Tetrahymena, Thalassiosira, Volvox and Zygnema. These strains provide a defined representation of natural variation within model organisms, an increasingly useful resource for post-genomics approaches. Our aim over the next 2-5 years is to add value to the Collection by increasing the number of genome model species, and by offering an integrated, up-to-date, easy-to-use resource that would provide curated information on our strain holdings. In collaboration with other major Biological Resource Centres worldwide, we intend to build a hub providing access to both protistan cultures and their associated bioinformatics data.

  19. Population dynamics of marine ciliate Euplotes vannus (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in different artificial seawaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Jiang, Yong; Gao, Shan; Min, Gi-Sik; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2011-01-01

    To study population dynamics of marine ciliates in different artificial seawaters (ASW), the population growth dynamics of a common marine ciliate Euplotes vannus were investigated using beef extract media and rice media for five types of ASW and natural seawater (NSW). The results show that: (1) the population growth rate was in the order of NSW>Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW and was considerably higher in rice media than in beef extract media (apart from Subow ASW); (2) the maximum density of E. vannus in stationary phase in each treatment was ranked as Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>NSW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW, and was again higher in rice media than in beef extract media (except for Subow ASW); (3) the exponential and stationary phases were longer in rice media than in beef extract media; (4) strains of E. vannus that had been domesticated for >1 year in ASW grew significantly slower, with lower maximum density and longer stationary phase than those isolated and maintained in NSW. It was demonstrated that: (1) E. vannus may grow well in Flack, Nakamula and Schmads ASW compared with NSW (mainly in terms of growth rate); and (2) Oshima ASW is the preferred choice for stock cultures of E. vannus, but the ASWs Flack, Nakamula and Schmadz are preferred for mass culture. These findings suggest that these three ASWs are effective for the cultivation of marine protozoa for experimental studies on ecology, toxicology and molecular biology.

  20. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1995-05-30

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  1. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  2. Gastrointestinal parasites and their prevalence in the Arabian red fox (Vulpes vulpes arabica) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Omer, Sawsan A

    2011-08-25

    The gastrointestinal parasites and prevalence of infestation in the Arabian red fox Vulpes vulpes arabica Thomas, were investigated at the King Khalid Wildlife Research Centre (KKWRC) in Thumamah, Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia. Faecal samples were collected from 58 wild caught foxes while under anaesthesia and examined for gastrointestinal parasites stages. Male and female foxes were infected with three major groups of parasites; cestodes, nematodes, protozoa as well as an acanthocephalan. Faecal analyses revealed that 22 foxes (37.9%) were infected with two different Isospora spp. and three (5.2%) with an undescribed Eimeria sp., 12 (20.7%). Nine individuals (15.5%) harboured hookworms, (Trichosomoides sp.), two (3.5%) were infected with Trichuris sp. (probably Trichuris vulpes) and one individual (1.7%) with Taenia sp. (probably Taenia hydatigena). Carcasses of five male and three female foxes were necropsied. Four of the necropsied carcasses yielded Ancylostoma caninum, two each harboured Pterygodermatitis affinis, T. vulpes and Macracanthorhynchus catalinus, in six foxes Joyeuxiella echinorynchoides was found. Five and four foxes were infected with T. hydatigena and Diplopylidium nölleri, respectively. The possible role of the Arabian red fox as an intercalary host essential for the life cycle of Trichosomoides sp., common to the Libyan jird, Meriones libycus, in particular and the importance of this species as a vector for zoonotic infections and in the spread of other parasites to wild and domestic animals in general is discussed.

  3. Effects of social status and stress on patterns of gastrointestinal parasitism in wild white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Thomas R; Barelli, Claudia; Heistermann, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Although gibbons (family Hylobatidae) are typically monogamous, polyandrous groups occur regularly. Stress associated with elevated intragroup competition among males in polyandrous groups may increase susceptibility to infectious disease. To better understand this interplay, as well as to provide the first comprehensive assessment of parasitism in free-ranging gibbons, we characterized the richness of gastrointestinal parasites and examined their prevalence in males from 14 groups (10 pair-living, 4 multi-male) of white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. From September 2008 to May 2009, 324 fecal samples were collected from 23 individually recognizable male gibbons and screened for gastrointestinal helminths and protozoa after isolation via fecal floatation, sedimentation, and immunofluorescent antibody detection. A total of 10 parasite species recovered, including seven nematodes, two protozoans, and one trematode. Parasite richness and species-specific prevalence were examined relative to social organization (pair-living vs. multi-male), male status (primary vs. secondary), age (subadult, adult, senior), fecal glucocorticoid levels, and time of the year. No relationship was found between parasite richness and sociodemographic or physiological factors. Similarly, prevalence of infection with parasite species was not associated with the majority of sociodemographic factors; however, Ternidens sp. and Balantidium coli varied seasonally and Trichuris sp. decreased with increasing age. Moreover, observational data suggest that competition is low in this gibbon population, and our findings are consistent with those observations in that cooperative defense may offset stress and reduce susceptibility to infection.

  4. Opioid peptides and gastrointestinal symptoms in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Cristiane P; Pondé, Milena P; Rodrigues, Luiz E A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by deficits in the individual's ability to socialize, communicate, and use the imagination, in addition to stereotyped behaviors. These disorders have a heterogenous phenotype, both in relation to symptoms and regarding severity. Organic problems related to the gastrointestinal tract are often associated with ASD, including dysbiosis, inflammatory bowel disease, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, celiac disease, indigestion, malabsorption, food intolerance, and food allergies, leading to vitamin deficiencies and malnutrition. In an attempt to explain the pathophysiology involved in autism, a theory founded on opioid excess has been the focus of various investigations, since it partially explains the symptomatology of the disorder. Another hypothesis has been put forward whereby the probable triggers of ASDs would be related to the presence of bacteria in the bowel, oxidative stress, and intestinal permeability. The present update reviews these hypotheses.

  5. Novel foods to treat food allergy and gastrointestinal infection.

    PubMed

    Perr, Hilary A

    2006-03-01

    The gastrointestinal tract communicates directly with the external environment. Necessary nutrients must be absorbed and commensal bacteria tolerated, and foreign proteins, antigens, and pathogens must be simultaneously excluded or destroyed. Immaturity or disruption of the mucosal immune defenses increases vulnerability to food allergy, intolerance, and infectious disease. Diseases resulting from ingested foreign proteins and organisms are increasing and cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is no specific treatment for food allergy other than avoidance. Vaccination for infectious disease is limited by the cost and logistics of distribution and administration, particularly in developing countries. Novel strategies are being explored to modulate the gut mucosal immune system by altering protein expression in food. Crops are being developed to remove deleterious allergens to prevent immunogenic exposure while preserving nutritional quality. Local food plants that express protein fragments of pathogens might provide an effective means to stimulate gut mucosal immunity while increasing vaccine accessibility.

  6. Use of rifaximin in gastrointestinal and liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Shayto, Rani H; Abou Mrad, Rachel; Sharara, Ala I

    2016-08-07

    Rifaximin is a broad spectrum oral antibiotic with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. It is poorly absorbed and thus has a highly favorable safety profile. Rifaximin has been shown to be effective in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea, functional bloating and irritable bowel syndrome, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and in the prevention of recurrent overt hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, there is emerging evidence for a possible beneficial effect of rifaximin in the treatment of uncomplicated diverticular disease and in the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis. The use of rifaximin is associated with a low incidence of development, or persistence of spontaneous bacterial mutants. Moreover, the development of important drug resistance among extra-intestinal flora during rifaximin therapy is unlikely because of minimal systemic absorption and limited cross-resistance of rifaximin with other antimicrobials. This review addresses the current and emerging role of rifaximin in the treatment of gastrointestinal and liver disorders.

  7. Transmission of Infection by Flexible Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and Bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Frans T. M.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Degener, John E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Flexible endoscopy is a widely used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Contaminated endoscopes are the medical devices frequently associated with outbreaks of health care-associated infections. Accurate reprocessing of flexible endoscopes involves cleaning and high-level disinfection followed by rinsing and drying before storage. Most contemporary flexible endoscopes cannot be heat sterilized and are designed with multiple channels, which are difficult to clean and disinfect. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms on the inner channel surfaces can contribute to failure of the decontamination process. Implementation of microbiological surveillance of endoscope reprocessing is appropriate to detect early colonization and biofilm formation in the endoscope and to prevent contamination and infection in patients after endoscopic procedures. This review presents an overview of the infections and cross-contaminations related to flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy and bronchoscopy and illustrates the impact of biofilm on endoscope reprocessing and postendoscopic infection. PMID:23554415

  8. Short-chain carbohydrates and functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Susan J; Lomer, Miranda C E; Gibson, Peter R

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates occur across a range of foods regularly consumed including grains such as wheat and rye, vegetables, fruits, and legumes. Short-chain carbohydrates with chains of up to 10 sugars vary in their digestibility and subsequent absorption. Those that are poorly absorbed exert osmotic effects in the intestinal lumen increasing its water volume, and are rapidly fermented by bacteria with consequent gas production. These two effects alone may underlie most of the induction of gastrointestinal symptoms after they are ingested in moderate amounts via luminal distension in patients with visceral hypersensitivity. This has been the basis of the use of lactose-free diets in those with lactose malabsorption and of fructose-reduced diets for fructose malabsorption. However, application of such dietary approaches in patients with functional bowel disorders has been restricted to observational studies with uncertain efficacy. As all dietary poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates have similar and additive effects in the intestine, a concept has been developed to regard them collectively as FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) and to evaluate a dietary approach that restricts them all. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, there is now an accumulating body of evidence, based on observational and comparative studies, and on randomized-controlled trials that supports the notion that FODMAPs trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with functional bowel disorders, and that a diet low in FODMAPs offers considerable symptom relief in the majority of patients who use it.

  9. Biology of nitrogen oxides in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2013-04-01

    Throughout the human gastrointestinal tract a variety of reactive nitrogen oxides are continuously formed as a result of a complex interplay between the host, commensal bacteria and dietary factors. These compounds include nitric oxide, nitrite, nitrate, peroxynitrite, S-nitrosothiols, nitrated fatty acids and N-nitrosamines, all of which are bioactive with the potential to affect physiological and pathological processes locally in the gut as well as systemically after absorption. Historically, the literature has been dominated by studies on the formation of potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines, but the focus was shifted in the 1980s with the seminal discovery of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and its profound impact on normal physiological functions. More recently, a nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been discovered, with implications for local host defence and gut mucosal integrity and, intriguingly, also for systemic regulation of cardiovascular and metabolic function. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the formation, biochemistry, physiology and pathophysiology of reactive nitrogen oxides in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, opportunities for nitric oxide-based pharmacological or dietary interventions are highlighted.

  10. Part 2: Treatments for Chronic Gastrointestinal Disease and Gut Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Matthew J.; Plummer, Nigel T.

    2015-01-01

    Part 1 of this review discussed the connection between the human gut microbiota and health. Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota holds promise as a prospective therapy for gut dysbiosis, ameliorating symptoms of gastrointestinal and systemic diseases and restoring health. The concept of probiotics has existed for more than 100 y, and modern research methods have established sound scientific support for the perceived benefits of probiotic bacteria, which mainly include Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera. On the basis of these evidence-based functional approaches, dietary interventions that supplement the normal diet with probiotics or prebiotics are now considered as potentially viable alternatives or adjuncts to the use of steroids, immunosuppressants, and/or surgical interventions. Studies investigating the impact on gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); and systemic metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity, in response to the use of probiotics and prebiotics are reviewed. Further, fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is discussed as an exciting development in the treatment of gut dysbiosis using microbes. PMID:26770128

  11. Role of the microbiome in non-gastrointestinal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Pevsner-Fischer, Meirav; Tuganbaev, Timur; Meijer, Mariska; Zhang, Sheng-Hong; Zeng, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Min-Hu; Elinav, Eran

    2016-01-01

    “The forgotten organ”, the human microbiome, comprises a community of microorganisms that colonizes various sites of the human body. Through coevolution of bacteria, archaea and fungi with the human host over thousands of years, a complex host-microbiome relationship emerged in which many functions, including metabolism and immune responses, became codependent. This coupling becomes evident when disruption in the microbiome composition, termed dysbiosis, is mirrored by the development of pathologies in the host. Among the most serious consequences of dysbiosis, is the development of cancer. As many as 20% of total cancers worldwide are caused by a microbial agent. To date, a vast majority of microbiome-cancer studies focus solely on the microbiome of the large intestine and the development of gastrointestinal cancers. Here, we will review the available evidence implicating microbiome involvement in the development and progression of non-gastrointestinal cancers, while distinguishing between viral and bacterial drivers of cancer, as well as “local” and “systemic”, “cancer-stimulating” and “cancer-suppressing” effects of the microbiome. Developing a system-wide approach to cancer-microbiome studies will be crucial in understanding how microbiome influences carcinogenesis, and may enable to employ microbiome-targeting approaches as part of cancer treatment. PMID:27081642

  12. [Enteropathogens responsible for gastrointestinal disorders in HIV patients].

    PubMed

    Vizzi, Esmeralda; Angulo Medina, Luis A

    2013-03-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders or GID are debilitating conditions common in individuals infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), capable of leading to death. Numerous etiological agents and pathophysiological mechanisms have been involved in this status. Although the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in many countries has greatly reduced the prevalence of gastrointestinal infections, enteric pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, fungi and viruses may still act as opportunist agents in these patients. Cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, calicivirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, picobirnavirus and some more recently described, like bocavirus and Aichi virus, have been detected in HIV patients. However, except for cytomegalovirus, which is an established etiological agent of GID in these patients, the role of the other viruses remains unclear. Several species of Cryptosporidium, microsporidia, Salmonella, atipical mycobacteria and Campylobacter jejuni, have also been recognized as important causes of GID in HIV patients. The progressive incorporation of increasingly sensitive immunological and molecular assays for antigen, antibody and pathogens detection from faeces, has improved the diagnosis of diarrhea and contributed to clarify the etiological significance of some microorganisms in immunocompetent patients. In Venezuela, some information is available about the prevalence of enteric pathogens in immunocompromised patients infected with HIV. The identification of the etiologic agent responsible for this condition may be useful for the management and treatment of these patients, for whom viral enteritis is a disease, which reduces their quality of life and causes a high public health spending.

  13. Rare gastrointestinal lymphomas: The endoscopic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Vetro, Calogero; Bonanno, Giacomo; Giulietti, Giorgio; Romano, Alessandra; Conticello, Concetta; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Spina, Paolo; Coppolino, Francesco; Cunsolo, Rosario; Raimondo, Francesco Di

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal lymphomas represent up to 10% of gastrointestinal malignancies and about one third of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The most prominent histologies are mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. However, the gastrointestinal tract can be the site of rarer lymphoma subtypes as a primary or secondary localization. Due to their rarity and the multifaceted histology, an endoscopic classification has not been validated yet. This review aims to analyze the endoscopic presentation of rare gastrointestinal lymphomas from disease diagnosis to follow-up, according to the involved site and lymphoma subtype. Existing, new and emerging endoscopic technologies have been examined. In particular, we investigated the diagnostic, prognostic and follow-up endoscopic features of T-cell and natural killer lymphomas, lymphomatous polyposis and mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, plasma cell related disease, gastrointestinal lymphomas in immunodeficiency and Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract. Contrarily to more frequent gastrointestinal lymphomas, data about rare lymphomas are mostly extracted from case series and case reports. Due to the data paucity, a synergism between gastroenterologists and hematologists is required in order to better manage the disease. Indeed, clinical and prognostic features are different from nodal and extranodal or the bone marrow (in case of plasma cell disease) counterpart. Therefore, the approach should be based on the knowledge of the peculiar behavior and natural history of disease. PMID:26265987

  14. Longitudinal Poisson regression to evaluate the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and fecal indicator bacteria in coastal California wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Daniels, Miles E; Watson, Fred G; Conrad, Patricia A; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Byrne, Barbara A; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

    2012-05-01

    Fecal pathogen contamination of watersheds worldwide is increasingly recognized, and natural wetlands may have an important role in mitigating fecal pathogen pollution flowing downstream. Given that waterborne protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are transported within surface waters, this study evaluated associations between fecal protozoa and various wetland-specific and environmental risk factors. This study focused on three distinct coastal California wetlands: (i) a tidally influenced slough bordered by urban and agricultural areas, (ii) a seasonal wetland adjacent to a dairy, and (iii) a constructed wetland that receives agricultural runoff. Wetland type, seasonality, rainfall, and various water quality parameters were evaluated using longitudinal Poisson regression to model effects on concentrations of protozoa and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and total coliform). Among wetland types, the dairy wetland exhibited the highest protozoal and bacterial concentrations, and despite significant reductions in microbe concentrations, the wetland could still be seen to influence water quality in the downstream tidal wetland. Additionally, recent rainfall events were associated with higher protozoal and bacterial counts in wetland water samples across all wetland types. Notably, detection of E. coli concentrations greater than a 400 most probable number (MPN) per 100 ml was associated with higher Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. These findings show that natural wetlands draining agricultural and livestock operation runoff into human-utilized waterways should be considered potential sources of pathogens and that wetlands can be instrumental in reducing pathogen loads to downstream waters.

  15. Genetically Engineered Yeast Expressing a Lytic Peptide from Bee Venom (Melittin) Kills Symbiotic Protozoa in the Gut of Formosan Subterranean Termites.

    PubMed

    Husseneder, Claudia; Donaldson, Jennifer R; Foil, Lane D

    2016-01-01

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is a costly invasive urban pest in warm and humid regions around the world. Feeding workers of the Formosan subterranean termite genetically engineered yeast strains that express synthetic protozoacidal lytic peptides has been shown to kill the cellulose digesting termite gut protozoa, which results in death of the termite colony. In this study, we tested if Melittin, a natural lytic peptide from bee venom, could be delivered into the termite gut via genetically engineered yeast and if the expressed Melittin killed termites via lysis of symbiotic protozoa in the gut of termite workers and/or destruction of the gut tissue itself. Melittin expressing yeast did kill protozoa in the termite gut within 56 days of exposure. The expressed Melittin weakened the gut but did not add a synergistic effect to the protozoacidal action by gut necrosis. While Melittin could be applied for termite control via killing the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, it is unlikely to be useful as a standalone product to control insects that do not rely on symbiotic protozoa for survival.

  16. Genetically Engineered Yeast Expressing a Lytic Peptide from Bee Venom (Melittin) Kills Symbiotic Protozoa in the Gut of Formosan Subterranean Termites

    PubMed Central

    Husseneder, Claudia; Donaldson, Jennifer R.; Foil, Lane D.

    2016-01-01

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is a costly invasive urban pest in warm and humid regions around the world. Feeding workers of the Formosan subterranean termite genetically engineered yeast strains that express synthetic protozoacidal lytic peptides has been shown to kill the cellulose digesting termite gut protozoa, which results in death of the termite colony. In this study, we tested if Melittin, a natural lytic peptide from bee venom, could be delivered into the termite gut via genetically engineered yeast and if the expressed Melittin killed termites via lysis of symbiotic protozoa in the gut of termite workers and/or destruction of the gut tissue itself. Melittin expressing yeast did kill protozoa in the termite gut within 56 days of exposure. The expressed Melittin weakened the gut but did not add a synergistic effect to the protozoacidal action by gut necrosis. While Melittin could be applied for termite control via killing the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, it is unlikely to be useful as a standalone product to control insects that do not rely on symbiotic protozoa for survival. PMID:26985663

  17. Green tea increases the survival yield of Bifidobacteria in simulated gastrointestinal environment and during refrigerated conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The well–known prebiotics are carbohydrates but their effects may not always be beneficial, as they can also encourage the growth of non-probiotic bacteria such as Eubacterium biforme and Clostridium perfringens. Therefore, new alternatives such as non-carbohydrate sources to stimulate the growth of probiotics are needed. The aim of this work was to evaluate (I) the green tea polyphenols by HPLC-LC/MS and (II) the protective effect of green tea extract on viability and stability of B. infantis ATCC 15697 and B. breve ATCC 15700 microencapsulated in chitosan coated alginate microcapsules during exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions and refrigerated storage. Results The major compound identified by HPLC-LC/MS in green tea was epigallocatechin gallate followed by caffeine and epigallocatechin. The survival yield of probiotic bacteria in microcapsules with 10% GT during storage at 4°C, demonstrated significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of survival bacteria. Microencapsulated B.infantis and B. breve with 5% and 10% GT showed a significantly (P < 0.05) improved survival under simulated gastric conditions (pH 2.0, 2 h) and bile solution (3%, 2 h) when they were compared with microencapsulation without GT addition. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that green tea coencapsulated with B. infantis or B. breve exert a protective effect of bacteria during exposure to gastrointestinal conditions and refrigerated storage. For a health perspective, the results confirm the growing interest probiotic bacteria and the perceived benefit of increasing their numbers in the gastrointestinal tract by microencapsulation. PMID:22727242

  18. [Regulating acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria--a review].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-07-04

    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and other industries. Acid stress is one the important survival challenges encountered by lactic acid bacteria both in fermentation process and in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the development of systems biology and metabolic engineering brings unprecedented opportunity for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and improving the acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. This review addresses physiological mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria during acid stress. Moreover, strategies to improve the acid stress resistance of lactic acid were proposed.

  19. Protozoan grazing on bacteria at the sediment-water interface of an acidified lake

    SciTech Connect

    Tremaine, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Protozoan grazing on bacteria has been hypothesized to link the detrital and grazer food chains in aquatic ecosystems. The current study of protozoan bacterivory, evaluated methods, quantified bacterivory, and evaluated the role of protozoa at the sediment-water interface of an acidified lake ecosystem, Lake Anna, Virginia. Three limnetic methods for determining protozoan bacterivory were tested for applicability at the sediment-water interface. The eucaryote inhibitor, cycloheximide, was found unsatisfactory because it did not uniformly inhibit growth of target eucaryotes, and because it inhibited non-target anaerobic procaryotes. The filtration method was found to have limited application in sediment systems due to filtrational loss of particle-associated bacteria. The dilution method was tested for violations of its critical assumptions: bacterial growth is exponential; grazing mortality is proportional to the dilution factor; and bacterial growth rates are unaltered under experimental conditions. These assumptions were found not to be violated, and this method was used in subsequent grazing experiments. Carbon loading to the acidified arm of Lake Anna was 41 {times} 10{sup 6} g C {times} y{sup {minus}1}. This appears to be adequate carbon loading to support bacterial production and, in turn, protozoan bacterivory and production. Though there is no direct evidence that zooplankton graze on protozoa in this system, however, there is sufficient protozoan production to support an additional trophic level.

  20. Gastrointestinal Parasites of Ecuadorian Mantled Howler Monkeys (Alouatta palliata aequatorialis) Based on Fecal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Helenbrook, William D; Wade, Susan E; Shields, William M; Stehman, Stephen V; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-06-01

    An analysis of gastrointestinal parasites of Ecuadorian mantled howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata aequatorialis, was conducted based on examination of fecal smears, flotations, and sedimentations. At least 1 type of parasite was detected in 97% of the 96 fecal samples screened across 19 howler monkey groups using these techniques. Samples averaged 3.6 parasite species per individual (±1.4 SD). Parasites included species representing genera of 2 apicomplexans: Cyclospora sp. (18% of individual samples) and Isospora sp. (3%); 6 other protozoa: Balantidium sp. (9%), Blastocystis sp. (60%), Chilomastix sp. (4%), Dientamoeba sp. (3%), Entamoeba species (56%), Iodamoeba sp. (5%); 4 nematodes: Enterobius sp. (3%), Capillaria sp. (78%), Strongyloides spp. (88%) which included 2 morphotypes, Trypanoxyuris sp. (12%); and the platyhelminth Controrchis sp. (15%). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between group size and each of 3 different estimators of parasite species richness adjusted for sampling effort (ICE: r(2) = 0.24, P = 0.05; Chao2: r(2) = 0.25, P = 0.05, and Jackknife: r(2) = 0.31, P = 0.03). Two significant associations between co-infecting parasites were identified. Based on the prevalence data, individuals infected with Balantidium sp. were more likely to also be infected with Isospora sp. (χ(2) = 6.02, P = 0.01), while individuals harboring Chilomastix sp. were less likely to have Capillaria sp. present (χ(2) = 4.03, P = 0.04).

  1. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n=43) and SIV-negative (n=71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV− samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1 % of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8 %) and Blastocystis (2.9 %), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8 %. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation. PMID:24781023

  2. Survival and Germination of Bacillus cereus Spores without Outgrowth or Enterotoxin Production during In Vitro Simulation of Gastrointestinal Transit

    PubMed Central

    Ceuppens, Siele; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Drieskens, Katrien; Heyndrickx, Marc; Rajkovic, Andreja; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    To study the gastrointestinal survival and enterotoxin production of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus, an in vitro simulation experiment was developed to mimic gastrointestinal passage in 5 phases: (i) the mouth, (ii) the stomach, with gradual pH decrease and fractional emptying, (iii) the duodenum, with high concentrations of bile and digestive enzymes, (iv) dialysis to ensure bile reabsorption, and (v) the ileum, with competing human intestinal bacteria. Four different B. cereus strains were cultivated and sporulated in mashed potato medium to obtain an inoculum of 7.0 log spores/ml. The spores showed survival and germination during the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal passage, but vegetative outgrowth of the spores was suppressed by the intestinal bacteria during the final ileum phase. No bacterial proliferation or enterotoxin production was observed, despite the high inoculum levels. Little strain variability was observed: except for the psychrotrophic food isolate, the spores of all strains survived well throughout the gastrointestinal passage. The in vitro simulation experiments investigated the survival and enterotoxin production of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal lumen. The results obtained support the hypothesis that localized interaction of B. cereus with the host's epithelium is required for diarrheal food poisoning. PMID:22923409

  3. Bacteria Inactivation During Lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Sol Quintero, María; Mora, Ulises; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Mues, Enrique; Castaño, Eduardo; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.

    2006-09-01

    The influence of extracorporeal and intracorporeal lithotripsy on the viability of bacteria contained inside artificial kidney stones was investigated in vitro. Two different bacteria were exposed to the action of one extracorporeal shock wave generator and four intracorporeal lithotripters.

  4. Three-dimensional structures in the design of therapeutics targeting parasitic protozoa: reflections on the past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Hol, Wim G J

    2015-05-01

    Parasitic protozoa cause a range of diseases which threaten billions of human beings. They are responsible for tremendous mortality and morbidity in the least-developed areas of the world. Presented here is an overview of the evolution over the last three to four decades of structure-guided design of inhibitors, leads and drug candidates aiming at targets from parasitic protozoa. Target selection is a crucial and multi-faceted aspect of structure-guided drug design. The major impact of advances in molecular biology, genome sequencing and high-throughput screening is touched upon. The most advanced crystallographic techniques, including XFEL, have already been applied to structure determinations of drug targets from parasitic protozoa. Even cryo-electron microscopy is contributing to our understanding of the mode of binding of inhibitors to parasite ribosomes. A number of projects have been selected to illustrate how structural information has assisted in arriving at promising compounds that are currently being evaluated by pharmacological, pharmacodynamic and safety tests to assess their suitability as pharmaceutical agents. Structure-guided approaches are also applied to incorporate properties into compounds such that they are less likely to become the victim of resistance mechanisms. A great increase in the number of novel antiparasitic compounds will be needed in the future. These should then be combined into various multi-compound therapeutics to circumvent the diverse resistance mechanisms that render single-compound, or even multi-compound, drugs ineffective. The future should also see (i) an increase in the number of projects with a tight integration of structural biology, medicinal chemistry, parasitology and pharmaceutical sciences; (ii) the education of more `medicinal structural biologists' who are familiar with the properties that compounds need to have for a high probability of success in the later steps of the drug-development process; and (iii) the

  5. Microscopic and Molecular Studies of the Diversity of Free-Living Protozoa in Meat-Cutting Plants▿

    PubMed Central

    Vaerewijck, Mario J. M.; Sabbe, Koen; Baré, Julie; Houf, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    The diversity of free-living protozoa in five meat-cutting plants was determined. Light microscopy after enrichment culturing was combined with sequencing of PCR-amplified, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-separated 18S rRNA gene fragments, which was used as a fast screening method. The general results of the survey showed that a protozoan community of amoebae, ciliates, and flagellates was present in all of the plants. Protozoa were detected mainly in floor drains, in standing water on the floor, on soiled bars of cutting tables, on plastic pallets, and in out-of-use hot water knife sanitizers, but they were also detected on surfaces which come into direct contact with meat, such as conveyer belts, working surfaces of cutting tables, and needles of a meat tenderizer. After 7 days of incubation at refrigerator temperature, protozoa were detected in about one-half of the enrichment cultures. Based on microscopic observations, 61 morphospecies were found, and Bodo saltans, Bodo spp., Epistylis spp., Glaucoma scintillans, Petalomonas spp., Prodiscophrya collini, and Vannella sp. were the most frequently encountered identified organisms. Sequencing of DGGE bands resulted in identification of a total of 49 phylotypes, including representatives of the Amoebozoa, Chromalveolata, Excavata, Opisthokonta, and Rhizaria. Sequences of small heterotrophic flagellates were affiliated mainly with the Alveolata (Apicomplexa), Stramenopiles (Chrysophyceae), and Rhizaria (Cercozoa). This survey showed that there is high protozoan species richness in meat-cutting plants and that the species included species related to known hosts of food-borne pathogens. PMID:18641165

  6. A simplified experimental model for clearance of some pathogenic bacteria using common bacterivorous ciliated spp. in Tigris river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Talib Hassan; Saleh, Dhuha Saad

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria-specific uptake rates of three different protozoan taxa on a pure and mixed bacterial community was studied by means of a simplified and functionally reproducible experimental model. The bacterial species Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were isolated and classified from stool samples of patients suffering from diarrhea. Paramecium caudatum, Tetrahymena pyriformis and Halteria grandinella, free living ciliate Protozoans, were isolated and identified from Tigris river water. Pure and mixed ( E. coli + S. typhi), ( E. coli + Sh. flexneri) bacterial cultures were used with each ciliate genera to evaluate the following: predator duplication rate, prey reduction rate, clearance rate and net grazing rate. We used selective lactose fermentation phenomena of enteric bacteria on MacConkey medium for the quantification of bacteria cultural characteristics. The final bacteria concentration was reduced by growing protozoa of 98-99.9 % compared to protozoa-free controls. It showed that Tetrahymena pyriformis had the highest duplication rate (4.13 time/day) in both types of cultures (pure and mixed), followed by Paramecium caudatum and Halteria grandinella, respectively. Paramecium caudatum had the highest rate of ingestion in both types of cultures (26 × 103 bacteria/organism/hr) and yielded the longest time required for 90 % bacterial reduction in a pure suspension of S. typhi (166 h). Clearance rates of pathogenic bacteria by ciliates ranged between 106 nanoliter/organism/h by P. caudatum to S. typhi and 1.92 nanoliter/organism/h seen in T. pyriformis in ( E. coli + S. typhi) mixed culture. We used aquatic experimental microcosms under controlled conditions to explore bacteria-dependent ciliate growth and examined whether these ciliates could discriminate between equally sized bacterial preys in a mixture.

  7. Detection of gastrointestinal bleeding by radionuclide scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Luna, E.; Kingsley, S.; Prince, M.; Herrera, N.

    1984-01-01

    Scanning with Technetium /sup 99m/ labeled autologous red blood cells was performed in 59 patients with clinical suspicion of acute and/or intermittent, chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. In 36 patients (61%), a definite site of bleeding could be demonstrated. A strong correlation with other modalities such as upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy, contrast angiography, and surgical exploration was found. Overall sensitivity of the procedure was 91%; specificity 100% and accuracy 93.3%. It is suggested that radionuclide scintigraphy provides a completely noninvasive, simple, and sensitive procedure which may be routinely used for the detection and localization of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  8. Ubiquitin proteasome system research in gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jia-Ling; Huang, Chang-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is important for the degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It is involved in nearly every cellular process and plays an important role in maintaining body homeostasis. An increasing body of evidence has linked alterations in the UPS to gastrointestinal malignancies, including esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers. Here, we summarize the current literature detailing the involvement of the UPS in gastrointestinal cancer, highlighting its role in tumor occurrence and development, providing information for therapeutic targets research and anti-gastrointestinal tumor drug design. PMID:26909134

  9. Ubiquitin proteasome system research in gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jia-Ling; Huang, Chang-Zhi

    2016-02-15

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is important for the degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It is involved in nearly every cellular process and plays an important role in maintaining body homeostasis. An increasing body of evidence has linked alterations in the UPS to gastrointestinal malignancies, including esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers. Here, we summarize the current literature detailing the involvement of the UPS in gastrointestinal cancer, highlighting its role in tumor occurrence and development, providing information for therapeutic targets research and anti-gastrointestinal tumor drug design.

  10. Clinical and pathological observations on natural infections of cryptosporidiosis and flagellate protozoa in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A; Geach, M R; Cooley, W A

    1999-12-11

    A group of adult leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) which had been losing weight for several months were found to be infected with Cryptosporidium species. Histological and electron microscopical investigations on the intestines of five of the lizards revealed the presence of large numbers of the developmental stages of Cryptosporidium species attached to the mucosal surface of the lower intestine, and large numbers of flagellate protozoa, suspected to be predominantly Trichomonas species, in the gut lumen. The clinical signs were attributed to the presence of one or both types of parasites.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years) from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Results Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%), whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection. Protected spring water

  12. Toxicity of ammonia nitrogen to ciliated protozoa Stentor coeruleus and Coleps hirtus isolated from activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Beata; Fyda, Janusz; Pajdak-Stós, Agnieszka; Kocerba, Wioleta; Fiałkowska, Edyta; Sobczyk, Mateusz

    2012-11-01

    We assessed the toxicity of ammonia ions to Stentor coeruleus and Coleps hirtus (Protozoa) isolated from activated sludge taken from two municipal wastewater treatment plants in southern Poland. Stentor coeruleus is a rarely occurring species in activated sludge, unlike the widespread Coleps hirtus. The mean LC50 values (concentration causing 50 % mortality) calculated for the 24 h tests differed hugely between the tested species: 43.03 mg NH(4+) dm(-3) for Stentor coeruleus and 441.12 mg NH(4+) dm(-3) for Coleps hirtus. The ammonia ion concentration apparently is an important factor in the occurrence of these protozoan species in activated sludge.

  13. Colonization with the enteric protozoa Blastocystis is associated with increased diversity of human gut bacterial microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Audebert, Christophe; Even, Gaël; Cian, Amandine; Safadi, Dima El; Certad, Gabriela; Delhaes, Laurence; Pereira, Bruno; Nourrisson, Céline; Poirier, Philippe; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Delbac, Frédéric; Morelle, Christelle; Bastien, Patrick; Lachaud, Laurence; Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Botterel, Françoise; Candolfi, Ermanno; Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Morio, Florent; Pomares, Christelle; Rabodonirina, Meja; Loywick, Alexandre; Merlin, Sophie; Viscogliosi, Eric; Chabé, Magali

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of commensal bacterial populations, a phenomenon known as dysbiosis, are linked to multiple gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, or to infections by diverse enteric pathogens. Blastocystis is one of the most common single-celled eukaryotes detected in human faecal samples. However, the clinical significance of this widespread colonization remains unclear, and its pathogenic potential is controversial. To address the issue of Blastocystis pathogenicity, we investigated the impact of colonization by this protist on the composition of the human gut microbiota. For that purpose, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 48 Blastocystis-colonized patients and 48 Blastocystis-free subjects and performed an Ion Torrent 16S rDNA gene sequencing to decipher the Blastocystis-associated gut microbiota. Here, we report a higher bacterial diversity in faecal microbiota of Blastocystis colonized patients, a higher abundance of Clostridia as well as a lower abundance of Enterobacteriaceae. Our results contribute to suggesting that Blastocystis colonization is usually associated with a healthy gut microbiota, rather than with gut dysbiosis generally observed in metabolic or infectious inflammatory diseases of the lower gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27147260

  14. Metabolic Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT): Host, Commensal, Probiotics, and Bacteriophage Influences

    PubMed Central

    Vitetta, Luis; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Life on this planet has been intricately associated with bacterial activity at all levels of evolution and bacteria represent the earliest form of autonomous existence. Plants such as those from the Leguminosae family that form root nodules while harboring nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria are a primordial example of symbiotic existence. Similarly, cooperative activities between bacteria and animals can also be observed in multiple domains, including the most inhospitable geographical regions of the planet such as Antarctica and the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. In humans bacteria are often classified as either beneficial or pathogenic and in this regard we posit that this artificial nomenclature is overly simplistic and as such almost misinterprets the complex activities and inter-relationships that bacteria have with the environment as well as the human host and the plethora of biochemical activities that continue to be identified. We further suggest that in humans there are neither pathogenic nor beneficial bacteria, just bacteria embraced by those that tolerate the host and those that do not. The densest and most complex association exists in the human gastrointestinal tract, followed by the oral cavity, respiratory tract, and skin, where bacteria—pre- and post-birth—instruct the human cell in the fundamental language of molecular biology that normally leads to immunological tolerance over a lifetime. The overall effect of this complex output is the elaboration of a beneficial milieu, an environment that is of equal or greater importance than the bacterium in maintaining homeostasis. PMID:27682125

  15. 21 CFR 876.1725 - Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system. 876... Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal motility monitoring system is a... esophageal motility monitor and tube, the gastrointestinal motility (electrical) system, and...

  16. 21 CFR 876.1725 - Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system. 876... Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal motility monitoring system is a... esophageal motility monitor and tube, the gastrointestinal motility (electrical) system, and...

  17. 21 CFR 876.1725 - Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system. 876... Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal motility monitoring system is a... esophageal motility monitor and tube, the gastrointestinal motility (electrical) system, and...

  18. 21 CFR 876.1725 - Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system. 876... Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal motility monitoring system is a... esophageal motility monitor and tube, the gastrointestinal motility (electrical) system, and...

  19. 21 CFR 876.1725 - Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system. 876... Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal motility monitoring system is a... esophageal motility monitor and tube, the gastrointestinal motility (electrical) system, and...

  20. Unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Nijhawan, S; Rai, R R; Agarwal, S; Vijayvergiya, R

    1995-01-01

    We report management of unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract, namely beer bottle cap, raisins and pistachu, mango peel, betelnut and plum seed at a university hospital in Northern India.

  1. METHOD OF SUPPRESSING GASTROINTESTINAL UREASE ACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Visek, W.J.

    1963-04-23

    This patent shows a method of increasing the growth rate of chicks. Certain diacyl substituted ureas such as alloxan, murexide, and barbituric acid are added to their feed, thereby suppressing gastrointestinal urease activity and thus promoting growth. (AEC)

  2. Educational Card Games for Understanding Gastrointestinal Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odenweller, Cynthia M.; Hsu, Christopher T.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the rules for two educational card-games that provide an opportunity to integrate, analyze, and interpret basic concepts in gastrointestinal physiology. Enhances students' abilities to apply and synthesize. (DDR)

  3. Gastrointestinal complications of diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Babu; Babu, Shithu; Walker, Jessica; Walker, Adrian B; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects virtually every organ system in the body and the degree of organ involvement depends on the duration and severity of the disease, and other co-morbidities. Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement can present with esophageal dysmotility, gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastroparesis, enteropathy, non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and glycogenic hepatopathy. Severity of GERD is inversely related to glycemic control and management is with prokinetics and proton pump inhibitors. Diabetic gastroparesis manifests as early satiety, bloating, vomiting, abdominal pain and erratic glycemic control. Gastric emptying scintigraphy is considered the gold standard test for diagnosis. Management includes dietary modifications, maintaining euglycemia, prokinetics, endoscopic and surgical treatments. Diabetic enteropathy is also common and management involves glycemic control and symptomatic measures. NAFLD is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and treatment is mainly lifestyle measures, with diabetes and dyslipidemia management when coexistent. Glycogenic hepatopathy is a manifestation of poorly controlled type 1 diabetes and is managed by prompt insulin treatment. Though GI complications of diabetes are relatively common, awareness about its manifestations and treatment options are low among physicians. Optimal management of GI complications is important for appropriate metabolic control of diabetes and improvement in quality of life of the patient. This review is an update on the GI complications of diabetes, their pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation and management. PMID:23772273

  4. Rimonabant, Gastrointestinal Motility and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Chen, Jiande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity and overweight affect more than half of the US population and are associated with a number of diseases. Rimonabant, a cannabinoid receptor 1 blocker in the endocannabinoid (EC) system, was indicated in Europe for the treatment of obesity and overweight patients with associated risk factors but withdrawn on Jan, 2009 because of side effects. Many studies have reported the effects of rimonabant on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and food intake. The aims of this review are: to review the relationship of EC system with GI motility and food intake;to review the studies of rimonabant on GI motility, food intake and obesity;and to report the tolerance and side effects of rimonabant. Methods: the literature (Pubmed database) was searched using keywords: rimonabant, obesity and GI motility. Results: GI motility is related with appetite, food intake and nutrients absorption. The EC system inhibits GI motility, reduces emesis and increases food intake; Rimonabant accelerates gastric emptying and intestinal transition but decreases energy metabolism and food intake. There is rapid onset of tolerance to the prokinetic effect of rimonabant. The main side effects of rimonabant are depression and GI symptoms. Conclusions: Rimonabant has significant effects on energy metabolism and food intake, probably mediated via its effects on GI motility. PMID:23449551

  5. Gastrointestinal bleeding and possible hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Leisa L

    2012-03-01

    An 88-year-old female, living independently in the community, developed duodenal and gastric ulcers from using overthe-counter naproxen sodium for pain related to a shoulder fracture and arthritis of the knees. She was hospitalized and received packed red blood cells and intravenous proton pump inhibitor therapy. During her hospitalization, she developed atrial fibrillation (AF). Warfarin was not prescribed for stroke prevention because of the gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The patient was initially placed on atenolol, and then amiodarone was added. After a two-week hospital stay she was discharged to a nursing facility to gain strength, further correct her anemia, and receive physical therapy for the shoulder and ambulation problems from arthritis of the knees. The amiodarone was continued in the nursing facility. After 15 days of amiodarone therapy (hospital and nursing facility), a laboratory report indicated an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. Levothyroxine was prescribed. The patient was eventually discharged to an assisted living facility once her strength returned and her ambulation improved. GI bleeding with anemia and weakness from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and changes in thyroid function with amiodarone therapy for AF will be discussed.

  6. Potassium Channelopathies and Gastrointestinal Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jaeyong; Lee, Seung Hun; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Potassium channels and transporters maintain potassium homeostasis and play significant roles in several different biological actions via potassium ion regulation. In previous decades, the key revelations that potassium channels and transporters are involved in the production of gastric acid and the regulation of secretion in the stomach have been recognized. Drugs used to treat peptic ulceration are often potassium transporter inhibitors. It has also been reported that potassium channels are involved in ulcerative colitis. Direct toxicity to the intestines from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated with altered potassium channel activities. Several reports have indicated that the long-term use of the antianginal drug Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, increases the chances of ulceration and perforation from the oral to anal regions throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Several of these drug features provide further insights into the role of potassium channels in the occurrence of ulceration in the GI tract. The purpose of this review is to investigate whether potassium channelopathies are involved in the mechanisms responsible for ulceration that occurs throughout the GI tract. PMID:27784845

  7. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Somerhausen, Nicolas De Saint Aubain

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. To study the evolution of concepts concerning gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) over 30 years. Discussion. GISTs have been, for more than 30 years, the subject of considerable controversy regarding their line of differentiation as well as the prediction of their behaviour. Furthermore, once they spread within the peritoneal cavity, they are extremely hard to control. The recent findings of c-Kit mutations and the immunohistochemical detection of the product of this gene, KIT or CD117, in the mainly non-myogenic subset of this family of tumours, has led to a reappraisal of this group of lesions, which, with some exceptions, is now thought to be derived from the interstitial cells of Cajal, and this has facilitated a clearer definition of their pathological spectrum. In this article, we review chronologically the evolution of the concept of GIST with the gradual application of electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, DNA ploidy analysis. We discuss the impact of these techniques on the pathological assessment and clinical management of GISTs. PMID:18521245

  8. Laparoscopic approach in gastrointestinal emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez Rodriguez, Rosa M; Segura-Sampedro, Juan José; Flores-Cortés, Mercedes; López-Bernal, Francisco; Martín, Cristobalina; Diaz, Verónica Pino; Ciuro, Felipe Pareja; Ruiz, Javier Padillo

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the laparoscopic approach to gastrointestinal emergencies and its more recent indications. Laparoscopic surgery has a specific place in elective procedures, but that does not apply in emergency situations. In specific emergencies, there is a huge range of indications and different techniques to apply, and not all of them are equally settle. We consider that the most controversial points in minimally invasive procedures are indications in emergency situations due to technical difficulties. Some pathologies, such as oesophageal emergencies, obstruction due to colon cancer, abdominal hernias or incarcerated postsurgical hernias, are nearly always resolved by conventional surgery, that is, an open approach due to limited intraabdominal cavity space or due to the vulnerability of the bowel. These technical problems have been solved in many diseases, such as for perforated peptic ulcer or acute appendectomy for which a laparoscopic approach has become a well-known and globally supported procedure. On the other hand, endoscopic procedures have acquired further indications, relegating surgical solutions to a second place; this happens in cholangitis or pancreatic abscess drainage. This endoluminal approach avoids the need for laparoscopic development in these diseases. Nevertheless, new instruments and new technologies could extend the laparoscopic approach to a broader array of potentials procedures. There remains, however, a long way to go. PMID:26973409

  9. [Functional and motility gastrointestinal disorders].

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2012-09-01

    We summarize and discuss the studies presented at the congress of the American Association of Gastroenterology (Digestive Disease Week) that, in our opinion, are of greatest interest. Both clinically and physiopathologically, functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are highly complex. A single cause is unlikely to explain symptoms as heterogeneous as those of functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore, it is easier (and more useful) to try to understand functional GI disorders using a bio-psycho-social model. Moreover, data supporting the combined importance of genetic, organic and psychological factors in the onset and persistence of functional GI disorders are increasingly convincing. This year, new data have been provided on pharmacogenetics in gastroparesis, on microinflammation or alterations in the modulation of somatic and visceral sensitivity in functional dyspepsia, and on the impact of psychological factors in IBS. From the therapeutic point of view, further information has been provided on the role of probiotics, the antinociceptive effect of linaclotide (demonstrated in several studies presented this year), and on the high efficacy of hypnotherapy in patients with IBS. Finally, data on the clinical management of patients with constipation due to pelvic floor dyssynergia and on the safety and efficacy of prucalopride in patients with severe constipation were also of interest.

  10. Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Involvement in Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the gastrointestinal and hepatic involvement in hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Gastrointestinal or hepatic involvement is estimated to affect up to one-third of patients with HES, although most of the clinical evidence has been derived from case reports. In literature, HES presenting with hepatitis and jaundice with subsequent development of colitis is a rare clinicopathologic entity. Given the clinical implications, physicians should include HES among differentials in these types of presentations. PMID:27733964

  11. Japanese herbal medicine in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Inadomi, J M; Hibi, T

    2009-07-01

    Management of functional gastrointestinal disorders is hindered by both poor efficacy and adverse effects of traditional pharmacological therapy. Herbal medicine may be an attractive alternative based on the perception of its 'natural' approach and low risk of side effects; however, the lack of standardization of drug components has limited the ability to perform rigorous clinical studies in Western countries. Japanese herbal medicine (JHM) is a standardized form of herbal medicine with regards to the quality and quantities of ingredients. While extensively studied and widely used in Asia, there is a paucity of data upon which physicians in other parts of the world may draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of herbal medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to summarize the most recent developments in JHM for treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Animal and human studies were systematically reviewed to identify published data of JHM used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The herbal components of JHM were examined. Results describing the physiological and clinical effects of JHM were abstracted, with an emphasis on functional gastrointestinal disorders. JHM are associated with a variety of beneficial physiological on the gastrointestinal system. Patient-based clinical outcomes are improved in several conditions. Rikkunnshi-to reduces symptoms and reverses physiological abnormalities associated with functional dyspepsia, while dai-kenchu-to improves symptoms of postoperative ileus and constipation in children. This updated summary of JHM in the field of gastrointestinal disorders illustrates the potential for herbal medication to serve a valuable role in the management of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  12. Gastrointestinal radiation injury: Prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shadad, Abobakr K; Sullivan, Frank J; Martin, Joseph D; Egan, Laurence J

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in detection and treatment of cancer, there is an increasing emphasis on the efficacy and safety aspects of cancer therapy. Radiation therapy is a common treatment for a wide variety of cancers, either alone or in combination with other treatments. Ionising radiation injury to the gastrointestinal tract is a frequent side effect of radiation therapy and a considerable proportion of patients suffer acute or chronic gastrointestinal symptoms as a result. These side effects often cause morbidity and may in some cases lower the efficacy of radiotherapy treatment. Radiation injury to the gastrointestinal tract can be minimised by either of two strategies: technical strategies which aim to physically shift radiation dose away from the normal intestinal tissues, and biological strategies which aim to modulate the normal tissue response to ionising radiation or to increase its resistance to it. Although considerable improvement in the safety of radiotherapy treatment has been achieved through the use of modern optimised planning and delivery techniques, biological techniques may offer additional further promise. Different agents have been used to prevent or minimize the severity of gastrointestinal injury induced by ionising radiation exposure, including biological, chemical and pharmacological agents. In this review we aim to discuss various technical strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury during cancer radiotherapy, examine the different therapeutic options for acute and chronic gastrointestinal radiation injury and outline some examples of research directions and considerations for prevention at a pre-clinical level. PMID:23345942

  13. Use of bioluminescent Escherichia coli O157:H7 to study intra-protozoan survival of bacteria within Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Shona M; Cooper, Alison A A; Taylor, Elaine L; Salisbury, Vyvyan C

    2003-06-06

    A method was developed that enabled real-time monitoring of the uptake and survival of bioluminescent Escherichia coli O157 within the freshwater ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. Constitutively bioluminescent E. coli O157 pLITE27 was cocultured with T. pyriformis in nutrient-deficient (Chalkley's) and in nutrient-rich (proteose peptone, yeast extract) media. Non-internalised bacteria were inactivated by addition of colistin, indicated by a decline in bioluminescence. Protozoa were subsequently lysed with Triton X-100 which lead to a further drop in bioluminescence, consistent with release of live internal bacteria from T. pyriformis into the colistin-containing environment. Bioluminescence measurements for non-lysed cultures indicated that internalised E. coli O157 pLITE27 cells were only slowly digested by T. pyriformis, in both media, over the time period studied. The results suggest that bioluminescent bacteria are useful tools in the study of bacterial intra-protozoan survival.

  14. Ciliate protozoa of the forestomach of llamas (Lama glama) from locations
    at different altitude in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cucchi, María Cerón; Marcoppido, Gisela; Dekker, Anna; Fondevila, Manuel; Fuente, Gabriel De La; Morici, Gabriel; Cravero, Silvio

    2016-01-20

    This study describes the diversity and concentration of the protozoal population from the forestomach of llamas in Argentina at three altitudinal locations. Protozoal diversity was studied in samples from eight llamas from Hurlingham (Buenos Aires, 43 m altitude), four from Tilcara (Jujuy, 2465 m altitude) and six llamas from Cieneguillas (Jujuy, 3800 m altitude). The total concentrations of protozoa in the forestomach contents were 7.9, 9.1 and 4.1 cells x 104 ml-1 in Hurlingham, Tilcara and Cieneguillas, respectively (P>0.05). Entodinium spp. represented 97.9, 92.3 and 71.4% of the protozoal community in Hurlingham, Tilcara and Cieneguillas, respectively, and the remaining protozoa belonged to the Eudiplodinium genus. Entodinium spp. were identified as E. caudatum (mostly morphotype dubardi), E. longinucleatum, E. parvum, E. bovis, E. exiguum, E. dubardi, and a minor presence of E. bimastus (in three animals) and E. ovibos (in one animal). In regards to the rest of protozoal species, Eudiplodinium maggii is the first reported host record for the genus in llamas. This species was present in the forestomach of 14 out of 18 llamas tested, and in one case it was the unique protozoal species. The vestibuliferids, Dasytricha and Isotricha were absent from the forestomach of llamas. Similarly, other species such as those from the Caloscolex genus, Diplodinium cameli and Entodinium ovumrajae, commonly found in Old World Camelids, were also absent from llamas.

  15. Suitability of different media for in vitro cultivation of the ruminal protozoa species Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, and Epidinium ecaudatum.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, Johanna O; Meile, Leo; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Kreuzer, Michael; Soliva, Carla R

    2011-11-01

    Three protozoal cultivation media were tested to determine the medium which best facilitated growth and viability of key B-type ciliates isolated from the sheep rumen. Entodinium caudatum and Eudiplodinium maggii were grown anaerobically in 50-ml flasks for 32 days in Caudatum-type (C), Kisidayova (K) or Dehority (M) medium. On day 32, in media K and M, E. caudatum cell counts were high with 5.6×10(3) and 7.8×10(3) mL(-1), respectively, and the proportion of dead cells was low with 0.6 and 1.4%, respectively. E. maggii concentrations when grown in medium M and C were 2.7×10(3) and 2.4×10(3) mL(-1), respectively, with 3.9 and 14.1% dead cells. Medium M, which favoured growth of both protozoa species, was tested again and Epidinium ecaudatum was included. Protozoa were grown for a 4-month period and samples were taken in the last two months on days 1, 7, 35 and 57. Average cell concentrations were 10.0, 0.8 and 0.5×10(3) mL(-1) for E. caudatum, E. maggii, and E. ecaudatum, respectively. In conclusion, medium M would appear to be the best choice for cultivating these three species in one medium.

  16. Emerging opportunistic protozoa and intestinal pathogenic protozoal infestation profile in children of western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Easow, Joshy Maducolil; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjoy; Wilson, Godwin; Guha, Simantee; Jalan, Basavaraj Yogitha; Shivananda, Padavagadu Ganapati

    2005-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infestation continues to be of public health importance in many tropical and subtropical countries for their high prevalence and effects on the morbidity in the population. This 5-year hospital-based retrospective analysis was aimed to find out the intestinal protozoal parasitic profile in 1790 pre-school and school-going children visiting the hospital with gastrointestinal illness. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent pathogenic protozoan intestinal parasite (73.4%), followed by Entamoeba histolytica (24.4%). Interestingly, "newer" opportunistic pathogens like Cyclospora cayetanensis (1.0%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.0%) were detected from immunocompromised children below 2 years of age as a result of vertical transmission, which is alarming for a country like Nepal at the stage of 'concentrated epidemic' of HIV infection.

  17. Probiotics effects on gastrointestinal function: beyond the gut?

    PubMed

    Verdu, E F

    2009-05-01

    The digestive tract works through a complex network of integrative functions. At the level of the gut, this integration occurs between the immune, neuromotor and enteroendocrine systems, coordinating the physical and chemical elements of the intestinal barrier in order to facilitate digestion whilst protecting the gut from unwanted components of the luminal contents. Gastrointestinal function is controlled and coordinated by the central nervous system to ensure effective motility, secretion, absorption and mucosal immunity. It follows that perturbations in this complex network could lead to gut dysfunction and symptom generation. Recently, attention has been focused on the emerging hypothesis that gut luminal content contributes to determine normal GI function and on the therapeutic possibilities arising from modulating its impact on gut physiology and immunity using probiotic bacteria. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, two papers explore the effect of specific probiotic bacteria on spinal neuronal activation and in vitro muscle contractility. These papers support the notion that the composition of the intestinal microbiota can influence gut neuro-motor function and enhance our understanding on the mechanisms of action underlying the effects of specific probiotics on gut functional disorders.

  18. Molecular Testing for Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Seung; Kim, Woo Ho; Kwak, Yoonjin; Koh, Jiwon; Bae, Jeong Mo; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Chang, Mee Soo; Han, Hye Seung; Kim, Joon Mee; Kim, Hwal Woong; Chang, Hee Kyung; Choi, Young Hee; Park, Ji Y.; Gu, Mi Jin; Lhee, Min Jin; Kim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Hee Sung; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2017-01-01

    With recent advances in molecular diagnostic methods and targeted cancer therapies, several molecular tests have been recommended for gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Microsatellite instability analysis of gastrointestinal cancers is performed to screen for Lynch syndrome, predict favorable prognosis, and screen patients for immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor has been approved in metastatic CRCs with wildtype RAS (KRAS and NRAS exon 2–4). A BRAF mutation is required for predicting poor prognosis. Additionally, amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and MET is also associated with resistance to EGFR inhibitor in metastatic CRC patients. The BRAF V600E mutation is found in sporadic microsatellite unstable CRCs, and thus is helpful for ruling out Lynch syndrome. In addition, the KRAS mutation is a prognostic biomarker and the PIK3CA mutation is a molecular biomarker predicting response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and response to aspirin therapy in CRC patients. Additionally, HER2 testing should be performed in all recurrent or metastatic GCs. If the results of HER2 immunohistochemistry are equivocal, HER2 silver or fluorescence in situ hybridization testing are essential for confirmative determination of HER2 status. Epstein-Barr virus–positive GCs have distinct characteristics, including heavy lymphoid stroma, hypermethylation phenotype, and high expression of immune modulators. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies enable us to examine various genetic alterations using a single test. Pathologists play a crucial role in ensuring reliable molecular testing and they should also take an integral role between molecular laboratories and clinicians. PMID:28219002

  19. Gastrointestinal Health in Classic Galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kelly A; Mulle, Jennifer G; Epstein, Michael P; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L

    2016-07-01

    Classic galactosemia (CG) is an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism that affects approximately 1/50,000 live births in the USA. Following exposure to milk, which contains large quantities of galactose, affected infants may become seriously ill. Early identification by newborn screening with immediate dietary galactose restriction minimizes or prevents the potentially lethal acute symptoms of CG. However, more than half of individuals with CG still experience long-term complications including cognitive disability, behavioral problems, and speech impairment. Anecdotal reports have also suggested frequent gastrointestinal (GI) problems, but this outcome has not been systematically addressed. In this study we explored the prevalence of GI symptoms among 183 children and adults with CG (cases) and 190 controls. Cases reported 4.5 times more frequent constipation (95% CI 1.8-11.5) and 4.2 times more frequent nausea (95% CI 1.2-15.5) than controls. Cases with genotypes predicting residual GALT activity reported less frequent constipation than cases without predicted GALT activity but this difference was not statistically significant. Because the rigor of dietary galactose restriction varies among individuals with galactosemia, we further tested whether GI symptoms associated with diet in infancy. Though constipation was almost four times as common among cases reporting a more restrictive diet in infancy, this difference was not statistically significant. These data confirm that certain GI symptoms are more common in classic galactosemia compared to controls and suggest that future studies should investigate associations with residual GALT activity and dietary galactose restriction in early life.

  20. Upper gastrointestinal issues in athletes.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Jason J; Kapur, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) complaints are common among athletes with rates in the range of 30% to 70%. Both the intensity of sport and the type of sporting activity have been shown to be contributing factors in the development of GI symptoms. Three important factors have been postulated as contributing to the pathophysiology of GI complaints in athletes: mechanical forces, altered GI blood flow, and neuroendocrine changes. As a result of those factors, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), nausea, vomiting, gastritis, peptic ulcers, GI bleeding, or exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) may develop. GERD may be treated with changes in eating habits, lifestyle modifications, and training modifications. Nausea and vomiting may respond to simple training modifications, including no solid food 3 hours prior to an athletic event. Mechanical trauma, decreased splanchnic blood flow during exercise, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) contribute to gastritis, GI bleeding, and ulcer formation in athletes. Acid suppression with proton-pump inhibitors may be useful in athletes with persistence of any of the above symptoms. ETAP is a common, poorly-understood, self-limited acute abdominal pain which is difficult to treat. ETAP incidence increases in athletes beginning a new exercise program or increasing the intensity of their current exercise program. ETAP may respond to changes in breathing patterns or may resolve simply with continued training. Evaluation of the athlete with upper GI symptoms requires a thorough history, a detailed training log, a focused physical examination aimed at ruling out potentially serious causes of symptoms, and follow-up laboratory testing based on concerning physical examination findings.

  1. [Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders].

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Perelló, Antonia; Balboa, Agustín

    2008-10-01

    Functional gastrointestinal (GI) and motility disorders generate a large volume of consultations in gastroenterology and primary care offices. The present article summarizes the most interesting studies presented in the annual meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association 2008. For all functional GI disorders, studies were presented that evaluated the applicability of diagnostic criteria in clinical practice and new data were presented on physiopathology (for example, mediation by neuromodulators such as serotonin, microinflammation, alterations in intestinal microbiota, and psychological factors). More specifically, the therapeutic results of new prokinetic agents in functional dyspepsia, such as acotiamide, were presented. This agent has been demonstrated to have good efficacy in symptom control, especially in patients with postprandial distress syndrome. In irritable bowel syndrome, data were presented on several drugs that act through diverse mechanisms of action and have been shown to be more effective than placebo in symptom control. These drugs include antiinflammatory agents such as mesalazine, antibiotics such as rifaximin, probiotics with distinct bacterial strains, and prokinetic agents such as lubiprostone. Highly promising results have been obtained in the treatment of constipation with prokinetics such as prucalopride and with novel laxatives such as linaclotide, as well as with techniques that continue to be shown to be effective such as anorectal biofeedback, which is also highly useful in patients with fecal incontinence. Another disorder that is less frequent but highly difficult to treat is gastroparesis. For several years, treatment in the most severe cases has consisted of implantation of a gastric pacemaker. Although the results are far from perfect, new data were presented that allow better patient selection to achieve greater symptom control. The list of new advances, both in knowledge of the physiopathology of these disorders and

  2. [Functional and motility gastrointestinal disorders].

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2011-10-01

    As in previous years, a huge number of studies were presented at the Congress of the American Gastroenterology Association (Digestive Diseases Week [DDW]), some of which were better than others. The present article attempts to extract and summarize the most interesting findings reported. In general terms, certain technological advances have been consolidated, with full incorporation into clinical practice, such as impedancemetry and high-resolution manometry. New physiopathological data are coming to light that increasingly indicate the inextricable link between organic and psychological factors (the biopsychosocial model) in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Despite the high hopes that the Rome III criteria would improve the diagnosis of FGID and especially that of functional dyspepsia, their practical application has been fairly discouraging. Moreover, at least two studies have demonstrated that these criteria cannot be used to differentiate subtypes of functional dyspepsia and that there is wide overlap with gastroesophageal reflux disease. New data were presented on the role of genetic, microinflammatory and psychological factors in the etiopathogenesis of the two main FGID: functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The results on the safety and efficacy of acotiamide in functional dyspepsia and of linaclotide and prucalopride in idiopathic and IBS-associated constipation were also presented. Several studies, and even meta-analyses, have demonstrated the utility of biofeedback in the treatment of constipation. Even so, the efficacy of this therapy has been questioned due to certain methodological deficiencies in some studies. In DDW 2011, studies confirming the utility of biofeedback, whether hospital- or home-based were presented, in dyssynergy constipation. The present article also mentions certain features of special interest in the diagnosis and treatment of rumination syndrome, thoracic pain of possible esophageal origin and

  3. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria: technology and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Kailasapathy, Kaila

    2002-09-01

    In the recent past, there has been an explosion of probiotic health-based products. Many reports indicated that there is poor survival of probiotic bacteria in these products. Further, the survival of these bacteria in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. Providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier against adverse environmental conditions is therefore an approach currently receiving considerable interest. The technology of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells evolved from the immobilised cell culture technology used in the biotechnological industry. Several methods of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria have been reported and include spray drying, extrusion, emulsion and phase separation. None of these reported methods however, has resulted in the large numbers of shelf-stable, viable probiotic bacterial cells necessary for use in industry for development of new probiotic products. The most commonly reported micro-encapsulation procedure is based on the calcium-alginate gel capsule formation. Kappa-carrageenan, gellan gum, gelatin and starch are also used as excipients for the micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria. The currently available equipment for micro-encapsulation is not able to generate large quantities of uniform sized micro or nano capsules. There is a need to design and develop equipment that will be able to generate precise and uniform micro or nano capsules in large quantities for industrial applications. The reported food vehicles for delivery of encapsulated probiotic bacteria are yoghurt, cheese, ice cream and mayonnaise. Studies need to be done on the application of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria in other food systems. The number of probiotic supplements will increase in the future. More studies, however, need to be conducted on the efficacy of micro-encapsulation to deliver probiotic bacteria and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. The impact of proton pump inhibitors on the human gastrointestinal microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Freedberg, Daniel E.; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Abrams, Julian A.

    2014-01-01

    Potent gastric acid suppression using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is common in clinical practice yet may have important effects on human health that are mediated through changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome. Acting through pH-dependent or pH-independent mechanisms, PPIs have the potential to alter the normal microbiota throughout the human gastrointestinal lumen. In the esophagus, PPIs change the normal bacterial milieu to decrease distal esophageal exposure to inflammatory Gram-negative bacteria which may lower the risk of Barrett's esophagus. In the stomach, PPIs alter the abundance and location of gastric Helicobacter pylori and other bacteria, which has implications for peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy. In the small bowel, PPIs cause polymicrobial small bowel bacterial overgrowth and have been associated with the diagnosis of celiac disease. In the colon, PPIs associate with incident but not recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, putatively through alterations in commensal colonic anaerobes. Our understanding of the effect of gastric acid suppression on the human gastrointestinal microbiome is incomplete but is rapidly advancing. PMID:25439276

  5. Powerful colloidal silver nanoparticles for the prevention of gastrointestinal bacterial infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Tam Le, Thi; Quy Nguyen, Van; Hoang Tran, Huy; Dang, Duc Anh; Tran, Quang Huy; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2012-12-01

    In this work we have demonstrated a powerful disinfectant ability of colloidal silver nanoparticles (NPs) for the prevention of gastrointestinal bacterial infections. The silver NPs colloid was synthesized by a UV-enhanced chemical precipitation. Two gastrointestinal bacterial strains of Escherichia coli (ATCC 43888-O157:k-:H7) and Vibrio cholerae (O1) were used to verify the antibacterial activity of the as-prepared silver NPs colloid by means of surface disinfection assay in agar plates and turbidity assay in liquid media. Transmission electron microscopy was also employed to analyze the ultrastructural changes of bacterial cells caused by silver NPs. Noticeably, our silver NPs colloid displayed a highly effective bactericidal effect against two tested gastrointestinal bacterial strains at a silver concentration as low as ˜3 mg l-1. More importantly, the silver NPs colloid showed an enhancement of antibacterial activity and long-lasting disinfectant effect as compared to conventional chloramin B (5%) disinfection agent. These advantages of the as-prepared colloidal silver NPs make them very promising for environmental treatments contaminated with gastrointestinal bacteria and other infectious pathogens. Moreover, the powerful disinfectant activity of silver-containing materials can also help in controlling and preventing further outbreak of diseases.

  6. Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Ljungh, Asa; Wadström, Torkel

    2006-09-01

    A number of Lactobacillus species, Bifidobacterium sp, Saccharomyces boulardii, and some other microbes have been proposed as and are used as probiotic strains, i.e. live microorganisms as food supplement in order to benefit health. The health claims range from rather vague as regulation of bowel activity and increasing of well-being to more specific, such as exerting antagonistic effect on the gastroenteric pathogens Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and rotavirus, neutralising food mutagens produced in colon, shifting the immune response towards a Th2 response, and thereby alleviating allergic reactions, and lowering serum cholesterol (Tannock, 2002). Unfortunately, most publications are case reports, uncontrolled studies in humans, or reports of animal or in vitro studies. Whether or not the probiotic strains employed shall be of human origin is a matter of debate but this is not a matter of concern, as long as the strains can be shown to survive the transport in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and to colonise the human large intestine. This includes survival in the stressful environment of the stomach - acidic pH and bile - with induction of new genes encoding a number of stress proteins. Since the availability of antioxidants decreases rostrally in the GI tract production of antioxidants by colonic bacteria provides a beneficial effect in scavenging free radicals. LAB strains commonly produce antimicrobial substance(s) with activity against the homologous strain, but LAB strains also often produce microbicidal substances with effect against gastric and intestinal pathogens and other microbes, or compete for cell surface and mucin binding sites. This could be the mechanism behind reports that some probiotic strains inhibit or decrease translocation of bacteria from the gut to the liver. A protective effect against cancer development can be ascribed to binding of mutagens by intestinal bacteria, reduction of the enzymes beta

  7. Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to a Small Intestinal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Young Adult

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Mami; Yamamoto, Kentaroh; Taketomi, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Fumio; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The source of most cases of gastrointestinal bleeding is the upper gastrointestinal tract. Since bleeding from the small intestine is very rare and difficult to diagnose, time is required to identify the source. Among small intestine bleeds, vascular abnormalities account for 70–80%, followed by small intestine tumors that account for 5–10%. The reported peak age of the onset of small intestinal tumors is about 50 years. Furthermore, rare small bowel tumors account for only 1–2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. We describe a 29-year-old man who presented with obscure anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent laparotomy. Surgical findings revealed a well-circumscribed lesion measuring 45 × 40 mm in the jejunum that initially appeared similar to diverticulosis with an abscess. However, the postoperative pathological diagnosis was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor with extramural growth. PMID:27920659

  8. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  9. Diversity and ecology of oxalotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Vincent; Junier, Thomas; Bindschedler, Saskia; Verrecchia, Eric; Junier, Pilar

    2016-02-01

    Oxalate is present in environments as diverse as soils or gastrointestinal tracts. This organic acid can be found as free acid or forming metal salts (e.g. calcium, magnesium). Oxalotrophy, the ability to use oxalate as carbon and energy sources, is mainly the result of bacterial catabolism, which can be either aerobic or anaerobic. Although some oxalotrophic bacterial strains are commonly used as probiotics, little is known about the diversity and ecology of this functional group. This review aims at exploring the taxonomic distribution and the phylogenetic diversity of oxalotrophic bacteria across biomes. In silico analyses were conducted using the two key enzymes involved in oxalotrophy: formyl-coenzyme A (CoA) transferase (EC 2.8.3.16) and oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.8), encoded by the frc and oxc genes, respectively. Our analyses revealed that oxalate-degrading bacteria are restricted to three phyla, namely Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and originated from terrestrial, aquatic and clinical environments. Diversity analyses at the protein level suggest that total Oxc diversity is more constrained than Frc diversity and that bacterial oxalotrophic diversity is not yet fully described. Finally, the contribution of oxalotrophic bacteria to ecosystem functioning as well as to the carbon cycle is discussed.

  10. Comparison of nitroethane, 2-nitro-1-propanol, lauric acid, Lauricidin and the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros, for potential broad-spectrum control of anaerobically grown lactic acid bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gastrointestinal tract of bovines often contains bacteria that contribute to disorders of the rumen and may also contain foodborne or opportunistic human pathogens as well as bacteria capable of causing mastitis in cows. Thus, there is a need to develop broad-spectrum therapies that are effecti...

  11. Therapeutic uses of gastrointestinal peptides.

    PubMed

    Redfern, J S; O'Dorisio, T M

    1993-12-01

    The GI tract is one of nature's great pharmacies. Most, if not all, biologically active peptides can be found there, and it is quite likely that others remain to be discovered. Our ability to exploit this resource has expanded considerably over the past two decades. Advances in analytical techniques have allowed investigators to rapidly isolate and purify new compounds from tissue extracts. Sequencing and de novo synthesis of newly discovered peptides are now routine, and the structural modifications required to alter activity and tailor a compound to a particular use are easily made. A number of gastrointestinal peptides or their analogues for use in clinical studies are available from commercial sources (see Table 7). Somatostatin is the first gut peptide to successfully complete development and yield a pharmaceutical compound with a broad range of action. Several of the peptides discussed in this article have similar potential. TRH stands out as a candidate because of its effectiveness in the treatment of experimental spinal cord injury and a variety of shock states. Such a broad range of action in critical fields may justify the intensive development required to yield potent, long-acting, and highly specific analogues. Similarly, the antimetastatic and immunostimulant properties of the enkephalins offer promise for new therapies in the treatment of AIDS, ARC, and cancer. Studies with amylin may lead to new and more precise regimens of blood sugar control in insulin-dependent diabetics and could in turn, prevent some of the worst long-term effects of the disease. The development of effective intranasal forms of GHRH could spare children with GH-GHRH deficiency the distress of repeated injections and help to prevent excessive GH blood levels. Secretin, glucagon, or CGRP might be used one day in cardiovascular emergencies, and VIP or its analogues could prove effective in the treatment of asthma. Although preliminary results with many of these peptides are

  12. Ketamine Sedation in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Eskander, Ayman E.; Baroudy, Nevine R. El; Refay, Amira S. El

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Moderate sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy has traditionally been provided by the endoscopist. Controversy has ensued over safe and efficient sedation practice as endoscopy has increased in numbers and complexity. AIM: To evaluate the safety of ketamine sedation given by non-anesthesiologist during gastrointestinal endoscopy in children. METHODS: A prospective study of 100 paediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who were a candidate for upper or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy in paediatric endoscopy unit at Abo El-Reesh Paediatric Hospital, Cairo University. All children were > 2 years old and weighed > 6 kg. The analysis was performed in terms of sedation-related complications. RESULTS: A total 100 paediatric patients including 53 males and 47 females with mean age of 5.04 years were involved in the study. All children were medicated with ketamine with a mean dose of 3.77mg/kg. No complications occurred in 87% of cases. Desaturation occurred in 13% of the cases and was reversible by supplemental nasal oxygen. Desaturation was more frequent during Upper GI Endoscopy and with the intramuscular route (p value=0.049). No apnea, bradycardia, arrest or emergence reactions were recorded. CONCLUSION: Ketamine sedation found to be safe for paediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy in Egyptian children without co-morbidities. Transient Hypoxia (13%) may occur but easily reversed by nasal oxygen therapy. PMID:27703561

  13. The gut microbiota and gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Kristina; Alverdy, John C

    2017-01-01

    Surgery involving the gastrointestinal tract continues to prove challenging because of the persistence of unpredictable complications such as anastomotic leakage and life-threatening infections. Removal of diseased intestinal segments results in substantial catabolic stress and might require complex reconstructive surgery to maintain the functional continuity of the intestinal tract. As gastrointestinal surgery necessarily involves a breach of an epithelial barrier colonized by microorganisms, preoperative intestinal antisepsis is used to reduce infection-related complications. The current approach to intestinal antisepsis varies widely across institutions and countries with little understanding of its mechanism of action, effect on the gut microbiota and overall efficacy. Many of the current approaches to intestinal antisepsis before gastrointestinal surgery run counter to emerging concepts of intestinal microbiota contributing to immune function and recovery from injury. Here, we review evidence outlining the role of gut microbiota in recovery from gastrointestinal surgery, particularly in the development of infections and anastomotic leak. To make surgery safer and further reduce complications, a molecular, genetic and functional understanding of the response of the gastrointestinal tract to alterations in its microbiota is needed. Methods can then be developed to preserve the health-promoting functions of the microbiota while at the same time suppressing their harmful effects.

  14. Cattle tick-associated bacteria exert anti-biofilm and anti-Tritrichomonas foetus activities.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, K R; Seixas, A; Conceição, J M; Zvoboda, D A; Barros, M P; Tasca, T; Macedo, A J; Termignoni, C

    2013-05-31

    Research on microbiota in cattle tick and the evaluation of its activity against other microorganisms can contribute to identify new molecules potentially useful to control infections caused by bacteria and protozoa. Biofilms pose increasing problems worldwide, mainly due to their resistance to antimicrobial therapies and host immune response. In this study we investigate the ability Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus-associated bacteria may exhibit to produce anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal compounds. Gut, ovary, salivary glands, and Gené organ were collected from engorged R. microplus female. Homogenates of each tissue were inoculated onto 15 distinct culture media. Anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal activities were analyzed by culturing each bacterium isolated in a liquid medium. Results showed that R. microplus cattle tick microflora varies for different tissues. Bacteria belonging to different genera (Aeromonas, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Castelaniella, Comamonas, Kocuria, and Microbacterium) were identified. Interestingly, all bacterial species found displayed pronounced activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, and also against the cattle pathogen Tritrichomonas foetus, confirming the hypothesis that cattle tick could be a source of bacteria active against pathogens. This is the first study showing that bacteria isolated from a tick exert anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal activities.

  15. Effect of toxicity of Ag nanoparticles on SERS spectral variance of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Li; Chen, Shaode; Zhang, Kaisong

    2015-02-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been extensively utilized in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy for bacterial identification. However, Ag NPs are toxic to bacteria. Whether such toxicity can affect SERS features of bacteria and interfere with bacterial identification is still unknown and needed to explore. Here, by carrying out a comparative study on non-toxic Au NPs with that on toxic Ag NPs, we investigated the influence of nanoparticle concentration and incubation time on bacterial SERS spectral variance, both of which were demonstrated to be closely related to the toxicity of Ag NPs. Sensitive spectral alterations were observed on Ag NPs with increase of NPs concentration or incubation time, accompanied with an obvious decrease in number of viable bacteria. In contrast, SERS spectra and viable bacterial number on Au NPs were rather constant under the same conditions. A further analysis on spectral changes demonstrated that it was cell response (i.e. metabolic activity or death) to the toxicity of Ag NPs causing spectral variance. However, biochemical responses to the toxicity of Ag were very different in different bacteria, indicating the complex toxic mechanism of Ag NPs. Ag NPs are toxic to a great variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa etc., therefore, this work will be helpful in guiding the future application of SERS technique in various complex biological systems.

  16. Application of leftover sample material from waterborne protozoa monitoring for the molecular detection of Bacteroidales and fecal source tracking markers

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we examined the potential for detecting fecal bacteria and microbial source tracking markers in samples discarded during the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia using USEPA Method 1623. Recovery rates for different fecal bacteria were determined using sp...

  17. Role of commensal and probiotic bacteria in human health: a focus on inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The human gut is one of the most complex ecosystems, composed of 1013-1014 microorganisms which play an important role in human health. In addition, some food products contain live bacteria which transit through our gastrointestinal tract and could exert beneficial effects on our health (known as probiotic effect). Among the numerous proposed health benefits attributed to commensal and probiotic bacteria, their capacity to interact with the host immune system is now well demonstrated. Currently, the use of recombinant lactic acid bacteria to deliver compounds of health interest is gaining importance as an extension of the probiotic concept. This review summarizes some of the recent findings and perspectives in the study of the crosstalk of both commensal and probiotic bacteria with the human host as well as the latest studies in recombinant commensal and probiotic bacteria. Our aim is to highlight the potential roles of recombinant bacteria in this ecosystem. PMID:23876056

  18. Multiplex Molecular Panels for Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Infection: Performance, Result Interpretation, and Cost-Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among young children and immunocompromised patients. Diarrhea may result from infection with a variety of microbial pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Historically, the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea has been made using microscopy, antigen tests, culture, and real-time PCR. A combination of these traditional tests is often required due to the inability to distinguish between infectious etiologies based on the clinical presentation alone. Recently, several multiplex molecular assays have been developed for the detection of gastrointestinal pathogens directly from clinical stool samples. These panels allow for the detection and identification of up to 20 pathogens in as little as 1 h. This review will focus on the multiplex molecular panels that have received clearance from the FDA for the diagnosis of diarrheal disease and will highlight issues related to test performance, result interpretation, and cost-effectiveness of these new molecular diagnostic tools. PMID:26311866

  19. Importance of IL-10 Modulation by Probiotic Microorganisms in Gastrointestinal Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; del Carmen, Silvina; Zurita-Turk, Meritxell; Santos Rocha, Clarissa; van de Guchte, Maarten; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; LeBlanc, Jean Guy

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent a heterogeneous group of microorganisms that are naturally present in many foods and possess a wide range of therapeutic properties. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the current expanding knowledge of one of the mechanisms by which LAB and other probiotic microorganisms participate in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal inflammatory disease through their immune-modulating properties. A special emphasis will be placed on the critical role of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and a brief overview of the uses of genetically engineered LAB that produce this important immune response mediator will also be discussed. Thus, this paper will demonstrate the critical role that IL-10 plays in gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases and how probiotics could be used in their treatment. PMID:21991534

  20. Concomitant Antibiotic and Mercury Resistance Among Gastrointestinal Microflora of Feral Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Matthew M.; Parry, Erin M.; Guay, Justin A.; Markham, Nicholas O.; Danner, G. Russell; Johnson, Keith A.; Barkay, Tamar; Fekete, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-nine bacterial isolates representing eight genera from the gastrointestinal tracts of feral brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell) demonstrated multiple maximal antibiotic resistances and concomitant broad-spectrum mercury (Hg) resistance. Equivalent viable plate counts on tryptic soy agar supplemented with either 0 or 25 μM HgCl2 verified the ubiquity of mercury resistance in this microbial environment. Mercury levels in lake water samples measured 1.5 ng L−1; mercury concentrations in fish filets ranged from 81.8 to 1,080 ng g−1 and correlated with fish length. The presence of similar antibiotic and Hg resistance patterns in multiple genera of gastrointestinal microflora supports a growing body of research that multiple selective genes can be transferred horizontally in the presence of an unrelated individual selective pressure. We present data that bioaccumulation of non-point source Hg pollution could be a selective pressure to accumulate both antibiotic and Hg resistant bacteria. PMID:22850694

  1. Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    van Passel, Mark W J; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Davenport, Karen Walston; Sims, David; Brettin, Thomas S; Detter, John C; Han, Shunsheng; Larimer, Frank W; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikolaos; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Richardson, P Paul; de Vos, Willem M; Smidt, Hauke; Zoetendal, Erwin G

    2011-05-01

    Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Van Passel, Mark W.J.; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, A; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Davenport, Karen W.; Sims, David; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff; Larimer, Frank W; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Richardson, Paul; De Vos, Willem M.; Smidt, Hauke; Zoetendal, Erwin G.

    2011-01-01

    Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastro-intestinal tract.

  3. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, Shivaramareddy; Hosahally, Jayanth S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

    2015-01-01

    Poisoning, both accidental and intentional, is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The commonest pesticide poisoning is organophosphates followed by phosphides. Ingestion of phosphides can induce severe gastrointestinal irritation leading to hemorrhage and ulcerations. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages and ulcerations beyond the duodenum have not been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of severe hemorrhages and ulcerations in stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum observed in a 45-year-old male who had consumed five tablets of Celphos(®) (each 3 g with 56% aluminum phosphide and 44% Ammonium carbonate) to commit suicide. He started vomiting after consumption, and the vomitus was blood-tinged. Once the treatment was instituted, he was stable for a day and thereafter his condition gradually deteriorated. He died on the 4th day of hospitalization, and autopsy revealed features of multiorgan failure and extensive gastrointestinal hemorrhages.

  4. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Sigrid A

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin, also known as diferuloylmethane, is derived from the plant Curcuma longa and is the active ingredient of the spice turmeric. The therapeutic activities of curcumin for a wide variety of diseases such as diabetes, allergies, arthritis and other chronic and inflammatory diseases have been known for a long time. More recently, curcumin’s therapeutic potential for preventing and treating various cancers is being recognized. As curcumin’s therapeutic promise is being explored more systematically in various diseases, it has become clear that, due to its increased bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract, curcumin may be particularly suited to be developed to treat gastrointestinal diseases. This review summarizes some of the current literature of curcumin’s anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer potential in inflammatory bowel diseases, hepatic fibrosis and gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:21607160

  5. Arteriovenous malformation in chronic gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed Central

    Cavett, C M; Selby, J H; Hamilton, J L; Williamson, J W

    1977-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon and treatment is problematic because routine barium contrast studies and endoscopy fail to demonstrate the lesion. Diagnosis is by selective mesenteric arteriography, demonstrating a characteristic vascular tuft and very early venous phase. Two cases of arteriovenous malformation are presented and 47 other reported cases are reviewed. Forty-five per cent were found in the cecum; 37, or 80%, involved the distal ileum, cecum ascending colon, or hepatic flexure. Seventy-five per cent of all patients fall into the 50--80 year age range. The literature reveals a recurring pattern of chronic gastrointestinal blood loss, anemia, and delay (even negative abdominal explorations) before the diagnosis is finally made. A more aggressive approach to chronic gastrointestinal bleeding is suggested through the use of selective mesenteric arteriography. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:299801

  6. Bayesian network modelling of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisha, Nazziwa; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-09-01

    Bayesian networks are graphical probabilistic models that represent causal and other relationships between domain variables. In the context of medical decision making, these models have been explored to help in medical diagnosis and prognosis. In this paper, we discuss the Bayesian network formalism in building medical support systems and we learn a tree augmented naive Bayes Network (TAN) from gastrointestinal bleeding data. The accuracy of the TAN in classifying the source of gastrointestinal bleeding into upper or lower source is obtained. The TAN achieves a high classification accuracy of 86% and an area under curve of 92%. A sensitivity analysis of the model shows relatively high levels of entropy reduction for color of the stool, history of gastrointestinal bleeding, consistency and the ratio of blood urea nitrogen to creatinine. The TAN facilitates the identification of the source of GIB and requires further validation.

  7. The Chronic Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Nilce Mitiko; Miller, Steven M.; Evora, Paulo R. Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:20037711

  8. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inside Life Science > Bleach vs. Bacteria Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds ... For Proteins, Form Shapes Function This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  9. Some bacteria are beneficial!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.

    1995-01-01

    Most people would agree that bacteria usually spell trouble where the quality of drinking water is con cerned. However, recent studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program have shown that some bacteria can improve the quality of water.

  10. Bacteria turn tiny gears

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Swarms of bacteria turn two 380-micron long gears, opening the possibility of building hybrid biological machines at the microscopic scale. Read more at Wired: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/12/bacterial-micro-machine/#more-15684 or Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=brownian-motion-bacteria

  11. Gastrointestinal endoscopy in the pregnant woman

    PubMed Central

    Friedel, David; Stavropoulos, Stavros; Iqbal, Shahzad; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    About 20000 gastrointestinal endoscopies are performed annually in America in pregnant women. Gastrointestinal endoscopy during pregnancy raises the critical issue of fetal safety in addition to patient safety. Endoscopic medications may be potentially abortifacient or teratogenic. Generally, Food and Drug Administration category B or C drugs should be used for endoscopy. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) seems to be relatively safe for both mother and fetus based on two retrospective studies of 83 and 60 pregnant patients. The diagnostic yield is about 95% when EGD is performed for gastrointestinal bleeding. EGD indications during pregnancy include acute gastrointestinal bleeding, dysphagia > 1 wk, or endoscopic therapy. Therapeutic EGD is experimental due to scant data, but should be strongly considered for urgent indications such as active bleeding. One study of 48 sigmoidoscopies performed during pregnancy showed relatively favorable fetal outcomes, rare bad fetal outcomes, and bad outcomes linked to very sick mothers. Sigmoidoscopy should be strongly considered for strong indications, including significant acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding, chronic diarrhea, distal colonic stricture, suspected inflammatory bowel disease flare, and potential colonic malignancy. Data on colonoscopy during pregnancy are limited. One study of 20 pregnant patients showed rare poor fetal outcomes. Colonoscopy is generally experimental during pregnancy, but can be considered for strong indications: known colonic mass/stricture, active lower gastrointestinal bleeding, or colonoscopic therapy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) entails fetal risks from fetal radiation exposure. ERCP risks to mother and fetus appear to be acceptable when performed for ERCP therapy, as demonstrated by analysis of nearly 350 cases during pregnancy. Justifiable indications include symptomatic or complicated choledocholithiasis, manifested by jaundice, cholangitis, gallstone

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide interpolymer complexes improve survival of B. longum Bb-46 in simulated gastrointestinal fluids.

    PubMed

    Thantsha, Mapitsi S; Cloete, Thomas E; Moolman, Francis S; Labuschagne, Philip W

    2009-01-31

    Gastric acidity is the main factor affecting viability of probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This study investigated the survival in simulated gastrointestinal fluids of Bifidobacterium longum Bb-46 encapsulated in interpolymer complexes formed in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)). Bacteria were exposed sequentially to simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 2) for 2 h and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 6.8) for 6 or 24 h. Total encapsulated bacteria were determined by suspending 1 g of product in SIF for 6 h at 37 degrees C prior to plating out. Plates were incubated anaerobically at 37 degrees C for 72 h. The interpolymer complex displayed pH-responsive release properties, with little to no release in SGF and substantial release in SIF. There was a limited reduction in viable counts at the end of exposure period due to encapsulation. Protection efficiency of the interpolymer complex was improved by addition of glyceryl monostearate (GMS). Gelatine capsules delayed release of bacteria from the interpolymer complex thus minimizing time of exposure to the detrimental conditions. Use of poly(caprolactone) (PCL), ethylene oxide-propylene oxide triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO) decreased the protection efficiency of the matrix. Interpolymer complex encapsulation showed potential for protection of probiotics and therefore for application in food and pharmaceuticals.

  13. Occurrence of viruses and protozoa in drinking water sources of Japan and their relationship to indicator microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Haramoto, Eiji; Kitajima, Masaaki; Kishida, Naohiro; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Asami, Mari; Akiba, Michihiro

    2012-09-01

    A nationwide survey of viruses, protozoa, and indicator microorganisms in drinking water sources of Japan was conducted. Among 64 surface water samples collected from 16 drinking water treatment plants, 51 (80 %) samples were positive for at least one of the 11 pathogen types tested, including noroviruses of genogroups I (positive rate, 13 %) and II (2 %), human sapoviruses (5 %), human adenoviruses of serotypes 40 and 41 (39 %), Cryptosporidium oocysts (41 %), and Giardia cysts (36 %). Total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and F-specific coliphages were detected in 63 (98 %), 33 (52 %), and 17 (27 %) samples, respectively, and E. coli was judged to be the most suitable indicator of pathogen contamination of drinking water sources. Genogroup-specific real-time PCR for F-specific coliphages revealed the presence of F-specific RNA coliphages of animal genogroup I and human genogroups II and III in 13 (41 %), 12 (39 %), and 1 (3 %), respectively, of 31 plaques isolated.

  14. An outbreak of adenoviral infection in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) coinfected with dependovirus and coccidial protozoa (Isospora sp.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Young; Mitchell, Mark A; Bauer, Rudy W; Poston, Rob; Cho, Doo-Youn

    2002-07-01

    Thirty of 200 (15%) hatchling inland bearded dragons were found dead after a short period (48 hours) of weakness and lethargy. The most common clinical signs were head tilt and circling. Six bearded dragons with neurological signs were euthanized, and postmortem examination revealed no gross abnormalities. Microscopically, severe, randomly distributed hepatocellular necrosis with large basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in numerous hepatocytes was noted. Small-intestinal enterocytes contained intracytoplasmic coccidial protozoa (Isospora sp.) and occasional enterocytes had basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Transmission electron microscopy revealed both 80- and 20-nm-diameter viral particles, which were consistent with adenoviruses and dependoviruses, respectively. Adenoviral outbreaks in groups of animals are uncommon. An adverse synergistic effect of the coccidiosis with the adenoviral infection may have played a critical role in the high morbidity and mortality in this case.

  15. Oncological emergencies associated with gastrointestinal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Prenen, Klaas; Prenen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Oncological emergencies are defined as acute life-threatening conditions in cancer patients either as a result of the malignancy or as a result of its treatment. In this review, we focus on oncological emergencies associated with gastrointestinal tumors. They can be categorized by their system of origin as hematologic, neurologic or metabolic. Furthermore, we discuss mechanical emergencies such as intestinal obstruction and vena cava superior syndrome as well as acute gastrointestinal bleeding and pulmonary embolism. The patients’ performance status as well as prognosis are essential during decision making for optimal treatment. PMID:26424367

  16. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Neville, B Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form. The influence of each of these factors on C. albicans carriage is considered herein, with particular focus on the mycobiota and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C. albicans carriage.

  17. Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, D.; Ng, T.; Ahmad, C.; Alfakeeh, A.; Alruzug, I.; Biagi, J.; Brierley, J.; Chaudhury, P.; Cleary, S.; Colwell, B.; Cripps, C.; Dawson, L.A.; Dorreen, M.; Ferland, E.; Galiatsatos, P.; Girard, S.; Gray, S.; Halwani, F.; Kopek, N.; Mahmud, A.; Martel, G.; Robillard, L.; Samson, B.; Seal, M.; Siddiqui, J.; Sideris, L.; Snow, S.; Thirwell, M.; Vickers, M.; Goodwin, R.; Goel, R.; Hsu, T.; Tsvetkova, E.; Ward, B.; Asmis, T.

    2016-01-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016 was held in Montreal, Quebec, 5–7 February. Experts in radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, and infectious diseases involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussion sessions for the purpose of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses multiple topics: ■ Follow-up and survivorship of patients with resected colorectal cancer■ Indications for liver metastasectomy■ Treatment of oligometastases by stereotactic body radiation therapy■ Treatment of borderline resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer■ Transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma■ Infectious complications of antineoplastic agents PMID:28050151

  18. Gastrointestinal imaging in pediatrics, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Franken, E.A. Jr.; Smith, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    Gastrointestinal imaging in pediatrics is very different from its predecessor, gastrointestinal radiology in pediatrics, which was written eight years ago. The second edition is organized by anatomic area with supplemental chapters on special procedures (i.e., angiography, nuclear medicine, computerized axial tomography and ultrasonography). This volume contains 635 pages in contrast to the first edition which consisted of 323 pages. The arrangement of this volume is by anatomic area and not be clinical problem, therefore, the reader should have some background in pediatric radiology in order to find answers to specific questions.

  19. [Congenital gastrointestinal diseases with manifestations in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Rösch, W

    1977-02-03

    A genetic background is discussed in many disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with a disposition in addition to environmental factors. The pathophysiology of most hereditary diseases is unknown although the mode of inheritance is established. Biochemical analysis may show molecular defects or inborn lack of enzymes, cytogenetic studies may reveal chromosomal abnormalities. The knowledge of genetic factors in gastrointestinal disorders may contribute to the early detection of persons afflicted but not yet symptomatic, in some rare syndromes genetic counseling may become mandatory. Finally, there are many congenital malformations which may not cause symptoms for many years so that doubts may arise whether they are developmental anomalies or acquired conditions.

  20. [Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and gastrointestinal hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Abe, Koichiro; Kuyama, Yasushi

    2013-04-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are widely used antidepressants characterized by less-frequent adverse effects compared with classical anti-depressive agents. On the other hand, SSRI can cause hemorrhagic events more due to impaired platelet aggregation induced by a depletion of serotonin in the peripheral platelet. Epidemiological studies have indicated that patients taking SSRI are predisposed to gastrointestinal hemorrhage, especially in case that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed concomitantly. Here we describe a risk of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients taking SSRI.

  1. Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer and Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence that gastroesophageal reflux disease is related to several upper gastrointestinal cancers, mainly the esophageal adenocarcinoma and a certain type of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Currently, the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease is rapidly increasing in Korea. Therefore, there is a possibility of such increasing cancerous incidents, similar to the western worlds. In this article, the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease and several upper gastrointestinal cancers, the components of refluxate which has possible causal relationship with carcinogenesis, and the clinical implications of such relationship in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease patients are discussed through the review of literature. PMID:23844321

  2. The Effects of Temperature Variation on the Sensitivity to Pesticides: a Study on the Slime Mould Dictyostelium discoideum (Protozoa).

    PubMed

    Amaroli, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Slime moulds live in agricultural ecosystems, where they play an important role in the soil fertilization and in the battle against crop pathogens. In an agricultural soil, the amoebae are exposed to different stress factors such as pesticides and weather conditions. The use of pesticides increased up from 0.49 kg per hectare in 1961 to 2 kg in 2004, and the global greenhouse gas emission has grown 70% between 1970 and 2004 leading to a global fluctuation of average surface temperature. Therefore, the European Directive 2009/128/EC has led to a new approach to agriculture, with the transition from an old concept based on high use of pesticides and fossil fuels to an agriculture aware of biodiversity and health issues. We studied the effects of temperature variations and pesticides on Dictyostelium discoideum. We measured the fission rate, the ability to differentiate and the markers of stress such as the activity and presence of pseudocholinesterase and the presence of heat shock protein 70. Our results highlight how the sensitivity to zinc, aluminium, silver, copper, cadmium, mercury, diazinon and dicofol changes for a 2 °C variation from nothing/low to critical. Our work suggests considering, in future regulations, about the use of pesticides as their toxic effect on non-target organisms is strongly influenced by climate temperatures. In addition, there is a need for a new consideration of the protozoa, which takes into account recent researches about the presence in this microorganism of classical neurotransmitters that, similar to those in animals, make protozoa an innocent target of neurotoxic pesticides in the battle against the pest crops.

  3. First molecular characterization of enteric protozoa and the human pathogenic microsporidian, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, in captive snakes in China.

    PubMed

    Karim, Md Robiul; Yu, Fuchang; Li, Jian; Li, Junqiang; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Rume, Farzana Islam; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Sumei; Ning, Changshen

    2014-08-01

    Enteric protozoa are frequently found in snakes. Nevertheless, few studies regarding genetic characterization of these parasites have been carried out. We describe here the first molecular survey of protozoan pathogens from snakes in China and the first report on Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotyping in snakes in the world. Here, 240 fecal specimens were collected from two species of captive snakes, Naja naja (Indian cobra) and Ptyas mucosus (Oriental rat snake), in Guangxi Province, China, and examined by PCR amplification of the small subunit-ribosomal RNA of enteric protozoa and the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal RNA of E. bieneusi. Cryptosporidium serpentis was identified in three specimens (2.1%) of Oriental rat snakes. Caryospora was found in 5.4% specimens, including eight from cobras (8.1%) and five from rat snakes (3.6%), and represented six new species-Caryospora sp. SKC-2014a to Caryospora sp. SKC-2014 f. Three new Eimeria species, Eimeria sp. SKE-2014a to Eimeria sp. SKE-2014c, were detected in three specimens (2.1%) from rat snakes. Additionally, Sarcocystis sp. SKS-2014 was detected in one specimen from a cobra. The infection rates of E. bieneusi were 3.0% in cobras and 5.7% in rat snakes. Sequence analysis of 11 PCR products revealed the presence of six E. bieneusi genotypes-two known genotypes (type IV and Henan V) and four new genotypes (CRep-1 to CRep-4). All six E. bieneusi genotypes belonged to the zoonotic group (group 1). This result raised the possibility that E. bieneusi could be present in animals consumed by snakes. This should be taken into consideration to better understand the diversity of the parasite, its transmission through the predator-prey relationship, and public health implications.

  4. Gastrointestinal nitric oxide generation in germ-free and conventional rats.

    PubMed

    Sobko, Tanja; Reinders, Claudia; Norin, Elisabeth; Midtvedt, Tore; Gustafsson, Lars E; Lundberg, Jon O

    2004-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a central mediator of various physiological events in the gastrointestinal tract. The influence of the intestinal microflora for NO production in the gut is unknown. Bacteria could contribute to this production either by stimulating the mucosa to produce NO, or they could generate NO themselves. Using germ-free and conventional rats, we measured gaseous NO directly in the gastrointestinal tract and from the luminal contents using a chemiluminescence technique. Mucosal NO production was studied by using an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and to evaluate microbial contribution to the NO generation, nitrate was given to the animals. In conventional rats, luminal NO differed profoundly along the gastrointestinal tract with the greatest concentrations in the stomach [>4,000 parts per billion (ppb)] and cecum (approximately 200 ppb) and lower concentrations in the small intestine and colon (< or =20 ppb). Cecal NO correlated with the levels in incubated luminal contents. NOS inhibition lowered NO levels in the colon, without affecting NO in the stomach and in the cecum. Gastric NO increased greatly after a nitrate load, proving it to be a substrate for NO generation. In germ-free rats, NO was low (< or =30 ppb) throughout the gastrointestinal tract and absent in the incubated luminal contents. NO also remained low after a nitrate load. Our results demonstrate a pivotal role of the intestinal microflora in gastrointestinal NO generation. Distinctly compartmentalized qualitative and quantitative NO levels in conventional and germ-free rats reflect complex host microbial cross talks, possibly making NO a regulator of the intestinal eco system.

  5. Oral adverse effects of gastrointestinal drugs and considerations for dental management in patients with gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Karthik, Ramya; Karthik, K. S.; David, Chaya; Ameerunnisa; Keerthi, G.

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is associated with alterations in the mouth or influence the course of the dental diseases, and the dental health care workers are expected to recognize, diagnose, and treat oral conditions associated with gastrointestinal diseases and also provide safe and appropriate dental care for afflicted individuals. Drugs used in the management of these diseases result in oral adverse effects and also are known to interact with those prescribed during dental care. Hence, this article has reviewed the drug considerations and guidelines for drug use during dental management of patients with gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:23066260

  6. Isolated Gastrointestinal Sarcoidosis Involving Multiple Gastrointestinal Sites Presenting as Chronic Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, Bilkisu; Makary, Raafat; Monteiro, Carmela; Eid, Emely

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic and systemic disorder characterized by the formation of non-caseating granulomas. Very few cases of isolated gastrointestinal sarcoidosis have been reported, and even fewer, if any, report gastrointestinal sarcoidosis within multiple gastrointestinal sites concomitantly. We present a 42-year-old white man with chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain for more than 3 years. Mucosal biopsies revealed non-caseating microgranulomas in the stomach, throughout the small intestine, colon, and rectum. Prednisone therapy was initiated with a rapid improvement in symptoms and complete resolution of diarrhea within 3 weeks. PMID:28119949

  7. Environmental factors affecting distribution and abundance of bacteria, fungi and protozoa in subsurface sediments of the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, S.N.; Ghiorse, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Exploratory statistical analyses of microbiological, hydrological and geochemical data for samples from four boreholes drilled into Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments near the Savannah River Site, SC, showed highly significant correlations between bacterial abundance (AODC and CFU) and hydraulic conductivity (K). Sediment texture variables (% sand (S), % silt, % clay (C), and S/C) were strongly interrelated with K and, therefore, also correlated with bacterial abundance. AODC did not correlate with the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) or dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in pore water. CFU also did not correlate with DIN, but a negative relationship was found between the CFU and DOC for sandy sediments, suggesting that microbial activity may control pore water DOC concentration. In some, but not all boreholes, AODC and CFU correlated negatively with pore water concentrations of metals and positively with pH. Protozoan abundance correlated strongly with AODC and CFU in the two boreholes closest to the recharge areas for their major aquifers. It also correlated with sediment texture variables, but not with K. Fungal abundance did not correlate with the abundance of other microbial types when data from individual boreholes were considered; however it did correlate with both bacterial and protozoan abundance when data from all four boreholes were combined. There was no relationship between fungal abundance and either K or sediment texture.

  8. Environmental factors affecting distribution and abundance of bacteria, fungi and protozoa in subsurface sediments of the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, S.N.; Ghiorse, W.C.

    1990-12-31

    Exploratory statistical analyses of microbiological, hydrological and geochemical data for samples from four boreholes drilled into Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments near the Savannah River Site, SC, showed highly significant correlations between bacterial abundance (AODC and CFU) and hydraulic conductivity (K). Sediment texture variables (% sand (S), % silt, % clay (C), and S/C) were strongly interrelated with K and, therefore, also correlated with bacterial abundance. AODC did not correlate with the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) or dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in pore water. CFU also did not correlate with DIN, but a negative relationship was found between the CFU and DOC for sandy sediments, suggesting that microbial activity may control pore water DOC concentration. In some, but not all boreholes, AODC and CFU correlated negatively with pore water concentrations of metals and positively with pH. Protozoan abundance correlated strongly with AODC and CFU in the two boreholes closest to the recharge areas for their major aquifers. It also correlated with sediment texture variables, but not with K. Fungal abundance did not correlate with the abundance of other microbial types when data from individual boreholes were considered; however it did correlate with both bacterial and protozoan abundance when data from all four boreholes were combined. There was no relationship between fungal abundance and either K or sediment texture.

  9. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (BT) TOXIN RELEASED FROM ROOT EXUDATES AND BIOMASS OF BT CORN HAS NO APPARENT EFFECT ON EARTHWORMS, NEMATODES, PROTOZOA, BACTERIA, AND FUNGI IN SOIL. (R826107)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Effects of a ciliate protozoa predator on microbial communities in pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) leaves.

    PubMed

    Paisie, Taylor K; Miller, Thomas E; Mason, Olivia U

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria) community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems.

  11. Do We Know What Causes Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... We Know What Causes Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors? Can Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Be Prevented? Back To Top Imagine a world free from cancer. Help make it a reality. DONATE Cancer Information ...

  12. A rare cause of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding: mesenteric hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Kazimi, Mircelal; Ulas, Murat; Ibis, Cem; Unver, Mutlu; Ozsan, Nazan; Yilmaz, Funda; Ersoz, Galip; Zeytunlu, Murat; Kilic, Murat; Coker, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage accounts for approximately 20% of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The most common causes of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in adults are diverticular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, benign anorectal diseases, intestinal neoplasias, coagulopathies and arterio-venous malformations. Hemangiomas of gastrointestinal tract are rare. Mesenteric hemangiomas are also extremely rare. We present a 25-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency room with recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. An intraluminal bleeding mass inside the small intestinal segment was detected during explorative laparotomy as the cause of the recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. After partial resection of small bowel segment, the histopathologic examination revealed a cavernous hemagioma of mesenteric origin. Although rare, gastrointestinal hemangioma should be thought in differential diagnosis as a cause of recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:19178725

  13. Pediatric functional constipation gastrointestinal symptom profile compared with healthy controls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patient-reported outcomes are necessary to evaluate the gastrointestinal symptom profile of patients with functional constipation. Study objectives were to compare the gastrointestinal symptom profile of pediatric patients with functional constipation with matched healthy controls with the Pediatric...

  14. 77 FR 27072 - Gastrointestinal Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Gastrointestinal Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Gastrointestinal Drugs Advisory Committee scheduled for May 31, 2012, is canceled. This meeting was announced in...

  15. Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract Lower gastrointestinal tract radiography or lower GI ... of Lower GI Tract Radiography? What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? Lower gastrointestinal ( ...

  16. Prebiotic inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides: definition, specificity, function, and application in gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Bridgette; Whelan, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible selectively fermented dietary fibers that specifically promote the growth of one or more bacterial genera in the gastrointestinal tract and thus provide health benefit to the host. The two most investigated prebiotics being the inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides. Prebiotic specificity is mediated through species-specific gene clusters within saccharolytic bacteria controlled by signaling sensors for various substrates. Prebiotic health benefits are attributed to immune regulation and bacterial metabolite production. In humans, prebiotic supplementation leads to increased growth of specific gut microbiota (e.g., bifidobacteria), immune modulation, and depending on the bacterial augmentation, short-chain fatty acid production. Irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease are gastrointestinal disorders associated with reductions in some gut bacteria and greater mucosal inflammation. Prebiotic supplementation studies have shown some promise at low doses for modulation of the gut bacteria and reduction of symptoms in IBS; however, larger doses may have neutral or negative impact on symptoms. Studies in Crohn's disease have not shown benefit to bacterial modulation or inflammatory response with prebiotic supplementation. Dietary restriction of fermentable carbohydrates (low FODMAP diet), which restricts some naturally occurring prebiotics from the diet, has shown efficacy in improving symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome, but it lowers the numbers of some key gut microbiota. Further research is required on the effect of prebiotics in gastrointestinal disorders and, in particular, on their use in conjunction with the low FODMAP diet.

  17. Evaluation of acrylamide-removing properties of two Lactobacillus strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using a dynamic system.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Jimenez, L; Ramírez-Ortiz, K; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Cordoba, B; Garcia, H S; Hernandez-Mendoza, A

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of Lactobacillus reuteri NRRL 14171 and Lactobacillus casei Shirota to remove dietary acrylamide (AA) under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using a dynamic system. The effects of different AA levels or bacteria concentration on toxin removal by Lactobacillus strains were assessed. Thereafter, AA-removing capability of bacteria strains under either fasting or postprandial simulated gastrointestinal conditions was evaluated. Commercial potato chips were analyzed for their AA content, and then used as a food model. Average AA content (34,162μg/kg) in potato chips exceeded by ca. 34-fold the indicative values recommended by the EU. Toxin removal ability was dependent on AA content and bacterial cell concentration. A reduction on bacterial viability was observed in the food model and at the end of both digestive processes evaluated. However, bacteria survived in enough concentrations to remove part of the toxin (32-73%). Both bacterial strains were able to remove AA under different simulated gastrointestinal conditions, being L. casei Shirota the most effective (ca. 70% removal). These findings confirmed the risk of potato chips as dietary AA exposure for consumers, and that strains of the genus Lactobacillus could be employed to reduce the bioavailability of dietary AA.

  18. Inactivation of biofilm bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    LeChevallier, M W; Cawthon, C D; Lee, R G

    1988-01-01

    The current project was developed to examine inactivation of biofilm bacteria and to characterize the interaction of biocides with pipe surfaces. Unattached bacteria were quite susceptible to the variety of disinfectants tested. Viable bacterial counts were reduced 99% by exposure to 0.08 mg of hypochlorous acid (pH 7.0) per liter (1 to 2 degrees C) for 1 min. For monochloramine, 94 mg/liter was required to kill 99% of the bacteria within 1 min. These results were consistent with those found by other investigators. Biofilm bacteria grown on the surfaces of granular activated carbon particles, metal coupons, or glass microscope slides were 150 to more than 3,000 times more resistant to hypochlorous acid (free chlorine, pH 7.0) than were unattached cells. In contrast, resistance of biofilm bacteria to monochloramine disinfection ranged from 2- to 100-fold more than that of unattached cells. The results suggested that, relative to inactivation of unattached bacteria, monochloramine was better able to penetrate and kill biofilm bacteria than free chlorine. For free chlorine, the data indicated that transport of the disinfectant into the biofilm was a major rate-limiting factor. Because of this phenomenon, increasing the level of free chlorine did not increase disinfection efficiency. Experiments where equal weights of disinfectants were used suggested that the greater penetrating power of monochloramine compensated for its limited disinfection activity. These studies showed that monochloramine was as effective as free chlorine for inactivation of biofilm bacteria. The research provides important insights into strategies for control of biofilm bacteria. Images PMID:2849380

  19. Assessing upper gastrointestinal bleeding in adults.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Gabrielle; Kruger, Danielle

    2014-09-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a potentially life-threatening condition requiring accurate, prompt, and appropriate patient evaluation and management. Clinicians of all specialties must know the best practices for preventing and managing upper GI bleeding. This article focuses on assessing and managing adults with acute nonvariceal upper GI bleeding.

  20. Sleep, immunity and inflammation in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Tauseef; Choe, James; Awab, Ahmed; Wagener, Theodore L; Orr, William C

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. Several research studies support the associations among sleep, immune function and inflammation. Here, we review the current research linking sleep, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases and discuss the interdependent relationship between sleep and these gastrointestinal disorders. Different physiologic processes including immune system and inflammatory cytokines help regulate the sleep. The inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 have been shown to be a significant contributor of sleep disturbances. On the other hand, sleep disturbances such as sleep deprivation have been shown to up regulate these inflammatory cytokines. Alterations in these cytokine levels have been demonstrated in certain gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, gastro-esophageal reflux, liver disorders and colorectal cancer. In turn, abnormal sleep brought on by these diseases is shown to contribute to the severity of these same gastrointestinal diseases. Knowledge of these relationships will allow gastroenterologists a great opportunity to enhance the care of their patients. PMID:24409051