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Sample records for gastrointestinal tract germinal

  1. Evaluation of germination, distribution, and persistence of Bacillus subtilis spores through the gastrointestinal tract of chickens.

    PubMed

    Latorre, J D; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Kallapura, G; Menconi, A; Pumford, N R; Morgan, M J; Layton, S L; Bielke, L R; Hargis, B M; Téllez, G

    2014-07-01

    Spores are popular as direct-fed microbials, though little is known about their mode of action. Hence, the first objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro germination and growth rate of Bacillus subtilis spores. Approximately 90% of B. subtilis spores germinate within 60 min in the presence of feed in vitro. The second objective was to determine the distribution of these spores throughout different anatomical segments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in a chicken model. For in vivo evaluation of persistence and dissemination, spores were administered to day-of-hatch broiler chicks either as a single gavage dose or constantly in the feed. During 2 independent experiments, chicks were housed in isolation chambers and fed sterile corn-soy-based diets. In these experiments one group of chickens was supplemented with 10(6) spores/g of feed, whereas a second group was gavaged with a single dose of 10(6) spores per chick on day of hatch. In both experiments, crop, ileum, and cecae were sampled from 5 chicks at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Viable B. subtilis spores were determined by plate count method after heat treatment (75°C for 10 min). The number of recovered spores was constant through 120 h in each of the enteric regions from chickens receiving spores supplemented in the feed. However, the number of recovered B. subtilis spores was consistently about 10(5) spores per gram of digesta, which is about a 1-log10 reduction of the feed inclusion rate, suggesting approximately a 90% germination rate in the GIT when fed. On the other hand, recovered B. subtilis spores from chicks that received a single gavage dose decreased with time, with only approximately 10(2) spores per gram of sample by 120 h. This confirms that B. subtilis spores are transiently present in the GIT of chickens, but the persistence of vegetative cells is presently unknown. For persistent benefit, continuous administration of effective B. subtilis direct-fed microbials as vegetative

  2. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... X-ray? What is Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Radiography? Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called an upper ...

  3. Changes to the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    This article explores changes in the ageing gastrointestinal tract, including: » Diminished sense of taste and smell. » Shrinking of the maxillary and mandibular bones in the jaw. » Slowing of oesophageal peristalsis giving a feeling that something is 'stuck in the throat'. » Relaxation of the lower sphincter leading to gastro-oesophageal reflux. » Reduction in gastric bicarbonate and prostaglandin in mucus increasing susceptibility to stomach ulcers. » Changes in villi in the small intestine reducing the area for absorption. » Overpopulation of bacteria in the small intestine leading to decreased absorption of folic acid and minerals. PMID:27573953

  4. ARTERIAL EPONYMS IN GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.

    PubMed

    Kutia, S A; Kiselev, V V; Lyashchenko, O I

    2015-01-01

    Eponym--name of the disease, certain structure or method after the person who usually first discovered and described them. Eponyms are widely spread in medicine which appeared to be in the area of a great interest for a lot of scientists. They can serve as a reflection of the evolution of the medical knowledge and making up the majority of anatomical terms. The article describes 12 arterial eponyms of the gastrointestinal tract giving a full anatomical description. It also gives an explanation of why and how those structures were named after certain scientists and what contribution they've made into the development of medicine. PMID:26817114

  5. Changes to the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    This article explores changes in the ageing gastrointestinal tract, including: » Diminished sense of taste and smell. » Shrinking of the maxillary and mandibular bones in the jaw. » Slowing of oesophageal peristalsis giving a feeling that something is 'stuck in the throat'. » Relaxation of the lower sphincter leading to gastro-oesophageal reflux. » Reduction in gastric bicarbonate and prostaglandin in mucus increasing susceptibility to stomach ulcers. » Changes in villi in the small intestine reducing the area for absorption. » Overpopulation of bacteria in the small intestine leading to decreased absorption of folic acid and minerals.

  6. Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract Lower gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... Radiography? What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? Lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract radiography, also ...

  7. [Metagenomics in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism].

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Yang, Yunjuan; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Mu, Yuelin; Huang, Zunxi

    2013-12-01

    Animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host. The gut microbial community of humans and animals has received significant attention from researchers because of its association with health and disease. The application of metagenomics technology enables researchers to study not only the microbial composition but also the function of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. In this paper, combined with our own findings, we summarized advances in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism with metagenomics and the bioinformatics technology.

  8. Somatostatin receptors in the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Reubi, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    The multiple actions of somatostatin are mediated by specific membrane-bound receptors present in all somatostatin target tissues, such as brain, pituitary, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract. Three different types of tissues in the human gastrointestinal tract express somatostatin receptors: (1) the gastrointestinal mucosa, (2) the peripheral nervous system, and (3) the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, where the receptors are preferentially located in germinal centers. In all these cases, somatostatin binding is of high affinity and specific for bioactive somatostatin analogs. Somatostatin receptors are also expressed in pathological states, particularly in neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Ninety percent of the carcinoids and a majority of islet-cell carcinomas, including their metastases, usually have a high density of somatostatin receptors. Only 10 percent of the colorectal carcinomas and none of the exocrine pancreatic carcinomas, however, contain somatostatin receptors. The somatostatin receptors in tumors are identified with in vitro binding methods or with in vivo imaging techniques; the latter allow the precise localization of the tumors and their metastases in the patients. Since somatostatin receptors in gastroenteropancreatic tumors are functional, their identification can be used to assess the therapeutic efficacy of octreotide to inhibit excessive hormone release in the patients. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1340064

  9. Functional lumen imaging of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lottrup, Christian; Gregersen, Hans; Liao, Donghua; Fynne, Lotte; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Krogh, Klaus; Regan, Julie; Kunwald, Peter; McMahon, Barry P

    2015-10-01

    This nonsystematic review aims to describe recent developments in the use of functional lumen imaging in the gastrointestinal tract stimulated by the introduction of the functional lumen imaging probe. When ingested food in liquid and solid form is transported along the gastrointestinal tract, sphincters provide an important role in the flow and control of these contents. Inadequate function of sphincters is the basis of many gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, traditional methods of sphincter diagnosis and measurement such as fluoroscopy, manometry, and the barostat are limited in what they can tell us. It has long been thought that measurement of sphincter function through resistance to distension is a better approach, now more commonly known as distensibility testing. The functional lumen imaging probe is the first medical measurement device that purports in a practical way to provide geometric profiling and measurement of distensibility in sphincters. With use of impedance planimetry, an axial series of cross-sectional areas and pressure in a catheter-mounted allantoid bag are used for the calculation of distensibility parameters. The technique has been trialed in many valvular areas of the gastrointestinal tract, including the upper esophageal sphincter, the esophagogastric junction, and the anorectal region. It has shown potential in the biomechanical assessment of sphincter function and characterization of swallowing disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, achalasia, and fecal incontinence. From this early work, the functional lumen imaging technique has the potential to contribute to a better and more physiological understanding of narrowing regions in the gastrointestinal tract in general and sphincters in particular. PMID:25980822

  10. Gastrointestinal tract modelling in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Dong-Hua; Zhao, Jing-Bo; Gregersen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the system of organs within multi-cellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. The various patterns of GI tract function are generated by the integrated behaviour of multiple tissues and cell types. A thorough study of the GI tract requires understanding of the interactions between cells, tissues and gastrointestinal organs in health and disease. This depends on knowledge, not only of numerous cellular ionic current mechanisms and signal transduction pathways, but also of large scale GI tissue structures and the special distribution of the nervous network. A unique way of coping with this explosion in complexity is mathematical and computational modelling; providing a computational framework for the multilevel modelling and simulation of the human gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of biomechanical modelling work of the GI tract in humans and animals, which can be further used to integrate the physiological, anatomical and medical knowledge of the GI system. Such modelling will aid research and ensure that medical professionals benefit, through the provision of relevant and precise information about the patient’s condition and GI remodelling in animal disease models. It will also improve the accuracy and efficiency of medical procedures, which could result in reduced cost for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19132766

  11. Reconstruction and Visualization of Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Rong-guo; Guo, Xu-dong; Xu, Changqing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Converting the two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional photographs into an intuitive three-dimensional (3D) model is a basic task for medical imaging data for auxiliary disease-linked diagnosis purpose. Methods: Reconstruction and visualization process of gastrointestinal cross-sectional photographs includes image preparation, image registration, image segmentation, 3D surface-rendering reconstruction, and implementation of 3D digital visualization. Results: Using the visualization toolkit (VTK), we implemented 3D digital reconstruction and visualization of gastrointestinal tract, whose visualized model can be zoomed, paned, and rotated, including the stomach, the small intestine, and the large intestine. PMID:23675253

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The current literature regarding the effects of the gaseous signal molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the gastrointestinal system is reviewed. Bacterial, host and pharmaceutical-derived H2S are all considered and presented according to the physiological or pathophysiological effects of the gaseous signal molecule. These subjects include the toxicology of intestinal H2S with emphasis on bacterial-derived H2S, especially from sulfate-reducing bacteria, the role of endogenous and exogenous H2S in intestinal inflammation, and the roles of H2S in gastrointestinal motility, secretion and nociception. Recent Advances: While its pro- and anti-inflammatory, smooth muscle relaxant, prosecretory, and pro- and antinociceptive actions continue to remain the major effects of H2S in this system; recent findings have expanded the potential molecular targets for H2S in the gastrointestinal tract. Critical Issues: Numerous discrepancies remain in the literature, and definitive molecular targets in this system have not been supported by the use of competitive antagonism. Future Directions: Future work will hopefully resolve discrepancies in the literature and identify molecular targets and mechanisms of action for H2S. It is clear from the current literature that the long-appreciated relationship between H2S and the gastrointestinal tract continues to be strong as we endeavor to unravel its mysteries. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 818–830. PMID:23582008

  13. Abdominal ultrasonography of the pediatric gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Heather I; Gee, Michael S; Westra, Sjirk J; Nimkin, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology. Ultrasound of the bowel in children is typically a targeted exam; common indications include evaluation for appendicitis, pyloric stenosis and intussusception. Bowel abnormalities that are detected prenatally can be evaluated after birth with ultrasound. Likewise, acquired conditions such as bowel hematoma, bowel infections and hernias can be detected with ultrasound. Rare bowel neoplasms, vascular disorders and foreign bodies may first be detected with sonography, as well. At some centers, comprehensive exams of the gastrointestinal tract are performed on children with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease to evaluate for disease activity or to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review up-to-date imaging techniques, normal sonographic anatomy, and characteristic sonographic features of common and uncommon disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27551336

  14. Abdominal ultrasonography of the pediatric gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gale, Heather I; Gee, Michael S; Westra, Sjirk J; Nimkin, Katherine

    2016-07-28

    Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology. Ultrasound of the bowel in children is typically a targeted exam; common indications include evaluation for appendicitis, pyloric stenosis and intussusception. Bowel abnormalities that are detected prenatally can be evaluated after birth with ultrasound. Likewise, acquired conditions such as bowel hematoma, bowel infections and hernias can be detected with ultrasound. Rare bowel neoplasms, vascular disorders and foreign bodies may first be detected with sonography, as well. At some centers, comprehensive exams of the gastrointestinal tract are performed on children with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease to evaluate for disease activity or to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review up-to-date imaging techniques, normal sonographic anatomy, and characteristic sonographic features of common and uncommon disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27551336

  15. Microbes and the developing gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Neu, Josef; Douglas-Escobar, Martha; Lopez, Mariela

    2007-04-01

    During the course of mammalian evolution, there has been a close relationship between microbes residing in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the mammalian host. Although the host provides the microbes with a warm environment and nutrients, they, in turn, undergo various metabolic processes that aid the host. The host has developed weapons against microbes that are considered foreign, as well as mechanisms to tolerate and live synergistically with most of the microbes in the GI tract. This relationship is proving to be important not only in the neonatal period and during infancy, but it is becoming increasingly evident that microbial colonization in early life may affect the individual's health throughout life. Here we will review this relationship in terms of health and disease, with a focus on the aspects of this relationship during maturation of the host. PMID:17374791

  16. Gastrointestinal Tract Perforation in the Newborn and Child: Imaging Assessment.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Gary R; Davis, Joseph T; Lee, Edward Y

    2016-02-01

    Gastrointestinal tract perforation can arise from various underlying etiologies ranging from congenital causes to ingested foreign bodies in the pediatric patient population. Imaging assessment in patients with suspected gastrointestinal tract perforation plays a central role in making the diagnosis and follow-up evaluation. This article reviews the more common etiologies of gastrointestinal tract perforation in pediatric patients, their imaging manifestations, and strategies for imaging assessment to assist the radiologist in arriving at a timely and accurate diagnosis. PMID:26827739

  17. Botulinum Toxin and Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Kirsten; Kennedy, Abigail

    2008-01-01

    The history of botulinum toxin is fascinating. First recognized as the cause of botulism nearly 200 years ago, it was originally feared as a deadly poison. Over the last 30 years, however, botulinum toxin has been transformed into a readily available medication used to treat a variety of medical disorders. Interest in the use of botulinum toxin has been particularly strong for patients with spastic smooth muscle disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients with achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, gastroparesis, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and anal fissures have all been treated with botulinum toxin injections, often with impressive results. However, not all patients respond to botulinum toxin therapy, and large randomized controlled trials are lacking for many conditions commonly treated with botulinum toxin. This paper reviews the history, microbiology, and pharmacology of botulinum toxin, discusses its mechanism of action, and then presents recent evidence from the literature regarding the use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of a variety of gastrointestinal tract disorders. PMID:21960915

  18. Leukaemic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Cornes, J. S.; Jones, T. Gwynfor; Fisher, Gloria B.

    1962-01-01

    This study is based on the clinical records and post-mortem findings of 264 patients with leukaemia. Gross leukaemic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract were found in 39 patients, an overall incidence of 14·8%. The incidence in all types of acute leukaemia was 18·4%, in chronic leukaemias 9·6%, and in myeloid leukaemia 10·9%. The ileum, stomach, and proximal colon were the sites most commonly affected. Four types of lesion were found: raised leukaemic nodules, leukaemic plaques, diffuse infiltrations with a convoluted brain-like appearance of the mucosal folds, and a multiple leukaemic polyposis. The clinical and pathological features of these lesions are described, and references are given to similar cases reported in the literature. Images PMID:13881389

  19. Abdominal tuberculosis of the gastrointestinal tract: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Debi, Uma; Ravisankar, Vasudevan; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis is an increasingly common disease that poses diagnostic challenge, as the nonspecific features of the disease which may lead to diagnostic delays and development of complications. This condition is regarded as a great mimicker of other abdominal pathology. A high index of suspicion is an important factor in early diagnosis. Abdominal involvement may occur in the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lymphnodes or solid viscera. Various investigative methods have been used to aid in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and initiation of antituberculous therapy and surgical treatment are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality. Most of the patients respond very well to standard antitubercular therapy and surgery is required only in a minority of cases. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis because early recognition of this condition is important. We reviewed our experience with the findings on various imaging modalities for diagnosis of this potentially treatable disease. PMID:25356043

  20. Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, S.; Hughes, T.; Boettcher, T.; Barman, R.; Langer, R.; Swiston, A.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable, real-time heart and respiratory rates are key vital signs used in evaluating the physiological status in many clinical and non-clinical settings. Measuring these vital signs generally requires superficial attachment of physically or logistically obtrusive sensors to subjects that may result in skin irritation or adversely influence subject performance. Given the broad acceptance of ingestible electronics, we developed an approach that enables vital sign monitoring internally from the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report initial proof-of-concept large animal (porcine) experiments and a robust processing algorithm that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Implementing vital sign monitoring as a stand-alone technology or in conjunction with other ingestible devices has the capacity to significantly aid telemedicine, optimize performance monitoring of athletes, military service members, and first-responders, as well as provide a facile method for rapid clinical evaluation and triage. PMID:26580216

  1. Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Traverso, G; Ciccarelli, G; Schwartz, S; Hughes, T; Boettcher, T; Barman, R; Langer, R; Swiston, A

    2015-01-01

    Reliable, real-time heart and respiratory rates are key vital signs used in evaluating the physiological status in many clinical and non-clinical settings. Measuring these vital signs generally requires superficial attachment of physically or logistically obtrusive sensors to subjects that may result in skin irritation or adversely influence subject performance. Given the broad acceptance of ingestible electronics, we developed an approach that enables vital sign monitoring internally from the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report initial proof-of-concept large animal (porcine) experiments and a robust processing algorithm that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Implementing vital sign monitoring as a stand-alone technology or in conjunction with other ingestible devices has the capacity to significantly aid telemedicine, optimize performance monitoring of athletes, military service members, and first-responders, as well as provide a facile method for rapid clinical evaluation and triage.

  2. Congenital diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lentze, M

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in knowledge on the genetic origin of diseases within the gastrointestinal tract the number of congenital diseases, which already manifest during childhood have drastically increased. Due to the large application of molecular genetics the number is steadily increasing. To make the access to these rare diseases fast and efficient the data base of the National Library of Medicine (Online Mendelian Inheritance of Man - OMIN) is a very helpful online tool, with which all these disease entities can be found easily (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim). Detailed tables are given to find most of the congenitally inherited disease, which affect the gastrointestinal tract. A variety of congenital diarrheas with disturbances of digestion, hydrolysis, absorption and secretion is described in detail: lactose intolerance, sucrose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption, fructose malabsorption, trehalase and enterokinase deficiency, congenital chloride and sodium diarrhea, congenital hypomagnesaemia, primary bile acid malabsorption, acrodermatitis enteropathica and Menke's syndrome. Also described in detail are diseases with structural anomalies of the intestine like microvillous inclusion disease, congenital tufting enteropathy and IPEX syndrome. The diagnosis in the disturbances of carbohydrate hydrolysis or absorption can be established by H2-breath tests after appropriate sugar challenge. Treatment consists of elimination of the responsible sugar from the diet. The diagnosis of the congenital secretory diarrheas is established by investigation of electrolytes in blood and stool. Substitution of high doses of the responsible mineral can improve the clinical outcome. In acrodermatitis enteropathica low serum zinc level together with the typical skin lesions guide to the diagnosis. High doses of oral zinc aspartate can cure the symptoms of the disease. The diagnosis of structural congenital lesions of the intestine can be established by histology and

  3. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt perforations of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Thiong'o, Grace Muthoni; Luzzio, Christopher; Albright, A Leland

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT The purposes of this study were to evaluate the frequency with which children presented with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt perforations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, to determine the type of shunts that caused the perforations, and to compare the stiffness of perforating catheters with the stiffness of catheters from other manufacturers. METHODS Medical records were reviewed of 197 children who were admitted with VP shunt malfunction. Catheter stiffness was evaluated by measuring relative resistance to cross-sectional compression, resistance to column buckling, and elasticity in longitudinal bending. Catheter frictional force was measured per unit length. RESULTS Six children were identified whose VP shunts had perforated the GI tract; 2 shunts subsequently protruded through the anal orifice, 1 protruded through the oral cavity, and 3 presented with subcutaneous abscesses that tracked upward from the intestine to the chest. All perforating shunts were Chhabra shunts. Catheter stiffness and resistance to bending were greatest with a Medtronic shunt catheter, intermediate with a Codman catheter, and least with a Chhabra catheter. Frictional force was greatest with a Chhabra catheter and least with a Medtronic catheter. CONCLUSIONS The frequency of perforations by Chhabra shunts appears to be higher than the frequency associated with other shunts. The increased frequency does not correlate with their stiffness but may reflect their greater frictional forces.

  4. Transversal mixing in the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainchtein, Dmitri; Orthey, Perry; Parkman, Henry

    2015-11-01

    We discuss results of numerical simulations and analytical modeling of transversal intraluminal mixing in the GI tract produced by segmentation and peristaltic contractions. Particles that start in different parts of the small intestine are traced over several contractions and mixing is described using the particles' probability distribution function. We show that there is optimal set of parameters of contractions, such as the depth and frequency, that produces the most efficient mixing. We show that contractions create well-defined advection patterns in transversal direction. The research is inspired by several applications. First, there is the study of bacteria populating the walls of the intestine, which rely on fluid mixing for nutrients. Second, there are gastrointestinal diseases, such as Crohn's disease, which can be treated effectively using a drug delivery capsule through GI tract, for which it is needed to know how long it takes for a released drug to reach the intestinal wall. And finally, certain neurological and muscular deceases change the parameters of contractions, thus reducing the efficiency of mixing. Understanding an admissible range of the parameters (when mixing is still sufficient for biological purposes) may indicate when the medical action is required.

  5. A probabilistic gastrointestinal tract dosimetry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Chulhaeng

    In internal dosimetry, the tissues of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract represent one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body with the hematopoietic bone marrow. Endoscopic ultrasound is a unique tool to acquire in-vivo data on GI tract wall thicknesses of sufficient resolution needed in radiation dosimetry studies. Through their different echo texture and intensity, five layers of differing echo patterns for superficial mucosa, deep mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria and serosa exist within the walls of organs composing the alimentary tract. Thicknesses for stomach mucosa ranged from 620 +/- 150 mum to 1320 +/- 80 mum (total stomach wall thicknesses from 2.56 +/- 0.12 to 4.12 +/- 0.11 mm). Measurements made for the rectal images revealed rectal mucosal thicknesses from 150 +/- 90 mum to 670 +/- 110 mum (total rectal wall thicknesses from 2.01 +/- 0.06 to 3.35 +/- 0.46 mm). The mucosa thus accounted for 28 +/- 3% and 16 +/- 6% of the total thickness of the stomach and rectal wall, respectively. Radiation transport simulations were then performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP) 4C transport code to calculate S values (Gy/Bq-s) for penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations such as photons, beta particles, conversion electrons and auger electrons of selected nuclides, I123, I131, Tc 99m and Y90 under two source conditions: content and mucosa sources, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate generally good agreement with published data for the stomach mucosa wall. The rectal mucosa data are consistently higher than published data compared with the large intestine due to different radiosensitive cell thicknesses (350 mum vs. a range spanning from 149 mum to 729 mum) and different geometry when a rectal content source is considered. Generally, the ICRP models have been designed to predict the amount of radiation dose in the human body from a "typical" or "reference" individual in a given population. The study has been performed to

  6. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-12-01

    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones.

  7. Sonographic investigations of the gastrointestinal tract of granivorous birds.

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Stahl, Anja; Pees, Michael; Enders, Frank; Bartels, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the sonographic examination of the normal gastrointestinal tract of granivorous birds. Preliminary tests with dead birds were performed to get an idea of the sonographic echotexture of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Later, clinically healthy seedeaters of different weights were examined sonographically. As equipment a convex microcurved scanner with a particularly small coupling surface and an adjustable frequency from 5.5-7.5 MHz was used. For the investigation of the gastrointestinal tract, six sonographic approaches are described. After a starving time of 18 hours in the granivorous birds and water input, the best sonographic image quality could be obtained. Using this method, the crop, ventriculus, intestines, and cloaca could be demonstrated sonographically; whereas, it was not possible to visualize the normal proventriculus in granivorous birds. In contrast to mammals, the different layers of the wall of the gastrointestinal tract could not be visualized with the equipment used. Motility of individual parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), however, could be well demonstrated.

  8. Role of melatonin in upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Konturek, S J; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Bubenik, G A

    2007-12-01

    Melatonin, an indole formed enzymatically from L-tryptophan, is the most versatile and ubiquitous hormone molecule produced not only in all animals but also in some plants. This review focuses on the role of melatonin in upper portion of gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including oral cavity, esophagus, stomach and duodenum, where this indole is generated and released into the GIT lumen and into the portal circulation to be uptaken, metabolized by liver and released with bile into the duodenum. The biosynthetic steps of melatonin with two major rate limiting enzymes, arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), transforming tryptophan to melatonin, originally identified in pinealocytes have been also detected in entero-endocrine (EE) cells of GIT wall, where this indole may act via endocrine, paracrine and/or luminal pathway through G-protein coupled receptors. Melatonin in GIT was shown to be generated in about 500 times larger amounts than it is produced in pineal gland. The production of melatonin by pineal gland shows circadian rhythm with high night-time peak, especially at younger age, followed by the fall during the day-light time. As a highly lipophilic substance, melatonin reaches all body cells within minutes, to serve as a convenient circadian timing signal for alteration of numerous body functions.. Following pinealectomy, the light/dark cycle of plasma melatonin levels disappears, while its day-time blood concentrations are attenuated but sustained mainly due to its release from the GIT. After oral application of tryptophan, the plasma melatonin increases in dose-dependent manner both in intact and pinealectomized animals, indicating that extrapineal sources such as GIT rather than pineal gland are the major producers of this indole. In the upper portion of GIT, melatonin exhibits a wide spectrum of activities such as circadian entrainment, free radicals scavenging activity, protection of mucosa against

  9. The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Yeoman, Carl J; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel D; White, Bryan A

    2012-06-01

    The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry.

  10. Stenting of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Sabharwal, Tarun Adam, Andreas

    2010-08-15

    Minimally invasive image-guided insertion of self-expanding metal stents in the upper gastrointestinal tract is the current treatment of choice for palliation of malignant esophageal or gastroduodenal outlet obstructions. A concise review is presented of contemporary stenting practice of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the procedures in terms of appropriate patient evaluation, indications, and contraindications for treatment are analyzed, along with available stent designs, procedural steps, clinical outcomes, inadvertent complications, and future technology. Latest developments include biodegradable polymeric stents for benign disease and radioactive or drug-eluting stents for malignant obstructions.

  11. Abdomen: Retroperitoneum, peritoneum, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    In this book the author explores aspiration biopsy as it can be applied to lesions of the retroperitoneum, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, peritoneum, and adrenal gland. With experience from two different institutions - one an acute general care hospital, the other a cancer referral center - Dr. Suen has achieved in creating a text that reflects a wide range of experience. Throughout the work, Dr. Suen stresses pattern recognition of cytologic material. And a chapter on unusual and interesting lesions is included. Contents: Introduction and General Considerations; Abdomen Imaging Techniques; Clinical Relevance; Indentification of Normal ABC; retroperitoneum; Gastrointestinal Tract; Kidney; Adrenal Gland; Unusual Lesions; Immunocytochemistry and Electron Microscopy; Index.

  12. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Neville, B Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form. The influence of each of these factors on C. albicans carriage is considered herein, with particular focus on the mycobiota and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C. albicans carriage.

  13. Dynamics and establishment of Clostridium difficile infection in the murine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Koenigsknecht, Mark J; Theriot, Casey M; Bergin, Ingrid L; Schumacher, Cassie A; Schloss, Patrick D; Young, Vincent B

    2015-03-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) following antibiotic therapy is a major public health threat. While antibiotic disruption of the indigenous microbiota underlies the majority of cases of CDI, the early dynamics of infection in the disturbed intestinal ecosystem are poorly characterized. This study defines the dynamics of infection with C. difficile strain VPI 10463 throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract using a murine model of infection. After inducing susceptibility to C. difficile colonization via antibiotic administration, we followed the dynamics of spore germination, colonization, sporulation, toxin activity, and disease progression throughout the GI tract. C. difficile spores were able to germinate within 6 h postchallenge, resulting in the establishment of vegetative bacteria in the distal GI tract. Spores and cytotoxin activity were detected by 24 h postchallenge, and histopathologic colitis developed by 30 h. Within 36 h, all infected mice succumbed to infection. We correlated the establishment of infection with changes in the microbiota and bile acid profile of the small and large intestines. Antibiotic administration resulted in significant changes to the microbiota in the small and large intestines, as well as a significant shift in the abundance of primary and secondary bile acids. Ex vivo analysis suggested the small intestine as the site of spore germination. This study provides an integrated understanding of the timing and location of the events surrounding C. difficile colonization and identifies potential targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  14. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Although the gut contains most of the body’s 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), many of its most important functions have recently been discovered. This review summarizes and directs attention to this new burst of knowledge. Recent findings Enteroendocrine cells have classically been regarded as pressure sensors, which secrete 5-HT to initiate peristaltic reflexes; nevertheless, recent data obtained from studies of mice that selectively lack 5-HT either in enterochromaffin cells (deletion of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 knockout; TPH1KO) or neurons (TPH2KO) imply that neuronal 5-HT is more important for constitutive gastrointestinal transit than that of enteroendocrine cells. The enteric nervous system of TPH2KO mice, however, also lacks a full complement of neurons; therefore, it is not clear whether slow transit in TPH2KO animals is due to their neuronal deficiency or absence of serotonergic neurotransmission. Neuronal 5-HT promotes the growth/maintenance of the mucosa as well as neurogenesis. Enteroendocrine cell derived 5-HT is an essential component of the gastrointestinal inflammatory response; thus, deletion of the serotonin transporter increases, whereas TPH1KO decreases the severity of intestinal inflammation. Enteroendocrine cell derived 5-HT, moreover, is also a hormone, which inhibits osteoblast proliferation and promotes hepatic regeneration. Summary New studies show that enteric 5-HT is a polyfunctional signalling molecule, acting both in developing and mature animals as a neurotransmitter paracrine factor, endocrine hormone and growth factor. PMID:23222853

  15. Notch signaling in gastrointestinal tract (review).

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2007-01-01

    Notch signaling is one of key pathways constituting the stem cell signaling network. DLL1, DLL3, DLL4, JAG1 and JAG2 with DSL domain are typical Notch ligands, while DNER, F3/Contactin and NB-3 without DSL domain are atypical Notch ligands. Notch-ligand binding to NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3 or NOTCH4 receptor induces the receptor proteolysis by metalloprotease and gamma-secretase to release Notch intracellular domain (NICD). Typical Notch ligands transduce signals to the CSL-NICD-Mastermind complex for the maintenance of stem or progenitor (transit-amplifying) cells through transcriptional activation of HES1, HES5, HES7, HEY1, HEY2 and HEYL genes, and also to the NF-kappaB-NICD complex for the augmentation of NF-kappaB signaling. Atypical Notch ligands transduce signals to the CSL-NICD-Deltex complex for the differentiation of progenitor cells through MAG transcriptional activation. Notch signals are transduced to the canonical pathway (CSL-NICD-Mastermind signaling cascade) or the non-canonical pathway (NF-kappaB-NICD and CSL-NICD-Deltex signaling cascades) based on the expression profile of Notch ligands, Notch receptors, and Notch signaling modifiers. Canonical Notch signaling is activated in the stem or progenitor domain of gastrointestinal epithelium, such as basal layer in esophagus and lower part of the crypt in colon. Notch signaling to inhibit secretory cell differentiation is oncogenic in gastric cancer and colorectal cancer, while Notch signaling to promote keratinocyte differentiation is anti-oncogenic in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), epigenetic change, and genetic alteration of genes encoding Notch signaling-associated molecules will be utilized as biomarkers for gastrointestinal cancer. gamma-Secretase inhibitors, functioning as Notch signaling inhibitors, will be applied as anti-cancer drugs for gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.

  16. The use of optical imaging techniques in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Beg, Sabina; Wilson, Ana; Ragunath, Krish

    2016-01-01

    With significant advances in the management of gastrointestinal disease there has been a move from diagnosing advanced pathology, to detecting early lesions that are potentially amenable to curative endoscopic treatment. This has required an improvement in diagnostics, with a focus on identifying and characterising subtle mucosal changes. There is great interest in the use of optical technologies to predict histology and enable the formulation of a real-time in vivo diagnosis, a so-called ‘optical biopsy’. The aim of this review is to explore the evidence for the use of the current commercially available imaging techniques in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27429735

  17. Changes in gastrointestinal tract function and structure in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Vanheel, Hanne; Farré, Ricard

    2013-03-01

    Functional dyspepsia is an extremely common disorder of gastrointestinal function. The disorder is thought to be heterogeneous, with different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying varied symptom patterns. A diversity of changes in gastrointestinal tract function and structure has been described in functional dyspepsia. These involve alterations in the stomach, such as impaired accommodation, delayed gastric emptying and hypersensitivity, and alterations in the duodenum, such as increased sensitivity to duodenal acid and/or lipids and low-grade inflammation. In this Review, we summarize all these abnormalities in an attempt to provide an integrated overview of the pathophysiological mechanisms in functional dyspepsia. PMID:23318268

  18. Whole-mount immunostaining of the adult Drosophila gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Micchelli, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors an essential barrier epithelium that separates an organism from its changing external environment. As such, the gut epithelium is a fascinating nexus of stem cell biology, immunology and physiology. Investigators have sought to mine this rich interface for new biological and mechanistic insights. Many of the powerful genetic approaches developed in Drosophila have proven effective in the study of the gut. The goal of this article is to present a method for dissecting, immunostaining and mounting samples of the adult Drosophila GI tract. This protocol combines readily with techniques to label cell lineages and/or challenge the system with environmental perturbations, which are briefly discussed. PMID:24680702

  19. Chewing gum bezoars of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Milov, D E; Andres, J M; Erhart, N A; Bailey, D J

    1998-08-01

    Children have chewed gum since the Stone Age. Black lumps of prehistoric tar with human tooth impressions have been found in Northern Europe dating from approximately 7000 BC (Middle Stone Age) to 2000 BC (Bronze Age). The bite impressions suggest that most chewers were between 6 and 15 years of age. The Greeks chewed resin from the mastic tree (mastic gum). North American Indians chewed spruce gum. The first manufacturing patent for chewing gum was issued in 1869 for a natural gum, chicle, derived from the Sopadilla tree, indigenous to Central America. Chewing gum sold today is a mixture of natural and synthetic gums and resins, with added color and flavor sweetened with corn syrup and sugar. Chewing gum is big business. A significant amount of the $21 billion US candy industry sales is from chewing gums, many of which appeal almost exclusively to children. Despite the history and prevalence of gum chewing, the medical literature contains very little information about the adverse effects of chewing gum. In the present report, we briefly review gum-chewing complications and describe three children who developed intestinal tract and esophageal obstruction as a consequence of swallowing gum. PMID:9685468

  20. Bacterial Succession in the Broiler Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Blair; Tannock, Gerald; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2016-01-01

    A feeding trial was performed with broilers receiving a diet of wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), or maize-based concentrates supplemented with 15% or 30% crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS-15 or CKMS-30, respectively). The aim of the study was to investigate the bacterial community compositions of the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum contents in relation to the feeding strategy and age (8, 15, 22, 25, 29, or 36 days). Among the four dietary treatments, bacterial diversity was analyzed for MBF and CKMS-30 by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Since the diets had no significant influence on bacterial diversity, data were pooled for downstream analysis. With increasing age, a clear succession of bacterial communities and increased bacterial diversity were observed. Lactobacillaceae (belonging mainly to the genus Lactobacillus) represented most of the Firmicutes at all ages and in all segments of the gut except the cecum. The development of a “mature” microbiota in broilers occurred during the period from days 15 to 22. Striking increases in the relative abundances of Lactobacillus salivarius (17 to 36%) and clostridia (11 to 18%), and a concomitant decrease in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus reuteri, were found in the ileum after day 15. The concentration of deconjugated bile salts increased in association with the increased populations of L. salivarius and clostridia. Both L. salivarius and clostridia deconjugate bile acids, and increases in the abundances of these bacteria might be associated with growth reduction and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders occurring in the critical period of broiler life between days 20 and 30. PMID:26873323

  1. Ingestible wireless capsules for enhanced diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Huynh, Van An; Ting, Eng Kiat; Lai, Joshua Chong Yue; Wong, Kai Juan; Tan, Su Lim; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become a common procedure for diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a less-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy by eliminating uncomfortable procedures of the traditional endoscopy. Moreover, it provides the opportunity for exploring inaccessible areas of the small intestine. Current capsule endoscopes, however, move by peristalsis and are not capable of detailed and on-demand inspection of desired locations. Here, we propose and develop two wireless endoscopes with maneuverable vision systems to enhance diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. The vision systems in these capsules are equipped with mechanical actuators to adjust the position of the camera. This may help to cover larger areas of the digestive tract and investigate desired locations. The preliminary experimental results showed that the developed platform could successfully communicate with the external control unit via human body and adjust the position of camera to limited degrees.

  2. Therapeutic upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy in Paediatric Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Imdadur; Patel, Praful; Boger, Philip; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Thomson, Mike; Afzal, Nadeem Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Since the first report of use of endoscopy in children in the 1970s, there has seen an exponential growth in published experience and innovation in the field. In this review article we focus on modern age therapeutic endoscopy practice, explaining use of traditional as well as new and innovative techniques, for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the paediatric upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25789087

  3. Clonal Evolution of Stem Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Fink, Juergen; Koo, Bon-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The field of gastrointestinal epithelial stem cells is a rapidly developing area of adult stem cell research. The discovery of Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells has enabled us to study many hidden aspects of the biology of gastrointestinal adult stem cells. Marked by Lgr5 and Troy, several novel endodermal stem cells have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract. A precise working model of stem cell propagation, dynamics, and plasticity has been revealed by a genetic labeling method, termed lineage tracing. This chapter introduces the reidentification of crypt base columnar cells as Lgr5(+) stem cells in the intestine. Subsequently, it will discuss dynamic clonal evolution and cellular plasticity in the intestinal stem cell zone, as well as in stem cell zones of stomach glands. PMID:27573765

  4. Gastrointestinal chemosensation: chemosensory cells in the alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Breer, H; Eberle, J; Frick, C; Haid, D; Widmayer, P

    2012-07-01

    Sensing potentially beneficial or harmful constituents in the luminal content by specialized cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa is an essential prerequisite for governing digestive processes, initiating protective responses and regulating food intake. Until recently, it was poorly understood how the gastrointestinal tract senses and responds to nutrients and non-nutrients in the diet; however, the enormous progress in unraveling the molecular machinery underlying the responsiveness of gustatory cells in the lingual taste buds to these compounds has been an important starting point for studying intestinal chemosensation. Currently, the field of nutrient sensing in the gastrointestinal tract is evolving rapidly and is benefiting from the deorphanization of previously unliganded G-protein-coupled receptors which respond to important nutrients, such as protein degradation products and free fatty acids as well as from the FACS-assisted isolation of distinct cell populations. This review focuses on mechanisms and principles underlying the chemosensory responsiveness of the alimentary tract. It describes the cell types which might potentially contribute to chemosensation within the gut: cells that can operate as specialized sensors and transducers for luminal factors and which communicate information from the gut lumen by releasing paracrine or endocrine acting messenger molecules. Furthermore, it addresses the current knowledge regarding the expression and localization of molecular elements that may be part of the chemosensory machinery which render some of the mucosal cells responsive to constituents of the luminal content, concentrating on candidate receptors and transporters for sensing nutrients. PMID:22527698

  5. The Gastrointestinal Tract: an Initial Organ of Metabolic Hypertension?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiming; Xiong, Shiqiang; Liu, Daoyan

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is an important global public-health challenge because of its high prevalence and concomitant risks for cardiovascular and kidney diseases. More than 60% of the risk factors for hypertension are associated with metabolic disorders. Furthermore, many metabolic risk factors can directly cause the vascular dysfunction and the elevated blood pressure. Metabolic disorders not only increase the risk for hypertension but also participate in the development of hypertension. Thus, some types of hypertension induced by metabolic disturbances can be defined as metabolic hypertension. However, the pathogenesis of metabolic hypertension remains largely unknown. The gastrointestinal tract is a unique gate through which external food, metabolites, and microbes enter the human body. Thus, metabolism-related risk factors may affect blood pressure through the gastrointestinal tract and alter processes such as taste perception, mucosal absorption, gut hormone homeostasis, GI nerve activity, and gut microbiota. Meanwhile, gastrointestinal intervention through dietary approaches, gut microbiota modification, and metabolic surgery could profoundly improve or remit the vascular dysfunction and metabolic hypertension. It suggests that the GI tract could be an initial organ of metabolic hypertension. However, more clinical and basic studies are necessary to further validate this novel concept. PMID:27160520

  6. Microneedles for drug delivery via the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Traverso, Giovanni; Schoellhammer, Carl M; Schroeder, Avi; Maa, Ruby; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Polat, Baris E; Anderson, Daniel G; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Both patients and physicians prefer the oral route of drug delivery. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, though, limits the bioavailability of certain therapeutics because of its protease and bacteria-rich environment as well as general pH variability from pH 1 to 7. These extreme environments make oral delivery particularly challenging for the biologic class of therapeutics. Here, we demonstrate proof-of-concept experiments in swine that microneedle-based delivery has the capacity for improved bioavailability of a biologically active macromolecule. Moreover, we show that microneedle-containing devices can be passed and excreted from the GI tract safely. These findings strongly support the success of implementation of microneedle technology for use in the GI tract.

  7. Microneedles for Drug Delivery via the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Traverso, Giovanni; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Schroeder, Avi; Maa, Ruby; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Polat, Baris E.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Both patients and physicians prefer the oral route of drug delivery. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, though, limits the bioavailability of certain therapeutics because of its protease and bacteria-rich environment as well as general pH variability from pH 1–7. These extreme environments make oral delivery particularly challenging for the biologic class of therapeutics. Here we demonstrate proof-of-concept experiments in swine that microneedle-based delivery has the capacity for improved bioavailability of a biologically-active macromolecule. Moreover, we show that microneedle-containing devices can be passed and excreted from the GI tract safely. These findings strongly support the success of implementation of microneedle technology for use in the GI tract. PMID:25250829

  8. Histamine H4 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Deiteren, A; De Man, J G; Pelckmans, P A; De Winter, B Y

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is a well-established mediator involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms and exerts its effect through activation of four histamine receptors (H1–H4). The histamine H4 receptor is the newest member of this histamine receptor family, and is expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract as well as in the liver, pancreas and bile ducts. Functional studies using a combination of selective and non-selective H4 receptor ligands have rapidly increased our knowledge of H4 receptor involvement in gastrointestinal processes both under physiological conditions and in models of disease. Strong evidence points towards a role for H4 receptors in the modulation of immune-mediated responses in gut inflammation such as in colitis, ischaemia/reperfusion injury, radiation-induced enteropathy and allergic gut reactions. In addition, data have emerged implicating H4 receptors in gastrointestinal cancerogenesis, sensory signalling, and visceral pain as well as in gastric ulceration. These studies highlight the potential of H4 receptor targeted therapy in the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and cancer. PMID:25363289

  9. Surgical management of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lyen C; Poultsides, George A; Norton, Jeffrey A

    2011-08-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (islet cell tumors) and of the luminal gastrointestinal tract (carcinoids) are a heterogeneous group of epithelial neoplasms that share certain common characteristics. First, they are similar histologically and are difficult to distinguish under light microscopy. Second, they can be associated with hypersecretory syndromes. Third, they are generally slow-growing and have a better prognosis than adenocarcinomas at the same site; however, they do become incurable when they progress to unresectable metastatic disease. Surgery is the only curative treatment and is recommended for most patients for whom cross-sectional imaging suggests that complete resection is possible. This article reviews the surgical management of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors, including the preoperative control of hormonal symptoms, extent of resection required, postoperative outcomes, and differing management strategies as determined by whether the tumor has arisen sporadically or as part of a familial disorder, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). PMID:21936439

  10. Listeria monocytogenes: survival and adaptation in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Hill, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has the capacity to survive and grow in a diverse range of natural environments. The transition from a food environment to the gastrointestinal tract begins a process of adaptation that may culminate in invasive systemic disease. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of how L. monocytogenes adapts to the gastrointestinal environment prior to initiating systemic infection. We will discuss mechanisms used by the pathogen to survive encounters with acidic environments (which include the glutamate decarboxylase and arginine deiminase systems), and those which enable the organism to cope with bile acids (including bile salt hydrolase) and competition with the resident microbiota. An increased understanding of how the pathogen survives in this environment is likely to inform the future design of novel prophylactic approaches that exploit specific pharmabiotics; including probiotics, prebiotics, or phages. PMID:24551601

  11. Treatment of vascular malformation of the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldschmidt, Juergen; Stroedter, L.; Doede, T.; Kischkel, A.

    2000-06-01

    Vascular malformations of the gastrointestinal tract are rare phenomenon. They are generally manifested by upper or lower GI - bleeding and do not resolve spontaneously. Emergency intervention is necessary. This paper reports on 10 cases, treated in the Dept. of Pediatric surgery of the FU Berlin, recorded from 1981 to 1999. We use the Nd:YAG laser 1064 nm, Fibertom 5100, Dornier, Germany, with a 600nm barefiber. Reduction in size of the hemangiomas and stop of the GI-bleeding was achieved in all cases.

  12. Cellular Organization of Neuroimmune Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Kara Gross; Gershon, Michael David; Bogunovic, Milena

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the largest immune organ; in vertebrates, it is the only organ whose function is controlled by its own intrinsic enteric nervous system (ENS), but it is additionally regulated by extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. The GI nervous and immune systems are highly integrated in their common goal, which is to unite digestive functions with protection from ingested environmental threats. This review discusses the physiological relevance of enteric neuroimmune integration by summarizing the current knowledge of evolutionary and developmental pathways, cellular organization, and molecular mechanisms of neuroimmune interactions in health and disease. PMID:27289177

  13. Management of foreign bodies of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Webb, W A

    1988-01-01

    In the United States, 1500 people die yearly of ingested foreign bodies of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The flexible esophagogastroduodenoscope has had a major impact on the treatment of these foreign bodies. The following discussion includes the management of coins, meat impaction, sharp and pointed objects, button batteries, and cocaine packets; and it reflects both a personal experience and a review of the literature. The uses of the rigid and the flexible endoscopes, the Foley catheter, glucagon, papain, and gas-forming agents are presented. The cost-effectiveness impact of the flexible endoscope is also detailed, and morbidity and mortality rates for foreign body management are included. PMID:3275566

  14. Local actions of trimebutine on canine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Daniel, E E; Kostolanska, F; Fox, J E

    1987-01-01

    The local actions of trimebutine on the circular muscle of canine gastrointestinal tract were studied after close intraarterial injection. The effects resembled those of metenkephalin at all sites. In stomach, trimebutine had no excitatory effects, but inhibited responses mediated by cholinergic post-ganglionic nerves. In small intestine, trimebutine stimulated the quiet gut by probably both neural and direct smooth muscle mechanisms, and it inhibited the field-stimulated phasic contractions. In large intestine, trimebutine had no excitatory actions and only weak inhibitory actions on the field-stimulated gut. Excitatory actions most likely seem to use the mu or delta receptors while inhibitory actions may focus on kappa opiate receptors. PMID:3038657

  15. Electroanalytical approaches to study signaling mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Patel, B A

    2011-07-01

    Electroanalytical techniques over the past few years have been applied to study real-time release of various signaling molecules in the GI tract. These approaches have become highly attractive as they provide dynamic spatial information on the amount of signaling molecules released. Although these approaches are relatively new to the field, the studies to date have provided useful insights into the alterations in signaling mechanisms during maturation, obesity and in a model of colitis. New methods and techniques have also allowed the possibility to obtain information on the signaling process and future developments will provide a wide diverse array of information that will be of benefit to all researchers in the field of gastroenterology. This review focuses on the types of techniques utilized, the information they can provide, their potential advantages and disadvantages in monitoring signaling processes in the gastrointestinal tract, the existing scientific studies that have utilized electroanalytical methods to date and the future potential impact of such approaches.

  16. Biology of nitrogen oxides in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2013-04-01

    Throughout the human gastrointestinal tract a variety of reactive nitrogen oxides are continuously formed as a result of a complex interplay between the host, commensal bacteria and dietary factors. These compounds include nitric oxide, nitrite, nitrate, peroxynitrite, S-nitrosothiols, nitrated fatty acids and N-nitrosamines, all of which are bioactive with the potential to affect physiological and pathological processes locally in the gut as well as systemically after absorption. Historically, the literature has been dominated by studies on the formation of potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines, but the focus was shifted in the 1980s with the seminal discovery of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and its profound impact on normal physiological functions. More recently, a nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been discovered, with implications for local host defence and gut mucosal integrity and, intriguingly, also for systemic regulation of cardiovascular and metabolic function. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the formation, biochemistry, physiology and pathophysiology of reactive nitrogen oxides in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, opportunities for nitric oxide-based pharmacological or dietary interventions are highlighted.

  17. Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery and Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Since the first transgastric natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery was described, various applications and modified procedures have been investigated. Transgastric natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery for periotoneoscopy, cholecystectomy, and appendectomy all seem viable in humans, but additional studies are required to demonstrate their benefits and roles in clinical practice. The submucosal tunneling method enhances the safety of peritoneal access and gastric closure and minimizes the risk of intraperitoneal leakage of gastric air and juice. Submucosal tunneling involves submucosal tumor resection and peroral endoscopic myotomy. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is a safe and effective treatment option for achalasia, and the most promising natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery procedure. Endoscopic full-thickness resection is a rapidly developing natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery procedure for the upper gastrointestinal tract and can be performed with a hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery technique (combining a laparoscopic approach) to overcome some limitations of pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Studies to identify the most appropriate role of endoscopic full-thickness resection are anticipated. In this article, I review the procedures of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery associated with the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24511415

  18. Effects of occupational stress on the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Franco, María-Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Tienda, Paola; Delgadillo-Holtfort, Isabel; Balleza-Ordaz, Marco; Flores-Hernandez, Corina

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of the relationship between occupational stress and gastrointestinal alterations. The International Labour Organization suggests occupational health includes psychological aspects to achieve mental well-being. However, the definition of health risks for an occupation includes biological, chemical, physical and ergonomic factors but does not address psychological stress or other affective disorders. Nevertheless, multiple investigations have studied occupational stress and its physiological consequences, focusing on specific risk groups and occupations considered stressful. Among the physiological effects of stress, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) alterations are highly prevalent. The relationship between occupational stress and GIT diseases is evident in everyday clinical practice; however, the usual strategy is to attack the effects but not the root of the problem. That is, in clinics, occupational stress is recognized as a source of GIT problems, but employers do not ascribe it enough importance as a risk factor, in general, and for gastrointestinal health, in particular. The identification, stratification, measurement and evaluation of stress and its associated corrective strategies, particularly for occupational stress, are important topics to address in the near future to establish the basis for considering stress as an important risk factor in occupational health.

  19. Effects of occupational stress on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Franco, María-Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Tienda, Paola; Delgadillo-Holtfort, Isabel; Balleza-Ordaz, Marco; Flores-Hernandez, Corina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of the relationship between occupational stress and gastrointestinal alterations. The International Labour Organization suggests occupational health includes psychological aspects to achieve mental well-being. However, the definition of health risks for an occupation includes biological, chemical, physical and ergonomic factors but does not address psychological stress or other affective disorders. Nevertheless, multiple investigations have studied occupational stress and its physiological consequences, focusing on specific risk groups and occupations considered stressful. Among the physiological effects of stress, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) alterations are highly prevalent. The relationship between occupational stress and GIT diseases is evident in everyday clinical practice; however, the usual strategy is to attack the effects but not the root of the problem. That is, in clinics, occupational stress is recognized as a source of GIT problems, but employers do not ascribe it enough importance as a risk factor, in general, and for gastrointestinal health, in particular. The identification, stratification, measurement and evaluation of stress and its associated corrective strategies, particularly for occupational stress, are important topics to address in the near future to establish the basis for considering stress as an important risk factor in occupational health. PMID:24244879

  20. Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities. Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract. The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract. The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information. First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model. Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  1. Histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Jennifer M; Genta, Robert M; Melton, Shelby D

    2011-09-01

    Eosinophils, a constitutive component of the columnar-lined gastrointestinal tract, play an essential role in allergic responses and parasitic infections. The tissue density of these cells also increases in a variety of conditions of uncertain etiology. With the exception of the esophageal squamous epithelium, in which no eosinophils are normally present, the population of normal eosinophils in the remainder of the luminal gut is poorly defined. Therefore, histopathologists must rely on their subjective judgment to determine when a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis, enteritis, or colitis should be rendered. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently the best defined and most studied eosinophilic condition of the digestive tract; therefore, the confidence in accurate diagnosis is increasing. In contrast, the characteristic clinicopathologic features of eosinophilic conditions affecting other parts of the digestive tract remain somewhat elusive. This review was designed to present pathologists with simple and practical information for the biopsy-based histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. It was prepared by critically reviewing more than 200 articles on the topic, along with incorporating evidence accumulated through our own collective experience. We anticipate that by increasing pathologists' confidence in reporting these abnormal but often nameless eosinophilic infiltrates, we can help better define and characterize their significance. PMID:21841404

  2. The sense of taste in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Akihiko; Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Uematsu, Akira; Uneyama, Hisayuki

    2014-01-01

    Digestion and the absorption of food and nutrients have been considered the only functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, recent studies suggest that taste cells in the oral cavity and taste-like cells in the GI tract share many common characteristics (taste receptors and transduction signaling). Over the last two decades, it has been revealed that the GI tract is a chemosensory organ that transfers nutrient information via GI hormone secretion (glucagon-like peptide-1, Peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and others) and the activation of abdominal vagus afferents. In addition, the information relayed via the abdominal vagus nerve plays an important role in autonomic reflexes. This information, both humoral and neural, contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis (digestion, absorption, metabolism and food intake) in the body. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the following: GI chemosensory molecules, their distribution, the effect of nutrients on GI hormone secretion and the activation of vagus afferent nerves. We also focus on the possibility of clinical applications that control abdominal vagus activity.

  3. A systematic review: perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zehong; Han, Siqi; Wu, Jialin; Xiong, Minmin; Huang, Yanqiao; Chen, Jianhui; Yuan, Yujie; Peng, Jianjun; Song, Wu

    2016-07-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare entity with distinctive morphology and of expressing myomelanocytic markers. Gastrointestinal tract (GI) is one of the most common anatomic sites of origin and counts for 20% to 25% of all reported cases of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors not otherwise specified (PEComas-NOS). However, the biologic behavior of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors of gastrointestinal tract (GI PEComas-NOS) is still unclear. The aim of conducting this systematic review is to sum up what is known so far of the epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis of GI PEComas-NOS.A systematic research was performed on PubMed and EMBASE using the following terms: ("perivascular epithelioid cell tumor" or "PEComa") and ("gastrointestinal tract" or "GI" or "oral " or "mouth" or "esophagus" or "gullet" or "gastric" or "stomach" or "duodenum" or "jejunum" or "ileum" or "cecum" or "colon" or "colorectal" or "sigmoid" or "rectum" or "anus" or "mesentery") up to December 1, 2015. Retrieved GI PEComas-NOS publications, which included these terms, contains case reports, case series to case characteristic researches.A total of 168 articles were reviewed, 41 GI PEComa-NOS English studies among which were retrieved for analysis. We reviewed epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis of GI PEComa-NOS. Generally GI PEComa-NOS is believed to have women predomination. The most frequently involved location is colon with non-specific clinical signs. Pathologically, GI PEComas-NOS shows epithelioid predominance (70%), meanwhile coexpresses melanocytic and muscle markers characteristically, while immunohistochemistry is a useful tool for identify, which indicates that HMB-45 is regarded as the most sensitive reagent. Complete resection served as mainstay of treatment, while chemotherapy should be unanimously considered to apply in malignant cases. Eventually, it is necessary for closed and long-term follow-up with endoscope and

  4. Smoothelin expression in the gastrointestinal tract: implication in colonic inertia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Owen T M; Chiles, Lauren; Levy, Mary; Zhai, Jing; Yerian, Lisa M; Xu, Haodong; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Soffer, Edy E; Conklin, Jeffrey L; Dhall, Deepti; Kahn, Melissa E; Balzer, Bonnie L; Amin, Mahul B; Wang, Hanlin L

    2013-10-01

    Colonic inertia is a frustrating motility disorder to patients, clinicians, and pathologists. The pathogenesis is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) characterize the expression of smoothelin, a novel smooth muscle-specific contractile protein expressed only by terminally differentiated smooth muscle cells, in the normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract; and (2) determine whether smoothelin is aberrantly expressed in patients with colonic inertia. A total of 57 resections of the normal GI tract (distal esophagus to left colon) were obtained from patients without GI motor dysfunction. Sixty-one colon resections were obtained from patients with a clinical diagnosis of colonic inertia. Smoothelin immunostaining was conducted on full-thickness tissue sections. In the nondysmotile controls, strong and diffuse cytoplasmic staining for smoothelin was observed in both the inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of the muscularis propria (MP) throughout the entire GI tract. The muscularis mucosae (MM) and muscular vessel walls were either completely negative or only patchily and weakly stained. The 1 exception to this pattern was observed in the distal esophagus, in which the MM was also diffusely and strongly stained. In cases with colonic inertia, a moderate to marked reduction of smoothelin immunoreactivity was observed in 15 of 61 (24.6%) colon resections, selectively seen in the outer layer of the MP. The data demonstrate that smoothelin is differentially expressed in the MP and MM of the normal GI tract and suggest that defective smoothelin expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of colonic inertia in a subset of patients.

  5. Stenting of the Lower Gastrointestinal Tract: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Sabharwal, Tarun Adam, Andreas

    2011-06-15

    Colon obstruction due to colorectal cancer is a major surgical emergency. Patients with acute bowel obstruction are usually poor surgical candidates with 10-20% operative mortality and 40-50% operative morbidity rates. Colorectal stenting is an image-guided, minimally invasive procedure, and typical indications include either palliation of inoperable malignant disease or temporary bowel decompression as a bridge to surgery. Colorectal stenting allows the patient to recover before definite elective surgical resection, reducing perioperative morbidity and mortality, overall hospital stay, and associated health care costs. Palliative stenting improves quality of life compared to surgery. A concise review is provided of contemporary stenting practice of the lower gastrointestinal tract, the colon in particular, and both palliative and preoperative adjuvant procedures are evaluated in terms of relevant patient oncology, insertion technique, available stent designs, technical and clinical outcomes, associated complications, and cost-benefit analysis.

  6. Targeting the gastrointestinal tract to treat type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Paige V; Duca, Frank A

    2016-09-01

    The rising global rates of type 2 diabetes and obesity present a significant economic and social burden, underscoring the importance for effective and safe therapeutic options. The success of glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, along with the potent glucose-lowering effects of bariatric surgery, highlight the gastrointestinal tract as a potential target for diabetes treatment. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that the gut plays a prominent role in the ability of metformin to lower glucose levels. As such, the current review highlights some of the current and potential pathways in the gut that could be targeted to improve glucose homeostasis, such as changes in nutrient sensing, gut peptides, gut microbiota and bile acids. A better understanding of these pathways will lay the groundwork for novel gut-targeted antidiabetic therapies, some of which have already shown initial promise. PMID:27496374

  7. Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, P.H.; Moran, T.H.; Goldrich, M.; McHugh, P.R.

    1987-04-01

    Autoradiography using /sup 125/I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK-33 was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the 20-day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter. Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day 15. Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day 50. Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day 10. These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat.

  8. Wireless technologies for robotic endoscope in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gao, P; Yan, G; Wang, Z; Liu, H

    2012-07-01

    This paper introduces wireless technologies for use with robotic endoscopes in the gastrointestinal tract. The technologies include wireless power transmission (WPT), wireless remote control (WRC), and wireless image transmission (WIT). WPT, based on the electromagnetic coupling principle, powers active locomotion actuators and other peripherals in large air gaps. WRC, based on real-time bidirectional communication, has a multikernel frame in vivo to realize real-time multitasking. WIT provides a continuous dynamic image with a revolution of 320 × 240 pixel at 30 fps for in vitro diagnosis. To test these wireless technologies, three robotic endoscope prototypes were fabricated and equipped with the customized modules. The experimental results show that the wireless technologies have value for clinical applications.

  9. Imaging and intervention in the gastrointestinal tract in children.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Robin D; Towbin, R B

    2002-09-01

    Vascular and interventional techniques have become an integral component of modern pediatric healthcare. Minimally invasive procedures of the gastrointestinal tract now comprise a large part of any active pediatric interventional practice. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography offers a reliable, non-invasive means to evaluate patients with possible pancreatic or biliary pathology. This article reviews treatment of esophageal strictures and placement of gastronomy and gastrojejunostomy tubes and discusses new developments. Placement of percutaneous cecostomy tubes is a relatively new procedure that creatively uses the techniques developed for placement of percutaneous gastronomy tubes. This procedure offers significant benefits and lasting positive lifestyle changes for patients suffering from fecal incontinence. Liver biopsy in high-risk patients can be performed safely using measures designed to significantly decrease the risk of post-biopsy hemorrhage, such as track embolization or the transjugular approach.

  10. [Microbiocenosis of parietal mucin in the gastrointestinal tract of rats].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, A A; Nesvizhskiĭ, Iu V; Bogdanova, E A; Korneev, L M

    2005-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative composition of the microbial community in parietal mucin at different areas of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of rats was revealed. The pronounced variability in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of microbiocenosis in parietal mucin of rats at different sections was revealed. The differences were most pronounced in the passage from upper to lower GIT sections, the large intestine found to be the richest biocenosis. The microbial composition of rat feces was faintly associated with the GIT parietal microbiocenosis. The individual areas of GIT mucosa were unique of their microbial characteristics and organization. This makes it possible to regard them as relatively independent biotopes and indicates that it is impossible to evaluate the microbial community by one of the colonic mucosal sifes. PMID:16438365

  11. Effect of DSS on Bacterial Growth in Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Hlinková, J; Svobodová, H; Brachtlová, T; Gardlík, R

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is an idiopathic autoimmune disorder that is mainly divided into ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Probiotics are known for their beneficial effect and used as a treatment option in different gastrointestinal problems. The aim of our study was to find suitable bacterial vectors for gene therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 were investigated as potential vectors. Our results show that the growth of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 was inhibited in the majority of samples collected from dextran sodium sulphate-treated animals compared with control growth in phosphate-buffered saline. The growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 in all investigated samples was enhanced or unaffected in comparison with phosphate-buffered saline; however, it did not reach the growth rates of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Dextran sodium sulphate treatment had a stimulating effect on the growth of both strains in homogenates of distant small intestine and proximal colon samples. The gastrointestinal tract contents and tissue homogenates did not inhibit growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 in comparison with the negative control, and provided more suitable environment for growth compared to Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. We therefore conclude that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 is a more suitable candidate for a potential bacterial vector, even though it has no known probiotic properties. PMID:27085009

  12. Obesity and the gastrointestinal tract: you are what you eat.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, M Michael; Boylan, Michael O

    2014-01-01

    Obesity represents a complex multifactorial syndrome that develops from interactions among genetic and environmental factors and is a leading cause of illness and death. The prevalence of obesity in the United States has increased dramatically since 1975. Although often ignored, the gastrointestinal tract, and the gastrointestinal regulatory peptides in particular, constitutes an ideal starting point for defining and investigating obesity as it represents the route by which all nutrients are ingested, processed, and absorbed. Another important factor to consider when evaluating the etiology of obesity is the capacity for all animals to store nutrients. Insulin is the most potent anabolic hormone, and it appears to have evolved from the need to maximize energy efficiency, obviating the requirement to continuously forage for food. Organisms expressing this important peptide possessed a distinct survival advantage and flourished. During the course of evolution, insulin biosynthesis translocated from the intestine to pancreatic islets, which necessitated a messenger from the intestine to complete the "enteroinsular axis." The eventual development of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and other incretins fulfilled this requirement. GIP appears to offer an additional survival benefit by not only stimulating intestinal glucose transport and maximally releasing insulin to facilitate nutrient storage but also by its insulin-mimetic properties, including enhanced uptake of glucose by adipocytes. This physiological redundancy offered by insulin and GIP ensured the survival of organisms during times when food was scarce. As food is no longer scarce, at least in the West, this survival advantage appears to have contributed to the current obesity epidemic.

  13. PET/MR Imaging in Cancers of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Paspulati, Raj Mohan; Gupta, Amit

    2016-10-01

    PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an established hybrid imaging technique for staging and follow-up of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies, especially for colorectal carcinoma. Dedicated hybrid PET/MR imaging scanners are currently available for clinical use. Although they will not replace regular use of PET/CT, they may have utility in selected cases of GI tract malignancies. The superior soft tissue contrast resolution and depiction of anatomy and the functional information obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provided by MR imaging in PET/MR imaging are advantages over CT of PET/CT for T staging and follow-up of rectal carcinoma and for better characterization of liver lesions. Functional information from DWI and use of liver-specific MR imaging contrast agents are an added advantage in follow-up of liver metastases after systemic and locoregional treatment. New radiotracers will improve the utility of PET/MR imaging in staging and follow-up of tumors, which may not be [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose avid, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. PET/MR imaging also has application in selected cases of cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and pancreatic carcinoma for initial staging and follow-up assessment.

  14. PET/MR Imaging in Cancers of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Paspulati, Raj Mohan; Gupta, Amit

    2016-10-01

    PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an established hybrid imaging technique for staging and follow-up of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies, especially for colorectal carcinoma. Dedicated hybrid PET/MR imaging scanners are currently available for clinical use. Although they will not replace regular use of PET/CT, they may have utility in selected cases of GI tract malignancies. The superior soft tissue contrast resolution and depiction of anatomy and the functional information obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provided by MR imaging in PET/MR imaging are advantages over CT of PET/CT for T staging and follow-up of rectal carcinoma and for better characterization of liver lesions. Functional information from DWI and use of liver-specific MR imaging contrast agents are an added advantage in follow-up of liver metastases after systemic and locoregional treatment. New radiotracers will improve the utility of PET/MR imaging in staging and follow-up of tumors, which may not be [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose avid, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. PET/MR imaging also has application in selected cases of cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and pancreatic carcinoma for initial staging and follow-up assessment. PMID:27593246

  15. A systematic review: perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zehong; Han, Siqi; Wu, Jialin; Xiong, Minmin; Huang, Yanqiao; Chen, Jianhui; Yuan, Yujie; Peng, Jianjun; Song, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare entity with distinctive morphology and of expressing myomelanocytic markers. Gastrointestinal tract (GI) is one of the most common anatomic sites of origin and counts for 20% to 25% of all reported cases of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors not otherwise specified (PEComas-NOS). However, the biologic behavior of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors of gastrointestinal tract (GI PEComas-NOS) is still unclear. The aim of conducting this systematic review is to sum up what is known so far of the epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis of GI PEComas-NOS. A systematic research was performed on PubMed and EMBASE using the following terms: (“perivascular epithelioid cell tumor” or “PEComa”) and (“gastrointestinal tract” or “GI” or “oral ” or “mouth” or “esophagus” or “gullet” or “gastric” or “stomach” or “duodenum” or “jejunum” or “ileum” or “cecum” or “colon” or “colorectal” or “sigmoid” or “rectum” or “anus” or “mesentery”) up to December 1, 2015. Retrieved GI PEComas-NOS publications, which included these terms, contains case reports, case series to case characteristic researches. A total of 168 articles were reviewed, 41 GI PEComa-NOS English studies among which were retrieved for analysis. We reviewed epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis of GI PEComa-NOS. Generally GI PEComa-NOS is believed to have women predomination. The most frequently involved location is colon with non-specific clinical signs. Pathologically, GI PEComas-NOS shows epithelioid predominance (70%), meanwhile coexpresses melanocytic and muscle markers characteristically, while immunohistochemistry is a useful tool for identify, which indicates that HMB-45 is regarded as the most sensitive reagent. Complete resection served as mainstay of treatment, while chemotherapy should be unanimously considered to apply in malignant

  16. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy...

  17. Post-natal growth of the gastrointestinal tract of the Siberian hamster: morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wołczuk, K; Kobak, J

    2014-12-01

    Post-natal growth of the gastrointestinal tract of the Siberian hamster was studied in newborn and 3-, 7-, 14-, 21-, 42- and 90-day-old animals. Morphometric measurements and calculations were carried out: length and internal surface of gastrointestinal tract segments, size (height, width, surface) and density of villi as well as allometric growth rate of the length and internal surface of the segments with respect to the body mass. The fastest growth rate of the gastrointestinal tract segments was noticed during the first 3 days of the post-natal life. Nevertheless, significant regional differences in their growth rate were found. The increase in the length and internal surface of the large intestine was fastest, while the smallest increase was observed in the oesophagus. All segments of the gastrointestinal tract except oesophagus exhibited a positive allometric relationship to the body mass from birth till final weaning, whereas during the post-weaning period, the increase was isometric. Thus, at birth, the gastrointestinal tract segments were relatively smaller compared with those observed in adults, but then, the gastrointestinal tract grew faster than the rest of the body and reached its adult proportions just before the transition to solid food. Most probably, reaching the adult structure of the gastrointestinal tract before the final weaning is an essential condition for the proper growth of an organism after the weaning.

  18. Indolent T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Anamarija M.; Warnke, Roger A.; Hu, Qinglong; Gaulard, Philippe; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Alkan, Serhan; Wang, Huan-You; Cheng, Jason X.; Bacon, Chris M.; Delabie, Jan; Ranheim, Erik; Kucuk, Can; Hu, XiaoZhou; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2013-01-01

    Primary gastrointestinal (GI) T-cell lymphoma is an infrequent and aggressive disease. However, rare indolent clonal T-cell proliferations in the GI tract have been described. We report 10 cases of GI involvement by an indolent T-cell lymphoproliferative disease, including 6 men and 4 women with a median age of 48 years (range, 15-77 years). Presenting symptoms included abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, food intolerance, and dyspepsia. The lesions involved oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon. The infiltrates were dense, but nondestructive, and composed of small, mature-appearing lymphoid cells. Eight cases were CD4−/CD8+, 1 was CD4+/CD8−, and another was CD4−/CD8−. T-cell receptor-γ chain gene rearrangement identified a clonal population in all 10 cases. There was no evidence of STAT3 SH2 domain mutation or activation. Six patients received chemotherapy because of an initial diagnosis of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, with little or no response, whereas the other 4 were followed without therapy. After a median follow-up of 38 months (range, 9-175 months), 9 patients were alive with persistent disease and 1 was free of disease. We propose the name “indolent T-LPD of the GI tract” for these lesions that can easily be mistaken for intestinal peripheral T-cell lymphoma, and lead to aggressive therapy. PMID:24009234

  19. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome. PMID:25640397

  20. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome.

  1. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia associated with gastrointestinal tract diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Ulas D; Bayraktar, Soley

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a common site of bleeding that may lead to iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Treatment of IDA depends on severity and acuity of patients’ signs and symptoms. While red blood cell transfusions may be required in hemodynamically unstable patients, transfusions should be avoided in chronically anemic patients due to their potential side effects and cost. Iron studies need to be performed after episodes of GI bleeding and stores need to be replenished before anemia develops. Oral iron preparations are efficacious but poorly tolerated due to non-absorbed iron-mediated GI side effects. However, oral iron dose may be reduced with no effect on its efficacy while decreasing side effects and patient discontinuation rates. Parenteral iron therapy replenishes iron stores quicker and is better tolerated than oral therapy. Serious hypersensitive reactions are very rare with new intravenous preparations. While data on worsening of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity by oral iron therapy are not conclusive, parenteral iron therapy still seems to be advantageous in the treatment of IDA in patients with IBD, because oral iron may not be sufficient to overcome the chronic blood loss and GI side effects of oral iron which may mimic IBD exacerbation. Finally, we believe the choice of oral vs parenteral iron therapy in patients with IBD should primarily depend on acuity and severity of patients’ signs and symptoms. PMID:20533591

  2. Autonomous device for photostimulation of the gastrointestinal tract immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Sergey A.; Dyrin, Vladimir N.; Vovk, Sergey M.; Petrov, Evgeny Y.; Udut, Vladimir V.; Borodulina, Elena V.

    2000-05-01

    A very small optoelectronic device emitting light in the red and green band has been developed as a small capsule consisting of two semispheres connected with light-transmitted coupling. The device -- a phototablet permits to irradiate all parts of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) including the immunocompetent formations of the small intestine -- Peyer's patches responsible for production of secretory immunoglobulins A (IgA). The main mechanisms of realizing endogenic phototherapy using a phototablet begin functioning when irradiating both the walls of the GIT organs and its contents. The results of clinical trials of the phototablet testify to a favorable effect of endogenic therapy on the human organism in asthenic syndrome, some types of deficiency in the immunity function, in dysbioses, the syndrome of large intestine irritation, duodenostasis, etc. After endogenic phototherapy the patients had an increased level of lysozyme, leukocytes, a number of lactobacteria. There were no side effects when using a phototablet. Indications and contraindications for endogenic phototherapy were represented. Thus, the method of endogenic phototherapy allows us to have an effective and direct influence on the immunocompetent cells of GIT organs without medicamental agents and antigens that makes it possible to use the phototablet in medicine on a large scale.

  3. Gut clock: implication of circadian rhythms in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, S J

    2011-04-01

    Circadian and seasonal rhythms are a fundamental feature of all living organisms and their organelles. Biological rhythms are responsible for daily food intake; the period of hunger and satiety is controlled by the central pacemaker, which resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and communicates with tissues via bidirectional neuronal and humoral pathways. The molecular basis for circadian timing in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) involves interlocking transcriptional/translational feedback loops which culminate in the rhythmic expression and activity of a set of clock genes and related hormones. Interestingly, it has been found that clocks in the GIT are responsible for the periodic activity (PA) of its various segments and transit along the GIT; they are localized in special interstitial cells, with unstable membrane potentials located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers. The rhythm of slow waves is controlled in various segments of the GIT: in the stomach (about 3 cycles per min), in the duodenum (12 cycle per min), in the jejunum and ileum (from 7 to 10 cycles per min), and in the colon (12 cycles per min). The migrating motor complex (MMC) starts in the stomach and moves along the gut causing peristaltic contractions when the electrical activity spikes are superimposed on the slow waves. GIT hormones, such as motilin and ghrelin, are involved in the generation of MMCs, while others (gastrin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, serotonin) are involved in the generation of spikes upon the slow waves, resulting in peristaltic or segmental contractions in the small (duodenum, jejunum ileum) and large bowel (colon). Additionally, melatonin, produced by neuro-endocrine cells of the GIT mucosa, plays an important role in the internal biological clock, related to food intake (hunger and satiety) and the myoelectric rhythm (produced primarily by the pineal gland during the dark period of the light-dark cycle). This appears to be an

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus orisasini SH06, Isolated from a Healthy Thoroughbred Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Misako; Nakano, Akiyo; Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Arakawa, Kensuke; Nakajima, Fumihiko; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kikusui, Tekefumi; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus orisasini SH06 was isolated from a healthy thoroughbred gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this organism. This paper is the first published report of the genomic sequence of S. orisasini. PMID:26769944

  5. [Biocenosis sparing treatment in the surgery of gastro-intestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Lazarev, S M; Voronina, O V

    2009-01-01

    The authors present results of investigation of the state of microbiocenosis of the intestine and immune status of organism of 139 patients after emergency operations on the gastro-intestinal tract organs. Disbiosis and reduced indices of the immune system in the postoperative period was a cause of using biocenosis sparing treatment resulting in stabilization of microecology of the gastro-intestinal tract, higher colonization resistance and general reactivity of organism. PMID:19432155

  6. [Historical schedule of management of bleeding from the upper part of gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Jacek; Wojtuń, Stanisław; Gil, Jerzy

    2009-05-01

    Treatment of bleeding from the upper part of gastrointestinal tract were changed many times. First there were waiting (Hipocrates, Sydenham, Stahl), next transfusion of the blood were initiated (Denis, Blundell, Dieffenbach, Bierkowski, Dungren, Hirszfeld). Big (Rydygier) and small (Dragstedt) operations procedures were attempted. Discovery of endoscopy of gastrointestinal tract (Mikulicz) and initiation of elastic scopes (Hirschowitz) and exploration inhibitor of histamine receptors (H2) and proton pump inhibitors with recognition of role Helicobacter pylori in bleeding were permitted elaborate actual schemas of proceedings.

  7. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Gastrointestinal Tract Tissues Induced by Arsenic Toxicity in Cocks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Guangyang; Hu, Zhibo; Tian, Li; Zhang, Kexin; Zhang, Wen; Xing, Mingwei

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widely distributed trace element which is known to be associated with numerous adverse effects on human beings and animals. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is an inorganic arsenical-containing toxic compound. The effect of excessive amounts of As2O3 exposure on gastrointestinal tract tissue damage in cocks is still unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of As2O3 exposure on gastrointestinal tract tissue damage in cocks. In total, 72 1-day-old male Hyline cocks were randomly divided into four groups and fed either a commercial diet or an As2O3 supplement diet containing 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days and gastrointestinal tract tissue samples (gizzard, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum) were collected at 30, 60, and 90 days. Catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities; malondialdehyde (MDA) contents; and hydroxyl radical (OH·)-mediated inhibition were examined. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that MDA content in the gastrointestinal tract was increased, while the activities of CAT, GSH, and GSH-Px and the ability to resist OH· was decreased in the As2O3 treatment groups. Extensive damage was observed in the gastrointestinal tract. These findings indicated that As2O3 exposure caused oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal tract of cocks due to alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities and elevation of free radicals.

  8. Screening for bacillus isolates in the broiler gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Teresa M; Serra, Cláudia R; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J; Henriques, Adriano O

    2005-02-01

    Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers followed by aerobic plating. Thirty-one representative isolates were characterized according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties as well as partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and screening for the presence of plasmid DNA. The Bacillus species identified included B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. clausii, B. megaterium, B. firmus, and species of the B. cereus group, whereas a number of our isolates could not be classified. Intrinsic properties of potential importance for survival in the gut that could be advantageous for spore-forming probiotics were further investigated for seven isolates belonging to five different species. All isolates sporulated efficiently in the laboratory, and the resulting spores were tolerant to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. They also exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including food spoilage and pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Importantly, the isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, arguing that they would not act as donors for resistance determinants if introduced in the form of probiotic preparations. Together, our results suggest that some of the sporeformers isolated in this study have the potential to persist in or transiently associate with the complex gut ecosystem.

  9. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157: novel therapy in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2011-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, safe in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice and has no reported toxicity. We focused on BPC 157 as a therapy in peridontitis, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, intestine, liver and pancreas lesions. Particularly, it has a prominent effect on alcohol-lesions (i.e., acute, chronic) and NSAIDs-lesions (interestingly, BPC 157 both prevents and reverses adjuvant arthritis). In rat esophagitis and failed function of both lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and pyloric sphincters (PS), BPC 157 increased pressure in both sphincters till normal and reduced esophagitis. However, in healthy rats, it may decrease (PS) or increase (LES) the pressure in sphincters. It has strong angiogenic potential, it acts protectively on endothelium, prevents and reverses thrombus formation after abdominal aorta anastomosis, affects many central disturbances (i.e., dopamine and 5-HT system), the NO-system (either L-arginine and L-NAME effects), endothelin, acts as a free radical scavenger (counteracting CCl4-, paracetamol-, diclofenac-injuries) and exhibits neuroprotective properties. BPC 157 successfully heals the intestinal anastomosis, gastrocutaneous, duodenocutaneous and colocutaneous fistulas in rats, as well as interacting with the NO-system. Interestingly, the fistula closure was achieved even when the BPC 157 therapy was postponed for one month. In short-bowel syndrome escalating throughout 4 weeks, the constant weight gain above preoperative values started immediately with peroral and parental BPC 157 therapy and the villus height, crypth depth and muscle thickness (inner (circular) muscular layer) additionally increased. Thus, BPC 157 may improve gastrointestinal tract therapy. PMID:21548867

  10. Probiotics, prebiotics and the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Briskey, David; Alford, Hollie; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2014-06-01

    The microbiome located in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) comprises the largest community (diverse and dense) of bacteria, and in conjunction with a conducive internal milieu, promotes the development of regulated pro- and anti-inflammatory signals within the GIT that promotes immunological and metabolic tolerance. In addition, host-microbial interactions govern GIT inflammation and provide cues for upholding metabolic regulation in both the host and microbes. Failure to regulate inflammatory responses can increase the risk of developing inflammatory conditions in the GIT. Here, we review clinical studies regarding the efficacy of probiotics/prebiotics and the role they may have in restoring host metabolic homeostasis by rescuing the inflammatory response. The clinical studies reviewed included functional constipation, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, infectious diarrhoea/gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases and necrotizing enterocolitis. We have demonstrated that there was an overall reduction in risk when probiotics were administered over placebo in the majority of GIT inflammatory conditions. The effect size of a cumulative reduction in relative risk for the GIT conditions/diseases investigated was 0.65 (0.61-0.70) (z = 13.3); p < 0.0001 that is an average reduction in risk of 35 % in favour of probiotics. We also progress a hypothesis that the GIT comprises numerous micro-axes (e.g. mucus secretion, Th1/Th2 balance) that are in operational homeostasis; hence probiotics and prebiotics may have a significant pharmacobiotic regulatory role in maintaining host GIT homeostasis in disease states partially through reactive oxygen species signalling.

  11. Screening for bacillus isolates in the broiler gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Teresa M; Serra, Cláudia R; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J; Henriques, Adriano O

    2005-02-01

    Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers followed by aerobic plating. Thirty-one representative isolates were characterized according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties as well as partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and screening for the presence of plasmid DNA. The Bacillus species identified included B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. clausii, B. megaterium, B. firmus, and species of the B. cereus group, whereas a number of our isolates could not be classified. Intrinsic properties of potential importance for survival in the gut that could be advantageous for spore-forming probiotics were further investigated for seven isolates belonging to five different species. All isolates sporulated efficiently in the laboratory, and the resulting spores were tolerant to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. They also exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including food spoilage and pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Importantly, the isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, arguing that they would not act as donors for resistance determinants if introduced in the form of probiotic preparations. Together, our results suggest that some of the sporeformers isolated in this study have the potential to persist in or transiently associate with the complex gut ecosystem. PMID:15691955

  12. Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, H; DE VRIES, W R; VANBERGE-HENEGOUW..., G; AKKERMANS, L

    2001-01-01

    G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN, L M A AKKERMANS Gastrointestinal Research Unit
Departments of Surgery and Gastroenterology
University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
 This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20-50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive events. Nevertheless, these acute symptoms are transient and do not hamper the athlete's health in the long term. The only exception is repeated gastrointestinal bleeding during training and competition, which in the long term may occasionally lead to iron deficiency and anaemia. In contrast, repetitive exercise periods at a relatively low intensity may have protective effects on the gastrointestinal tract. There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%. Less convincing evidence exists for cholelithiasis and constipation. Physical activity may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and inflammatory bowel disease although this cannot be substantiated firmly. Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine alterations, increased gastrointestinal motility, and mechanical bouncing during exercise are postulated. Future research on exercise associated digestive processes should give more insight into the relationship between physical activity and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.

 PMID:11171839

  13. The Chlamydia muridarum Organisms Fail to Auto-Inoculate the Mouse Genital Tract after Colonization in the Gastrointestinal Tract for 70 days

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luying; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Tianyuan; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhu, Cuiming; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Nu; Xue, Min; Zhong, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia muridarum is known to colonize in the gastrointestinal tract for long periods of time, which has been hypothesized to serve as a reservoir for spreading to the genital tract. To test this hypothesis, a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum was used to establish a long-lasting infection in the mouse gastrointestinal tract following either intragastric or intrarectal inoculations. In vivo imaging revealed significant bioluminescent signals mainly in the mouse abdominal area throughout the experiments. Ex vivo imaging localized the signals to the mouse gastrointestinal tract, which was confirmed by monitoring the C. muridarum organisms in the mouse organs/tissues. Despite the long-lasting colonization in the gastrointestinal tract and active shedding of infectious organisms in the rectal swabs, the organisms did not cause any significant infection or pathology in the genital tract throughout the experiments, which was reproduced in multiple strains of mice and with an increased inoculation dose to the gastrointestinal tract. The above observations have demonstrated that the long-lasting C. muridarum organisms from the gastrointestinal tract are inefficient in auto-inoculating the genital tract, suggesting that the gastrointestinal tract Chlamydia may utilize an indirect mechanism to affect its pathogenicity in the genital tract. PMID:27192556

  14. [Role of microbiocenosis of the gastrointestinal tract in the nutrition of grouse].

    PubMed

    Vecherskiĭ, M V; Kuznetsova, T A; Kostina, N A; Gorlenko, M V; Golichenkov, M B; Umarov, M M; Naumova, E I

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the role of the microbiocenosis of the digestive tract of herbivorous birds in transforming poor forage, the activity of cellulolytic enzymes in all departments of the gastrointestinal tract of the black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix) and Western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) was studied. The functional diversity of microbial communities of different departments was also investigated. In both species of birds, nitrogenase and cellobiohydrolase activities were discovered in the digestive tract, with the maximum observed in the cecum. PMID:25731039

  15. Tools for the tract: understanding the functionality of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Venema, Koen; de Vos, Willem M; Smidt, Hauke

    2009-07-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract comprises a series of complex and dynamic organs ranging from the stomach to the distal colon, which harbor immense microbial assemblages that are known to be vital for human health. Until recently, most of the details concerning our gut microbiota remained obscure. Over the past several years, however, a number of crucial technological and conceptual innovations have been introduced to shed more light on the composition and functionality of human gut microbiota. Recently developed high throughput approaches, including next-generation sequencing technologies and phylogenetic microarrays targeting ribosomal RNA gene sequences, allow for comprehensive analysis of the diversity and dynamics of the gut microbiota composition. Nevertheless, most of the microbes especially in the human large intestine still remain uncultured, and the in situ functions of distinct groups of the gut microbiota are therefore largely unknown, but pivotal to the understanding of their role in human physiology. Apart from functional and metagenomics approaches, stable isotope probing is a promising tool to link the metabolic activity and diversity of microbial communities, including yet uncultured microbes, in a complex environment. Advancements in current stable isotope probing approaches integrated with the application of high-throughput diagnostic microarray-based phylogenetic profiling and metabolic flux analysis should facilitate the understanding of human microbial ecology and will enable the development of innovative strategies to treat or prevent intestinal diseases of as yet unknown etiology.

  16. Pancreatic pseudocyst with hemorrhage into the gastrointestinal tract through the duct of Santorini.

    PubMed

    Brayko, C M; Kozarek, R A; Sanowski, R A; Chinichian, A

    1985-08-01

    Hemorrhage into a pancreatic pseudocyst frequently goes unrecognized. This catastrophic event can be heralded by intermittent bleeding, or may present as massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage. A high index of suspicion, proper diagnostic workup, and prompt surgical management afford the patient the best chance for survival. We report a patient with massive pseudocyst bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract via the duct of Santorini and discuss the current diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

  17. Expression of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Ganglia of Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ruiqi; Gu, Huan; Qiu, Yamei; Guo, Yong; Korteweg, Christine; Huang, Jin; Gu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    CF is caused by mutations of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) which is an anion selective transmembrane ion channel that mainly regulates chloride transport, expressed in the epithelia of various organs. Recently, we have demonstrated CFTR expression in the brain, the spinal cord and the sympathetic ganglia. This study aims to investigate the expression and distribution of CFTR in the ganglia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Fresh tissue and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal gastrointestinal tract samples were collected from eleven surgical patients and five autopsy cases. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, laser-assisted microdissection and nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed. Expression of CFTR protein and mRNA was detected in neurons of the ganglia of all segments of the human gastrointestinal tract examined, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, colon and rectum. The extensive expression of CFTR in the enteric ganglia suggests that CFTR may play a role in the physiology of the innervation of the gastro-intestinal tract. The presence of dysfunctional CFTRs in enteric ganglia could, to a certain extent, explain the gastrointestinal symptoms frequently experienced by CF patients. PMID:27491544

  18. Expression of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Ganglia of Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ruiqi; Gu, Huan; Qiu, Yamei; Guo, Yong; Korteweg, Christine; Huang, Jin; Gu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    CF is caused by mutations of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) which is an anion selective transmembrane ion channel that mainly regulates chloride transport, expressed in the epithelia of various organs. Recently, we have demonstrated CFTR expression in the brain, the spinal cord and the sympathetic ganglia. This study aims to investigate the expression and distribution of CFTR in the ganglia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Fresh tissue and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal gastrointestinal tract samples were collected from eleven surgical patients and five autopsy cases. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, laser-assisted microdissection and nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed. Expression of CFTR protein and mRNA was detected in neurons of the ganglia of all segments of the human gastrointestinal tract examined, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, colon and rectum. The extensive expression of CFTR in the enteric ganglia suggests that CFTR may play a role in the physiology of the innervation of the gastro-intestinal tract. The presence of dysfunctional CFTRs in enteric ganglia could, to a certain extent, explain the gastrointestinal symptoms frequently experienced by CF patients. PMID:27491544

  19. ERBBs in the gastrointestinal tract: Recent progress and new perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, William H.; Threadgill, David; Coffey, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium does much more than provide a physical barrier between the intestinal lumen and our internal milieu. It is actively engaged in absorption and secretion of salt and water via ion transporters, exchangers and selective ion channels. It is also a continuously self-renewing epithelium that undergoes ordered growth and differentiation along its vertical axis. From this dual perspective, we will consider the actions of the ERBB family of ligands and receptors in the maintenance of gastrointestinal homeostasis and discuss instances when the actions of this family go awry such as in cancer and Ménétrier's disease. PMID:19041864

  20. Over-the-scope clips in the treatment of gastrointestinal tract iatrogenic perforation: A multicenter retrospective study and a classification of gastrointestinal tract perforations

    PubMed Central

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Caruso, Angelo; Manta, Raffaele; Di Mitri, Roberto; Arezzo, Alberto; Pagano, Nico; Galloro, Giuseppe; Mocciaro, Filippo; Mutignani, Massimiliano; Luigiano, Carmelo; Antonucci, Enrico; Conigliaro, Rita; Masci, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the outcome of the management of iatrogenic gastrointestinal tract perforations treated by over-the-scope clip (OTSC) placement. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 20 patients (13 female and 7 male; mean age: 70.6 ± 9.8 years) in eight high-volume tertiary referral centers with upper or lower iatrogenic gastrointestinal tract perforation treated by OTSC placement. Gastrointestinal tract perforation could be with oval-shape or with round-shape. Oval-shape perforations were closed by OTSC only by suction and the round-shape by the “twin-grasper” plus suction. RESULTS: Main perforation diameter was 10.1 ± 4.3 mm (range 3-18 mm). The technical success rate was 100% (20/20 patients) and the clinical success rate was 90% (18/20 patients). Two patients (10%) who did not have complete sealing of the defect underwent surgery. Based upon our observations we propose two types of perforation: Round-shape “type-1 perforation” and oval-shape “type-2 perforation”. Eight (40%) out of the 20 patients had a type-1 perforation and 12 patients a type-2 (60%). CONCLUSION: OTSC placement should be attempted after perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic endoscopy. A failed closure attempt does not impair subsequent surgical treatment. PMID:27152138

  1. Trophic factors and regulation of gastrointestinal tract and liver development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the role of trophic factors in fetal and neonatal gastrointestinal (GI) and liver growth it is important to first consider the nature of growth. The fetal and neonatal period is the most dynamic period of postconceptual growth and includes critical developmental milestones, such as gas...

  2. Some aspects of the effects of PL-10.1.AK-15 on the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Erceg, D; Simicevic, V N; Kolega, M; Dohoczky, C

    1997-01-01

    PL-10.1.AK-15 is an active fragment of a naturally occurring protein first isolated from human gastric juice. Among its other protective effects, PL-10.1.AK-15 has demonstrated a protective effect on the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of PL-10.1.AK-15 on two functional parameters of gastrointestinal function: gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility. Gastric acid secretion was assessed in male Wistar rats using a modified method of Shay, while gastrointestinal motility was assessed in male NMRI mice by charcoal propulsion. PL-10.1.AK-15 was given in three different doses (3, 10 and 100 micrograms/kg body weight) in accordance with the experimental protocol. The results of these experiments indicate that PL-10.1.AK-15 in the investigated doses had no influence on gastric acid secretion or gastrointestinal motility. PMID:9403791

  3. Diagnostic procedures for submucosal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ponsaing, Laura Graves; Kiss, Katalin; Loft, Annika; Jensen, Lise Ingemann; Hansen, Mark Berner

    2007-01-01

    This review is part one of three, which will present an update on diagnostic procedures for gastrointestinal (GI) submucosal tumors (SMTs). Part two identifies the classification and part three the therapeutic methods regarding GI SMTs. Submucosal tumors are typically asymptomatic and therefore encountered incidentally. Advances in diagnostic tools for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors have emerged over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to provide the readers with guidelines for the use of diagnostic procedures, when a submucosal tumor is suspected. Literature searches were performed to find information on diagnostics for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors. Based on the searches, the optimal diagnostic procedures and specific features of the submucosal tumors could be outlined. Standard endoscppy, capsule endoscopy and push-and-pull enteroscopy (PPE) together with barium contrast X-ray do not alone provide sufficient information, when examining submucosal tumors. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are recommended as supplementary tools. PMID:17659668

  4. A Review on the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pomegranate in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Several biological activities of pomegranate have been widely described in the literature, but the anti-inflammatory effect in the gastrointestinal tract has not been reviewed till now. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of pomegranate for coping with inflammatory conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The paper has been organized in three parts: (1) the first one is devoted to the modifications of pomegranate active compounds in the gastro-intestinal tract; (2) the second one considering the literature regarding the anti-inflammatory effect of pomegranate at gastric level; (3) the third part considers the anti-inflammatory effect of pomegranate in the gut. In vivo studies performed on the whole fruit or juice, peel, and flowers demonstrate antiulcer effect in a variety of animal models. Ellagic acid was the main responsible for this effect, although other individual ellagitannins could contribute to the biological activity of the mixture. Different preparations of pomegranate, including extracts from peels, flowers, seeds, and juice, show a significant anti-inflammatory activity in the gut. No clinical studies have been found, thus suggesting that future clinical studies are necessary to clarify the beneficial effects of pomegranate in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23573120

  5. Characterization of a gastrointestinal tract microscale cell culture analog used to predict drug toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the largest surface exposed to the external environment in the human body. One of the main functions of the small intestine is absorption, and intestinal absorption is a route used by essential nutrients, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals to enter the sy...

  6. Optimal approach to obtaining mucosal biopsies for assessment of inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Yantiss, Rhonda K; Odze, Robert D

    2009-03-01

    Endoscopic evaluation and mucosal biopsy analysis have assumed important roles in the clinical management of patients with symptoms related to the gastrointestinal tract. Several common inflammatory diseases, including eosinophilic esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, Helicobacter pylori infection, celiac disease, lymphocytic colitis, collagenous colitis, and inflammatory bowel disease, may display a patchy or discontinuous distribution and, thus, multiple mucosal samples may be required to obtain diagnostic tissue in some cases. Not surprisingly, clinicians and pathologists are increasingly challenged to determine the optimum number of procedures and tissue samples necessary to detect, or exclude, the presence of inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Unfortunately, clinical practice varies widely with respect to tissue sample procurement in the evaluation of these disorders, particularly when the endoscopic appearance of the gastrointestinal mucosa is normal or shows only minimal changes. Guidelines concerning the appropriate number of tissue samples are well established for some diseases, such as Barrett's esophagus and chronic gastritis, but are not clear in other instances. The purpose of this review is to discuss the available literature pertaining to appropriate endoscopic sampling in the assessment of medical diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and to develop recommendations regarding the clinical evaluation of common gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:19209164

  7. Proteolytic activity and immunogenicity of oral bromelain within the gastrointestinal tract of mice.

    PubMed

    Hale, Laura P

    2004-02-01

    Bromelain is a mixture of proteinases derived from pineapple stem that is marketed by health food stores as a "digestive aid". A number of studies suggest that bromelain may also have anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, including an anecdotal report describing potential efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease. We and others have previously shown that proteolytically active bromelain removes certain cell surface molecules and affects leukocyte migration, activation, and production of cytokines and inflammatory mediators in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ingested bromelain retains proteolytic activity within the murine gastrointestinal tract in vivo. The proteolytic activity of bromelain was determined in vitro using model substrates or immunofluorescence assays after administration of various doses and formulations orally to mice. Immune responses against bromelain were detected by enzyme immunoassays. When formulated in antacid, oral bromelain retained substantial proteolytic activity throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Bromelain concentrations within the colon were dependent on both dose and formulation and were sufficient to remove bromelain-sensitive molecules from both leukocytes and colon epithelial cells. Peak activity in the stool was observed 4 h after oral dosing. Although anti-bromelain IgG was detected in both serum and stool after long-term oral therapy, these antibodies did not prevent bromelain proteolytic activity within the gastrointestinal tract. These studies demonstrate that bromelain enzymes can remain intact and proteolytically active within the murine gastrointestinal tract. They provide further support for the hypothesis that oral bromelain may potentially modify inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract via local proteolytic activity within the colonic microenvironment.

  8. The effect of selected factors on the survival of Bacillus cereus in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Pluta, Antoni; Garbowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely distributed in soil and vegetation. This bacterial species can also contaminate raw or processed foods. Pathogenic B. cereus strains can cause a range of infections in humans, as well as food poisoning of an emetic (intoxication) or diarrheal type (toxico-infection). Toxico-infections are due to the action of the Hbl toxin, Nhe toxin, and cytotoxin K produced by the microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract. This occurs once the spores or vegetative B. cereus cells survive the pH barrier of the stomach and reach the small intestine where they produce toxins in sufficient amounts. This article discusses the effect of various factors on the survival of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal tract, including low pH and the presence of digestive enzymes in the stomach, bile salts in the small intestine, and indigenous microflora in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Additional aspects also reported to affect B. cereus survival and virulence in the gastrointestinal tract include the interaction of the spores and vegetative cells with enterocytes. In vitro studies revealed that both vegetative B. cereus and spores can survive in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting that the biological form of the microorganism may have less influence on the occurrence of the symptoms of infection than was once believed. It is most likely the interaction between the pathogen and enterocytes that is necessary for the diarrheal form of B. cereus food poisoning to develop. The adhesion of B. cereus to the intestinal epithelium allows the bacterium to grow and produce enterotoxins in the proximity of the epithelium. Recent studies suggest that the human intestinal microbiota inhibits the growth of vegetative B. cereus cells considerably. PMID:25794697

  9. The effect of selected factors on the survival of Bacillus cereus in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Pluta, Antoni; Garbowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely distributed in soil and vegetation. This bacterial species can also contaminate raw or processed foods. Pathogenic B. cereus strains can cause a range of infections in humans, as well as food poisoning of an emetic (intoxication) or diarrheal type (toxico-infection). Toxico-infections are due to the action of the Hbl toxin, Nhe toxin, and cytotoxin K produced by the microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract. This occurs once the spores or vegetative B. cereus cells survive the pH barrier of the stomach and reach the small intestine where they produce toxins in sufficient amounts. This article discusses the effect of various factors on the survival of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal tract, including low pH and the presence of digestive enzymes in the stomach, bile salts in the small intestine, and indigenous microflora in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Additional aspects also reported to affect B. cereus survival and virulence in the gastrointestinal tract include the interaction of the spores and vegetative cells with enterocytes. In vitro studies revealed that both vegetative B. cereus and spores can survive in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting that the biological form of the microorganism may have less influence on the occurrence of the symptoms of infection than was once believed. It is most likely the interaction between the pathogen and enterocytes that is necessary for the diarrheal form of B. cereus food poisoning to develop. The adhesion of B. cereus to the intestinal epithelium allows the bacterium to grow and produce enterotoxins in the proximity of the epithelium. Recent studies suggest that the human intestinal microbiota inhibits the growth of vegetative B. cereus cells considerably.

  10. Gastro-intestinal tract: The leading role of mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Anna; Radulovic, Katarina; Niess, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of mucosal immunity is essential for the comprehension of intestinal diseases that are often caused by a complex interplay between host factors, environmental influences and the intestinal microbiota. Not only improvements in endoscopic techniques, but also advances in high throughput sequencing technologies, have expanded knowledge of how intestinal diseases develop. This review discusses how the host interacts with intestinal microbiota by the direct contact of host receptors with highly conserved structural motifs or molecules of microbes and also by microbe-derived metabolites (produced by the microbe during adaptation to the gut environment), such as short-chain fatty acids, vitamins, bile acids and amino acids. These metabolites are recognised by metabolite-sensing receptors expressed by immune cells to influence functions of macrophages, dendritic cells and T cells, such as migration, conversion and maintenance of regulatory T cells and regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production, which is essential for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and the development of intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. First interventions in these complex interactions between microbe-derived metabolites and the host immune system for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, such as modification of the diet, treatment with antibiotics, application of probiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation, have been introduced into the clinic. Specific targeting of metabolite sensing receptors for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases is in development. In future, precision medicine approaches that consider individual variability in genes, the microbiota, the environment and lifestyle will become increasingly important for the care of patients with gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27045424

  11. Targeting the gastrointestinal tract to develop novel therapies for HIV.

    PubMed

    Reeves, R K; Burgener, A; Klatt, N R

    2015-10-01

    Despite the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), which delays and/or prevents AIDS pathogenesis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals continue to face increased morbidities and mortality rates compared with uninfected individuals. Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal dysfunction is a key feature of HIV infection, and is associated with mortality. In this study, we review current knowledge about mucosal dysfunction in HIV infection, and describe potential avenues for therapeutic targets to enhance mucosal function and decrease morbidities and mortalities in HIV-infected individuals.

  12. An Elusive Bullet in the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Rare Case of Bullet Embolism in the Gastrointestinal Tract and a Review of Relevant Literature

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Saptarshi

    2014-01-01

    Bullet embolism within the gastrointestinal system is extremely rare. Such bullet injuries are infrequently covered in the general literature, but the surgeon should be aware of the phenomenon. Smaller caliber bullets are more common in civilian gunshot wound (GSW) events. These bullets are able to tumble through the gastrointestinal tract and cause perforation of the intestinal lumen which is small enough to be easily missed. Bullets retained in the abdominal cavity should not be dismissed as fixed and should be carefully monitored to ensure that they do not embolize within the bowel and cause occult lesions during their migration. We present a unique case wherein a bullet caused a minute perforation in the small bowel, before migrating to the distal colon, which resulted in late presentation of sepsis secondary to peritonitis. PMID:24829839

  13. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition mediated tumourigenesis in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Natalwala, Ammar; Spychal, Robert; Tselepis, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved process that has been well characterised in embryogenesis. Studies have shown that the aberrant activation of EMT in adult epithelia can promote tumour metastasis by repressing cell adhesion molecules, including epithelial (E)-cadherin. Reduced intracellular adhesion may allow tumour cells to disseminate and spread throughout the body. A number of transcription proteins of the Snail superfamily have been implicated in EMT. These proteins have been shown to be over-expressed in advanced gastrointestinal (GI) tumours including oesophageal adenocarcinomas, colorectal carcinomas, gastric and pancreatic cancers, with a concomitant reduction in the expression of E-cadherin. Regulators of EMT may provide novel clinical targets to detect GI cancers early, so that cancers previously associated with a poor prognosis such as pancreatic cancer can be diagnosed before they become inoperable. Furthermore, pharmacological therapies designed to inhibit these proteins will aim to prevent local and distant tumour invasion. PMID:18609701

  14. Salmonellosis and the gastrointestinal tract: more than just peanut butter.

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F

    2008-08-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing about 1.4 million infections annually. Most cases of salmonellosis are due to ingestion of contaminated food items such as eggs, dairy products, and meats, but almost any foodstuff can be implicated, including peanut butter, as seen during a recent outbreak of more than 600 Salmonella infections. Although outbreaks often gain national media attention, the majority of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States occur sporadically. Risk factors for salmonellosis include gastric hypoacidity, recent use of antibiotics, extremes of age, and immunosuppressive conditions. Clinical manifestations of the infection most commonly involve self-limited gastroenteritis, but bacteremia and endovascular and localized infections may occur. Most cases of gastrointestinal involvement are self-limited, and antibiotic therapy is reserved for persons at risk for complicated disease. Preventive strategies by both industry and consumers are advocated to further reduce the occurrence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis.

  15. New therapeutic approach to corrosive burns of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Di Costanzo, J; Noirclerc, M; Jouglard, J; Escoffier, J M; Cano, N; Martin, J; Gauthier, A

    1980-01-01

    The therapeutic approach to the management of corrosive burns of the upper gastrointestinal tract leaves a considerable morbidity and a heavy mortality rate. This work evaluates the effectiveness of a new therapeutic approach given to 94 consecutive patients. The management has been based on three major points: (1) the definition of extent of upper gastrointestinal lesions by immediate fibroendoscopy; (2) immediate protection of the upper gastrointestinal tract by total parenteral nutrition in cases with serious burns (41 cases), normal oral nutrition being allowed for minor burns (35 cases); (3) reparative surgical procedures for any of the sequelae of such burns during the fibrosing phase. The results were as follows: (a) healing, depending upon the degree of burn, occurred between eight to 90 days; (b) the frequency of subsequent local complications was small with total parenteral nutrition started a few hours after ingestion of the corrosive product; (c) after reconstructive surgery no serious complications occurred; (d) the overall morbidity stayed at a very low level (four patients). We conclude that the general prognosis of a severe burn of the upper gastrointestinal tract, without other trauma, is appreciably improved by the very early institution of total parenteral nutrition. PMID:6776011

  16. Use of Diagnostic Imaging in the Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Tract Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Laskowska, Katarzyna; Gałązka, Przemysław; Daniluk-Matraś, Irena; Leszczyński, Waldemar; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Gastrointestinal tract duplication is a rare malformation associated with the presence of additional segment of the fetal gut. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review clinical features and imaging findings in intraoperatively confirmed cases of gastrointestinal tract duplication in children. Material/Methods The analysis included own material from the years 2002–2012. The analyzed group included 14 children, among them 8 boys and 6 girls. The youngest patient was diagnosed at the age of three weeks, and the oldest at 12 years of age. Results The duplication cysts were identified in the esophagus (n=2), stomach (n=5), duodenum (n=1), terminal ileum (n=5), and rectum (n=1). In four cases, the duplication coexisted with other anomalies, such as patent urachus, Meckel’s diverticulum, mesenteric cyst, and accessory pancreas. Clinical manifestation of gastrointestinal duplication cysts was variable, and some of them were detected accidently. Thin- or thick-walled cystic structures adjacent to the wall of neighboring gastrointestinal segment were documented on diagnostic imaging. Conclusions Ultrasound and computed tomography are the methods of choice in the evaluation of gastrointestinal duplication cysts. Apart from the diagnosis of the duplication cyst, an important issue is the detection of concomitant developmental pathologies, including pancreatic heterotopy. PMID:25114725

  17. The Importance of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shboul, Othman A.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility function and its regulation is a complex process involving collaboration and communication of multiple cell types such as enteric neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and smooth muscle cells. Recent advances in GI research made a better understanding of ICC function and their role in the GI tract, and studies based on different types of techniques have shown that ICC, as an integral part of the GI neuromuscular apparatus, transduce inputs from enteric motor neurons, generate intrinsic electrical rhythmicity in phasic smooth muscles, and have a mechanical sensation ability. Absence or improper function of these cells has been linked to some GI tract disorders. This paper provides a general overview of ICC; their discovery, subtypes, function, locations in the GI tract, and some disorders associated with their loss or disease, and highlights some controversial issues with regard to the importance of ICC in the GI tract. PMID:23319032

  18. Importance of Sideropenic Anemia in the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Tract Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sahovic, Sanela; Vukobrat-Bijedic, Zora; Sahovic, Vahidin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Sideropenic anemia is a hypochromic, microcytic anemia caused by insufficient iron level in the body. This is the most common anemia. In a large percentage it is the symptom of gastrointestinal tract cancer. Anemia was defined by hemoglobin level <119 g/dl, hematocrit <0.356 for women or hemoglobin level <138 g/dL and hematocrit <0415 for men. Gastric cancer after lung cancer is the second most common malignant tumor in the world. Frequent localization is the antrum, and less frequently in the cardia and fundus. Definite factors in the development of gastric cancer are chronic atrophic gastritis, H. pylori, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia as a precancerous lesion. Strong link between sideropenic anemia and gastrointestinal tract cancers recommend that patients with sideropenic anemia without a clear indication underwent same gastroscopic and colonoscopy examination. The goals were to prove sideropenic anemia, diagnose and histologically confirm tumors, tumors location and correlates anemia with tumor anemia or show the dependence of anemia on tumor Results: The study included 100 subjects (50 from counseling center for hematology that came due to sideropenic anemia and 50 patients from the Clinic for Gastroenterology who had gastrointestinal tract cancer). Respondents had regular laboratory tests and endoscopic examinations, ultrasound of the abdomen, CT of the abdomen and tumor markers. In the group of patients from Counseling center for hematology with sideropenic anemia was found 11 cancerous processes, mostly in form of gastric and colon cancer. In the group of patients hospitalized at the Clinic for Gastroenterology most cancer process were localized in the stomach and colorectum. Conclusion: Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are the most common cause of sideropenic anemia, due to which the patients often first contact Counseling center for hematology. Sideropenic anemia is more common in men as also the number of digestive

  19. Upper gastrointestinal tract malignant obstruction: initial results of palliation with a flexible covered stent.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Do, Y S; Suh, S W; Choo, S W; Lim, H K; Kim, S H; Shim, Y M; Park, K C; Choo, I W

    1999-03-01

    The authors treated 21 patients with inoperable upper gastrointestinal tract malignant obstruction from the esophagus to the duodenum by means of intubation with a flexible covered stent with fluoroscopic guidance. Stent placement was successful and relief of dysphagia was immediate in 18 (86%) patients, without serious complication. The average dysphagia score decreased from 2.6 (dysphagia to liquids) to 1.0 (dysphagia to normal solid food). Placement of a flexible covered stent provides easy, safe, and effective palliation of upper gastrointestinal malignant obstruction. PMID:10207494

  20. Bioavailability of the anti-clostridial bacteriocin thuricin CD in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Rea, Mary C; Alemayehu, Debebe; Casey, Pat G; O'Connor, Paula M; Lawlor, Peadar G; Walsh, Maria; Shanahan, Fergus; Kiely, Barry; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2014-02-01

    Thuricin CD is a two component narrow spectrum bacteriocin comprising two peptides with targeted activity against Clostridium difficile. This study examined the bioavailability of thuricin with a view to developing it as an effective antimicrobial against intestinal infection. One of the peptides, Trn-β, was found to be degraded by the gastric enzymes pepsin and α-chymotrypsin both in vitro and in vivo, whereas Trn-α was resistant to digestion by these enzymes and hence was detected in the intestinal porcine digesta following oral ingestion by pigs. In order to determine if spores of the producing organism Bacillus thuringiensis DPC 6431 could be used to deliver the bacteriocin to the gut, spores were fed to 30 mice (approx. 10(8)-2×10(8) per animal) and their germination, growth and production of thuricin in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the animals was monitored. Almost 99 % of the spores delivered to the GIT were excreted in the first 24 h and neither Trn-α nor Trn-β was detected in the gut or faecal samples of the test mice, indicating that ingestion of B. thuringiensis spores may not be a suitable vehicle for the delivery of thuricin CD. When thuricin CD was delivered rectally to mice (n = 40) and C. difficile shedding monitored at 1, 6, 12 and 24 h post-treatment, there was a >95 % (>1.5 log units) reduction of C. difficile 027 in the colon contents of infected mice (n = 10) 1 h post-treatment compared with the control group (n = 10; P<0.001). Furthermore, 6 h post-treatment there was a further 1.5 log reduction in C. difficile numbers (n = 10) relative to the control group (n = 10; P<0.05). These results would suggest that rectal administration of thuricin may be a promising mode of delivery of thuricin CD to the colon.

  1. Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sarvan; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Pal, Madan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was envisaged to elucidate the pathomorphological and microbiological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders of sheep/lambs. Materials and Methods: Samples for research were collected from 12 sheep died with a history of GIT disorders which were brought for post-mortem examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, for pathomorphological and microbiological examination. Results: Gross pathological changes in various organs noticed were abomasitis, congestion and hemorrhages in intestine; necrotic foci on liver surface; enlarged, hard, and indurated mesenteric lymph nodes, hydropericardium, congestion, hemorrhages and consolidation of lungs and congestion and soft kidneys as the major change. On histopathological examination, there were abomasitis with leukocyte infiltration, enteritis with desquamation of mucosal epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia, lymphadenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the germinal center of lymphoid follicle, and splenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the white pulp. In the liver congestion, degenerative changes in hepatocytes including cloudy swelling, fatty changes, congestion in sinusoids, and dilatation of sinusoids leading to atrophy of hepatocytes. Lungs evidenced edema, congestion, emphysema, serous inflammation, thickening of interlobular septa, fibrinous pleuritis, and peribronchiolar lymphoid follicle formation. Heart revealed sarcocystosis, fibrinous pericarditis, and hyalinization of the myocardium. In kidneys, congestion, focal interstitial nephritis, hyaline degeneration, and coagulative necrosis were seen. For microbiological aspects; cultural isolation was done from samples of liver, abomasum, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, heart blood, lungs, and kidneys from the carcasses of sheep/lambs. Escherichia coli was the only bacterium isolated during present studies. E. coli isolates from different tissues of

  2. [Effects of the environment on the liver and gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Schmid, M

    1976-02-28

    The liver has a central role in the detoxication and elimination of toxic substances which enter the body as lipid-soluble compounds. Their transformation into polar watersoluble metabolites, termed biotransformation, is bound to the membranes of the smooth endoplasmatic reticulum. The oxidating enzyme in biotransformation can be induced by certain toxins and drugs. The chronic induction of enzymes by DDT and the consequences of this process of adaptation, particularly in regard to the metabolism of calcium is discussed. The protective effect of biotransformation and induction of enzymes against carcinogens, especially aflatoxin, are briefly reviewed. As examples of the chronic influence of vasotoxic substances, mention is mode of the veno-occlusive disease caused by the alkaloid phlorrhizidin found in plants, and the vinyl-chloride disease occurring in workers handling PVC. The first leads to portal hypertension of the post-sinusoidal type, while the second leads to pre- or intrasinusoidal portal hypertension and, after years of exposure, to hemangioendotheliosarcoma of the liver. The same tumor has been observed after arsenic intoxication. Arsenic may also lead to non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. The present opinions about environmentally induced gastrointestinal diseases are widely hypothetical. The high frequency of gastric carcinoma in Japan. and the varying occurrence of carcinoma of the colon in the civilized world in comparison with the rural population of tropical regions, is emphasized. The explanation for these facts is probably to be sought in differences of nutrition.

  3. Regulators of Actin Dynamics in Gastrointestinal Tract Tumors.

    PubMed

    Steinestel, Konrad; Wardelmann, Eva; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Grünewald, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton underlies cell migration in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor cell invasion. It has been shown that actin assembly and disassembly are precisely regulated by intracellular signaling cascades that respond to changes in the cell microenvironment, ligand binding to surface receptors, or oncogenic transformation of the cell. Actin-nucleating and actin-depolymerizing (ANFs/ADFs) and nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) regulate cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading edge of migrating cells, thereby modulating cell shape; these proteins facilitate cellular movement and mediate degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix by secretion of lytic proteases, thus eliminating barriers for tumor cell invasion. Accordingly, expression and activity of these actin-binding proteins have been linked to enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis in a variety of malignancies. In this review, we will summarize what is known about expression patterns and the functional role of actin regulators in gastrointestinal tumors and evaluate first pharmacological approaches to prevent invasion and metastatic dissemination of malignant cells. PMID:26345720

  4. Caustic injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Contini, Sandro; Scarpignato, Carmelo

    2013-01-01

    Prevention has a paramount role in reducing the incidence of corrosive ingestion especially in children, yet this goal is far from being reached in developing countries, where such injuries are largely unreported and their true prevalence simply cannot be extrapolated from random articles or personal experience. The specific pathophysiologic mechanisms are becoming better understood and may have a role in the future management and prevention of long-term consequences, such as esophageal strictures. Whereas the mainstay of diagnosis is considered upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, computed tomography and ultrasound are gaining a more significant role, especially in addressing the need for emergency surgery, whose morbidity and mortality remains high even in the best hands. The need to perform emergency surgery has a persistent long-term negative impact both on survival and functional outcome. Medical or endoscopic prevention of stricture is debatable, yet esophageal stents, absorbable or not, show promising data. Dilatation is the first therapeutic option for strictures and bougies should be considered especially for long, multiple and tortuous narrowing. It is crucial to avoid malnutrition, especially in developing countries where management strategies are influenced by malnutrition and poor clinical conditions. Late reconstructive surgery, mainly using colon transposition, offers the best results in referral centers, either in children or adults, but such a difficult surgical procedure is often unavailable in developing countries. Possible late development of esophageal cancer, though probably overemphasized, entails careful and long-term endoscopic screening. PMID:23840136

  5. Regulators of Actin Dynamics in Gastrointestinal Tract Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Steinestel, Konrad; Wardelmann, Eva; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Grünewald, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton underlies cell migration in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor cell invasion. It has been shown that actin assembly and disassembly are precisely regulated by intracellular signaling cascades that respond to changes in the cell microenvironment, ligand binding to surface receptors, or oncogenic transformation of the cell. Actin-nucleating and actin-depolymerizing (ANFs/ADFs) and nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) regulate cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading edge of migrating cells, thereby modulating cell shape; these proteins facilitate cellular movement and mediate degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix by secretion of lytic proteases, thus eliminating barriers for tumor cell invasion. Accordingly, expression and activity of these actin-binding proteins have been linked to enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis in a variety of malignancies. In this review, we will summarize what is known about expression patterns and the functional role of actin regulators in gastrointestinal tumors and evaluate first pharmacological approaches to prevent invasion and metastatic dissemination of malignant cells. PMID:26345720

  6. Human cytomegalovirus induced pseudotumor of upper gastrointestinal tract mucosa: effects of long-term chronic disease?

    PubMed

    Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Barresi, Valeria; Bertani, Angela; Maccio, Livia; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus-induced lesions resembling malignancies have been described in the gastrointestinal tract and include ulcerated or exophytic large masses. The aim of this study was to review the cases registered in the databases of two academic hospitals and formulate a hypothesis concerning the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for cytomegalovirus-induced pseudotumor development. All the diagnoses of human cytomegalovirus infections of the upper gastrointestinal tract recorded from 1991 to 2013 were reviewed. Cases of mucosal alterations misdiagnosed endoscopically as malignancies were selected. Large ulcers occurring in the stomach (three cases) and an irregular exophytic mass at the gastro-jejunal anastomosis were misdiagnosed endoscopically as malignancies (4 cases out of 53). Histologically, all lesions reflected hyperplastic mucosal changes with a prevalence of epithelial and stroma infected cells, without signs of cell atypia. The hypothesis presented is that the development of human cytomegalovirus-induced pseudotumors may be the morphological expression of chronic mucosa damage underlying long-term infection.

  7. Dpp signaling determines regional stem cell identity in the regenerating adult Drosophila gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjie; Qi, Yanyan; Jasper, Heinrich

    2013-07-11

    The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a series of epithelia that share functional requirements but also have distinct, highly specialized roles. Distinct populations of somatic stem cells (SCs) regenerate these epithelia, yet the mechanisms that maintain regional identities of these SCs are not well understood. Here, we identify a role for the BMP-like Dpp signaling pathway in diversifying regenerative processes in the adult gastrointestinal tract of Drosophila. Dpp secreted from enterocytes at the boundary between the posterior midgut and the middle midgut (MM) sets up a morphogen gradient that selectively directs copper cell (CC) regeneration from gastric SCs in the MM and thus determines the size of the CC region. In vertebrates, deregulation of BMP signaling has been associated with Barrett's metaplasia, wherein the squamous esophageal epithelium is replaced by a columnar epithelium, suggesting that the maintenance of regional SC identities by BMP is conserved.

  8. Expectoration in the gastrointestinal tract. A diagnostic problem in In-111 granulocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Schifter, S.; Madsen, J.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Scintigraphic detection of infectious foci with In-111 labeled granulocytes or leukocytes is a well-established technique in nuclear medicine. The technique is commonly used to demonstrate inflammatory activity in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Its application, however, may be influenced by infectious expectoration located within the gastrointestinal tract. In performing this technique, it is important to have this differential diagnostic possibility in mind; it can be clarified by repeated imaging.

  9. Colonic angiolipoma - a rare finding in the gastrointestinal tract. Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Molinares, Beatriz; Goldstein, Andrés; Varela, Gabriel J; Mesa, Sara

    2012-06-01

    Angiolipomas are benign lesions that are frequently found in subcutaneous cellular tissue, but are rarely located in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we discuss a case of colonic angiolipoma that presented as a mass near the hepatic flexure, occupying approximately 90% of the colonic lumen. The diagnosis was made by endoscopy and computed tomography. The mass was resected successfully and diagnosis was confirmed by histological studies and immunohistochemical tests.

  10. Recent advances in diagnosis and therapy of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Pelley, R J; Bukowski, R M

    1997-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are rare tumors that can be classified as APU-Domas (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation). They can be subdivided into the carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal submucosa and the islet cell endocrine tumors of the pancreas. Although the majority of tumors that become clinically apparent are malignant, they are frequently slow growing. Despite this, neuroendocrine tumors may generate disabling hormonal syndromes requiring aggressive treatment to achieve palliation. Recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of these tumors has led to better radiographic imaging and more accurate localization techniques. Medical therapies with somatostatin analogues, omeprazole, and locoregional tumor ablation have made a positive impact on curative and palliative therapy. This review updates the recent efforts made in the radiographic imaging and therapeutics of the gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors.

  11. Diagnosis and management of common gastrointestinal tract infectious diseases in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Landsman, Marc J; Sultan, Mohamed; Stevens, Michael; Charabaty, Aline; Mattar, Mark C

    2014-12-01

    Management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, stretches beyond control of flares. Some infections of the gastrointestinal tract are more commonly seen in patients with IBD. Work from the Human Microbiome Project has been instrumental in our understanding of the interplay between the vast gut microbiota and host immune responses. Patients with IBD may be more prone to infectious complications based on their underlying inflammatory disease and variations in their microbiome. Immunosuppressant medications commonly used to treat patients with Crohn's and colitis also play a role in predisposing these patients to acquire these infections. Here, we present a detailed review of the data focusing on the most common infections of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with IBD: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). We will discuss appropriate diagnostic tools and treatment options for these infections. Other less common infections will also be reviewed briefly. Studying the various infections of the gastrointestinal tract in these patients could enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of IBD. PMID:25208106

  12. Impact of the difference in surgical site on the physique in gastrointestinal tract cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akira; Kogure, Eisuke; Ishii, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to observe physical function, physique (only BMI), and nutrition status (evaluated by serum albumin levels) from before surgery to after discharge among perioperative patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer and to examine the effect of difference in surgical site (i.e., stomach, colon, and rectum) in these patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 70 patients who underwent surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer [36 males and 34 females, aged 59.3 ± 11.4 years (mean ± SD)]. The subjects were classified into three levels according to surgical site (stomach, colon, and rectum). We evaluated patients’ physical function, physique, and nutrition status in the three points: before surgery, after surgery, and after discharge. The 6-minute walk distance was measured for physical function. Body mass index was measured for physique. The serum albumin level was measured for nutrition status. [Results] Significant declines in 6-minute walk distance, body mass index, and serum albumin were observed after surgery among the study subjects. In addition, a significant decline in body mass index was observed after discharge compared with before surgery. Regarding body mass index, a significant interaction between surgical site and evaluation times was observed for ANOVA. [Conclusion] These results suggest that BMI after discharge is significantly less than that before surgery and that body mass index changes from before surgery to after surgery are efficacy the difference of surgical site in patients who undergo surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer. PMID:26957730

  13. Substance P and bradykinin stimulate plasma extravasation in the mouse gastrointestinal tract and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Figini, M; Emanueli, C; Grady, E F; Kirkwood, K; Payan, D G; Ansel, J; Gerard, C; Geppetti, P; Bunnett, N

    1997-04-01

    Neurogenic inflammation is mediated by release of tachykinins from sensory nerves, which stimulate plasma extravasation from postcapillary venules. Because there are conflicting results regarding the importance of neurogenic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, we quantified plasma extravasation using Evans blue and identified sites of the leak using Monastral blue in the mouse. Substance P and bradykinin stimulated extravasation from postcapillary venules in the stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas, urinary bladder, trachea, and skin by two- to sevenfold by interacting with NK1 and B2 receptors, respectively. Stimulation of sensory nerves with capsaicin also induced extravasation. Capsaicin- and bradykinin-stimulated extravasation was attenuated by an NK1-receptor antagonist and is thus mediated by release of tachykinins and activation of the NK1 receptor. We conclude that 1) substance P stimulates extravasation in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas of mice by interacting with the NK1 receptors, and 2) capsaicin and bradykinin induce plasma extravasation by stimulating tachykinin release from sensory nerves. Thus neurogenic mechanisms mediate inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas of the mouse. PMID:9142909

  14. Diagnosis and management of common gastrointestinal tract infectious diseases in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Landsman, Marc J; Sultan, Mohamed; Stevens, Michael; Charabaty, Aline; Mattar, Mark C

    2014-12-01

    Management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, stretches beyond control of flares. Some infections of the gastrointestinal tract are more commonly seen in patients with IBD. Work from the Human Microbiome Project has been instrumental in our understanding of the interplay between the vast gut microbiota and host immune responses. Patients with IBD may be more prone to infectious complications based on their underlying inflammatory disease and variations in their microbiome. Immunosuppressant medications commonly used to treat patients with Crohn's and colitis also play a role in predisposing these patients to acquire these infections. Here, we present a detailed review of the data focusing on the most common infections of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with IBD: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). We will discuss appropriate diagnostic tools and treatment options for these infections. Other less common infections will also be reviewed briefly. Studying the various infections of the gastrointestinal tract in these patients could enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of IBD.

  15. A wireless platform for in vivo measurement of resistance properties of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Natali, C Di; Beccani, M; Obstein, K L; Valdastri, P

    2014-07-01

    Active locomotion of wireless capsule endoscopes has the potential to improve the diagnostic yield of this painless technique for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract disease. In order to design effective locomotion mechanisms, a quantitative measure of the propelling force required to effectively move a capsule inside the gastrointestinal tract is necessary. In this study, we introduce a novel wireless platform that is able to measure the force opposing capsule motion, without perturbing the physiologic conditions with physical connections to the outside of the gastrointestinal tract. The platform takes advantage of a wireless capsule that is magnetically coupled with an external permanent magnet. A secondary contribution of this manuscript is to present a real-time method to estimate the axial magnetic force acting on a wireless capsule manipulated by an external magnetic field. In addition to the intermagnetic force, the platform provides real-time measurements of the capsule position, velocity, and acceleration. The platform was assessed with benchtop trials within a workspace that extends 15 cm from each side of the external permanent magnet, showing average error in estimating the force and the position of less than 0.1 N and 10 mm, respectively. The platform was also able to estimate the dynamic behavior of a known resistant force with an error of 5.45%. Finally, an in vivo experiment on a porcine colon model validated the feasibility of measuring the resistant force in opposition to magnetic propulsion of a wireless capsule. PMID:24852810

  16. The genetic diversity of lactic acid producing bacteria in the equine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Al Jassim, Rafat A M; Scott, Paul T; Trebbin, Andrea L; Trott, Darren; Pollitt, Christopher C

    2005-07-01

    Seventy-two lactic acid producing bacterial isolates (excluding streptococci) were cultured from the gastrointestinal tract of six horses. Two of the horses were orally dosed with raftilose to induce lactic acidosis and laminitis while the remaining four were maintained on a roughage diet. Near complete 16S rDNA was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of each isolate. Following RFLP analysis with the restriction enzymes MboI, HhaI and HinfI, the PCR products from the 18 isolates that produced L- and/or D-lactate were subsequently cloned and sequenced. DNA sequence analysis indicated that the majority of the isolates were closely related to species within the genus Lactobacillus, including Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus mucosae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Four isolates were closely related to Mitsuokella jalaludinii. Lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB) from the equine gastrointestinal tract was dominated by representatives from the genus Lactobacillus, but also included D-lactate-producing bacteria closely related to M. jalaludinii. Identification and characterization of LAB from the equine gastrointestinal tract should contribute to our understanding and management of fermentative acidosis, ulceration of the stomach and laminitis.

  17. Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Nitric Oxide as Signaling Molecules in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Farrugia, Gianrico; Szurszewski, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) used to be thought of simply as lethal and (for H2S) smelly gaseous molecules; now they are known to have important signaling functions in the gastrointestinal tract. CO and H2S, which are produced in the gastrointestinal tract by different enzymes, regulate smooth muscle membrane potential and tone, transmit signals from enteric nerves and can regulate the immune system. The pathways that produce nitric oxide (NO) H2S and CO interact—each can inhibit and potentiate the level and activity of the other. However, there are significant differences between these molecules, such as in half-lives; CO is more stable and therefore able to have effects distal to the site of production, whereas NO and H2S are short lived and act only close to sites of production. We review their signaling functions in the luminal gastrointestinal tract and discuss how their pathways interact. We also describe other physiologic functions of CO and H2S and how they might be used as therapeutic agents. PMID:24798417

  18. The effects of additional flora on the response of salmonella mutants lodged in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, L A; Carter, J H; Ingelfinger, J A; Soderberg, F B; Goldman, P

    1977-02-01

    A histidine auxotroph of Salmonella typhimurium, strain TA1538, will lodge for several months in the gastrointestinal tract of otherwise germ-free rats and of rats additionally associated with bacteria characteristic of the normal flora such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacteroides vulgatus. In the presence of the additional flora, the concentration of strain TA1538 is diminished in the stomach but not in the lower gastrointestinal tract or in the feces. Following the ingestion of 2-nitrofluorene, there is an increase in the concentration of revertants in the feces which reflects that observed in the colon and cecum. A dose-response relationship can be demonstrated between the amount of 2-nitrofluorene ingested and the concentration of revertants in the feces. A given dose of 2-nitrofluorene, however, produces fewer revertants in the feces of rats with the additional flora than in the feces of rats associated only with strain TA1538. It is not clear whether the decreased number of revertants in the feces in the presence of the additional flora is a result of metabolic transformations of 2-nitrofluorene by B. vulgatus, which can be demonstrated in vitro, or a result of the displacement of strain TA1538 from the stomach. The rat associated with strain TA1538, or other Ames tester strains, may be useful for detecting carcinogens as mutagens within the gastrointestinal tract and for determining the influence of various constituents of the bacterial flora on the concentration of mutagenic compounds. PMID:318921

  19. Spatial Heterogeneity of Gut Microbial Composition along the Gastrointestinal Tract in Natural Populations of House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nachman, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation of the role of gut microbial communities in host biology. However, the nature of variation in microbial communities among different segments of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is not well understood. Here, we describe microbial communities from ten different segments of the GI tract (mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, ileum, proximal cecum, distal cecum, colon, rectum, and feces) in wild house mice using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We also measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic ratios from hair samples of individual mice as a proxy for diet. We identified factors that may explain differences in microbial composition among gut segments, and we tested for differences among individual mice in the composition of the microbiota. Consistent with previous studies, the lower GI tract was characterized by a greater relative abundance of anaerobic bacteria and greater microbial diversity relative to the upper GI tract. The upper and lower GI tracts also differed in the relative abundances of predicted microbial gene functions, including those involved in metabolic pathways. However, when the upper and lower GI tracts were considered separately, gut microbial composition was associated with individual mice. Finally, microbial communities derived from fecal samples were similar to those derived from the lower GI tract of their respective hosts, supporting the utility of fecal sampling for studying the gut microbiota of mice. These results show that while there is substantial heterogeneity among segments of the GI tract, individual hosts play a significant role in structuring microbial communities within particular segments of the GI tract. PMID:27669007

  20. [ENDOCYTOSCOPY--NEW TYPE OF ENDOSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL AND RESPIRATORY TRACT].

    PubMed

    Pirogov, S S; Sokolov, V V; Kaprin, A D; Sokolov, D V; Volchenko, N N; Karpova, E S; Pavlov, P V; Telegina, L V; Sukhin, D G; Pogorelov, N N; Ryabov, A B; Khomyakov, V M; Chulikov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Majority of published data describing endocytoscopic examination of upper gastrointestinal tract mucosa, but in recent publications, it is reported, that endocytoscopy is suitable for small bowel, colon, respiratory tract and even peritoneum "optical biopsy". In number of articles possibilities of celiac sprue diagnostics with endocytoscopy is discussed, but small-bowel endocytoscopy is limited, due to absence of endocytoscopes, compatible with enteroscopes. More widely endocytoscopy is used in colon, mostly in lateral-spreading adenomas diagnostics. Prof. S-E. Kudo developed endocytoscopic classification of colonic mucosa changes, used for differential diagnostics and lesion mapping, describing hyperplasia, adenomas with different grades of intraepithelial neoplasia, non-invasive and invasive cancer. Some authors reported about good possibilities of endocytoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease diagnostics. Most of data, related to respiratory tract endocytoscopic examination, focused on precancerous conditions and early pharyngeal and lung cancer, and the preliminary results are promising, but, unfortunately, for now, endocytoscopy in bronchial tree is limited, due to lack of thin endocytoscopes. According to some article data, it is possible to use endocytoscopy not only in gastrointestinal and respiratory tract, but also in optical confirmation of peritoneal tumor dissemination in gastric and ovarian cancer patients, and--in bladder mucosa examination. PMID:26387172

  1. Role of cytopathology in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal tract cancers.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Rachel; Cobb, Camilla; Raza, Anwar

    2012-09-01

    Cytology of gastro-intestinal (GI) tract lesions can be used successfully to diagnose neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions, especially when combined with biopsies. Cytologic evaluation is widely accepted as a cost-effective method that allows rapid interpretation and triaging of material. Technical advances over the years have allowed simultaneous visualization of abnormal tissue and procurement of needle aspirates, brushings and biopsies from mucosal and deeper seated lesions. Successful cytologic examination of the GI tract is highly dependent on the skill of the endoscopist, specimen preparation, the expertise of the pathologist, and the recognition of the limitations of cytology. This article reviews the key cytologic features of important GI tract lesions, differential diagnoses, and pitfalls, and addresses the advantages and limitations of different collection techniques.

  2. Probiotics Shown To Change Bacterial Community Structure in the Avian Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Netherwood, Trudy; Gilbert, H. J.; Parker, D. S.; O’Donnell, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Culturing and molecular techniques were used to monitor changes in the bacterial flora of the avian gastrointestinal (GI) tract following introduction of genetically modified (GM) and unmodified probiotics. Community hybridization of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA demonstrated that the bacterial flora of the GI tract changed significantly in response to the probiotic treatments. The changes were not detected by culturing. Although both GM and non-GM strains of Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 11508 changed the bacterial flora of the chicken GI tract, they did so differently. Probing the community DNA with an Enterococcus faecalis-specific probe showed that the relative amount of E. faecalis in the total eubacterial population increased in the presence of the non-GM strain and decreased in the presence of the GM probiotic compared with the results obtained with an untreated control group. PMID:10543832

  3. Colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract by probiotic L. rhamnosus strains in acute diarrhoea in children.

    PubMed

    Szymański, Henryk; Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Strus, Magdalena; Pejcz, Jerzy; Jawień, Mirosław; Kochan, Piotr; Heczko, Piotr B

    2006-12-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus (573L/1-3) strains are considered effective in the treatment of rotaviral diarrhoea in children. The colonisation of the gastrointestinal (G.I.) tract by the Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains and the determining factors are discussed reporting data of a prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized study in children between the 2nd month and 6th year of life with acute diarrhoea lasting not longer than 5 days. The examined strains were detected in 37/46 (80.43%) patients after 5 days and in 19/46 (41.3%) patients after 14 days since the start of the treatment. L. rhamnosus 573L/1 strain colonised the G.I. tract more persistently. L. rhamnosus strains are effective in colonising the G.I. tract during acute diarrhoea. Persistence of colonisation is dependent on the properties of administered probiotic strains.

  4. A review of gastrointestinal epithelial renewal and its relevance to the development of adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, G L

    1995-01-01

    Renewal of the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium fulfills the normal functions of maintaining the integrity of the mucosa, repairing mucosal injury, and replenishing the specialized cells of the epithelium. Alterations in epithelial renewal also are intimately involved in transformation of the epithelium to benign and malignant neoplasms. Certain abnormalities in epithelial proliferation, including an increase in the rate of proliferation and expansion of proliferating cells beyond the normal zone of proliferation, are closely linked to the predisposition for and frank development of GI cancer. These abnormalities are common to all human premalignant conditions studied, including Barrett's epithelium, chronic gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon polyps; they also occur in experimental carcinogenesis. The same proliferative abnormalities have also been observed in some relatives of patients with colon neoplasms who themselves do not have any colon polyps or cancer. Several agents, including calcium, vitamins A, C, and E, and omega-3 fatty acids, have been shown to reverse the abnormal proliferation under some laboratory and clinical conditions. Moreover, some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs appear to decrease the size of colon polyps in familial polyposis and to reduce the risk for colon cancer in the general population. We await further clinical trials that will indicate whether such ordinary supplements as calcium, vitamins, fish oil, or aspirin have a role in the treatment of patients with premalignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).

    PubMed

    Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2012-12-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum γ-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state.

  6. Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica)

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum γ-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. PMID:23233413

  7. Antioxidant-enriched enteral nutrition and immuno-inflammatory response after major gastrointestinal tract surgery.

    PubMed

    van Stijn, Mireille F M; Boelens, Petra G; Richir, Milan C; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C; Twisk, Jos W R; Diks, Jeroen; Houdijk, Alexander P J; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

    2010-02-01

    Major surgery induces an immuno-inflammatory response accompanied by oxidative stress that may impair cellular function and delay recovery. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of an enteral supplement, containing glutamine and antioxidants, on circulating levels of immuno-inflammatory markers after major gastrointestinal tract surgery. Patients (n 21) undergoing major gastrointestinal tract surgery were randomised in a single-centre, open-label study. The effects on circulating levels of immuno-inflammatory markers were determined on the day before surgery and on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 after surgery. Major gastrointestinal surgery increased IL-6, TNF receptor 55/60 (TNF-R55) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Surgery reduced human leucocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression on monocytes. CRP decrease was more pronounced in the first 7 d in the treatment group compared with the control group. In the treatment group, from the moment Module AOX was administered on day 1 after surgery, TNF receptor 75/80 (TNF-R75) level decreased until the third post-operative day and then stabilised, whereas in the control group the TNF-R75 level continued to increase. The results of the present pilot study suggest that enteral nutrition enriched with glutamine and antioxidants possibly moderates the immuno-inflammatory response (CRP, TNF-R75) after surgery.

  8. [Expression of neuropeptide Y and long leptin receptor in gastrointestinal tract of giant panda].

    PubMed

    Luo, Qihui; Tang, Xiuying; Chen, Zhengli; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Li, Caiwu

    2015-08-01

    To study the expression and distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and long leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in the gastrointestinal tract of giant panda, samples of three animals were collected from the key laboratory for reproduction and conservation genetics of endangered wildlife of Sichuan province, China conservation and research center for the giant panda. Paraffin sections of giant panda gastrointestinal tissue samples were observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and strept actividin-biotin complex immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The results show that the intestinal histology of three pandas was normal and no pathological changes, and there were rich single-cell and multi-cell mucous glands, long intestinal villi and thick muscularis mucosa and muscle layer. Positive cells expressing NPY and OB-Rb were widely detected in the gastrointestinal tract by IHC methods. NPY positive nerve fibers and neuronal cell were widely distributed in submucosal plexus and myenteric plexus, especially in the former. They were arranged beaded or point-like shape. NPY positive cells were observed in the shape of ellipse and polygon and mainly located in the mucous layer and intestinal glands. OB-Rb positive cells were mainly distributed in the mucous layer and the laminae propria, especially the latter. These results confirmed that NPY and OB-Rb are widely distributed in the gut of the giant panda, which provide strong reference for the research between growth and development, digestion and absorption, and immune function.

  9. [Expression of neuropeptide Y and long leptin receptor in gastrointestinal tract of giant panda].

    PubMed

    Luo, Qihui; Tang, Xiuying; Chen, Zhengli; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Li, Caiwu

    2015-08-01

    To study the expression and distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and long leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in the gastrointestinal tract of giant panda, samples of three animals were collected from the key laboratory for reproduction and conservation genetics of endangered wildlife of Sichuan province, China conservation and research center for the giant panda. Paraffin sections of giant panda gastrointestinal tissue samples were observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and strept actividin-biotin complex immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The results show that the intestinal histology of three pandas was normal and no pathological changes, and there were rich single-cell and multi-cell mucous glands, long intestinal villi and thick muscularis mucosa and muscle layer. Positive cells expressing NPY and OB-Rb were widely detected in the gastrointestinal tract by IHC methods. NPY positive nerve fibers and neuronal cell were widely distributed in submucosal plexus and myenteric plexus, especially in the former. They were arranged beaded or point-like shape. NPY positive cells were observed in the shape of ellipse and polygon and mainly located in the mucous layer and intestinal glands. OB-Rb positive cells were mainly distributed in the mucous layer and the laminae propria, especially the latter. These results confirmed that NPY and OB-Rb are widely distributed in the gut of the giant panda, which provide strong reference for the research between growth and development, digestion and absorption, and immune function. PMID:26762039

  10. CD34 immunoexpression in stromal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and in mesenteric fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Monihan, J M; Carr, N J; Sobin, L H

    1994-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether CD34 immunoreactivity can distinguish between different types of gastrointestinal stromal tumour, i.e. smooth muscle and neurogenic. We studied 87 stromal tumours from different sites in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the omentum and mesentery, using a monoclonal antibody to CD34 (QBEND10). We also determined the immunoexpression of smooth muscle and muscle specific actins, S-100 protein, cytokeratin, desmin and vimentin. In addition, 15 cases of mesenteric fibromatosis were tested for CD34. Immunoexpression of CD34 was observed in 40 of the 87 stromal tumours and correlated with evidence of differentiation towards a smooth muscle phenotype. Large intestinal stromal tumours were less likely than gastric lesions to be CD34 positive. None of 15 cases of mesenteric fibromatosis was positive for CD34. We conclude that CD34 immunoexpression is seen in a proportion of stromal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, mesentery and omentum, particularly those of smooth muscle type, and it may be useful as part of an immunohistochemical panel in the differential diagnosis of these neoplasms.

  11. Neuronal and Nonneuronal Cholinergic Structures in the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract and Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Gautron, Laurent; Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Burton, Michael D.; Wei, Wei; Wan, Yihong; Elmquist, Joel K.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates that acetylcholine can directly modulate immune function in peripheral tissues including the spleen and gastrointestinal tract. However, the anatomical relationships between the peripheral cholinergic system and immune cells located in these lymphoid tissues remain unclear due to inherent technical difficulties with currently available neuroanatomical methods. In this study, mice with specific expression of the tdTomato fluorescent protein in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-expressing cells were used to label preganglionic and postganglionic cholinergic neurons and their projections to lymphoid tissues. Notably, our anatomical observations revealed an abundant innervation in the intestinal lamina propria of the entire gastrointestinal tract principally originating from cholinergic enteric neurons. The aforementioned innervation frequently approached macrophages, plasma cells, and lymphocytes located in the lamina propria and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes in the interfollicular areas of Peyer’s patches. In addition to the above innervation, we observed labeled epithelial cells in the gallbladder and lower intestines, as well as Microfold cells and T-cells within Peyer’s patches. In contrast, we found only a sparse innervation in the spleen consisting of neuronal fibers of spinal origin present around arterioles and in lymphocyte-containing areas of the white pulp. Lastly, a small population of ChAT-expressing lymphocytes was identified in the spleen including both T- and B-cells. In summary, this study describes the variety of cholinergic neuronal and nonneuronal cells in a position to modulate gastrointestinal and splenic immunity in the mouse. PMID:23749724

  12. Influence of pH on Drug Absorption from the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Simple Chemical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Raymond J. S.; Neill, Jane

    1997-07-01

    A simple model of the gastrointestinal tract is obtained by placing ethyl acetate in contact with water at pH 2 and pH 8 in separate test tubes. The ethyl acetate corresponds to the lipid material lining the tract while the water corresponds to the aqueous contents of the stomach (pH 2) and intestine (pH 8). The compounds aspirin, paracetamol and 3-aminophenol are used as exemplars of acidic, neutral and basic drugs respectively to illustrate the influence which pH has on the distribution of each class of drug between the aqueous and organic phases of the model. The relative concentration of drug in the ethyl acetate is judged by applying microlitre-sized samples of ethyl acetate to a layer of fluorescent silica which, after evaporation of the ethyl acetate, is viewed under an ultraviolet lamp. Each of the three drugs, if present in the ethyl acetate, becomes visible as a dark spot on the silica layer. The observations made in the model system correspond well to the patterns of drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract described in pharmacology texts and these observations are convincingly explained in terms of simple acid-base chemistry.

  13. Nitrogenase diversity and activity in the gastrointestinal tract of the wood-eating catfish Panaque nigrolineatus

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Ryan; Zhang, Fan; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2015-01-01

    The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus, consume large amounts of wood in their diets. The nitrogen-fixing community within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of these catfish was found to include nifH phylotypes that are closely related to Clostridium sp., Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria, and sequences associated with GI tracts of lower termites. Fish fed a diet of sterilized palm wood were found to contain nifH messenger RNA within their GI tracts, displaying high sequence similarity to the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium group. Nitrogenase activity, measured by acetylene reduction assays, could be detected in freshly dissected GI tract material and also from anaerobic enrichment cultures propagated in nitrogen-free enrichment media; nifH sequences retrieved from these cultures were dominated by Klebsiella- and Clostridium-like sequences. Microscopic examination using catalyzed reporter deposition-enhanced immunofluorescence revealed high densities of nitrogenase-containing cells colonizing the woody digesta within the GI tract, as well as cells residing within the intestinal mucous layer. Our findings suggest that the P. nigrolineatus GI tract provides a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation that may facilitate production of reduced nitrogen by the resident microbial population under nitrogen limiting conditions. Whether this community is providing reduced nitrogen to the host in an active or passive manner and whether it is present in a permanent or transient relationship remains to be determined. The intake of a cellulose rich diet and the presence of a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation suggest that the GI tract microbial community may allow a unique trophic niche for P. nigrolineatus among fish. PMID:25909976

  14. Bioaccessibility and degradation of naturally occurring arsenic species from food in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Capilla, Teresa; Beshai, Mona; Maher, William; Kelly, Tamsin; Foster, Simon

    2016-12-01

    Humans are exposed to organic arsenic species through their diet and therefore, are susceptible to arsenic toxicity. Investigating the transformations occurring in the gastrointestinal tract will influence which arsenic species to focus on when studying metabolism in cells. Using a physiologically based extraction test, the bioaccessibility of arsenic species was determined after the simulated gastrointestinal digestion of rice, seaweed and fish. Pure standards of the major arsenic species present in these foodstuffs (arsenic glutathione complexes, arsenosugars and short chain fatty acids) were also evaluated to assess the effect of the food matrix on bioaccessibility and transformation. Approximately 80% of arsenic is released from these foodstuffs, potentially becoming available. Hydrolysis and demethylation of arsenic glutathione complexes and arsenosugars standards was observed, but no transformations occurred to arsenosugars present in seaweed. Demethylation of MA and DMA from rice occurs increasing the amount of inorganic arsenic species available for metabolism. PMID:27374523

  15. Horizontal gene transfer in the human gastrointestinal tract: potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Jennifer R

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to widespread antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This review aims to give an overview of the major horizontal transfer mechanisms and their evolution and then demonstrate the human lower gastrointestinal tract as an environment in which horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants occurs. Finally, implications for antibiotic usage and the development of resistant infections and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in populations as a result of horizontal gene transfer in the large intestine will be discussed. PMID:25018641

  16. Malignant tumours of the gastrointestinal tract in an area with an asbestos-cement plant.

    PubMed

    Sarić, M; Curin, K

    1996-06-01

    Data on persons who died of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract in a Croatian coastal area with an asbestos-cement plant were analysed for the period 1970-1990. By poll method applied to the families of deceased subjects, additional data on occupation, lifestyle, educational level, length of resistance and cancer mortality among relatives were collected. The investigation showed that in the study area, but also in certain narrower locations within it (subarea settlements), some of the tumours studied occurred at higher rates than expected. Although not conclusive, these findings may indicate a role of environmental exposure to asbestos, particularly in the occurrence of peritoneal mesothelioma.

  17. Narrow-band imaging for the head and neck region and the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Osamu; Ezoe, Yasumasa; Morita, Shuko; Horimatsu, Takahiro; Muto, Manabu

    2013-05-01

    Endoscopy is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of cancers derived from the gastrointestinal tract. However, a conventional white-light image has technical limitations in detecting small or superficial lesions. Narrow-band imaging, especially with magnification, allows visualization of microstructure patterns and microvascular patterns on the mucosal surface. These technical breakthroughs enable endoscopists to easily detect small pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions and to make a differential diagnosis of these lesions. Appropriate diagnosis with narrow-band imaging contributes to minimally invasive endoscopic resection.

  18. Enhanced tumor development by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in liver, lung and gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Witschi, H.P.

    1986-04-03

    Continuous feeding of 0.5% or 0.05% of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) enhances the development of spontaneously occurring liver tumors in C3H mice, but not in BALB/c mice. In mouse lung, the tumor-enhancing effects of BHT vary with the carcinogen used and in the gastrointestinal tract of mice and rats BHT enhances development of dimethylhydrazine-induced tumors but is without effect on tumors produced by methylnitrosourea. Strain differences, effect upon various carcinogens, paradoxical dose-responses and mechanisms of action remain major questions in the toxicology of BHT. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Induction of nuclear anomalies in the gastrointestinal tract by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, T.V.; Stober, J.A.; Olson, G.R.; Daniel, F.B.

    1991-01-01

    A selective list of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with varied carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies, which are identified as common contaminants at industrial sites and which often contaminate the neighboring ground water, are investigated for their ability to induce nuclear anomalies (NA) in the mouse gastrointestinal (G.I.) tract. These studies examined the hypothesis that a relationship between NA induction and carcinogenic potency of these PAH exists. Among the PAH tested, 7,12-dimethylbenzanthrene (DMBA) was most effective inducer of NA in all G.I. tract tissues examined, with the relative potency in duodenum of DMBA > > > benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) > > benzo(b)fluoranthene (B(b)F). The induction of NA by benzo(a)anthracene (B(a)A), pyrene (PY) and benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P) was not different from that elicited by vehicle controls. MNU, a known potent inducer of NA in the mouse G.I. tract, yielded a high level of NA in duodenum and proximal colon but was less effective than DMBA in the forestomach. The data suggest that induction of NA by DMBA and B(a)P PAH are in approximate accordance with their relative carcinogenic potency in the gastrointestinal tract. When binary mixtures of some PAH were administered the yield of NA was less than that expected by simple additivity and closer to that expected by averaging the activities of the two PAH comprising the mixture. Thus, this short-term in vivo assay may be useful as a predictor of the genotoxic or carcinogenic strength of individual PAH and/or mixtures of these compounds. (Copyright (c) 1991 Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd.)

  20. Biodistribution and endocytosis of ICAM-1-targeting antibodies versus nanocarriers in the gastrointestinal tract in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mane, Viraj; Muro, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Drug delivery to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is key for improving treatment of GI maladies, developing oral vaccines, and facilitating drug transport into circulation. However, delivery of formulations to the GI tract is hindered by pH changes, degradative enzymes, mucus, and peristalsis, leading to poor GI retention. Targeting may prolong residence of therapeutics in the GI tract and enhance their interaction with this tissue, improving such aspects. We evaluated nanocarrier (NC) and ligand-mediated targeting in the GI tract following gastric gavage in mice. We compared GI biodistribution, degradation, and endocytosis between control antibodies and antibodies targeting the cell surface determinant intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), expressed on GI epithelium and other cell types. These antibodies were administered either as free entities or coated onto polymer NCs. Fluorescence and radioisotope tracing showed proximal accumulation, with preferential retention in the stomach, jejunum, and ileum; and minimal presence in the duodenum, cecum, and colon by 1 hour after administration. Upstream (gastric) retention was enhanced in NC formulations, with decreased downstream (jejunal) accumulation. Of the total dose delivered to the GI tract, ∼60% was susceptible to enzymatic (but not pH-mediated) degradation, verified both in vitro and in vivo. Attenuation of peristalsis by sedation increased upstream retention (stomach, duodenum, and jejunum). Conversely, alkaline NaHCO3, which enhances GI transit by decreasing mucosal viscosity, favored downstream (ileal) passage. This suggests passive transit through the GI tract, governed by mucoadhesion and peristalsis. In contrast, both free anti-ICAM and anti-ICAM NCs demonstrated significantly enhanced upstream (stomach and duodenum) retention when compared to control IgG counterparts, suggesting GI targeting. This was validated by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which

  1. Dietary Proteins as Determinants of Metabolic and Physiologic Functions of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Jahan-Mihan, Alireza; Luhovyy, Bohdan L.; Khoury, Dalia El; Anderson, G. Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Dietary proteins elicit a wide range of nutritional and biological functions. Beyond their nutritional role as the source of amino acids for protein synthesis, they are instrumental in the regulation of food intake, glucose and lipid metabolism, blood pressure, bone metabolism and immune function. The interaction of dietary proteins and their products of digestion with the regulatory functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a dominant role in determining the physiological properties of proteins. The site of interaction is widespread, from the oral cavity to the colon. The characteristics of proteins that influence their interaction with the GI tract in a source-dependent manner include their physico-chemical properties, their amino acid composition and sequence, their bioactive peptides, their digestion kinetics and also the non-protein bioactive components conjugated with them. Within the GI tract, these products affect several regulatory functions by interacting with receptors releasing hormones, affecting stomach emptying and GI transport and absorption, transmitting neural signals to the brain, and modifying the microflora. This review discusses the interaction of dietary proteins during digestion and absorption with the physiological and metabolic functions of the GI tract, and illustrates the importance of this interaction in the regulation of amino acid, glucose, lipid metabolism, and food intake. PMID:22254112

  2. Non-toxic lead sulfide nanodots as efficient contrast agents for visualizing gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Ran, Xiang; Liu, Jianhua; Du, Yingda; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) tract using novel but efficient contrast agents is of the most important issues in the diagnosis and prognosis of GI diseases. Here, for the first time, we reported the design and synthesis of biothiol-decorated lead sulfide nanodots, as well as their usages in functional dual-modality imaging of GI tract in vivo. Due to the presence of glutathione on the surface of the nanodots, these well-prepared contrast agents could decrease the unwanted ion leakage, withstand the harsh conditions in GI tract, and avoid the systemic absorption after oral administration. Compared with clinical barium meal and iodine-based contrast agents, these nanodots exhibited much more significant enhancement in contrast efficiency during both 2D X-ray imaging and 3D CT imaging. Different from some conventional invasive imaging modalities, such as gastroscope and enteroscope, non-invasive imaging strategy by using glutathione modified PbS nanodots as contrast agents could reduce the painfulness towards patients, facilitate the imaging procedure, and economize the manipulation period. Moreover, long-term toxicity and bio-distribution of these nanodots after oral administration were evaluated in detail, which indicated their overall safety. Based on our present study, these nanodots could act as admirable contrast agents to integrate X-ray imaging and CT imaging for the direct visualization of GI tract.

  3. Effectiveness of prokinetic agents against diseases external to the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Toru; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Tanaka, Shinji; Haruma, Ken; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2009-04-01

    Prokinetic agents are effective not only for disease of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract but also for those external to the GI tract such as the central nervous system, and the respiratory, urologic, and metabolic organs. This article reviews the effectiveness of prokinetic agents against diseases external to the GI tract. Studies were identified by computerized and manual searches of the available literature. A Medline search was performed (1975-July, 2008) using the following medical subject headings: prokinetic agent, metoclopramide, domperidone, trimebutine, cisapride, itopride, mosapride, tegaserod, and human. The identified diseases for which prokinetic agents may be effective are various: bronchial asthma, chronic cough, hiccup, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, cholelithiasis, diabetes mellitus, acute migraine, Parkinson's disease, anorexia nervosa, Tourette's disorder, urologic sequelae of spinal cord injury and of radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer, laryngeal dysfunction and so on. These agents are also useful for prevention of aspiration pneumonia during anesthesia, and in tube-fed patients. Prokinetic agents should be a valuable addition to our currently limited pharmacological armamentarium not only for functional bowel disease, but also for diseases external to the GI tract. PMID:19220673

  4. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Takaaki Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  5. Antibody transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract and its role in enteric immunity of neonatal calves

    SciTech Connect

    Besser, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    High passive blood immunoglobulin concentrations are associated with decreased infectious enteric disease mortality in neonatal calves. Passive immunoglobulin transferred from the blood to the gastrointestinal tract may explain this protection. To measure the rate at which immunoglobulin G/sub 1/ (IgG/sub 1/) is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract, /sup 125/I-labelled bovine IgG/sub 1/ anti-DNP antibody was administered to calves by intravenous injection. The clearance rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ from the blood was measured and compared to the rate of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ appearance in the gastrointestinal tract, as measured (1) by the rate of fecal /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ excretion, and (2) by the amount of /sup 125/I-IgG/sub 1/ in the gastrointestinal tract of calves at necropsy. Rotavirus antibody titers in the gastrointestinal contents of 5- and 10-days-old calves correlated with the calves' serum passive rotavirus antibody titers, and were increased in proportion to the amount of colostral antibody fed on the first day of life. In contrast, when colostral rotavirus antibody was fed to 48-hour-old calves, when absorption of passive immunoglobulin does not occur, there was no measurable increase in antibody in the intestine 5 days later. Intestinal antibody in the 5- and 10-day-old calves therefore resulted from blood antibody transferred to the gastrointestinal tract. Rotavirus antibody administered to calves by parenteral injection protected them from infection and diarrhea after rotavirus challenge. These results indicate that passive blood IgG enters the calf gastrointestinal tract, where it contributes to intestinal immunity.

  6. Histological and Histochemical Analysis of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Common Pipistrelle Bat (Pipistrellus Pipistrellus)

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, S.; Encarnação, J.A.; Becker, N.I.; Trenczek, T.E.

    2015-01-01

    Bats have a very high mass-specific energy demand due to small size and active flight. European bat species are mostly insectivorous and the morphology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract should be adapted accordingly. This study investigated the general anatomy by histology and the function by analysing carbohydrate distribution in particular of the mucus of the GI tract of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus. The GI tracts of three individuals were dissected, fixed in formaldehyde, and embedded in paraffin wax. The tissues and cells of the GI tract of P. pipistrellus were analysed by classical (acid alizarin blue, haematoxylin-eosin, and Masson Goldner Trichrome), histochemical (periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue at pH 2.5) and lectin histochemical (lectins WGA and HPA) staining procedures. The GI tract of P. pipistrellus is organised into the typical mammalian layers. The short, narrow, and thin-walled esophagus is simple with a folded stratified squamous epithelium without glands but mucous surface cells secreting neutral mucus. The stomach is globular shaped without specialisation. Mucous surface cells produced neutral mucus whereas neck and parietal cells secreted a mixture of neutral and acid mucus. Chief cell surface was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and the cytoplasm for N-acetylgalactosamine residues. The intestine lacked a caecum and appendix. The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum-ileum and ileum-colon. The epithelium consisted of columnar enterocytes and goblet cells. The large intestine is short, only represented by the descending colon-rectum. It lacked villi and the mucosa had only crypts of Lieberkühn. Towards the colon-rectum, goblet cells produced mucus with N-acetylglucosamine residues increasing in acidity except in colon-rectum where acidity was highest in the base of crypts. Along the tube the surface of enterocytes was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. All over the mucus filling the

  7. Histological and histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal tract of the common pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus).

    PubMed

    Strobel, S; Encarnação, J A; Becker, N I; Trenczek, T E

    2015-01-01

    Bats have a very high mass-specific energy demand due to small size and active flight. European bat species are mostly insectivorous and the morphology of the gastrointestinal tract should be adapted accordingly. This study investigated the general anatomy by histology and the function by analysing carbohydrate distribution in particular of the mucus of the GI tract of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus. The GI tracts of three individuals were dissected, fixed in formaldehyde, and embedded in paraffin wax. The tissues and cells of the GI tract of P. pipistrellus were analysed by classical (Acid Alizarin Blue, Haematoxylin-Eosin, and Masson Goldner Trichrome), histochemical (periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue at pH 2.5) and lectin histochemical (lectins WGA and HPA) staining procedures. The GI tract of P. pipistrellus was organised into the typical mammalian layers. The short, narrow, and thin-walled esophagus was simple with a folded stratified squamous epithelium without glands but mucous surface cells secreting neutral mucus. The stomach was globular shaped without specialisation. Mucous surface cells produced neutral mucus whereas neck and parietal cells secreted a mixture of neutral and acid mucus. Chief cell surface was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and the cytoplasm for N-acetylgalactosamine residues. The intestine lacked a caecum and appendix. The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum‑ileum and ileum‑colon. The epithelium consisted of columnar enterocytes and goblet cells. The large intestine was short, only represented by the descending colon-rectum. It lacked villi and the mucosa had only crypts of Lieberkühn. Towards the colon-rectum, goblet cells produced mucus with N-acetylglucosamine residues increasing in acidity except in colon-rectum where acidity was highest in the base of crypts. Along the tube the surface of enterocytes was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. All over the mucus filling

  8. Histological and histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal tract of the common pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus).

    PubMed

    Strobel, S; Encarnação, J A; Becker, N I; Trenczek, T E

    2015-04-13

    Bats have a very high mass-specific energy demand due to small size and active flight. European bat species are mostly insectivorous and the morphology of the gastrointestinal tract should be adapted accordingly. This study investigated the general anatomy by histology and the function by analysing carbohydrate distribution in particular of the mucus of the GI tract of the insectivorous bat Pipistrellus pipistrellus. The GI tracts of three individuals were dissected, fixed in formaldehyde, and embedded in paraffin wax. The tissues and cells of the GI tract of P. pipistrellus were analysed by classical (Acid Alizarin Blue, Haematoxylin-Eosin, and Masson Goldner Trichrome), histochemical (periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue at pH 2.5) and lectin histochemical (lectins WGA and HPA) staining procedures. The GI tract of P. pipistrellus was organised into the typical mammalian layers. The short, narrow, and thin-walled esophagus was simple with a folded stratified squamous epithelium without glands but mucous surface cells secreting neutral mucus. The stomach was globular shaped without specialisation. Mucous surface cells produced neutral mucus whereas neck and parietal cells secreted a mixture of neutral and acid mucus. Chief cell surface was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and the cytoplasm for N-acetylgalactosamine residues. The intestine lacked a caecum and appendix. The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum‑ileum and ileum‑colon. The epithelium consisted of columnar enterocytes and goblet cells. The large intestine was short, only represented by the descending colon-rectum. It lacked villi and the mucosa had only crypts of Lieberkühn. Towards the colon-rectum, goblet cells produced mucus with N-acetylglucosamine residues increasing in acidity except in colon-rectum where acidity was highest in the base of crypts. Along the tube the surface of enterocytes was positive for N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. All over the mucus filling

  9. Current and future role of magnetically assisted gastric capsule endoscopy in the upper gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Hey-Long; Hale, Melissa Fay; McAlindon, Mark Edward

    2016-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy first captivated the medical world when it provided a means to visualize the small bowel, which was previously out of endoscopic reach. In the subsequent decade and a half we continue to learn of the true potential that capsule endoscopy has to offer. Of particular current interest is whether capsule endoscopy has any reliable investigative role in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Much research has already been dedicated to enhancing the diagnostic and indeed therapeutic properties of capsule endoscopy. Specific modifications to tackle the challenges of the gut have already been described in the current literature. In the upper gastrointestinal tract, the capacious anatomy of the stomach represents one of many challenges that capsule endoscopy must overcome. One solution to improving diagnostic yield is to utilize external magnetic steering of a magnetically receptive capsule endoscope. Notionally this would provide a navigation system to direct the capsule to different areas of the stomach and allow complete gastric mucosal examination. To date, several studies have presented promising data to support the feasibility of this endeavour. However the jury is still out as to whether this system will surpass conventional gastroscopy, which remains the gold standard diagnostic tool in the foregut. Nevertheless, a minimally invasive and patient-friendly alternative to gastroscopy remains irresistibly appealing, warranting further studies to test the potential of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy. In this article the authors would like to share the current state of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy and anticipate what is yet to come. PMID:27134661

  10. The anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Icardo, José M; Wong, Wai P; Colvee, Elvira; Loong, Ai M; Ip, Yuen K

    2010-07-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens is a composite, which includes the gut, the spleen, and the pancreas. The gut is formed by a short oesophagus, a longitudinal stomach, a pyloric valve, a spiraling intestine, and a cloaca. Coiling of the intestine begins dorsally below the pylorus, winding down to form six complete turns before ending into the cloaca. A reticular tissue of undisclosed nature accompanies the winding of the intestinal mucosa. The spleen is located along the right side of the stomach, overlapping the cranial end of the pancreas. The pancreas occupies the shallow area, which indicates on the gut dorsal side the beginning of the intestine coiling. In addition, up to 25 lymphatic-like nodes accompany the inner border of the spiral valve. The mesenteric artery forms a long axis for the intestine. All the components of the gastrointestinal tract are attached to each other by connective sheaths, and are wrapped by connective tissue, and by the serosa externally. We believe that several previous observations have been misinterpreted and that the anatomy of the lungfish gut is more similar among all the three lungfish genera than previously thought. Curiously, the gross anatomical organization is not modified during aestivation. We hypothesize that the absence of function is accompanied by structural modifications of the epithelium, and are currently investigating this possibility.

  11. Review of Pure Endoscopic Full-Thickness Resection of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) using flexible endoscopy has attracted attention as a minimally invasive surgical method that does not cause an operative wound on the body surface. However, minimizing the number of devices involved in endoscopic, compared to laparoscopic, surgeries has remained a challenge, causing endoscopic surgeries to gradually be phased out of use. If a flexible endoscopic full-thickness suturing device and a counter-traction device were developed to expand the surgical field for gastrointestinal-tract collapse, then endoscopic full-thickness resection using NOTES, which is seen as an extension of endoscopic submucosal dissection for full-thickness excision of tumors involving the gastrointestinal-tract wall, might become an extremely minimally invasive surgical method that could be used to resect only full-thickness lesions approached by the shortest distance via the mouth. It is expected that gastroenterological endoscopists will use this surgery if device development is advanced. This extremely minimally invasive surgery would have an immeasurable impact with regard to mitigating the burden on patients and reducing healthcare costs. Development of a new surgical method using a multipurpose flexible endoscope is therefore considered a socially urgent issue. PMID:26343069

  12. Survival and germination of Bacillus cereus spores without outgrowth or enterotoxin production during in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal transit.

    PubMed

    Ceuppens, Siele; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Drieskens, Katrien; Heyndrickx, Marc; Rajkovic, Andreja; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2012-11-01

    To study the gastrointestinal survival and enterotoxin production of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus, an in vitro simulation experiment was developed to mimic gastrointestinal passage in 5 phases: (i) the mouth, (ii) the stomach, with gradual pH decrease and fractional emptying, (iii) the duodenum, with high concentrations of bile and digestive enzymes, (iv) dialysis to ensure bile reabsorption, and (v) the ileum, with competing human intestinal bacteria. Four different B. cereus strains were cultivated and sporulated in mashed potato medium to obtain an inoculum of 7.0 log spores/ml. The spores showed survival and germination during the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal passage, but vegetative outgrowth of the spores was suppressed by the intestinal bacteria during the final ileum phase. No bacterial proliferation or enterotoxin production was observed, despite the high inoculum levels. Little strain variability was observed: except for the psychrotrophic food isolate, the spores of all strains survived well throughout the gastrointestinal passage. The in vitro simulation experiments investigated the survival and enterotoxin production of B. cereus in the gastrointestinal lumen. The results obtained support the hypothesis that localized interaction of B. cereus with the host's epithelium is required for diarrheal food poisoning.

  13. Relationship of reproductive hormones and neuromuscular disease of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mathias, J R; Clench, M H

    1998-01-01

    Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract comprise a common but ill-defined group of diseases; they primarily afflict women. Although predominantly involving nerve and muscle, the cellular and molecular bases of the pathogenesis of these functional disorders are unknown. Clinical studies indicate that some result from neural dysfunction within the enteric nervous system, others may be due to muscular problems, and the causes of still others remain unknown. Laboratory studies have shown that ovarian products such as progesterone, luteinizing hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and relaxin (but not estrogen), are neural antagonists of gastrointestinal motility. The production and secretion of these ovarian substances are controlled by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) released from the hypothalamus; they probably act on gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and alter chloride influx into the cell. GnRH analogs are effective drugs that downmodulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and inhibit the secretion of gonadal products involved in such hormone-dependent diseases as endometriosis and prostate cancer. Acting on the GnRH receptors (seven transmembrane domain receptors) on myenteric neurons, GnRH analogs are also effective neural modulators in such disorders as functional bowel disease. These analogs are a promising new group of compounds that may be used to treat difficult gastrointestinal problems.

  14. The Dynamic Interactions between Salmonella and the Microbiota, within the Challenging Niche of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Khan, C. M. Anjam

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how Salmonella species establish successful infections remains a foremost research priority. This gastrointestinal pathogen not only faces the hostile defenses of the host's immune system, but also faces fierce competition from the large and diverse community of microbiota for space and nutrients. Salmonella have solved these challenges ingeniously. To jump-start growth, Salmonella steal hydrogen produced by the gastrointestinal microbiota. Type 3 effector proteins are subsequently secreted by Salmonella to trigger potent inflammatory responses, which generate the alternative terminal electron acceptors tetrathionate and nitrate. Salmonella exclusively utilize these electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration, permitting metabolic access to abundant substrates such as ethanolamine to power growth blooms. Chemotaxis and flagella-mediated motility enable the identification of nutritionally beneficial niches. The resulting growth blooms also promote horizontal gene transfer amongst the resident microbes. Within the gastrointestinal tract there are opportunities for chemical signaling between host cells, the microbiota, and Salmonella. Host produced catecholamines and bacterial autoinducers form components of this chemical dialogue leading to dynamic interactions. Thus, Salmonella have developed remarkable strategies to initially shield against host defenses and to transiently compete against the intestinal microbiota leading to successful infections. However, the immunocompetent host is subsequently able to reestablish control and clear the infection. PMID:27437481

  15. Role of enteric neurotransmission in host defense and protection of the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Keith A.; Savidge, Tor C.

    2014-01-01

    Host defense is a vital role played by the gastrointestinal tract. As host to an enormous and diverse microbiome, the gut has evolved an elaborate array of chemical and physicals barriers that allow the digestion and absorption of nutrients without compromising the mammalian host. The control of such barrier functions requires the integration of neural, humoral, paracrine and immune signaling, involving redundant and overlapping mechanisms to ensure, under most circumstances, the integrity of the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier. Here we focus on selected recent developments in the autonomic neural control of host defense functions used in the protection of the gut from luminal agents, and discuss how the microbiota may potentially play a role in enteric neurotransmission. Key recent findings include: the important role played by subepithelial enteric glia in modulating intestinal barrier function, identification of stress-induced mechanisms evoking barrier breakdown, neural regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, the role of afferent and efferent vagal pathways in regulating barrier function, direct evidence for bacterial communication to the enteric nervous system, and microbial sources of enteric neurotransmitters. We discuss these new and interesting developments in our understanding of the role of the autonomic nervous system in gastrointestinal host defense. PMID:24412639

  16. Control of Strongyloides westeri by nematophagous fungi after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of donkeys.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Juliana Milani; Araújo, Jackson Victor de; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Strongyloides westeri is the most prevalent nematode among equines aged up to four months and causes gastrointestinal disorders. The objective of this study was to observe the control of infective S. westeri larvae (L3) by the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34) after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of female donkeys. Twelve dewormed female donkeys that were kept in stables were used. Two treatment groups each comprising four animals received orally 100 g of pellets made of sodium alginate matrix containing a mycelial mass of either D. flagrans (AC001) or M. thaumasium (NF34). The control group consisted of four animals that received pellets without fungus. Feces samples were then collected from the animal groups at different times (after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours). These feces were placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar medium and 1000 L3 of S. westeri. AC001 and NF34 isolates showed the ability to destroy the L3, after gastrointestinal transit, thus demonstrating their viability and predatory activity. PMID:22832758

  17. Distribution dynamics of recombinant Lactobacillus in the gastrointestinal tract of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Bao, Sujin; Zhu, Libin; Zhuang, Qiang; Wang, Lucia; Xu, Pin-Xian; Itoh, Keiji; Holzman, Ian R; Lin, Jing

    2013-01-01

    One approach to deliver therapeutic agents, especially proteins, to the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is to use commensal bacteria as a carrier. Genus Lactobacillus is an attractive candidate for use in this approach. However, a system for expressing exogenous proteins at a high level has been lacking in Lactobacillus. Moreover, it will be necessary to introduce the recombinant Lactobacillus into the GI tract, ideally by oral administration. Whether orally administered Lactobacillus can reach and reside in the GI tract has not been explored in neonates. In this study, we have examined these issues in neonatal rats. To achieve a high level of protein expression in Lactobacillus, we tested the impact of three promoters and two backbones on protein expression levels using mRFP1, a red fluorescent protein, as a reporter. We found that a combination of an L-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhL) promoter of Lactobacillus sakei with a backbone from pLEM415 yielded the highest level of reporter expression. When this construct was used to transform Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus acidophilus, high levels of mRFP1 were detected in all these species and colonies of transformed Lactobacillus appeared pink under visible light. To test whether orally administered Lactobacillus can be retained in the GI tract of neonates, we fed the recombinant Lactobacillus casei to neonatal rats. We found that about 3% of the bacteria were retained in the GI tract of the rats at 24 h after oral feeding with more recombinant Lactobacillus in the stomach and small intestine than in the cecum and colon. No mortality was observed throughout this study with Lactobacillus. In contrast, all neonatal rats died within 24 hours after fed with transformed E. coli. Taken together, our results indicate that Lactobacillus has the potential to be used as a vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic agents to neonates.

  18. Spatial dynamics of the bacterial community structure in the gastrointestinal tract of red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Li, Meirong; Jin, Wei; Li, Yuanfei; Zhao, Lingling; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-06-01

    The quantification and community of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) were examined by using real-time PCR and paired-end Illumina sequencing. The quantification of bacteria showed that the number of bacteria in jejunum and rectum was significantly lower than that in colon and cecum (P < 0.05). A total of 1,872,590 sequences was remained after quality-filtering and 50,948 OTUs were identified at the 97 % similarity level. The dominant phyla in the GI tract of red kangaroos were identified as Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. At the level of genus, the samples from different parts of GI tract clustered into three groups: stomach, small intestine (jejunum and ileum) and large intestine (cecum and rectum). Prevotella (29.81 %) was the most dominant genus in the stomach and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in other parts of GI tract. In the small intestine, Bifidobacterium (33.04, 12.14 %) and Streptococcus (22.90, 19.16 %) were dominant genera. Unclassified Ruminococcaceae was the most dominant family in large intestine and the total relative abundance of unclassified bacteria was above 50 %. In identified genera, Dorea was the most important variable to discriminate large intestine and it was significantly higher in cecum than in stomach, small intestine and colon (P < 0.05). Bifidobacterium (21.89 %) was the only dominant genus in colon. Future work on culture in vitro and genome sequencing of those unidentified bacteria might give us insight into the function of these microorganisms in the GI tract. In addition, the comparison of the bacterial community in the foregut of kangaroos and other herbivores and the rumen might give us insight into the mechanism of fiber degradation and help us exploit approaches to improve the feed efficiency and subsequently, reduce the methane emission from herbivores.

  19. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract: 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Mohamed H; Darwiesh, Ehab M; Refaey, Mohamed M; Galal, Sherif M

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies (FBs) in the upper gastrointestinal tract are produced chiefly by accidental swallowing but rarely produce symptoms. Removal of FBs is not an infrequent challenge for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study is to elicit our experience in a 5-year period in dealing with FBs in the upper gastrointestinal tract using upper endoscopy. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, over a 5-year period. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results A total of 45 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 102 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (53.3%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (44.4%). Coins were the most commonly encountered FBs (14/45). Esophagus was the most common site of trapping (27/45). The overall success rate was 95.6% (43/45). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal (41/43) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat to the stomach (2/43). Two cases were referred for surgical removal. The rate of complications was 6.7%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when performed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications. PMID:25053889

  20. Stimulation of sympathetic innervation in the upper gastrointestinal tract as a treatment for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jolene; DiLorenzo, Daniel J.; McLaughlin, Leslie; Roberts, Andrew T.; Greenway, Frank L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Sympathetic activity and obesity have a reciprocal relationship. Firstly, hypothalamic obesity is associated with decreased sympathetic activity. Caffeine and ephedrine increase sympathetic activity and induce weight loss, of which 25% is due to increased metabolic rate and 75% is due to a reciprocally decreased food intake. Secondly, hormones and drugs that affect body weight have an inverse relationship between food intake and metabolic rate. Neuropeptide Y decreases sympathetic activity and increases food intake and body weight. Thirdly, a gastric pacemaker Transcend® and vagotomy increase the ratio of sympathetic to parasympathetic activation, decrease food intake, and block gut satiety hormones. Weight loss with the pacemaker or vagotomy is variable. Significant weight reduction is seen only in a small group of those treated. This suggests that activation of the sympathetic arm of the autonomic nervous system may be most important for weight loss. Systemic sympathetic activation causes weight loss in obese patients, but side effects limited its use. We hypothesize that selective local electrical sympathetic stimulation of the upper gastrointestinal tract may induce weight loss and offer a safer, yet effective, obesity treatment. Celiac ganglia delivers sympathetic innervation to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Voltage regulated electrical simulation of the rat celiac ganglia increased metabolic rate in a dose-dependent manner. Stimulation of 6, 3, or 1.5 V increased metabolic rate 15.6%, 6.2%, and 5%, respectively in a single rat. These responses support our hypothesis that selective sympathetic stimulation of the upper GI tract may treat obesity while avoiding side effects of systemic sympathetic activation. PMID:19246162

  1. A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Trusov, P V; Zaitseva, N V; Kamaltdinov, M R

    2016-01-01

    A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the "macrolevel" that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the "mesolevel" of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown. PMID:27413393

  2. Lung dendritic cells induce migration of protective T cells to the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ruane, Darren; Brane, Lucas; Reis, Bernardo Sgarbi; Cheong, Cheolho; Poles, Jordan; Do, Yoonkyung; Zhu, Hongfa; Velinzon, Klara; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Studt, Natalie; Mayer, Lloyd; Lavelle, Ed C.; Steinman, Ralph M.; Mucida, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Developing efficacious vaccines against enteric diseases is a global challenge that requires a better understanding of cellular recruitment dynamics at the mucosal surfaces. The current paradigm of T cell homing to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract involves the induction of α4β7 and CCR9 by Peyer’s patch and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) dendritic cells (DCs) in a retinoic acid–dependent manner. This paradigm, however, cannot be reconciled with reports of GI T cell responses after intranasal (i.n.) delivery of antigens that do not directly target the GI lymphoid tissue. To explore alternative pathways of cellular migration, we have investigated the ability of DCs from mucosal and nonmucosal tissues to recruit lymphocytes to the GI tract. Unexpectedly, we found that lung DCs, like CD103+ MLN DCs, up-regulate the gut-homing integrin α4β7 in vitro and in vivo, and induce T cell migration to the GI tract in vivo. Consistent with a role for this pathway in generating mucosal immune responses, lung DC targeting by i.n. immunization induced protective immunity against enteric challenge with a highly pathogenic strain of Salmonella. The present report demonstrates novel functional evidence of mucosal cross talk mediated by DCs, which has the potential to inform the design of novel vaccines against mucosal pathogens. PMID:23960190

  3. A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Trusov, P. V.

    2016-01-01

    A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the “macrolevel” that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the “mesolevel” of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown. PMID:27413393

  4. Mammalian gastrointestinal tract parameters modulating the integrity, surface properties, and absorption of food-relevant nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Bellmann, Susann; Carlander, David; Fasano, Alessio; Momcilovic, Dragan; Scimeca, Joseph A; Waldman, W James; Gombau, Lourdes; Tsytsikova, Lyubov; Canady, Richard; Pereira, Dora I A; Lefebvre, David E

    2015-01-01

    Many natural chemicals in food are in the nanometer size range, and the selective uptake of nutrients with nanoscale dimensions by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a normal physiological process. Novel engineered nanomaterials (NMs) can bring various benefits to food, e.g., enhancing nutrition. Assessing potential risks requires an understanding of the stability of these entities in the GI lumen, and an understanding of whether or not they can be absorbed and thus become systemically available. Data are emerging on the mammalian in vivo absorption of engineered NMs composed of chemicals with a range of properties, including metal, mineral, biochemical macromolecules, and lipid-based entities. In vitro and in silico fluid incubation data has also provided some evidence of changes in particle stability, aggregation, and surface properties following interaction with luminal factors present in the GI tract. The variables include physical forces, osmotic concentration, pH, digestive enzymes, other food, and endogenous biochemicals, and commensal microbes. Further research is required to fill remaining data gaps on the effects of these parameters on NM integrity, physicochemical properties, and GI absorption. Knowledge of the most influential luminal parameters will be essential when developing models of the GI tract to quantify the percent absorption of food-relevant engineered NMs for risk assessment.

  5. Functional modifications associated with gastrointestinal tract organogenesis during metamorphosis in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Flatfish metamorphosis is a hormone regulated post-embryonic developmental event that transforms a symmetric larva into an asymmetric juvenile. In altricial-gastric teleost fish, differentiation of the stomach takes place after the onset of first feeding, and during metamorphosis dramatic molecular and morphological modifications of the gastrointestinal (GI-) tract occur. Here we present the functional ontogeny of the developing GI-tract from an integrative perspective in the pleuronectiforme Atlantic halibut, and test the hypothesis that the multiple functions of the teleost stomach develop synchronously during metamorphosis. Results Onset of gastric function was determined with several approaches (anatomical, biochemical, molecular and in vivo observations). In vivo pH analysis in the GI-tract lumen combined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) of α and β subunits of the gastric proton pump (H+/K+-ATPase) and pepsinogen A2 indicated that gastric proteolytic capacity is established during the climax of metamorphosis. Transcript abundance of ghrelin, a putative orexigenic signalling molecule produced in the developing stomach, correlated (p < 0.05) with the emergence of gastric proteolytic activity, suggesting that the stomach’s role in appetite regulation occurs simultaneously with the establishment of proteolytic function. A 3D models series of the GI-tract development indicated a functional pyloric sphincter prior to first feeding. Observations of fed larvae in vivo confirmed that stomach reservoir function was established before metamorphosis, and was thus independent of this event. Mechanical breakdown of food and transportation of chyme through the GI-tract was observed in vivo and resulted from phasic and propagating contractions established well before metamorphosis. The number of contractions in the midgut decreased at metamorphic climax synchronously with establishment of the stomach’s proteolytic capacity and its increased peristaltic

  6. The distribution of HCN2-positive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu; Xiong, Cheng-jie; Sun, Hai-mei; Li, Xiao-shuang; Zhang, Guo-quan; Wu, Bo; Zhou, De-shan

    2012-01-01

    HCN2 channels are involved in the spontaneous rhythmic activities of some CNS neurons and act by generating If current. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is known to be capable of spontaneous rhythmic activity; however, the possible role of HCN2 channels in this organ has not yet been elucidated. This study investigated the distribution of HCN2-positive cells in the mouse GI tract using immunohistochemistry. To identify the nature of these HCN2 cells, anti-ChAT and anti-Kit antibodies were used to co-label neurons and the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), respectively. Additionally, differences in the distribution of HCN2-positive cells within the GI tract were also analyzed. Our results showed that HCN2 channels were mainly located within the myenteric neurons of the enteric nervous system in the GI tract. Double-staining revealed that HCN2-positive neurons were labeled by ChAT, indicating that these HCN2-positive cells are also cholinergic neurons. Although the HCN2-positive cells were not stained by the anti-Kit antibody, their processes were in close proximity to ICCs around the myenteric plexus region. Moreover, several differences in the distribution of HCN2 in the stomach, small intestine and colon were partly consistent with the regional differences in the spontaneous rhythmic activities of these organs. Basing on the role HCN2, we suggested that HCN2 channels facilitate the release of Ach from cholinergic neurons to affect the GI peristalsis by acting on M receptors on the ICCs. However, the HCN2 channels are not directly involved in spontaneous slow-wave initiation by ICCs. PMID:22803609

  7. Enteric reovirus infection as a probe to study immunotoxicity of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Cuff, C F; Fulton, J R; Barnett, J B; Boyce, C S

    1998-04-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains a complex immune system that defends the host against a wide range of pathogens and toxins. The GI tract is also exposed to many environmental toxins that could adversely affect intestinal immunity, and few systems to study immunotoxicity of the GI tract have been described. We demonstrate that intestinal reovirus infection can be used as a system to assess the effects of toxins on intestinal and systemic immunity. Mice were given various doses of cyclophosphamide (CY) for 5 days at doses ranging from 100 to 500 mg/kg by the oral route or 200 mg/kg by the intraperitoneal route. On day 3 of dosing, mice were orally infected with reovirus serotype 1, strain Lang. The effects of CY on viral clearance, intestinal and systemic immune responses, and distribution of intestinal lymphocytes were assessed. Mice treated with CY failed to clear the virus in a dose-dependent manner, and serum anti-reovirus antibody titers were suppressed. Virus-specific IgA in cultures of intestinal tissue from CY-treated mice was significantly reduced compared to controls, although total IgA production was not affected. The virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell response in spleen was also suppressed in CY-treated animals. Cyclophosphamide treatment reduced the number and percentage of B-cells in Peyer's patches. Reovirus infection did not increase cellularity of Peyer's patches in CY-treated mice. Cyclophosphamide treatment also had little effect on the phenotype of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. These data demonstrate that intestinal reovirus infection is useful in studying exposure of the GI tract to immunotoxic agents. PMID:9579022

  8. Immunohistochemical detection of somatostatin sst2a receptors in the lymphatic, smooth muscular, and peripheral nervous systems of the human gastrointestinal tract: facts and artifacts.

    PubMed

    Reubi, J C; Laissue, J A; Waser, B; Steffen, D L; Hipkin, R W; Schonbrunn, A

    1999-08-01

    The cellular distribution of the somatostatin sst2A receptor protein was investigated in the lymphatic, smooth muscular, and nervous components of the human gastrointestinal tract using subtype-specific antibody R2-88 for immunohistochemical staining of cryostat and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Germinal centers of intestinal lymphatic follicles were immunostained, exhibiting a predominantly plasma membrane localization of the receptor. Similarly, nerve fibers and cells in the submucosal and myenteric plexus were stained for sst2A. Antibody preabsorption with 100 nmol/L antigen peptide abolished staining in all of these tissues, and immunohistochemical staining correlated with the labeling observed after receptor autoradiography using the sst2-preferring radioligand 125I-[Tyr3]octreotide. Cytoplasmic immunostaining was detected in gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells and was inhibited by antibody pre-absorption with antigen peptide. However, 125I-[Tyr3]octreotide autoradiography was negative, and Western blots showed no band at the usual 70-90 kDa location for sst2A. Instead, a band was observed at 205 kDa. This band comigrated with the rabbit myosin standard, which was also stained with R2-88, although antibody sensitivity for myosin was less than 0.002% of that for the sst2A receptor. Rigorous computer-based sequence analysis demonstrated the peptide sequence chosen for antibody production was unique. Moreover, standard sequence alignment protocols were unable to identify the sequences in myosin responsible for the observed reactivity with the R2-88 antiserum. The observed cross-reactivity emphasizes the need for extensive controls to prove the specificity of immunostaining for such low abundance proteins as receptors even when the peptide sequence chosen for antibody production is unique. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of specific sst2A receptor protein by immunohistochemistry in the human gastrointestinal lymphatic

  9. Campylobacter jejuni PflB is required for motility and colonisation of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kanji, Alpa; Jones, Michael A; Maskell, Duncan J; Grant, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the mechanisms by which C. jejuni causes disease are not completely understood, the presence of functional flagella appears to be required for colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. Therefore much attention has been given to understanding the synthesis and role of flagella in C. jejuni. In this study we report insights into the function of PflB that is essential for Campylobacter motility. We have explored the function of this gene by constructing deletion mutants in C. jejuni strains NCTC11168 and M1, in the genes cj0390 and CJM1_0368, respectively. The mutants were non-motile yet assembled flagella that appeared structurally identical to the wild type. Furthermore the protein is required for C. jejuni colonisation of caeca in a two-week old chicken colonisation model.

  10. Facile Synthesis of Uniform-Sized Bismuth Nanoparticles for CT Visualization of Gastrointestinal Tract in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wei, Boxiong; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhang, Cai; Jiang, Ying; Fu, Yan-Yan; Yu, Chunshui; Sun, Shao-Kai; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2016-05-25

    High-performance and biocompatible contrast agents are the key to accurate diagnosis of various diseases in vivo via CT imaging. Fabrication of pure Bi nanoparticles is the best way to maximize X-ray absorption efficiency due to the ultrahigh X-ray attenuation ability of Bi and 100% content of Bi element. However, high-quality Bi nanoparticles prepared through a facile strategy are still lacking. Herein, we report a simple noninjection method to fabricate uniformly sized pure Bi nanoparticles using only two commercial reagents by simply heating the mixture of raw materials in a short time. The obtained Bi nanoparticles owned highly uniform size, excellent monodispersity, and impressive antioxidant capacity. After being modified with oligosaccharide, the "sweet" Bi nanoprobe with comfortable patient experience and favorable biocompatibility was successfully used in CT visualization of gastrointestinal tract in detail.

  11. Anticholinergic action of pirenzepine (Gastrozepin) on isolated gastrointestinal tract smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A

    1983-01-01

    The effects of pirenzepine, a new anti-ulcer drug, have been examined on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contractions of the guinea-pig isolated ileum, rat colon, rainbow lizard rectum, and chick isolated oesophagus. Pirenzepine (10(-9)-10(-6) M), like atropine (2.5 x 10(-10)-10(-6) M) competitively blocked the contractile effects of acetylcholine on all the isolated gastrointestinal tract smooth muscles examined. The pA2 values for pirenzepine and atropine against acetylcholine on all the muscle preparations were not significantly different (P greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the anti-ulcer action of pirenzepine might be due, at least in part, to its (anticholinergic) muscarinic cholinoceptor blocking activity.

  12. Facile Synthesis of Uniform-Sized Bismuth Nanoparticles for CT Visualization of Gastrointestinal Tract in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wei, Boxiong; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhang, Cai; Jiang, Ying; Fu, Yan-Yan; Yu, Chunshui; Sun, Shao-Kai; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2016-05-25

    High-performance and biocompatible contrast agents are the key to accurate diagnosis of various diseases in vivo via CT imaging. Fabrication of pure Bi nanoparticles is the best way to maximize X-ray absorption efficiency due to the ultrahigh X-ray attenuation ability of Bi and 100% content of Bi element. However, high-quality Bi nanoparticles prepared through a facile strategy are still lacking. Herein, we report a simple noninjection method to fabricate uniformly sized pure Bi nanoparticles using only two commercial reagents by simply heating the mixture of raw materials in a short time. The obtained Bi nanoparticles owned highly uniform size, excellent monodispersity, and impressive antioxidant capacity. After being modified with oligosaccharide, the "sweet" Bi nanoprobe with comfortable patient experience and favorable biocompatibility was successfully used in CT visualization of gastrointestinal tract in detail. PMID:27144639

  13. Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and properties of gastrointestinal tract in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Young Bin; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jeong, Kiyoung; Choi, Yuna; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Dong Woo; Noh, Sam Kyu; Jeon, Tae-In; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo; Lee, Sang Kil; Oh, Seung Jae; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated basic properties of normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues, including glandular stomach (GS), fore stomach (FS), large intestine (LI), small intestine (SI), and esophagus (ESO), from a rat model using terahertz (THz) reflection imaging and spectroscopy. The THz images collected from stratified squamous epithelia (SSE) of FS and ESO show a lower peak-to-peak value compared to those from columnar epithelia (CE) of GS, LI, or SI because the SSE contains less water than CE. The refractive index and absorption coefficient of FS were less than those of GS or LI, both having values similar to those of water. Additionally, we report internal reflection THz signals from ESO, although we were unable to determine the exact interface for this internal reflection. PMID:25574429

  14. Regulatory peptides in the gastrointestinal tract of Alligator mississipiensis. An immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Buchan, A M; Lance, V; Polak, J M

    1983-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of the alligator Alligator mississipiensis has been investigated for the presence of immunoreactivity to fourteen regulatory peptides all known to occur in the mammalian gut system. Mucosal endocrine cells reacting specifically with the antisera to neurotensin, C-terminal gastrin, somatostatin, bombesin, secretin, pancreatic glucagon and enteroglucagon were detectable, the distribution of these cells being, in general, similar to the mammalian pattern. Peripheral nerve cell bodies and nerve fibres were detected with the antisera to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, bombesin and somatostatin again with a distribution similar to that seen in mammals. No immunoreactivity was observed with the available antisera to glicentin, motilin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, gastrin 34, cholecystokinin 9-20 and met-enkephalin.

  15. Pharmacological effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) with focus on the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts.

    PubMed

    Vinter-Jensen, L

    1999-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) belongs to a family of growth factor ligands and receptors. At present, five ligands have been recognized which as EGF exert their effects via binding to the same EGF receptor. The family has three other receptors erbB2, erbB3, and erbB4, which have their own ligands (the heregulins). The system is ubiquitously distributed in mammals, and has important roles in normal development, and in regenerative and neoplastic growth. Mouse and human EGF were discovered in 1962 and 1975 by Stanley Cohen and Harry Gregory, respectively, due to EGFs potent systemic effects. EGF accelerated eyelid opening in newborn mice and inhibited gastric acid secretion in humans. Already in the late thirties, a factor in human urine was recognized which prevented or accelerated healing of experimental damage in the gastrointestinal tract. This factor appeared to be EGF. Around 1980, an effect of commercial interest was described-EGF caused shedding of the fleece in sheep. In line with the original observations, several studies have examined effects of EGF on developmental processes. Amongst other effects, EGF accelerates lung and intestinal maturation before birth and in newborn mammals. Due to the possible use of EGF in the wool industry, it was mandatory to know more about EGF. Amongst other effects in mature sheep and other animals are haemodynamic changes, changes in electrolyte homeostasis, and endocrinological changes. In relation to experimental damage, the therapeutic potential of systemic EGF has been demonstrated in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, in the kidneys, in the liver and in the trachea. EGF has even been tried in humans in gastric ulcer healing and in necrotising enterocolitis. Studies on prolonged treatment with EGF have first recently appeared. We described effects of 4-5 weeks of treatment in Goettingen minipigs and in rats, and two other groups described effects in monkeys and in rats. In summary, species differences were observed

  16. Long-term exposure to zero-g and the gastro-intestinal tract function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormack, Percial D.

    1989-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) function is described with emphasis placed on its important role to smooth, delay, and modify sudden fluid load stress applied to the fluid distribution control system in the body. Two basic components of the GIT are considered: stomach dynamics, which involves storage, mixing, and discharge of food into the intestine after addition of gastric juices; and absorption of water and electrolytes from the small intestine. A dynamic model of these components is described, along with performance characteristics computed consecutively for one g and zero g conditions. The main impact of the zero g condition appears to be through a change in osmotic driven transport across the gut wall. A dramatic change in transport characteristics is predicted with implication for many body systems (the immune system in particular) during long-term exposure to zero g. Experimental measurements in zero g are needed to evaluate these predictions.

  17. Some gastro-intestinal tract parasites in wild De Brazza's monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus) in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Karere, G M; Munene, E

    2002-12-11

    Fresh faecal droppings of wild group of De Brazza's monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus), earmarked for translocation, were collected between January and July 1998. The samples were analysed using direct smears, ether-sedimentation and the Harada-Mori culture techniques for gastro-intestinal tract parasites (GIT). Two species of helminths and three of protozoa were detected. Entamoeba coli was found in all 40 samples screened from 11 monkeys. Entamoeba histolytica was detected in 71.8% of the total samples screened, Streptopharagus spp. in 12.8% and Strongyloides spp. and Balantidium coli each in 7.7% of the samples. E. histolytica and Streptopharagus spp. were most prevalent in faecal samples of juveniles while Strongyloides spp. and B. coli were mostly found in adult females. This, to our knowledge, is the first report of GIT parasites in a wild population of De Brazza's monkeys and our results are baseline. PMID:12446101

  18. Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and properties of gastrointestinal tract in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Ji, Young Bin; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jeong, Kiyoung; Choi, Yuna; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Dong Woo; Noh, Sam Kyu; Jeon, Tae-In; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo; Lee, Sang Kil; Oh, Seung Jae; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated basic properties of normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues, including glandular stomach (GS), fore stomach (FS), large intestine (LI), small intestine (SI), and esophagus (ESO), from a rat model using terahertz (THz) reflection imaging and spectroscopy. The THz images collected from stratified squamous epithelia (SSE) of FS and ESO show a lower peak-to-peak value compared to those from columnar epithelia (CE) of GS, LI, or SI because the SSE contains less water than CE. The refractive index and absorption coefficient of FS were less than those of GS or LI, both having values similar to those of water. Additionally, we report internal reflection THz signals from ESO, although we were unable to determine the exact interface for this internal reflection. PMID:25574429

  19. A position telemetric method for implantable microcapsules in the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xudong; Yan, Guozheng; He, Wenhui

    2008-04-01

    In order to measure the position and orientation of implantable microcapsules in the gastrointestinal tract, a novel non-contact method based on electromagnetic induction was presented. Six cylindrical coils were arrayed on the abdominal surface of a human body. These coils were excited one-by-one in sequence with a sinusoidal signal to generate an alternating magnetic field. Meanwhile, a small induction coil along with a signal-processing circuit and radio-frequency transmitter was mounted inside the microcapsule to measure the magnetic signal produced by the six excitation coils. Based on the newly derived localization model and the particle swarm algorithm, the position and orientation of the microcapsule can be calculated. The experiments show that the localization system has good stability, high precision and wide localization range.

  20. Bio-inspired solutions for locomotion in the gastrointestinal tract: background and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2003-10-15

    This paper illustrates a bio-inspired approach to effective, smooth and safe navigation in the human body and, in particular, in the gastrointestinal tract. This idea originates from the medical need to develop more powerful tools for microendoscopy, which is one of the most challenging frontiers of modern medicine. Understanding motion and perception systems of lower animal forms, such as parasites, worms, insects and snakes, can help to design and fabricate bio-inspired robots able to navigate in tortuous, slippery and difficult-to-access cavities of the human body. A preliminary study of a biomimetic adhesion system for the human tissues is presented in this work and some technological implementations are illustrated and discussed. Finally, some issues concerning the goals of smart and reactive locomotion are considered and the most promising and relevant enabling technologies are discussed.

  1. Inhibitory effects of kratom leaf extract (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) on the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chittrakarn, Somsmorn; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Prasettho, Supaporn; Janchawee, Benjamas; Keawpradub, Niwat

    2008-02-28

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is an indigenous plant of Thailand used traditionally in folk medicine although it is claimed to cause addiction. It is used to treat diarrhea, however, there is no scientific evidence to support the use. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of kratom leaves on the rat gastrointestinal tract. Kratom extract at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.) caused a dose dependent protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and also inhibited intestinal transit. The antidiarrheal effect was not antagonized by naloxzone. The inhibition of intestinal transit by kratom extract was significantly different from the control when treated with a single dose for 1 day. For longer-term treatments of 15 and 30 days, kratom extract did not decrease the intestinal transit time indicating that adaptation had occurred. Kratom extract at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 30 days and morphine at 3 mg/kg (i.p.) caused a decrease in the increment of body weight that was significantly different from the control and kratom extract at lower doses (50 and 100 mg/kg). However it had no effect on the level of plasma cholecystokinin. The results suggested that methanolic kratom extract exhibited its antidiarrheal effect on rat gastrointestinal tract. The effects may occur via pathways in addition to the action on opioid receptors. High does of kratom extract decreased the increment of body weight similar to the effect of morphine. PMID:18191353

  2. Nitrogen transactions along the gastrointestinal tract of cattle: A meta-analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Marini, J C; Fox, D G; Murphy, M R

    2008-03-01

    In ruminant animals, endogenous N (EN) secretions contribute to meeting the N requirement of the ruminal microflora. The EN also constitutes a sizable portion of the duodenal N flow, which might be available to the host animal. Most measures of EN have been accomplished with highly invasive techniques or unusual semisynthetic diets. By utilizing a statistical approach and data obtained from studies reporting duodenal, ileal, and fecal N flows in cattle, the EN losses and true digestibility of N were estimated for different segments of the gastrointestinal tract of cattle. A simulation for a reference diet (24.2 g of N/kg of OM, 32% NDF and carbohydrates of medium fermentation rate) consumed at 2% of BW daily estimated that the minimal contribution of EN to the N available in the rumen was 39%. The free EN represented 13% of the duodenal N flow, and when bacterial N of EN origin was considered, EN contributed 35% of the total N flow. The minimal entry of EN into various segments of the gastrointestinal tract was also estimated as: foregut, 10.54; small intestine, 3.10; and hindgut, 5.0 g/kg of OMI. Rumen dietary N degradability was 0.68, and true N digestibilities in the small intestine and hindgut were 0.75 and 0.49, respectively. A better understanding of the factors involved in EN losses will allow for a more accurate estimation of both N supply and N requirements. This will translate into improved accuracy of diet formulation and less N excreted into the environment.

  3. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  4. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Gruninger, Robert J.; McAllister, Tim A.; Forster, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) is the second largest living rodent and an iconic symbol of Canada. The beaver is a semi-aquatic browser whose diet consists of lignocellulose from a variety of plants. The beaver is a hindgut fermenter and has an enlarged ceacum that houses a complex microbiome. There have been few studies examining the microbial diversity in gastrointestinal tract of hindgut fermenting herbivores. To examine the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of the beaver, the microbiome of the ceacum and feaces was examined using culture-independent methods. DNA from the microbial community of the ceacum and feaces of 4 adult beavers was extracted, and the16S rRNA gene was sequenced using either bacterial or archaeal specific primers. A total of 1447 and 1435 unique bacterial OTUs were sequenced from the ceacum and feaces, respectively. On average, the majority of OTUs within the ceacum were classified as Bacteroidetes (49.2%) and Firmicutes (47.6%). The feaces was also dominated by OTUs from Bacteroidetes (36.8%) and Firmicutes (58.9%). The composition of bacterial community was not significantly different among animals. The composition of the ceacal and feacal microbiome differed, but this difference is due to changes in the abundance of closely related OTUs, not because of major differences in the taxonomic composition of the communities. Within these communities, known degraders of lignocellulose were identified. In contrast, to the bacterial microbiome, the archaeal community was dominated by a single species of methanogen, Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The data presented here provide the first insight into the microbial community within the hindgut of the beaver. PMID:27227334

  5. Viability of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of horses.

    PubMed

    Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Silva, André Ricardo; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2010-03-25

    The predatory capacity of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolate VC4) embedded in sodium alginate pellets after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of horses was assessed in vitro against Oxyuris equi eggs. Twelve previously dewormed crossbred mares, average weight of 362.5kg (+/-21) were used in the experiment. Each animal of the treated group received an oral dose (100g) of sodium alginate pellets containing P. chlamydosporia mycelial mass. The control group received pellets without fungus. Faecal samples from fungus-treated and control groups were collected at intervals of 8, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72h after pellet administration and placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar. One thousand eggs of O. equi were plated in Petri dishes of both treated and control groups, with six replicates, and incubated in oven, 25 degrees C, in the dark, for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, one hundred eggs were removed from each Petri dish and classified according to the following parameters: type 1, physiological and biochemical effect without morphological damage to eggshell, with hyphae adhered to the shell; type 2, lytic effect with morphological change in the eggshell and embryo without hyphal penetration, and type 3, lytic effect with morphological change in the eggshell and embryo, with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. Chlamydospore production was observed in Petri dishes of the treated group. The isolate VC4 remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses and maintained the ovicidal activity against O. equi eggs when compared with the control group (p<0.01) after each collection interval: 29.1% (8h), 28.2% (12h), 31.1% (24h), 27.4% (36h), 30.9% (48h) and 28.4% (72h). The results suggest that P. chlamydosporia could be used as an effective biological control agent of O. equi eggs in natural conditions. PMID:20036059

  6. Role of Tyramine Synthesis by Food-Borne Enterococcus durans in Adaptation to the Gastrointestinal Tract Environment ▿

    PubMed Central

    Fernández de Palencia, Pilar; Fernández, Maria; Mohedano, Maria Luz; Ladero, Victor; Quevedo, Cristina; Alvarez, Miguel A.; López, Paloma

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines in food constitute a human health risk. Here we report that tyramine-producing Enterococcus durans strain IPLA655 (from cheese) was able to produce tyramine under conditions simulating transit through the gastrointestinal tract. Activation of the tyramine biosynthetic pathway contributed to binding and immunomodulation of enterocytes. PMID:21097601

  7. Effects of ergot alkaloid exposure on serotonin receptor mRNA in the smooth muscle of the bovine gastrointestinal tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various serotonin (5HT) receptor subtypes have been located in the gastrointestinal tract and some are associated with gut motility. Cattle exposed to ergot alkaloids through consumption of contaminated feedstuffs have demonstrated signs (e.g. - increased rumen DM content and total content) that sug...

  8. Postmortem photonic imaging of lux-modified Salmonella typhimurium within the gastrointestinal tract of swine following oral inoculation in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to monitor Salmonella progression by photonic detection through segments of the gastrointestinal tract following oral inoculation. Pigs (~ 80 kg) were inoculated orally with 3.1 or 4.1×10*10 colony forming units (cfu) of Salmonella typhimurium transformed with plasmid pAK1-lu...

  9. Postmortem Photonic Imaging of Lux-Modified Salmonella Typhimuium Within the Gastrointestinal Tract of Swine Following Oral Inoculation In Vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to monitor Salmonella progression by photonic detection through segments of the gastrointestinal tract after oral inoculation. Pigs (~80 kg) were inoculated orally with 3.1 or 4.1 x 1010 cfu of Salmonella Typhimurium transformed with plasmid pAK1-lux for a 6-h (n = 6) or 12-h...

  10. Cellulolytic and proteolytic ability of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract and composting of a hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    da Cruz Ramos, Geomárcia Feitosa; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Passarini, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano; Vieira Silveira, Marghuel A; Okamoto, Débora Noma; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Zezzo, Larissa Vieira; Marem, Alyne; Santos Rocha, Rafael Costa; da Cruz, João Batista; Juliano, Luiz; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto

    2016-03-01

    The bioprospection for cellulase and protease producers is a promise strategy for the discovery of potential biocatalysts for use in hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials as well as proteic residues. These enzymes can increment and turn viable the production of second generation ethanol from different and alternative sources. In this context, the goal of this study was the investigation of cellulolytic and proteolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a hippopotamus as well as from its composting process. It is important to highlight that hippopotamus gastrointestinal samples were a non-typical sources of efficient hydrolytic bacteria with potential for application in biotechnological industries, like biofuel production. Looking for this, a total of 159 bacteria were isolated, which were submitted to qualitative and quantitative enzymatic assays. Proteolytic analyzes were conducted through the evaluation of fluorescent probes. Qualitative assays for cellulolytic abilities revealed 70 positive hits. After quantitative analyzes, 44 % of these positive hits were selected, but five (5) strains showed cellulolytic activity up to 11,8 FPU/mL. Regarding to proteolytic activities, six (6) strains showed activity above 10 %, which overpassed results described in the literature. Molecular analyzes based on the identification of 16S rDNA, revealed that all the selected bacterial isolates were affiliated to Bacillus genus. In summary, these results strongly indicate that the isolated bacteria from a hippopotamus can be a potential source of interesting biocatalysts with cellulolytic and proteolytic activities, with relevance for industrial applications.

  11. Cellulolytic and proteolytic ability of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract and composting of a hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    da Cruz Ramos, Geomárcia Feitosa; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Passarini, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano; Vieira Silveira, Marghuel A; Okamoto, Débora Noma; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Zezzo, Larissa Vieira; Marem, Alyne; Santos Rocha, Rafael Costa; da Cruz, João Batista; Juliano, Luiz; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto

    2016-03-01

    The bioprospection for cellulase and protease producers is a promise strategy for the discovery of potential biocatalysts for use in hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials as well as proteic residues. These enzymes can increment and turn viable the production of second generation ethanol from different and alternative sources. In this context, the goal of this study was the investigation of cellulolytic and proteolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a hippopotamus as well as from its composting process. It is important to highlight that hippopotamus gastrointestinal samples were a non-typical sources of efficient hydrolytic bacteria with potential for application in biotechnological industries, like biofuel production. Looking for this, a total of 159 bacteria were isolated, which were submitted to qualitative and quantitative enzymatic assays. Proteolytic analyzes were conducted through the evaluation of fluorescent probes. Qualitative assays for cellulolytic abilities revealed 70 positive hits. After quantitative analyzes, 44 % of these positive hits were selected, but five (5) strains showed cellulolytic activity up to 11,8 FPU/mL. Regarding to proteolytic activities, six (6) strains showed activity above 10 %, which overpassed results described in the literature. Molecular analyzes based on the identification of 16S rDNA, revealed that all the selected bacterial isolates were affiliated to Bacillus genus. In summary, these results strongly indicate that the isolated bacteria from a hippopotamus can be a potential source of interesting biocatalysts with cellulolytic and proteolytic activities, with relevance for industrial applications. PMID:26931430

  12. Understanding the gastrointestinal tract of the elderly to develop dietary solutions that prevent malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Rémond, Didier; Shahar, Danit R; Gille, Doreen; Pinto, Paula; Kachal, Josefa; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Walther, Barbara; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier; Tomás-Cobos, Lidia; Vergères, Guy

    2015-06-10

    Although the prevalence of malnutrition in the old age is increasing worldwide a synthetic understanding of the impact of aging on the intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients is still lacking. This review article aims at filling the gap in knowledge between the functional decline of the aging gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the consequences of malnutrition on the health status of elderly. Changes in the aging GIT include the mechanical disintegration of food, gastrointestinal motor function, food transit, chemical food digestion, and functionality of the intestinal wall. These alterations progressively decrease the ability of the GIT to provide the aging organism with adequate levels of nutrients, what contributes to the development of malnutrition. Malnutrition, in turn, increases the risks for the development of a range of pathologies associated with most organ systems, in particular the nervous-, muscoskeletal-, cardiovascular-, immune-, and skin systems. In addition to psychological, economics, and societal factors, dietary solutions preventing malnutrition should thus propose dietary guidelines and food products that integrate knowledge on the functionality of the aging GIT and the nutritional status of the elderly. Achieving this goal will request the identification, validation, and correlative analysis of biomarkers of food intake, nutrient bioavailability, and malnutrition.

  13. Influences of Dietary and Environmental Stress on Microbial Populations in the Murine Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Tannock, Gerald W.; Savage, Dwayne C.

    1974-01-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic cultural techniques and histological methods were used in a study of the effects of environmental and dietary stress on the indigenous microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of mice. Mice previously inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium were examined in a similar manner. Three strains of mice (CD-1, Ha/ICr, and C57BL) were used. Control animals previously inoculated with S. typhimurium had low population levels of Salmonella bacteria in the small and large bowel. Mice previously inoculated with Salmonella and then deprived of food, water, and bedding for 48 h harbored high population levels of these bacteria in their small and large bowels. Coliforms increased in numbers in the large bowel of stressed mice inoculated with Salmonella and in the jejunum-ileum and cecum of stressed mice not previously inoculated with Salmonella. Control mice had high population levels of lactobacilli inhabiting the keratinized squamous epithelium of the stomach. Stressed mice showed dramatic reductions in these populations of lactobacilli. Populations of fusiform-shaped bacteria associated with the mucosal epithelium of the cecum and colon in control mice were reduced in stressed mice as determined by microscope examination of histological sections. Total anaerobic counts were similar, however, in both stressed and control animals. Environmental and dietary stress markedly alter the gastrointestinal microbiota in mice. Therefore, such stressful conditions profoundly affect the factors that regulate the localization and population levels of microorganisms in the stomach and intestines. Images PMID:4593471

  14. Understanding the gastrointestinal tract of the elderly to develop dietary solutions that prevent malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rémond, Didier; Shahar, Danit R.; Gille, Doreen; Pinto, Paula; Kachal, Josefa; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Walther, Barbara; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier; Tomás-Cobos, Lidia; Vergères, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Although the prevalence of malnutrition in the old age is increasing worldwide a synthetic understanding of the impact of aging on the intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients is still lacking. This review article aims at filling the gap in knowledge between the functional decline of the aging gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the consequences of malnutrition on the health status of elderly. Changes in the aging GIT include the mechanical disintegration of food, gastrointestinal motor function, food transit, chemical food digestion, and functionality of the intestinal wall. These alterations progressively decrease the ability of the GIT to provide the aging organism with adequate levels of nutrients, what contributes to the development of malnutrition. Malnutrition, in turn, increases the risks for the development of a range of pathologies associated with most organ systems, in particular the nervous-, muscoskeletal-, cardiovascular-, immune-, and skin systems. In addition to psychological, economics, and societal factors, dietary solutions preventing malnutrition should thus propose dietary guidelines and food products that integrate knowledge on the functionality of the aging GIT and the nutritional status of the elderly. Achieving this goal will request the identification, validation, and correlative analysis of biomarkers of food intake, nutrient bioavailability, and malnutrition. PMID:26091351

  15. Nitric oxide synthase in the gastrointestinal tract of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus.

    PubMed

    Olsson, C; Gibbins, I

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing nerve cells in the gastrointestinal tract of a reptile and to compare it with the pattern in other vertebrate classes. In the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, NOS-positive nerve cell bodies and fibres were found in all regions of the gut examined. Most myenteric microganglia contained one or several NOS-immunoreactive neurons together with unlabelled neurons. The majority of the neurons were multipolar, ranging from 10 to 25 microns in diameter. Both the circular and the longitudinal muscle layers were innervated by NOS-immunoreactive nerve fibres, which mostly ran parallel to the muscle fibres. In addition, small blood vessels in the submucosa and on the serosal surface of the gut were innervated by NOS-immunoreactive fibres. Double labelling with antisera to NOS and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) revealed three neuronal subpopulations. A small proportion of the NOS-immunoreactive cells also contained immunoreactivity to VIP while a majority of the VIP-immunoreactive cells were NOS immunoreactive. There were more nerve fibres showing VIP immunoreactivity than fibres with NOS immunoreactivity, although most of the latter also contained immunoreactivity to VIP. VIP-immunoreactive fibres often surrounded the NOS-immunoreactive nerve cells. These results suggest that neuronally released nitric oxide is likely to be involved in the control of gastrointestinal motility in the crocodile as in most other vertebrate species.

  16. Characterization of the most abundant Lactobacillus species in chicken gastrointestinal tract and potential use as probiotics for genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Fang, Mingjian; Hu, Yanping; Yang, Yuxin; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-01

    The count and diffusion of Lactobacilli species in the different gastrointestinal tract (GI) regions of broilers were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the probiotic characteristics of six L. reuteri species isolated from broilers' GI tract were also investigated to obtain the potential target for genetic engineering. Lactobacilli had the highest diversity in the crop and the lowest one in the cecum. Compared with the lower GI tract, more Lactobacilli were found in the upper GI tract. Lactobacillus reuteri, L. johnsonii, L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. salivarius, and L. aviarius were the predominant Lactobacillus species and present throughout the GI tract of chickens. Lactobacillus reuteri was the most abundant Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 had good probiotic characteristics that would be a potential and desirable target for genetic engineering. PMID:24850302

  17. Metabolic Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT): Host, Commensal, Probiotics, and Bacteriophage Influences.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2015-12-17

    Life on this planet has been intricately associated with bacterial activity at all levels of evolution and bacteria represent the earliest form of autonomous existence. Plants such as those from the Leguminosae family that form root nodules while harboring nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria are a primordial example of symbiotic existence. Similarly, cooperative activities between bacteria and animals can also be observed in multiple domains, including the most inhospitable geographical regions of the planet such as Antarctica and the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. In humans bacteria are often classified as either beneficial or pathogenic and in this regard we posit that this artificial nomenclature is overly simplistic and as such almost misinterprets the complex activities and inter-relationships that bacteria have with the environment as well as the human host and the plethora of biochemical activities that continue to be identified. We further suggest that in humans there are neither pathogenic nor beneficial bacteria, just bacteria embraced by those that tolerate the host and those that do not. The densest and most complex association exists in the human gastrointestinal tract, followed by the oral cavity, respiratory tract, and skin, where bacteria-pre- and post-birth-instruct the human cell in the fundamental language of molecular biology that normally leads to immunological tolerance over a lifetime. The overall effect of this complex output is the elaboration of a beneficial milieu, an environment that is of equal or greater importance than the bacterium in maintaining homeostasis.

  18. Metabolic Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT): Host, Commensal, Probiotics, and Bacteriophage Influences

    PubMed Central

    Vitetta, Luis; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Life on this planet has been intricately associated with bacterial activity at all levels of evolution and bacteria represent the earliest form of autonomous existence. Plants such as those from the Leguminosae family that form root nodules while harboring nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria are a primordial example of symbiotic existence. Similarly, cooperative activities between bacteria and animals can also be observed in multiple domains, including the most inhospitable geographical regions of the planet such as Antarctica and the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. In humans bacteria are often classified as either beneficial or pathogenic and in this regard we posit that this artificial nomenclature is overly simplistic and as such almost misinterprets the complex activities and inter-relationships that bacteria have with the environment as well as the human host and the plethora of biochemical activities that continue to be identified. We further suggest that in humans there are neither pathogenic nor beneficial bacteria, just bacteria embraced by those that tolerate the host and those that do not. The densest and most complex association exists in the human gastrointestinal tract, followed by the oral cavity, respiratory tract, and skin, where bacteria—pre- and post-birth—instruct the human cell in the fundamental language of molecular biology that normally leads to immunological tolerance over a lifetime. The overall effect of this complex output is the elaboration of a beneficial milieu, an environment that is of equal or greater importance than the bacterium in maintaining homeostasis. PMID:27682125

  19. Transport of d-galactose by the gastrointestinal tract of the locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Pascual, I; Berjón, A; Lostao, M P; Barber, A

    2006-01-01

    Due to exoskeleton, the absorption of nutrients in adult insects takes place across the gastrointestinal tract epithelium. In most physiological studies, sugar intestinal absorption has been described as a diffusional process and to date no sugar transporter has been cloned from the digestive tract of insects. In the present work, the existence of a saturable transport system for galactose in the gastric caeca of Locusta migratoria is clearly demonstrated. This transport shows a relatively high affinity for galactose (apparent K0.5=2-3 mM) and is inhibited by glucose, 2-deoxyglucose and with less potency by fructose and alpha-methyl-d-glucoside. The absence of sodium or the presence of phloridzin hardly affects galactose absorption, indicating that it is not mediated by a SGLT1-like transporter. The absence of K+, Cl-, Mg2+ and Ca2+ or changes in the pH do not modify galactose absorption either. Nevertheless, phloretin, cytochalasin B and theophylline (inhibitors of facilitative transporters) decrease sugar uptake around 50%. Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with poly A+ RNA isolated from gastric caeca show sodium-independent galactose uptake that is three times higher than in non-injected oocytes, further supporting the existence of a mRNA coding for at least one equilibrative sugar transporter in L. migratoria gastric caeca. PMID:16314134

  20. Enhancing the culturability of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of farmed adult turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Mengxin; Hou, Zhanhui; Qu, Yanmei; Liu, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Eighteen agar media were tested for the culture of gut-associated bacteria from farmed adult turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), including 16 agar media with or without 1% gastrointestinal (GI) supernatant, or with 2% or 4% GI supernatant. A total of 1 711 colonies were analyzed and 24 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. The greatest bacterial diversity was isolated on Zobell 2216E/Zobell 2216E+ agar media, whereas MRS/MRS+ agar media produced a low diversity of colonies. Agar media with GI supernatant (1%, 2%, or 4%) showed increased diversity and yielded different profiles of OTUs from the corresponding original media, suggesting that GI supernatant provides substances that enhance the culture efficiency of bacteria from the turbot GI tract. The large majority of the colonies (82%) were γ-Proteobacteria, whereas 15.6% and 2.4% of colonies were Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, respectively. At the genus level, 49.4% of all colonies were assigned to Vibrio. Other potential pathogens, including Pseudomonas, Photobacterium, and Enterobacter, and potential probiotics, including Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Pseudomonas, were also isolated on agar media. Most cultured bacteria belonged to species that were first described in the turbot GI tract. The impact of these species on turbot physiology and health should be investigated further.

  1. Kit signaling is required for development of coordinated motility patterns in zebrafish gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Rich, Adam; Gordon, Scott; Brown, Chris; Gibbons, Simon J; Schaefer, Katherine; Hennig, Grant; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2013-06-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) provide a pacemaker signal for coordinated motility patterns in the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Kit signaling is required for development and maintenance of ICC, and these cells can be identified by Kit-like immunoreactivity. The zebrafish GI tract has two distinct ICC networks similar to mammals, suggesting a similar role in the generation of GI motility; however, a functional role for Kit-positive cells in zebrafish has not been determined. Analysis of GI motility in intact zebrafish larvae was performed during development and after disruption of Kit signaling. Development of coordinated motility patterns occurred after 5 days post-fertilization (dpf) and correlated with appearance of Kit-positive cells. Disruptions of Kit signaling using the Kit antagonist imatinib mesylate, and in Sparse, a null kita mutant, also disrupted development of coordinated motility patterns. These data suggest that Kit signaling is necessary for development of coordinated motility patterns and that Kit-positive cells in zebrafish are necessary for coordinated motility patterns.

  2. Integrated OCT-US catheter for detection of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiawen; Ma, Teng; Cummins, Thomas; Shung, K. Kirk; Van Dam, Jacques; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2015-03-01

    Gastrointestinal tract cancer, the most common type of cancer, has a very low survival rate, especially for pancreatic cancer (five year survival rate of 5%) and bile duct cancer (five year survival rate of 12%). Here, we propose to use an integrated OCT-US catheter for cancer detection. OCT is targeted to acquire detailed information, such as dysplasia and neoplasia, for early detection of tumors. US is used for staging cancers according to the size of the primary tumor and whether or not it has invaded lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Considering the lumen size of the GI tract, an OCT system with a long image range (>10mm) and a US imaging system with a center frequency at 40MHz (penetration depth > 5mm) were used. The OCT probe was also designed for long-range imaging. The side-view OCT and US probes were sealed inside one probe cap piece and one torque coil and became an integrated probe. This probe was then inserted into a catheter sheath which fits in the channel of a duodenoscope and is able to be navigated smoothly into the bile duct by the elevator of the duodenoscope. We have imaged 5 healthy and 2 diseased bile ducts. In the OCT images, disorganized layer structures and heterogeneous regions demonstrated the existence of tumors. Micro-calcification can be observed in the corresponding US images.

  3. Metabolic Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT): Host, Commensal, Probiotics, and Bacteriophage Influences

    PubMed Central

    Vitetta, Luis; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Life on this planet has been intricately associated with bacterial activity at all levels of evolution and bacteria represent the earliest form of autonomous existence. Plants such as those from the Leguminosae family that form root nodules while harboring nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria are a primordial example of symbiotic existence. Similarly, cooperative activities between bacteria and animals can also be observed in multiple domains, including the most inhospitable geographical regions of the planet such as Antarctica and the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. In humans bacteria are often classified as either beneficial or pathogenic and in this regard we posit that this artificial nomenclature is overly simplistic and as such almost misinterprets the complex activities and inter-relationships that bacteria have with the environment as well as the human host and the plethora of biochemical activities that continue to be identified. We further suggest that in humans there are neither pathogenic nor beneficial bacteria, just bacteria embraced by those that tolerate the host and those that do not. The densest and most complex association exists in the human gastrointestinal tract, followed by the oral cavity, respiratory tract, and skin, where bacteria—pre- and post-birth—instruct the human cell in the fundamental language of molecular biology that normally leads to immunological tolerance over a lifetime. The overall effect of this complex output is the elaboration of a beneficial milieu, an environment that is of equal or greater importance than the bacterium in maintaining homeostasis.

  4. Endoscopic Ultrasound of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract and Mediastinum: Diagnosis and Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Priyajit; Wittmann, Johannes; Pereira, Stephen P.

    2006-12-15

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has developed significantly over the last two decades and has had a considerable impact on the imaging and staging of mass lesions within or in close proximity to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In conjunction with conventional imaging such as helical computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the indications for EUS include (1) differentiating between benign and malignant lesions of the mediastinum and upper GI tract, (2) staging malignant tumors of the lung, esophagus, stomach, and pancreas prior to surgery or oncological treatment, (3) excluding common bile duct stones before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, thereby avoiding the need for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in some patients, and (4) assessing suspected lesions that are either equivocal or not seen on conventional imaging. In recent years, EUS has charted a course similar to that taken by ERCP, evolving from a purely diagnostic modality to one that is interventional and therapeutic. These indications include (5) obtaining a tissue diagnosis by EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration or trucut-type needle biopsy and (6) providing therapy such as coeliac plexus neurolysis and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage-in many cases, more accurately and safely than conventional techniques. Emerging investigational techniques include EUS-guided enteric anastomosis formation and fine-needle injection therapy for malignant disease.

  5. Spatial dynamics of the bacterial community structure in the gastrointestinal tract of red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Li, Meirong; Jin, Wei; Li, Yuanfei; Zhao, Lingling; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-06-01

    The quantification and community of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) were examined by using real-time PCR and paired-end Illumina sequencing. The quantification of bacteria showed that the number of bacteria in jejunum and rectum was significantly lower than that in colon and cecum (P < 0.05). A total of 1,872,590 sequences was remained after quality-filtering and 50,948 OTUs were identified at the 97 % similarity level. The dominant phyla in the GI tract of red kangaroos were identified as Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. At the level of genus, the samples from different parts of GI tract clustered into three groups: stomach, small intestine (jejunum and ileum) and large intestine (cecum and rectum). Prevotella (29.81 %) was the most dominant genus in the stomach and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in other parts of GI tract. In the small intestine, Bifidobacterium (33.04, 12.14 %) and Streptococcus (22.90, 19.16 %) were dominant genera. Unclassified Ruminococcaceae was the most dominant family in large intestine and the total relative abundance of unclassified bacteria was above 50 %. In identified genera, Dorea was the most important variable to discriminate large intestine and it was significantly higher in cecum than in stomach, small intestine and colon (P < 0.05). Bifidobacterium (21.89 %) was the only dominant genus in colon. Future work on culture in vitro and genome sequencing of those unidentified bacteria might give us insight into the function of these microorganisms in the GI tract. In addition, the comparison of the bacterial community in the foregut of kangaroos and other herbivores and the rumen might give us insight into the mechanism of fiber degradation and help us exploit approaches to improve the feed efficiency and subsequently, reduce the methane emission from herbivores. PMID:27116964

  6. Nutritional and gastrointestinal complications of the use of bowel segments in the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Steiner, M S; Morton, R A

    1991-11-01

    Almost all segments of the gastrointestinal tract have been used as urinary tract substitutes. The specific nutritional and gastrointestinal complications depend on the particular portion of bowel that is removed from the alimentary tract. The use of stomach theoretically may predispose the patient to hypergastrinemia and peptic ulcer disease, hypocalcemia, and iron deficiency or megaloblastic anemia. Resection of a large amount of jejunum causes malabsorption. Limited use of colon segments usually is well tolerated, but loss of large parts of the colon directly decreases available absorptive area, resulting in diarrhea. Resection of the ileum and ileocecal valve can lead to several disease states. One is mixed secretory-osmotic diarrhea. Decreased ileal reabsorption of bile salts results in fat malabsorption and steatorrhea. The presentation of increased amounts of bile salts and fatty acids to the colon decreases water absorption and stimulates active chloride and water secretion, producing a cholera-like high-volume secretory diarrhea. The loss of the ileocecal valve and ileum segment accelerates intestinal transit time, which does not allow for complete digestion and absorption of food. Water and electrolytes remain associated with undigested food particles and may overwhelm the absorptive capacity of the colon, resulting in an osmotic diarrhea. A second problem is vitamin B12 deficiency. Surgical reduction of sites in the terminal ileum for active and exclusive uptake of vitamin B12 might lead to hypovitaminosis. If this is unrecognized, patients may develop irreversible neurologic injury. A third problem is cholelithiasis. Derangements in bile salt metabolism can occur when as little as 10 cm of ileum is resected, and the propensity to form gallstones is increased. Pigment gallstones appear to be the predominant stone associated with ileal resections. The fourth possible problem is urolithiasis, the etiology of which is multifactorial in patients with ileal

  7. Ecological determinants in microbial colonization of the murine gastrointestinal tract: adherence of Torulopsis pintolopesii to epithelial surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Suegara, N; Siegel, J E; Savage, D C

    1979-01-01

    Torulopsis pintolopesii is a yeast indigenous to the gastrointestinal tracts of conventional mice and rats from many colonies. In such natively colonized animals, the organism forms layers on the surface of the epithelium in the secreting portion of the stomach and can be cultured from all areas of the gastrointestinal tract. When given in water or food to germfree mice or specific pathogen-free mice possessing an indigenous microbiota free of yeast, T. pintolopesii also can be cultured from all areas of the tract at population levels ranging from 10(5) to 10(8) cells per g (wet weight). Likewise, as in its native hosts, the organism forms layers on gastric surfaces in the associated animals. The layers form on the secreting surface in both the specific pathogen-free and monoassociated ex-germfree mice. In the latter animal, however, a layer of yeast also forms on the nonsecreting gastric surface. In tests of its capacity to adhere to gastrointestinal surfaces in vitro, the organism adheres to epithelia from all areas of the mouse tract. These findings support an hypothesis that the capacity of T. pintolopesii to adhere to epithelial surfaces may be only one determinant influencing it to form layers on the gastric secreting surface in its native hosts. PMID:157978

  8. Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system.

    PubMed

    Montalvillo, Enrique; Garrote, José Antonio; Bernardo, David; Arranz, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity.Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast enhancement study of the gastrointestinal tract of rats and a human volunteer using nontoxic oral iron solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wesbey, G.E.; Brasch, R.C.; Engelstad, B.L.; Moss, A.A.; Crooks, L.E.; Brito, A.C.

    1983-10-01

    Two dilute oral iron solutions, made from commonly available nonprescription dietary supplements, were found to enhance the gastrointestinal tract in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of live rats and one human volunteer. The paramagnetic and pharmacologic properties of ferric ammonium citrate were more favorable than those of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate. The paramagnetic iron solutions shorten T1 and T2 relaxation times of water protons in the contrast media-filled gastrointestinal tract, producing easily observable change in NMR intensity. Because these iron solutions are available commercially and are known to be well tolerated, the clinical use of iron-containing NMR contrast agent for the gastrointestinal tract is feasible.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Commensal Escherichia coli Adapted to Different Compartments of the Porcine Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sam; Gordon, David M.; Chin, James; Brouwers, Huub J. M.; Njuguna, Peter; Groves, Mitchell D.; Zhang, Ren

    2012-01-01

    The role of Escherichia coli as a pathogen has been the focus of considerable study, while much less is known about it as a commensal and how it adapts to and colonizes different environmental niches within the mammalian gut. In this study, we characterize Escherichia coli organisms (n = 146) isolated from different regions of the intestinal tracts of eight pigs (dueodenum, ileum, colon, and feces). The isolates were typed using the method of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and screened for the presence of bacteriocin genes and plasmid replicon types. Molecular analysis of variance using the RAPD data showed that E. coli isolates are nonrandomly distributed among different gut regions, and that gut region accounted for 25% (P < 0.001) of the observed variation among strains. Bacteriocin screening revealed that a bacteriocin gene was detected in 45% of the isolates, with 43% carrying colicin genes and 3% carrying microcin genes. Of the bacteriocins observed (H47, E3, E1, E2, E7, Ia/Ib, and B/M), the frequency with which they were detected varied with respect to gut region for the colicins E2, E7, Ia/Ib, and B/M. The plasmid replicon typing gave rise to 25 profiles from the 13 Inc types detected. Inc F types were detected most frequently, followed by Inc HI1 and N types. Of the Inc types detected, 7 were nonrandomly distributed among isolates from the different regions of the gut. The results of this study indicate that not only may the different regions of the gastrointestinal tract harbor different strains of E. coli but also that strains from different regions have different characteristics. PMID:22798360

  11. Major upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Relation to the use of aspirin and other nonnarcotic analgesics.

    PubMed

    Levy, M; Miller, D R; Kaufman, D W; Siskind, V; Schwingl, P; Rosenberg, L; Strom, B; Shapiro, S

    1988-02-01

    In a hospital-based case-control study, the risk of a first episode of major upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in subjects now known to be predisposed was assessed in relation to the use of nonnarcotic analgesics. For aspirin use within the week before the onset of symptoms, the rate ratio estimates, adjusted for potential confounding, were 15 (95% confidence interval, 6.4 to 34) for regular use (at least four days a week) and 5.6 (confidence interval, 2.7 to 12) for occasional use. For aspirin use discontinued at least one week earlier, the estimate was 1.6 (confidence interval, 0.6 to 4.2). There was no evidence that acetaminophen use increased the risk. For the regular use of other analgesics in the week before onset, the adjusted rate ratio estimate was 9.1 (confidence interval, 2.7 to 31); there were insufficient data to evaluate occasional use. The findings suggest that the risk of bleeding is increased substantially by aspirin, even when used occasionally. With the exception of acetaminophen, other nonnarcotic analgesics may also increase the risk, but they remain to be evaluated individually.

  12. Ghrelin receptors in human gastrointestinal tract during prenatal and early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Olivera; Čokić, Vladan; Đikić, Dragoslava; Budeč, Mirela; Vignjević, Sanja; Subotički, Tijana; Diklić, Miloš; Ajtić, Rastko

    2014-07-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the appearance, density and distribution of ghrelin cells and GHS-R1a and GHS-R1b in the human stomach and duodenum during prenatal and early postnatal development. We examined chromogranin-A and ghrelin cells in duodenum, and GHS-R1a and GHS-R1b expression in stomach and duodenum by immunohistochemistry in embryos, fetuses, and infants. Chromogranin-A and ghrelin cells were identified in the duodenum at weeks 10 and 11 of gestation. Ghrelin cells were detected individually or clustered within the base of duodenal crypts and villi during the first trimester, while they were presented separately within the basal and apical parts of crypts and villi during the second and third trimesters. Ghrelin cells were the most numerous during the first (∼11%) and third (∼10%) trimesters of gestation development. GHS-R1a and GHS-R1b were detected at 11 and 16 weeks of gestation, showed the highest level of expression in Brunner's gland and in lower parts of duodenal crypts and villi during the second trimester in antrum, and during the third trimester in corpus and duodenum. Our findings demonstrated for the first time abundant duodenal expression of ghrelin cells and ghrelin receptors during human prenatal development indicating a role of ghrelin in the regulation of growth and differentiation of human gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Parenteral nutrition in adult inpatients with functioning gastrointestinal tracts: assessment of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2006-04-01

    Malnutrition is a common comorbidity that places inpatients at risk of complications, infections, long length of stay, higher costs, and increased mortality. Thus, nutrition support has become an important therapeutic adjunctive to the care of these patients. For patients unable to feed themselves, nutrition can be delivered via the parenteral or enteral routes. The formulations used to deliver nutrients and the route of nutrient delivery, absorption, and processing differ substantially between parenteral and enteral nutrition. Over the past two decades, many randomised clinical trials have assessed the effects of parenteral versus enteral nutrition on outcomes (ie, complications, infections, length of stay, costs, mortality) in diverse inpatient populations. From a search of medical publications, studies were selected that assessed important clinical outcomes of parenteral versus enteral feeding or intravenous fluids in patients with trauma/burn injuries, surgery, cancer, pancreatic disease, inflammatory bowel disease, critical illness, liver failure, acute renal failure, and organ transplantation. Our goal was to determine the optimum route of feeding in these patient groups. The available evidence lends support to the use of enteral over parenteral feeding in inpatients with functioning gastrointestinal tracts. PMID:16581410

  14. Identification, Recovery, and Refinement of Hitherto Undescribed Population-Level Genomes from the Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Laczny, Cedric C; Muller, Emilie E L; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Herold, Malte; Lebrun, Laura A; Hogan, Angela; May, Patrick; de Beaufort, Carine; Wilmes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Linking taxonomic identity and functional potential at the population-level is important for the study of mixed microbial communities and is greatly facilitated by the availability of microbial reference genomes. While the culture-independent recovery of population-level genomes from environmental samples using the binning of metagenomic data has expanded available reference genome catalogs, several microbial lineages remain underrepresented. Here, we present two reference-independent approaches for the identification, recovery, and refinement of hitherto undescribed population-level genomes. The first approach is aimed at genome recovery of varied taxa and involves multi-sample automated binning using CANOPY CLUSTERING complemented by visualization and human-augmented binning using VIZBIN post hoc. The second approach is particularly well-suited for the study of specific taxa and employs VIZBIN de novo. Using these approaches, we reconstructed a total of six population-level genomes of distinct and divergent representatives of the Alphaproteobacteria class, the Mollicutes class, the Clostridiales order, and the Melainabacteria class from human gastrointestinal tract-derived metagenomic data. Our results demonstrate that, while automated binning approaches provide great potential for large-scale studies of mixed microbial communities, these approaches should be complemented with informative visualizations because expert-driven inspection and refinements are critical for the recovery of high-quality population-level genomes. PMID:27445992

  15. Endoscopic Management of Foreign Bodies in the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Javier; Twersky, Yitzhak; Iqbal, Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common diagnosis that presents in emergency departments throughout the world. Distinct foreign bodies predispose to particular locations of impaction in the gastrointestinal tract, commonly meat boluses in the esophagus above a preexisting esophageal stricture or ring in adults and coins in children. Several other groups are at high risk of foreign body impaction, mentally handicapped individuals or those with psychiatric illness, abusers of drugs or alcohol, and the geriatric population. Patients with foreign body ingestion typically present with odynophagia, dysphagia, sensation of having an object stuck, chest pain, and nausea/vomiting. The majority of foreign bodies pass through the digestive system spontaneously without causing any harm, symptoms, or necessitating any further intervention. A well-documented clinical history and thorough physical exam is critical in making the diagnosis, if additional modalities are needed, a CT scan and diagnostic endoscopy are generally the preferred modalities. Various tools can be used to remove foreign bodies, and endoscopic treatment is safe and effective if performed by a skilled endoscopist. PMID:27807447

  16. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in the gastrointestinal tract of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Pirone, Andrea; Ding, Bao An; Giannessi, Elisabetta; Coli, Alessandra; Stornelli, Maria Rita; di Cossato, Margherita Marzoni Fecia; Piano, Ilaria; Lenzi, Carla

    2012-10-01

    The distribution of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was investigated in the gastrointestinal tract of the pheasant using immunohistochemistry. GLP-1 immunoreactive cells were common in the small intestine, in the proventriculus and in the pancreas. Immunostained cells were not seen in the crop, in the gizzard and in the large intestine. Double labelling demonstrated that GLP-1 and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) were occasionally co-localized only in the duodenal villi. In contrast to what was previously described in the chicken and ostrich, we noted GLP-1 positive cells in the duodenum. These data were consistent with the presence of proglucagon mRNA in the chicken duodenum. Our findings indicate that GLP-1 might have an inhibitory effect on gastric and crop emptying and on acid secretion also in the pheasant. Moreover, the results of the present research regarding the initial region of the small intestine suggest a further direct mechanism of the GLP-1 release during the early digestion phase and an enhancement of its incretin role.

  17. A novel marker design for magnetic marker monitoring in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Biller, Sebastian; Baumgarten, Daniel; Haueisen, Jens

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic marker monitoring (MMM) is a technique to determine the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and to observe the dissolution of pharmaceutical compounds. Today's magnetic markers usually consist of magnetized magnetite. Because of their weak magnetic fields, highly sensitive sensor systems are required. For a wider class of applications, stronger markers and more flexible measurement setups are necessary. In this paper, a novel marker design is introduced. This marker comprises one permanent magnet and a compartment of iron powder in a magnetically unstable configuration. During dissolution of the pharmaceuticals, the powder is redistributed around the magnet, thereby altering the externally measured magnetic induction. Based on this design, magnetically marked tablets and capsules were prepared and their magnetic field during dissolution was observed. Magnetic induction values were between 16 and 0.2  μT at distances of 5-30  cm, which is considerably higher compared to the pico-Tesla range of conventional markers. During dissolution, the magnetic induction decreased by between 14% and 27%. These values could be confirmed in detailed finite element method simulations. In conclusion, the present results indicate that our novel marker design is well suited for MMM with more flexible sensor technologies, such as magnetoresistive sensors.

  18. Gastrointestinal tract complications following radiotherapy of uterine cervical cancer: past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Yoonessi, M.; Romney, S.; Dayem, H.

    1981-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of the gastrointestinal tract complications in 298 patients with cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy at the State University of New York at Buffalo and Albert Einstein College of Medicine affiliated hospitals was carried out. Fifty-two patients had pretreatment surgical staging (39 transperitoneal and 13 extraperitoneal). Twenty-four percent had varying degrees of radiation sickness. They all responded to conservative therapy. Seven percent developed Stage I radiation proctitis. In the clinical staging group late complications consisted of: Three small bowel injuries, 4% persistent Stage I, 3% Stage III, and one patient with Stage II radiation proctitis. Among 39 patients who had transperitoneal surgical staging, two small bowel injuries, one case of gastric ulcer, and three cases of radiation proctitis were encountered. Only one of 13 patients who had extraperitoneal surgical staging developed intestino-vesico-vaginal fistula. A literature search was conducted, and prophylactic and therapeutic measures are discussed. The importance of careful selection of patients for radiotherapy and recognition of high risk clinical factors is reemphasized.

  19. Gastrointestinal tract complications following radiotherapy of uterine cervical cancer: past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Yoonessi, M.; Romney, S.; Dayem, H.

    1981-10-01

    A retrospective analysis of the gastrointestinal tract complications in 298 patients with cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy at the State University of New York at Buffalo and Albert Einstein College of Medicine affiliated hospitals was carried out. Fifty-two patients had pretreatment surgical staging (39 transperitoneal and 13 extraperitoneal). Twenty-four percent had varying degrees of radiation sickness. They all responded to conservative therapy. Seven percent developed Stage I radiation proctitis. In the clinical staging group late complications consisted of: Three small bowel injuries, 4% persistent Stage I, 3% Stage III, and one patient with Stage II radiation proctitis. Among 39 patients who had transperitoneal surgical staging, two small bowel injuries, one case of gastric ulcer, and three cases of radiation proctitis were encountered. Only one of 13 patients who had extraperitoneal surgical staging developed intestino-vesico-vaginal fistula. A literature search was conducted, and prophylactic and therapeutic measures are discussed. The importance of careful selection of patients for radiotherapy and recognition of high risk clinical factors is reemphasized.

  20. Building a three-dimensional model of the upper gastrointestinal tract for computer simulations of swallowing.

    PubMed

    Gastelum, Alfonso; Mata, Lucely; Brito-de-la-Fuente, Edmundo; Delmas, Patrice; Vicente, William; Salinas-Vázquez, Martín; Ascanio, Gabriel; Marquez, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to provide realistic three-dimensional (3D) models to be used in numerical simulations of peristaltic flow in patients exhibiting difficulty in swallowing, also known as dysphagia. To this end, a 3D model of the upper gastrointestinal tract was built from the color cryosection images of the Visible Human Project dataset. Regional color heterogeneities were corrected by centering local histograms of the image difference between slices. A voxel-based model was generated by stacking contours from the color images. A triangle mesh was built, smoothed and simplified. Visualization tools were developed for browsing the model at different stages and for virtual endoscopy navigation. As result, a computer model of the esophagus and the stomach was obtained, mainly for modeling swallowing disorders. A central-axis curve was also obtained for virtual navigation and to replicate conditions relevant to swallowing disorders modeling. We show renderings of the model and discuss its use for simulating swallowing as a function of bolus rheological properties. The information obtained from simulation studies with our model could be useful for physicians in selecting the correct nutritional emulsions for patients with dysphagia.

  1. Variations of Phosphorous Accessibility Causing Changes in Microbiome Functions in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tilocca, Bruno; Witzig, Maren; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The chicken gastrointestinal tract (GIT) harbours a complex microbial community, involved in several physiological processes such as host immunomodulation and feed digestion. For the first time, the present study analysed dietary effects on the protein inventory of the microbiome in crop and ceca of broilers. We performed quantitative label-free metaproteomics by using 1-D-gel electrophoresis coupled with LC-MS/MS to identify the structural and functional changes triggered by diets supplied with varying amount of mineral phosphorous (P) and microbial phytase (MP). Phylogenetic assessment based on label-free quantification (LFQ) values of the proteins identified Lactobacillaceae as the major family in the crop section regardless of the diet, whereas proteins belonging to the family Veillonellaceae increased with the P supplementation. Within the ceca section, proteins of Bacteroidaceae were more abundant in the P-supplied diets, whereas proteins of Eubacteriaceae decreased with the P-addition. Proteins of the Ruminococcaceae increased with the amount of MP while proteins of Lactobacillaceae were more abundant in the MP-lacking diets. Classification of the identified proteins indicated a thriving microbial community in the case of P and MP supplementation, and stressed microbial community when no P and MP were supplied. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003805. PMID:27760159

  2. Gingerol activates noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng-Qi; Ye, Lin-Lan; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Qi, Xiao-Ming; Lv, Jia-Di; Wang, Gang; Farhan, Ulah-Khan; Waqas, Nawaz; Chen, Ding-Ding; Han, Lei; Zhou, Xiao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    TRPA1 channels are non-selective cation channels that could be activated by plant-derived pungent products, including gingerol, a main active constituent of ginger. Ginger could improve the digestive function; however whether ginger improves the digestive function through activating TRPA1 receptor in gastrointestinal tract has not been investigated. In the present study, gingerol was used to stimulate cell lines (RIN14B or STC-1) while depletion of extracellular calcium. TRPA1 inhibitor (rethenium red) and TRPA1 gene silencing via TRPA1-specific siRNA were also used for mechanistic studies. The intracellular calcium and secretion of serotonin or cholecystokinin were measured by fura-2/AM and ELISA. Stimulation of those cells with gingerol increased intracellular calcium levels and the serotonin or cholecystokinin secretion. The gingerol-induced intracellular calcium increase and secretion (serotonin or cholecystokinin) release were completely blocked by ruthenium red, EGTA, and TRPA1-specific siRNA. In summary, our results suggested that gingerol derived from ginger might improve the digestive function through secretion releasing from endocrine cells of the gut by inducing TRPA1-mediated calcium influx. PMID:27473961

  3. Genomic analysis of three Bifidobacterium species isolated from the calf gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, William J.; Cookson, Adrian L.; Altermann, Eric; Lambie, Suzanne C.; Perry, Rechelle; Teh, Koon Hoong; Otter, Don E.; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Leahy, Sinead C.

    2016-01-01

    Ruminant animals contribute significantly to the global value of agriculture and rely on a complex microbial community for efficient digestion. However, little is known of how this microbial-host relationship develops and is maintained. To begin to address this, we have determined the ability of three Bifidobacterium species isolated from the faeces of newborn calves to grow on carbohydrates typical of a newborn ruminant diet. Genome sequences have been determined for these bacteria with analysis of the genomes providing insights into the host association and identification of several genes that may mediate interactions with the ruminant gastrointestinal tract. The present study provides a starting point from which we can define the role of potential beneficial microbes in the nutrition of young ruminants and begin to influence the interactions between the microbiota and the host. The differences observed in genomic content hint at niche partitioning among the bifidobacterial species analysed and the different strategies they employ to successfully adapt to this habitat. PMID:27468806

  4. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area. PMID:26527325

  5. Genomic analysis of three Bifidobacterium species isolated from the calf gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kelly, William J; Cookson, Adrian L; Altermann, Eric; Lambie, Suzanne C; Perry, Rechelle; Teh, Koon Hoong; Otter, Don E; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Leahy, Sinead C

    2016-01-01

    Ruminant animals contribute significantly to the global value of agriculture and rely on a complex microbial community for efficient digestion. However, little is known of how this microbial-host relationship develops and is maintained. To begin to address this, we have determined the ability of three Bifidobacterium species isolated from the faeces of newborn calves to grow on carbohydrates typical of a newborn ruminant diet. Genome sequences have been determined for these bacteria with analysis of the genomes providing insights into the host association and identification of several genes that may mediate interactions with the ruminant gastrointestinal tract. The present study provides a starting point from which we can define the role of potential beneficial microbes in the nutrition of young ruminants and begin to influence the interactions between the microbiota and the host. The differences observed in genomic content hint at niche partitioning among the bifidobacterial species analysed and the different strategies they employ to successfully adapt to this habitat. PMID:27468806

  6. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area. PMID:26527325

  7. Effect of Condensed Tannins on Bacterial Diversity and Metabolic Activity in the Rat Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexandra H.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) on rat fecal bacterial populations was ascertained in order to determine whether the proportion on tannin-resistant bacteria increased and if there was a change in the predominant bacterial populations. After 3 weeks of tannin diets the proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria increased significantly (P < 0.05) from 0.3% ± 5.5% to 25.3% ± 8.3% with a 0.7% tannin diet and to 47.2% ± 5.1% with a 2% tannin diet. The proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria returned to preexposure levels in the absence of dietary tannins. A shift in bacterial populations was confirmed by molecular fingerprinting of fecal bacterial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Posttreatment samples were generally still distinguishable from controls after 3.5 weeks. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands and characterization of tannin-resistant isolates indicated that tannins selected for Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides species. Dot blot quantification confirmed that these gram-negative bacterial groups predominated in the presence of dietary tannins and that there was a corresponding decrease in the gram-positive Clostridium leptum group and other groups. Metabolic fingerprint patterns revealed that functional activities of culturable fecal bacteria were affected by the presence of tannins. Condensed tannins of Acacia angustissima altered fecal bacterial populations in the rat gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a shift in the predominant bacteria towards tannin-resistant gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides species. PMID:14766594

  8. Factors influencing gastrointestinal tract and microbiota immune interaction in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Collado, María Carmen; Cernada, María; Neu, Josef; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gormaz, María; Vento, Máximo

    2015-06-01

    The role of microbial colonization is indispensable for keeping a balanced immune response in life. However, the events that regulate the establishment of the microbiota, their timing, and the way in which they interact with the host are not yet fully understood. Factors such as gestational age, mode of delivery, environment, hygienic measures, and diet influence the establishment of microbiota in the perinatal period. Environmental microbes constitute the most important group of exogenous stimuli in this critical time frame. However, the settlement of a stable gut microbiota in preterm infants is delayed compared to term infants. Preterm infants have an immature gastrointestinal tract and immune system which predisposes to infectious morbidity. Neonatal microbial dynamics and alterations in early gut microbiota may precede and/or predispose to diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), late-onset sepsis or others. During this critical period, nutrition is the principal contributor for immunological and metabolic development, and microbiological programming. Breast milk is a known source of molecules that act synergistically to protect the gut barrier and enhance the maturation of the gut-related immune response. Host-microbe interactions in preterm infants and the protective role of diet focused on breast milk impact are beginning to be unveiled.

  9. Identification, Recovery, and Refinement of Hitherto Undescribed Population-Level Genomes from the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Laczny, Cedric C.; Muller, Emilie E. L.; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Herold, Malte; Lebrun, Laura A.; Hogan, Angela; May, Patrick; de Beaufort, Carine; Wilmes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Linking taxonomic identity and functional potential at the population-level is important for the study of mixed microbial communities and is greatly facilitated by the availability of microbial reference genomes. While the culture-independent recovery of population-level genomes from environmental samples using the binning of metagenomic data has expanded available reference genome catalogs, several microbial lineages remain underrepresented. Here, we present two reference-independent approaches for the identification, recovery, and refinement of hitherto undescribed population-level genomes. The first approach is aimed at genome recovery of varied taxa and involves multi-sample automated binning using CANOPY CLUSTERING complemented by visualization and human-augmented binning using VIZBIN post hoc. The second approach is particularly well-suited for the study of specific taxa and employs VIZBIN de novo. Using these approaches, we reconstructed a total of six population-level genomes of distinct and divergent representatives of the Alphaproteobacteria class, the Mollicutes class, the Clostridiales order, and the Melainabacteria class from human gastrointestinal tract-derived metagenomic data. Our results demonstrate that, while automated binning approaches provide great potential for large-scale studies of mixed microbial communities, these approaches should be complemented with informative visualizations because expert-driven inspection and refinements are critical for the recovery of high-quality population-level genomes. PMID:27445992

  10. Mutagenesis within the gastrointestinal tract determined by histidine auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Goldman, P; Carter, J H; Wheeler, L A

    1980-03-15

    The Ames Salmonella mutants can be maintained for months within the gastrointestinal tract of otherwise germfree rats. The ingestion of various carcinogens, but not structurally related non-carcinogens, results in an increased concentration of his+ revertants in the feces. Rats, associated with strain TA1538, were also associated with either L. plantarum of B. vulgatus and with both of these strains. After 2-nitrofluorene ingestion (3.4 mg) the concentration of fecal revertants increased except in rats associated only with strains TA1538 and B. vulgatus. The concentration of B. vulgatus. The concentration of B. vulgatus in the stomach of individual rats correlated negatively with their response to 2-nitrofluorene. Since only B. vulgatus reduces nitrofluorene to the less mutagenic 2-aminofluorene, it appears that B. vulgatus diminishes the revertant response by metabolic removal of the more potent direct acting mutagen from the gut. The ingestion of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (21 mg/kg) and azoxymethane (19 mg/kg) provokes increased fecal revertants only in some animals associated with strain TA1535 or TA100. PMID:6986973

  11. Chemical Carcinogenesis of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Rodents: An Overview with Emphasis on NTP Carcinogenesis Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sundeep A.; Nolan, Michael W.; Malarkey, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Cancers of the stomach and large intestine (LI) are the second and fourth leading causes of human cancer mortality. A review of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) database and the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) reveals that chemically induced neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are relatively common. Within the GIT, epithelial tumors of the forestomach in mice and rats and LI of the rat are most common. Generally, there is a high species concordance for forestomach with at least 26 chemicals inducing tumors in both species. Glandular stomach tumors are rare, and the few reported are usually neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) originating from the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells. Of 290 carcinogenic agents identified by the NTP, 19 (7%) caused intestinal neoplasia, 14 in the rat and 5 in the mouse. Neoplasms occurred in both males and females, exclusively in the small intestine (SI) of the mouse and in the LI or both SI and LI in the rat. Enteric carcinogens (NTP) frequently induced neoplasms at other alimentary sites (oral cavity, esophagus, and stomach). In conclusion, the most common induced GIT tumors are squamous neoplasms of the forestomach, glandular neoplasms of the stomach are rare, and rats appear more prone to developing LI (colorectal) cancer compared to mice. PMID:20019352

  12. Gastrointestinal Tract Commensal Bacteria and Probiotics: Influence on End-Organ Physiology.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Palacios, Talia; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria represent the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included cooperative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil) and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome). It is generally agreed upon that the fusion of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryotic cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryotes. This is expressed by the appearance of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells (an alpha-proteobacteria input), a significant endosymbiotic evolutionary event. As such, the evolution of human life has been complexly connected to bacterial activities. Hence, microbial colonization of mammals has been a progressively driven process. The interactions between the human host and the microbiome inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) for example, afford the human host the necessary cues for the development of regulated signals that in part are induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). This regulated activity then promotes immunological tolerance and metabolic regulation and stability, which then helps establish control of local and extraintestinal end-organ (e.g., kidneys) physiology. Pharmacobiotics, the targeted administration of live probiotic cultures, is an advancing area of potential therapeutics, either directly or as adjuvants. Hence the continued scientific understanding of the human microbiome in health and disease may further lead to fine tuning the targeted delivery of probiotics for a therapeutic gain. PMID:26462363

  13. The use of BLT humanized mice to investigate the immune reconstitution of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Angela; Victor Garcia, J

    2014-08-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) track represents an important battlefield where pathogens first try to gain entry into a host. It is also a universe where highly diverse and ever changing inhabitants co-exist in an exceptional equilibrium without parallel in any other organ system of the body. The gut as an organ has its own well-developed and fully functional immune organization that is similar and yet different in many important ways to the rest of the immune system. Both a compromised and an overactive immune system in the gut can have dire and severe consequences to human health. It has therefore been of great interest to develop animal models that recapitulate key aspects of the human condition to better understand the interplay of the host immune system with its friends and its foes. However, reconstitution of the GI tract in humanized mice has been difficult and highly variable in different systems. A better molecular understanding of the development of the gut immune system in mice has provided critical cues that have been recently used to develop novel humanized mouse models that fully recapitulate the genesis and key functions of the gut immune system of humans. Of particular interest is the presence of human gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) aggregates in the gut of NOD/SCID BLT humanized mice that demonstrate the faithful development of bona fide human plasma cells capable of migrating to the lamina propria and producing human IgA1 and IgA2.

  14. Some Gastrointestinal Tract Characteristics of Karayaka Ram Lambs Slaughtered at Different Weights

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Arda; Aksoy, Yüksel; Ocak, Nuh; Ulutaş, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-one Karayaka ram lambs were slaughtered at different body weights (30 (n  =  7) , 35 (n  =  6) , 40 (n  =  7) , 45 (n  =  6) , and 50 (n  =  5)  kg of body weight at fast) to evaluate the growth of their gastrointestinal tract (GIT) characteristics, to determine the relationship among slaughter body weight (SBW) and empty body weight (EBW), whole GIT and segments, and the influence of slaughter weight on the pH of rumen, jejunum, and cecal contents. The effects of the SBW on GIT weight (P  <  0.05) , stomach ( P  <  0.001) , and intestine (P  <  0.05) , the body length (P  <  0.001) and caecum (P  <  0.05) , and the relative weights of GIT (P  <  0.05) , stomach (P <  0.001) , and intestine (P  <  0.001) were linear whereas that for the length of intestine were quadratic. The effect of SBW were quadratic (P  <  0.05) on ratios of stomach to GIT weight and intestine length to intestine weight and rumen pH while, for the intestine to GIT weight ratio (P  <  0.001) and caecum pH (P  <  0.05) , this effect was linear. The results indicated that for all parameters studied, with the exception of intestinal length and cecal pH, linear relationships were observed with SBW indicating steady growth rates for these tissues. PMID:25133226

  15. Cell Aging of Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract Observed by Light and Electron Microscopic Radioautography

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Tetsuji

    2014-01-01

    The term “cell aging” initially means how the cells change due to their aging. There are two meanings, i.e. how a cell changes when it is isolated from original animals such as in vitro cells in cell culture, otherwise how all the cells of an animal change in vivo due to the aging of the individual animal. We have been studying the latter changes from the viewpoint of the cell nutrients, the precursors for the macromolecular synthesis such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), proteins, glucides and lipids, which are incorporated and synthesized into various cells of individual animals. Therefore, this article deals with only the cell aging of animal cells in vivo, how the metabolism, i.e. incorporations and syntheses of respective nutrient precursors in various kinds of cells change due to the aging of individual experimental animals such as mice by means of microscopic radioautography to localize the RI-labeled precursors. The incorporations and syntheses of various precursors for macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, glucides, lipids and others in various kinds of cells of various organs in the gastrointestinal tract such as the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines are reviewed referring many original papers already published from our laboratory during these 60 years since the late 20th century.

  16. Survival of Pochonia chlamydosporia in the gastrointestinal tract of experimentally treated dogs.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Juliana M; Araújo, Jackson V; Braga, Fabio R; Araújo, Dayane M; Ferreira, Sebastião R; Soares, Filippe E F; Benjamin, Laércio dos A

    2012-10-01

    The predatory capacity of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolate VC4) after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of dogs was assessed in vivo against Toxocara canis eggs. Twelve dogs previously wormed were divided into two groups of six animals and caged. The treatments consisted of a fungus-treated group (VC4) and a control group without fungus. Each dog of the fungus-treated group received a single 4 g dose of mycelial mass of P. chlamydosporia (VC4). Fecal samples from animals of both groups (treated and control) were collected at five different times (6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h) after fungal administration, and placed in Petri dishes. Each Petri dish of both groups for each studied time interval received approximately 1000 T. canis eggs. Thirty days after the fecal samples were collected, approximately one hundred eggs were removed from each Petri dish of each studied time interval and evaluated by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microscopy examination of plates inoculated with the fungus showed that the isolate VC4 was able to destroy the T. canis eggs with destruction percentages of 28.6% (6 h), 29.1% (12 h), 32.0% (24 h), 31.7% (36 h), and 37.2% (48 h). These results suggest that P. chlamydosporia can be used as a tool for the biological control of T. canis eggs in feces of contaminated dogs. PMID:22100247

  17. Massive bleeeding from upper gastrointestinal tract as a symptom of rupture of splenic artery aneurysm to stomach

    PubMed Central

    Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Szmeja, Jacek; Borejsza-Wysocki, Maciej; Męczyński, Michał; Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Katulska, Katarzyna; Drews, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Splenic artery aneurysm is the most common aneurysm of visceral vessels. Their rupture usually leads to massive bleeding, being a direct life threat. Splenic artery aneurysms usually rupture into the free peritoneal cavity, and much less frequently into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. Case Report We describe the case of a 38-year-old male patient, who, as a result of chronic pancreatitis, developed a false aneurysm of the splenic artery, which initially caused necrosis of the large intestine and bleeding into its lumen, and subsequently necrosis of the posterior stomach wall with the aneurysm rupture to the stomach lumen with a dramatic course. Conclusions The case described confirms that splenic artery aneurysm can be a cause of bleeding to both upper and lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract, and the aneurysm rupture is usually of a dramatic and life-threatening course. PMID:22293886

  18. Isolation of a complete circular virus genome sequence from an Alaskan black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) gastrointestinal tract sample.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, Zachary R.; Runckel, Charles; Fuchs, Jerome; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Mindell, David P.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.; Dumbacher, John P.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of a circular virus isolated from samples of an Alaskan black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) gastrointestinal tract. The genome is 2,152 bp in length and is most similar (30 to 44.5% amino acid identity) to the genome sequences of other single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) circular viruses belonging to the gemycircularvirus group.

  19. Endoscopic laser surgery of patients with pretumoral diseases and tumors of the organs of respiration and gastro-intestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddubny, Boris K.; Ungiadze, G. V.; Kuvshinov, Yury P.; Efimov, Oleg N.; Mazurov, S. T.

    1996-01-01

    The result of treatment of 566 patients with precancerous diseases, cancer and benign tumors of respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract are presented. The `Raduga-1' as a source of laser radiation has been used. The wavelength of radiation 1060 nm. The maximum of basic radiation at the end of lightguide is 50 W. It is shown that the method of endoscopic laser destruction is a highly effective one and may be recommended for radical treatment.

  20. The Gastrointestinal Tract of the White-Throated Woodrat (Neotoma albigula) Harbors Distinct Consortia of Oxalate-Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Kevin D.; Dearing, M. Denise

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota inhabiting the mammalian gut is a functional organ that provides a number of services for the host. One factor that may regulate the composition and function of gut microbial communities is dietary toxins. Oxalate is a toxic plant secondary compound (PSC) produced in all major taxa of vascular plants and is consumed by a variety of animals. The mammalian herbivore Neotoma albigula is capable of consuming and degrading large quantities of dietary oxalate. We isolated and characterized oxalate-degrading bacteria from the gut contents of wild-caught animals and used high-throughput sequencing to determine the distribution of potential oxalate-degrading taxa along the gastrointestinal tract. Isolates spanned three genera: Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Enterococcus. Over half of the isolates exhibited significant oxalate degradation in vitro, and all Lactobacillus isolates contained the oxc gene, one of the genes responsible for oxalate degradation. Although diverse potential oxalate-degrading genera were distributed throughout the gastrointestinal tract, they were most concentrated in the foregut, where dietary oxalate first enters the gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesize that unique environmental conditions present in each gut region provide diverse niches that select for particular functional taxa and communities. PMID:24362432

  1. Plastic bread-bag clips in the gastrointestinal tract: report of 5 cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Newell, K J; Taylor, B; Walton, J C; Tweedie, E J

    2000-01-01

    Plastic bread-bag clips have been identified as a cause of local perforation or obstruction at many sites in the gastrointestinal tract. This study is the largest case series yet reported, consisting of 3 cases presenting as small-bowel perforation, 1 case in which the clip was found incidentally in the small bowel at laparotomy during vascular surgery and 1 case in which the clip was found incidentally in the small bowel at autopsy. In all cases there was no radiographic evidence to suggest a foreign body in the gastrointestinal tract. People older than 60 years of age who have either partial or full dentures seem to be particularly at risk for the accidental ingestion of these devices. If accidentally ingested, plastic bread-bag clips represent a significant health hazard. As the population ages, small-bowel perforation secondary to ingestion of such clips may occur with increasing frequency. The authors recommend elimination or redesign of the clips, to prevent their being swallowed and becoming impacted in the small bowel or to allow them to be identified in the gastrointestinal tract by conventional radiography. PMID:10701390

  2. Clinical application of magnification endoscopy and narrow-band imaging in the upper gastrointestinal tract: new imaging techniques for detecting and characterizing gastrointestinal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kenshi; Takaki, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Iwashita, Akinori; Anagnostopoulos, George K; Kaye, Philip; Ragunath, Krish

    2008-07-01

    This article introduces one of the most advanced endoscopy imaging techniques, magnification endoscopy with narrow-band imaging. This technique can clearly visualize the microvascular (MV) architecture and microsurface (MS) structure. The application of this technique is quite useful for characterizing the mucosal neoplasia in the hypopharynx, oropharynx, esophagus, and stomach. The key characteristic findings for early carcinomatous lesions are an irregular MV pattern or irregular MS pattern as visualized by this technique. Such a diagnostic system could be applied to the early detection of mucosal neoplasia throughout the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  3. An efficient nano-based theranostic system for multi-modal imaging-guided photothermal sterilization in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Rui; Du, Yingda; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-07-01

    Since understanding the healthy status of gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) is of vital importance, clinical implementation for GI tract-related disease have attracted much more attention along with the rapid development of modern medicine. Here, a multifunctional theranostic system combining X-rays/CT/photothermal/photoacoustic mapping of GI tract and imaging-guided photothermal anti-bacterial treatment is designed and constructed. PEGylated W18O49 nanosheets (PEG-W18O49) are created via a facile solvothermal method and an in situ probe-sonication approach. In terms of excellent colloidal stability, low cytotoxicity, and neglectable hemolysis of PEG-W18O49, we demonstrate the first example of high-performance four-modal imaging of GI tract by using these nanosheets as contrast agents. More importantly, due to their intrinsic absorption of NIR light, glutaraldehyde-modified PEG-W18O49 are successfully applied as fault-free targeted photothermal agents for imaging-guided killing of bacteria on a mouse infection model. Critical to pre-clinical and clinical prospects, long-term toxicity is further investigated after oral administration of these theranostic agents. These kinds of tungsten-based nanomaterials exhibit great potential as multi-modal contrast agents for directed visualization of GI tract and anti-bacterial agents for phothothermal sterilization. PMID:25934293

  4. Silica-coated bismuth sulfide nanorods as multimodal contrast agents for a non-invasive visualization of the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaopeng; Shi, Junxin; Bu, Yang; Tian, Gan; Zhang, Xiao; Yin, Wenyan; Gao, Bifen; Yang, Zhiyong; Hu, Zhongbo; Liu, Xiangfeng; Yan, Liang; Gu, Zhanjun; Zhao, Yuliang

    2015-07-01

    Non-invasive and real-time imaging of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is particularly desirable for research and clinical studies of patients with symptoms arising from gastrointestinal diseases. Here, we designed and fabricated silica-coated bismuth sulfide nanorods (Bi2S3@SiO2 NRs) for a non-invasive spatial-temporally imaging of the GI tract. The Bi2S3 NRs were synthesized by a facile solvothermal method and then coated with a SiO2 layer to improve their biocompatibility and stability in the harsh environments of the GI tract, such as the stomach and the small intestine. Due to their strong X-ray- and near infrared-absorption abilities, we demonstrate that, following oral administration in mice, the Bi2S3@SiO2 NRs can be used as a dual-modal contrast agent for the real-time and non-invasive visualization of NRs distribution and the GI tract via both X-ray computed tomography (CT) and photoacoustic tomography (PAT) techniques. Importantly, integration of PAT with CT provides complementary information on anatomical details with high spatial resolution. In addition, we use Caenorhabditis Elegans (C. Elegans) as a simple model organism to investigate the biological response of Bi2S3@SiO2 NRs by oral administration. The results indicate that these NRs can pass through the GI tract of C. Elegans without inducing notable toxicological effects. The above results suggest that Bi2S3@SiO2 NRs pave an alternative way for the fabrication of multi-modal contrast agents which integrate CT and PAT modalities for a direct and non-invasive visualization of the GI tract with low toxicity.Non-invasive and real-time imaging of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is particularly desirable for research and clinical studies of patients with symptoms arising from gastrointestinal diseases. Here, we designed and fabricated silica-coated bismuth sulfide nanorods (Bi2S3@SiO2 NRs) for a non-invasive spatial-temporally imaging of the GI tract. The Bi2S3 NRs were synthesized by a facile

  5. Effect of surface chemistry on nanoparticle interaction with gastrointestinal mucus and distribution in the gastrointestinal tract following oral and rectal administration in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Katharina; Ensign, Laura; Reddy, Mihika; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2015-01-10

    It is believed that mucoadhesive surface properties on particles delivered to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract improve oral absorption or local targeting of various difficult-to-deliver drug classes. To test the effect of nanoparticle mucoadhesion on distribution of nanoparticles in the GI tract, we orally and rectally administered nano- and microparticles that we confirmed possessed surfaces that were either strongly mucoadhesive or non-mucoadhesive. We found that mucoadhesive particles (MAP) aggregated in mucus in the center of the GI lumen, far away from the absorptive epithelium, both in healthy mice and in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis (UC). In striking contrast, water absorption by the GI tract rapidly and uniformly transported non-mucoadhesive mucus-penetrating particles (MPP) to epithelial surfaces, including reaching the surfaces between villi in the small intestine. When using high gavage fluid volumes or injection into ligated intestinal loops, common methods for assessing oral drug and nanoparticle absorption, we found that both MAP and MPP became well-distributed throughout the intestine, indicating that the barrier properties of GI mucus were compromised. In the mouse colorectum, MPP penetrated into mucus in the deeply in-folded surfaces to evenly coat the entire epithelial surface. Moreover, in a mouse model of UC, MPP were transported preferentially into the disrupted, ulcerated tissue. Our results suggest that delivering drugs in non-mucoadhesive MPP is likely to provide enhanced particle distribution, and thus drug delivery, in the GI tract, including to ulcerated tissues.

  6. Effect of surface chemistry on nanoparticle interaction with gastrointestinal mucus and distribution in the gastrointestinal tract following oral and rectal administration in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Katharina; Ensign, Laura; Reddy, Mihika; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2015-01-10

    It is believed that mucoadhesive surface properties on particles delivered to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract improve oral absorption or local targeting of various difficult-to-deliver drug classes. To test the effect of nanoparticle mucoadhesion on distribution of nanoparticles in the GI tract, we orally and rectally administered nano- and microparticles that we confirmed possessed surfaces that were either strongly mucoadhesive or non-mucoadhesive. We found that mucoadhesive particles (MAP) aggregated in mucus in the center of the GI lumen, far away from the absorptive epithelium, both in healthy mice and in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis (UC). In striking contrast, water absorption by the GI tract rapidly and uniformly transported non-mucoadhesive mucus-penetrating particles (MPP) to epithelial surfaces, including reaching the surfaces between villi in the small intestine. When using high gavage fluid volumes or injection into ligated intestinal loops, common methods for assessing oral drug and nanoparticle absorption, we found that both MAP and MPP became well-distributed throughout the intestine, indicating that the barrier properties of GI mucus were compromised. In the mouse colorectum, MPP penetrated into mucus in the deeply in-folded surfaces to evenly coat the entire epithelial surface. Moreover, in a mouse model of UC, MPP were transported preferentially into the disrupted, ulcerated tissue. Our results suggest that delivering drugs in non-mucoadhesive MPP is likely to provide enhanced particle distribution, and thus drug delivery, in the GI tract, including to ulcerated tissues. PMID:25449804

  7. Survival of anti-Clostridium difficile bovine immunoglobulin concentrate in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, C P; Chetham, S; Keates, S; Bostwick, E F; Roush, A M; Castagliuolo, I; LaMont, J T; Pothoulakis, C

    1997-01-01

    To be therapeutically active, oral hyperimmune bovine immunoglobulin concentrate (BIC) must survive its passage through the intestinal tract. This led us to study the gastrointestinal stability of orally administered BIC directed against Clostridium difficile toxins (BIC-C. difficile). BIC-C. difficile was stable at neutral pH in vitro but was degraded at low pH, particularly in the presence of pepsin. Healthy volunteers (n = 6) took BIC-C. difficile (45 or 8 g) as a single oral dose. Total bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) and specific anti-C. difficile IgG were measured in the stool. BIC was given under the following conditions: in the fasting state, in the fed state, with antacid, during omeprazole therapy, or in enteric capsules (released at pH > 6). The mean fecal bovine IgG content of 3-day stool collections was similar in the fasting (536 mg; 3.8% of the ingested dose of BIC), fed (221 mg; 1.6%), and antacid (381 mg; 2.7%) groups. Omeprazole therapy was associated with increased fecal bovine IgG levels (1253 mg; 8.8%), but this difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.07). Administration of 8 g of BIC-C. difficile in enteric capsules resulted in substantially higher fecal bovine IgG levels (1,124 mg; 32.7% of the oral dose) than those obtained after administration of nonencapsulated BIC (22 MG; 0.6%; P = 0.004). An inverse relationship was noted between intestinal transit time and fecal bovine IgG content (R = 0.83; P = 0.04 [data from omeprazole group]). Filtrates of stool samples collected after oral administration of BIC-C. difficile neutralized the cytotoxicity of C. difficile toxins A and B, whereas control stool filtrates did not. Bovine colostral IgG undergoes partial degradation in the intestinal tract. Exposure to acidic gastric secretions and prolonged colonic transit may both contribute to IgG degradation. Nonetheless, humans taking BIC-C. difficile orally have neutralizing antitoxin activity in their stool. PMID:9021173

  8. Retention time of digesta in the gastrointestinal tract of growing Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Leite, R F; Krizsan, S J; Figueiredo, F O M; Carvalho, V B; Teixeira, I A M A; Huhtanen, P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effect of increased BW on mean retention time (MRT) of both particulate and solute marker, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and fiber digestion in the whole tract of growing Saanen goats using the slaughter technique. A total of 58 Saanen goats with initial BW of 15.7 ± 0.9 kg were allocated into 9 treatments with a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of 3 sexes (female, castrated males, and intact males) and 3 slaughter weights (initial, intermediate, and final; target BW of 16, 23, and 30 kg at slaughter, respectively). They were fed twice daily (0700 and 1600 h) with the identical diets for ad libitum intake. Mean retention time of particulate matter was estimated by in situ determination of indigestible NDF (iNDF), and the MRT of solute marker was determined by Cr-EDTA. Treatment effects were evaluated in a split-plot design, with sex as the main plot and slaughter weight as the subplot. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts were used to determine linear and quadratic effects of slaughter weight, whereas the effect of sex was compared using the Tukey test. The effects of sex and sex × slaughter weight were not significant for most of variables evaluated. The results showed that DMI (% BW) linearly decreased as slaughter weight increased ( < 0.01). Generally wet weight of the total GIT tissues (% BW) decreased and digesta pool sizes (g) linearly increased with increasing slaughter weight ( ≤ 0.05). The ratio of iNDF:NDF for both ingested diet and reticulorumen digesta linearly increased as slaughter weight increased ( ≤ 0.05). The MRT of particles did not change with increasing slaughter weight ( = 0.94). Mean retention time of particulate matter linearly increased in the omasum but linearly decreased in the abomasum with increasing slaughter weight ( < 0.01). Mean retention time of solute marker in the forestomachs linearly increased with increasing slaughter weight ( < 0.01). The results revealed a decreased selectivity

  9. Retention time of digesta in the gastrointestinal tract of growing Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Leite, R F; Krizsan, S J; Figueiredo, F O M; Carvalho, V B; Teixeira, I A M A; Huhtanen, P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effect of increased BW on mean retention time (MRT) of both particulate and solute marker, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and fiber digestion in the whole tract of growing Saanen goats using the slaughter technique. A total of 58 Saanen goats with initial BW of 15.7 ± 0.9 kg were allocated into 9 treatments with a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of 3 sexes (female, castrated males, and intact males) and 3 slaughter weights (initial, intermediate, and final; target BW of 16, 23, and 30 kg at slaughter, respectively). They were fed twice daily (0700 and 1600 h) with the identical diets for ad libitum intake. Mean retention time of particulate matter was estimated by in situ determination of indigestible NDF (iNDF), and the MRT of solute marker was determined by Cr-EDTA. Treatment effects were evaluated in a split-plot design, with sex as the main plot and slaughter weight as the subplot. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts were used to determine linear and quadratic effects of slaughter weight, whereas the effect of sex was compared using the Tukey test. The effects of sex and sex × slaughter weight were not significant for most of variables evaluated. The results showed that DMI (% BW) linearly decreased as slaughter weight increased ( < 0.01). Generally wet weight of the total GIT tissues (% BW) decreased and digesta pool sizes (g) linearly increased with increasing slaughter weight ( ≤ 0.05). The ratio of iNDF:NDF for both ingested diet and reticulorumen digesta linearly increased as slaughter weight increased ( ≤ 0.05). The MRT of particles did not change with increasing slaughter weight ( = 0.94). Mean retention time of particulate matter linearly increased in the omasum but linearly decreased in the abomasum with increasing slaughter weight ( < 0.01). Mean retention time of solute marker in the forestomachs linearly increased with increasing slaughter weight ( < 0.01). The results revealed a decreased selectivity

  10. Probiotics and respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections in Finnish military conscripts - a randomised placebo-controlled double-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Kalima, K; Lehtoranta, L; He, L; Pitkäniemi, J; Lundell, R; Julkunen, I; Roivainen, M; Närkiö, M; Mäkelä, M J; Siitonen, S; Korpela, R; Pitkäranta, A

    2016-09-01

    Military conscripts are susceptible to respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. In previous studies probiotics have shown potency to reduce upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The aim was to study whether probiotic intervention has an impact on seasonal occurrence of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in two different conscript groups. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled study (https://clinicaltrials.gov NCT01651195), a total of 983 healthy adults were enrolled from two intakes of conscripts. Conscripts were randomised to receive either a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12 (BB12) or a control chewing tablet twice daily for 150 days (recruits) or for 90 days (reserve officer candidates). Clinical examinations were carried out and daily symptom diaries were collected. Outcome measures were the number of days with respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and symptom incidence, number and duration of infection episodes, number of antibiotic treatments received and number of days out of service because of the infection. Statistically no significant differences were found between the intervention groups either in the risk of symptom incidence or duration. However, probiotic intervention was associated with reduction of specific respiratory infection symptoms in military recruits, but not in reserve officer candidates. Probiotics did not significantly reduce overall respiratory and gastrointestinal infection morbidity. PMID:27048835

  11. Management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage: controversies and areas of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Trawick, Eric P; Yachimski, Patrick S

    2012-03-21

    Upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage (UGIH) remains a common presentation requiring urgent evaluation and treatment. Accurate assessment, appropriate intervention and apt clinical skills are needed for proper management from time of presentation to discharge. The advent of pharmacologic acid suppression, endoscopic hemostatic techniques, and recognition of Helicobacter pylori as an etiologic agent in peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has revolutionized the treatment of UGIH. Despite this, acute UGIH still carries considerable rates of morbidity and mortality. This review aims to discuss current areas of uncertainty and controversy in the management of UGIH. Neoadjuvant proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has become standard empiric treatment for UGIH given that PUD is the leading cause of non-variceal UGIH, and PPIs are extremely effective at promoting ulcer healing. However, neoadjuvant PPI administration has not been shown to affect hard clinical outcomes such as rebleeding or mortality. The optimal timing of upper endoscopy in UGIH is often debated. Upon completion of volume resuscitation and hemodynamic stabilization, upper endoscopy should be performed within 24 h in all patients with evidence of UGIH for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. With rising healthcare cost paramount in today's medical landscape, the ability to appropriately triage UGIH patients is of increasing value. Upper endoscopy in conjunction with the clinical scenario allows for accurate decision making concerning early discharge home in low-risk lesions or admission for further monitoring and treatment in higher-risk lesions. Concomitant pharmacotherapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antiplatelet agents, such as clopidogrel, has a major impact on the etiology, severity, and potential treatment of UGIH. Long-term PPI use in patients taking chronic NSAIDs or clopidogrel is discussed thoroughly in this review. PMID:22468078

  12. Ex vivo optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy imaging of murine gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida; Tumlinson, Alexandre R.; Wade, Norman; Besselsen, David; Utzinger, Urs; Gerner, Eugene; Barton, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) have separately been found to have clinical potential in identifying human gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies, yet their diagnostic capability in mouse models of human disease is unknown. We combine the two modalities to survey the GI tract of a variety of mouse strains and sample dysplasias and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of the small and large intestine. Segments of duodenum and lower colon 2.5 cm in length and the entire esophagus from 10 mice each of two colon cancer models (ApcMin and AOM treated A/J) and two IBD models (Il-2 and Il-10) and 5 mice each of their respective controls were excised. OCT images and LIF spectra were obtained simultaneously from each tissue sample within 1 hour of extraction. Histology was used to classify tissue regions as normal, Peyer"s patch, dysplasia, adenoma, or IBD. Features in corresponding regions of OCT images were analyzed. Spectra from each of these categories were averaged and compared via the student's t-test. Features in OCT images correlated to histology in both normal and diseased tissue samples. In the diseased samples, OCT was able to identify early stages of mild colitis and dysplasia. In the sample of IBD, the LIF spectra displayed unique peaks at 635nm and 670nm, which were attributed to increased porphyrin production in the proliferating bacteria of the disease. These peaks have the potential to act as a diagnostic for IBD. OCT and LIF appear to be useful and complementary modalities for imaging mouse models.

  13. The ontogeny of alpha-fetoprotein gene expression in the mouse gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The ontogeny of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene expression has been examined in the fetal and adult mouse gastrointestinal tract. AFP mRNA constitutes approximately 0.1% of total mRNA in the fetal gut. The transcripts were localized by in situ hybridization to the epithelial cells lining the villi of the fetal gut. At birth, AFP mRNA declines rapidly to achieve low adult basal levels, which are not affected by different alleles of raf, a gene that determines the adult basal level of AFP mRNA in the liver. The basal level in the adult gut is the consequence of continued AFP transcription in a small number of enteroendocrine cells that are distributed infrequently on the villi. These cells were identified by double antibody staining with antibodies to chromogranin A, an enteroendocrine cell marker and AFP. Previous studies resulted in the generation of a line of transgenic mice containing an internally deleted AFP gene that was greatly overexpressed in the fetal gut. The basis for the inappropriately high level expression of the transgene was shown to be the consequence of very high levels of transcription in the epithelial cells of the villi rather than to expression in inappropriate cell types. The cis-acting DNA sequences required for expression of the AFP gene in the gut were investigated using Caco-2 cells, a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. These experiments indicated that, with one exception, the regulatory elements required in both the promoter and enhancer regions of the gene coincided with those that are necessary for high level expression in the liver. The one exception was enhancer II, located 5 kbp of DNA upstream of the gene, which exhibited no activity in Caco-2 cells. PMID:1691194

  14. Age and Gender Affect the Composition of Fungal Population of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Strati, Francesco; Di Paola, Monica; Stefanini, Irene; Albanese, Davide; Rizzetto, Lisa; Lionetti, Paolo; Calabrò, Antonio; Jousson, Olivier; Donati, Claudio; Cavalieri, Duccio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here, we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal (GI) tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C), to acidic and oxidative stress, and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals' life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics-based approaches to

  15. Chemical coding and chemosensory properties of cholinergic brush cells in the mouse gastrointestinal and biliary tract

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Burkhard; Jurastow, Innokentij; Bader, Sandra; Ringer, Cornelia; von Engelhardt, Jakob; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Diener, Martin; Kummer, Wolfgang; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Weihe, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    The mouse gastro-intestinal and biliary tract mucosal epithelia harbor choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive brush cells with taste cell-like traits. With the aid of two transgenic mouse lines that express green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the ChAT promoter (EGFPChAT) and by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that EGFPChAT cells were clustered in the epithelium lining the gastric groove. EGFPChAT cells were numerous in the gall bladder and bile duct, and found scattered as solitary cells along the small and large intestine. While all EGFPChAT cells were also ChAT-positive, expression of the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1) was never detected. Except for the proximal colon, EGFPChAT cells also lacked detectable expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). EGFPChAT cells were found to be separate from enteroendocrine cells, however they were all immunoreactive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18), transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), and for cyclooxygenases 1 (COX1) and 2 (COX2). The ex vivo stimulation of colonic EGFPChAT cells with the bitter substance denatonium resulted in a strong increase in intracellular calcium, while in other epithelial cells such an increase was significantly weaker and also timely delayed. Subsequent stimulation with cycloheximide was ineffective in both cell populations. Given their chemical coding and chemosensory properties, EGFPChAT brush cells thus may have integrative functions and participate in induction of protective reflexes and inflammatory events by utilizing ACh and prostaglandins for paracrine signaling. PMID:25852573

  16. Change in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract by Overexpressed Activin Beta A

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Nyeu; Kim, Young Il; Cho, Chunghee; Mayo, Kelly E.; Cho, Byung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Originally, activins were identified as stimulators of FSH release in reproduction. Other activities, including secondary axis formation in development, have since been revealed. Here, we investigated the influence of activin βA on the body, including the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Initially, the activin βA protein was detected in the serum proportional to the amount of pCMV-rAct plasmid injected. The induced level of activin βA in muscle was higher in female than male mice. Subsequent results revealed that stomach and intestine were severely damaged in pCMV-rAct-injected mice. At the cellular level, loss of parietal cells was observed, resulting in increased pH within the stomach. This phenomenon was more severe in male than female mice. Consistent with damage of the stomach and intestine, activin βA often led to necrosis in the tip of the tail or foot, and loss of body weight was observed in pCMV-rAct-injected male but not female mice. Finally, in pCMV-rAct-injected mice, circulating activin βA led to death at supraphysiological doses, and this was dependent on the strain of mice used. Taken together, these results indicate that activin βA has an important role outside of reproduction and development, specifically in digestion. These data also indicate that activin βA must be controlled within a narrow range because of latent lethal activity. In addition, our approach can be used effectively for functional analysis of secreted proteins. PMID:26608361

  17. Cancers of the upper gastro-intestinal tract: a review of somatic mutation distributions.

    PubMed

    Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Hainaut, Pierre

    2014-04-01

    Cancers of the upper gastro-intestinal tract (UGIT) comprise esophageal, esophago-gastric junction, stomach and duodenal cancers. Together, these cancers represent over 1.5 million cases and are the cause of about 1.25 million deaths annually. This group of cancers encompasses diseases with marked disparities in etiology, geographic distribution, histopathological features and frequency. Based on histological origin, squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC), which arises through a dysplasia-carcinoma sequence within the squamous mucosa, is a completely different cancer than junction, stomach and duodenal cancers, which develop within glandular epithelia through cascades involving inflammation, metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma. At the frontline between these two histological domains, cancers of the esophago-gastric junction constitute a mixed group of glandular tumors including distal esophageal adenocarcinomas and cancers arising within the most proximal part of the stomach - the cardia. Most of UGIT cancers are sporadic, although familial susceptibility genes have been identified for stomach and rare cases of ESCC. We have used the COSMIC database (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/) to identify genes commonly mutated in UGIT cancers. Regardless of etiology and histopathology, three genes are mutated in at least 5% of UGIT cancers: TP53, CDKN2a and PIK3CA. Another three genes, NFE2L2, PTCH1 and NOTCH1, are mutated in ESCC only. Conversely, genes of the RAS family and of the CDH1/APC/CTNNB1 pathway are mutated only in non-squamous cancers, with differences in mutated genes according to topography. We review the potential functional significance of these observations for understanding mechanisms of UGIT carcinogenesis. PMID:24724606

  18. Age and Gender Affect the Composition of Fungal Population of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Strati, Francesco; Di Paola, Monica; Stefanini, Irene; Albanese, Davide; Rizzetto, Lisa; Lionetti, Paolo; Calabrò, Antonio; Jousson, Olivier; Donati, Claudio; Cavalieri, Duccio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here, we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal (GI) tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C), to acidic and oxidative stress, and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals' life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics-based approaches to

  19. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry) evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania). The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal) irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance). PMID:22166041

  20. Cancers of the upper gastro-intestinal tract: a review of somatic mutation distributions.

    PubMed

    Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Hainaut, Pierre

    2014-04-01

    Cancers of the upper gastro-intestinal tract (UGIT) comprise esophageal, esophago-gastric junction, stomach and duodenal cancers. Together, these cancers represent over 1.5 million cases and are the cause of about 1.25 million deaths annually. This group of cancers encompasses diseases with marked disparities in etiology, geographic distribution, histopathological features and frequency. Based on histological origin, squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC), which arises through a dysplasia-carcinoma sequence within the squamous mucosa, is a completely different cancer than junction, stomach and duodenal cancers, which develop within glandular epithelia through cascades involving inflammation, metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma. At the frontline between these two histological domains, cancers of the esophago-gastric junction constitute a mixed group of glandular tumors including distal esophageal adenocarcinomas and cancers arising within the most proximal part of the stomach - the cardia. Most of UGIT cancers are sporadic, although familial susceptibility genes have been identified for stomach and rare cases of ESCC. We have used the COSMIC database (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/) to identify genes commonly mutated in UGIT cancers. Regardless of etiology and histopathology, three genes are mutated in at least 5% of UGIT cancers: TP53, CDKN2a and PIK3CA. Another three genes, NFE2L2, PTCH1 and NOTCH1, are mutated in ESCC only. Conversely, genes of the RAS family and of the CDH1/APC/CTNNB1 pathway are mutated only in non-squamous cancers, with differences in mutated genes according to topography. We review the potential functional significance of these observations for understanding mechanisms of UGIT carcinogenesis.

  1. Chemical coding and chemosensory properties of cholinergic brush cells in the mouse gastrointestinal and biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Burkhard; Jurastow, Innokentij; Bader, Sandra; Ringer, Cornelia; von Engelhardt, Jakob; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Diener, Martin; Kummer, Wolfgang; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Weihe, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    The mouse gastro-intestinal and biliary tract mucosal epithelia harbor choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive brush cells with taste cell-like traits. With the aid of two transgenic mouse lines that express green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the ChAT promoter (EGFP (ChAT) ) and by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that EGFP (ChAT) cells were clustered in the epithelium lining the gastric groove. EGFP (ChAT) cells were numerous in the gall bladder and bile duct, and found scattered as solitary cells along the small and large intestine. While all EGFP (ChAT) cells were also ChAT-positive, expression of the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1) was never detected. Except for the proximal colon, EGFP (ChAT) cells also lacked detectable expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). EGFP (ChAT) cells were found to be separate from enteroendocrine cells, however they were all immunoreactive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18), transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), and for cyclooxygenases 1 (COX1) and 2 (COX2). The ex vivo stimulation of colonic EGFP (ChAT) cells with the bitter substance denatonium resulted in a strong increase in intracellular calcium, while in other epithelial cells such an increase was significantly weaker and also timely delayed. Subsequent stimulation with cycloheximide was ineffective in both cell populations. Given their chemical coding and chemosensory properties, EGFP (ChAT) brush cells thus may have integrative functions and participate in induction of protective reflexes and inflammatory events by utilizing ACh and prostaglandins for paracrine signaling. PMID:25852573

  2. Unexpected FDG-PET uptake in the gastrointestinal tract: Endoscopic and histopathological correlations

    PubMed Central

    Goldin, Eran; Mahamid, Mahmud; Koslowsky, Benjamin; Shteingart, Shimon; Dubner, Yael; Lalazar, Gadi; Wengrower, Dov

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the nature and significance of unexpected positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) uptake within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). METHODS: Patients with unexpected FDG-PET findings in the GIT were evaluated. All patients had a previous confirmed malignancy, either solid or lymphoproliferative. The radiologic reports were performed by experienced radiologists with an exclusive PET expertise. Endoscopy, i.e., esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy, and histopathological evaluation of all findings was performed in all patients in accordance to the FDG-PET results. The findings from each of these modalities were compared to each other. Both clinically significant and insignificant findings were assessed. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients were endoscopically evaluated. Twenty-seven patients (37.5%) had primarily a lymphoproliferative tumor and 45 (62.5%) had solid tumors. In 50 patients (69.4%) the endoscopic examination revealed lesions in the same anatomical areas as the FDG-PET findings. Among these 50 patients, malignant and premalignant lesions i.e., adenomatous polyps were found in 16 (32%) and 9 (18%) patients, respectively. Inflammation was noted in an additional 20 patients (40%). Compared to primary solid tumors, a background of primary lymphoproliferative malignancy was more likely to reveal an additional primary malignancy (15.6% vs 33.3%, respectively, P < 0.01). EGD compared to colonoscopy, revealed altogether 11 (25.6%) new malignancies compared to 5 (17.2%), respectively, P = 0.12. No GIT clinically significant findings were overseen by the FDG-PET. CONCLUSION: Unexpected FDG uptake in the GIT is commonly encountered and may contain significant findings. Endoscopy evaluation is justified in order to detect these additional findings. PMID:24764676

  3. Live probiotic cultures and the gastrointestinal tract: symbiotic preservation of tolerance whilst attenuating pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Vitetta, Luis; Hall, Sean; Linnane, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria comprise the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included co-operative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil) and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome). A fusion event of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryote cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryote cells. The discovery of bacterial inhibitors such chloramphenicol and others has been exploited to highlight mitochondria as arising from a bacterial progenitor. As such the evolution of human life has been complexly connected to bacterial activity. This is embodied, by the appearance of mitochondria in eukaryotes (alphaproteobacteria contribution), a significant endosymbiotic evolutionary event. During the twentieth century there was an increasing dependency on anti-microbials as mainline therapy against bacterial infections. It is only comparatively recently that the essential roles played by the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiome in animal health and development has been recognized as opposed to the GIT microbiome being a toxic collection of micro-organisms. It is now well-documented that the GIT microbiome is comprised of a complex cohort of commensal and potentially pathogenic bacteria. Microbial interactions in the GIT provide the necessary cues for the development of regulated signals [in part by reactive oxygen species (ROS)] that promote immunological tolerance, metabolic regulation and stability, and other factors, which may then help control local and extra-intestinal end organ (e.g., kidneys) physiology. Pharmacobiotics, the administration of live probiotic cultures is an exciting growth area of potential therapeutics, developing together with an increased scientific understanding of GIT microbiome symbiosis in health and disease. Hence probiotic bacteria may provide a therapeutic connect with the GIT microbiome that

  4. Risk of Flood-Related Diseases of Eyes, Skin and Gastrointestinal Tract in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling-Ya; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chin-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Floods are known to cause serious environmental damage and health impacts. Studies on flood-related diseases have been primarily on individual events, and limited evidence could be drawn on potential health impacts from floods using large population data. This study used reimbursement records of one million people of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to compare incident diseases of the eyes, skin and gastrointestinal (GI) tract associated with floods. Incidence rates for the selected diseases were calculated according to outpatient/emergency visit data. The incidence rates were evaluated by flood status: in 10 days before floods, during floods and within 10 days after the floods receded. Outpatient/emergency visit rates for the eye, skin and GI tract diseases were highest after floods and lowest during floods. Results from multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that, when compared with the incidence in 10 days before floods, the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of diseases within 10 days after floods were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.20) for eyes, 1.08 (95% C.I. = 1.05-1.10) for skin, and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08-1.14) for GI tract, after controlling for covariates. All risks increased with ambient temperature. V-shaped trends were found between age and eye diseases, and between age and GI tract diseases. In contrast, the risk of skin diseases increased with age. In conclusion, more diseases of eyes, skin and GI tract could be diagnosed after the flood.

  5. Expression of bitter taste receptors of the T2R family in the gastrointestinal tract and enteroendocrine STC-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S. Vincent; Rozengurt, Nora; Yang, Moon; Young, Steven H.; Sinnett-Smith, James; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    Although a role for the gastric and intestinal mucosa in molecular sensing has been known for decades, the initial molecular recognition events that sense the chemical composition of the luminal contents has remained elusive. Here we identified putative taste receptor gene transcripts in the gastrointestinal tract. Our results, using reverse transcriptase–PCR, demonstrate the presence of transcripts corresponding to multiple members of the T2R family of bitter taste receptors in the antral and fundic gastric mucosa as well as in the lining of the duodenum. In addition, cDNA clones of T2R receptors were detected in a rat gastric endocrine cell cDNA library, suggesting that these receptors are expressed, at least partly, in enteroendocrine cells. Accordingly, expression of multiple T2R receptors also was found in STC-1 cells, an enteroendocrine cell line. The expression of α subunits of G proteins implicated in intracellular taste signal transduction, namely Gαgust, and Gαt-2, also was demonstrated in the gastrointestinal mucosa as well as in STC-1 cells, as revealed by reverse transcriptase–PCR and DNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Furthermore, addition of compounds widely used in bitter taste signaling (e.g., denatonium, phenylthiocarbamide, 6-n-propil-2-thiouracil, and cycloheximide) to STC-1 cells promoted a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These results demonstrate the expression of bitter taste receptors of the T2R family in the mouse and rat gastrointestinal tract. PMID:11854532

  6. 99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy fails to detect Crohn's disease in the proximal gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Davison, S; Chapman, S; Murphy, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the use of 99mTc-HMPAO (hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) leucocyte scintigraphy as a non-invasive screening test for inflammatory bowel disease.
PATIENTS—10 children with suspected Crohn's disease, in whom routine investigation using barium contrast radiology, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy, and mucosal biopsies had identified severe gastroduodenal and/or jejunal involvement.
DESIGN—99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphic studies performed in each of these cases were assessed by a radiologist who was blinded to the disease distribution.
RESULTS—In nine cases there was no scintigraphic evidence of inflammation in the proximal gastrointestinal tract. The 10th child had both gastroduodenal and jejunal involvement, but scintigraphy only revealed faint jejunal positivity.
CONCLUSIONS—99mTc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy should not be depended upon as a screening test for Crohn's disease. False negative results are likely in cases with Crohn's disease confined to the proximal gastrointestinal tract.

 PMID:11420197

  7. Survival and synergistic growth of mixed cultures of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli combined with prebiotic oligosaccharides in a gastrointestinal tract simulator

    PubMed Central

    Adamberg, Signe; Sumeri, Ingrid; Uusna, Riin; Ambalam, Padma; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Adamberg, Kaarel; Wadström, Torkel; Ljungh, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Background Probiotics, especially in combination with non-digestible oligosaccharides, may balance the gut microflora while multistrain preparations may express an improved functionality over single strain cultures. In vitro gastrointestinal models enable to test survival and growth dynamics of mixed strain probiotics in a controlled, replicable manner. Methods The robustness and compatibility of multistrain probiotics composed of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli combined with mixed prebiotics (galacto-, fructo- and xylo-oligosaccharides or galactooligosaccharides and soluble starch) were studied using a dynamic gastrointestinal tract simulator (GITS). The exposure to acid and bile of the upper gastrointestinal tract was followed by dilution with a continuous decrease of the dilution rate (de-celerostat) to simulate the descending nutrient availability of the large intestine. The bacterial numbers and metabolic products were analyzed and the growth parameters determined. Results The most acid- and bile-resistant strains were Lactobacillus plantarum F44 and L. paracasei F8. Bifidobacterium breve 46 had the highest specific growth rate and, although sensitive to bile exposure, recovered during the dilution phase in most experiments. B. breve 46, L. plantarum F44, and L. paracasei F8 were selected as the most promising strains for further studies. Conclusions De-celerostat cultivation can be applied to study the mixed bacterial cultures under defined conditions of decreasing nutrient availability to select a compatible set of strains. PMID:25045346

  8. Gross anatomical features of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) - oesophagus to cloaca.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, J; Tivane, C; Rodrigues, M N; Wagner, P G; Campos, D B; Guerra, R R; Miglino, M A

    2013-12-01

    Morphological studies of the gastrointestinal tract of blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) are scarce. In view of the paucity of information regarding the digestive tract of macaws, this study aims to describe the gross anatomical features (oesophagus to cloaca) as part of a broad study of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of these birds. Three animals (two males and one female) adult macaws were anatomically dissected from the oropharynx to the cloaca to expose the GIT. The oesophagus was identified as a muscle-membranous tube continuous with the crop, which was intimately attached to the skin. The internal longitudinal folds of the cervical oesophagus were sparser cranial to the crop and less evident compared to the portion caudal to the crop. The duodenum began in the pylorus and was grey-coloured exhibiting a large lumen. The jejunum was formed by loops in a spiral-fashion model supported by mesojejunum. The ileum was also composed by small loops and was continuous with the colo-rectum forming the large intestine, because the caeca were absent. The large intestine was short, median in position, suspended in the dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity by mesentery and ended in the cloaca. The GIT was similar to the basic patterns in birds, in general, and also presented new unreported morphological data that might be important when studying nutrition and health of the macaws.

  9. Normalized dose data for upper gastrointestinal tract contrast studies performed to infants

    SciTech Connect

    Damilakis, John; Stratakis, John; Raissaki, Maria; Perisinakis, Kostas; Kourbetis, Nikiforos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-04-15

    The aim of the current study was to (a) provide normalized dose data for the estimation of the radiation dose from upper gastrointestinal tract contrast (UGIC) studies carried out to infants and (b) estimate the average patient dose and risks associated with radiation from UGIC examinations performed in our institution. Organ and effective doses, normalized to entrance skin dose (ESD) and dose area product (DAP) were estimated for UGIC procedures utilizing the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) transport code and two mathematical phantoms, one corresponding to the size of a newborn and one to the size of a 1-year-old child. The validity of the MCNP results was verified by comparison with dose data obtained in physical anthropomorphic phantoms simulating a newborn and a 1-year-old infant using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). Data were also collected from 25 consecutive UGIC examinations performed to infants. Study participants were (a) 12 infants aged from 0.5 to 5.9 months (group 1) and (b) 13 infants aged from 6 to 15 months (group 2). For each examination, ESD and dose to comforters were measured using TLD. Patient effective doses were estimated using normalized dose data obtained in the simulation study. The risk for fatal cancer induction was estimated using appropriate coefficients. The results consist of tabulated dose data normalized to ESD or DAP for the estimation of patient dose. Conversion coefficients were estimated for various tube potentials and beam filtration values. The mean total fluoroscopy time was 1.26 and 1.62 min for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The average effective dose was 1.6 mSv for group 1 and 1.9 mSv for group 2. The risk of cancer attributable to the radiation exposure associated with a typical UGIC study was found to be up to 3 per 10 000 infants undergoing an UGIC examination. The mean radiation dose absorbed by the hands of comforters was 47 {mu}Gy. In conclusion, estimation of radiation doses associated with UGIC studies performed

  10. Tumor markers for diagnosis, monitoring of recurrence and prognosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jie-Xian; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Ting; Tian, Bao-Guo; Du, Li-Li; Zhao, Xian-Wen; Han, Cun-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the value of combined detection of serum CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS for the clinical diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cancer and to analyze the efficacy of these tumor markers (TMs) in evaluating curative effects and prognosis. A total of 573 patients with upper GIT cancer between January 2004 and December 2007 were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were examined preoperatively and every 3 months postoperatively by ELISA. The sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were 26.8%, 36.2%, 42.9%, 2.84%, 25.4%, 34.6%, 34.2% and 30.9%, respectively. The combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 had higher sensitivity and specificity in gastric cancer (GC) and cardiac cancer, while CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC was the best combination of diagnosis for esophageal cancer (EC). Elevation of preoperative CEA, CA19-9 and CA24-2, SCC and CA72-4 was significantly associated with pathological types (p<0.05) and TNM staging (p<0.05). Correlation analysis showed that CA24-2 was significantly correlated with CA19-9 (r=0.810, p<0.001). The levels of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC decreased obviously 3 months after operations. When metastasis and recurrence occurred, the levels of TMs significantly increased. On multivariate analysis, high preoperative CA72-4, CA24-2 and SCC served as prognostic factors for cardiac carcinoma, GC and EC, respectively. combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC proved to be the most economic and practical strategy in diagnosis of EC; CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 proved to be a better evaluation indicator for cardiac cancer and GC. CEA and CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC, examined postoperatively during follow-up, were useful to find early tumor recurrence and metastasis, and evaluate prognosis. AFP, TPA and TPS have no significant value in diagnosis of patients with upper GIT cancer.

  11. Bacteria and methanogens differ along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Wright, André-Denis G; Li, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus). The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera). The phyla Firmicutes (51.2%) and Bacteroidetes (39.4%) were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (P<0.01) different from the other sampled regions along the GIT. Secondly, Prevotella spp., Anaerovibrio spp., and unidentified bacteria within the families Veillonellaceae and Paraprevotellaceae were more abundant in the rumen than in the other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae, Succinivibrio spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. were more predominant in the colon than in other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroides spp. were more prevalent in the ileum, cecum and fecal pellets. For methanogens in the rumen and cecum, a total of 375,647 high quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and assigned to 113 core OTUs. Methanobrevibacter millerae was the dominant species accounting for 77.3±7.4 (S.E) % and 68.9±4.4 (S.E) % of total sequences in the rumen and cecum of roe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004). These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum.

  12. Bacteria and Methanogens Differ along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Chinese Roe Deer (Capreolus pygargus)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Wright, André-Denis G.; Li, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus). The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera). The phyla Firmicutes (51.2%) and Bacteroidetes (39.4%) were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (P<0.01) different from the other sampled regions along the GIT. Secondly, Prevotella spp., Anaerovibrio spp., and unidentified bacteria within the families Veillonellaceae and Paraprevotellaceae were more abundant in the rumen than in the other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae, Succinivibrio spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. were more predominant in the colon than in other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroides spp. were more prevalent in the ileum, cecum and fecal pellets. For methanogens in the rumen and cecum, a total of 375,647 high quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and assigned to 113 core OTUs. Methanobrevibacter millerae was the dominant species accounting for 77.3±7.4 (S.E) % and 68.9±4.4 (S.E) % of total sequences in the rumen and cecum of roe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004). These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum. PMID:25490208

  13. Increased risk for lung cancer and for cancer of the gastrointestinal tract among Geneva professional drivers.

    PubMed Central

    Gubéran, E; Usel, M; Raymond, L; Bolay, J; Fioretta, G; Puissant, J

    1992-01-01

    possible casual relation between exposure to engine exhaust emissions and the increased risk for lung cancer and for cancer of the gastrointestinal tract found among professional drivers is discussed. PMID:1376139

  14. A revised model for radiation dosimetry in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Md. Nasir Uddin

    A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents. Each wall was divided into many small regions so that the histologic and radiosensitive variations of the tissues across the wall could be distinguished. The characteristic parameters were determined based on the newest information available in the literature. Each of these sections except the stomach was subdivided into multiple subsections to include the spatiotemporal variations in the shape and characteristic parameters. This new GIT was integrated into an anthropomorphic phantom representing both an adult male and a larger-than-average adult female. The current phantom contains 14 different types of tissue. This phantom was coupled with the MCNP 4C Monte Carlo simulation package. The initial design and coding of the phantom and the Monte Carlo treatment employed in this study were validated using the results obtained by Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The code was used for calculating specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) in various organs and radiosensitive tissues from uniformly distributed sources of fifteen monoenergetic photons and electrons, 10 keV - 4 MeV, in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. The present studies showed that the average photon SAFs to the walls were significantly different from that to the radiosensitive cells (stem cells) for the energies below 50 keV. Above 50 keV, the photon SAFs were found to be almost constant across the walls. The electron SAF at the depth of the stem cells was a small fraction of the SAF routinely estimated at the contents-mucus interface. Electron studies

  15. Persistence of probiotic strains in the gastrointestinal tract when administered as capsules, yoghurt, or cheese.

    PubMed

    Saxelin, Maija; Lassig, Anna; Karjalainen, Heli; Tynkkynen, Soile; Surakka, Anu; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Järvenpää, Salme; Korpela, Riitta; Mutanen, Marja; Hatakka, Katja

    2010-12-15

    Most clinical studies of probiotics use freeze-dried, powdered bacteria or bacteria packed in capsules. However, probiotics are commercially available in various food matrices, which may affect their persistence in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the study was to compare oral and faecal recovery during and after administration of a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 as capsules, yoghurt, or cheese. This randomized, parallel-group, open-label trial (n=36) included a 4-week run-in, 2-week intervention, and 3-week follow-up period. Participants consumed 10(10)cfu/day of probiotic combination and provided saliva and faecal samples before, during, and after the intervention. Strain-specific real-time PCR was used to quantify the strains. L. rhamnosus GG was the only probiotic strain regularly recovered in saliva samples. During the intervention period it was recovered in the saliva of 88% of the volunteers at least once. No difference was found between the yoghurt and cheese groups. At the end of the intervention, L. rhamnosus GG and LC705 counts were high in faecal samples of all product groups (8.08 and 8.67log(10) genome copies/g, respectively). There was no matrix effect on strain quantity in faeces or the recovery time after ceasing the intervention. For P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS and B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb12, a matrix effect was found at the end of the intervention (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) and in the recovery time during follow-up (P<0.05 for both). Yoghurt yielded the highest faecal quantity of JS and Bb12 strains (8.01 and 9.89log(10) genome copies/g, respectively). The results showed that the administration matrix did not influence the faecal quantity of lactobacilli, but affected faecal counts of propionibacteria and bifidobacteria that were lower when consumed in cheese. Thus, the consumption of

  16. Inflammatory fibroid polyps of the gastrointestinal tract: spectrum of clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemistry features.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ta-Chiang; Lin, Ming-Tseh; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Singhi, Aatur D

    2013-04-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFPs) are rare, benign tumors that can arise throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Although the molecular pathogenesis of these lesions has been well characterized, their morphologic features often vary. We report the clinicopathologic findings of the largest series of IFPs to date. A total of 83 IFPs seen at our institution were collected between 1999 and 2012. The specimens included 64 biopsies and 19 resections. A review of the clinical features identified a modest female predominance (47 women and 36 men) with patients ranging in age from 26 to 87 years (mean, 60 y). Involved sites included the esophagus (n=2), stomach (n=31; mainly antrum), small intestines (n=17), appendix (n=1), large intestines (n=31; majority within the rectosigmoid), and anal canal (n=1). Although most patients had a nonspecific presentation, those with small intestinal lesions frequently presented with intussusception. Grossly, the tumors ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.2 cm (mean, 1.7 cm). Histologically, IFPs were centered within the submucosa in all resection specimens, but mucosal extension was found in 74 of 83 (89%) cases. The tumors varied in both cellularity and degree of vascularity. However, the characteristic feature of perivascular onion skinning was present in only 54% (45/83) of the cases. In addition, a short fascicular growth pattern was also noted in 36% (30 of 83) of cases, whereas both features were present in 14 cases (17%). Eosinophils were present in 94% (78 of 83) of cases but varied widely in number from abundant (20/hpf) to sparse (1/hpf). Interestingly, in those cases with sparse eosinophils, prominent hyalinization was also present (11 of 78, 13%). In addition, although the majority of IFPs expressed CD34, 6 of 44 (14%) were negative. No associated dysplasia or malignancy was seen. IFPs represent a diverse set of submucosal-based lesions that commonly extend into the mucosa, making them amenable to endoscopic biopsy. Although their

  17. The influence of age and weaning on permeability of the gastrointestinal tract in Holstein bull calves.

    PubMed

    Wood, K M; Palmer, S I; Steele, M A; Metcalf, J A; Penner, G B

    2015-10-01

    Fourteen Holstein bull calves were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate the effect of calf age and weaning on permeability of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) a weaning protocol that was initiated on d 35; WN; n=7), or (2) a control treatment where calves were not weaned (CON; n=7). Calves were bottle-fed milk replacer (150 g/L), in 3 equal portions/d targeting 15% of their body weight (BW) in liquid milk intake [approximately 21.1g/kg of BW/d, dry matter (DM) basis]. On d 35, the amount of milk replacer offered to WN calves was reduced to 7.5% of BW for 7 d before calves were weaned on d 42. On d 14, 28, and 42, calves were orally dosed with 500 mL of Cr-EDTA (179 mM Cr-EDTA solution) and housed in a metabolism crate to enable total urine collection and determination of total urinary Cr recovery as an indicator of total-tract permeability. On d 44, calves were killed and tissues from the rumen, omasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and proximal and distal colon were collected, rinsed, and transported in buffer solution (pH 7.4 at 38.5°C). Tissues were incubated in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions with buffer solutions designed to mimic the mucosal and serosal energy source that would be available in vivo (glucose for tissues from the small intestine and short-chain fatty acids for tissues that would be exposed to fermentation; rumen, omasum, and large intestinal tissues). The serosal to mucosal flux of (14)C-mannitol and (3)H-inulin was measured for each region. Although we detected treatment × period interactions for BW and starter intake, dietary treatments did not differ within a week. Overall, the time that ruminal pH was <5.5 was less before weaning than after weaning. We observed a differential response for the appearance of Cr in urine for WN and CON calves, where the appearance of Cr (mg/48 h) in urine decreased for both treatments from d 14 to 28, but

  18. Clinical outcome of transcatheter arterial embolization with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate for control of acute gastrointestinal tract bleeding.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hwa Jung; Kim, Jinoo; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong Il

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of trans-catheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA), with or without other embolic materials for acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal tract bleeding, and to determine the factors associated with clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. TAE using NBCA only or in conjunction with other materials was performed for 102 patients (80 male and 22 female patients; mean age, 61.3 years) with acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Technical success, clinical success, and clinical factors, including age, sex, bleeding tendency, endoscopic attempts at hemostasis, number of transfusions, and bleeding causes (i.e., cancer vs noncancer), were retrospectively evaluated. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate clinical factors and their ability to predict patient outcomes. Survival curves were obtained using Kaplan-Meier analyses and log-rank tests. RESULTS. There were 36 patients with cancer-related bleeding and 66 with non-cancer-related bleeding. Overall technical and clinical success rates were 100% (102/102) and 76.5% (78/102), respectively. Procedure-related complications included bowel infarction, which was noted in two patients. Recurrent bleeding and bleeding-related 30-day mortality rates were 15.7% (16/102) and 8.8% (9/102), respectively. Cancer-related bleeding increased clinical failure significantly (p = 0.003) and bleeding-related 30-day mortality with marginal significance (p = 0.05). Overall survival was poorer in patients with cancer-related bleeding. CONCLUSION. TAE with NBCA with or without other embolic agents showed high technical and clinical effectiveness in the management of acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Cancer-related bleeding was the only factor related to clinical failure, and possibly related to bleeding-related 30-day mortality.

  19. Gastrointestinal tract radionuclide activity on In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging: clinical significance in patients with fever of unknown origin

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.; Thorne, D.A.

    1986-09-01

    To determine the frequency and clinical significance of indium-111 labeled leukocyte activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of patients with fever of unknown origin, we reviewed 312 leukocyte studies involving 271 patients. Radionuclide activity was noted in the bowel in 59 cases. Of these, only 27 were due to the infection or inflammatory disease that caused the patient's fever. The 32 false-positive results were due primarily to swallowed leukocytes or bleeding. In two cases, no explanation was found for the activity in the GI tract. We conclude that bowel activity on In-111 labeled leukocyte scans in patients with fever of unknown origin often does not correlate with the true cause of the patient's fever.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract in Panaque nigrolineatus, a wood-eating fish.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ryan; Schreier, Harold J; Watts, Joy E M

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical detritivorous catfish Panaque nigrolineatus imbibes large quantities of wood as part of its diet. Due to the interest in cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin degradation pathways, this organism provides an interesting model system for the detection of novel microbial catabolism. In this study, we characterize the microbial community present in different regions of the alimentary tract of P. nigrolineatus fed a mixed diet of date palm and palm wood in laboratory aquaria. Analysis was performed on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from anterior and posterior regions of the alimentary tract and the auxiliary lobe (AL), an uncharacterized organ that is vascularly attached to the midgut. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction revealed distinct microbial communities in each tissue region. The foregut community shared many phylotypes in common with aquarium tank water and included Legionella and Hyphomicrobium spp. As the analysis moved further into the gastrointestinal tract, phylotypes with high levels of 16S rRNA sequence similarity to nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium and Agrobacterium spp. and Clostridium xylanovorans and Clostridium saccharolyticum, dominated midgut and AL communities. However, the hindgut was dominated almost exclusively by phylotypes with the highest 16S rRNA sequence similarity to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum. Species richness was highest in the foregut (Chao(1) = 26.72), decreased distally through the midgut (Chao(1) = 25.38) and hindgut (Chao(1) = 20.60), with the lowest diversity detected in the AL (Chao(1) = 18.04), indicating the presence of a specialized microbial community. Using 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, we report that the P. nigrolineatus gastrointestinal tract possesses a microbial community closely related to microorganisms capable of cellulose degradation and nitrogen fixation. Further studies are underway to determine the role of this resident microbial community in Panaque nigrolineatus. PMID

  1. Effects of ghrelin and motilin on smooth muscle contractility of the isolated gastrointestinal tract from the bullfrog and Japanese fire belly newt.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Takio; Shimazaki, Misato; Kikuta, Ayumi; Yaosaka, Noriko; Teraoka, Hiroki; Kaiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Ghrelin has been identified in some amphibians and is known to stimulate growth hormone release and food intake as seen in mammals. Ghrelin regulates gastrointestinal motility in mammals and birds. The aim of this study was to determine whether ghrelin affects gastrointestinal smooth muscle contractility in bullfrogs (anuran) and Japanese fire belly newts (urodelian) in vitro. Neither bullfrog ghrelin nor rat ghrelin affected longitudinal smooth muscle contractility of gastrointestinal strips from the bullfrog. Expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) mRNA was confirmed in the bullfrog gastrointestinal tract, and the expression level in the gastric mucosa was lower than that in the intestinal mucosa. In contrast, some gastrointestinal peptides, including substance P, neurotensin and motilin, and the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol showed marked contraction, indicating normality of the smooth muscle preparations. Similar results were obtained in another amphibian, the Japanese fire belly newt. Newt ghrelin and rat ghrelin did not cause any contraction in gastrointestinal longitudinal muscle, whereas substance P and carbachol were effective causing contraction. In conclusion, ghrelin does not affect contractility of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle in anuran and urodelian amphibians, similar to results for rainbow trout and goldfish (fish) but different from results for rats and chickens. The results suggest diversity of ghrelin actions on the gastrointestinal tract across animals. This study also showed for the first time that motilin induces gastrointestinal contraction in amphibians. PMID:26704852

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract Is Modulated by Wall Teichoic Acid, Capsule, and Surface Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, Yoshiki; Kelley, Kathryn A.; Wang, Xiaogang; Wang, Linhui; Park, Wan Beom; Birtel, Johannes; Saslowsky, David; Lee, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nose, throat, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans. GI carriage of S. aureus is difficult to eradicate and has been shown to facilitate the transmission of the bacterium among individuals. Although staphylococcal colonization of the GI tract is asymptomatic, it increases the likelihood of infection, particularly skin and soft tissue infections caused by USA300 isolates. We established a mouse model of persistent S. aureus GI colonization and characterized the impact of selected surface antigens on colonization. In competition experiments, an acapsular mutant colonized better than the parental strain Newman, whereas mutants defective in sortase A and clumping factor A showed impaired ability to colonize the GI tract. Mutants lacking protein A, clumping factor B, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, or SdrCDE showed no defect in colonization. An S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA) mutant (ΔtagO) failed to colonize the mouse nose or GI tract, and the tagO and clfA mutants showed reduced adherence in vitro to intestinal epithelial cells. The tagO mutant was recovered in lower numbers than the wild type strain in the murine stomach and duodenum 1 h after inoculation. This reduced fitness correlated with the in vitro susceptibility of the tagO mutant to bile salts, proteases, and a gut-associated defensin. Newman ΔtagO showed enhanced susceptibility to autolysis, and an autolysin (atl) tagO double mutant abrogated this phenotype. However, the atl tagO mutant did not survive better in the mouse GI tract than the tagO mutant. Our results indicate that the failure of the tagO mutant to colonize the GI tract correlates with its poor adherence and susceptibility to bactericidal factors within the mouse gut, but not to enhanced activity of its major autolysin. PMID:26201029

  3. Injected TFF1 and TFF3 bind to TFF2-immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract in rats.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, S S; Thulesen, J; Hartmann, B; Kissow, H L; Nexø, E; Thim, L

    2003-09-15

    Peptides of the trefoil factor family (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3) are co-secreted with mucus in most organ systems and are believed to interact with mucins to produce high-viscosity, stable gel complexes. We have previously demonstrated that cells in the GI tract possess binding sites to TFF2 and that injected TFF2 ends up in the mucus layer. In the present study, tissue binding and metabolism of parenterally administered human TFF1 and TFF3 in rats were described and compared to the immunohistochemical localization of the TFF peptides. 125I-TFF1 monomer and 125I-TFF3 mono- and dimer were given intravenously to female Wistar rats. The tissue distribution was assessed by gamma counting of organ samples and by autoradiography of histological sections. The degradation of 125I-TFF3 was studied by means of trichloracetic acid (TCA) precipitation and the saturability of the binding by administration of excess unlabelled peptide. The TFF peptides were localized in histologic sections from the GI tract by immunohistochemistry. Injected TFF3 dimer (12%) was taken up by the GI tract. At autoradiography, grains were localized to the same cells that were immunoreactive to TFF2. The binding could be displaced by excess TFF3. Similar binding was observed for the TFF1 and TFF3 monomers apart from binding in the stomach, where the uptake was only 15% in comparison to the dimer. There was no specific binding outside the GI tract and no binding to TFF1 or TFF3 immunoreactive cells. In conclusion, the TFF2-binding cells in the gastrointestinal tract seem to have basolateral, receptor-like activity to all three TFF peptides. The mucous neck cells of the stomach predominantly take up TFFs with two trefoil domains, indicating a different receptor-like activity in the stomach compared to the rest of the GI tract.

  4. [Differential diagnosis of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and retroperitoneal space from abdominal aortic aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Tsakadze, L O

    1981-01-01

    Aneurysm of the abdominal aorta is often erroneously identified as a gastrointestinal or retroperitoneal tumor of cyst. Out of 54 cases of this disease, 22 patients had undergone long-term examinations at various hospitals, oncological establishments included, while exploratory laparatomy had been carried out in 9 patients. The symptoms of aneurysm are described and compared with those of said tumors. Diagnostic procedures for identification of aneurysm and differentiation from gastrointestinal and retroperitoneal tumors and cysts are discussed.

  5. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli protein secretion is induced in response to conditions similar to those in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, B; Abe, A; Stein, M; Finlay, B B

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenicity of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is associated with the expression and secretion of specific bacterial factors. EspB is one such secreted protein which is required to trigger host signaling pathways resulting in effacement of microvilli and cytoskeletal rearrangements. These events presumably contribute to the ensuing diarrhea associated with EPEC infections. EPEC encounters several environmental changes and stimuli during its passage from the external environment into the host gastrointestinal tract. In this paper we show that the secretion of EspB is subject to environmental regulation, and maximal secretion occurs under conditions reminiscent of those in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, secretion is maximal at 37 degrees C, pH 7, and physiological osmolarity. In addition, maximal secretion requires the presence of sodium bicarbonate and calcium and is stimulated by millimolar concentrations of Fe(NO3)3. The secretion of the four other EPEC-secreted proteins appears to be modulated in a manner similar to that of EspB. Our results also show that secretion is not dependent on CO2, as originally reported by Haigh et al. (FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 129: 63-67, 1995), but that CO2 more likely acts as a component of the medium buffering system, since CO2 dependence was abolished by the use of alternative buffers. PMID:9199427

  6. Effect of analgesic drugs on the electromyographic activity of the gastrointestinal tract and sphincter of Oddi and on biliary pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, J C; Senninger, N; Runkel, N; Herfarth, C; Messmer, K

    1986-01-01

    Continuous biliary pressure and electromyographic activity of the sphincter of Oddi and gastrointestinal tract were recorded in conscious opossums following administration of analgesic drugs. Morphine, meperidine, and pentazocin increased significantly the duration of the migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle. Periods of 1-2 minutes of intense burst of spike potentials were seen in the sphincter of Oddi and duodenum following administration of morphine (8 experiments), meperidine (6 experiments), and pentazocin (3 experiments). The biliary pressure in the control studies was similar to that following administration of all analgesics in the animals with gallbladder and following instillation of tramadol, metamizol, and acetylsalicylic acid in animals with no gallbladder. However, the biliary pressure was significantly higher following administration of morphine, meperidine, and pentazocin in the animals with no gallbladder. It is concluded from this study that morphine, meperidine, and pentazocin may cause important disturbances in the motility of the sphincter of Oddi and gastrointestinal tract. These myoelectric disturbances may cause an increase in the biliary pressure in animals that have been subjected to cholecystectomy, but not in animals with intact gallbladder. The gallbladder may accommodate the bile produced by the liver during periods of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and thus impede an increase in the biliary pressure. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIGS. 3A and B. PMID:3729583

  7. Characterization of proteases from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis (Sasaki)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yulan; Wang, Yurong; Xiao, Lin; Lin, Xiukun

    2016-05-01

    A crude protease produced from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 is described, and its effectiveness as an additive in liquid detergent evaluated. We isolate the protease-producing Planomicrobium sp. L-2 from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis. At least three caseinolytic protease clear bands were observed in zymogram analysis. The crude alkaline protease was highly tolerant of a pH range from 7.0 to 9.0, and temperatures to 50°C after incubation for 1 h. Proteolytic enzymes were stable towards three surfactants (5% Tween 80, 1% Triton X-100 and 0.05% SDS) and an oxidizing agent (1% hydrogen peroxide), in addition to being highly stable and compatible with popular commercial laundry powered detergent brands available in China. Our study demonstrates the potential these proteases have for development into novel classes of detergent additive. This study also suggests that the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis may be a rich source of commercially valuable strains of enzyme.

  8. Localization of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mRNA in the human gastrointestinal tract by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Strong, T V; Boehm, K; Collins, F S

    1994-01-01

    We have used in situ hybridization to localize expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in the human gastrointestinal tract and associated organs. The stomach exhibits a low level of CFTR expression throughout gastric mucosa. In the small intestine, expression is relatively high in the mucosal epithelium, with a decreasing gradient of expression along the crypt to tip axis. The cells of the Brunner's glands express high levels of CFTR mRNA. In addition, there is a small subpopulation of highly positive cells scattered along the epithelium in the duodenum and jejunum, but not in the ileum. These cells do not represent endocrine cells, as determined by lack of colocalization with an endocrine-specific marker. The distribution of CFTR mRNA in the colon is similar to the small intestine, with highest level of expression in the epithelial cells at the base of the crypts. In the pancreas, CFTR is expressed at high levels in the small, intercalated ducts and at lower levels in the interlobular ducts. CFTR transcripts are expressed at uniformly high levels in the epithelium of the gallbladder. Throughout the gastrointestinal tract, CFTR expression is increased in mucosal epithelial cells that are near lymph nodules. Images PMID:7506713

  9. Distribution of α-transducin and α-gustducin immunoreactive cells in the chicken (Gallus domesticus) gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, M; Bombardi, C; Vallorani, C; Sirri, F; De Giorgio, R; Caio, G; Grandis, A; Sternini, C; Clavenzani, P

    2016-07-01

    The expression and distribution patterns of the taste signaling molecules, α-gustducin (Gαgust) and α-transducin (Gαtran) G-protein subunits, were studied in the gastrointestinal tract of the chicken (Gallus domesticus) using the immunohistochemical method. Gαgust and Gαtran immunoreactive (-IR) cells were observed in the mucosal layer of all examined segments, except the esophagus, crop, and the saccus cranialis of the gizzard. The highest numbers of Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells were found in the proventriculus glands and along the villi of the pyloric, duodenum, and rectal mucosa. Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells located in the villi of the jejunum, ileum, and cloaca were much less numerous, while only a few Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells were detected in the mucosa of the proventriculus and cecum. In the crypts, IR cells were observed in the small and large intestine as well as in the cloaca. Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells displayed elongated ("bottle-" or "pear-like") or rounded shape. The demonstration of Gαgust and Gαtran expression provides evidence for taste receptor mediated mucosal chemosensitivity in the chicken gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26957624

  10. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    PubMed

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies.

  11. Effects of acute and chronic STZ-induced diabetes on clock gene expression and feeding in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Jonathon; Nguyen, Diane; Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Hoogerwerf, Willemijntje A

    2010-05-01

    Diabetes may shift clock gene expression within peripheral organs. However, little is known about the effect of diabetes on the gastrointestinal molecular clock. We therefore investigated the effect of diabetes on gastrointestinal clock gene expression. As peripheral clock gene expression is strongly driven by food intake, we also determined the effect of STZ-induced diabetes on patterns of food intake. The effects of acute (1 week) and chronic (12 weeks) STZ-induced diabetes on period (per) genes in the stomach body, proximal and distal colon, liver, kidney, and lung of C57BL/6J mice were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Food intake studies were completed using automated feeding equipment. Rhythmicity in expression of per2 and per3 persisted in all organs. However, per2 and per3 expression of STZ-injected mice was generally phase delayed within the gastrointestinal tract but not within the kidney or lung as compared with vehicle-injected mice. The phase delay was most pronounced for per2 in the proximal colon at 12 weeks. Food intake was rhythmic with larger circadian amplitude for diabetic mice than for control mice. Thus, STZ-induced diabetes differentially alters peripheral per expression. STZ-induced diabetes does not alter the circadian phase of food intake. Alterations in clock gene expression in a mouse model of diabetes are most pronounced in those organs that are intimately associated with food processing and metabolism. PMID:20091094

  12. Risk of Flood-Related Diseases of Eyes, Skin and Gastrointestinal Tract in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling-Ya; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chin-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Floods are known to cause serious environmental damage and health impacts. Studies on flood-related diseases have been primarily on individual events, and limited evidence could be drawn on potential health impacts from floods using large population data. This study used reimbursement records of one million people of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to compare incident diseases of the eyes, skin and gastrointestinal (GI) tract associated with floods. Incidence rates for the selected diseases were calculated according to outpatient/emergency visit data. The incidence rates were evaluated by flood status: in 10 days before floods, during floods and within 10 days after the floods receded. Outpatient/emergency visit rates for the eye, skin and GI tract diseases were highest after floods and lowest during floods. Results from multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that, when compared with the incidence in 10 days before floods, the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of diseases within 10 days after floods were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.20) for eyes, 1.08 (95% C.I. = 1.05-1.10) for skin, and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08-1.14) for GI tract, after controlling for covariates. All risks increased with ambient temperature. V-shaped trends were found between age and eye diseases, and between age and GI tract diseases. In contrast, the risk of skin diseases increased with age. In conclusion, more diseases of eyes, skin and GI tract could be diagnosed after the flood. PMID:27171415

  13. Risk of Flood-Related Diseases of Eyes, Skin and Gastrointestinal Tract in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ling-Ya; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chin-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Floods are known to cause serious environmental damage and health impacts. Studies on flood-related diseases have been primarily on individual events, and limited evidence could be drawn on potential health impacts from floods using large population data. This study used reimbursement records of one million people of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to compare incident diseases of the eyes, skin and gastrointestinal (GI) tract associated with floods. Incidence rates for the selected diseases were calculated according to outpatient/emergency visit data. The incidence rates were evaluated by flood status: in 10 days before floods, during floods and within 10 days after the floods receded. Outpatient/emergency visit rates for the eye, skin and GI tract diseases were highest after floods and lowest during floods. Results from multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that, when compared with the incidence in 10 days before floods, the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of diseases within 10 days after floods were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10–1.20) for eyes, 1.08 (95% C.I. = 1.05–1.10) for skin, and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08–1.14) for GI tract, after controlling for covariates. All risks increased with ambient temperature. V-shaped trends were found between age and eye diseases, and between age and GI tract diseases. In contrast, the risk of skin diseases increased with age. In conclusion, more diseases of eyes, skin and GI tract could be diagnosed after the flood. PMID:27171415

  14. [Dissolution, absorption and bioaccumulation in gastrointestinal tract of mercury in HgS-containing traditional medicines Cinnabar and Zuotai].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi-yuan; Li, Cen; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Hong-xia; Geng, Lu-jing; Li, Lin-shuai; Du, Yu-zhi; Wei, Li-xin

    2015-06-01

    α-HgS is the main component of traditional Chinese medicine cinnabar, while β-HgS is the main component of Tibetan medicine Zuotai. However, there was no comparative study on the dissolution and absorption in gastrointestinal tract and bioaccumulation in organs of mercury in Cinnabar, Zuotai, α-HgS and β-HgS. In this study, the dissolution process of the four compounds in the human gastrointestinal tract was simulated to determine the mercury dissolutions and compare the mercury dissolution of different medicines and the dissolution-promoting capacity of different solutions. To explore the absorption and bioaccumulation of cinnabar and Zuotai in organisms, mice were orally administered with clinical equivalent doses cinnabar and Zuotai. Meanwhile, a group of mice was given α-HgS and β-HgS with the equivalent mercury with cinnabar, while another group was given β-HgS and HgCl2 with the equivalent mercury with Zuotai. The mercury absorption and bioaccumulation capacities of different medicines in mice and their mercury bioaccumulation in different tissues and organs were compared. The experimental results showed a high mercury dissolutions of Zuotai in artificial gastrointestinal fluid, which was followed by β-HgS, cinnabar and α-HgS. As for the mercury absorption and bioaccumulation in mice, HgCl2 was the highest, β-HgS was the next, and a-HgS was slightly higher than cinnabar. The organs with the mercury bioaccumulation from high to low were kidney, liver and brain. This study is close to clinical practices and can provide reference for the clinical safe medication as well as a study model for the safety evaluation on heavy metal-containing medicines by observing the mercury dissolution, absorption, distribution and accumulation of mercury-containing medicines cinnabar and zuotai. PMID:26591542

  15. Effect of different supplements on eggshell quality, some characteristics of gastrointestinal tract and performance of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Shalaei, Mosayeb; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Zergani, Emel

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of antibiotic, organic acid, probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on performance, egg shell quality, pH value of gastrointestinal (GI) tract and small intestinal morphology of laying hens. The experiment was a completely randomized design with 160 laying hens strain (W-36) from 32 to 42 weeks of age, with five treatments, four replicates and eight hens in each replicate. The experimental treatments consisted of: 1-basal diet, 2-basal diet + 150 g per ton antibiotic (oxytetracycline), 3-basal diet + 3 kg per ton mixture of organic acids supplementation, 4- basal diet + 50 g per ton probiotic (protoxin) and 5-basal diet + 2 kg per ton prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide). During the experimental period, performance characteristics were evaluated. At the end of experiment two birds per replicate was sacrificed for small intestinal morphology. The results showed that organic acid and mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased average egg weight. Also feed conversion ratio significantly improved by mannan oligosaccharide. Eggshell quality was not significantly affected by dietary treatments. Regarding gastrointestinal tract characteristics, pH value of different parts of GI tract were significantly affected by dietary treatments. Villi height in duodenum by probiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. Villi width in duodenum by antibiotic and probiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. The number of goblet cells in duodenum by addition of antibiotic and in ileum by mannan oligosaccharide significantly increased. It was concluded that the use of organic acids and mannan oligosaccharide could have positive effects on performance of laying hens. PMID:25610579

  16. Local and Long-Distance Calling: Conversations between the Gut Microbiota and Intra- and Extra-Gastrointestinal Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Joshua E.; Powell, Whitney L.; Schmidt, Nathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of health from infectious diseases depends upon both mucosal and systemic immunity via the collaborative effort of innate and adaptive immune responses. The proficiency of host immunity stems from robust defense mechanisms—physical barriers and specialized immune cells—and a failure of these mechanisms leads to pathology. Intriguingly, immunocompetence to pathogens can be shaped by the gut microbiome as recent publications highlight a dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome and host susceptibility to infection. Modulation of host immunity to enteric pathogens has long been studied where gut bacteria shape multiple facts of both innate and adaptive immunity. Conversely, the impact of gut commensals on host immunity to extra-gastrointestinal (GI) tract infections has only recently been recognized. In this context, the gut microbiome can augment host immunity to extra-GI tract bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. This review explores the research that affords insight into the role of the gut microbiome in various infectious diseases, with a particular emphasis on extra-GI tract infections. A better understanding of the link between the gut microbiome and infectious disease will be critical for improving global health in the years ahead. PMID:27148490

  17. Biogenic amine production by the wine Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 in systems that partially mimic the gastrointestinal tract stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ingestion of fermented foods containing high levels of biogenic amines (BA) can be deleterious to human health. Less obvious is the threat posed by BA producing organisms contained within the food which, in principle, could form BA after ingestion even if the food product itself does not initially contain high BA levels. In this work we have investigated the production of tyramine and putrescine by Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809, of wine origin, under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions. Results An in vitro model that simulates the normal physiological conditions in the human digestive tract, as well as Caco-2 epithelial human cell lines, was used to challenge L. brevis IOEB 9809, which produced both tyramine and putrescine under all conditions tested. In the presence of BA precursors and under mild gastric stress, a correlation between enhancement of bacterial survival and a synchronous transcriptional activation of the tyramine and putrescine biosynthetic pathways was detected. High levels of both BA were observed after exposure of the bacterium to Caco-2 cells. Conclusions L. brevis IOEB 9809 can produce tyramine and putrescine under simulated human digestive tract conditions. The results indicate that BA production may be a mechanism that increases bacterial survival under gastric stress. PMID:23113922

  18. Radiography and image-intensified fluoroscopy of barium passage through the gastrointestinal tract in six healthy Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva).

    PubMed

    Vink-Nooteboom, Mariette; Lumeij, J T; Wolvekamp, W T C

    2003-01-01

    Gastrointestinal contrast studies were performed in six clinically healthy blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) using radiography and image-intensified fluoroscopy. During examination, the birds were confined in a perspex cage. The quality of the lateral radiographs was adequate for assessment of the contrast medium-filled gastrointestinal tract. Thirty minutes after administration of 20 mL/kg of a 25% barium sulphate suspension directly in the crop, in all birds the ventriculus was totally outlined by barium. After 60 min, the small intestine was filled in five of six birds. After 180 min, the crop was empty in all birds. The barium-outlined ventriculus had differences in shape on radiographs of individual birds and also between birds. The colon and cloaca had further filling after 120 to 300 min. With image-intensified fluoroscopy, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated. Contractions of the crop were seen, and boluses of contrast medium passing through the esophagus toward the proventriculus were easily identified. Proventricular contractions were rarely noted, but ventriculus motility was present and clearly defined. The ventriculus had a mean of 3.7 contraction cycles/min. In the duodenum and small intestine, rapid antegrade and retrograde peristaltic movements in combination with segmental contractions were seen. In the colon, occasionally very slow peristaltic activity, mainly of segmental nature, was present. During the examinations, no defeacation was recorded. Confinement in a small perspex cage provides an adequate and handy radiological set-up for evaluation of gastrointestinal passage and motility in birds, minimizing the influences of stress and anesthesia.

  19. Roles of cellular polyamines in mucosal healing in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gao, J-H; Guo, L-J; Huang, Z-Y; Rao, J N; Tang, C-W

    2013-12-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is a rapidly self-renewing tissue in the body, and its integrity is preserved through the strict regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, growth arrest, and apoptosis. Polyamines are shown to play an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal mucosal growth and healing after injury under physiological and various pathological conditions. In this review, we highlight the importance of cellular polyamines in the control GI mucosal proliferation, migration, apoptosis, angiogenesis and GI barrier function during mucosal repair after injury.

  20. Specific Radiological Findings of Traumatic Gastrointestinal Tract Injuries in Patients With Blunt Chest and Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Kokabi, Nima; Harmouche, Elie; Xing, Minzhi; Shuaib, Waqas; Mittal, Pardeep K; Wilson, Kenneth; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Nicolaou, Savvas; Khosa, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    Gastrointestinal hollow viscus injury after blunt chest and abdominal trauma is uncommon and complicates 0.6%-1.2% of all cases of trauma. Early recognition of such injuries significantly decreases morbidity and mortality. Since physical examination is not accurate in detecting such injuries, contrast-enhanced computed tomography has been the mainstay for diagnosis in many emergency departments. This pictorial essay aims to review the incidence, mechanisms, and signs of gastrointestinal hollow viscus injuries in the setting of blunt chest and abdominal trauma.

  1. Changes in Bacterial Population of Gastrointestinal Tract of Weaned Pigs Fed with Different Additives

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Mercè; Nofrarías, Miquel; Majó, Natàlia; Pérez de Rozas, Ana María; Castillo, Marisol; Martín-Orúe, Susana María; Espinal, Anna; Pujols, Joan; Badiola, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide novel insights into the gastrointestinal microbial diversity from different gastrointestinal locations in weaning piglets using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Additionally, the effect of different feed additives was analyzed. Thirty-two piglets were fed with four different diets: a control group and three enriched diets, with avilamycin, sodium butyrate, and a plant extract mixture. Digesta samples were collected from eight different gastrointestinal segments of each animal and the bacterial population was analysed by a PCR-RFLP technique that uses 16S rDNA gene sequences. Bacterial diversity was assessed by calculating the number of bands and the Shannon-Weaver index. Dendrograms were constructed to estimate the similarity of bacterial populations. A higher bacterial diversity was detected in large intestine compared to small intestine. Among diets, the most relevant microbial diversity differences were found between sodium butyrate and plant extract mixture. Proximal jejunum, ileum, and proximal colon were identified as those segments that could be representative of microbial diversity in pig gut. Results indicate that PCR-RFLP technique allowed detecting modifications on the gastrointestinal microbial ecology in pigs fed with different additives, such as increased biodiversity by sodium butyrate in feed. PMID:24575403

  2. Predicting liver metastasis of gastrointestinal tract cancer by diffusion-weighted imaging of apparent diffusion coefficient values

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, De-Xian; Meng, Shu-Chun; Liu, Qing-Jun; Li, Chuan-Ting; Shang, Xi-Dan; Zhu, Yu-Seng; Bai, Tian-Jun; Xu, Shi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine if efficacy of chemotherapy on liver metastasis of gastrointestinal tract cancer can be predicted by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). METHODS: In total, 86 patients with liver metastasis of gastrointestinal tract cancer (156 metastatic lesions) diagnosed in our hospital were included in this study. The maximum diameters of these tumors were compared with each other before treatment, 2 wk after treatment, and 12 wk after treatment. Selected patients were classified as the effective group and the ineffective group, depending on the maximum diameter of the tumor after 12 wk of treatment; and the ADC values at different treatment times between the two groups were compared. Spearman rank correlation was used to analyze the relationship between ADC value and tumor diameter. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to analyze the ADC values before treatment to predict the patient’s sensitivity and specificity degree of efficacy to the chemotherapy. RESULTS: There was no difference in age between the two groups and in maximum tumor diameter before treatment and 2 wk after treatment. However, after 12 wk of treatment, maximum tumor diameter in the effective group was significantly lower than that in the ineffective group (P < 0.05). Before treatment, ADC values in the ineffective group were significantly higher than those in the effective group (P < 0.05). There was no difference in ADC values between the effective and ineffective groups after 2 and 12 wk of treatment. However, ADC values were significantly higher after 2 and 12 wk of treatment compared to before treatment in the effective group (P < 0.05). Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that ADC value before treatment and the reduced percentage of the maximum tumor diameter after 12 wk of treatment were negatively correlated, while the increase in the percentage of the ADC value 12 wk after treatment and the decrease in the

  3. Persistent Gastric Colonization with Burkholderia pseudomallei and Dissemination from the Gastrointestinal Tract following Mucosal Inoculation of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Goodyear, Andrew; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Schweizer, Herbert; Dow, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Melioidosis is a disease of humans caused by opportunistic infection with the soil and water bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis can manifest as an acute, overwhelming infection or as a chronic, recurrent infection. At present, it is not clear where B. pseudomallei resides in the mammalian host during the chronic, recurrent phase of infection. To address this question, we developed a mouse low-dose mucosal challenge model of chronic B. pseudomallei infection and investigated sites of bacterial persistence over 60 days. Sensitive culture techniques and selective media were used to quantitate bacterial burden in major organs, including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We found that the GI tract was the primary site of bacterial persistence during the chronic infection phase, and was the only site from which the organism could be consistently cultured during a 60-day infection period. The organism could be repeatedly recovered from all levels of the GI tract, and chronic infection was accompanied by sustained low-level fecal shedding. The stomach was identified as the primary site of GI colonization as determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Organisms in the stomach were associated with the gastric mucosal surface, and the propensity to colonize the gastric mucosa was observed with 4 different B. pseudomallei isolates. In contrast, B. pseudomallei organisms were present at low numbers within luminal contents in the small and large intestine and cecum relative to the stomach. Notably, inflammatory lesions were not detected in any GI tissue examined in chronically-infected mice. Only low-dose oral or intranasal inoculation led to GI colonization and development of chronic infection of the spleen and liver. Thus, we concluded that in a mouse model of melioidosis B. pseudomallei preferentially colonizes the stomach following oral inoculation, and that the chronically colonized GI tract likely serves as a reservoir for dissemination of infection to

  4. Phytase in non-ruminant animal nutrition: a critical review on phytase activities in the gastrointestinal tract and influencing factors

    PubMed Central

    Dersjant-Li, Yueming; Awati, Ajay; Schulze, Hagen; Partridge, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on phytase functionality in the digestive tract of farmed non-ruminant animals and the factors influencing in vivo phytase enzyme activity. In pigs, feed phytase is mainly active in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine, and added phytase activity is not recovered in the ileum. In poultry, feed phytase activities are mainly found in the upper part of the digestive tract, including the crop, proventriculus and gizzard. For fish with a stomach, phytase activities are mainly in the stomach. Many factors can influence the efficiency of feed phytase in the gastrointestinal tract, and they can be divided into three main groups: (i) phytase related; (ii) dietary related and (iii) animal related. Phytase-related factors include type of phytase (e.g. 3- or 6-phytase; bacterial or fungal phytase origin), the pH optimum and the resistance of phytase to endogenous protease. Dietary-related factors are mainly associated with dietary phytate content, feed ingredient composition and feed processing, and total P, Ca and Na content. Animal-related factors include species, gender and age of animals. To eliminate the antinutritional effects of phytate (IP6), it needs to be hydrolyzed as quickly as possible by phytase in the upper part of the digestive tract. A phytase that works over a wide range of pH values and is active in the stomach and upper intestine (along with several other characteristics and in addition to being refractory to endogenous enzymes) would be ideal. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25382707

  5. Metagenomic evidence for taxonomic dysbiosis and functional imbalance in the gastrointestinal tracts of children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Manor, Ohad; Levy, Roie; Pope, Christopher E.; Hayden, Hillary S.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Carr, Rogan; Radey, Matthew C.; Hager, Kyle R.; Heltshe, Sonya L.; Ramsey, Bonnie W.; Miller, Samuel I.; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) results in inflammation, malabsorption of fats and other nutrients, and obstruction in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, yet the mechanisms linking these disease manifestations to microbiome composition remain largely unexplored. Here we used metagenomic analysis to systematically characterize fecal microbiomes of children with and without CF, demonstrating marked CF-associated taxonomic dysbiosis and functional imbalance. We further showed that these taxonomic and functional shifts were especially pronounced in young children with CF and diminished with age. Importantly, the resulting dysbiotic microbiomes had significantly altered capacities for lipid metabolism, including decreased capacity for overall fatty acid biosynthesis and increased capacity for degrading anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids. Notably, these functional differences correlated with fecal measures of fat malabsorption and inflammation. Combined, these results suggest that enteric fat abundance selects for pro-inflammatory GI microbiota in young children with CF, offering novel strategies for improving the health of children with CF-associated fat malabsorption. PMID:26940651

  6. Helicobacter apodemus sp. nov., a new Helicobacter species identified from the gastrointestinal tract of striped field mice in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Woo Jin; Dong, Hee-Jin; Shin, Jae Hoon; Kim, Il Yong; Ho, Hungwui; Oh, Seung Hyun; Yoon, Young Min; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Suh, Jun Gyo; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Kim, Hyoung-Chin

    2015-01-01

    A novel Helicobacter species was identified from the gastrointestinal tract of the Korean striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius). Biochemical testing, ultrastructure characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested that this bacterium represents a distinct taxon. The bacterium was positive for urease activity, susceptible to cephalothin and nalidixic acid, and weakly positive for oxidase and catalase activity. Electron microscopy revealed that the bacterium has spirally curved rod morphology with singular bipolar nonsheathed flagella. Genotypically, the isolated bacterial strains (YMRC 000215, YMRC 000216, and YMRC 000419) were most closely related to a reference strain of Helicobacter mesocricetorum (97.25%, 97.32%, and 97.03% 16S rRNA sequence similarities, respectively). The 16S rRNA sequences of these strains were deposited into GenBank under accession numbers AF284754, AY009129, and AY009130, respectively. We propose the name Helicobacter apodemus for this novel species. PMID:25797297

  7. Detection of Clostridium botulinum type C cells in the gastrointestinal tracts of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) by polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nol, P.; Williamson, J.L.; Rocke, T.E.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    We established a method of directly detecting Clostridium botulinum type C cells, while minimizing spore detection, in the intestinal contents of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). This technique involved extraction of predominantly cellular DNA from tilapia intestinal tracts and used a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect presence of type C1 toxin gene. We consistently detected C. botulinum type C cells in tilapia gastrointestinal contents at a level of 7.5 ?? 10 4 cells per 0.25 g material or 1.9 ?? 10 3 cells. This technique is useful for determining prevalence of the potentially active organisms within a given population of fish and may be adapted to other types of C. botulinum and vertebrate populations as well. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  8. Helicobacter apodemus sp. nov., a new Helicobacter species identified from the gastrointestinal tract of striped field mice in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Woo Jin; Dong, Hee-Jin; Shin, Jae Hoon; Kim, Il Yong; Ho, Hungwui; Oh, Seung Hyun; Yoon, Young Min; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Suh, Jun Gyo; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Kim, Hyoung-Chin; Cho, Seongbeom; Seong, Je Kyung

    2015-01-01

    A novel Helicobacter species was identified from the gastrointestinal tract of the Korean striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius). Biochemical testing, ultrastructure characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested that this bacterium represents a distinct taxon. The bacterium was positive for urease activity, susceptible to cephalothin and nalidixic acid, and weakly positive for oxidase and catalase activity. Electron microscopy revealed that the bacterium has spirally curved rod morphology with singular bipolar nonsheathed flagella. Genotypically, the isolated bacterial strains (YMRC 000215, YMRC 000216, and YMRC 000419) were most closely related to a reference strain of Helicobacter mesocricetorum (97.25%, 97.32%, and 97.03% 16S rRNA sequence similarities, respectively). The 16S rRNA sequences of these strains were deposited into GenBank under accession numbers AF284754, AY009129, and AY009130, respectively. We propose the name Helicobacter apodemus for this novel species.

  9. Is subtyping of intestinal metaplasia in the upper gastrointestinal tract a worthwhile exercise? An evaluation of current mucin histochemical stains.

    PubMed

    Smith, J L; Dixon, M F

    2003-01-01

    Intestinal metaplasia is a premalignant condition that occurs in the upper gastrointestinal tract and can be subdivided into three types (I, II and III). Previous studies suggest that type III carries the highest cancer risk. The high iron diamine/alcian blue (HID/AB) technique traditionally has been used to identify this subtype; however, the technique uses reagents that are toxic and potentially carcinogenic. Therefore, in this study we evaluate various alternative histochemical techniques. Our results indicated that the only suitable alternative is Gomori's aldehyde fuchsin/AB technique. The study also revealed that subtyping of intestinal metaplasia is a subjective procedure, open to varying interpretation. Consequently, we suggest that previous work linking cancer risk to metaplasia subtypes should be viewed with some circumspection.

  10. [Functional state of the gastrointestinal tract organs in rats after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, K V; Goland-Ruvinova, L G; Goncharova, N P; Zhiznevskaia, O V; Medkova, I L

    1982-01-01

    The enzyme-excretory and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract of rats flown for 18.5 days onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129 were studied. Immediately postflight, the pepsin synthesis decreased and the dipeptide parietal hydrolysis increased. At R + 6, the activity of the enzymes responsible for the cavitary and parietal hydrolysis of lipids significantly grew and that of the enzymes involved in protein hydrolysis fell. At R + 30, the carbohydrate hydrolysis was inhibited and the activity of lipolytic enzymes enhanced markedly. The amplitude and rhythm of stomach biopotentials were dysbalanced. The so-called immobilization stress of intact rats brought about activation of lipase, monoglyceridyl lipase, dipeptidase and inhibition of amylase and invertase. The immobilization exposure of flight rats caused inhibition of the membrane hydrolysis of proteins and carbohydrates and lack of the pancreatic reaction.

  11. β-Glucan as an encapsulating agent: Effect on probiotic survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Shah, Asima; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Masoodi, F A

    2016-01-01

    Three strains of probiotics Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus plantarum were encapsulated in β-glucan matrix using emulsion technique. Further the encapsulated cells were studied for their tolerance in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and its storage stability. The average encapsulation efficiency of β-glucan-probiotic beads was found to be 74.01%. The surface morphology of β-glucan containing bacteria was studied using SEM. The noteworthy absorptions in the FT-IR spectra between 1300-900 cm(-1) and 2918-2925 cm(-1) corresponds to the presence of bacteria into the glucan matrix. Also, the thermal stability of β-glucan was evaluated using Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The efficiency of β-glucan in protecting the surviability of probiotic cells under simulated gastrointestinal conditions was studied. Results revealed significant (p<0.05) improvement to tolerance when the encapsulated cells were subjected to stresses like low pH, heat treatment, simulated intestinal conditions and storage.

  12. Gastrointestinal tract obstruction secondary to post-operative oedema: does dexamethasone administration help?

    PubMed Central

    Atie, M.; Khoma, O.; Dunn, G.; Falk, G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Oedema can occur in handled tissues following upper gastrointestinal surgery with anastomosis formation. Obstruction of the lumen may result in delayed return of enteric function. Intravenous steroid use may be beneficial. Three cases of delayed emptying following fundoplication, gastro-enteric and entero-enteric anastomoses are reviewed. Conservative management with supportive measures failed. Dexamethasone was administered to treat the oedematous obstruction. A literature review in PubMed, Cochrane database and Medline for English language publications on the use of dexamethasone in the treatment of acute post surgical oedema of the upper gastrointestinal was conducted. Administration of dexamethasone led to resolution of symptoms and successful outcome. No reports on the use of steroids in this context were identified in the literature. The use of dexamethasone may effectively treat intestinal obstruction due to inflammatory or oedematous cause in the early post-operative period. PMID:27554826

  13. The influence of lactose intolerance and other gastro-intestinal tract disorders on L-thyroxine absorption.

    PubMed

    Ruchała, Marek; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Zybek, Ariadna

    2012-01-01

    The preferred treatment for hypothyroidism is oral levothyroxine (LT4) ingestion, in doses that ensure a sustained state of hormonal balance. Many different factors may significantly influence the absorption of LT4, including: interval between the ingestion of the drug and the last meal, eating habits, and different functional and organic pathologies of the gastro-intestinal tract. The main purpose of this paper is to review and systematise the available literature on the subject of the influence of different malabsorption syndromes on the effectiveness of LT4 preparations. The need to use high LT4 doses in the substitutional treatment of hypothyroidism is often the very first sign of one of the pathologies that are connected with malabsorption syndrome, which might have been asymptomatic and undiagnosed previously. Patients who require more than 2 μg/kg body weight of LT4 per day, with constantly increased thyrotropin level, should be diagnosed with the suspicion of pseudomalabsorption or real absorption disorder. An LT4 absorption test, using high doses of LT4, may be useful in the diagnosis of pseudomalabsorption. After excluding non-compliance, the differential diagnosis should include such disorders as lactose intolerance, coeliac disease, atrophic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori infection, bowel resection, inflammatory bowel disease, and parasite infection. Where there is a diagnosis of lactose intolerance, both a low lactose diet and a lactose-free LT4 preparation should be administered to restore euthyroidism or make it possible to decrease the dose of the LT4 preparation. In coeliac disease, a gluten-free diet usually allows a normalisation of the need for LT4, as do eradication of the H. pylori infection or parasite colonisation. In cases of atrophic gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease, treating the underlying diseases and regaining the state of remission may improve the absorption of LT4. In patients after gastro-intestinal tract surgery, a dose of

  14. Glycol Methacrylate Embedding for the Histochemical Study of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania Infantum

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, A.J.W.; de Amorim, I.F.G.; Pinheiro, L.J.; Madeira, I.M.V.M.; Souza, C.C.; Chiarini-Garcia, H.; Caliari, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    In canine visceral leishmaniasis a diffuse chronic inflammatory exudate and an intense parasite load throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been previously reported. However, these studies did not allow a properly description of canine cellular morphology details. The aim of our study was to better characterize these cells in carrying out a qualitative and quantitative histological study in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum by examining gut tissues embedded in glycol methacrylate. Twelve infected adult dogs were classified in asymptomatic and symptomatic. Five uninfected dogs were used as controls. After necropsy, three samples of each gut segment, including oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum were collected and fixed in Carnoy’s solution for glycol methacrylate protocols. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue borate, and periodic acid-Schiff stain. Leishmania amastigotes were detected by immunohistochemistry employed in both glycol methacrylate and paraffin embedded tissues. The quantitative histological analysis showed higher numbers of plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages in lamina propria of all segments of GIT of infected dogs compared with controls. The parasite load was more intense and cecum and colon, independently of the clinical status of these dogs. Importantly, glycol methacrylate embedded tissue stained with toluidine blue borate clearly revealed mast cell morphology, even after mast cell degranulation. Infected dogs showed lower numbers of mast cells in all gut segments than controls. Despite the glycol methacrylate (GMA) protocol requires more attention and care than the conventional paraffin processing, this embedding procedure proved to be especially suitable for the present histological study, where it allowed to preserve and observe cell morphology in fine detail. PMID:26708180

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of an Oxalate-Degrading Strain of Clostridium sporogenes from the Gastrointestinal Tract of the White-Throated Woodrat (Neotoma albigula)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aaron; Dale, Colin; Dearing, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of the white-throated woodrat Neotoma albigula harbors a diverse microbial population that functions in the degradation of ingested plant secondary compounds. Here, we present the draft genome sequence and annotation of Clostridium sporogenes strain 8-O, a novel oxalate-degrading bacterium isolated from the feces of N. albigula. PMID:27198026

  16. Conjugative transfer of plasmid-located antibiotic resistance genes within the gastrointestinal tract of lesser mealworm larvae, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency of conjugative transfer of antimicrobial resistance plasmids between bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract of lesser mealworm larvae, a prevalent pest in poultry production facilities was determined. Lesser mealworm larvae were exposed to a negative bacterial control (PBS), a don...

  17. Conjugative plasmid transfer between Salmonella enterica Newport and Escherichia coli within the gastrointestinal tract of the lesser mealworm beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if conjugative transfer of antimicrobial resistance plasmids could occur within the gastrointestinal tract of lesser mealworm beetles, a common pest in poultry production facilities. In three replicate studies (n=40), beetles were exposed for 2 h to a mu...

  18. Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Van Passel, Mark W.J.; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, A; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Davenport, Karen W.; Sims, David; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff; Larimer, Frank W; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Richardson, Paul; De Vos, Willem M.; Smidt, Hauke; Zoetendal, Erwin G.

    2011-01-01

    Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastro-intestinal tract.

  19. Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Individuals Diagnosed as Children with Atypical Autism: A Danish Register Study Based on Hospital Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Isager, Torben; Rich, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of diseases (International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, 10th Edition codes K20-K93) relating to the gastrointestinal tract in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism/pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified…

  20. The effects of alcohol on gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas: evidence-based suggestions for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Federico, A; Cotticelli, G; Festi, D; Schiumerini, R; Addolorato, G; Ferrulli, A; Merli, M; Lucidi, C; Milani, S; Panella, C; Domenico, M; Vantini, I; Benini, L; Ubaldi, E; Romano, M; Loguercio, C

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol has a direct impact on the digestive system due to its contact with mucosal lining and interference with digestive functions. Various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including tumors, may be related to an excess of alcohol intake and the relationship between alcohol abuse and hepatic and pancreatic damage is well established. According to WHO, alcohol and alcohol-related diseases represent a major health problem and will probably continue to do so in the foreseeable future. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge on clinically relevant alcohol-related problems in order to provide practicing physicians with evidence-based general suggestions which might help in the management of alcohol-related gastrointestinal disorders. A thorough clinical history together with a number of questionnaires are essential for detecting alcohol dependence or abuse. Biochemical tests (nonspecific and specific) have been considered to be less sensitive than questionnaires in screening for alcohol abuse, but they may be useful in identifying relapses. Protracted behavior modification, cognitive behavioral therapy, psychological counseling, and mutual support groups have been considered the most effective long-term treatments. Several drugs have been developed that are able to interfere with the neurotransmitters involved in craving mechanisms, and we summarize the evidence of their efficacy to increase abstinence and to prevent relapse.

  1. [What control solutions should be used in studies on the acute effect of alcohol on the gastrointestinal tract?].

    PubMed

    Singer, M V

    1983-10-01

    There exists still a considerable confusion in the literature about the appropriate control solution for ethanol. In many studies either no control or equimolar solutions of urea, mannitol or sodium chloride were used as an osmotic control for ethanol; distilled water being given only in a few cases. The confusion is mainly derived from the opinion that the osmolality of the ethanol solution as measured by freezing point depression (= "theoretical osmotic pressure") is the determinant factor for the action of ethanol on the gastrointestinal tract. This opinion, however, is not correct. Since biological membranes are not perfectly semipermeable (i. e., they are permeable to certain solutes) the "effective osmotic pressure" produced by permeant solutes is always less than the ("theoretical") osmotic pressure as determined by freezing point depression. The ratio of the "effective" to the "theoretical" osmotic pressure of a solute is defined by the Stavermann reflection coefficient for a certain membrane. The Stavermann reflection coefficient may have any value between 1 and 0. For an impermeant solute the reflection coefficient equals 1 and for increasingly permeant solutes it becomes progressively less than 1 and closer to 0. The Stavermann reflection coefficient of ethanol for some gastrointestinal organs tested is about 0.1. The ideal osmotic control for ethanol would be a solute which exerts the same effective osmotic pressure on the gastrointestinal membrane as ethanol, i. e. which has the same Stavermann reflection coefficient as ethanol, and has no specific pharmacologic effect. Distilled water seems to be the most suitable osmotic control for ethanol because it has a Stavermann reflection coefficient of 0 and has no pharmacological actions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6649735

  2. [What control solutions should be used in studies on the acute effect of alcohol on the gastrointestinal tract?].

    PubMed

    Singer, M V

    1983-10-01

    There exists still a considerable confusion in the literature about the appropriate control solution for ethanol. In many studies either no control or equimolar solutions of urea, mannitol or sodium chloride were used as an osmotic control for ethanol; distilled water being given only in a few cases. The confusion is mainly derived from the opinion that the osmolality of the ethanol solution as measured by freezing point depression (= "theoretical osmotic pressure") is the determinant factor for the action of ethanol on the gastrointestinal tract. This opinion, however, is not correct. Since biological membranes are not perfectly semipermeable (i. e., they are permeable to certain solutes) the "effective osmotic pressure" produced by permeant solutes is always less than the ("theoretical") osmotic pressure as determined by freezing point depression. The ratio of the "effective" to the "theoretical" osmotic pressure of a solute is defined by the Stavermann reflection coefficient for a certain membrane. The Stavermann reflection coefficient may have any value between 1 and 0. For an impermeant solute the reflection coefficient equals 1 and for increasingly permeant solutes it becomes progressively less than 1 and closer to 0. The Stavermann reflection coefficient of ethanol for some gastrointestinal organs tested is about 0.1. The ideal osmotic control for ethanol would be a solute which exerts the same effective osmotic pressure on the gastrointestinal membrane as ethanol, i. e. which has the same Stavermann reflection coefficient as ethanol, and has no specific pharmacologic effect. Distilled water seems to be the most suitable osmotic control for ethanol because it has a Stavermann reflection coefficient of 0 and has no pharmacological actions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Colonization and distribution of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) in chicken gastrointestinal tract and their relationship with host immunity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ningbo; Yin, Yeshi; Sun, Guochang; Xiang, Charlie; Liu, Donghong; Yu, Hongwei D; Wang, Xin

    2012-08-01

    Uncultivable segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) reside in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mammals and can boost the host immunity. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) from mother's milk has been previously shown to be a key factor in regulating SFB colonization. Because neonatal chicken cannot acquire IgA from maternal milk, they are a good model to examine the role of IgA in SFB colonization. Here, we used the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to monitor the colonization and distribution of SFB in chickens aged from 2-day-old to 6-week-old. Early SFB colonization, which primarily occurred in the ileal mucosa (< 13 days old), was IgA independent. From the age of 17-42 days, there was an increase in IgA in the gut mucosa, which was correlated with a decrease in SFB. To examine the effect of probiotics and immunosuppression on SFB colonization, we treated the chickens by feeding them Lactobacillus delbrueckii or giving them a subcutaneous injection of cyclophosphamide (CTX). Feeding lactobacilli at birth rendered SFB colonization occurring 4 days earlier, while CTX treatment increases the SFB colonization through reducing the other non-SFB bacteria. Altogether, our data suggest that early colonization of SFB in chicken occurs independently of IgA and the population of SFB in the GI tract of chicken may be manipulated from birth via probiotic or CTX treatment. PMID:22429007

  4. The role of the gastrointestinal tract in the development of respiratory hypersensitivities.

    PubMed

    Björkstén, B

    1996-08-01

    Adverse reactions to foods may sometimes cause symptoms from the respiratory tract, including bronchial obstruction and rhinitis. The true prevalence is not known. In adults, it has been estimated to be about 1% of asthmatic patients or less. This would correspond to a prevalence of about 2-4 in 10,000 of the general population. The prevalence in children is higher, as IgE mediated food allergy is more common in this age group than in adults. The most common foods causing immunologically mediated reactions include milk, egg, fish, crustaceans, nuts, wheat, soy, peanut, peas and other legumes. In addition certain food additives, e.g. sulphites, may rarely be incriminated in respiratory hypersensitivity via adverse reactions with unknown mechanisms. A double-blind placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is the only way to conclusively confirm a relationship between the ingestion of a certain food item and a reaction in the respiratory tract.

  5. New Principles In Operating Gastro-Intestinal Tract With CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobelkin, O. K.; Litwin, G. D.; Smoljaninov, M. V.; Brehov, E. I.; Rjabov, V. I.; Kirpitchev, A. G.

    1988-06-01

    Laser devicea are becoming morn popular in surgery. They are mainly used for controling hemorrages through an endoscope, for radicalevaporating benign and small malignant tumors in esophagus, stomach, colon, and for palliative destruction of inoperable tumors to recanalize the lumen. According, to literature operations on abdominal parenchymal organs with laser are rather seldom. And the operations with laser on hollow organs of digestive tract are being mainly performed in the USSR, and they being rather effective.

  6. Metaphylogenomic and Potential Functionality of the Limpet Patella pellucida’s Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, Magda; Adams, Jessica; Swain, Martin; Hegarty, Matthew; Huws, Sharon; Gallagher, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the microbial diversity associated with the digestive tract of the seaweed grazing marine limpet Patella pellucida. Using a modified indirect DNA extraction protocol and performing metagenomic profiling based on specific prokaryotic marker genes, the abundance of bacterial groups was identified from the analyzed metagenome. The members of three significantly abundant phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were characterized through the literature and their predicted functions towards the host, as well as potential applications in the industrial environment assessed. PMID:25334059

  7. The Gastrointestinal Tract as a Potential Infection Reservoir of Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponemes in Beef Cattle and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S. D.; Duncan, J. S.; Grove-White, D. H.; Angell, J. W.; Evans, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  8. Rates of gastrointestinal tract colonization of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospitals in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Abdalhamid, B.; Elhadi, N.; Alabdulqader, N.; Alsamman, K.; Aljindan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPAE) are globally a major medical issue, especially in intensive care units. The digestive tract is the main reservoir for these isolates; therefore, rectal swab surveillance is highly recommended. The purpose of this study was to detect the prevalence of gastrointestinal tract colonization of CRE and CRPAE in patients admitted to intensive care units in Saudi Arabia. This project also aimed to characterize carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzyme production in these isolates. From February to May 2015, 200 rectal swab specimens were screened by CHROMagar KPC. Organism identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the Vitek 2 system. One CRE and 13 CRPAE strains were identified, for a prevalence of 0.5% (1/200) and 6.5% (13/200) respectively. Strains showed high genetic diversity using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based PCR. NDM type and VIM type were detected by PCR in four and one CRPAE isolates respectively. ampC overexpression was detected in eight CRPAE isolates using Mueller-Hinton agar containing 1000 μg/mL cloxacillin. CTX-M-15 type was detected in 1 CRE by PCR. The prevalence of CRE strain colonization was lower than that of CRPAE isolates. The detection of NDM and VIM in the colonizing CRPAE strains is a major infection control concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Saudi Arabia and the gulf region focusing on digestive tract colonization of CRE and CRPAE organisms and characterizing the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance. PMID:26933499

  9. Effect of iron-fortified formula on SIgA of gastrointestinal tract in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Koutras, A K; Vigorita, V J; Quiroz, E

    1986-01-01

    There is no information available about the effect of iron in formula on the development of gastrointestinal humoral immune response in early human infancy. We compared standard Enfamil to iron-fortified formula during the first 8 weeks of human life on the development of local gastrointestinal humoral immune response by measuring fecal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). Thirty children were studied and classified according to feeding in two groups: plain Enfamil (n = 15) and Enfamil with iron (n = 15). Fecal specimens were analyzed at birth, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks of age. Fecal SIgA was assayed by RID (radial-immune diffusion) during these four infantile periods in the two groups. Marked SIgA changes were detected in the group with iron-fortified formula versus non-iron-fortified formula. These changes appeared to have statistical significance in all the three infantile periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks). There were no observed clinical side effects with the use of iron-fortified formula as detected by appropriate questionnaire. The possible role of iron in earlier and enhanced development of immunologic competence and host defense is discussed. These data may suggest a beneficial effect of low-dose iron in formula during early infantile human life by the protective role of the earlier and enhanced production of SIgA in the gut.

  10. β-Glucan as an encapsulating agent: Effect on probiotic survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Shah, Asima; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Masoodi, F A

    2016-01-01

    Three strains of probiotics Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus plantarum were encapsulated in β-glucan matrix using emulsion technique. Further the encapsulated cells were studied for their tolerance in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and its storage stability. The average encapsulation efficiency of β-glucan-probiotic beads was found to be 74.01%. The surface morphology of β-glucan containing bacteria was studied using SEM. The noteworthy absorptions in the FT-IR spectra between 1300-900 cm(-1) and 2918-2925 cm(-1) corresponds to the presence of bacteria into the glucan matrix. Also, the thermal stability of β-glucan was evaluated using Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The efficiency of β-glucan in protecting the surviability of probiotic cells under simulated gastrointestinal conditions was studied. Results revealed significant (p<0.05) improvement to tolerance when the encapsulated cells were subjected to stresses like low pH, heat treatment, simulated intestinal conditions and storage. PMID:26562556

  11. Three-dimensional computerised analysis of epithelial cell proliferation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, P. W.; Williamson, K. E.; Grimes, J.; Arthur, K.; Wilson, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    This study describes a new technique for the visualisation and quantitation of glandular epithelial cell proliferation in gastrointestinal mucosa using computerised three-dimensional reconstruction. The tissue used in this study was colorectal biopsy tissue infiltrated in vitro with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), although the method could be applied to any gastrointestinal site labelled with any specific marker for cell proliferation. The method is as follows. Five-micron-thick serial sections (> 100) were cut from colorectal biopsies infiltrated in vitro with BrdU. After labelling all the sections for BrdU-positive cells using standard immunohistochemistry, colorectal glands were identified which were completely sectioned within the series. Each microscopic image of the sectioned gland was orientated, digitised and stored using a Kontron image analyser. On each of the stored images, the crypt profile, the positive cells and the negative cells were interactively marked and digitally stored. Using three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction software, the outer surface of the crypt, the total positive and the total negative fractions could be viewed in three dimensions. The total BrdU-positive cell number could be automatically calculated for the complete crypt or, alternatively, compartmental analysis of the labelling pattern within the crypt could be obtained. This represents a powerful technique: it does not require orientation, it can be carried out on complex glandular structures and is not affected by the biases involved in measuring labelling indices from single tissue sections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:8198965

  12. The impact of opioid analgesics on the gastrointestinal tract function and the current management possibilities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) comprises gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, gastro-oesophageal reflux, delayed digestion, abdominal pain, bloating, hard stool and incomplete evacuation that significantly deteriorate patients’ quality of life and compliance. Approximately one third of patients treated with opioids do not adhere to the opioid regimen or simply quit the treatment due to OIBD. Several strategies are undertaken to prevent or treat OIBD. Traditional oral laxatives are used but their effectiveness is limited and they display adverse effects. Other possibilities comprise opioid switch or changing the administration route. New therapies target opioid receptors in the gut that seem to be the main source of OIBD. One is a combination of an opioid and opioid antagonist (oxycodone/naloxone) in prolonged-release tablets, and another is a purely peripherally acting opioid receptor antagonist (methylnaltrexone) available in subcutaneous injections. The aim of this article is to review the pathomechanism and possible treatment strategies of OIBD. PMID:23788866

  13. Image-enhanced endoscopy technology in the gastrointestinal tract: what is available?

    PubMed

    Beg, Sabina; Ragunath, Krish

    2015-08-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancy accounts for approximately a fifth of all cancer deaths in the United Kingdom. By the time patients are symptomatic, lesions are often advanced, with limited treatment options available. The development of effective endoscopic therapies means that neoplastic lesions can now be treated with improved patient outcomes. This has led to a paradigm shift, whereby the aim of digestive endoscopy is to identify premalignant conditions or early neoplastic change, in order to make an impact on their natural history. This has necessitated an improvement in imaging techniques in order to identify subtle mucosal changes that may harbour precancerous cells. At present there is an array of available imaging modalities, each with implications on cost, training and lesion detection. Here we describe the scientific rationale behind the major commercially available techniques as well as offering a glimpse at possible future directions.

  14. Expression and Function of miR-155 in Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jianhua; Xia, Liang; Xu, Wenting; Lu, Nonghua

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of small noncoding RNA that can regulate the expression of target genes under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. miR-155 is a multifunctional miRNA with inflammation-related and oncogenic roles. In particular, the dysregulation of miR-155 has been strongly implicated in Helicobacter pylori-related gastric disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and colorectal cancer in addition to being involved in molecular changes of important targets and signaling pathways. This review focuses on the expression and function of miR-155 during inflammation and carcinogenesis and its potential use as an effective therapeutic target for certain gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27187359

  15. Efficient Inhibition of HIV Replication in the Gastrointestinal and Female Reproductive Tracts of Humanized BLT Mice by EFdA

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugasundaram, Uma; Kovarova, Martina; Ho, Phong T.; Schramm, Nathaniel; Wahl, Angela; Parniak, Michael A.; Garcia, J. Victor

    2016-01-01

    Background The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) in preclinical development exhibits improved safety and antiviral activity profiles with minimal drug resistance compared to approved NRTIs. However, the systemic antiviral efficacy of EFdA has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice to investigate the systemic effect of EFdA treatment on HIV replication and CD4+ T cell depletion in the peripheral blood (PB) and tissues. In particular, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the female reproductive tract (FRT) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, major sites of transmission, viral replication, and CD4+ T cell depletion and where some current antiretroviral drugs have a sub-optimal effect. Results EFdA treatment resulted in reduction of HIV-RNA in PB to undetectable levels in the majority of treated mice by 3 weeks post-treatment. HIV-RNA levels in cervicovaginal lavage of EFdA-treated BLT mice also declined to undetectable levels demonstrating strong penetration of EFdA into the FRT. Our results also demonstrate a strong systemic suppression of HIV replication in all tissues analyzed. In particular, we observed more than a 2-log difference in HIV-RNA levels in the GI tract and FRT of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. In addition, HIV-RNA was also significantly lower in the lymph nodes, liver, lung, spleen of EFdA-treated BLT mice compared to untreated HIV-infected control mice. Furthermore, EFdA treatment prevented the depletion of CD4+ T cells in the PB, mucosal tissues and lymphoid tissues. Conclusion Our findings indicate that EFdA is highly effective in controlling viral replication and preserving CD4+ T cells in particular with high efficiency in the GI and FRT tract. Thus, EFdA represents a strong potential candidate for further development as a part of antiretroviral therapy regimens. PMID:27438728

  16. Colonization and immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Valeur, Nana; Engel, Peter; Carbajal, Noris; Connolly, Eamonn; Ladefoged, Karin

    2004-02-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 is a probiotic (health-promoting) bacterium widely used as a dietary supplement. This study was designed to examine local colonization of the human gastrointestinal mucosa after dietary supplementation with L. reuteri ATCC 55730 and to determine subsequent immune responses at the colonized sites. In this open clinical investigation, 10 healthy volunteers and 9 volunteers with ileostomy underwent gastroscopy or ileoscopy and biopsy samples were taken from the stomach, duodenum, or ileum before and after supplementation with 4 x 10(8) CFU of live L. reuteri ATCC 55730 lactobacilli per day for 28 days. Biopsy specimen colonization was analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization with a molecular beacon probe, and immune cell populations were determined by immunostaining. Endogenous L. reuteri was detected in the stomach of 1 subject and the duodenum of 3 subjects (out of 10 subjects). After L. reuteri ATCC 55730 supplementation, the stomachs of 8 and the duodenums of all 10 subjects were colonized. Three ileostomy subjects (of six tested) had endogenous L. reuteri at baseline, while all six displayed colonization after L. reuteri supplementation. Gastric mucosal histiocyte numbers were reduced and duodenal B-lymphocyte numbers were increased by L. reuteri ATCC 55730 administration. Furthermore, L. reuteri administration induced a significantly higher amount of CD4-positive T-lymphocytes in the ileal epithelium. Dietary supplementation with the probiotic L. reuteri ATCC 55730 induces significant colonization of the stomach, duodenum, and ileum of healthy humans, and this is associated with significant alterations of the immune response in the gastrointestinal mucosa. These responses may be key components of a mechanism by which L. reuteri ATCC 55730 exerts its well-documented probiotic effects in humans.

  17. Vascular malformations and hemangiolymphangiomas of the gastrointestinal tract: morphological features and clinical impact

    PubMed Central

    Handra-Luca, Adriana; Montgomery, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to describe the morphological features of gastrointestinal vascular malformations (VM) and of hemangiolymphangiomas (HLA) and to establish correlations with clinical characteristics. Significant findings: Fifteen VMs and 12 HLAs that were encountered over a period of 22 years, were retrospectively analyzed. The VMs often involved the colon, small intestine, but also the stomach, whereas none of the HLAs arose in the stomach. VMs were more frequently associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, ulcer and were larger than HLAs (p<0.01 for all comparisons). Intralesional hemorrhage and thrombosis were associated with VM (p=0.02 and p=0.05). Surgical resection was performed for 1 HLA and 14 VMs. Vessel abnormalities such as shunt vessels, wall tufts (excrescences) and arterialized veins were more frequent in VMs (p=0.01, p=0.04 and <0.01, respectively) whereas aneurysm-like cavities were observed in both lesion types. Mucosal abnormal vessels were observed only in VMs, whereas HLAs were associated with mucosal lymphatic clusters (p<0.01). Most HLAs contained a D2-40 hetero-geneously positive lymphatic component, were Glut-1 negative and CD31 reactive. There was no statistical difference in occurrence of associated autoimmune, tumoral and cardiovascular conditions between the two patient groups. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that morphological features such as increased size, ulcer, thrombosis, hemorrhage and presence of aberrant mucosal vessels favor the diagnosis of VM. Co-existence of other clinical conditions such as cardiovascular disease, encountered in association with both lesion types, might exacerbate a tendency towards hemorrhage. PMID:21738815

  18. The distribution of mucous secreting cells in the gastrointestinal tracts of three small rodents from Saudi Arabia: Acomys dimidiatus, Meriones rex and Meriones libycus.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Olga; Marais, Sumine; Walters, Jacklynn; van der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Bennett, Nigel C; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2016-03-01

    The proportion of mucin phenotypes (which form the protective biofilm of the gastrointestinal tract) differs between intestinal regions. This study examines the distribution of mucin secreting cells in the gastrointestinal tracts of the Eastern spiny mouse (Acomys dimidiatus), King jird (Meriones rex) and Libyan jird (Meriones libycus), which inhabit the dry and hot deserts of Saudi Arabia. Intestinal tract samples were processed to wax and tissue sections stained with Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS) and High Iron Diamine-Alcian Blue (HID-AB) in order to determine different mucin phenotypes by quantitative analysis. Mixed mucin secreting cells (combined neutral and acid) was the predominant mucin secreting cell type observed throughout the gastrointestinal tract in all species. Acid mucin secreting goblet cells were mainly located in the colon. A. dimidiatus presented with significantly more total sialo than sulfomucin secreting cells while the opposite was true for both Meriones species. The distribution of mucin secreting cells is therefore similar to previously reported results for small mammals not living under arid conditions. PMID:26743350

  19. Dislodgement and gastrointestinal tract penetration of bone cement used for spinal reconstruction after lumbosacral vertebral tumor excision

    PubMed Central

    Nagae, Masateru; Mikami, Yasuo; Mizuno, Kentaro; Harada, Tomohisa; Ikeda, Takumi; Tonomura, Hitoshi; Takatori, Ryota; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement is useful for spinal reconstruction, but can cause complications including new vertebral fractures, neurological disorders and pulmonary embolism. We report a case in PMMA cement used for spinal reconstruction after tumor curettage dislodged and penetrated the gastrointestinal tract. Diagnoses: The patient was diagnosed with a retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor at age 27 years. After chemotherapy and tumor resection, the tumor remained. It gradually increased in size and infiltrated lumbosacral vertebrae, causing him to present at age 35 years with increased low back pain. Image findings showed bone destruction in the vertebral bodies accompanied by neoplastic lesions. The left and right common iliac arteries and inferior vena cava were enclosed in the tumor on the anterior side of the vertebral bodies. Lumbosacral bone tumor due to direct extragonadal germ cell tumor infiltration was diagnosed. A 2-step operation was planned; first, fixation of the posterior side of the vertebral bodies, followed by tumor resection using an anterior transperitoneal approach, and spinal reconstruction using PMMA cement. After surgery, the PMMA cement gradually dislodged towards the anterior side and, 2 years 9 months after surgery, it had penetrated the retroperitoneum. The patient subsequently developed nausea and abdominal pain and was readmitted to hospital. The diagnosis was intestinal blockage with dislodged PMMA cement, and an operation was performed to remove the cement present in the small intestine. There was strong intra-abdominal adhesion, the peritoneum between the vertebral bodies and intestine could not be identified, and no additional treatment for vertebral body defects could be performed. After surgery, gastrointestinal symptoms resolved. Conclusion: Although this was a rare case, when using bone cement for vertebral body reconstruction, the way of anchoring for the cement must be thoroughly

  20. The impact of meals on a probiotic during transit through a model of the human upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, T A; Mainville, I; Arcand, Y

    2011-12-01

    Commercial literature on various probiotic products suggests that they can be taken before meals, during meals or after meals or even without meals. This has led to serious confusion for the industry and the consumer. The objective of our study was to examine the impact of the time of administration with respect to mealtime and the impact of the buffering capacity of the food on the survival of probiotic microbes during gastrointestinal transit. We used an in vitro Digestive System (IViDiS) model of the upper gastrointestinal tract to examine the survival of a commercial multi-strain probiotic, ProtecFlor®. This product, in a capsule form, contains four different microbes: two lactobacilli (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011), Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii. Enumeration during and after transit of the stomach and duodenal models showed that survival of all the bacteria in the product was best when given with a meal or 30 minutes before a meal (cooked oatmeal with milk). Probiotics given 30 minutes after the meal did not survive in high numbers. Survival in milk with 1% milk fat and oatmeal-milk gruel were significantly better than apple juice or spring water. S. boulardii was not affected by time of meal or the buffering capacity of the meal. The protein content of the meal was probably not as important for the survival of the bacteria as the fat content. We conclude that ideally, non-enteric coated bacterial probiotic products should be taken with or just prior to a meal containing some fats. PMID:22146689

  1. Ecology of Candida albicans gut colonization: inhibition of Candida adhesion, colonization, and dissemination from the gastrointestinal tract by bacterial antagonism.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, M J; Volz, P A

    1985-01-01

    Antibiotic-treated and untreated Syrian hamsters were inoculated intragastrically with Candida albicans to determine whether C. albicans could opportunistically colonize the gastrointestinal tract and disseminate to visceral organs. Antibiotic treatment decreased the total population levels of the indigenous bacterial flora and predisposed hamsters to gastrointestinal overgrowth and subsequent systemic dissemination by C. albicans in 86% of the animals. Both control hamsters not given antibiotics and antibiotic-treated animals reconventionalized with an indigenous microflora showed significantly lower gut populations of C. albicans, and C. albicans organisms were cultured from the visceral organs of 0 and 10% of the animals, respectively. Conversely, non-antibiotic-treated hamsters inoculated repeatedly with C. albicans had high numbers of C. albicans in the gut, and viable C. albicans was recovered from the visceral organs of 53% of the animals. Examination of the mucosal surfaces from test and control animals indicated further that animals which contained a complex indigenous microflora had significantly lower numbers of C. albicans associated with their gut walls than did antibiotic-treated animals. The ability of C. albicans to associate with intestinal mucosal surfaces also was tested by an in vitro adhesion assay. The results indicate that the indigenous microflora reduced the mucosal association of C. albicans by forming a dense layer of bacteria in the mucus gel, out-competing yeast cells for adhesion sites, and producing inhibitor substances (possibly volatile fatty acids, secondary bile acids, or both) that reduced C. albicans adhesion. It is suggested, therefore, that the indigenous intestinal microflora suppresses C. albicans colonization and dissemination from the gut by inhibiting Candida-mucosal association and reducing C. albicans population levels in the gut. Images PMID:3897061

  2. Fecal transplantation - the new, inexpensive, safe, and rapidly effective approach in the treatment of gastrointestinal tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Oprita, R; Bratu, M; Oprita, B; Diaconescu, B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Fecal transplantation was shown to effectively reduce the reoccurrence in patients with refractory Clostridium difficile infection. New data suggest that fecal transplantation could also be efficient in other gastrointestinal diseases, for instance in inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, but, there are also some data that could imply the efficacy outside the gastrointestinal tract. Fecal transplantation should be considered a unique agent, capable of treating severe diseases, with essentially no adverse reactions, presenting a cure rate of over 90%. Materials and methods. This prospective study included 33 patients, of whom 28 patients with recurrent or resistant Clostridium difficile infection, who failed to be treated with conventional therapy, which presupposed vancomycin administration and 5 patients with inflammatory bowel disease, more precisely with ulcerative colitis, refractory on biologic agents (infliximab and adalimumab). In most of the cases, fecal transplant was realized with the infusion of stool through colonoscopy. Results. Most of the patients from both groups (Clostridium difficile infection and Ulcerative Colitis) responded (31 patients) with a total relief of the symptoms, after 1 FMT for Clostridium difficile group and after more than one for the ulcerative colitis group. The so-called primary cure rate was 96.42% for Clostridium group. For ulcerative colitis, group 3 of the patients needed 3 or 4 infusions for symptom relief. One patient was categorized as non-responsive (patient with UC) and needed surgery. Due to non-fecal transplant related causes, one death was reported. Conclusions. Fecal transplant is highly effective, safe, with practically no adverse effects, inexpensive, a procedure easy to be done that could be introduced in Clostridium difficile treatment protocols. As for ulcerative colitis treatment with FMT, future randomized controlled trials are needed to prove its efficiency. PMID:27453747

  3. Tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy for upper gastrointestinal tract imaging by using ball lens probe (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jing; Gora, Michalina J.; Reddy, Rohith; Trasischker, Wolfgang; Poupart, Oriane; Lu, Weina; Carruth, Robert W.; Grant, Catriona N.; Soomro, Amna R.; Tiernan, Aubrey R.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Nishioka, Norman S.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-03-01

    While endoscopy is the most commonly used modality for diagnosing upper GI tract disease, this procedure usually requires patient sedation that increases cost and mandates its operation in specialized settings. In addition, endoscopy only visualizes tissue superfically at the macroscopic scale, which is problematic for many diseases that manifest below the surface at a microscopic scale. Our lab has previously developed technology termed tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy (TCE) to overcome these diagnostic limitations of endoscopy. The TCE device is a swallowable capsule that contains optomechanical components that circumferentially scan the OCT beam inside the body as the pill traverses the organ via peristalsis. While we have successfully imaged ~100 patients with the TCE device, the optics of our current device have many elements and are complex, comprising a glass ferrule, optical fiber, glass spacer, GRIN lens and prism. As we scale up manufacturing of this device for clinical translation, we must decrease the cost and improve the manufacturability of the capsule's optical configuration. In this abstract, we report on the design and development of simplificed TCE optics that replace the GRIN lens-based configuration with an angle-polished ball lens design. The new optics include a single mode optical fiber, a glass spacer and an angle polished ball lens, that are all fusion spliced together. The ball lens capsule has resolutions that are comparable with those of our previous GRIN lens configuration (30µm (lateral) × 7 µm (axial)). Results in human subjects show that OCT-based TCE using the ball lens not only provides rapid, high quality microstructural images of upper GI tract, but also makes it possible to implement this technology inexpensively and on a larger scale.

  4. Association between OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and risk of upper aero-digestive tract and gastrointestinal cancers: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Das, Sambuddha; Nath, Sayantan; Bhowmik, Aditi; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Choudhury, Yashmin

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of the upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract are one of the major causes of mortality around the world. DNA repair genes play a vital role in preventing carcinogenesis by maintaining genomic integrity. Polymorphisms in the nucleotide sequence of DNA repair genes are often reported to be associated with an increased risk for different cancers. The OGG1 gene encodes the enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase which removes oxidatively damaged bases of DNA. Several studies report that the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism increases the risk for cancers of the upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract. However, other studies provide evidence that such an association does not exist. A meta-analysis to assess the role of OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism in the cancers of the upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract was therefore undertaken in order to resolve this ambiguity. Seventeen studies were recruited for this meta-analysis after screening 58 articles with a total of 5533 cases and 6834 controls for which the odds ratio with 95 % confidence interval was calculated. Begg's funnel test and Egger's test were performed for calculating publication bias. Our study reveals an association between OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and cancer susceptibility of the upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract (CG + GG vs CC; odds ratio, OR 1.22; 95 % CI 1.05-1.41; GG vs CG + CC; OR 1.36; 95 % CI 1.09-1.70; GG vs CC; OR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.12-1.92). Subgroup analysis based on cancer types and ethnicity also revealed the association of OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism to the risk for upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract cancers among both the Asian and the Caucasian populations. No risk was however observed for smoking habits and OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism. In conclusion, OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism may be associated with the increased risk for aero-digestive tract and gastro-intestinal cancers in both Asian and Caucasian populations. PMID:27026921

  5. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  6. Endoscopic ultrasound examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract using a curved-array transducer. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Vilmann, P; Khattar, S; Hancke, S

    1991-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound examination (EUS) of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract for the assessment of mural and extramural pathology has attracted growing international interest in recent years. Since February 1989, EUS has been performed on selected patients in our institution using a new Picker-Pentax fiber-optic ultrasound (US) gastroscope. The instrument consists of a forward-view fiber-optic gastroscope with a 5-MHz curved-array linear US transducer mounted directly behind the lens. The scanning plane lies in the long axis of the scope. Based on in vitro US examinations and EUS of 118 patients over an 18-month period, our preliminary experience with the instrument is described. Using EUS, various lesions in the esophageal wall as well as in the gastric and duodenal walls can be visualized. Furthermore, organs and structures outside the GI tract can be seen, and lesions such as enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum and abdomen; solid and cystic masses in the liver, pancreas and retroperitoneum; arterial aneurysms; esophageal varices; and gall stones and calcifications can be demonstrated. The 5-MHz transducer does not provide very detailed information on the GI wall. The direction of the ultrasound scanning planes is difficult to define, as the transducer cannot be seen through the optic lens. The method demands great expertise in endoscopy and ultrasound. Indications for EUS have not been definitively established. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of this technique requires further controlled studies. We believe that EUS using a curved-array linear transducer will provide significant diagnostic information of clinical relevance to gastroenterology. PMID:1948619

  7. Motility disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract in the intensive care unit: pathophysiology and contemporary management.

    PubMed

    Stupak, Daniel Paul; Abdelsayed, George G; Soloway, Gregory N

    2012-07-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility, an entity commonly found in the intensive care unit setting, can lead to insufficient nutrient intake while increasing the risk of infection and mortality. Further, overcoming the altered motility with early enteral feeding is associated with a reduced incidence of infectious complications in intensive care unit patients. Upper GI dysmotility in critical care patients is a common occurrence, and there are many causes for this problem, which affects a very heterogenous population with a multitude of underlying medical abnormalities. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to identify this widespread problem and subsequently institute a proper therapy as rapidly as possible. Prokinetic pharmacotherapies are currently the mainstay for the management of disordered upper GI motility. Future therapies, aimed at the underlying pathophysiology of this complex problem, are under investigation. These aim is to reduce the side effects of the currently available options, while improving on nutrition delivery in the critically ill. This review discusses the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of upper GI motility disturbances in the critically ill.

  8. [Anthelmintic control of multiresistant nematodes in the gastrointestinal tract of imported goats].

    PubMed

    Corba, J; Várady, M; Praslicka, J; Veselý, L

    1993-01-01

    Multiple resistant strains of Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus were detected in a flock of cashmere and angora goats imported from New Zealand. The ED50 values detected by in vitro EHA test were from 0.27 to 0.36 micrograms/ml (while the reference value of sensitivity is 0.10 microgram/ml TBZ). Multiple resistance to all the types of currently used anthelmintics was confirmed by in vivo FECRT, when the efficacy of recommended doses was lower than 90% (albendazole 74%, levamisole 86%, ivermectin 83%). Two control schemes were investigated. In the simultaneous application of anthelmintics in the double or triple of recommended doses (0.4 mg/kg ivermectin s.c., 30 mg/kg levamisole and 20 mg/kg albendazole p.o.) was effective. Examination of goats 7 and 8 months after treatment revealed the repeated presence of multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. It is the first published case of intercontinental transfer of resistant strains of nematodes when importing small ruminants.

  9. Low-Dose Aspirin-Associated Upper and Mid Gastrointestinal Tract Damage and Gene Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Akiko; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    The risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is increased in association with the use of low-dose aspirin (LDA). There are few studies of the association between genetic polymorphisms and the risks of aspirin-induced ulcer or its complications. Individuals with two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), A-842G and C50T, exhibit increased sensitivity to aspirin and lower prostaglandin synthesis capacity but the polymorphism lacked statistical significance in relation to an association with bleeding peptic ulcer. In our previous Japanese study, SLCO1B1 521TT genotype and the SLCO1B1 *1b haplotype were significantly associated with the risk of peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding in patients taking LDA, especially in the patients with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), or statin co-treatment. Protonpump inhibitors (PPIs) are recommended for patients who require antiplatelet therapy and have a history of upper GI bleeding. The interaction between PPIs and consequent impaired effectiveness of clopidogrel has caused concern regarding the effect of genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2C19 which mediates conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite. The later recent genome-wide analysis of SNPs indicated the association of several SNPs with small bowel bleeding in Japanese patients taking LDA. The data are still lacking and further prospective studies are needed to identify the specific gene polymorphisms as risk or protective factors for GI bleeding associated with LDA. PMID:26369686

  10. Sarcina organisms in the gastrointestinal tract: a clinicopathologic and molecular study.

    PubMed

    Lam-Himlin, Dora; Tsiatis, Athanasios C; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Pai, Rish K; Brown, J Ahmad; Razavi, Mohammad; Lamps, Laura; Eshleman, James R; Bhagavan, Belur; Anders, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Sarcina organisms were first observed in and recorded from the stomach contents of a patient suffering from vomiting by John Goodsir in 1842. Since that time, their fine structure, phylogenetic classification, and biochemical characteristics have been described. Although numerous cases of fatal disease have been attributed to this organism in the veterinary literature, only a few human cases have been documented. As a result, whether this organism causes disease in humans has not been definitively established. We report the clinicopathologic findings in a series of 5 patients with Sarcina-like organisms identified in upper gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsies with molecular confirmation. Our findings have shown that the organism is most commonly found in patients with a history of gastric outlet obstruction or delayed gastric emptying. Although many of the patients do not demonstrate direct mucosal injury from the organism, the presence of a concurrent gastric ulcer puts the patient at increased risk for complications such as emphysematous gastritis or perforation. The finding of Sarcina organisms should prompt further investigation for functional causes of gastric outlet obstruction and delayed gastric emptying, such as occult malignancy. PMID:21997690

  11. Inhibition by tianeptine of neuronally mediated contractions in the rat isolated gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Victoria N; Bassil, Anna K; Lee, Kevin; Sanger, Gareth J

    2008-05-01

    The antidepressant tianeptine is associated with a small but significant incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, including nausea and constipation. Since the site of action of tianeptine is not clear, we looked for an ability of this drug to directly interfere with GI motility. The effects of tianeptine were studied in rat isolated stomach and colon preparations, in which neuronally mediated (predominantly cholinergic) contractions were evoked by electrical field stimulation. Tianeptine concentration dependently inhibited these contractions in both stomach (0.3-10microM; n=2-5) and colon (1-10microM; n=3-6). This activity was likely to be prejunctional, since contractions evoked by carbachol were unaffected by tianeptine 1microM. Further, the inhibitory activity of tianeptine was unaffected by inhibitors of 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline re-uptake, adenosine metabolism, nitric oxide synthesis and tryptophan dehydroxylase. Thus, our experiments demonstrate a pathway by which tianeptine affects GI functions and this could explain the side effects observed. It is not known if the mechanism of this activity is also related in any way to the therapeutic action of tianeptine within the CNS.

  12. Polyphenols are intensively metabolized in the human gastrointestinal tract after apple juice consumption.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kathrin; Huemmer, Wolfgang; Kempf, Michael; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Erk, Thomas; Richling, Elke

    2007-12-26

    Polyphenols are secondary plant compounds showing anticarcinogenic effects both in vitro and in animal experiments and may thus reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in man. The identification of polyphenol metabolites formed via their passage through the small intestine of healthy ileostomy subjects after apple juice consumption is presented. Identification and quantification of polyphenols and their metabolites were performed using HPLC-DAD as well as HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Total procyanidin content (TPA) was measured, and additionally the mean degree of polymerization (DPm) of the procyanidins was determined in the apple juice and ileostomy effluents. As products of polyphenol metabolism, D-(-)-quinic acid and methyl esters of caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are liberated from the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acid esters. 1-Caffeoylquinic acid and 3-caffeoylquinic acid were determined as products of isomerization. Phloretin 2'-O-glucoside (phloridzin) and phloretin 2'-O-xyloglucoside were metabolized into the corresponding aglycons phloretin and phloretin 2'-O-glucuronide and all were found in the ileostomy effluent. Ninety percent of the consumed procyanidins were recovered in the ileostomy effluent and therefore would reach the colon under physiologic circumstances. The DP m was reduced (DP m of apple juice=5.7) and varied depending on the time point of excretion. The gastrointestinal passage seems to play an important role in the colonic availability of apple polyphenols.

  13. Sarcina Organisms in the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Clinicopathologic and Molecular Study

    PubMed Central

    Lam-Himlin, Dora; Tsiatis, Athanasios C.; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Pai, Rish K.; Brown, J. Ahmad; Razavi, Mohammad; Lamps, Laura; Eshleman, James R.; Bhagavan, Belur; Anders, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcina organisms were first observed and recorded in the stomach contents of a patient with vomiting by John Goodsir in 1842. Since that time, the fine structure, phylogenetic classification, and biochemical characteristics have been described. While numerous cases of fatal disease have been attributed to this organism in the veterinary literature, only a few human cases have been documented. As a result, whether this organism causes disease in humans has not been definitively established. We report the clinicopathologic findings in a series of 5 patients with Sarcina-like organisms identified in upper gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsies with molecular confirmation. Based on our findings, the organism is most commonly found in patients with a history of gastric outlet obstruction or delayed gastric emptying. While many of the patients do not demonstrate direct mucosal injury from the organism, the presence of a concurrent gastric ulcer puts the patient at increased risk for complications such as emphysematous gastritis or perforation. The finding of Sarcina organisms should prompt further investigation for functional causes of gastric outlet obstruction and delayed gastric emptying, such as occult malignancy. PMID:21997690

  14. Review on sedation for gastrointestinal tract endoscopy in children by non-anesthesiologists

    PubMed Central

    Orel, Rok; Brecelj, Jernej; Dias, Jorge Amil; Romano, Claudio; Barros, Fernanda; Thomson, Mike; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To present evidence and formulate recommendations for sedation in pediatric gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy by non-anesthesiologists. METHODS: The databases MEDLINE, Cochrane and EMBASE were searched for the following keywords “endoscopy, GI”, “endoscopy, digestive system” AND “sedation”, “conscious sedation”, “moderate sedation”, “deep sedation” and “hypnotics and sedatives” for publications in English restricted to the pediatric age. We searched additional information published between January 2011 and January 2014. Searches for (upper) GI endoscopy sedation in pediatrics and sedation guidelines by non-anesthesiologists for the adult population were performed. RESULTS: From the available studies three sedation protocols are highlighted. Propofol, which seems to offer the best balance between efficacy and safety is rarely used by non-anesthesiologists mainly because of legal restrictions. Ketamine and a combination of a benzodiazepine and an opioid are more frequently used. Data regarding other sedatives, anesthetics and adjuvant medications used for pediatric GI endoscopy are also presented. CONCLUSION: General anesthesia by a multidisciplinary team led by an anesthesiologist is preferred. The creation of sedation teams led by non-anesthesiologists and a careful selection of anesthetic drugs may offer an alternative, but should be in line with national legislation and institutional regulations. PMID:26240691

  15. A piglet model for studying Candida albicans colonization of the human oro-gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Coleman, David A; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Miller, Michael J; Hoyer, Lois L

    2014-08-01

    Pigs from a variety of sources were surveyed for oro-gastrointestinal (oro-GIT) carriage of Candida albicans. Candida albicans-positive animals were readily located, but we also identified C. albicans-free pigs. We hypothesized that pigs could be stably colonized with a C. albicans strain of choice, simply by feeding yeast cells. Piglets were farrowed routinely and remained with the sow for 4 days to acquire a normal microbiota. Piglets were then placed in an artificial rearing environment and fed sow milk replacer. Piglets were inoculated orally with one of three different C. albicans strains. Piglets were weighed daily, and culture swabs were collected to detect C. albicans orally, rectally and in the piglet's environment. Stable C. albicans colonization over the course of the study did not affect piglet growth. Necropsy revealed mucosally associated C. albicans throughout the oro-GIT with the highest abundance in the esophagus. Uninoculated control piglets remained C. albicans-negative. These data establish the piglet as a model to study C. albicans colonization of the human oro-GIT. Similarities between oro-GIT colonization in humans and pigs, as well as the ease of working with the piglet model, suggest its adaptability for use among investigators interested in understanding C. albicans-host commensal interactions.

  16. Survival of cheese-ripening microorganisms in a dynamic simulator of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Adouard, Nadège; Magne, Laurent; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Foligné, Benoît; Picque, Daniel; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    A mixture of nine microorganisms (six bacteria and three yeasts) from the microflora of surface-ripened cheeses were subjected to in vitro digestive stress in a three-compartment "dynamic gastrointestinal digester" (DIDGI). We studied the microorganisms (i) grown separately in culture medium only (ii) grown separately in culture medium and then mixed, (iii) grown separately in culture medium and then included in a rennet gel and (iv) grown together in smear-ripened cheese. The yeasts Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces lactis and Debaryomyces hansenii, were strongly resistant to the whole DIDGI process (with a drop in viable cell counts of less than <1 log CFU mL(-1)) and there were no significant differences between lab cultures and cheese-grown cultures. Ripening bacteria such as Hafnia alvei survived gastric stress less well when grown in cheese (with no viable cells after 90 min of exposure of the cheese matrix, compared with 6 CFU mL(-1) in lab cultures). The ability of Corynebacterium casei and Staphylococcus equorum to withstand digestive stress was similar for cheese and pure culture conditions. When grow in a cheese matrix, Brevibacterium aurantiacum and Arthrobacter arilaitensis were clearly more sensitive to the overall digestive process than when grown in pure cultures. Lactococcus lactis displayed poorer survival in gastric and duodenal compartments when it had been grown in cheese. In vivo experiments in BALB/c mice agreed with the DIDGI experiments and confirmed the latter's reliability.

  17. Survival of cheese-ripening microorganisms in a dynamic simulator of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Adouard, Nadège; Magne, Laurent; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Foligné, Benoît; Picque, Daniel; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    A mixture of nine microorganisms (six bacteria and three yeasts) from the microflora of surface-ripened cheeses were subjected to in vitro digestive stress in a three-compartment "dynamic gastrointestinal digester" (DIDGI). We studied the microorganisms (i) grown separately in culture medium only (ii) grown separately in culture medium and then mixed, (iii) grown separately in culture medium and then included in a rennet gel and (iv) grown together in smear-ripened cheese. The yeasts Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces lactis and Debaryomyces hansenii, were strongly resistant to the whole DIDGI process (with a drop in viable cell counts of less than <1 log CFU mL(-1)) and there were no significant differences between lab cultures and cheese-grown cultures. Ripening bacteria such as Hafnia alvei survived gastric stress less well when grown in cheese (with no viable cells after 90 min of exposure of the cheese matrix, compared with 6 CFU mL(-1) in lab cultures). The ability of Corynebacterium casei and Staphylococcus equorum to withstand digestive stress was similar for cheese and pure culture conditions. When grow in a cheese matrix, Brevibacterium aurantiacum and Arthrobacter arilaitensis were clearly more sensitive to the overall digestive process than when grown in pure cultures. Lactococcus lactis displayed poorer survival in gastric and duodenal compartments when it had been grown in cheese. In vivo experiments in BALB/c mice agreed with the DIDGI experiments and confirmed the latter's reliability. PMID:26611167

  18. A pH-sensitive potassium conductance (TASK) and its function in the murine gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Yun Cho, Sang; Beckett, Elizabeth A; Baker, Salah A; Han, Insoo; Park, Kyu Joo; Monaghan, Kevin; Ward, Sean M; Sanders, Kenton M; Koh, Sang Don

    2005-01-01

    The excitability of smooth muscles is regulated, in part, by background K+ conductances that determine resting membrane potential. However, the K+ conductances so far described in gastrointestinal (GI) muscles are not sufficient to explain the negative resting potentials of these cells. Here we describe expression of two-pore K+ channels of the TASK family in murine small and large intestinal muscles. TASK-2, cloned from murine intestinal muscles, resulted in a pH-sensitive, time-dependent, non-inactivating K+ conductance with slow activation kinetics. A similar conductance was found in native intestinal myocytes using whole-cell patch-clamp conditions. The pH-sensitive current was blocked by local anaesthetics. Lidocaine, bupivacaine and acidic pH depolarized circular muscle cells in intact muscles and decreased amplitude and frequency of slow waves. The effects of lidocaine were not blocked by tetraethylammonium chloride, 4-aminopyridine, glibenclamide, apamin or MK-499. However, depolarization by acidic pH was abolished by pre-treatment with lidocaine, suggesting that lidocaine-sensitive K+ channels were responsible for pH-sensitive changes in membrane potential. The kinetics of activation, sensitivity to pH, and pharmacology of the conductance in intestinal myocytes and the expression of TASK-1 and TASK-2 in these cells suggest that the pH-sensitive background conductance is encoded by TASK genes. This conductance appears to contribute significantly to resting potential and may regulate excitability of GI muscles. PMID:15774516

  19. Lymphocytic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: a review for the practicing pathologist.

    PubMed

    Carmack, Susanne W; Lash, Richard H; Gulizia, James M; Genta, Robert M

    2009-09-01

    Increased numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes (lymphocytosis) can be found in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon in a variety of clinical circumstances. This review, directed at practicing pathologists, portrays the normal resident lymphocyte population in the mucosa of each segment of the digestive tract and discusses the different situations that may result in quantitative or qualitative alterations of intraepithelial lymphocytes. Esophageal lymphocytosis has not been fully characterized and its clinical significance, if any, awaits definition. Thus, this diagnosis is presently discouraged. In the stomach, it is particularly important to exclude Helicobacter pylori infection and celiac sprue before diagnosing lymphocytic gastritis. Duodenal lymphocytic infiltrates, inextricably tied with alterations of the villous architecture of the mucosa, are often caused by gluten sensitivity. However, similar morphologic changes may be caused by a vast array of other conditions that must be carefully considered and excluded. Lymphocytic and collagenous colitis are most often unexplained, but their frequent association with autoimmune conditions or certain medications deserve a thorough investigation in each case. Using a combination of histologic and clinical clues, a cause for the intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltration can be identified in many instances. As some of the associated conditions are amenable to effective treatment, the importance of diligently seeking such associations before resorting to a diagnosis of primary lymphocytosis is emphasized. PMID:19700939

  20. Deoxynivalenol in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Immature Gilts under per os Toxin Application

    PubMed Central

    Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Kostecki, Marian; Zielonka, Łukasz; Goliński, Piotr; Gajęcki, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol is also known as vomitoxin due to its impact on livestock through interference with animal growth and acceptance of feed. At the molecular level, deoxynivalenol disrupts normal cell function by inhibiting protein synthesis via binding to the ribosome and by activating critical cellular kinases involved in signal transduction related to proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Because of concerns related to deoxynivalenol, the United States FDA has instituted advisory levels of 5 µg/g for grain products for most animal feeds and 10 µg/g for grain products for cattle feed. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of low doses of deoxynivalenol applied per os on the presence of this mycotoxin in selected tissues of the alimentary canal of gilts. The study was performed on 39 animals divided into two groups (control, C; n = 21 and experimental, E; n = 18), of 20 kg body weight at the beginning of the experiment. Gilts received the toxin in doses of 12 µg/kg b.w./day (experimental group) or placebo (control group) over a period of 42 days. Three animals from two experimental groups were sacrificed on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42, excluding day 1 when only three control group animals were scarified. Tissues samples were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses with the application of solid phase extraction (SPE). The results show that deoxynivalenol doses used in our study, even when applied for a short period, resulted in its presence in gastrointestinal tissues. The highest concentrations of deoxynivalenol reported in small intestine samples ranged from 7.2 (in the duodenum) to 18.6 ng/g (in the ileum) and in large intestine samples from 1.8 (in transverse the colon) to 23.0 ng/g (in the caecum). In liver tissues, the deoxynivalenol contents ranged from 6.7 to 8.8 ng/g. PMID:24603665

  1. Anatomical study of the gastrointestinal tract in free-living axis deer (Axis axis).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Erdogan, S; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-02-01

    The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach and intestines of adult axis deer (Axis axis), a cervid species considered intermediate/mixed feeder, was observed and recorded. Nine adult wild axis deers of both sexes were used and studied by simple dissection. The ruminal papillae were distributed unevenly in the overall area of the inner surface of rumen and primarily were more large and abundant within the atrium. The ruminal pillars had no papillae. There was an additional ruminal pillar located between the right longitudinal and right coronary ventral pillars connected to the caudal pillar. No dorsal coronary pillars were found, and the ventral coronary pillars are connected. The reticulum was the third compartment in size, and the maximum height of the reticular crests was 1.0 mm. The Cellulae reticuli were not divided and rarely contained secondary crests. There were no Papillae unguiculiformes. The omasum was the smallest gastric compartment. The abomasum had about twelve spiral plicae, and a small pyloric torus was present. The intraruminal papillation was similar to those species that are characterized by a higher proportion of grass in their natural diet. The finding of the small reticular crests is typical for browser ruminants and was coincident with data reported for other deer. The comparative ratio of the small intestine to the large intestine was 1.69, in terms of length measurements in axis deer and appears below of the 'browser range'. We concluded that the gastrointestinal system of axis deer reflected similar morphological characteristics of the both types of ruminants: browser and grazer, and we consider it as an intermediate feeder.

  2. Taurine ameliorates water avoidance stress-induced degenerations of gastrointestinal tract and liver.

    PubMed

    Zeybek, Ali; Ercan, Feriha; Cetinel, Sule; Cikler, Esra; Sağlam, Beyhan; Sener, Göksel

    2006-10-01

    oxidative damage of gastrointestinal mucosa and liver because of WAS induction possibly by its antioxidant effects.

  3. Deoxynivalenol in the gastrointestinal tract of immature gilts under per os toxin application.

    PubMed

    Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Kostecki, Marian; Zielonka, Łukasz; Goliński, Piotr; Gajęcki, Maciej

    2014-03-05

    Deoxynivalenol is also known as vomitoxin due to its impact on livestock through interference with animal growth and acceptance of feed. At the molecular level, deoxynivalenol disrupts normal cell function by inhibiting protein synthesis via binding to the ribosome and by activating critical cellular kinases involved in signal transduction related to proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Because of concerns related to deoxynivalenol, the United States FDA has instituted advisory levels of 5 µg/g for grain products for most animal feeds and 10 µg/g for grain products for cattle feed. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of low doses of deoxynivalenol applied per os on the presence of this mycotoxin in selected tissues of the alimentary canal of gilts. The study was performed on 39 animals divided into two groups (control, C; n = 21 and experimental, E; n = 18), of 20 kg body weight at the beginning of the experiment. Gilts received the toxin in doses of 12 µg/kg b.w./day (experimental group) or placebo (control group) over a period of 42 days. Three animals from two experimental groups were sacrificed on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42, excluding day 1 when only three control group animals were scarified. Tissues samples were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses with the application of solid phase extraction (SPE). The results show that deoxynivalenol doses used in our study, even when applied for a short period, resulted in its presence in gastrointestinal tissues. The highest concentrations of deoxynivalenol reported in small intestine samples ranged from 7.2 (in the duodenum) to 18.6 ng/g (in the ileum) and in large intestine samples from 1.8 (in transverse the colon) to 23.0 ng/g (in the caecum). In liver tissues, the deoxynivalenol contents ranged from 6.7 to 8.8 ng/g.

  4. Pentax confocal endomicroscope: a novel imaging device for in vivo histology of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Polglase, Adrian L; McLaren, Wendy J; Delaney, Peter M

    2006-09-01

    With advances in endoscopic imaging tools, it is becoming increasingly possible to find, assess and treat numerous gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies at the time of endoscopy. This article focuses on the newly developed Pentax confocal endomicroscope that enables in vivo microscopic imaging of the upper and lower GI tract in histological detail at the time of patient examination without the collection of biopsies. The optical imaging technique has the potential to revolutionize clinical workflows in endoscopy through high-resolution fluorescence imaging of cellular and subcellular detail from the surface and subepithelial layers of the GI mucosa. The device incorporates a full screen, high-resolution charge coupled device as well as a confocal microscope. Preliminary data from blinded clinical studies suggests that the use of this device can increase the diagnostic yield for disease detection in conditions such as ulcerative colitis and Barrett's esophagus, where diagnosis using white light endoscopy is problematic. The early detection and diagnosis of GI abnormalities through the collection of 'optical' biopsies or targeted mucosal excisional biopsies has the potential to improve patient outcomes and enable early therapeutic intervention. PMID:17064240

  5. PATHOGENICITY OF Blastocystis sp. TO THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF MICE: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INOCULUM SIZE AND PERIOD OF INFECTION.

    PubMed

    Pavanelli, Mariana F; Kaneshima, Edilson Nobuyoshi; Uda, Carla F; Colli, Cristiane M; Falavigna-Guilherm, Ana L; Gomes, Mônica L

    2015-12-01

    The pathogenic potential of Blastocystis sp. in experimental models requires further investigation. In this work, the pathogenicity of this parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of male Swiss mice was evaluated according to the inoculum size and period of infection. Animals were infected intragastrically, with 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 Blastocystis sp. vacuolar forms obtained from a mixture of eight human isolates cultured axenically in Jones' medium. After seven, 14, 21, 28 and 60 days of infection, the animals were sacrificed and fragments of the small intestine (duodenum), large intestine, and cecum were subjected to histopathological analysis. Blastocystis sp. triggered an inflammatory response in the different tissues analyzed, with a predominance of mononuclear cells. The parasite was found in the muscular layer of the cecum, showing its invasive character. Larger inocula triggered inflammatory processes earlier (seven days) than smaller ones (from 21 days). We conclude that, in the proposed model, the pathogenicity of Blastocystis sp. isolates that were studied is related to inoculum size and period of infection. PMID:27049699

  6. The Gut Microbiome and Its Potential Role in the Development and Function of Newborn Calf Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Griebel, Philip J; Guan, Le Luo

    2015-01-01

    A diverse microbial population colonizes the sterile mammalian gastrointestinal tract during and after the birth. There is increasing evidence that this complex microbiome plays a crucial role in the development of the mucosal immune system and influences newborn health. Microbial colonization is a complex process influenced by a two-way interaction between host and microbes and a variety of external factors, including maternal microbiota, birth process, diet, and antibiotics. Following this initial colonization, continuous exposure to host-specific microbes is not only essential for development and maturation of the mucosal immune system but also the nutrition and health of the animal. Thus, it is important to understand host-microbiome interactions within the context of individual animal species and specific management practices. Data is now being generated revealing significant associations between the early microbiome, development of the mucosal immune system, and the growth and health of newborn calves. The current review focuses on recent information and discusses the limitation of current data and the potential challenges to better characterizing key host-specific microbial interactions. We also discuss potential strategies that may be used to manipulate the early microbiome to improve production and health during the time when newborn calves are most susceptible to enteric disease. PMID:26664965

  7. Comparison of five in vitro digestion models to in vivo experimental results: lead bioaccessibility in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Van de Wiele, Tom R; Oomen, Agnes G; Wragg, Joanna; Cave, Mark; Minekus, Mans; Hack, Alfons; Cornelis, Christa; Rompelberg, Cathy J M; De Zwart, Loeckie L; Klinck, Ben; Van Wijnen, Joop; Verstraete, Willy; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents a multi-laboratory comparison study of in vitro models assessing bioaccessibility of soil-bound lead in the human gastrointestinal tract under simulated fasted and fed conditions. Oral bioavailability data from a previous human in vivo study on the same soil served as a reference point. In general, the bioaccessible lead fraction was significantly (P<0.05) different between the in vitro methods and ranged for the fasted models from 2% to 33% and for the fed models from 7% to 29%. The in vivo bioavailability data from literature were 26.2+/-8.1% for fasted conditions, compared to 2.5+/-1.7% for fed conditions. Under fed conditions, all models returned higher bioaccessibility values than the in vivo bioavailability; whereas three models returned a lower bioaccessibility than bioavailability under fasted conditions. These differences are often due to the method's digestion parameters that need further optimization. An important outcome of this study was the determination that the method for separating the bioaccessible lead from the non-bioaccessible fraction (centrifugation, filtration, ultrafiltration) is crucial for the interpretation of the results. Bioaccessibility values from models that use more stringent separation methods better approximate in vivo bioavailability results, yet at the expense of the level of conservancy. We conclude from this study that more optimization of in vitro digestion models is needed for use in risk assessment. Moreover, attention should be paid to the laboratory separation method since it largely influences what fraction of the contaminant is considered bioaccessible.

  8. Gross anatomical features of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of blue and yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) - oral cavity and pharynx.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, J; Tivane, C; Rodrigues, M N; Wagner, P G; Campos, D B; Guerra, R R; Miglino, M A

    2013-12-01

    Morphological studies of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of blue and yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to describe the macaw's oropharyngeal cavity in order to supply the deficiency of anatomical data and as part of a broad study of the GIT of these birds. Two male and one female adult blue and yellow macaws were anatomically dissected to expose the oropharynx. The macaw oropharynx was 'V-shaped' and flattened laterally being composed of maxillary and mandibular rhamphotheca of the beak. The tongue, lingual frenulum and laryngeal mound (containing 'spindle-shaped' glottis and prominent mucosal papillae) formed the floor of the oropharynx. The roof revealed two distinct regions separated by a 'step-like depression', whereas in the floor, the mandibular rhamphotheca was separated from the oral cavity mucosa by a large vestibulum enclosing the lingual frenulum. The palate was hard without any signs of rugae nor palatine raphe. A smooth ridge extended caudally from the choana to the common opening of the Eustachian tubes. This study, in addition to confirming the basic features of the oropharynx previously described for birds in general, provided new, unreported morphological data, some of which may be important when studying nutrition and health of these birds. PMID:23410201

  9. The partition and fate of soluble and digesta particulate associated oxfendazole and its metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract of sheep.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, D R; Ali, D N; Tremain, S A

    1994-05-01

    The disposition of oxfendazole (OFZ) containing a trace of [14C]OFZ was examined in the gastrointestinal tract and bloodstream of sheep fitted with rumen and abomasal cannulae. Within 2 h of intraruminal (IR) administration, OFZ and its metabolites were almost completely associated with rumen particulate digesta. The proportion of metabolites in digesta fluid increased with their passage from the rumen into the abomasum. To determine the fate of 14C-labelled metabolites after distribution throughout rumen digesta, the rumen particulate and fluid digesta phases from a donor sheep were separated and each transferred to the rumen of an untreated recipient sheep. The 14C-labelled metabolites which derived from the donor rumen fluid quickly associated with recipient rumen particulate material. The metabolites were then progressively desorbed, as were metabolites which were transferred already associated with rumen particulate digesta. Desorption occurred faster in the abomasum than in the rumen. There was no difference in uptake kinetics between administration routes, indicating rapid equilibrium. Consequently the disposition of [14C] OFZ and its metabolites in the bloodstream was similar in each group. It is suggested that the progressive desorption of particulate associated metabolites is a principal determinant of the duration of OFZ availability.

  10. GEP-NETS update: functional localisation and scintigraphy in neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas (GEP-NETs).

    PubMed

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2014-05-01

    For patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas (GEP) (GEP-NETs), excellent care should ideally be provided by a multidisciplinary team of skilled health care professionals. In these patients, a combination of nuclear medicine imaging and conventional radiological imaging techniques is usually mandatory for primary tumour visualisation, tumour staging and evaluation of treatment. In specific cases, as in patients with occult insulinomas, sampling procedures can provide a clue as to where to localise the insulin-hypersecreting pancreatic NETs. Recent developments in these fields have led to an increase in the detection rate of primary GEP-NETs and their metastatic deposits. Radiopharmaceuticals targeted at specific tumour cell properties and processes can be used to provide sensitive and specific whole-body imaging. Functional imaging also allows for patient selection for receptor-based therapies and prediction of the efficacy of such therapies. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) and single-photon emission CT/CT are used to map functional images with anatomical localisations. As a result, tumour imaging and tumour follow-up strategies can be optimised for every individual GEP-NET patient. In some cases, functional imaging might give indications with regard to future tumour behaviour and prognosis.

  11. Tear Film Mucins: Front Line Defenders of the Ocular Surface; Comparison with Airway and Gastrointestinal Tract Mucins

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Robin R.; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2014-01-01

    The ocular surface including the cornea and conjunctiva and its overlying tear film are the first tissues of the eye to interact with the external environment. The tear film is complex containing multiple layers secreted by different glands and tissues. Each layer contains specific molecules and proteins that not only maintain the health of the cells on the ocular surface by providing nourishment and removal of waste products but also protect these cells from environment. A major protective mechanism that the corneal and conjunctival cells have developed is secretion of the innermost layer of the tear film, the mucous layer. Both the cornea and conjunctiva express membrane spanning mucins, whereas the conjunctiva also produces soluble mucins. The mucins present in the tear film serve to maintain the hydration of the ocular surface and to provide lubrication and anti-adhesive properties between the cells of the ocular surface and conjunctiva during the blink. A third function is to contribute to the epithelial barrier to prevent pathogens from binding to the ocular surface. This review will focus on the different types of mucins produced by the corneal and conjunctival epithelia. Also included in this review will be a presentation of the structure of mucins, regulation of mucin production, role of mucins in ocular surface diseases, and the differences in mucin production by the ocular surface, airways and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23954166

  12. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Guilherme L.; Correa, Raquel F.; Cunha, Raquel S.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Chaia, Catia; Clementino, Maysa M.; Garcia, Eloi S.; de Souza, Wanderley; Frasés, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic aerobic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (MUG), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside (MUC), and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (MUX). Our results indicate that the snail A. fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes. PMID:26347735

  13. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Guilherme L; Correa, Raquel F; Cunha, Raquel S; Cardoso, Alexander M; Chaia, Catia; Clementino, Maysa M; Garcia, Eloi S; de Souza, Wanderley; Frasés, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic aerobic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (MUG), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside (MUC), and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (MUX). Our results indicate that the snail A. fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes.

  14. The Gut Microbiome and Its Potential Role in the Development and Function of Newborn Calf Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Griebel, Philip J.; Guan, Le Luo

    2015-01-01

    A diverse microbial population colonizes the sterile mammalian gastrointestinal tract during and after the birth. There is increasing evidence that this complex microbiome plays a crucial role in the development of the mucosal immune system and influences newborn health. Microbial colonization is a complex process influenced by a two-way interaction between host and microbes and a variety of external factors, including maternal microbiota, birth process, diet, and antibiotics. Following this initial colonization, continuous exposure to host-specific microbes is not only essential for development and maturation of the mucosal immune system but also the nutrition and health of the animal. Thus, it is important to understand host–microbiome interactions within the context of individual animal species and specific management practices. Data is now being generated revealing significant associations between the early microbiome, development of the mucosal immune system, and the growth and health of newborn calves. The current review focuses on recent information and discusses the limitation of current data and the potential challenges to better characterizing key host-specific microbial interactions. We also discuss potential strategies that may be used to manipulate the early microbiome to improve production and health during the time when newborn calves are most susceptible to enteric disease. PMID:26664965

  15. Potential Role of Epithelial Cell-Derived Histone H1 Proteins in Innate Antimicrobial Defense in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Rose, F. R. A. J.; Bailey, K.; Keyte, J. W.; Chan, W. C.; Greenwood, D.; Mahida, Y. R.

    1998-01-01

    In the human gastrointestinal tract, microorganisms are present in large numbers in the colon but are sparse in the proximal small intestine. In this study, we have shown that acid extracts of fresh human terminal ileal mucosal samples mediate antimicrobial activity. Following cation-exchange chromatography, one of the eluted fractions demonstrated antibacterial activity against bacteria normally resident in the human colonic lumen. This activity was further fractionated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified as histone H1 and its fragments. We have also shown that in tissue sections, immunoreactive histone H1 is present in the cytoplasm of villus epithelial cells. In vitro culturing of detached (from the basement membrane) villus epithelial cells led to the release of antimicrobial histone H1 proteins, while the cells demonstrated ultrastructural features of programmed cell death. Our studies suggest that cytoplasmic histone H1 may provide protection against penetration by microorganisms into villus epithelial cells. Moreover, intestinal epithelial cells released into the lumen may mediate antimicrobial activity by releasing histone H1 proteins and their fragments. PMID:9632593

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Different Regions of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Agkistrodon piscivorus, the Cottonmouth Snake

    PubMed Central

    Colston, Timothy J.; Noonan, Brice P.; Jackson, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are metagenomic organisms in that they are composed not only of their own genes but also those of their associated microbial cells. The majority of these associated microorganisms are found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and presumably assist in processes such as energy and nutrient acquisition. Few studies have investigated the associated gut bacterial communities of non-mammalian vertebrates, and most rely on captive animals and/or fecal samples only. Here we investigate the gut bacterial community composition of a squamate reptile, the cottonmouth snake, Agkistrodon piscivorus through pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We characterize the bacterial communities present in the small intestine, large intestine and cloaca. Many bacterial lineages present have been reported by other vertebrate gut community studies, but we also recovered unexpected bacteria that may be unique to squamate gut communities. Bacterial communities were not phylogenetically clustered according to GIT region, but there were statistically significant differences in community composition between regions. Additionally we demonstrate the utility of using cloacal swabs as a method for sampling snake gut bacterial communities. PMID:26039313

  17. Long term survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma directly invading the gastrointestinal tract: case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ting-Lung; Yap, Anthony Q; Wang, Jing-Houng; Chen, Chao-Long; Iyer, Shridhar G; Low, Jee-Keem; Lin, Chih-Che; Li, Wei-Feng; Chen, Ta-Yi; Bora, Dibyajyoti; Lin, Chih-Yun; Wang, Chih-Chi

    2011-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) directly invading the gastrointestinal (GI) organs is rare and is associated with poor survival outcome. We report two patients with good long-term outcome following resection of HCC that invaded the stomach and duodenum, respectively. A literature review was conducted to elucidate the course of patients with this pathology. Two cases (57-year-old and 72-year-old males) with enlarged hepatic tumors directly invading the stomach and duodenum underwent hepatectomies with en-bloc resection of the involved organs. Both patients are still alive at 80 and 68 months following the surgery. Our literature review showed that most of the patients with this pathology have manifested, and died of persistent GI bleeding. Patients who were treated surgically had a statistically significant longer survival than those who were treated with non-surgical palliative treatments (P < 0.001). In addition, patients who were treated with surgery with curative intent tend to have a longer survival times than those who were treated with surgery to palliate the bleeding but the difference was not statistically significant (P < 0.174). Removing the tumor completely could significantly prolong the survival of patients with HCC invading the GI tract.

  18. PATHOGENICITY OF Blastocystis sp. TO THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF MICE: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INOCULUM SIZE AND PERIOD OF INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    PAVANELLI, Mariana F.; KANESHIMA, Edilson Nobuyoshi; UDA, Carla F.; COLLI, Cristiane M.; FALAVIGNA-GUILHERM, Ana L.; GOMES, Mônica L.

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic potential of Blastocystis sp. in experimental models requires further investigation. In this work, the pathogenicity of this parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of male Swiss mice was evaluated according to the inoculum size and period of infection. Animals were infected intragastrically, with 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 Blastocystis sp. vacuolar forms obtained from a mixture of eight human isolates cultured axenically in Jones' medium. After seven, 14, 21, 28 and 60 days of infection, the animals were sacrificed and fragments of the small intestine (duodenum), large intestine, and cecum were subjected to histopathological analysis. Blastocystis sp. triggered an inflammatory response in the different tissues analyzed, with a predominance of mononuclear cells. The parasite was found in the muscular layer of the cecum, showing its invasive character. Larger inocula triggered inflammatory processes earlier (seven days) than smaller ones (from 21 days). We conclude that, in the proposed model, the pathogenicity of Blastocystis sp. isolates that were studied is related to inoculum size and period of infection. PMID:27049699

  19. Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Decorating Soybean Seed Ferritin as a Rutin Nanocarrier with Prolonged Release Property in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Sun, Guoyu; Zhang, Min; Zhou, Zhongkai; Li, Quanhong; Strappe, Padraig; Blanchard, Chris

    2016-09-01

    The instability and low bioavailability of polyphenols limit their applications in food industries. In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and soybean seed ferritin deprived of iron (apoSSF) were fabricated as a combined double shell material to encapsulate rutin flavonoid molecules. Firstly, due to the reversible assembly characteristics of phytoferritin, rutin was successfully encapsulated within apoSSF to form a ferritin-rutin complex (FR) with an average molar ratio of 28.2: 1 (rutin/ferritin). The encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of rutin were 18.80 and 2.98 %, respectively. EGCG was then bound to FR to form FR-EGCG composites (FRE), and the binding number of EGCG was 27.30 ± 0.68 with a binding constant K of (2.65 ± 0.11) × 10(4) M(-1). Furthermore, FRE exhibited improved rutin stability, and displayed prolonged release of rutin in simulated gastrointestinal tract fluid, which may be attributed to the external attachment of EGCG to the ferritin cage potentially reducing enzymolysis in GI fluid. In summary, this work demonstrates a novel nanocarrier for stabilization and sustained release of bioactive polyphenols. PMID:27323763

  20. Mesoporous Silica-Based Supports for the Controlled and Targeted Release of Bioactive Molecules in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Esteve, Édgar; Ruiz-Rico, María; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Barat, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Mesoporous silica particles (MSPs) have attracted increasing interest as supports in the design of controlled delivery materials. Besides their excellent properties as loading supports (that is, large surface area and pore volume), the modification of their external surface with molecular/supramolecular ensembles allows the design of gated MSPs. Delivery systems based on gated MSPs show "zero delivery" until an adequate stimulus is present and triggers gate opening and the cargo is released. Encapsulation of bioactive molecules in gated MSPs may improve biological stability, facilitate component handling, mask unpleasant sensorial properties, and modulate the bioaccessibility of target molecules along the gastrointestinal tract. These properties make gated MSPs excellent candidates for encapsulating bioactive molecules and their subsequent utilization in the formulation of functional foods. This text highlights the most significant endogenous triggering stimuli that might be applied to design these site-specific delivery systems, as well as the strategies to develop them. Given the novelty of using MSPs in the food sector, the benefits and current potential limitations of employing MSPs in human food have been identified and discussed.

  1. Aflatoxin B(1) in affecting broiler's performance, immunity, and gastrointestinal tract: a review of history and contemporary issues.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Agha W; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Bohm, Josef

    2011-06-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) is a common contaminant of poultry feeds in tropical and subtropical climates. Research during the last five decades has well established the negative effects of the mycotoxin on health of poultry. However, the last ten years of relevant data have accentuated the potential of low levels of aflatoxin B(1) to deteriorate broiler performance. In this regard, any attempt to establish a dose-effect relationship between aflatoxin B(1) level and broiler performance is also complicated due to differences in types of broilers and length of exposure to the mycotoxin in different studies. Contrary to the prevalent notion regarding literature saturation with respect to aflatoxicosis of chicken, many areas of aflatoxicosis still need to be explored. Literature regarding effects of the mycotoxin on the gastrointestinal tract in this regard is particular scanty and non-conclusive. In addition to these issues, the metabolism of aflatoxin B(1) and recently proposed hypotheses regarding biphasic effects of the mycotoxin in broilers are briefly discussed.

  2. News in livestock research - use of Omics-technologies to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals.

    PubMed

    Deusch, Simon; Tilocca, Bruno; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Technical progress in the field of next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics facilitates the study of highly complex biological samples such as taxonomic and functional characterization of microbial communities that virtually colonize all present ecological niches. Compared to the structural information obtained by metagenomic analyses, metaproteomic approaches provide, in addition, functional data about the investigated microbiota. In general, integration of the main Omics-technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in live science promises highly detailed information about the specific research object and helps to understand molecular changes in response to internal and external environmental factors. The microbial communities settled in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract are essential for the host metabolism and have a major impact on its physiology and health. The microbiotas of livestock like chicken, pig and ruminants are becoming a focus of interest for veterinaries, animal nutritionists and microbiologists. While pig is more often used as an animal model for human-related studies, the rumen microbiota harbors a diversity of enzymes converting complex carbohydrates into monomers which bears high potential for biotechnological applications. This review will provide a general overview about the recent Omics-based research of the microbiota in livestock including its major findings. Differences concerning the results of pre-Omics-approaches in livestock as well as the perspectives of this relatively new Omics-platform will be highlighted. PMID:26900430

  3. Decades of research in drug targeting to the upper gastrointestinal tract using gastroretention technologies: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Rajendra; Kulkarni, Giriraj T

    2016-01-01

    A major constraint in oral controlled release drug delivery is that not all the drug candidates are absorbed uniformly throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Drugs having "absorption window" are absorbed in a particular portion of GIT only or are absorbed to a different extent in various segments of the GIT. Thus, only the drug released in the region preceding and in close vicinity to the absorption window is available for absorption. The drug must be released from the dosage form in solution form; otherwise, it is generally not absorbed. Hence, much research has been dedicated to the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems that may optimize the bioavailability and subsequent therapeutic efficacy of such drugs, as these systems have unique properties to bypass the gastric emptying process. These systems show excellent in vitro results but fail to give desirable in vivo performance. During the last 2-3 decades, researchers from the academia and industries are giving considerable importance in this field. Unfortunately, till date, few so-called gastroretentive dosage forms have been brought to the market in spite of numerous academic publications. The manuscript considers strategies that are commonly used in the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems with a special attention on various parameters, which needs to be monitored during formulation development. PMID:25026414

  4. Detection of bovine papilloma viruses in wart-like lesions of upper gastrointestinal tract of cattle and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Nagarajan, N; Saikumar, G; Arya, R S; Somvanshi, R

    2015-06-01

    In present investigation, etiopathological characterization of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tumours of cattle and buffaloes was undertaken. A total of 27 GIT wart-like lesions in rumen, reticulum, mouth and oesophagus of cattle and buffaloes revealed the presence of small nodular to larger spherical or slender growths with thin base present on mucosa and ruminal pillar. Histopathologically, these cases were diagnosed as fibropapilloma/papilloma. This is the first world record on ruminal papillomatosis in buffaloes. Ruminal warts of cattle and buffaloes revealed the presence of BPV-5, -1 & -2, which is the first report of presence of these BPVs in the ruminal warts from India. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that DNA samples of different GIT wart-like lesions contained varying amount of BPV DNA copy numbers. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the PCNA and Ki67 immunopositivity was present in the basal and spinosum layer of the fibropapilloma/papilloma, indicating these as the cellular proliferation site. In conclusion, the present investigation revealed that BPV-5, -1 & -2 are associated with certain ruminal wart-like lesions/growths in cattle and buffaloes, and the basal and spinosum layer of the ruminal fibropapilloma/papilloma were cellular proliferation sites.

  5. Effect of trimebutine maleate on bethanechol-induced contractions of gastrointestinal tract in conscious and anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Iizuka, M; Takaiti, O

    1983-04-01

    The effect of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on bethanechol-induced contractions of the gastrointestinal tract in dogs was studied by means of chronically implanted force transducers, and it was compared with that of metoclopramide and atropine. During the period of motor quiescence in the fasted state of conscious dog, a bolus i.v. injection of 10 to 50 micrograms/kg bethanechol caused rhythmic contractions in the stomach and small intestine, in which an increase in basal tone was often accompanied in the distal ileum. The stomach responded to a less extent than the small intestine. Intravenous infusion of TM-906 at 3.0 mg/kg-hr for 20 to 60 min reduced the gastric contractions induced by 20 to 30 micrograms/kg bethanechol in five out of six conscious animals examined. The drug, however, enhanced the contractions of the duodenum and jejunum in a majority of the animals. Metoclopramide (1.8 mg/kg-hr) showed a tendency to potentiate the bethanechol-induced contractions in the stomach and small intestine, and atropine (0.06 mg/kg-hr) diminished them. In pentobarbital-Na anaesthetized dogs, effects of TM-906 on bethanechol-induced contractions resembled those in conscious dogs, inhibition in the stomach and potentiation in the small intestine. PMID:6136618

  6. Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Different Regions of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Agkistrodon piscivorus, the Cottonmouth Snake.

    PubMed

    Colston, Timothy J; Noonan, Brice P; Jackson, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are metagenomic organisms in that they are composed not only of their own genes but also those of their associated microbial cells. The majority of these associated microorganisms are found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and presumably assist in processes such as energy and nutrient acquisition. Few studies have investigated the associated gut bacterial communities of non-mammalian vertebrates, and most rely on captive animals and/or fecal samples only. Here we investigate the gut bacterial community composition of a squamate reptile, the cottonmouth snake, Agkistrodon piscivorus through pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We characterize the bacterial communities present in the small intestine, large intestine and cloaca. Many bacterial lineages present have been reported by other vertebrate gut community studies, but we also recovered unexpected bacteria that may be unique to squamate gut communities. Bacterial communities were not phylogenetically clustered according to GIT region, but there were statistically significant differences in community composition between regions. Additionally we demonstrate the utility of using cloacal swabs as a method for sampling snake gut bacterial communities. PMID:26039313

  7. Uptake of foreign DNA from the environment: the gastrointestinal tract and the placenta as portals of entry.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, W; Schubbert, R

    1998-01-30

    Foreign DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is part of our environment. Considerable amounts of foreign DNA of very different origin are ingested daily with food. In a series of experiments we fed the DNA of bacteriophage M13 as test DNA to mice and showed that fragments of this DNA survive the passage through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in small amounts (1-2%). Food-ingested M13 DNA reaches peripheral white blood cells, the spleen and liver via the intestinal epithelia and cells in the Peyer's patches of the intestinal wall. There is evidence to assume that food-ingested foreign DNA can become covalently linked to mouse-like DNA. When M13 DNA is fed to pregnant mice the test DNA can be detected in cells in various organs of the fetuses and of newborn animals, but never in all cells of the mouse fetus. It is likely that the M13 DNA is transferred by the transplacental route and not via the germ line. The consequences of foreign DNA uptake for mutagenesis and oncogenesis have not yet been investigated. PMID:9531678

  8. Association between common variable immunodeficiency and collagenous infiltrative disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: A series of four patients.

    PubMed

    Mandaliya, Rohan; Burkart, Ashlie L; DiMarino, Anthony J; Rattan, Satish; Cohen, Sidney

    2016-03-01

    Hypogammaglobulinemia/common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) may lead to disruption of the gut mucosal immune barrier. Collagenous infiltrative disorders of the intestinal tract (colitis, gastritis, sprue) constitute a relatively new spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders. Our aims were (1) to determine the association between immunoglobulin deficiency state like CVID and collagenous infiltrative disorders of the gut and (2) to study the clinic-pathologic characteristics and treatment outcomes in these patients. A retrospective search was conducted to identify cases with concurrence of these two conditions at an academic center from 2007 to 2013. Four such patients were identified from our database: three with collagenous colitis and one with collagenous gastritis. All patients with collagenous colitis had normal colonic mucosa while the patient with collagenous gastritis had nodular gastric mucosa. Only one patient out of four had decreased plasma cells in the submucosa as expected in low immunoglobulin states. All patients had improvement in their symptoms on immunoglobulin therapy with considerable remission on budesonide. Literature search revealed reporting of four similar patients. In conclusion, (1) the association between collagenous infiltrative disorders of the gut and CVID and its prompt response to immunoglobulins with effective maintenance with budesonide are novel findings. Our study also shows that the presence of plasma cells should not rule out the possibility of CVID. (2) In patients with chronic diarrhea, hypogammaglobulinemia and collagenous colitis/sprue should be considered for the available effective treatments such as immunoglobulins and budesonide. PMID:27053352

  9. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Guilherme L; Correa, Raquel F; Cunha, Raquel S; Cardoso, Alexander M; Chaia, Catia; Clementino, Maysa M; Garcia, Eloi S; de Souza, Wanderley; Frasés, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic aerobic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (MUG), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside (MUC), and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (MUX). Our results indicate that the snail A. fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes. PMID:26347735

  10. PATHOGENICITY OF Blastocystis sp. TO THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF MICE: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INOCULUM SIZE AND PERIOD OF INFECTION.

    PubMed

    Pavanelli, Mariana F; Kaneshima, Edilson Nobuyoshi; Uda, Carla F; Colli, Cristiane M; Falavigna-Guilherm, Ana L; Gomes, Mônica L

    2015-12-01

    The pathogenic potential of Blastocystis sp. in experimental models requires further investigation. In this work, the pathogenicity of this parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of male Swiss mice was evaluated according to the inoculum size and period of infection. Animals were infected intragastrically, with 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 Blastocystis sp. vacuolar forms obtained from a mixture of eight human isolates cultured axenically in Jones' medium. After seven, 14, 21, 28 and 60 days of infection, the animals were sacrificed and fragments of the small intestine (duodenum), large intestine, and cecum were subjected to histopathological analysis. Blastocystis sp. triggered an inflammatory response in the different tissues analyzed, with a predominance of mononuclear cells. The parasite was found in the muscular layer of the cecum, showing its invasive character. Larger inocula triggered inflammatory processes earlier (seven days) than smaller ones (from 21 days). We conclude that, in the proposed model, the pathogenicity of Blastocystis sp. isolates that were studied is related to inoculum size and period of infection.

  11. Biological control of Fasciola hepatica eggs with the Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus after passing through the cattle gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Dias, Anderson S; Araújo, Jackson V; Braga, Fábio R; Araujo, Juliana M; Puppin, André C; Fernandes, Fernanda M; Ramos, Rafael F; Bertonceli, Raul M; da Silva, Renata G; Perboni, Wilber R

    2012-02-01

    Fasciolosis is a disease caused by Fasciola hepatica responsible for causing significant losses in livestock. This study aimed to evaluate the Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus (isolate VC1) on F. hepatica eggs after passing through the cattle gastrointestinal tract. For this evaluation, 1 g pellet was given in sodium alginate matrix per kilogram live weight containing 25% of fungal mycelium from isolate VC1 per animal. Twelve animals were used, six treated and six untreated (control). Some stool samples were collected from the groups of treated and control animals, at the times of 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the pellets' administration. Then, from each stool sample of treated and control groups, 2 g was placed in a Petri dish of 9 cm in diameter, containing 2% water-agar and 1,000 eggs of F. hepatica. It was observed that the fungus was effective in preying upon the eggs in the samples recovered at all of the schedules starting at 12 h. Furthermore, differences were observed (p < 0.01) in the destruction of eggs in the Petri dishes in the treated group compared with the control group. The ovicidal effect was observed after 7 days of interaction. The ovicidal P. chlamydosporia fungus was effective in destroying F. hepatica eggs; therefore, it is suggested that this fungus could be employed as agent for the control of helminth eggs. PMID:21773773

  12. Endoscopic evaluation and biopsy collection of the gastrointestinal tract in the green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris): application in a case of chronic regurgitation with gastric mucus gland hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Jenny; Sidor, Inga F; Field, Cara; Roddy, Nicole; Sirpenski, Gayle; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2012-09-01

    A green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris) was evaluated for chronic regurgitation. By using flexible endoscopy, the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated and revealed multifocal proliferative gastric masses and an intestinal ulcer. Biopsy specimens revealed gastric mucus gland hyperplasia, intestinal nematodiasis, and mild enteritis. Esophagoscopy and gastroscopy were performed by using a larger endoscope (length, 200 cm). A smaller endoscope (length, 100 cm) facilitated entering the intestinal tract in normograde or retrograde directions. A control eel was also evaluated, and no gross or histologic abnormalities were detected. The case eel was treated with metoclopramide and fenbendazole, responded well to therapy, and regurgitation decreased. A year later, the animal died of unrelated causes. Necropsy revealed coelomic gastric adhesions. The gastric proliferative lesions were associated with degeneration and necrosis of gastric pit mucosa without significant inflammation; etiology was unknown. Gastrointestinal endoscopy proved a useful diagnostic tool for evaluation and biopsy collection in this eel species.

  13. Degranulation of eosinophilic granule cells in neurofibromas and gastrointestinal tract in the bicolor damselfish.

    PubMed

    Schmale, Michael C; Vicha, Dale; Cacal, Saul M

    2004-07-01

    Damselfish neurofibromatosis (DNF) is a neoplastic disease affecting bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus Poey) on Florida reefs. Previous studies have demonstrated high densities of eosinophilic granule containing cells (EGC), the proposed equivalent of mast cells in fishes, in neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (mpnst) in DNF. These lesions are similar to those in the disease neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in humans, which contain large numbers of mast cells. In the present study, experiments were conducted to measure the response of EGC in these tumors as well as in the submucosa of the digestive tract to the mast cell degranulating agent compound 48/80. Degranulation of these cells was visible by light microscopy and characterized by conspicuous swelling of granules and often by the presence of free granules adjacent to the EGC. Degranulation occurred by release of intact granules (diacytosis), as reported in other fishes, rather than by fusion of granules with the cell membrane (exocytosis) as reported in mast cells in mammals. Baseline levels of EGC exhibiting degranulation ranged from 20-26% in the submucosa to 30% in tumors. Within 1-2h of exposure to compound 48/80, significant increases in average levels of degranulation were observed, to 67% in the gut and 72% in tumors. Degranulation was significantly more extensive in the tumors than in the gut. The outermost edges of the tumors contained significantly higher densities of EGC but these cells exhibited lower rates of degranulation than those in the inner regions of tumors. These observations support the hypothesis that the EGC present in neurofibromas and mpnst in DNF are equivalent to the mast cell component in neurofibromas in NF1.

  14. Influence of Proton-Pump Inhibitors on the Luminal Microbiota in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Ayumi; Suda, Wataru; Morita, Hidetoshi; Takanashi, Kageyasu; Takagi, Atsushi; Koga, Yasuhiro; Hattori, Masahira

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate comparatively the influence of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) administration on three bacterial communities in the oral cavity, stomach, and colon along the alimentary tract. Methods: Forty-five subjects including 18 patients taking PPI were enrolled. Stimulated saliva, gastric fluid (GF), and feces were obtained from each subject for the microbiota analysis through bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiling using the pyrosequencing method. Results: The species richness (alpha diversity) was similar among these three microbiota, whereas the interindividual diversity (beta diversity) was much higher in the fecal microbiota compared with that in the others. The UniFrac analysis indicated that the salivary and GF microbiota were similar to one another; however, both differed greatly from the fecal microbiota in the overall bacterial community structure. In the comparison between PPI-users and PPI-nonusers, a bacterial cell number increase of ~1,000 times was found in the GF of PPI-users using culturing methods, whereas the bacterial number and composition were nearly identical between the two groups using quantitative PCR and a similarity search based on 16S profiling. The beta diversity significantly increased in both the salivary and GF microbiota of PPI-users compared with PPI-nonusers. Conclusions: These results suggest that the GF microbiota has recently moved from the saliva. Bacterial overgrowth in the GF by PPI administration may be due to a lack of killing rather than proliferation of the bacteria in the acid-suppressed stomach. The biological significance of the increase in beta diversity by PPI administration remains unclear. PMID:26065717

  15. Two-sided sponge (TSS) treatment: Description of a novel device and technique for endoscopic vacuum treatment (EVT) in the upper gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andreas; Thimme, Robert; Hopt, Ulrich T.; Richter-Schrag, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic vacuum treatment (EVT) is increasingly used in the treatment of anastomotic leakages and perforations in the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, sponges often have to be mounted individually on a gastric tube and endoscopic introduction of the latter into an infected extraluminal cavity is challenging. In order to facilitate this procedure in some anatomical situations, we developed the prototype of a new sponge for EVT called a two-side sponge (TSS).

  16. Two-sided sponge (TSS) treatment: Description of a novel device and technique for endoscopic vacuum treatment (EVT) in the upper gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andreas; Thimme, Robert; Hopt, Ulrich T.; Richter-Schrag, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic vacuum treatment (EVT) is increasingly used in the treatment of anastomotic leakages and perforations in the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, sponges often have to be mounted individually on a gastric tube and endoscopic introduction of the latter into an infected extraluminal cavity is challenging. In order to facilitate this procedure in some anatomical situations, we developed the prototype of a new sponge for EVT called a two-side sponge (TSS). PMID:27652297

  17. Characterization of the contents and histology of the gastrointestinal tracts of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from Upper Lake Roosevelt, Washington, October 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of 37 juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from the upper part of Lake Roosevelt during October 2008, were examined to identify prey taxa and to determine if the fish were consuming smelter slag along with other sediments. Histological examination of the gastrointestinal tract tissues and comparison with similar tissues from hatchery-reared fish also was performed. The contents of the gastro-intestinal tracts (guts) indicated that white sturgeon were actively foraging on various benthic invertebrates and the diet was quite diverse, with more than 50 percent of the fish feeding on five or more different taxa. Slag was present in 76 percent of the guts examined. Although not all guts contained slag particles, larger fish tended to have greater amounts of slag in their guts. Histology of the gut tissues showed the presence of a chronic inflammatory response, and the severity of the response had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.01) with fish length and weight suggesting that the inflammation represented a response to long-term exposure to one or more stressors. However, additional work is needed to determine if the physical or chemical properties of slag contributed to this response.

  18. Distribution of iron in the gastrointestinal tract of the common vampire bat: evidence for macrophage-linked iron clearance.

    PubMed

    Morton, D; Wimsatt, W A

    1980-10-01

    Iron in the tissues of the digestive tract of the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) has been studied using histochemical, electron microscopic, and autoradiographic methods. This animal is an obligate sanguivore and has a daily intake of dietary iron 800 times that of man. The amount and distribution of tissue iron is not affected by either a single blood meal or starvation but does reflect the degree of siderosis of each animal's liver and spleen. By 7 days after the injection of a trace amount of 55Fe into the peritoneal cavity, labelled siderotic macrophages are present both on the serosa and within the walls of the stomach and intestine. In the lower intestine, such cells can be derived from the germinal centers of Peyer's patches. Siderotic macrophages are often situated in the lamina propria under areas of siderotic epithelium. Label is also present in the apical cytoplasm of mucosal epithelial cells, a region of abundant siderosomes. The ultrastructure of these organelles is extremely variable. Accumulations of membranous whorls and stacks, "stippled bodies," ferritin molecules, and larger "ferruginous" complexes are bounded by one or a number of membranes. Iron is excreted when these epithelial cells are desquamated into the gut lumen. Similar Prussian blue-positive granules are present in the feces. Unlike other glandular cells, the parietal cells of the fundic caecum are siderotic. Their cytoplasm contains abundant siderosomes and ferritin with accumulations of amembranous ferritin bodies in the intracellular canalicular spaces. Prussian blue-positive granules are present in the lumens of fundic glands. PMID:7212303

  19. Oral administration of MSG increases expression of glutamate receptors and transporters in the gastrointestinal tract of young piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Yin, Yulong; Shu, Xu Gang; Li, Tiejun; Li, Fengna; Tan, Bie; Wu, Zhenlong; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-11-01

    Glutamate receptors and transporters, including T1R1 and T1R3 (taste receptor 1, subtypes 1 and 3), mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors), EAAC-1 (excitatory amino acid carrier-1), GLAST-1 (glutamate-aspartate transporter-1), and GLT-1 (glutamate transporter-1), are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. This study determined effects of oral administration of monosodium glutamate [MSG; 0, 0.06, 0.5, or 1 g/kg body weight (BW)/day] for 21 days on expression of glutamate receptors and transporters in the stomach and jejunum of sow-reared piglets. Both mRNA and protein levels for gastric T1R1, T1R3, mGluR1, mGluR4, EAAT1, EAAT2, EAAT3, and EAAT4 and mRNA levels for jejunal T1R1, T1R3, EAAT1, EAAT2, EAAT3 and EAAT4 were increased (P < 0.05) by MSG supplementation. Among all groups, mRNA levels for gastric EAAT1, EAAT2, EAAT3, and EAAT4 were highest (P < 0.05) in piglets receiving 1 g MSG/kg BW/day. EAAT1 and EAAT2 mRNA levels in the stomach and jejunum of piglets receiving 0.5 g MSG/kg BW/day, as well as jejunal EAAT3 and EAAT4 mRNA levels in piglets receiving 1 g MSG/kg BW/day, were higher (P < 0.05) than those in the control and in piglets receiving 0.06 g MSG/kg BW/day. Furthermore, protein levels for jejunal T1R1 and EAAT3 were higher (P < 0.05) in piglets receiving 1 g MSG/kg BW/day than those in the control and in piglets receiving 0.06 g MSG/kg BW/day. Collectively, these findings indicate that dietary MSG may beneficially stimulate glutamate signaling and sensing in the stomach and jejunum of young pigs, as well as their gastrointestinal function.

  20. Regulation of α-Transducin and α-Gustducin Expression by a High Protein Diet in the Pig Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgio, Roberto; Mazzoni, Maurizio; Vallorani, Claudia; Latorre, Rocco; Bombardi, Cristiano; Bacci, Maria Laura; Forni, Monica; Falconi, Mirella; Sternini, Catia; Clavenzani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background The expression of taste receptors (TASRs) and their signalling molecules in the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells, including enteroendocrine cells (EECs), suggests they participate in chemosensing mechanisms influencing GI physiology via the release of endocrine messengers. TASRs mediate gustatory signalling by interacting with different transducers, including α-gustducin (Gαgust) and α-transducin (Gαtran) G protein subunits. This study tested whether Gαtran and Gαgust immunoreactive (-IR) cells are affected by a short-term (3 days) and long-term (30 days) high protein (Hp) diet in the pig GI tract. Result In the stomach, Gαgust and Gαtran-IR cells contained serotonin (5-HT) and ghrelin (GHR), while in the small and large intestine, Gαgust and Gαtran-IR colocalized with 5-HT-, cholecystokinin (CCK)- and peptide YY (PYY)-IR. There was a significant increase in the density of Gαtran-IR cells in the pyloric mucosa in both short- and long-term Hp diet groups (Hp3 and Hp30) vs. the control group (Ctr) (P<0.05), while the increase of Gαgust-IR cells in the pyloric mucosa was significant in Hp30 group vs. Ctr and vs. Hp3 (P<0.05); these cells included Gαtran / 5HT-IR and Gαtran / GHR-IR cells (P<0.05 and P<0.001 vs. Ctr, respectively) as well as Gαgust /5-HT-IR or Gαgust / GHR-IR cells (P<0.05 and P<0.01 vs. Ctr, respectively). In the small intestine, we recorded a significant increase in Gαtran-IR cells in the duodenal crypts and a significant increase of Gαgust-IR cells in the jejunal crypts in Hp3 group compared to HP30 (P<0.05). With regard to the number of Gαtran-Gαgust IR cells colocalized with CCK or 5-HT, there was only a significant increase of Gαtran / CCK-IR cells in Hp3 group compared to Ctr (P = 0.01). Conclusion This study showed an upregulation of selected subpopulations of Gαgust / Gαtran-IR cells in distinct regions of the pig GI tract by short- and long-term Hp diet lending support to TASR-mediated effects in

  1. Characterization of the Dynamic Germination of Individual Clostridium difficile Spores Using Raman Spectroscopy and Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiwei; Shen, Aimee; Setlow, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Gram-positive spore-forming anaerobe Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Spores of C. difficile initiate infection when triggered to germinate by bile salts in the gastrointestinal tract. We analyzed germination kinetics of individual C. difficile spores using Raman spectroscopy and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. Similar to Bacillus spores, individual C. difficile spores germinating with taurocholate plus glycine began slow leakage of a ∼15% concentration of a chelate of Ca2+ and dipicolinic acid (CaDPA) at a heterogeneous time T1, rapidly released CaDPA at Tlag, completed CaDPA release at Trelease, and finished peptidoglycan cortex hydrolysis at Tlysis. T1 and Tlag values for individual spores were heterogeneous, but ΔTrelease periods (Trelease − Tlag) were relatively constant. In contrast to Bacillus spores, heat treatment did not stimulate spore germination in the two C. difficile strains tested. C. difficile spores did not germinate with taurocholate or glycine alone, and different bile salts differentially promoted spore germination, with taurocholate and taurodeoxycholate being best. Transient exposure of spores to taurocholate plus glycine was sufficient to commit individual spores to germinate. C. difficile spores did not germinate with CaDPA, in contrast to B. subtilis and C. perfringens spores. However, the detergent dodecylamine induced C. difficile spore germination, and rates were increased by spore coat removal although cortex hydrolysis did not follow Trelease, in contrast with B. subtilis. C. difficile spores lacking the cortex-lytic enzyme, SleC, germinated extremely poorly, and cortex hydrolysis was not observed in the few sleC spores that partially germinated. Overall, these findings indicate that C. difficile and B. subtilis spore germination exhibit key differences. IMPORTANCE Spores of the Gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium difficile are responsible for initiating infection

  2. Phytase transgenic corn in nutrition of laying hens: residual phytase activity and phytate phosphorus content in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gao, C Q; Ji, C; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Ma, Q G

    2013-11-01

    The residual activities of transgenic corn-derived and 2 commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of laying hens were compared to evaluate their relative resistance to hydrolysis in the GIT when added to P-deficient diets. The treatments consisted of a negative control (NC) diet containing 0.10 nonphytate P and an NC diet supplemented with transgenic corn-derived phytase (TCDP), PA, and PB at 500 to 5,000 FTU/kg of diet, respectively. Seven diets were fed to Hy-Line Brown laying hens (n = 504; 8 replicates of 9 hens per treatment) for 21 d. At the end of the experiment, the hens were killed and digesta samples from the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, jejunum, and ileum were collected and analyzed for residual phytase activities and phytate P content. Phytase activity in the transgenic corn was determined to be 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. The residual phytase activities along the GIT had increased (P < 0.01) with the addition of TCDP, PA, and PB to the NC diets. The TCDP had higher residual activity (P < 0.05) in the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, jejunum, and ileum as compared with the PA and PB activity. There was a decrease (P < 0.01) in the phytate P content of the digesta from all sources of phytase supplementation in the NC diets. Residual phytate P content decreased caudally along the GIT of hens. The results of this research indicate that phytase expressed in corn is as efficacious as the commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) in P-deficient diets for the improvement of phytate P digestibility, which would eliminate the need for supplemental phytase and corn separately in laying hen diets.

  3. The effects of female sexual steroids on gastric function and barrier resistance of gastrointestinal tract following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the alteration of gastric function and barrier function of gastrointestinal (GI) tract following diffuse brain injury in varying ovarian hormone status. Materials and Methods: Diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) was induced by Marmarou method. Rats were randomly assigned into 10 groups: Intact, sham + ovariectomized female (OVX), TBI, TBI + OVX, vehicle, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), E2 + P, estrogen receptor alpha agonist and estrogen receptor beta agonist (DPN). Endotoxin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. All the parameters were measured 5 days after TBI. Results: Intragastric pressure was significantly decreased in TBI as compared to the intact group (P < 0.001) and this was lower in TBI group versus TBI + OVX group (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with steroid hormones and their agonists did not have any effect on the gastric pressure compared to TBI + OVX or vehicle groups. Inflammation, congestion, ulcer and erosion were seen in the TBI rats. All treatment groups worsen the tissue condition so that the presence of thrombosis also was seen. The trauma induction did not have any effect on the serum and intestinal endotoxin levels. DPN had caused a significant reduction in serum levels of endotoxin compared with OVX + TBI group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Pretreatment with sexual steroids is not useful in the treatment of GI dysfunction induced by TBI. The treatment with all sexual female hormones worsens the gastric tissue condition. Furthermore, the applied weight was not enough for releasing of endotoxin. It seems that estrogen reduced the endotoxin levels by estrogen beta receptor. PMID:25709342

  4. Metabolic response of the gastrointestinal tract and serum parameters of rabbits to diets containing chicory flour rich in inulin.

    PubMed

    Juśkiewicz, J; Asmanskaite, L; Zduńczyk, Z; Matusevicius, P; Wróblewska, M; Zilinskiene, A

    2008-04-01

    A 36-day experiment carried out on 54-day-old rabbits addressed the analysis of physiological properties of diets supplemented with chicory roots flour. Twenty-four rabbits were allocated in individual cages to three treatments, in which they were fed each diet with the chicory flour at 0, 25 and 50 g/kg (control, ChF(2.5) and ChF(5) groups respectively). The chicory preparation administered at a higher dose, lowered ileal pH and viscosity, and evoked increased hydration of ileal and caecal digesta, compared to the control treatment (p gastrointestinal tract physiology and would be a potential source of functional feed additives. PMID:18336407

  5. Transducer like proteins of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176: role in chemotaxis and colonization of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekhar, Kshipra; Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Kassem, Issmat I; Jeon, Byeong H; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Transducer Like Proteins (Tlps), also known as methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP), enable enteric pathogens to respond to changing nutrient levels in the environment by mediating taxis toward or away from specific chemoeffector molecules. Despite recent advances in the characterization of chemotaxis responses in Campylobacter jejuni, the impact of Tlps on the adaptation of this pathogen to disparate niches and hosts is not fully characterized. The latter is particularly evident in the case of C. jejuni 81-176, a strain that is known to be highly invasive. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic group C Tlps (Tlp5, 6, and 8) were not extensively evaluated. Here, we investigated the role of C. jejuni 81-176 Tlps in chemotaxis toward various substrates, biofilm formation, in vitro interaction with human intestinal cells, and chicken colonization. We found that the Δtlp6 and Δtlp10 mutants exhibited decreased chemotaxis toward aspartate, whereas the Δtlp6 mutant displayed a decreased chemotaxis toward Tri-Carboxylic Acid (TCA) cycle intermediates such as pyruvate, isocitrate, and succinate. Our findings also corroborated that more than one Tlp is involved in mediating chemotaxis toward the same nutrient. The deletion of tlps affected important phenotypes such as motility, biofilm formation, and invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells (INT-407). The Δtlp8 mutant displayed increased motility in soft agar and showed decreased biofilm formation. The Δtlp8 and Δtlp9 mutants were significantly defective in invasion in INT-407 cells. The Δtlp10 mutant was defective in colonization of the chicken proximal and distal gastrointestinal tract, while the Δtlp6 and Δtlp8 mutants showed reduced colonization of the duodenum and jejunum. Our results highlight the importance of Tlps in C. jejuni's adaptation and pathobiology.

  6. Assessment of co-existence of Helicobacter pylori and Candida fungi in diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Karczewska, E; Wojtas, I; Sito, E; Trojanowska, D; Budak, A; Zwolinska-Wcislo, M; Wilk, A

    2009-12-01

    Candida spp. were found in the gastric mucosa of 27 (17%) patients, out of whom 18 (11%) showed co-existence of the fungi with H. pylori. Analysis of relationship between selected disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract (non ulcer dyspepsia NUD, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer) and infection with H. pylori and/or Candida revealed a link between co-existence of H. pylori with Candida and gastric ulcers suggesting synergism of those microorganism in pathogenesis of the disease. On the contrary, according to quantitative studies performed, the fungi alone do not play a significant role in pathogenesis of the above mentioned disorders as they colonize only epithelium to the extent that is not pathologically significant (<10(3) CFU/ml). Genetical study was carried out on 57 Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from bioptates of the gastric mucosa. The genotypes of the strains (gene cagA and alleles of gene vacA - m1, m2, s1, s2) were determined using the PCR technique. As it was shown, the patients infected with H. pylori strains of genotype cagA+, vacA s1 are exposed to higher risk of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) as compared to the patients infected with cagA-, vacA s2 strains. In the case of the NUD patients a correlation with allele m2 was found only (p<0.001). This may suggest that in future some of the NUD patients infected with cagA+, vacA s1 strains will fall into the group at higher risk for PUD.

  7. Transducer like proteins of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176: role in chemotaxis and colonization of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekhar, Kshipra; Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Kassem, Issmat I; Jeon, Byeong H; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Transducer Like Proteins (Tlps), also known as methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP), enable enteric pathogens to respond to changing nutrient levels in the environment by mediating taxis toward or away from specific chemoeffector molecules. Despite recent advances in the characterization of chemotaxis responses in Campylobacter jejuni, the impact of Tlps on the adaptation of this pathogen to disparate niches and hosts is not fully characterized. The latter is particularly evident in the case of C. jejuni 81-176, a strain that is known to be highly invasive. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic group C Tlps (Tlp5, 6, and 8) were not extensively evaluated. Here, we investigated the role of C. jejuni 81-176 Tlps in chemotaxis toward various substrates, biofilm formation, in vitro interaction with human intestinal cells, and chicken colonization. We found that the Δtlp6 and Δtlp10 mutants exhibited decreased chemotaxis toward aspartate, whereas the Δtlp6 mutant displayed a decreased chemotaxis toward Tri-Carboxylic Acid (TCA) cycle intermediates such as pyruvate, isocitrate, and succinate. Our findings also corroborated that more than one Tlp is involved in mediating chemotaxis toward the same nutrient. The deletion of tlps affected important phenotypes such as motility, biofilm formation, and invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells (INT-407). The Δtlp8 mutant displayed increased motility in soft agar and showed decreased biofilm formation. The Δtlp8 and Δtlp9 mutants were significantly defective in invasion in INT-407 cells. The Δtlp10 mutant was defective in colonization of the chicken proximal and distal gastrointestinal tract, while the Δtlp6 and Δtlp8 mutants showed reduced colonization of the duodenum and jejunum. Our results highlight the importance of Tlps in C. jejuni's adaptation and pathobiology. PMID:26075188

  8. An investigation of horizontal transfer of feed introduced DNA to the aerobic microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer through natural transformation of members of the microbiota of the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of mammals has not yet been described. Insufficient DNA sequence similarity for homologous recombination to occur has been identified as the major barrier to interspecies transfer of chromosomal DNA in bacteria. In this study we determined if regions of high DNA similarity between the genomes of the indigenous bacteria in the GIT of rats and feed introduced DNA could lead to homologous recombination and acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes. Results Plasmid DNA with two resistance genes (nptI and aadA) and regions of high DNA similarity to 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes present in a broad range of bacterial species present in the GIT, were constructed and added to standard rat feed. Six rats, with a normal microbiota, were fed DNA containing pellets daily over four days before sampling of the microbiota from the different GI compartments (stomach, small intestine, cecum and colon). In addition, two rats were included as negative controls. Antibiotic resistant colonies growing on selective media were screened for recombination with feed introduced DNA by PCR targeting unique sites in the putatively recombined regions. No transformants were identified among 441 tested isolates. Conclusions The analyses showed that extensive ingestion of DNA (100 μg plasmid) per day did not lead to increased proportions of kanamycin resistant bacteria, nor did it produce detectable transformants among the aerobic microbiota examined for 6 rats (detection limit < 1 transformant per 1,1 × 108 cultured bacteria). The key methodological challenges to HGT detection in animal feedings trials are identified and discussed. This study is consistent with other studies suggesting natural transformation is not detectable in the GIT of mammals. PMID:22463741

  9. Mitochondrial DNA mutations in preneoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract: A biomarker for the early detection of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Guoping; Zhou, Shaoyu; Wang, Jean; Canto, Marcia; Lee, Edward E; Eshleman, James R; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Sidransky, David; Califano, Joseph A; Maitra, Anirban

    2006-01-01

    Background Somatic mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are common in many human cancers. We have described an oligonucleotide microarray ("MitoChip") for rapid sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome (Zhou et al, J Mol Diagn 2006), facilitating the analysis of mtDNA mutations in preneoplastic lesions. We examined 14 precancerous lesions, including seven Barrett esophagus biopsies, with or without associated dysplasia; four colorectal adenomas; and three inflammatory colitis-associated dysplasia specimens. In all cases, matched normal tissues from the corresponding site were obtained as germline control. MitoChip analysis was performed on DNA obtained from cryostat-embedded specimens. Results A total of 513,639 bases of mtDNA were sequenced in the 14 samples, with 490,224 bases (95.4%) bases assigned by the automated genotyping software. All preneoplastic lesions examined demonstrated at least one somatic mtDNA sequence alteration. Of the 100 somatic mtDNA alterations observed in the 14 cases, 27 were non-synonymous coding region mutations (i.e., resulting in an amino acid change), 36 were synonymous, and 37 involved non-coding mtDNA. Overall, somatic alterations most commonly involved the COI, ND4 and ND5 genes. Notably, somatic mtDNA alterations were observed in preneoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract even in the absence of histopathologic evidence of dysplasia, suggesting that the mitochondrial genome is susceptible at the earliest stages of multistep cancer progression. Conclusion Our findings further substantiate the rationale for exploring the mitochondrial genome as a biomarker for the early diagnosis of cancer, and confirm the utility of a high-throughput array-based platform for this purpose from a clinical applicability standpoint. PMID:17166268

  10. Anatomical study of the gastrointestinal tract of a pudu (Pudu puda) using contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Henning, B C; Gómez, M A; Mieres, L M; Freeman, L; Herzberg, D E; Aleuy, O A

    2012-04-01

    The pudu (Pudu puda), which is the smallest deer in the world and inhabits central and southern Chile and Argentina, is a ruminant and a browsing herbivore. The aim of this study was to provide a reference for interpretation of the normal anatomy of the pudu's gastrointestinal tract as imaged by abdominal computed tomography (CT). For the study, one adult female pudu was used. After a 24-h fast, the pudu was anaesthetized and positioned in sternal recumbency at the CT table. Image acquisition began immediately after intravenous injection of contrast media (MD-76(®); 370 mgI/ml) into the cephalic vein. Injection of contrast material was administered as a biphasic protocol. First, a manual bolus of contrast material was injected at a rate of 4 ml/s. Then, an additional continuous infusion injection (0.1 ml/min) was performed for adequate opacification of vascular structures. Transverse images of 5 mm thickness and 5 mm interval were obtained with a fourth-generation CT scanner, from the ninth thoracic vertebra (T9) until the first sacral (S1) vertebrae. CT images were labelled and compared with anatomical reference images for ruminants. Structures that were identified in the abdominal cavity included the stomach with its four compartments (rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum), the small and large intestines, liver, spleen, kidneys and some major blood vessels (aorta, caudal vena cava). The distal loop of the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the pancreas and lymph nodes could not be identified. The resulting CT images provide a reference for normal cross-sectional abdominal anatomy of the adult pudu.

  11. Reliability and validity of UCLA Scleroderma Clinical Trial Consortium Gastrointestinal Tract (UCLA SCTC GIT 2.0) Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Dinesh; Hays, Ron D.; Maranian, Paul; Seibold, James R.; Impens, Ann; Mayes, Maureen D.; Clements, Philip J.; Getzug, Terri; Fathi, Nihal; Bechtel, Amber; Furst, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To refine the previously developed scleroderma gastrointestinal tract (SSC-GIT 1.0) instrument. Methods We administered the SSC-GIT 1.0 and SF-36 to 152 patients with SSc; 1 item was added to SSC-GIT 1.0 to assess rectal incontinence. In addition, subjects completed a rating of the severity of their GIT involvement (from very mild to very severe). Evaluation of psychometric properties included internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability (1.1 week mean time interval), and multitrait scaling analysis. Results Study participants were female (84%) and Caucasian (81%); 55% had diffuse SSc. Self-rated severity of GIT involvement ranged from no symptoms to very mild (39%), to mild (21%), to moderate (31%), to severe/ very severe (9%). Of an initial 53 items in SSC-GIT 1.0, 19 items were excluded, leaving a 34-item revised instrument (UCLA Scleroderma Clinical Trial Consortium GIT 2.0 [UCLA SCTC 2.0]). Analyses supported 7 multi-item scales: reflux, distention/bloating, diarrhea, fecal soilage, constipation, emotional well-being, and social functioning. Test-retest reliability estimates were ≥ 0.68 and coefficient alphas ≥0.67. Participants who rated their GIT disease as mild had lower scores on a 0-3 scale on all 7 scales. Also symptom scales were able to discriminate subjects with corresponding clinical GIT diagnoses. Total GIT Score, developed by averaging 6 of 7 scales (excluding constipation), was reliable and provided greater discrimination between mild, moderate, and severe self-rated GIT involvement than individual scales. Conclusion This study provides support for the reliability and validity of the UCLA-SCTC GIT 2.0, an improvement over SSC-GIT 1.0 and supports a Total GIT Score in SSc-GIT. PMID:19714600

  12. Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan; So, Jimmy Bok Yan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2011-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical vibrational technology capable of probing biomolecular changes of tissue associated with cancer transformation. This study aimed to characterize in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of tissues belonging to different anatomical regions in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and explore the implications for early detection of neoplastic lesions during clinical gastroscopy. A novel fiber-optic Raman endoscopy technique was utilized for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements of normal esophageal (distal, middle, and proximal), gastric (antrum, body, and cardia) as well as cancerous esophagous and gastric tissues from 107 patients who underwent endoscopic examinations. The non-negativity-constrained least squares minimization coupled with a reference database of Raman active biochemicals (i.e., actin, histones, collagen, DNA, and triolein) was employed for semiquantitative biomolecular modeling of tissue constituents in the upper GI. A total of 1189 in vivo Raman spectra were acquired from different locations in the upper GI. The Raman spectra among the distal, middle, and proximal sites of the esophagus showed no significant interanatomical variability. The interanatomical variability of Raman spectra among normal gastric tissue (antrum, body, and cardia) was subtle compared to cancerous tissue transformation, whereas biomolecular modeling revealed significant differences between the two organs, particularly in the gastroesophageal junction associated with proteins, DNA, and lipids. Cancerous tissues can be identified across interanatomical regions with accuracies of 89.3% [sensitivity of 92.6% (162/175) specificity of 88.6% (665/751)], and of 94.7% [sensitivity of 90.9% (30/33) specificity of 93.9% (216/230)] in the gastric and esophagus, respectively, using partial least squares-discriminant analysis together with the leave-one tissue site-out, cross validation. This work demonstrates that Raman endoscopy technique has

  13. Bitter, sweet and umami taste receptors and downstream signaling effectors: Expression in embryonic and growing chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Cheled-Shoval, Shira L; Druyan, Shelly; Uni, Zehava

    2015-08-01

    Taste perception is a crucial biological mechanism affecting food and water choices and consumption in the animal kingdom. Bitter taste perception is mediated by a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family-the taste 2 receptors (T2R)-and their downstream proteins, whereas sweet and umami tastes are mediated by the GPCR family -taste 1 receptors (T1R) and their downstream proteins. Taste receptors and their downstream proteins have been identified in extra-gustatory tissues in mammals, such as the lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and their GIT activation has been linked with different metabolic and endocrinic pathways in the GIT. The chicken genome contains three bitter taste receptors termed ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, and ggTas2r7, and the sweet/umami receptors ggTas1r1 and ggTas1r3, but it lacks the sweet receptor ggTas1r2. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the expression of genes related to taste perception in the chicken GIT, both at the embryonic stage and in growing chickens. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time, using real-time PCR, expression of the chicken taste receptor genes ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, ggTas2r7, ggTas1r1, and ggTas1r3 and of their downstream protein-encoding genes TRPM5, α-gustducin, and PLCβ2 in both gustatory tissues-the palate and tongue, and extra-gustatory tissues-the proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon of embryonic day 19 (E19) and growing (21 d old) chickens. Expression of these genes suggests the involvement of taste pathways for sensing carbohydrates, amino acids and bitter compounds in the chicken GIT.

  14. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Blanco, Ayelén M; Unniappan, Suraj; Kah, Olivier; Gueguen, Marie-M; Bertucci, Juan I; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel L; Valenciano, Ana I; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María J

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus) using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation of both genes

  15. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Unniappan, Suraj; Kah, Olivier; Gueguen, Marie-M.; Bertucci, Juan I.; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel L.; Valenciano, Ana I.; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María J.

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus) using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation of both genes

  16. Selective Exposure of the Fetal Lung and Skin/Amnion (but Not Gastro-Intestinal Tract) to LPS Elicits Acute Systemic Inflammation in Fetal Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P.; Cox, Tom; Jobe, Alan H.; Kramer, Boris W.; Kallapur, Suhas G.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation of the uterine environment (commonly as a result of microbial colonisation of the fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and fetus) is strongly associated with preterm labour and birth. Both preterm birth and fetal inflammation are independently associated with elevated risks of subsequent short- and long-term respiratory, gastro-intestinal and neurological complications. Despite numerous clinical and experimental studies to investigate localised and systemic fetal inflammation following exposure to microbial agonists, there is minimal data to describe which fetal organ(s) drive systemic fetal inflammation. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E.coli in an instrumented ovine model of fetal inflammation and conducted a series of experiments to assess the systemic pro-inflammatory capacity of the three major fetal surfaces exposed to inflammatory mediators in pregnancy (the lung, gastro-intestinal tract and skin/amnion). Exposure of the fetal lung and fetal skin/amnion (but not gastro-intestinal tract) caused a significant acute systemic inflammatory response characterised by altered leucocytosis, neutrophilia, elevated plasma MCP-1 levels and inflammation of the fetal liver and spleen. These novel findings reveal differential fetal organ responses to pro-inflammatory stimulation and shed light on the pathogenesis of fetal systemic inflammation after exposure to chorioamnionitis. PMID:23691033

  17. The protective effects of total phenols in magnolia officinalix rehd. et wils on gastrointestinal tract dysmotility is mainly based on its influence on interstitial cells of cajal.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hui; Huang, Dazhi; Li, Tao; Huang, Lihua; Zheng, Xingguang; Tang, Danxia; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils is a kind of herb which is widely used for gastrointestinal tract mobility disorder in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated whether the total phenols of Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils (TPM) treatment improves gastrointestinal tract dysmobility induced by intraperitoneal injection of atropine (5 mg/kg) in rats. Rats were randomly grouped into three units: TPM-pretreated/atropine-treated group, atropinetreated group and control group. TPM were administrated for 7 days. Gastric residual rate and intestinal transit were measured 20 min after atropine injected, and gastrointestinal hormones (including: gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL), somatostatin (SS) and p substance (PS) levels in serum were also measured by ELISA kits. The number and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in stomach were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis, while c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) expressions in stomach were also measured by western blotting. We found that TPM pretreatment significantly improved atropine-induced gastric residual rate increase, while had no significantly effects on intestinal transit; it also significantly normalized GAS, MTL and PS serum levels. Atropine-induced ICCs numbers decreased in both sinuses ventriculi and body of stomach, which is improved by TPM pretreatment. Western blotting results showed the expressions of c-kit and SCF were down-regulated after atropine injection, which can be reversed with TPM pretreatment. These results above indicates that TPM treatment can significantly protected atropine-induced gastric dysmoblility, which may owed to its regulation on c-kit/SCF signing pathway.

  18. Presence of Selected Methanogens, Fibrolytic Bacteria, and Proteobacteria in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Neonatal Dairy Calves from Birth to 72 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Cesar E.; Bereza-Malcolm, Lara T.; De Groef, Bert; Franks, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    The microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract of a young calf are essential for the anatomical and physiological development that permits a transition from milk to solid feed. Selected methanogens, fibrolytic bacteria, and proteobacteria were quantified in the rumen fluid and tissue, abomasum fluid, cecum fluid and tissue, and feces of Holstein bull calves on day 0 (0–20 mins after birth), day 1 (24 ± 1 h after birth), day 2 (48 ± 1 h after birth), and day 3 (72 ± 1 h after birth). Methanogens, fibrolytic bacteria, and Geobacter spp. were found to be already present from birth, indicating that microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract occurred before or during delivery. The abundance of methanogens and Geobacter spp. differed between the days tested and between compartments of the digestive tract and feces, but such difference was not observed for fibrolytic bacteria. Our findings suggests that methanogens might have an alternative hydrogen provider such as Geobacter spp. during these early stages of postnatal development. In addition, fibrolytic bacteria were present in the rumen well before the availability of fibrous substrates, suggesting that they might use nutrients other than cellulose and hemicellose. PMID:26186002

  19. Dynamic In Vitro Models of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract as Relevant Tools to Assess the Survival of Probiotic Strains and Their Interactions with Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cordonnier, Charlotte; Thévenot, Jonathan; Etienne-Mesmin, Lucie; Denis, Sylvain; Alric, Monique; Livrelli, Valérie; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effects of probiotics are conditioned by their survival during passage through the human gastrointestinal tract and their ability to favorably influence gut microbiota. The main objective of this study was to use dynamic in vitro models of the human digestive tract to investigate the effect of fasted or fed state on the survival kinetics of the new probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CNCM I-3856 and to assess its influence on intestinal microbiota composition and activity. The probiotic yeast showed a high survival rate in the upper gastrointestinal tract whatever the route of admistration, i.e., within a glass of water or a Western-type meal. S. cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 was more sensitive to colonic conditions, as the strain was not able to colonize within the bioreactor despite a twice daily administration. The main bacterial populations of the gut microbiota, as well as the production of short chain fatty acids were not influenced by the probiotic treatment. However, the effect of the probiotic on the gut microbiota was found to be individual dependent. This study shows that dynamic in vitro models can be advantageously used to provide useful insight into the behavior of probiotic strains in the human digestive environment.

  20. Dynamic In Vitro Models of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract as Relevant Tools to Assess the Survival of Probiotic Strains and Their Interactions with Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cordonnier, Charlotte; Thévenot, Jonathan; Etienne-Mesmin, Lucie; Denis, Sylvain; Alric, Monique; Livrelli, Valérie; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effects of probiotics are conditioned by their survival during passage through the human gastrointestinal tract and their ability to favorably influence gut microbiota. The main objective of this study was to use dynamic in vitro models of the human digestive tract to investigate the effect of fasted or fed state on the survival kinetics of the new probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CNCM I-3856 and to assess its influence on intestinal microbiota composition and activity. The probiotic yeast showed a high survival rate in the upper gastrointestinal tract whatever the route of admistration, i.e., within a glass of water or a Western-type meal. S. cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 was more sensitive to colonic conditions, as the strain was not able to colonize within the bioreactor despite a twice daily administration. The main bacterial populations of the gut microbiota, as well as the production of short chain fatty acids were not influenced by the probiotic treatment. However, the effect of the probiotic on the gut microbiota was found to be individual dependent. This study shows that dynamic in vitro models can be advantageously used to provide useful insight into the behavior of probiotic strains in the human digestive environment. PMID:27682114

  1. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. RESULTS Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:27297942

  2. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. RESULTS Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders.

  3. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. Material/Methods The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. Results Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. Conclusions These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:27297942

  4. Valine partitioning and kinetics between the gastrointestinal tract and hind limbs in lambs with an adult Trichostrongylus colubriformis burden.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, E N; McNabb, W C; Sinclair, B R; Tavendale, M H; Roy, N C

    2011-11-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection increases the demand for AA because of increased protein synthesis in the intestine and increased luminal losses of AA, and these increased demands may be supported by increased mobilization of AA from the skeletal muscles. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of parasitic infection on valine kinetics within the gastrointestinal tract and hind limbs of lambs fed fresh forages. On d 1, lambs were given 6,000 stage-3 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae per day for 6 d (n = 6) or kept as parasite-free controls (n = 6) and fed fresh lucerne (Medicago sativa; Exp. 1) or fresh sulla (Hedysarum coronarium; Exp. 2). On d 48, valine kinetics within the mesenteric- (MDV) and portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hind limbs were obtained by carrying out concurrent infusions of para-amminohippuric acid into the mesenteric vein and indocyanin green into the abdominal aorta (for blood flow), and [3,4-(3)H]valine into the jugular vein and [1-(13)C]valine into the abomasum for 8 h (for kinetics). During the infusions, blood was collected from the mesenteric and portal veins and from the mesenteric artery and vena cava, and plasma was harvested. After the 8-h infusion, lambs were euthanized, ileal digesta were collected, and tissues were sampled from the intestine and muscle (biceps femoris). Tissues, digesta, and plasma were analyzed for valine concentration, specific radioactivity, and isotopic enrichment. In both experiments, intestinal worm burdens on d 48 were greater in parasitized lambs (P = 0.0001 and 0.003). In Exp. 1, parasitic infection increased (P = 0.03) the total valine irreversible loss rate (ILR) in the MDV and PDV. In Exp. 2, luminal ILR of valine in the MDV was reduced (P = 0.01); however, ILR of valine in the PDV was unaffected. Despite these changes within the MDV and PDV, parasitic infection did not affect the ILR of valine within the hind limbs, and valine transport rates were largely unchanged. We suggest that

  5. The HMI™ module: a new tool to study the Host-Microbiota Interaction in the human gastrointestinal tract in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent scientific developments have shed more light on the importance of the host-microbe interaction, particularly in the gut. However, the mechanistic study of the host-microbe interplay is complicated by the intrinsic limitations in reaching the different areas of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in vivo. In this paper, we present the technical validation of a new device - the Host-Microbiota Interaction (HMI) module - and the evidence that it can be used in combination with a gut dynamic simulator to evaluate the effect of a specific treatment at the level of the luminal microbial community and of the host surface colonization and signaling. Results The HMI module recreates conditions that are physiologically relevant for the GIT: i) a mucosal area to which bacteria can adhere under relevant shear stress (3 dynes cm−2); ii) the bilateral transport of low molecular weight metabolites (4 to 150 kDa) with permeation coefficients ranging from 2.4 × 10−6 to 7.1 × 10−9 cm sec−1; and iii) microaerophilic conditions at the bottom of the growing biofilm (PmO2 = 2.5 × 10−4 cm sec−1). In a long-term study, the host’s cells in the HMI module were still viable after a 48-hour exposure to a complex microbial community. The dominant mucus-associated microbiota differed from the luminal one and its composition was influenced by the treatment with a dried product derived from yeast fermentation. The latter - with known anti-inflammatory properties - induced a decrease of pro-inflammatory IL-8 production between 24 and 48 h. Conclusions The study of the in vivo functionality of adhering bacterial communities in the human GIT and of the localized effect on the host is frequently hindered by the complexity of reaching particular areas of the GIT. The HMI module offers the possibility of co-culturing a gut representative microbial community with enterocyte-like cells up to 48 h and may therefore contribute to the mechanistic understanding of

  6. A critical review of the toxicological effects of carrageenan and processed eucheuma seaweed on the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Samuel M; Ito, Nobuyuki

    2002-09-01

    Carrageenan is a high-molecular-weight, strongly anionic polymer derived from several species of red seaweed that is used for the textural stabilization of foods. Processed Eucheuma Seaweed (PES) is a form of carrageenan with a higher cellulose content. Food-grade carrageenan has a weight average molecular weight greater than 100,000 Da, with a low percentage of smaller fragments. Carrageenan is not degraded to any extent in the gastrointestinal tract and is not absorbed from it in species examined, such as rodents, dogs, and non-human primates. Systemically administered carrageenan has been reported to have a variety of effects, particularly on the immune system, but these are not pertinent to orally administered carrageenan. The substance poligeenan (formerly referred to as degraded carrageenan) is not a food additive. It exhibits toxicological properties at high doses that do not occur with the food additive carrageenan. In-long term bioassays, carrageenan has not been found to be carcinogenic, and there is no credible evidence supporting a carcinogenic effect or a tumor-promoting effect on the colon in rodents. Also, like many dietary fibers, there is significant cecal enlargement in rodents when it is administered at high doses, but this does not appear to be associated with any toxicological consequences to the rodent. Many toxicological studies on carrageenan have involved administration at doses in excess of today's standards for dietary feeding levels in bioassays, and they are orders of magnitude in excess of those to which humans are exposed. Previous reviews of carrageenan and PES by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) have recommended a group allowable daily intake (ADI) of "not specified". The lack of carcinogenic, genotoxic, or tumor-promoting activity with carrageenan strongly supports continuing such an ADI, and JECFA, during its most recent review in 2001, continued this

  7. Classic Kaposi's sarcoma presenting first with gastrointestinal tract involvement in a HIV-negative Inuit male--a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, Brinda; Tunitsky, Ellen; Dawood, Shaheenah; Hings, Ingrid; Marcus, Victoria A

    2006-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multicentric low-grade vascular malignancy. In North America, it is usually seen in AIDS and solid organ transplant populations. Classic KS is a subtype that traditionally occurs in elderly HIV-negative males of Mediterranean, Eastern European, and Jewish descent. Patients with classic KS characteristically present with skin lesions in the distal extremities. Involvement of the viscera is uncommon in classic KS, but may occur in the late stages of the disease. We report the first case of classic KS presenting in the gastrointestinal tract of an elderly HIV-negative Inuit male from Northern Quebec, Canada.

  8. The effects of dietary sucrose and the concentration of plasma urea and rumen ammonia on the degradation of urea in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, P M

    1980-01-01

    1. The rates of entry of urea into plasma, of urea degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, and the partition of that degradation between the rumen and post-ruminal tract were determined by use of [14C]urea and NaH14CO3 in Hereford steers receiving hay diets with or without sucrose. The concentrations of plasma urea and rumen ammonia were varied by infusions of urea into the rumen or abomasum. 2. For all diets, plasma urea concentration was related to urea entry rate, to degradation of urea in the whole gastrointestinal tract, and to its degradation in the post-ruminal tract, but the relationship with its degradation in the rumen was poor. 3. Degradation of urea in the rumen was related in a multiple regression in a curvilinear manner in three groups of diets (pasture-hay alone, pasture-hay--lucerne (Medicago sativa) mixtures, diets with sucrose), and negatively to rumen ammonia concentration for pasture-hay diets, and diets with sucrose. 4. Ruminal clearance of urea (rate of urea degradation per plasma urea concentration) was negatively related to the rumen ammonia concentration for steers given diets with sucrose, of pasture-hay with or without urea infusions. Provision of sucrose in the diet significantly increased clearance. 5. Enhanced urea degradation in the rumen associated with dietary sucrose supplements accounted for 0.4 of additional microbial N synthesis in the rumen. 6. The partition of transfer of urea to the rumen via saliva and through the rumen wall is discussed.

  9. Uptake of milk with and without solid feed during the monogastric phase: Effect on fibrolytic and methanogenic microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract of calves.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Cesar E; Bereza-Malcolm, Lara T; De Groef, Bert; Franks, Ashley E

    2016-03-01

    Microbial communities are affected by diet and play a role in the successful transition from milk to a solid diet. The response of microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract of Holstein bull calves to the uptake of milk with solid feed (control treatment; CT), or milk without solid feed (milk-only treatment; MT) during the first 3 weeks of life was investigated. Samples were collected from the rumen (fluid and tissue), abomasum (fluid), cecum (fluid and tissue) and feces at 7, 14 and 20 days of age. Calf weight was higher on days 14 and 20 in the MT than the CT. In the rumen at 14 days, the fibrolytic bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes and Prevotella ruminicola increased in the CT and Ruminococcus flavefaciens increased in the MT. This suggests that R. flavefaciens is not strictly fibrolytic and that it might use milk as a substrate or other microbial species might supply a substrate. Diet affected methanogens, but this may have been due to an indirect effect via an association with Geobacter spp. or other syntrophic partners. The treatments also affected microorganisms in the abomasum, cecum and feces. Our results contribute to an understanding of diet, microbes in the gastrointestinal tract and weaning.

  10. Conjugative transfer of plasmid-located antibiotic resistance genes within the gastrointestinal tract of lesser mealworm larvae, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Crippen, Tawni L; Poole, Toni L

    2009-09-01

    The frequency of conjugative transfer of antimicrobial resistance plasmids between bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract of lesser mealworm larvae, a prevalent pest in poultry production facilities, was determined. Lesser mealworm larvae were exposed to a negative bacterial control, a donor Salmonella enterica serotype Newport strain, a recipient Escherichia coli, or both donor and recipient to examine horizontal gene transfer of plasmids. Horizontal gene transfer was validated post external disinfection, via a combination of selective culturing, testing of indole production by spot test, characterization of incompatibility plasmids by polymerase chain reaction, and profiling antibiotic susceptibility by a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Transconjugants were produced in all larvae exposed to both donor and recipient bacteria at frequencies comparable to control in vitro filter mating conjugation studies run concurrently. Transconjugants displayed resistance to seven antibiotics in our MIC panel and, when characterized for incompatibility plasmids, were positive for the N replicon and negative for the A/C replicon. The transconjugants did not display resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, which were associated with the A/C plasmid. This study demonstrates that lesser mealworm larvae, which infest poultry litter, are capable of supporting the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and that this exchange can occur within their gastrointestinal tract and between different species of bacteria under laboratory conditions. This information is essential to science-based risk assessments of industrial antibiotic usage and its impact on animal and human health. PMID:19425825

  11. Coadministration of sodium alginate pellets containing the fungi Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium on cyathostomin infective larvae after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses.

    PubMed

    Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; da Silveira, Wendeo Ferreira; Dornelas e Silva, Vinicius Herold; Carretta Júnior, Moacir; Borges, Luana Alcântara; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Benjamin, Laércio dos Anjos; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro; de Paula, Alessandra Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    The predatory nematophagous fungi have been used as an alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes of domestic animals in natural and laboratory conditions. However, it is unclear if the association of some of these species could bring some kind of advantage, from a biological standpoint. In this context, this study consisted of two tests in vitro: in assay A, the assessment of the viability of the association of pellets in sodium alginate matrix containing the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34) and its predatory activity on infective larvae (L3) of cyathostomin after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses and assay B, assessment of the cyathostomin L3 reduction percentage in coprocultures. Twelve crossbred horses, females, with a mean weight of 356 kg and previously dewormed were divided in three groups with four animals each: group 1, each animal received 50 g of pellets containing mycelial mass of the fungus D. flagrans and 50 g of pellets of the fungus M. thaumasium, associated and in a single oral dose; group 2, 100 g of pellets containing D. flagrans and 100 g of pellets containing M. thaumasium, associated and in a single oral dose; group 3, control. Faecal samples were collected from animals in the treated and control groups at time intervals of 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h after the administration of treatments and placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar (assay A) and cups for coprocultures (assay B). Subsequently, 1000 cyathostomin L3 were added to each Petri dish (assay A) and 1000 cyathostomin eggs were added to each coproculture (assay B) of fungi-treated and control groups. At the end of 15 days, there was observed that the two associations of pellets containing the fungi tested showed predatory activity after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses (assay A). In assay B, all the intervals studied showed reduction rate in the number of L3 recovered from coprocultures

  12. Coadministration of sodium alginate pellets containing the fungi Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium on cyathostomin infective larvae after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses.

    PubMed

    Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; da Silveira, Wendeo Ferreira; Dornelas e Silva, Vinicius Herold; Carretta Júnior, Moacir; Borges, Luana Alcântara; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Benjamin, Laércio dos Anjos; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro; de Paula, Alessandra Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    The predatory nematophagous fungi have been used as an alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes of domestic animals in natural and laboratory conditions. However, it is unclear if the association of some of these species could bring some kind of advantage, from a biological standpoint. In this context, this study consisted of two tests in vitro: in assay A, the assessment of the viability of the association of pellets in sodium alginate matrix containing the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34) and its predatory activity on infective larvae (L3) of cyathostomin after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses and assay B, assessment of the cyathostomin L3 reduction percentage in coprocultures. Twelve crossbred horses, females, with a mean weight of 356 kg and previously dewormed were divided in three groups with four animals each: group 1, each animal received 50 g of pellets containing mycelial mass of the fungus D. flagrans and 50 g of pellets of the fungus M. thaumasium, associated and in a single oral dose; group 2, 100 g of pellets containing D. flagrans and 100 g of pellets containing M. thaumasium, associated and in a single oral dose; group 3, control. Faecal samples were collected from animals in the treated and control groups at time intervals of 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h after the administration of treatments and placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar (assay A) and cups for coprocultures (assay B). Subsequently, 1000 cyathostomin L3 were added to each Petri dish (assay A) and 1000 cyathostomin eggs were added to each coproculture (assay B) of fungi-treated and control groups. At the end of 15 days, there was observed that the two associations of pellets containing the fungi tested showed predatory activity after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses (assay A). In assay B, all the intervals studied showed reduction rate in the number of L3 recovered from coprocultures

  13. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ruidong; Oddy, Victor Hutton; Archibald, Alan L.; Vercoe, Phillip E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification) and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants compared to non-ruminants? Methods. Transcriptome data from 11 tissues covering the sheep GIT, two stratified epithelial and two control tissues, was analysed using principal components to cluster tissues based on gene expression profile similarity. Expression profiles of genes along the sheep GIT were used to generate a network to identify genes enriched for expression in different compartments of the GIT. The data from sheep was compared to similar data sets from two non-ruminants, pigs (closely related) and humans (more distantly related). Results. The rumen transcriptome clustered with the skin and tonsil, but not the GIT transcriptomes, driven by genes from the epidermal differentiation complex, and genes encoding stratified epithelium keratins and innate immunity proteins. By analysing all of the gene expression profiles across tissues together 16 major clusters were identified. The strongest of these, and consistent with the high turnover rate of the GIT, showed a marked enrichment of cell cycle process genes (P = 1.4 E−46), across the whole GIT, relative to liver and muscle, with highest expression in the caecum followed by colon and rumen. The expression patterns of several membrane transporters (chloride, zinc, nucleosides, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and bile acids) along the GIT was very similar in sheep, pig and humans. In contrast, short chain fatty acid uptake and metabolism appeared to be different

  14. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ruidong; Oddy, Victor Hutton; Archibald, Alan L; Vercoe, Phillip E; Dalrymple, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification) and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants compared to non-ruminants? Methods. Transcriptome data from 11 tissues covering the sheep GIT, two stratified epithelial and two control tissues, was analysed using principal components to cluster tissues based on gene expression profile similarity. Expression profiles of genes along the sheep GIT were used to generate a network to identify genes enriched for expression in different compartments of the GIT. The data from sheep was compared to similar data sets from two non-ruminants, pigs (closely related) and humans (more distantly related). Results. The rumen transcriptome clustered with the skin and tonsil, but not the GIT transcriptomes, driven by genes from the epidermal differentiation complex, and genes encoding stratified epithelium keratins and innate immunity proteins. By analysing all of the gene expression profiles across tissues together 16 major clusters were identified. The strongest of these, and consistent with the high turnover rate of the GIT, showed a marked enrichment of cell cycle process genes (P = 1.4 E-46), across the whole GIT, relative to liver and muscle, with highest expression in the caecum followed by colon and rumen. The expression patterns of several membrane transporters (chloride, zinc, nucleosides, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and bile acids) along the GIT was very similar in sheep, pig and humans. In contrast, short chain fatty acid uptake and metabolism appeared to be different

  15. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ruidong; Oddy, Victor Hutton; Archibald, Alan L; Vercoe, Phillip E; Dalrymple, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification) and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants compared to non-ruminants? Methods. Transcriptome data from 11 tissues covering the sheep GIT, two stratified epithelial and two control tissues, was analysed using principal components to cluster tissues based on gene expression profile similarity. Expression profiles of genes along the sheep GIT were used to generate a network to identify genes enriched for expression in different compartments of the GIT. The data from sheep was compared to similar data sets from two non-ruminants, pigs (closely related) and humans (more distantly related). Results. The rumen transcriptome clustered with the skin and tonsil, but not the GIT transcriptomes, driven by genes from the epidermal differentiation complex, and genes encoding stratified epithelium keratins and innate immunity proteins. By analysing all of the gene expression profiles across tissues together 16 major clusters were identified. The strongest of these, and consistent with the high turnover rate of the GIT, showed a marked enrichment of cell cycle process genes (P = 1.4 E-46), across the whole GIT, relative to liver and muscle, with highest expression in the caecum followed by colon and rumen. The expression patterns of several membrane transporters (chloride, zinc, nucleosides, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and bile acids) along the GIT was very similar in sheep, pig and humans. In contrast, short chain fatty acid uptake and metabolism appeared to be different

  16. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Bosch, G; Pellikaan, W F; Rutten, P G P; van der Poel, A F B; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2008-11-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta were collected from the distal ileum, proximal colon, transverse colon, and rectum of 3 adult dogs. Digesta per part of the GIT were pooled for 3 dogs, diluted (1:25, wt/vol), mixed, and filtered for the preparation of inoculum. A fructan, ground soy hulls, and native potato starch were used as substrates and incubated for cumulative gas production measurement as an indicator of the kinetics of fermentation. In addition, fermentation bottles with similar contents were incubated but were allowed to release their gas throughout incubation. Fermentation fluid was sampled at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after initiation of incubation, and short-chain fatty acids and ammonia were measured. Results showed comparable maximal fermentation rates for rectal and proximal colonic inocula (P > 0.05). Production of short-chain fatty acids was least for the ileal and greatest for the rectal inoculum (P < 0.05). Therefore, for in vitro studies, fecal microbiota can be used as an inoculum source but may slightly overestimate in vivo fermentation. Experiment 2 evaluated the gas production, fermentation kinetics, and end product profiles at 8 and 72 h of incubation for citrus pectin, 3 fructans, gum arabic, 3 guar gums, pea fiber, peanut hulls, soy fiber, sugar beet fiber, sugar beet pectin, sugar beet pulp, wheat fiber, and wheat middlings. Feces of 4 adult dogs were used as an inoculum source. Similar techniques were used as in Exp. 1 except for the dilution factor used (1:10, wt/vol). Among substrates, large variations in fermentation kinetics and end product profiles were noted. Sugar beet pectin, the fructans, and the gums were rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate

  17. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of mucoadhesive microspheres prepared for the gastrointestinal tract using polyglycerol esters of fatty acids and a poly(acrylic acid) derivative.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Y; Nagahara, N; Kashihara, T; Hirai, S; Toguchi, H

    1995-03-01

    Two types of polyglycerol ester of fatty acid (PGEF)-based microspheres were prepared: Carbopol 934P (CP)-coated microspheres (CPC-microspheres) and CP-dispersion microspheres (CPD-microspheres). Comparative studies on mucoadhesion were done with these microspheres and PGEF-based microspheres without CP (PGEF-microspheres). In an in vitro adhesion test, the CPD-microspheres adhered strongly to mucosa prepared from rat stomach and small intestine because each CP particle in the CPD-microsphere was hydrated and swelled with part of it remaining within the microsphere and part extending to the surface serving to anchor the microsphere to the mucus layer. The gastrointestinal transit patterns after administration of the CPD-microspheres and PGEF-microspheres to fasted rats were fitted to a model in which the microspheres are emptied from the stomach monoexponentially with a lag time and then transit through the small intestine at zero-order. Parameters obtained by curve fitting confirmed that the gastrointestinal transit time of the CPD-microspheres was prolonged compared with that of the PGEF-microspheres. MRT in the gastrointestinal tract was also prolonged after administration of the CPD-microspheres compared with that following the administration of the PGEF-microspheres.

  18. Long-term Coexposure to Hexavalent Chromium and B[a]P Causes Tissue-Specific Differential Biological Effects in Liver and Gastrointestinal Tract of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martín, Francisco Javier; Fan, Yunxia; Carreira, Vinicius; Ovesen, Jerald L.; Vonhandorf, Andrew; Xia, Ying; Puga, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Complex mixtures of environmental agents often cause mixture-specific health effects that cannot be accounted for by a single mechanism. To study the biological effects of exposure to a mixture of chromium-VI and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), often found together in the environment, we exposed mice for 60 days to 0, 55, 550, or 5500 ppb Cr(VI) in drinking water followed by 90 days of coexposure to B[a]P at 0, 1.25, 12.5, or 125 mg/kg/day and examined liver and gastrointestinal (GI) tract for exposure effects. In the liver, the mixture caused more significant histopathology than expected from the sum of effects of the individual components, while in the GI tract, Cr(VI) alone caused significant enterocyte hypertrophy and increases in cell proliferation and DNA damage that were also observed in mice coexposed to B[a]P. Expression of genes involved in drug metabolism, tumor suppression, oxidative stress, and inflammation was altered in mixed exposures relative to control and to singly exposed mice. Drug metabolism and oxidative stress genes were upregulated and tumor suppressor and inflammation genes downregulated in the proximal GI tract, whereas most markers were upregulated in the distal GI tract and downregulated in the liver. Oral exposure to Cr(VI) and B[a]P mixtures appears to have tissue-specific differential consequences in liver and GI tract that cannot be predicted from the effects of each individual toxicant. Tissue specificity may be particularly critical in cases of extended exposure to mixtures of these agents, as may happen in the occupational setting or in areas where drinking water contains elevated levels of Cr(VI). PMID:25820237

  19. Comparative morphometric analysis of the gastrointestinal tract of the captive greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus) and African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus).

    PubMed

    Byanet, Obadiah; Abayomi, Akileye O; Aondohemba, Tyagher J

    2015-01-01

    The greater cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus) and African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) are among the largest rodents in Africa, undergoing domestications for meat and research purposes. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are any quantitative anatomical gastrointestinal adaptations associated with their omnivorous or herbivorous diets. In the African giant rat, the mean gastrointestinal tract length and colon width of the males were significantly higher than their females counterpart (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). In a similar way, the mean gastrointestinal tract weight, stomach length and jejunal width in males greater cane rat were significantly higher than in the females (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). The monogastric, omnivores African giant pouched rats had mean significant stomach length and width than greater cane rat (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). Also, the duodenal length, jejunal and ileal widths were higher in the former than in the latter (P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). The monogastric, herbivore greater cane rats had higher mean cecal width and colon length than the African giant pouched rat (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). In conclusion, the African giant pouched rat had larger stomach and longer and wider small intestine, compared to the greater cane rat, which instead had more prominent cecum and wider and longer colon. This suggests that greater cane rats are hindgut fermenting herbivores (cecal fermenter), as is the case in most rodent species. PMID:26738259

  20. The protective effects of total phenols in magnolia officinalix rehd. et wils on gastrointestinal tract dysmotility is mainly based on its influence on interstitial cells of cajal.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hui; Huang, Dazhi; Li, Tao; Huang, Lihua; Zheng, Xingguang; Tang, Danxia; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils is a kind of herb which is widely used for gastrointestinal tract mobility disorder in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated whether the total phenols of Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils (TPM) treatment improves gastrointestinal tract dysmobility induced by intraperitoneal injection of atropine (5 mg/kg) in rats. Rats were randomly grouped into three units: TPM-pretreated/atropine-treated group, atropinetreated group and control group. TPM were administrated for 7 days. Gastric residual rate and intestinal transit were measured 20 min after atropine injected, and gastrointestinal hormones (including: gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL), somatostatin (SS) and p substance (PS) levels in serum were also measured by ELISA kits. The number and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in stomach were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis, while c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) expressions in stomach were also measured by western blotting. We found that TPM pretreatment significantly improved atropine-induced gastric residual rate increase, while had no significantly effects on intestinal transit; it also significantly normalized GAS, MTL and PS serum levels. Atropine-induced ICCs numbers decreased in both sinuses ventriculi and body of stomach, which is improved by TPM pretreatment. Western blotting results showed the expressions of c-kit and SCF were down-regulated after atropine injection, which can be reversed with TPM pretreatment. These results above indicates that TPM treatment can significantly protected atropine-induced gastric dysmoblility, which may owed to its regulation on c-kit/SCF signing pathway. PMID:26884941

  1. The protective effects of total phenols in magnolia officinalix rehd. et wils on gastrointestinal tract dysmotility is mainly based on its influence on interstitial cells of cajal

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hui; Huang, Dazhi; Li, Tao; Huang, Lihua; Zheng, Xingguang; Tang, Danxia; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils is a kind of herb which is widely used for gastrointestinal tract mobility disorder in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated whether the total phenols of Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils (TPM) treatment improves gastrointestinal tract dysmobility induced by intraperitoneal injection of atropine (5 mg/kg) in rats. Rats were randomly grouped into three units: TPM-pretreated/atropine-treated group, atropinetreated group and control group. TPM were administrated for 7 days. Gastric residual rate and intestinal transit were measured 20 min after atropine injected, and gastrointestinal hormones (including: gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL), somatostatin (SS) and p substance (PS) levels in serum were also measured by ELISA kits. The number and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in stomach were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis, while c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) expressions in stomach were also measured by western blotting. We found that TPM pretreatment significantly improved atropine-induced gastric residual rate increase, while had no significantly effects on intestinal transit; it also significantly normalized GAS, MTL and PS serum levels. Atropine-induced ICCs numbers decreased in both sinuses ventriculi and body of stomach, which is improved by TPM pretreatment. Western blotting results showed the expressions of c-kit and SCF were down-regulated after atropine injection, which can be reversed with TPM pretreatment. These results above indicates that TPM treatment can significantly protected atropine-induced gastric dysmoblility, which may owed to its regulation on c-kit/SCF signing pathway. PMID:26884941

  2. Phytoplankton composition of the water and gastrointestinal tract of the mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann, 1921) from São Francisco river (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Alves, T; Lima, P; Lima, G M S; Cunha, M C C; Ferreira, S; Domingues, B; Machado, J

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge on diet composition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann) would aid in its culture and propagation allowing, this way, the replacement of natural endangered populations in Brazil. Microalgae are the main food source for captive mussels and unionids have displayed an ability to sort algae based on the cellular characteristics prior to ingestion. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the phytoplankton composition of the water from and of the gastrointestinal contents of the mussel D. enno, as an initial step for development of a suitable rearing diet. Therefore, water samples and bivalve specimens were collected from S. Francisco River, city of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil. The microalgal composition found in water and stomach/gut content samples was very diverse being represented by the following divisions: Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Dinophyta and Heterokontophyta (Diatoms). Concerning the relative abundance of microalgae divisions, it is possible to state, for the water and gastrointestinal contents, that Cyanophyta represents 15% and 14%, Chlorophyta 54% in both, Heterokontophyta 31% and 27% and Dinophyta 0% and 5%, respectively. According to the Brazilian CETESB criteria for phytoplankton species classification, 50% of Cyanophyta and 15% of Chlorophyta species observed in the water samples were classified as "very frequent", as were 68% of Heterokontophyta and 33% of Chlorophyta species in the gut/stomach tract samples. Focusing at a species level, although in the water only Coelastrum sp. and Chroococcus sp. were observed in 100% and 75% of the samples, respectively, in the gastrointestinal tract the species Staurastrum sp., Aulacoseira sp., Scenedesmus sp. and Fragilaria crotonensis occurred in 80% to 100% of the samples. The present results showed that D. enno feeds not only on small chlorophytes microalgae, due to their convenient size that facilitates higher feeding rates, but also on large size diatoms, due to a possible

  3. Comparative morphometric analysis of the gastrointestinal tract of the captive greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus) and African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus).

    PubMed

    Byanet, Obadiah; Abayomi, Akileye O; Aondohemba, Tyagher J

    2015-01-01

    The greater cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus) and African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) are among the largest rodents in Africa, undergoing domestications for meat and research purposes. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are any quantitative anatomical gastrointestinal adaptations associated with their omnivorous or herbivorous diets. In the African giant rat, the mean gastrointestinal tract length and colon width of the males were significantly higher than their females counterpart (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). In a similar way, the mean gastrointestinal tract weight, stomach length and jejunal width in males greater cane rat were significantly higher than in the females (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). The monogastric, omnivores African giant pouched rats had mean significant stomach length and width than greater cane rat (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). Also, the duodenal length, jejunal and ileal widths were higher in the former than in the latter (P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). The monogastric, herbivore greater cane rats had higher mean cecal width and colon length than the African giant pouched rat (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). In conclusion, the African giant pouched rat had larger stomach and longer and wider small intestine, compared to the greater cane rat, which instead had more prominent cecum and wider and longer colon. This suggests that greater cane rats are hindgut fermenting herbivores (cecal fermenter), as is the case in most rodent species.

  4. [Disturbances of gastrointestinal motility of the stomach in patients with chronic gastric erosions and biliary tract disease].

    PubMed

    Svintsitskyĭ, A S; Solovĭova, H A

    2012-12-01

    Article dwells on comparison data about motor function of the stomach in the three groups of patients: with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases, duodenal ulcer disease, chronic gastritis. It is shown, that patients with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases are characterized by slower evacuation function of the stomach, hypotonus of the stomach. Frequency of duodenal reflux in this group of patients is very high (85,9 %).

  5. Cloning, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Distribution of Free Fatty Acid Receptor GPR120 Expression along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Housing versus Grazing Kid Goats.

    PubMed

    Ran, Tao; Li, Hengzhi; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Wang, Min; He, Zhixiong; Kang, Jinghe; Yan, Qiongxian; Tan, Zhiliang; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-03-23

    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) is reported as a long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) receptor that elicits free fatty acid (FFA) regulation on metabolism homeostasis. The study aimed to clone the gpr120 gene of goats (g-GPR120) and subsequently investigate phylogenetic analysis and tissue distribution throughout the digestive tracts of kid goats, as well as the effect of housing versus grazing (H vs G) feeding systems on GPR120 expression. Partial coding sequence (CDS) of g-GPR120 was cloned and submitted to NCBI (accession no. KU161270 ). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that g-GPR120 shared higher homology in both mRNA and amino acid sequences for ruminants than nonruminants. Immunochemistry, real-time PCR, and Western blot analysis showed that g-GPR120 was expressed throughout the digestive tracts of goats. The expression of g-GPR120 was affected by feeding system and age, with greater expression of g-GPR120 in the G group. It was concluded that the g-GPR120-mediated LCFA chemosensing mechanism is widely present in the tongue and gastrointestinal tract of goats and that its expression can be affected by feeding system and age. PMID:26914739

  6. Evaluation of feed grade sodium bisulfate impact on gastrointestinal tract microbiota ecology in broilers via a pyrosequencing platform

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gastrointestinal microbial community in broiler chicken consists of many different species of bacteria and the overall microbiota can be various from bird to bird. In order to control pathogenic bacteria in broiler and improve gut health, numerous potential dietary amendments such as prebiotics...

  7. Bioadhesive fluorescent microspheres as visible carriers for local delivery of drugs. II: Uptake of insulin-loaded PCEFB/PLGA microspheres by the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Jiang, H L; Jin, J F; Zhu, K J

    2004-01-01

    Uptake of novel inherently fluorescent microspheres composed of a luminescent polyanhydride, poly[p-(carboxyethylformamido)-benzoic anhydride] (PCEFB), and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) (2:1, weight ratio) by the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy. Oral efficiency of the incorporated insulin also was determined by measuring reduction of plasma glucose levels after feeding diabetic rats with a single dose of the microspheres. We found that PCEFB/PLGA microspheres could adhere to the intestinal epithelium and traverse the absorptive cells. A large number of the spheres were observed in spleen, whereas few were detected in liver within the evaluated period of time. Apparent reduction of the plasma glucose levels was observed over a span of 6 h postfeeding. The unique properties of the delivery system such as biodegradability, bioadhesivity, and inherently luminescent characteristics render it an ideal "visible" tracer for monitoring oral fate of polymeric microspheres. PMID:15736827

  8. Chronic inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in cats: diagnostic advantages of full-thickness intestinal and extraintestinal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Sven; Harder, Jasmine; Nolte, Ingo; Marsilio, Sina; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion

    2010-02-01

    An evaluation of histological findings in full-thickness biopsies from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and extraintestinal samples of 43 cats with chronic GIT disease signs was performed. In the majority of cases (46.5%) inflammatory bowel disease, ie, lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis/colitis (32.6%), eosinophilic gastroenterocolitis (11.6%) and mixed inflammatory infiltration (2.3%), was diagnosed. Furthermore, in four animals non-inflammatory mucosal band-shaped fibrosis (9.3%), and in 10 cats (23.3%) a diffuse lymphoma, was found. Six cats displayed only a gastritis (7.0%) or lymphangiectasia (7.0%), respectively. In two cats a mast cell tumour (4.7%) was diagnosed. In one cat no histopathological lesions were found. The availability of transmural biopsies from all segments of the intestine and the collection of extraintestinal samples, especially mesenteric lymph nodes, is especially helpful for diagnosing intestinal tumours such as lymphomas and tumours of mast cell origin.

  9. Multipurpose use of the over-the-scope-clip system (“Bear claw”) in the gastrointestinal tract: Swiss experience in a tertiary center

    PubMed Central

    Sulz, Michael Christian; Bertolini, Reto; Frei, Remus; Semadeni, Gian-Marco; Borovicka, Jan; Meyenberger, Christa

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the outcome of over-the-scope-clip system (OTSC) for endoscopic treatment of various indications in daily clinical practice in Switzerland. METHODS: This prospective, consecutive case series was conducted at a tertiary care hospital from September 2010 to January 2014. Indications for OTSC application were fistulae, anastomotic leakage, perforation, unroofed submucosal lesion for biopsy, refractory bleeding, and stent fixation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Primary technical success was defined as the adequate deployment of the OTSC on the target lesion. Clinical success was defined as resolution of the problem; for instance, no requirement for surgery or further endoscopic intervention. In cases of recurrence, retreatment of a lesion with a second intervention was possible. Complications were classified into those related to sedation, endoscopy, or deployment of the clip. RESULTS: A total of 28 OTSC system applications were carried out in 21 patients [median age 64 years (range 42-85), 33% females]. The main indications were fistulae (52%), mostly after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube removal, and anastomotic leakage after GI surgery (29%). Further indications were unroofed submucosal lesions after biopsy, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, or esophageal stent fixation. The OTSC treatments were applied either in the upper (48%) or lower (52%) GI tract. The mean lesion size was 8 mm (range: 2-20 mm). Primary technical success and clinical success rates were 85% and 67%, respectively. In 53% of cases, the suction method was used without accessories (e.g., twin grasper or tissue anchor). No endoscopy-related or OTSC-related complications were observed. CONCLUSION: OTSC is a useful tool for endoscopic closure of various GI lesions, including fistulae and leakages. Future randomized prospective multicenter trials are warranted. PMID:25473185

  10. The effect of haem in red and processed meat on the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lunn, J C; Kuhnle, G; Mai, V; Frankenfeld, C; Shuker, D E G; Glen, R C; Goodman, J M; Pollock, J R A; Bingham, S A

    2007-03-01

    Red and processed meat (PM) consumption increases the risk of large bowel cancer and it has been demonstrated that haem in red meat (RM) stimulates the endogenous production of N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) within the human intestine. To investigate whether N-nitrosation occurs in the upper gastrointestinal tract, 27 ileostomists were fed diets containing no meat, or 240 g RM or 240 g PM in a randomly assigned crossover intervention design carried out in a volunteer suite. Endogenous NOC were assessed as apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) in the ileostomy output. ATNC concentration in the diets was 22 microg ATNC/kg (RM) and 37 microg ATNC/kg (PM), and 9 microg ATNC/kg in the no meat diet. Levels significantly increased to 1175 microg ATNC/kg SEM = 226 microg ATNC/kg) following the RM (P=0.001) and 1832 microg ATNC/kg (SEM=294 microg ATNC/kg) following PM (P<0.001) compared to the no meat diet (283 microg ATNC/kg, SEM=74 microg ATNC/kg). ATNC concentrations in the ileal output were equivalent to those measured in faeces in similarly designed feeding studies. Supplementation with either 1 g ascorbic acid or 400 IU alpha-tocopherol had no effect on the concentration of ATNC detected in the ileal output. In in vitro experiments, N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor) was formed in the presence of nitrosated haemoglobin, at pH 6.8 but not in the absence of nitrosated haemoglobin. These findings demonstrate that haem may facilitate the formation of NOC in the absence of colonic flora in the upper human gastrointestinal tract.

  11. The mucus and mucins of the goblet cells and enterocytes provide the first defense line of the gastrointestinal tract and interact with the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Pelaseyed, Thaher; Bergström, Joakim H.; Gustafsson, Jenny K.; Ermund, Anna; Birchenough, George M. H.; Schütte, André; van der Post, Sjoerd; Svensson, Frida; Rodríguez-Piñeiro, Ana M.; Nyström, Elisabeth E.L.; Wising, Catharina; Johansson, Malin E.V.; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The gastrointestinal tract is covered by mucus that has different properties in the stomach, small intestine and colon. The large highly glycosylated gel-forming mucins MUC2 and MUC5AC are the major components of the mucus in the intestine and stomach, respectively. In the small intestine mucus limits