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Sample records for gauge theory action

  1. Remarks on Existence of Proper Action for Reducible Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Bering, Klaus

    In the field-antifield formalism, we review existence and uniqueness proofs for the proper action in the reducible case. We give two new existence proofs based on two resolution degrees called "reduced antifield number" and "shifted antifield number," respectively. In particular, we show that for every choice of gauge generators and their higher stage counterparts, there exists a proper action that implements them at the quadratic order in the auxiliary variables.

  2. A 10-form gauge potential and an M-9-brane Wess-Zumino action in massive 11D theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.

    2000-03-01

    We discuss some properties of an M-9-brane in ``massive 11D theory'' proposed by Bergshoeff, Lozano and Ortin. A 10-form gauge potential is consistently introduced into the massive 11D supergravity, and an M-9-brane Wess-Zumino action is constructed as that of a gauged /σ-model. Using duality relations is crucial in deriving the action, which we learn from the study of a 9-form potential in 10D massive IIA theory. A target space solution of an M-9-brane with a non-vanishing 10-form gauge field is also obtained, whose source is shown to be the M-9-brane effective action.

  3. Finite quantum gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modesto, Leonardo; Piva, Marco; Rachwał, Lesław

    2016-07-01

    We explicitly compute the one-loop exact beta function for a nonlocal extension of the standard gauge theory, in particular, Yang-Mills and QED. The theory, made of a weakly nonlocal kinetic term and a local potential of the gauge field, is unitary (ghost-free) and perturbatively super-renormalizable. Moreover, in the action we can always choose the potential (consisting of one "killer operator") to make zero the beta function of the running gauge coupling constant. The outcome is a UV finite theory for any gauge interaction. Our calculations are done in D =4 , but the results can be generalized to even or odd spacetime dimensions. We compute the contribution to the beta function from two different killer operators by using two independent techniques, namely, the Feynman diagrams and the Barvinsky-Vilkovisky traces. By making the theories finite, we are able to solve also the Landau pole problems, in particular, in QED. Without any potential, the beta function of the one-loop super-renormalizable theory shows a universal Landau pole in the running coupling constant in the ultraviolet regime (UV), regardless of the specific higher-derivative structure. However, the dressed propagator shows neither the Landau pole in the UV nor the singularities in the infrared regime (IR).

  4. String Theory and Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Maldacena, Juan

    2009-02-20

    We will see how gauge theories, in the limit that the number of colors is large, give string theories. We will discuss some examples of particular gauge theories where the corresponding string theory is known precisely, starting with the case of the maximally supersymmetric theory in four dimensions which corresponds to ten dimensional string theory. We will discuss recent developments in this area.

  5. On lattice chiral gauge theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiani, L.; Rossi, G. C.; Testa, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Smit-Swift-Aoki formulation of a lattice chiral gauge theory is presented. In this formulation the Wilson and other non invariant terms in the action are made gauge invariant by the coupling with a nonlinear auxilary scalar field, omega. It is shown that omega decouples from the physical states only if appropriate parameters are tuned so as to satisfy a set of BRST identities. In addition, explicit ghost fields are necessary to ensure decoupling. These theories can give rise to the correct continuum limit. Similar considerations apply to schemes with mirror fermions. Simpler cases with a global chiral symmetry are discussed and it is shown that the theory becomes free at decoupling. Recent numerical simulations agree with those considerations.

  6. Gauge invariants and correlators in flavoured quiver gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Paolo; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we study the construction of holomorphic gauge invariant operators for general quiver gauge theories with flavour symmetries. Using a characterisation of the gauge invariants in terms of equivalence classes generated by permutation actions, along with representation theory results in symmetric groups and unitary groups, we give a diagonal basis for the 2-point functions of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic operators. This involves a generalisation of the previously constructed Quiver Restricted Schur operators to the flavoured case. The 3-point functions are derived and shown to be given in terms of networks of symmetric group branching coefficients. The networks are constructed through cutting and gluing operations on the quivers.

  7. Towards a Neuronal Gauge Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Biswa; Tozzi, Arturo; Cooray, Gerald K.; Douglas, Pamela K.; Friston, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    Given the amount of knowledge and data accruing in the neurosciences, is it time to formulate a general principle for neuronal dynamics that holds at evolutionary, developmental, and perceptual timescales? In this paper, we propose that the brain (and other self-organised biological systems) can be characterised via the mathematical apparatus of a gauge theory. The picture that emerges from this approach suggests that any biological system (from a neuron to an organism) can be cast as resolving uncertainty about its external milieu, either by changing its internal states or its relationship to the environment. Using formal arguments, we show that a gauge theory for neuronal dynamics—based on approximate Bayesian inference—has the potential to shed new light on phenomena that have thus far eluded a formal description, such as attention and the link between action and perception. PMID:26953636

  8. Towards a Neuronal Gauge Theory.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Biswa; Tozzi, Arturo; Cooray, Gerald K; Douglas, Pamela K; Friston, Karl J

    2016-03-01

    Given the amount of knowledge and data accruing in the neurosciences, is it time to formulate a general principle for neuronal dynamics that holds at evolutionary, developmental, and perceptual timescales? In this paper, we propose that the brain (and other self-organised biological systems) can be characterised via the mathematical apparatus of a gauge theory. The picture that emerges from this approach suggests that any biological system (from a neuron to an organism) can be cast as resolving uncertainty about its external milieu, either by changing its internal states or its relationship to the environment. Using formal arguments, we show that a gauge theory for neuronal dynamics--based on approximate Bayesian inference--has the potential to shed new light on phenomena that have thus far eluded a formal description, such as attention and the link between action and perception. PMID:26953636

  9. Towards a Neuronal Gauge Theory.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Biswa; Tozzi, Arturo; Cooray, Gerald K; Douglas, Pamela K; Friston, Karl J

    2016-03-01

    Given the amount of knowledge and data accruing in the neurosciences, is it time to formulate a general principle for neuronal dynamics that holds at evolutionary, developmental, and perceptual timescales? In this paper, we propose that the brain (and other self-organised biological systems) can be characterised via the mathematical apparatus of a gauge theory. The picture that emerges from this approach suggests that any biological system (from a neuron to an organism) can be cast as resolving uncertainty about its external milieu, either by changing its internal states or its relationship to the environment. Using formal arguments, we show that a gauge theory for neuronal dynamics--based on approximate Bayesian inference--has the potential to shed new light on phenomena that have thus far eluded a formal description, such as attention and the link between action and perception.

  10. Geometry from Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Diego H.; Silva, Guillermo A.

    2008-07-28

    We discuss how geometrical and topological aspects of certain (1/2)-BPS type IIB geometries are captured by their dual operators in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory. The type IIB solutions are characterized by arbitrary droplet pictures in a plane and we consider, in particular, axially symmetric droplets. The 1-loop anomalous dimension of the dual gauge theory operators probed with single traces is described by some bosonic lattice Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians are shown to encode the topology of the droplets. In appropriate BMN limits, the Hamiltonians spectrum reproduces the spectrum of near-BPS string excitations propagating along each of the individual edges of the droplet. We also study semiclassical regimes for the Hamiltonians. For droplets having disconnected constituents, the Hamiltonian admits different complimentary semiclassical descriptions, each one replicating the semiclassical description for closed strings extending in each of the constituents.

  11. Methods of Contemporary Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeenko, Yuri

    2002-08-01

    Preface; Part I. Path Integrals: 1. Operator calculus; 2. Second quantization; 3. Quantum anomalies from path integral; 4. Instantons in quantum mechanics; Part II. Lattice Gauge Theories: 5. Observables in gauge theories; 6. Gauge fields on a lattice; 7. Lattice methods; 8. Fermions on a lattice; 9. Finite temperatures; Part III. 1/N Expansion: 10. O(N) vector models; 11. Multicolor QCD; 12. QCD in loop space; 13. Matrix models; Part IV. Reduced Models: 14. Eguchi-Kawai model; 15. Twisted reduced models; 16. Non-commutative gauge theories.

  12. Methods of Contemporary Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeenko, Yuri

    2005-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Path Integrals: 1. Operator calculus; 2. Second quantization; 3. Quantum anomalies from path integral; 4. Instantons in quantum mechanics; Part II. Lattice Gauge Theories: 5. Observables in gauge theories; 6. Gauge fields on a lattice; 7. Lattice methods; 8. Fermions on a lattice; 9. Finite temperatures; Part III. 1/N Expansion: 10. O(N) vector models; 11. Multicolor QCD; 12. QCD in loop space; 13. Matrix models; Part IV. Reduced Models: 14. Eguchi-Kawai model; 15. Twisted reduced models; 16. Non-commutative gauge theories.

  13. Induced gauge theories and W gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Schoutens, K. . Inst. for Theoretical Physics); Sevrin, A. ); van Nieuwenhuizen, P. . Theory Div. State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY . Inst. for Theoretical Physics)

    1991-11-01

    We review some aspects of induced gauge theories in two dimensions. We focus on W{sub 3} gravity, paying particular attention to the treatment of the non-linearities inherent to W gravity. We show that the induced action {Gamma}{sub ind}(h,b) for chiral W{sub 3} in the c {yields} {plus minus}infinity limit is obtained from the induced action of a gauged Sl(3,R) Wess-Zumino-Witten model by imposing constraints on some of the affine currents. Subsequently we investigate the effective action, which is obtained by integrating the induced action over the gauge fields. We show perturbatively that certain subleading terms which appear in the induced action for finite c (and which are related to nonlocal terms in the Ward identifies) get canceled by similar terms due to loop corrections, and we propose an all-order result for the effective action.

  14. Induced gauge theories and W gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Schoutens, K.; Sevrin, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P. |

    1991-11-01

    We review some aspects of induced gauge theories in two dimensions. We focus on W{sub 3} gravity, paying particular attention to the treatment of the non-linearities inherent to W gravity. We show that the induced action {Gamma}{sub ind}[h,b] for chiral W{sub 3} in the c {yields} {plus_minus}infinity limit is obtained from the induced action of a gauged Sl(3,R) Wess-Zumino-Witten model by imposing constraints on some of the affine currents. Subsequently we investigate the effective action, which is obtained by integrating the induced action over the gauge fields. We show perturbatively that certain subleading terms which appear in the induced action for finite c (and which are related to nonlocal terms in the Ward identifies) get canceled by similar terms due to loop corrections, and we propose an all-order result for the effective action.

  15. Hard amplitudes in gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, S.J.

    1991-03-01

    In this lecture series 1 presents recent developments in perturbation theory methods for gauge theories for processes with many partons. These techniques and results are useful in the calculation of cross sections for processes with many final state partons which have applications in the study of multi-jet phenomena in high-energy colliders. The results illuminate many important and interesting properties of non-abelian gauge theories. 30 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Optical Abelian lattice gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Tagliacozzo, L.; Celi, A.; Zamora, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2013-03-15

    We discuss a general framework for the realization of a family of Abelian lattice gauge theories, i.e., link models or gauge magnets, in optical lattices. We analyze the properties of these models that make them suitable for quantum simulations. Within this class, we study in detail the phases of a U(1)-invariant lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, originally proposed by P. Orland. By using exact diagonalization, we extract the low-energy states for small lattices, up to 4 Multiplication-Sign 4. We confirm that the model has two phases, with the confined entangled one characterized by strings wrapping around the whole lattice. We explain how to study larger lattices by using either tensor network techniques or digital quantum simulations with Rydberg atoms loaded in optical lattices, where we discuss in detail a protocol for the preparation of the ground-state. We propose two key experimental tests that can be used as smoking gun of the proper implementation of a gauge theory in optical lattices. These tests consist in verifying the absence of spontaneous (gauge) symmetry breaking of the ground-state and the presence of charge confinement. We also comment on the relation between standard compact U(1) lattice gauge theory and the model considered in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the quantum simulation of dynamical gauge theories in optical lattices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focus on digital simulation of abelian lattice gauge theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We rediscover and discuss the puzzling phase diagram of gauge magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detail the protocol for time evolution and ground-state preparation in any phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide two experimental tests to validate gauge theory quantum simulators.

  17. An improved single-plaquette gauge action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, D.; Bögli, M.; Holland, K.; Niedermayer, F.; Pepe, M.; Wenger, U.; Wiese, U. J.

    2016-03-01

    We describe and test a nonperturbatively improved single-plaquette lattice action for 4-d SU(2) and SU(3) pure gauge theory, which suppresses large fluctuations of the plaquette, without requiring the naive continuum limit for smooth fields. We tune the action parameters based on torelon masses in moderate cubic physical volumes, and investigate the size of cut-off effects in other physical quantities, including torelon masses in asymmetric spatial volumes, the static quark potential, and gradient flow observables. In 2-d O(N) models similarly constructed nearest-neighbor actions have led to a drastic reduction of cut-off effects, down to the permille level, in a wide variety of physical quantities. In the gauge theories, we find significant reduction of lattice artifacts, and for some observables, the coarsest lattice result is very close to the continuum value. We estimate an improvement factor of 40 compared to using the Wilson gauge action to achieve the same statistical accuracy and suppression of cut-off effects.

  18. Gauge Theories of Vector Particles

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.

    1961-04-24

    The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.

  19. A gauge field theory of fermionic continuous-spin particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, X.; Najafizadeh, M.; Setare, M. R.

    2016-09-01

    In this letter, we suggest a local covariant action for a gauge field theory of fermionic Continuous-Spin Particles (CSPs). The action is invariant under gauge transformations without any constraint on both the gauge field and the gauge transformation parameter. The Fang-Fronsdal equations for a tower of massless fields with all half-integer spins arise as a particular limit of the equation of motion of fermionic CSPs.

  20. Density of states in gauge theories.

    PubMed

    Langfeld, Kurt; Lucini, Biagio; Rago, Antonio

    2012-09-14

    The density of states is calculated for the SU(2), SU(3), and a compact U(1) lattice gauge theories using a modified version of the Wang-Landau algorithm. We find that the density of states of the SU(2) gauge theory can be reliably calculated over a range of 120,000 orders of magnitude for lattice sizes as big as 20(4). We demonstrate the potential of the algorithm by reproducing the SU(2) average action, its specific heat, and the critical couplings of the weak first order transition in U(1).

  1. Machines for lattice gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, P.B.

    1989-05-01

    The most promising approach to the solution of the theory of strong interactions is large scale numerical simulation using the techniques of lattice gauge theory. At the present time, computing requirements for convincing calculations of the properties of hadrons exceed the capabilities of even the most powerful commercial supercomputers. This has led to the development of massively parallel computers dedicated to lattice gauge theory. This talk will discuss the computing requirements behind these machines, and general features of the components and architectures of the half dozen major projects now in existence. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Selected topics in gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, M.A.G.; Hernandez Galeana, A.

    1986-06-20

    Developments in gauge field theory in the past fourteen years are discussed. The canonical description of electroweak and strong interactions is described including the role played by QCD and QFD. The Salam-Weinberg theory of electroweak interactions is reviewed with emphasis on Higgs mass and renormalization group analysis. Implications of hyper-color theories are discussed. Composite models of quarks and leptons are considered including hyperfermions as part of a subquark multiplet. (AIP)

  3. Quantum gauge theories from geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galehouse, Daniel C.

    2006-03-01

    Geometrical theories have been developed to describe quantum interacting particles with full mathematical covariance. They possess a sophisticated gauge structure that derives from the fundamental properties of the geometry. These theories are all implicitly quantized and come in three known types: Weyl, non-compactified Kaluza-Klein, and, as presented here, Dirac. The spin one-half particle is a conformal wave in an eight dimensional Riemannian space. The coordinates transform locally as spinors and project into space time to give the known gravitational and electromagnetic forces. The gauge structure of the weak interactions appears as well, as in this space the electron transforms into a neutrino under hyper-rotations. The possibility of including the strong interactions and the corresponding gauge system is discussed.

  4. Anatomy of a gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kreimer, Dirk . E-mail: kreimer@ihes.fr

    2006-12-15

    We exhibit the role of Hochschild cohomology in quantum field theory with particular emphasis on gauge theory and Dyson-Schwinger equations, the quantum equations of motion. These equations emerge from Hopf- and Lie algebra theory and free quantum field theory only. In the course of our analysis, we exhibit an intimate relation between the Slavnov-Taylor identities for the couplings and the existence of Hopf sub-algebras defined on the sum of all graphs at a given loop order, surpassing the need to work on single diagrams.

  5. Renormalization and Induced Gauge Action on a Noncommutative Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, H.; Wohlgenannt, M.

    Field theories on deformed spaces suffer from the IR/UV mxing and renormalization is generically spoiled. In work with R.~Wulkenhaar, one of us realized a way to cure this desease by adding one more marginal operator. We review these ideas, show the application to φ^3 models and use heat kernel expansion methods for a scalar field theory coupled to an external gauge field on a θ-deformed space and derive noncommutative gauge actions.

  6. Asymptotically Free Gauge Theories. I

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wilczek, Frank; Gross, David J.

    1973-07-01

    Asymptotically free gauge theories of the strong interactions are constructed and analyzed. The reasons for doing this are recounted, including a review of renormalization group techniques and their application to scaling phenomena. The renormalization group equations are derived for Yang-Mills theories. The parameters that enter into the equations are calculated to lowest order and it is shown that these theories are asymptotically free. More specifically the effective coupling constant, which determines the ultraviolet behavior of the theory, vanishes for large space-like momenta. Fermions are incorporated and the construction of realistic models is discussed. We propose that the strong interactions be mediated by a "color" gauge group which commutes with SU(3)xSU(3). The problem of symmetry breaking is discussed. It appears likely that this would have a dynamical origin. It is suggested that the gauge symmetry might not be broken, and that the severe infrared singularities prevent the occurrence of non-color singlet physical states. The deep inelastic structure functions, as well as the electron position total annihilation cross section are analyzed. Scaling obtains up to calculable logarithmic corrections, and the naive lightcone or parton model results follow. The problems of incorporating scalar mesons and breaking the symmetry by the Higgs mechanism are explained in detail.

  7. Nonquadratic gauge fixing and ghosts for gauge theories on the hypersphere

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, F. T.; McKeon, D. G. C.

    2011-10-15

    It has been suggested that using a gauge fixing Lagrangian that is not quadratic in a gauge fixing condition is most appropriate for gauge theories formulated on a hypersphere. We reexamine the appropriate ghost action that is to be associated with gauge fixing, applying a technique that has been used for ensuring that the propagator for a massless spin-two field is transverse and traceless. It is shown that this nonquadratic gauge fixing Lagrangian leads to two pair of complex Fermionic ghosts and two Bosonic real ghosts.

  8. Gauge-free electroweak theory: Radiative effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Majumdar, Parthasarathi

    2011-04-15

    A recent reformulation of the scalar-vector sector of standard electroweak theory (without a Higgs potential), in terms of manifestly SU(2){sub W} gauge-invariant variables, is extended so that all field variables in the action are manifestly free of the residual U(1){sub em} gauge transformations as well. Functional evaluation of the one-loop gauge-free effective Higgs potential is shown to precisely cancel effects due to the local functional measure of the Higgs field found earlier. The implications for the classical interpretation of the Higgs scalar as the dilaton field in a background conformal gravity theory are discussed. The Higgs scalar is shown to radiatively acquire a one-loop vacuum expectation value which gives masses to the W and Z bosons but not to photons, without any notion of ''spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking'' appearing anywhere. Further, the renormalization scale is fixed in this theory by requiring that W and Z boson masses coincide with their experimentally measured values, thereby precluding any ''naturalness'' problem usually associated with uncontrolled running of such a scale.

  9. Double field theory and mathcal{N} = {4} gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissbühler, David

    2011-11-01

    Double Field Theory describes the NS-NS sector of string theory and lives on a doubled spacetime. The theory has a local gauge symmetry generated by a generalization of the Lie derivative for doubled coordinates. For the action to be invariant under this symmetry, a differential constraint is imposed on the fields and gauge parameters, reducing their possible dependence in the doubled coordinates. We perform a Scherk-Schwarz reduction of Double Field Theory, yielding electric gaugings of half-maximal supergravity in four dimensions when integrability conditions are assumed. The residual symmetries of the compactified theory are mapped with the symmetries of the effective theory and the differential constraints of Double Field Theory are compared with the algebraic conditions on the embedding tensor. It is found that only a weaker form of the differential constraint has to be imposed on background fields to ensure the local gauge symmetry of the reduced action.

  10. Introduction to lattice gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.

    1987-01-01

    The lattice formulation of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) can be exploited in many ways. We can derive the lattice Feynman rules and carry out weak coupling perturbation expansions. The lattice then serves as a manifestly gauge invariant regularization scheme, albeit one that is more complicated than standard continuum schemes. Strong coupling expansions: these give us useful qualitative information, but unfortunately no hard numbers. The lattice theory is amenable to numerical simulations by which one calculates the long distance properties of a strongly interacting theory from first principles. The observables are measured as a function of the bare coupling g and a gauge invariant cut-off approx. = 1/..cap alpha.., where ..cap alpha.. is the lattice spacing. The continuum (physical) behavior is recovered in the limit ..cap alpha.. ..-->.. 0, at which point the lattice artifacts go to zero. This is the more powerful use of lattice formulation, so in these lectures the author focuses on setting up the theory for the purpose of numerical simulations to get hard numbers. The numerical techniques used in Lattice Gauge Theories have their roots in statistical mechanics, so it is important to develop an intuition for the interconnection between quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This will be the emphasis of the first lecture. In the second lecture, the author reviews the essential ingredients of formulating QCD on the lattice and discusses scaling and the continuum limit. In the last lecture the author summarizes the status of some of the main results. He also mentions the bottlenecks and possible directions for research. 88 refs.

  11. Monte Carlo methods in lattice gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The mass of the O/sup +/ glueball for SU(2) gauge theory in 4 dimensions is calculated. This computation was done on a prototype parallel processor and the implementation of gauge theories on this system is described in detail. Using an action of the purely Wilson form (tract of plaquette in the fundamental representation), results with high statistics are obtained. These results are not consistent with scaling according to the continuum renormalization group. Using actions containing higher representations of the group, a search is made for one which is closer to the continuum limit. The choice is based upon the phase structure of these extended theories and also upon the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation to the renormalizaiton group on the lattice. The mass of the O/sup +/ glueball for this improved action is obtained and the mass divided by the square root of the string tension is a constant as the lattice spacing is varied. The other topic studied is the inclusion of dynamical fermions into Monte Carlo calculations via the pseudo fermion technique. Monte Carlo results obtained with this method are compared with those from an exact algorithm based on Gauss-Seidel inversion. First applied were the methods to the Schwinger model and SU(3) theory.

  12. Uniqueness of the gauge invariant action for cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl

    2012-12-01

    In second order perturbation theory different definitions are known of gauge invariant perturbations in single field inflationary models. Consequently the corresponding gauge invariant cubic actions do not have the same form. Here we show that the cubic action for one choice of gauge invariant variables is unique in the following sense: the action for any other, non-linearly related variable can be brought to the same bulk action, plus additional boundary terms. These boundary terms correspond to the choice of hypersurface and generate extra, disconnected contributions to the bispectrum. We also discuss uniqueness of the action with respect to conformal frames. When expressed in terms of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation on uniform field hypersurfaces the action for cosmological perturbations has a unique form, independent of the original Einstein or Jordan frame. Crucial is that the gauge invariant comoving curvature perturbation is frame independent, which makes it extremely helpful in showing the quantum equivalence of the two frames, and therefore in calculating quantum effects in nonminimally coupled theories such as Higgs inflation.

  13. Superpotentials for Quiver Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Aspinwall, Paul S.; Fidkowski, Lukasz M.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-06-10

    We compute superpotentials for quiver gauge theories arising from marginal D-Brane decay on collapsed del Pezzo cycles S in a Calabi-Yau X. This is done using the machinery of A{sub {infinity}} products in the derived category of coherent sheaves of X, which in turn is related to the derived category of S and quiver path algebras. We confirm that the superpotential is what one might have guessed from analyzing the moduli space, i.e., it is linear in the fields corresponding to the Exts of the quiver and that each such Ext multiplies a polynomial in Exts equal to precisely the relation represented by the Ext.

  14. Gauge invariant actions for string models

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, T.

    1986-06-01

    String models of unified interactions are elegant sets of Feynman rules for the scattering of gravitons, gauge bosons, and a host of massive excitations. The purpose of these lectures is to describe the progress towards a nonperturbative formulation of the theory. Such a formulation should make the geometrical meaning of string theory manifest and explain the many ''miracles'' exhibited by the string Feynman rules. There are some new results on gauge invariant observables, on the cosmological constant, and on the symmetries of interacting string field theory. 49 refs.

  15. Non-Abelian gauge field theory in scale relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Nottale, Laurent; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle; Lehner, Thierry

    2006-03-15

    Gauge field theory is developed in the framework of scale relativity. In this theory, space-time is described as a nondifferentiable continuum, which implies it is fractal, i.e., explicitly dependent on internal scale variables. Owing to the principle of relativity that has been extended to scales, these scale variables can themselves become functions of the space-time coordinates. Therefore, a coupling is expected between displacements in the fractal space-time and the transformations of these scale variables. In previous works, an Abelian gauge theory (electromagnetism) has been derived as a consequence of this coupling for global dilations and/or contractions. We consider here more general transformations of the scale variables by taking into account separate dilations for each of them, which yield non-Abelian gauge theories. We identify these transformations with the usual gauge transformations. The gauge fields naturally appear as a new geometric contribution to the total variation of the action involving these scale variables, while the gauge charges emerge as the generators of the scale transformation group. A generalized action is identified with the scale-relativistic invariant. The gauge charges are the conservative quantities, conjugates of the scale variables through the action, which find their origin in the symmetries of the ''scale-space.'' We thus found in a geometric way and recover the expression for the covariant derivative of gauge theory. Adding the requirement that under the scale transformations the fermion multiplets and the boson fields transform such that the derived Lagrangian remains invariant, we obtain gauge theories as a consequence of scale symmetries issued from a geometric space-time description.

  16. Toward a gauge field theory of gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, H.

    Joint use of two differential identities (Bianchi and Freud) permits a gauge field theory of gravity in which the gravitational energy is localizable. The theory is compatible with quantum mechanics and is experimentally viable.

  17. Entanglement of Distillation for Lattice Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Bultinck, Nick; Haegeman, Jutho; Marien, Michael; Scholz, Volkher B.; Verstraete, Frank

    2016-09-01

    We study the entanglement structure of lattice gauge theories from the local operational point of view, and, similar to Soni and Trivedi [J. High Energy Phys. 1 (2016) 1], we show that the usual entanglement entropy for a spatial bipartition can be written as the sum of an undistillable gauge part and of another part corresponding to the local operations and classical communication distillable entanglement, which is obtained by depolarizing the local superselection sectors. We demonstrate that the distillable entanglement is zero for pure Abelian gauge theories at zero gauge coupling, while it is in general nonzero for the non-Abelian case. We also consider gauge theories with matter, and show in a perturbative approach how area laws—including a topological correction—emerge for the distillable entanglement. Finally, we also discuss the entanglement entropy of gauge fixed states and show that it has no relation to the physical distillable entropy.

  18. Supersymmetric N=2 gauge theory with arbitrary gauge group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchiev, Michael Yu.

    2010-10-01

    A new universal model to implement the Seiberg-Witten approach to low-energy properties of the supersymmetric N=2 gauge theory with an arbitrary compact simple gauge group, classical or exceptional, is suggested. It is based on the hyperelliptic curve, whose genus equals the rank of the gauge group. The weak and strong coupling limits are reproduced. The magnetic and electric charges of light dyons, which are present in the proposed model comply with recent predictions derived from the general properties of the theory. The discrete chiral symmetry is implemented, the duality condition is reproduced, and connections between monodromies at weak and strong coupling are established. It is found that the spectra of monopoles and dyons are greatly simplified when vectors representing the scalar and dual fields in the Cartan algebra are aligned along the Weyl vector. This general feature of the theory is used for an additional verification of the model. The model predicts the identical analytic structures of the coupling constants for the theories based on the SU(r+1) and Sp(2r) gauge groups.

  19. Nonperturbative Regulator for Chiral Gauge Theories?

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Dorota M; Kaplan, David B

    2016-05-27

    We propose a nonperturbative gauge-invariant regulator for d-dimensional chiral gauge theories on the lattice. The method involves simulating domain wall fermions in d+1 dimensions with quantum gauge fields that reside on one d-dimensional surface and are extended into the bulk via gradient flow. The result is a theory of gauged fermions plus mirror fermions, where the mirror fermions couple to the gauge fields via a form factor that becomes exponentially soft with the separation between domain walls. The resultant theory has a local d-dimensional interpretation only if the chiral fermion representation is anomaly free. A physical realization of this construction would imply the existence of mirror fermions in the standard model that are invisible except for interactions induced by vacuum topology, and which could gravitate differently than conventional matter. PMID:27284646

  20. On gauge invariance of noncommutative Chern-Simons theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang-Hong; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2002-05-01

    Motivated by possible applications to condensed matter systems, in this paper we construct U( N) noncommutative Chern-Simons (NCCS) action for a disc and for a double-layer geometry, respectively. In both cases, gauge invariance severely constrains the form of the NCCS action. In the first case, it is necessary to introduce a group-valued boson field with a nonlocal chiral boundary action, whose gauge variation cancels that of the bulk action. In the second case, the coefficient matrix K in the double U( N) NCCS action is restricted to be of the form K=k 1 1 1 1 with integer k. We suggest that this double NCCS theory with U(1) gauge group describes the so-called Halperin ( kkk) state in a double-layer quantum Hall system. Possible physical consequences are addressed.

  1. Numerical techniques for lattice gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    1981-02-06

    The motivation for formulating gauge theories on a lattice is reviewed. Monte Carlo simulation techniques are then discussed for these systems. Finally, the Monte Carlo methods are combined with renormalization group analysis to give strong numerical evidence for confinement of quarks by non-Abelian gauge fields.

  2. A lattice formulation of chiral gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Bodwin, G.T.

    1996-08-01

    We present a method for implementing gauge theories of chiral fermions on the lattice. Discussed topics include: the lattice as a UV regulator, a chiral QED model, modification of the fermion determinant, large gauge-field momenta, and a non-perturbative problem.

  3. Gauge Theory on Twisted kappa-Minkowski: Old Problems and Possible Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Marija; Jonke, Larisa; Pachoł, Anna

    2014-06-01

    We review the application of twist deformation formalism and the construction of noncommutative gauge theory on κ-Minkowski space-time. We compare two different types of twists: the Abelian and the Jordanian one. In each case we provide the twisted differential calculus and consider {U}(1) gauge theory. Different methods of obtaining a gauge invariant action and related problems are thoroughly discussed.

  4. Scale-invariant gauge theories of gravity: Theoretical foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasenby, A. N.; Hobson, M. P.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the construction of gauge theories of gravity, focussing in particular on the extension of local Poincaré invariance to include invariance under local changes of scale. We work exclusively in terms of finite transformations, which allow for a more transparent interpretation of such theories in terms of gauge fields in Minkowski spacetime. Our approach therefore differs from the usual geometrical description of locally scale-invariant Poincaré gauge theory (PGT) and Weyl gauge theory (WGT) in terms of Riemann-Cartan and Weyl-Cartan spacetimes, respectively. In particular, we reconsider the interpretation of the Einstein gauge and also the equations of motion of matter fields and test particles in these theories. Inspired by the observation that the PGT and WGT matter actions for the Dirac field and electromagnetic field have more general invariance properties than those imposed by construction, we go on to present a novel alternative to WGT by considering an "extended" form for the transformation law of the rotational gauge field under local dilations, which includes its "normal" transformation law in WGT as a special case. The resulting "extended" Weyl gauge theory (eWGT) has a number of interesting features that we describe in detail. In particular, we present a new scale-invariant gauge theory of gravity that accommodates ordinary matter and is defined by the most general parity-invariant eWGT Lagrangian that is at most quadratic in the eWGT field strengths, and we derive its field equations. We also consider the construction of PGTs that are invariant under local dilations assuming either the "normal" or "extended" transformation law for the rotational gauge field, but show that they are special cases of WGT and eWGT, respectively.

  5. AkF ¯ chiral gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yan-Liang; Shrock, Robert

    2015-11-01

    We study asymptotically free chiral gauge theories with an SU (N ) gauge group and chiral fermions transforming according to the antisymmetric rank-k tensor representation, Ak≡[k ]N , and the requisite number, nF ¯, of copies of fermions in the conjugate fundamental representation, F ¯ ≡[1] ¯ N , to render the theories anomaly-free. We denote these as AkF ¯ theories. We take N ≥2 k +1 so that nF ¯≥1 . The A2F ¯ theories form an infinite family with N ≥5 , but we show that the A3F ¯ and A4F ¯ theories are only asymptotically free for N in the respective ranges 7 ≤N ≤17 and 9 ≤N ≤11 , and that there are no asymptotically free AkF ¯ theories with k ≥5 . We investigate the types of ultraviolet to infrared evolution for these AkF ¯ theories and find that, depending on k and N , they may lead to a non-Abelian Coulomb phase, or may involve confinement with massless gauge-singlet composite fermions, bilinear fermion condensation with dynamical gauge and global symmetry breaking, or formation of multifermion condensates that preserve the gauge symmetry. We also show that there are no asymptotically free, anomaly-free SU (N ) SkF ¯ chiral gauge theories with k ≥3 , where Sk denotes the rank-k symmetric representation.

  6. Noncommutative Gauge Theory with Covariant Star Product

    SciTech Connect

    Zet, G.

    2010-08-04

    We present a noncommutative gauge theory with covariant star product on a space-time with torsion. In order to obtain the covariant star product one imposes some restrictions on the connection of the space-time. Then, a noncommutative gauge theory is developed applying this product to the case of differential forms. Some comments on the advantages of using a space-time with torsion to describe the gravitational field are also given.

  7. Hamiltonian BRST quantization of Chern-Simons gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, H.; So, H. . Dept. of Physics); Igarashi, Y. ); Kitakado, S. ); Kubo, J. . Coll. of Liberal Arts)

    1990-08-30

    This paper quantizes non-abelian gauge theory with only a Chern-Simons term in three dimensions by using the generalized Hamiltonian formalism of Batalin and Fradkin for irreducible first- and second-class constrained systems, and derives a covariant action for the theory which is invariant under the off-shell nilpotent BRST transformation. Some aspects of the theory, finiteness and supersymmetry are discussed.

  8. Unifying Geometrical Representations of Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsid, Scott; Serna, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We unify three approaches within the vast body of gauge-theory research that have independently developed distinct representations of a geometrical surface-like structure underlying the vector-potential. The three approaches that we unify are: those who use the compactified dimensions of Kaluza-Klein theory, those who use Grassmannian models (also called gauge theory embedding or models) to represent gauge fields, and those who use a hidden spatial metric to replace the gauge fields. In this paper we identify a correspondence between the geometrical representations of the three schools. Each school was mostly independently developed, does not compete with other schools, and attempts to isolate the gauge-invariant geometrical surface-like structures that are responsible for the resulting physics. By providing a mapping between geometrical representations, we hope physicists can now isolate representation-dependent physics from gauge-invariant physical results and share results between each school. We provide visual examples of the geometrical relationships between each school for electric and magnetic fields. We highlight a first new result: in all three representations a static electric field (electric field from a fixed ring of charge or a sphere of charge) has a hidden gauge-invariant time dependent surface that is underlying the vector potential.

  9. Superconformal gravity in three dimensions as a gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, U.; Roat wek, M.

    1989-06-19

    We discuss the recent formulation of conformal gravity as a first-orderChern-Simons gauge theory and show that /ital N/ superconformal gravity can betreated analogously for arbitrary /ital N/. This formulation unifies thegravitational and O(/ital N/) Yang-Mills Chern-Simons actions.

  10. Origin of gauge invariance in string theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, G. T.; Strominger, A.

    1986-01-01

    A first quantization of the space-time embedding Chi exp mu and the world-sheet metric rho of the open bosonic string. The world-sheet metric rho decouples from S-matrix elements in 26 dimensions. This formulation of the theory naturally includes 26-dimensional gauge transformations. The gauge invariance of S-matrix elements is a direct consequence of the decoupling of rho. Second quantization leads to a string field Phi(Chi exp mu, rho) with a gauge-covariant equation of motion.

  11. U (3 ) gauge theory on fuzzy extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürkçüoǧlu, S.; Ünal, G.

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we explore the low energy structure of a U (3 ) gauge theory over spaces with fuzzy sphere(s) as extra dimensions. In particular, we determine the equivariant parametrization of the gauge fields, which transform either invariantly or as vectors under the combined action of S U (2 ) rotations of the fuzzy spheres and those U (3 ) gauge transformations generated by S U (2 )⊂U (3 ) carrying the spin 1 irreducible representation of S U (2 ). The cases of a single fuzzy sphere SF2 and a particular direct sum of concentric fuzzy spheres, SF2 Int , covering the monopole bundle sectors with windings ±1 are treated in full and the low energy degrees of freedom for the gauge fields are obtained. Employing the parametrizations of the fields in the former case, we determine a low energy action by tracing over the fuzzy sphere and show that the emerging model is Abelian Higgs type with U (1 )×U (1 ) gauge symmetry and possesses vortex solutions on R2, which we discuss in some detail. Generalization of our formulation to the equivariant parametrization of gauge fields in U (n ) theories is also briefly addressed.

  12. Positive energy test of Poincare gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, D.C.; Nester, J.M.; Yo, H.J. )

    1992-04-10

    In this paper the positive total energy test is applied to the Poincare Gauge Theory of gravity. Both the asymptotically flat and asymptotically constant negative curvature case are considered. The test shows that in either case, the theory with generic values for the parameters is not viable.

  13. Pion masses in quasiconformal gauge field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Dennis D.; Jaervinen, Matti

    2009-03-01

    We study modifications to Weinberg-like sum rules in quasiconformal gauge field theories. Beyond the two Weinberg sum rules and the oblique S parameter, we study the pion mass and the X parameter. Especially, we evaluate the pion mass for walking technicolor theories, in particular, minimal walking technicolor, and find contributions of the order of up to several hundred GeV.

  14. Non-Abelian discrete gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kai-Ming

    Gauge theory with a finite gauge group (or with a gauge group that has disconnected components) is systematically studied, with emphasis on the case of a non-Abelian gauge group. An operator formalism is developed, and an order parameter is constructed that can distinguish the various phases of a gauge theory. The non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm interactions and holonomy interactions among cosmic string loops, vortices, and charged particles are analyzed; the detection of Cheshire charge and the transfer of charge between particles and string loops (or vortex pairs) are described. Non-Abelian gauge theory on a surface with non-trivial topology is also discussed. Interactions of vortices with "handles" on the surface are discussed in detail. The electric charge of the mouth of a "wormhole" and the magnetic flux "linked" by the wormhole are shown to be non-commuting observables. This observation is used to analyze the color electric field that results when a colored object traverses a wormhole.

  15. Non-Abelian Discrete Gauge Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kai-Ming

    Gauge theory with a finite gauge group (or with a gauge group that has disconnected components) is systematically studied, with emphasis on the case of a non-Abelian gauge group. An operator formalism is developed, and an order parameter is constructed that can distinguish the various phases of a gauge theory. The non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm interactions and holonomy interactions among cosmic string loops, vortices, and charged particles are analyzed; the detection of Cheshire charge and the transfer of charge between particles and string loops (or vortex pairs) are described. Non-Abelian gauge theory on a surface with non-trivial topology is also discussed. Interactions of vortices with "handles" on the surface are discussed in detail. The electric charge of the mouth of a "wormhole" and the magnetic flux "linked" by the wormhole are shown to be non-commuting observables. This observation is used to analyze the color electric field that results when a colored object traverses a wormhole.

  16. Minimal Basis for Gauge Theory Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Vanhove, Pierre

    2009-10-16

    Identities based on monodromy for integrations in string theory are used to derive relations between different color-ordered tree-level amplitudes in both bosonic and supersymmetric string theory. These relations imply that the color-ordered tree-level n-point gauge theory amplitudes can be expanded in a minimal basis of (n-3)exclamation amplitudes. This result holds for any choice of polarizations of the external states and in any number of dimensions.

  17. Jarzynski's theorem for lattice gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselle, Michele; Costagliola, Gianluca; Nada, Alessandro; Panero, Marco; Toniato, Arianna

    2016-08-01

    Jarzynski's theorem is a well-known equality in statistical mechanics, which relates fluctuations in the work performed during a nonequilibrium transformation of a system, to the free-energy difference between two equilibrium ensembles. In this article, we apply Jarzynski's theorem in lattice gauge theory, for two examples of challenging computational problems, namely the calculation of interface free energies and the determination of the equation of state. We conclude with a discussion of further applications of interest in QCD and in other strongly coupled gauge theories, in particular for the Schrödinger functional and for simulations at finite density using reweighting techniques.

  18. Gravity as the square of gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Zvi; Dennen, Tristan; Huang Yutin; Kiermaier, Michael

    2010-09-15

    We explore consequences of the recently discovered duality between color and kinematics, which states that kinematic numerators in a diagrammatic expansion of gauge-theory amplitudes can be arranged to satisfy Jacobi-like identities in one-to-one correspondence to the associated color factors. Using on-shell recursion relations, we give a field-theory proof showing that the duality implies that diagrammatic numerators in gravity are just the product of two corresponding gauge-theory numerators, as previously conjectured. These squaring relations express gravity amplitudes in terms of gauge-theory ingredients, and are a recasting of the Kawai, Lewellen, and Tye relations. Assuming that numerators of loop amplitudes can be arranged to satisfy the duality, our tree-level proof immediately carries over to loop level via the unitarity method. We then present a Yang-Mills Lagrangian whose diagrams through five points manifestly satisfy the duality between color and kinematics. The existence of such Lagrangians suggests that the duality also extends to loop amplitudes, as confirmed at two and three loops in a concurrent paper. By ''squaring'' the novel Yang-Mills Lagrangian we immediately obtain its gravity counterpart. We outline the general structure of these Lagrangians for higher points. We also write down various new representations of gauge-theory and gravity amplitudes that follow from the duality between color and kinematics.

  19. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, Richard C.

    2014-04-15

    SciDAC-2 Project The Secret Life of Quarks: National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, from March 15, 2011 through March 14, 2012. The objective of this project is to construct the software needed to study quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interactions of sub-atomic physics, and other strongly coupled gauge field theories anticipated to be of importance in the energy regime made accessible by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It builds upon the successful efforts of the SciDAC-1 project National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, in which a QCD Applications Programming Interface (QCD API) was developed that enables lattice gauge theorists to make effective use of a wide variety of massively parallel computers. This project serves the entire USQCD Collaboration, which consists of nearly all the high energy and nuclear physicists in the United States engaged in the numerical study of QCD and related strongly interacting quantum field theories. All software developed in it is publicly available, and can be downloaded from a link on the USQCD Collaboration web site, or directly from the github repositories with entrance linke http://usqcd-software.github.io

  20. SU(3) lattice gauge autocorrelations with anisotropic action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Terrence; Nenkov, Constantine; Peardon, Mike

    1997-02-01

    We report results of autocorrelation measurements in pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory. The computations are performed on the CONVEX SPP1200 parallel platform within the CANOPY programming environment. The focus of our analysis is on typical autocorrelation times and optimization of the mixing ratio between overrelaxation and pseudo-heatbath sweeps for generating gauge field configurations. We study second order tadpole-improved approximation of the Wilson action in the gluon sector, which offers the advantage on smaller lattices (8 3 × 16 and 6 3 × 12 - 30). We also make use of anisotropic lattices, with temporal lattice spacing smaller than the spatial spacing, which prove useful for calculating noisy correlation functions with large spatial lattice discretization (of the order of 0.4 fm).

  1. New Dualities in Supersymmetric Chiral Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Nathaniel; Essig, Rouven; Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-15

    We analyze the phase structure of supersymmetric chiral gauge theories with gauge group SU(N), an antisymmetric, and F {le} N + 3 flavors, in the presence of a cubic superpotential. When F = N + 3 the theory flows to a superconformal fixed point in the infrared, and new dual descriptions of this theory are uncovered. The theory with odd N admits a self-dual magnetic description. For general N, we find an infinite family of magnetic dual descriptions, characterized by arbitrarily large gauge groups and additional classical global symmetries that are truncated by nonperturbative effects. The infrared dynamics of these theories are analyzed using a-maximization, which supports the claim that all these theories flow to the same superconformal fixed point. A very rich phase structure is found when the number of flavors is reduced below N + 3, including a new self-dual point, transitions from conformal to confining, and a nonperturbative instability for F {le} N. We also give examples of chiral theories with antisymmetrics that have nonchiral duals.

  2. Lattice gauge theory for QCD

    SciTech Connect

    DeGrand, T.

    1997-06-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub z}), and B-{anti B} mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs.

  3. Gauge transformation of double field theory for open string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chen-Te

    2015-09-01

    We combine symmetry structures of ordinary (parallel directions) and dual (transversal directions) coordinates to construct the Dirac-Born-Infeld theory. The ordinary coordinates are associated with the Neumann boundary conditions and the dual coordinates are associated with the Dirichlet boundary conditions. Gauge fields become scalar fields by exchanging the ordinary and dual coordinates. A gauge transformation of a generalized metric is governed by the generalized Lie derivative. The gauge transformation of the massless closed string theory gives the C -bracket, but the gauge transformation of the open string theory gives the F -bracket. The F -bracket with the strong constraints is different from the Courant bracket by an exact one-form. This exact one-form should come from the one-form gauge field. Based on a symmetry point of view, we deduce a suitable action with a nonzero H -flux at the low-energy level. From an equation of motion of the scalar dilaton, it defines a generalized scalar curvature. Finally, we construct a double sigma model with a boundary term and show that this model with constraints is classically equivalent to the ordinary sigma model.

  4. Cosmic strings in compactified gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, A.; Hirenzaki, S.; Shiraishi, K.

    1990-07-01

    A solution of the vortex type is given in a six-dimensional SU(2) × U(1) pure gauge theory coupled to Einstein gravity in a compactified background geometry. We construct the solution of an effective abelian Higgs model in terms of dimensional reduction. The solution, however, has a peculiarity in its physically relevant quantity, a deficit angle, which is given as a function of the ratio of the gauge couplings of SU(2) and U(1). The size of the extra space (sphere) is shown to vary with the distance from the axis of the ``string''. JSPS Fellow.

  5. A gauge theory of gravity in curved phase-spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    After a cursory introduction of the basic ideas behind Born’s Reciprocal Relativity theory, the geometry of the cotangent bundle of spacetime is studied via the introduction of nonlinear connections associated with certain nonholonomic modifications of Riemann-Cartan gravity within the context of Finsler geometry. A novel gauge theory of gravity in the 8D cotangent bundle T∗M of spacetime is explicitly constructed and based on the gauge group SO(6, 2) ×sR8 which acts on the tangent space to the cotangent bundle T(x,p)T∗M at each point (x,p). Several gravitational actions involving curvature and torsion tensors and associated with the geometry of curved phase-spaces are presented. We conclude with a brief discussion of the field equations, the geometrization of matter, quantum field theory (QFT) in accelerated frames, T-duality, double field theory, and generalized geometry.

  6. Quantum critical behavior of semisimple gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esbensen, Jacob Kamuk; Ryttov, Thomas A.; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    We study the perturbative phase diagram of semisimple fermionic gauge theories resembling the Standard Model. We investigate an S U (N ) gauge theory with M Dirac flavors where we gauge first an S U (M )L and then an S U (2 )L⊂S U (M )L of the original global symmetry S U (M )L×S U (M )R×U (1 ) of the theory. To avoid gauge anomalies we add leptonlike particles. At the two-loop level an intriguing phase diagram appears. We uncover phases in which one, two or three fixed points exist and discuss the associated flows of the coupling constants. We discover a phase featuring complete asymptotic freedom and simultaneously an interacting infrared fixed point in both couplings. The analysis further reveals special renormalization group trajectories along which one coupling displays asymptotic freedom and the other asymptotic safety, while both flowing in the infrared to an interacting fixed point. These are safety free trajectories. We briefly sketch out possible phenomenological implications, among which an independent way to generate near-conformal dynamics à la walking is investigated.

  7. Planar zeros in gauge theories and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Diego Medrano; Vera, Agustín Sabio; Vázquez-Mozo, Miguel Á.

    2016-09-01

    Planar zeros are studied in the context of the five-point scattering amplitude for gauge bosons and gravitons. In the case of gauge theories, it is found that planar zeros are determined by an algebraic curve in the projective plane spanned by the three stereographic coordinates labelling the direction of the outgoing momenta. This curve depends on the values of six independent color structures. Considering the gauge group SU( N) with N = 2 , 3 , 5 and fixed color indices, the class of curves obtained gets broader by increasing the rank of the group. For the five-graviton scattering, on the other hand, we show that the amplitude vanishes whenever the process is planar, without imposing further kinematic conditions. A rationale for this result is provided using color-kinematics duality.

  8. Hot gauge theories and ZN phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Ian I.

    1994-06-01

    In this paper several aspects of ZN symmetry in gauge theories at high temperatures are discussed. The metastable ZN bubbles in SU(N) gauge theories with fermions may have, generically, unacceptable thermodynamic behavior. Their free energy F~T4, with a positive proportionality constant. This leads not only to negative pressure but also to negative specific heat and, more seriously, to negative entropy. We argue that although such domains are important in the Euclidean theory, they cannot be interpreted as physical domains in Minkowski space. A related problem is connected with the analysis of the high-temperature limit of the confining phase. Using two-dimensional QCD with adjoint fermions as a toy model we shall demonstrate that in the light fermion limit there is no breaking of the ZN symmetry in the high-temperature limit and thus there are no ZN bubbles.

  9. Gauge Theory Gravity: Outline and Utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Matthew; Kosowsky, Arthur

    2003-04-01

    Gauge Theory Gravity, as formulated by Lasenby, Doran, and Gull, is a reformulation of gravitation as a gauge theory in Minkowski spacetime. This picture makes gravitation look formally analogous to the other forces of nature. It is locally equivalent to general relativity (the basic field equations are equivalent in form to the Cartan formulation of general relativity), but presents significant conceptual differences and certain calculational advantages. We provide an overview of the theory, its explicit relation to general relativity, and outline a constructive method for generating solutions. As an illustration, we obtain the most general spherically symmetric stationary vaccum solution, which explicitly displays all coordinate freedom and contains as special cases all common forms of the spherically symmetric vacuum metric.

  10. Gauged supersymmetries in Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolas

    2009-03-15

    In this paper we show that Yang-Mills theory in the Curci-Ferrari-Delbourgo-Jarvis gauge admits some up to now unknown local linear Ward identities. These identities imply some nonrenormalization theorems with practical simplifications for perturbation theory. We show, in particular, that all renormalization factors can be extracted from two-point functions. The Ward identities are shown to be related to supergauge transformations in the superfield formalism for Yang-Mills theory. The case of nonzero Curci-Ferrari mass is also addressed.

  11. Counting chiral operators in quiver gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butti, Agostino; Forcella, Davide; Hanany, Amihay; Vegh, David; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2007-11-01

    We discuss in detail the problem of counting BPS gauge invariant operators in the chiral ring of quiver gauge theories living on D-branes probing generic toric CY singularities. The computation of generating functions that include counting of baryonic operators is based on a relation between the baryonic charges in field theory and the Kähler moduli of the CY singularities. A study of the interplay between gauge theory and geometry shows that given geometrical sectors appear more than once in the field theory, leading to a notion of ``multiplicities". We explain in detail how to decompose the generating function for one D-brane into different sectors and how to compute their relevant multiplicities by introducing geometric and anomalous baryonic charges. The Plethystic Exponential remains a major tool for passing from one D-brane to arbitrary number N of D-branes. Explicit formulae are given for few examples, including Bbb C3/Bbb Z3, Bbb F0, and dP1.

  12. Light-Front Quantization of Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Brodskey, Stanley

    2002-12-01

    Light-front wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their physical quark and gluon degrees of freedom. The light-front Hamiltonian formalism provides new nonperturbative methods for obtaining the QCD spectrum and eigensolutions, including resolvant methods, variational techniques, and discretized light-front quantization. A new method for quantizing gauge theories in light-cone gauge using Dirac brackets to implement constraints is presented. In the case of the electroweak theory, this method of light-front quantization leads to a unitary and renormalizable theory of massive gauge particles, automatically incorporating the Lorentz and 't Hooft conditions as well as the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem. Spontaneous symmetry breaking is represented by the appearance of zero modes of the Higgs field leaving the light-front vacuum equal to the perturbative vacuum. I also discuss an ''event amplitude generator'' for automatically computing renormalized amplitudes in perturbation theory. The importance of final-state interactions for the interpretation of diffraction, shadowing, and single-spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions such as deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering is emphasized.

  13. Gauge theory of defects in continuous media I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, D.

    2006-11-01

    We present a selective review of the gauge theory of defects in the elastic continuum. After introducing the essential geometric concepts of continuum mechanics in the presence of defects, the classical defect dynamics equations involving dislocation and disclination density tensors are introduced. The mathematical structure of gauge theories is briefly discussed. Typical recent works covering Yang-Mills type gauge theories and gravity type gauge theories are touched upon in a qualitative way.

  14. Vortex dynamics in superfluids governed by an interacting gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butera, Salvatore; Valiente, Manuel; Öhberg, Patrik

    2016-08-01

    We study the dynamics of a vortex in a quasi two-dimensional Bose gas consisting of light-matter coupled atoms forming two-component pseudo spins. The gas is subject to a density dependent gauge potential, hence governed by an interacting gauge theory, which stems from a collisionally induced detuning between the incident laser frequency and the atomic energy levels. This provides a back-action between the synthetic gauge potential and the matter field. A Lagrangian approach is used to derive an expression for the force acting on a vortex in such a gas. We discuss the similarities between this force and the one predicted by Iordanskii, Lifshitz and Pitaevskii when scattering between a superfluid vortex and the thermal component is taken into account.

  15. A Lorentz gauge theory of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzou, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    We present a Lorentz gauge theory of gravity in which the metric is not dynamical. Spherically symmetric weak field solutions are studied. We show that this solution contains the Schwarzschild spacetime at least to the first order of perturbation. Next, we present a special case of the theory where the Schwarzschild metric is an exact solution. It is also shown that the de Sitter space is an exact vacuum solution of this special case and as a result the theory is able to explain the expansion of the universe with no need for dark energy. Within this special case, quantization of the theory is also studied, the basic Feynman diagrams are derived and the renormalizability of the theory is studied using the power-counting method. We show that under a certain condition the theory is power-counting renormalizable.

  16. Lattice gauge theory and Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    1988-11-01

    Lattice gauge theory is now the primary non-perturbative technique for quantum field theory. The lattice represents an ultraviolet cutoff, and renormalization group arguments show how the bare coupling must be varied to obtain the continuum limit. Expansions in the inverse of the coupling constant demonstrate quark confinement in the strong coupling limit. Numerical simulation has become the approach to calculating hadronic properties. The basic algorithms for obtaining appropriately weighted gauge field configurations are discussed. Algorithms for treating fermionic fields, which still require considerably more computer time than needed for purely bosonic simulations, are also discussed. Some particularly promising recent approaches are based on global accept-reject steps and should display a rather favorable dependence of computer time on the system volume. 39 refs.

  17. New relations for gauge-theory amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J. J. M.; Johansson, H.

    2008-10-15

    We present an identity satisfied by the kinematic factors of diagrams describing the tree amplitudes of massless gauge theories. This identity is a kinematic analog of the Jacobi identity for color factors. Using this we find new relations between color-ordered partial amplitudes. We discuss applications to multiloop calculations via the unitarity method. In particular, we illustrate the relations between different contributions to a two-loop four-point QCD amplitude. We also use this identity to reorganize gravity tree amplitudes diagram by diagram, offering new insight into the structure of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations between gauge and gravity tree amplitudes. This insight leads to similar but novel relations. We expect this to be helpful in higher-loop studies of the ultraviolet properties of gravity theories.

  18. Gauge and integrable theories in loop spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. A.; Luchini, G.

    2012-05-01

    We propose an integral formulation of the equations of motion of a large class of field theories which leads in a quite natural and direct way to the construction of conservation laws. The approach is based on generalized non-abelian Stokes theorems for p-form connections, and its appropriate mathematical language is that of loop spaces. The equations of motion are written as the equality of a hyper-volume ordered integral to a hyper-surface ordered integral on the border of that hyper-volume. The approach applies to integrable field theories in (1+1) dimensions, Chern-Simons theories in (2+1) dimensions, and non-abelian gauge theories in (2+1) and (3+1) dimensions. The results presented in this paper are relevant for the understanding of global properties of those theories. As a special byproduct we solve a long standing problem in (3+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory, namely the construction of conserved charges, valid for any solution, which are invariant under arbitrary gauge transformations.

  19. Dynamical symmetry breaking in chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yan-Liang; Shrock, Robert

    2016-09-01

    We analyze patterns of dynamical symmetry breaking in strongly coupled chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups G . If the gauge coupling for a factor group Gi⊂G becomes sufficiently strong, it can produce bilinear fermion condensates that break the Gi symmetry itself and/or break other gauge symmetries Gj⊂G . Our comparative study of a number of strongly coupled direct-product chiral gauge theories elucidates how the patterns of symmetry breaking depend on the structure of G and on the relative sizes of the gauge couplings corresponding to factor groups in the direct product.

  20. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in gauge theories.

    PubMed

    Kibble, T W B

    2015-01-13

    The aim of this historical article is to describe the development of the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking in gauge theories as seen from my perspective as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College London, UK. Beginning with an account of particle physics in the years after the Second World War, I describe early attempts at constructing a unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions, the obstacles encountered and how they were eventually overcome with the mass-generating mechanism incorporating the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking, one of whose features is the now-famous Higgs boson.

  1. Local subsystems in gauge theory and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, William; Freidel, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    We consider the problem of defining localized subsystems in gauge theory and gravity. Such systems are associated to spacelike hypersurfaces with boundaries and provide the natural setting for studying entanglement entropy of localized subsystems. We present a general formalism to associate a gauge-invariant classical phase space to a spatial slice with boundary by introducing new degrees of freedom on the boundary. In Yang-Mills theory the new degrees of freedom are a choice of gauge on the boundary, transformations of which are generated by the normal component of the nonabelian electric field. In general relativity the new degrees of freedom are the location of a codimension-2 surface and a choice of conformal normal frame. These degrees of freedom transform under a group of surface symmetries, consisting of diffeomorphisms of the codimension-2 boundary, and position-dependent linear deformations of its normal plane. We find the observables which generate these symmetries, consisting of the conformal normal metric and curvature of the normal connection. We discuss the implications for the problem of defining entanglement entropy in quantum gravity. Our work suggests that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy may arise from the different ways of gluing together two partial Cauchy surfaces at a cross-section of the horizon.

  2. Supermatrix proper-time representation of one-loop effective action and gauge invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Min, H. ); Lee, C. )

    1990-01-15

    Starting from the supermatrix proper-time representation, we construct the gauge-invariant one-loop effective action for generic renormalizable field theories involving spin-0, -1/2, and -1 fields in flat or curved spacetime. In the presence of fermion couplings involving the {gamma}{sub 5} matrix (but the theory having no genuine gauge anomaly), gauge invariance requires that the usual ultraviolet renormalization procedure be supplemented by appropriate finite renormalization terms. The supermatrix method is very convenient for finding the finite renormalization terms associated with vertex functions involving some external fermion legs.

  3. Matrix product states for gauge field theories.

    PubMed

    Buyens, Boye; Haegeman, Jutho; Van Acoleyen, Karel; Verschelde, Henri; Verstraete, Frank

    2014-08-29

    The matrix product state formalism is used to simulate Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories. To this end, we define matrix product state manifolds which are manifestly gauge invariant. As an application, we study (1+1)-dimensional one flavor quantum electrodynamics, also known as the massive Schwinger model, and are able to determine very accurately the ground-state properties and elementary one-particle excitations in the continuum limit. In particular, a novel particle excitation in the form of a heavy vector boson is uncovered, compatible with the strong coupling expansion in the continuum. We also study full quantum nonequilibrium dynamics by simulating the real-time evolution of the system induced by a quench in the form of a uniform background electric field. PMID:25215973

  4. Quenched domain wall QCD with DBW2 gauge action toward nucleon decay matrix element calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Yasumichi

    2001-10-01

    The domain wall fermion action is a promising way to control chiral symmetry in lattice gauge theory. By the good chiral symmetry of this approach even at finite lattice spacing, one is able to extract hadronic matrix elements, like kaon weak matrix elements, for which the symmetry is extremely important. Ordinary fermions with poor chiral symmetry make calculation difficult because of the large mixing of operators with different chiral structure. Even though the domain wall fermion action with the simple Wilson gauge action has a good chiral symmetry, one can further improve the symmetry by using a different gauge action. We take a non-perturbatively improved action, the DBW2 action of the QCD Taro group. Hadron masses are systematically examined for a range of parameters. Application to nucleon decay matrix element is also discussed.

  5. Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.

    2011-01-01

    AdS/QCD, light-front holography, and the nonperturbative running coupling / Stanley J. Brodsky, Guy de Teramond and Alexandre Deur -- New results on non-abelian vortices - Further insights into monopole, vortex and confinement / K. Konishi -- Study on exotic hadrons at B-factories / Toru Iijima -- Cold compressed baryonic matter with hidden local symmetry and holography / Mannque Rho -- Aspects of baryons in holographic QCD / T. Sakai -- Nuclear force from string theory / K. Hashimoto -- Integrating out holographic QCD back to hidden local symmetry / Masayasu Harada, Shinya Matsuzaki and Koichi Yamawaki -- Holographic heavy quarks and the giant Polyakov loop / Gianluca Grignani, Joanna Karczmarek and Gordon W. Semenoff -- Effect of vector-axial-vector mixing to dilepton spectrum in hot and/or dense matter / Masayasu Harada and Chihiro Sasaki -- Infrared behavior of ghost and gluon propagators compatible with color confinement in Yang-Mills theory with the Gribov horizon / Kei-Ichi Kondo -- Chiral symmetry breaking on the lattice / Hidenori Fukaya [for JLQCD and TWQCD collaborations] -- Gauge-Higgs unification: Stable Higgs bosons as cold dark matter / Yutaka Hosotani -- The limits of custodial symmetry / R. Sekhar Chivukula ... [et al.] -- Higgs searches at the tevatron / Kazuhiro Yamamoto [for the CDF and D[symbol] collaborations] -- The top triangle moose / R. S. Chivukula ... [et al.] -- Conformal phase transition in QCD like theories and beyond / V. A. Miransky -- Gauge-Higgs unification at LHC / Nobuhito Maru and Nobuchika Okada -- W[symbol]W[symbol] scattering in Higgsless models: Identifying better effective theories / Alexander S. Belyaev ... [et al.] -- Holographic estimate of Muon g - 2 / Deog Ki Hong -- Gauge-Higgs dark matter / T. Yamashita -- Topological and curvature effects in a multi-fermion interaction model / T. Inagaki and M. Hayashi -- A model of soft mass generation / J. Hosek -- TeV physics and conformality / Thomas Appelquist -- Conformal

  6. Gauge theories under incorporation of a generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Kober, Martin

    2010-10-15

    There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self-interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model, and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.

  7. Lattice gauge theories and Monte Carlo algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    1988-10-01

    Lattice gauge theory has become the primary tool for non-perturbative calculations in quantum field theory. These lectures review some of the foundations of this subject. The first lecture reviews the basic definition of the theory in terms of invariant integrals over group elements on lattice bonds. The lattice represents an ultraviolet cutoff, and renormalization group arguments show how the bare coupling must be varied to obtain the continuum limit. Expansions in the inverse of the coupling constant demonstrate quark confinement in the strong coupling limit. The second lecture turns to numerical simulation, which has become an important approach to calculating hadronic properties. Here I discuss the basic algorithms for obtaining appropriately weighted gauge field configurations. The third lecture turns to algorithms for treating fermionic fields, which still require considerably more computer time than needed for purely bosonic simulations. Some particularly promising recent approaches are based on global accept-reject steps and should display a rather favorable dependence of computer time on the system volume. 34 refs.

  8. Continuum regularization of gauge theory with fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, H.S.

    1987-03-01

    The continuum regularization program is discussed in the case of d-dimensional gauge theory coupled to fermions in an arbitrary representation. Two physically equivalent formulations are given. First, a Grassmann formulation is presented, which is based on the two-noise Langevin equations of Sakita, Ishikawa and Alfaro and Gavela. Second, a non-Grassmann formulation is obtained by regularized integration of the matter fields within the regularized Grassmann system. Explicit perturbation expansions are studied in both formulations, and considerable simplification is found in the integrated non-Grassmann formalism.

  9. Parallel supercomputers for lattice gauge theory.

    PubMed

    Brown, F R; Christ, N H

    1988-03-18

    During the past 10 years, particle physicists have increasingly employed numerical simulation to answer fundamental theoretical questions about the properties of quarks and gluons. The enormous computer resources required by quantum chromodynamic calculations have inspired the design and construction of very powerful, highly parallel, dedicated computers optimized for this work. This article gives a brief description of the numerical structure and current status of these large-scale lattice gauge theory calculations, with emphasis on the computational demands they make. The architecture, present state, and potential of these special-purpose supercomputers is described. It is argued that a numerical solution of low energy quantum chromodynamics may well be achieved by these machines.

  10. Large gauge transformations in double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohm, Olaf; Zwiebach, Barton

    2013-02-01

    Finite gauge transformations in double field theory can be defined by the exponential of generalized Lie derivatives. We interpret these transformations as `generalized coordinate transformations' in the doubled space by proposing and testing a formula that writes large transformations in terms of derivatives of the coordinate maps. Successive generalized coordinate transformations give a generalized coordinate transformation that differs from the direct composition of the original two. Instead, it is constructed using the Courant bracket. These transformations form a group when acting on fields but, intriguingly, do not associate when acting on coordinates.

  11. Gauge field theory for the Poincaré-Weyl group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babourova, O. V.; Frolov, B. N.; Zhukovsky, V. Ch.

    2006-09-01

    On the basis of the general principles of a gauge field theory, the gauge theory for the Poincaŕe-Weyl group is constructed. It is shown that tetrads are not true gauge fields, but represent functions of true gauge fields: Lorentzian, translational, and dilatational ones. The equations for gauge fields are obtained. Geometrical interpretation of the theory is developed demonstrating that as a result of localization of the Poincaré-Weyl group the space-time becomes a Weyl-Cartan space. The geometrical interpretation of a dilaton field as a component of the metric tensor of a tangent space in Weyl-Cartan geometry is also proposed.

  12. Monte Carlo simulations of lattice gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Rebbi, C

    1980-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulations done for four-dimensional lattice gauge systems are described, where the gauge group is one of the following: U(1); SU(2); Z/sub N/, i.e., the subgroup of U(1) consisting of the elements e 2..pi..in/N with integer n and N; the eight-element group of quaternions, Q; the 24- and 48-element subgroups of SU(2), denoted by T and O, which reduce to the rotation groups of the tetrahedron and the octahedron when their centers Z/sub 2/, are factored out. All of these groups can be considered subgroups of SU(2) and a common normalization was used for the action. The following types of Monte Carlo experiments are considered: simulations of a thermal cycle, where the temperature of the system is varied slightly every few Monte Carlo iterations and the internal energy is measured; mixed-phase runs, where several Monte Carlo iterations are done at a few temperatures near a phase transition starting with a lattice which is half ordered and half disordered; measurements of averages of Wilson factors for loops of different shape. 5 figures, 1 table. (RWR)

  13. Quantum Chromodynamics -- The Perfect Yang-Mills Gauge Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, David

    David Gross: My talk today is about the most beautiful of all Yang-Mills Theories (non-Abelian gauge theories), the theory of the strong nuclear interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD. We are celebrating 60 years of the publication of a remarkable paper which introduced the concept of non-Abelian local gauge symmetries, now called the Yang-Mills theory, to physics. In the introduction to this paper it is noted that the usual principle of isotopic spin symmetry is not consistent with the concept of localized fields. This sentence has drawn attention over the years because the usual principle of isotopic spin symmetry is consistent, it is just not satisfactory. The authors, Yang and Mills, introduced a more satisfactory notion of local symmetry which did not require one to rotate (in isotopic spin space) the whole universe at once to achieve the symmetry transformation. Global symmetries are thus are similar to `action at a distance', whereas Yang-Mills theory is manifestly local...

  14. Quantum cohomology and quantum hydrodynamics from supersymmetric quiver gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonelli, Giulio; Sciarappa, Antonio; Tanzini, Alessandro; Vasko, Petr

    2016-11-01

    We study the connection between N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories, quantum cohomology and quantum integrable systems of hydrodynamic type. We consider gauge theories on ALE spaces of A and D-type and discuss how they describe the quantum cohomology of the corresponding Nakajima's quiver varieties. We also discuss how the exact evaluation of local BPS observables in the gauge theory can be used to calculate the spectrum of quantum Hamiltonians of spin Calogero integrable systems and spin Intermediate Long Wave hydrodynamics. This is explicitly obtained by a Bethe Ansatz Equation provided by the quiver gauge theory in terms of its adjacency matrix.

  15. Generating functionals for Green's functions in gauge field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Bordag, M.; Kaschlun, L.; Matveev, V.A.; Robaschik, D.

    1987-09-01

    The structure of the generating functional of the one-particle-irreducible Green's functions in gauge field theories is investigated. Both axial as well as covariant gauge conditions are considered. For both cases, the general structure of the functionals is obtained, and a functional expansion with respect to nonlocal operators is given. The appearance of gauge-dependent operators in the case of the covariant gauge follows in a natural manner from the structure of the corresponding functional.

  16. Parity anomalies in gauge theories in 2 + 1 dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S.; Yahalom, R.

    1986-01-01

    We show that the introduction of massless fermions in an abelian gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions does not lead to any parity anomaly despite a non-commutativity of limits in the structure function of the odd part of the vacuum polarization tensor. However, parity anomaly does exist in non-abelian theories due to a conflict between gauge invariance under large gauge transformations and the parity symmetry. 6 refs.

  17. Non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetries in F-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Thomas W.; Pugh, Tom G.; Regalado, Diego

    2016-02-01

    The presence of non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetries in four-dimensional F-theory compactifications is investigated. Such symmetries are shown to arise from seven-brane configurations in genuine F-theory settings without a weak string coupling description. Gauge fields on mutually non-local seven-branes are argued to gauge both R-R and NS-NS two-form bulk axions. The gauging is completed into a generalisation of the Heisenberg group with either additional seven-brane gauge fields or R-R bulk gauge fields. The former case relies on having seven-brane fluxes, while the latter case requires torsion cohomology and is analysed in detail through the M-theory dual. Remarkably, the M-theory reduction yields an Abelian theory that becomes non-Abelian when translated into the correct duality frame to perform the F-theory limit. The reduction shows that the gauge coupling function depends on the gauged scalars and transforms non-trivially as required for the groups encountered. This field dependence agrees with the expectations for the kinetic mixing of seven-branes and is unchanged if the gaugings are absent.

  18. On higher holonomy invariants in higher gauge theory I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    This is the first of a series of two technical papers devoted to the analysis of holonomy invariants in strict higher gauge theory with end applications in higher Chern-Simons theory. For a flat 2-connection, we define the 2-holonomy of surface knots of arbitrary genus and determine its covariance properties under 1-gauge transformation and change of base data.

  19. Gauge theory of a group of diffeomorphisms. II. The conformal and de Sitter groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, Eric A.

    1986-12-01

    The extension of Hehl's Poincaré gauge theory to more general groups that include space-time diffeomorphisms is worked out for two particular examples, one corresponding to the action of the conformal group on Minkowski space, and the other to the action of the de Sitter group on de Sitter space, and the effect of these groups on physical fields.

  20. Finiteness of the Coulomb gauge QCD perturbative effective action

    SciTech Connect

    Andraši, A.; Taylor, J.C.

    2015-05-15

    At 2-loop order in the Coulomb gauge, individual Feynman graphs contributing to the effective action have energy divergences. It is proved that these cancel in suitable combinations of graphs. This has previously been shown only for transverse external fields. The calculation results in a generalization of the Christ–Lee term which was inserted into the Hamiltonian.

  1. Elliptic Genera of Two-Dimensional Gauge Theories with Rank-One Gauge Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benini, Francesco; Eager, Richard; Hori, Kentaro; Tachikawa, Yuji

    2014-04-01

    We compute the elliptic genera of two-dimensional and -gauged linear sigma models via supersymmetric localization, for rank-one gauge groups. The elliptic genus is expressed as a sum over residues of a meromorphic function whose argument is the holonomy of the gauge field along both the spatial and the temporal directions of the torus. We illustrate our formulas by a few examples including the quintic Calabi-Yau, SU(2) and O(2) gauge theories coupled to N fundamental chiral multiplets, and a geometric model.

  2. Purely cubic action for string field theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.

  3. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Daniel, A

    2008-05-30

    In this document we describe work done under the SciDAC-1 Project National Computerational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory. The objective of this project was to construct the computational infrastructure needed to study quantim chromodynamics (QCD). Nearly all high energy and nuclear physicists in the United States working on the numerical study of QCD are involved in the project, as are Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). A list of the serior participants is given in Appendix A.2. The project includes the development of community software for the effective use of the terascale computers, and the research and development of commodity clusters optimized for the study of QCD. The software developed as part of this effort is pubicly available, and is being widely used by physicists in the United States and abroad. The prototype clusters built with SciDAC-1 fund have been used to test the software, and are available to lattice guage theorists in the United States on a peer reviewed basis.

  4. Non-commutative U(1) gauge theory on \\mth{\\mathbb{R}^4_{\\Theta}} with oscillator term and BRST symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, D. N.; Grosse, H.; Schweda, M.

    2007-09-01

    Inspired by the renormalizability of the non-commutative Φ4 model with added oscillator term, we formulate a non-commutative gauge theory, where the oscillator enters as a gauge fixing term in a BRST invariant manner. All propagators turn out to be essentially given by the Mehler kernel and the bilinear part of the action is invariant under the Langmann-Szabo duality. The model is a promising candidate for a renormalizable non-commutative U(1) gauge theory.

  5. New approach to one-loop calculations in gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.; Kosower, D.A.

    1988-09-15

    We propose using the technology of four-dimensional string theories to calculate amplitudes in gauge theories. Strings make such calculations much more efficient by summing a large number of Feynman diagrams all at once. We check the idea by constructing a string model reducing to a pure non-Abelian gauge theory in the infinite-tension limit and computing its ..beta.. function with these techniques.

  6. Gravity duals of supersymmetric gauge theories on three-manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquet, Daniel; Lorenzen, Jakob; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James

    2016-08-01

    We study gravity duals to a broad class of {N} = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories defined on a general class of three-manifold geometries. The gravity backgrounds are based on Euclidean self-dual solutions to four-dimensional gauged supergravity. As well as constructing new examples, we prove in general that for solutions defined on the four-ball the gravitational free energy depends only on the supersymmetric Killing vector, finding a simple closed formula when the solution has U(1) × U(1) symmetry. Our result agrees with the large N limit of the free energy of the dual gauge theory, computed using localization. This constitutes an exact check of the gauge/gravity correspondence for a very broad class of gauge theories with a large N limit, defined on a general class of background three-manifold geometries.

  7. Implications of a light dilaton in gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, Rainer

    1997-06-15

    The recent observation that gauge theory with a dilaton accommodates both a regularized Coulomb phase and a confining phase is reviewed. In addition to the contribution from the linearly increasing gauge potential dilaton-mass couplings may induce a scalar contribution and some implications of the vector and scalar contributions to the confining potential are outlined.

  8. Quarks in Coulomb gauge perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Popovici, C.; Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.

    2009-02-15

    Coulomb gauge quantum chromodynamics within the first order functional formalism is considered. The quark contributions to the Dyson-Schwinger equations are derived and one-loop perturbative results for the two-point functions are presented.

  9. Topics in Noncommutative Gauge Theories and Deformed Relativistic Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    This is my PhD thesis. In this thesis we study the gauge theories on noncommutative Moyal space. We find new static solitons and instantons in terms of the so called generalized Bose operators. Generalized Bose operators are constructed to describe reducible representation of the oscillator algebra. They create/annihilate k-quanta, k being a positive integer. We start with giving an alternative description to the already found static magnetic flux tube solutions of the noncommutative gauge theories in terms of generalized Bose operators. The Nielsen-Olesen vortex solutions found in terms of these operators reduce to the already found ones. On the contrary we find a class of new instaton solutions which are unitarily inequivalant to the the ones found from ADHM construction on noncommutative space. The charge of the instaton has a description in terms of the index representing the reducibility of the Fock space, i.e., k. After studying the static solitonic solutions in noncommutative Minkowski space and the instaton solutions in noncommutative Euclidean space we go on to study the implications of the time-space noncommutativity in Minkowski space. To understand it properly we study the time-dependent transitions of a forced harmonic oscillator in noncommutative 1+1 dimensional spacetime. We also try to understand the implications of the found results in the context of quantum optics. We then shift to the so called DSR theories which are related to a different kind of noncommutative (kappa-Minkowski) space. DSR (Doubly/Deformed Special Relativity) aims to search for an alternate relativistic theory which keeps a length/energy scale (the Planck scale) and a velocity scale (the speed of light scale) invariant. We study thermodynamics of an ideal gas in such a scenario.

  10. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories: progress and outlook Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories: progress and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiban, Radu; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2011-11-01

    This issue aims to serve as an introduction to our current understanding of the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theory, an area which has seen particularly rapid advances in recent years following decades of steady progress. The articles contained herein provide a snapshot of the latest developments which we hope will serve as a valuable resource for graduate students and other scientists wishing to learn about the current state of the field, even if our continually evolving understanding of the subject might soon render this compilation incomplete. Why the fascination with scattering amplitudes, which have attracted the imagination and dedicated effort of so many physicists? Part of it stems from the belief, supported now by numerous examples, that unexpected simplifications of otherwise apparently complicated calculations do not happen by accident. Instead they provide a strong motivation to seek out an underlying explanation. The insight thereby gained can subsequently be used to make the next class of seemingly impossible calculations not only possible, but in some cases even trivial. This two-pronged strategy of exploring and exploiting the structure of gauge theory amplitudes appeals to a wide audience from formal theorists interested in mathematical structure for the sake of its own beauty to more phenomenologically-minded physicists eager to speed up the next generation of analysis software. Understandably it is the maximally supersymmetric 𝒩 = 4 Yang-Mills theory (SYM) which has the simplest structure and has correspondingly received the most attention. Rarely in theoretical physics are we fortunate enough to encounter a toy model which is simple enough to be solved completely yet rich enough to possess interesting non-trivial structure while simultaneously, and most importantly, being applicable (even if only as a good approximation) to a wide range of 'real' systems. The canonical example in quantum mechanics is of course the harmonic

  11. Topological and differential geometrical gauge field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saaty, Joseph

    between bosons (quantized) and fermions (not quantized). Thus I produced results that were previously unobtainable. Furthermore, since topological charge takes place in Flat Spacetime, I investigated the quantization of the Curved Spacetime version of topological charge (Differential Geometrical Charge) by developing the differential geometrical Gauge Field Theory. It should be noted that the homotopy classification method is not at all applicable to Curved Spacetime. I also modified the Dirac equation in Curved Spacetime by using Einstein's field equation in order to account for the presence of matter. As a result, my method has allowed me to address four cases of topological charge (both spinless and spin one- half, in both Flat and in Curved Spacetime) whereas earlier methods had been blind to all but one of these cases (spinless in Flat Spacetime). (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  12. Noncommutative SO(2,3) gauge theory and noncommutative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Marija; Radovanović, Voja

    2014-06-01

    In this paper noncommutative gravity is constructed as a gauge theory of the noncommutative SO(2,3)⋆ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical (constant). The Seiberg-Witten map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action with the cosmological constant term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are of zeroth to fourth power in the curvature tensor and torsion. Trying to relate our results with f(R) and f(T) models, we analyze different limits of our model. In the limit of big cosmological constant and vanishing torsion we obtain an x-dependent correction to the cosmological constant; i.e. noncommutativity leads to an x-dependent cosmological constant. We also discuss the limit of small cosmological constant and vanishing torsion and the teleparallel limit.

  13. Large field inflation models from higher-dimensional gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki; Koyama, Yoji

    2015-02-01

    Motivated by the recent detection of B-mode polarization of CMB by BICEP2 which is possibly of primordial origin, we study large field inflation models which can be obtained from higher-dimensional gauge theories. The constraints from CMB observations on the gauge theory parameters are given, and their naturalness are discussed. Among the models analyzed, Dante's Inferno model turns out to be the most preferred model in this framework.

  14. Large field inflation models from higher-dimensional gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki; Koyama, Yoji

    2015-02-23

    Motivated by the recent detection of B-mode polarization of CMB by BICEP2 which is possibly of primordial origin, we study large field inflation models which can be obtained from higher-dimensional gauge theories. The constraints from CMB observations on the gauge theory parameters are given, and their naturalness are discussed. Among the models analyzed, Dante’s Inferno model turns out to be the most preferred model in this framework.

  15. U([infinity]) gauge theory from higher dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, K. )

    1992-09-30

    In this paper, the authors show that classical U[infinity] gauge theories can be obtained from the dimensional reduction of a certain class of higher-derivative theories. In general, the exact symmetry is attained in the limit of degenerate metric; otherwise, the infinite-dimensional symmetry can be taken as spontaneously broken. Monopole solutions are examined in the model for scalar and gauge fields. An extension to gravity is also discussed.

  16. Yang-Mills as massive Chern-Simons theory: a third way to three-dimensional gauge theories.

    PubMed

    Arvanitakis, Alex S; Sevrin, Alexander; Townsend, Paul K

    2015-05-01

    The Yang-Mills (YM) equation in three spacetime dimensions (3D) can be modified to include a novel parity-preserving interaction term, with an inverse mass parameter, in addition to a possible topological mass term. The novelty is that the modified YM equation is not the Euler-Lagrange equation of any gauge-invariant local action for the YM gauge potential alone. Instead, consistency is achieved in the "third way" exploited by 3D minimal massive gravity. We relate our results to the "novel Higgs mechanism" for Chern-Simons gauge theories.

  17. SU{sub {ital q}}(2) lattice gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bimonte, G.; Stern, A.; Vitale, P.

    1996-07-01

    We reformulate the Hamiltonian approach to lattice gauge theories such that, at the classical level, the gauge group does not act canonically, but instead as a Poisson-Lie group. At the quantum level, the symmetry gets promoted to a quantum group gauge symmetry. The theory depends on two parameters: the deformation parameter {lambda} and the lattice spacing {ital a}. We show that the system of Kogut and Susskind is recovered when {lambda}{r_arrow}0, while QCD is recovered in the continuum limit (for any {lambda}). We, thus, have the possibility of having a two-parameter regularization of QCD. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. Cosmological perturbation theory, instantaneous gauges, and local inertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bičák, Jiří; Katz, Joseph; Lynden-Bell, Donald

    2007-09-01

    Linear perturbations of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes with any curvature and cosmological constant are studied in a general gauge without decomposition into harmonics. Desirable gauges are selected as those which embody best Mach’s principle: in these gauges local inertial frames can be determined instantaneously via the perturbed Einstein field equations from the distributions of energy and momentum in the universe. The inertial frames are identified by their “accelerations and rotations” with respect to the cosmological frames associated with the “Machian gauges.” In closed spherical universes, integral gauge conditions are imposed to eliminate motions generated by the conformal Killing vectors. The meaning of Traschen’s integral-constraint vectors is thus elucidated. For all three types of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes the Machian gauges admit much less residual freedom than the synchronous or generalized harmonic gauge. Mach’s principle is best exhibited in the Machian gauges in closed spherical universes. Independent of any Machian motivation, the general perturbation equations and discussion of gauges are useful for cosmological perturbation theory.

  19. A construction of lattice chiral gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert

    1995-02-01

    Path integration over Euclidean chiral fermions is replaced by the quantum mechanics of an auxiliary system of non-interacting fermions. Our construction avoids the no-go theorem and faithfully maintains all the known important features of chiral fermions, including the violation of some perturbative conservation laws by gauge field configurations of non-trivial topology.

  20. Gauge theory of Virasoro-Kac-Moody group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. M.; Zoh, S. W.

    1992-10-01

    We present a prototype gauge theory of the Virasoro-Kac-Moody symmetry associated with an arbitrary grand unified group G, which could be interpreted as an effective field theory of a colored string. The theory automatically breaks the symmetry down to H⊗U(1), where H is a subgroup of G and U(1) is the Cartan subgroup of the Virasoro group. After the inevitable spontaneous symmetry breaking the particle spectrum of the theory consists of an infinite tower of massive spin-one fields, the massless gauge fields of the unbroken subgroup, and the light scalar fields which become the pseudo-Goldstone fields of the symmetry breaking

  1. Perturbative Quantum Gravity as a Double Copy of Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Zvi; Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Johansson, Henrik

    2010-08-06

    In a previous paper we observed that (classical) tree-level gauge-theory amplitudes can be rearranged to display a duality between color and kinematics. Once this is imposed, gravity amplitudes are obtained using two copies of gauge-theory diagram numerators. Here we conjecture that this duality persists to all quantum loop orders and can thus be used to obtain multiloop gravity amplitudes easily from gauge-theory ones. As a nontrivial test, we show that the three-loop four-point amplitude of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory can be arranged into a form satisfying the duality, and by taking double copies of the diagram numerators we obtain the corresponding amplitude of N=8 supergravity. We also remark on a nonsupersymmetric two-loop test based on pure Yang-Mills theory resulting in gravity coupled to an antisymmetric tensor and dilaton.

  2. Perturbative quantum gravity as a double copy of gauge theory.

    PubMed

    Bern, Zvi; Carrasco, John Joseph M; Johansson, Henrik

    2010-08-01

    In a previous paper we observed that (classical) tree-level gauge-theory amplitudes can be rearranged to display a duality between color and kinematics. Once this is imposed, gravity amplitudes are obtained using two copies of gauge-theory diagram numerators. Here we conjecture that this duality persists to all quantum loop orders and can thus be used to obtain multiloop gravity amplitudes easily from gauge-theory ones. As a nontrivial test, we show that the three-loop four-point amplitude of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory can be arranged into a form satisfying the duality, and by taking double copies of the diagram numerators we obtain the corresponding amplitude of N=8 supergravity. We also remark on a nonsupersymmetric two-loop test based on pure Yang-Mills theory resulting in gravity coupled to an antisymmetric tensor and dilaton.

  3. Mass spectrum and thermodynamics of quasiconformal gauge theories from gauge/gravity duality

    SciTech Connect

    Alanen, J.; Kajantie, K.; Alho, T.; Tuominen, K.

    2011-10-15

    We use gauge/gravity duality to study simultaneously the mass spectrum and the thermodynamics of a generic quasiconformal gauge theory, specified by its beta function. The beta function of a quasiconformal theory almost vanishes, and the coupling is almost constant between two widely separated energy scales. Depending on whether the gravity dual has a black hole or not, the mass spectrum is either a spectrum of quasinormal oscillations or a normal T=0 mass spectrum. The mass spectrum is quantitatively correlated with the thermal properties of the system. As the theory approaches conformality, the masses have to vanish. We show that in this limit, the masses calculated via gauge/gravity duality satisfy expected scaling properties.

  4. N=2, 4 supersymmetric gauge field theory in two-time physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bars, Itzhak; Kuo, Y.-C.

    2009-01-15

    In the context of two-time physics in 4+2 dimensions we construct the most general N=2, 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theories for any gauge group G. This builds on our previous work for N=1 supersymmetry (SUSY). The action, the conserved SUSY currents, and the SU(N) covariant SUSY transformation laws are presented for both N=2 and N=4. When the equations of motion are used the SUSY transformations close to the supergroup SU(2,2|N) with N=1, 2, 4. The SU(2,2)=SO(4,2) subsymmetry is realized linearly on 4+2 dimensional flat spacetime. All fields, including vectors and spinors, are in 4+2 dimensions. The extra gauge symmetries in 2T field theory, together with the kinematic constraints that follow from the action, remove all the ghosts to give a unitary theory. By choosing gauges and solving the kinematic equations, the 2T field theory in 4+2 flat spacetime can be reduced to various shadows in various 3+1 dimensional (generally curved) spacetimes. These shadows are related to each other by dualities. The conformal shadows of our theories in flat 3+1 dimensions coincide with the well known counterpart N=1, 2, 4 supersymmetric massless renormalizable field theories in 3+1 dimensions. It is expected that our more symmetric new structures in 4+2 spacetime may be useful for nonperturbative or exact solutions of these theories.

  5. Gauge and motion in perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Through second order in perturbative general relativity, a small compact object in an external vacuum spacetime obeys a generalized equivalence principle: although it is accelerated with respect to the external background geometry, it is in free fall with respect to a certain effective vacuum geometry. However, this single principle takes very different mathematical forms, with very different behaviors, depending on how one treats perturbed motion. Furthermore, any description of perturbed motion can be altered by a gauge transformation. In this paper, I clarify the relationship between two treatments of perturbed motion and the gauge freedom in each. I first show explicitly how one common treatment, called the Gralla-Wald approximation, can be derived from a second, called the self-consistent approximation. I next present a general treatment of smooth gauge transformations in both approximations, in which I emphasize that the approximations' governing equations can be formulated in an invariant manner. All of these analyses are carried through second perturbative order, but the methods are general enough to go to any order. Furthermore, the tools I develop, and many of the results, should have broad applicability to any description of perturbed motion, including osculating-geodesic and two-timescale descriptions.

  6. Relational mechanics as a gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    Absolute space is eliminated from the body of mechanics by gauging translations and rotations in the Lagrangian of a classical system. The procedure implies the addition of compensating terms to the kinetic energy, in such a way that the resulting equations of motion are valid in any frame. The compensating terms provide inertial forces depending on the total momentum P, intrinsic angular momentum J and intrinsic inertia tensor I. Therefore, the privileged frames where Newton's equations are valid ( Newtonian frames) are completely determined by the matter distribution of the universe ( Machianization). At the Hamiltonian level, the gauge invariance leads to first class constraints that remove those degrees of freedom that make no sense once the absolute space has been eliminated. This reformulation of classical mechanics is entirely relational, since it is a dynamics for the distances between particles. It is also Machian, since the rotation of the rest of the universe produces centrifugal effects. It then provides a new perspective to consider the foundational ideas of general relativity, like Mach's principle and the weak equivalence principle. With regard to the concept of time, the absence of an absolute time is known to be a characteristic of parametrized systems. Furthermore, the scale invariance of those parametrized systems whose potentials are inversely proportional to the squared distances can be also gauged by introducing another compensating term associated with the intrinsic virial G ( shape-dynamics).

  7. 2PI functional techniques for gauge theories: QED

    SciTech Connect

    Reinosa, Urko Serreau, Julien

    2010-05-15

    We discuss the formulation of the prototype gauge field theory, QED, in the context of two-particle-irreducible (2PI) functional techniques with particular emphasis on the issues of renormalization and gauge symmetry. We show how to renormalize all n-point vertex functions of the (gauge-fixed) theory at any approximation order in the 2PI loop-expansion by properly adjusting a finite set of local counterterms consistent with the underlying gauge symmetry. The paper is divided in three parts: a self-contained presentation of the main results and their possible implementation for practical applications; a detailed analysis of ultraviolet divergences and their removal; a number of appendices collecting technical details.

  8. Thermodynamics of quasiconformal theories from gauge/gravity duality

    SciTech Connect

    Alanen, Janne; Kajantie, Keijo; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2010-09-01

    We use gauge/gravity duality to study the thermodynamics of a generic almost conformal theory, specified by its beta function. Three different phases are identified, a high temperature phase of massless partons, an intermediate quasiconformal phase and a low temperature confining phase. The limit of a theory with infrared fixed point, in which the coupling does not run to infinity, is also studied. The transitions between the phases are of first order or continuous, depending on the parameters of the beta function. The results presented follow from gauge/gravity duality; no specific boundary theory is assumed, only its beta function.

  9. Gauge theories on hyperbolic spaces and dual wormhole instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Buchel, Alex

    2004-09-15

    We study supergravity duals of strongly coupled four-dimensional gauge theories formulated on compact quotients of hyperbolic spaces. The resulting background geometries are represented by Euclidean wormholes, which complicate establishing the precise gauge theory/string theory correspondence dictionary. These backgrounds suffer from the nonperturbative instabilities arising from the D3D3-bar pair-production in the background four-form potential. We discuss conditions for suppressing this Schwingerlike instability. We find that Euclidean wormholes arising in this construction develop a naked singularity before they can be stabilized.

  10. Gauging nonrelativistic field theories using the coset construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karananas, Georgios K.; Monin, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    We discuss how nonrelativistic spacetime symmetries can be gauged in the context of the coset construction. We consider theories invariant under the centrally extended Galilei algebra as well as the Lifshitz one, and we investigate under what conditions they can be supplemented by scale transformations. We also clarify the role of torsion in these theories.

  11. A note on instanton counting for N=2 gauge theories with classical gauge groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Marcos; Wyllard, Niclas

    2004-05-01

    We study the prepotential of Script N = 2 gauge theories using the instanton counting techniques introduced by Nekrasov. For the SO theories without matter we find a closed expression for the full prepotential and its string theory gravitational corrections. For the more subtle case of Sp theories without matter we discuss general features and compute the prepotential up to instanton number three. We also briefly discuss SU theories with matter in the symmetric and antisymmetric representations. We check all our results against the predictions of the corresponding Seiberg-Witten geometries.

  12. RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON GAUGE-INVARIANT VARIABLES IN GAUGE THEORIES, VOLUME 20

    SciTech Connect

    VAN BAAL,P.; ORLAND,P.; PISARSKI,R.

    2000-06-01

    This four-day workshop focused on the wide variety of approaches to the non-perturbative physics of QCD. The main topic was the formulation of non-Abelian gauge theory in orbit space, but some other ideas were discussed, in particular the possible extension of the Maldacena conjecture to nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The idea was to involve most of the participants in general discussions on the problem. Panel discussions were organized to further encourage debate and understanding. Most of the talks roughly fell into three categories: (1) Variational methods in field theory; (2) Anti-de Sitter space ideas; (3) The fundamental domain, gauge fixing, Gribov copies and topological objects (both in the continuum and on a lattice). In particular some remarkable progress in three-dimensional gauge theories was presented, from the analytic side by V.P. Nair and mostly from the numerical side by O. Philipsen. This work may ultimately have important implications for RHIC experiments on the high-temperature quark-gluon plasma.

  13. Gauge Theory for the Rate Equations: Electrodynamics on a Network

    SciTech Connect

    Timm, Carsten

    2007-02-16

    Systems of coupled rate equations are ubiquitous in many areas of science, for example, in the description of electronic transport through quantum dots and molecules. They can be understood as a continuity equation expressing the conservation of probability. It is shown that this conservation law can be implemented by constructing a gauge theory akin to classical electrodynamics on the network of possible states described by the rate equations. The properties of this gauge theory are analyzed. It turns out that the network is maximally connected with respect to the electromagnetic fields even if the allowed transitions form a sparse network. It is found that the numbers of degrees of freedom of the electric and magnetic fields are equal. The results shed light on the structure of classical Abelian gauge theory beyond the particular motivation in terms of rate equations.

  14. Gauge theory for the rate equations: electrodynamics on a network.

    PubMed

    Timm, Carsten

    2007-02-16

    Systems of coupled rate equations are ubiquitous in many areas of science, for example, in the description of electronic transport through quantum dots and molecules. They can be understood as a continuity equation expressing the conservation of probability. It is shown that this conservation law can be implemented by constructing a gauge theory akin to classical electrodynamics on the network of possible states described by the rate equations. The properties of this gauge theory are analyzed. It turns out that the network is maximally connected with respect to the electromagnetic fields even if the allowed transitions form a sparse network. It is found that the numbers of degrees of freedom of the electric and magnetic fields are equal. The results shed light on the structure of classical Abelian gauge theory beyond the particular motivation in terms of rate equations.

  15. Conformal gauge-Yukawa theories away from four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codello, Alessandro; Langæble, Kasper; Litim, Daniel F.; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    We present the phase diagram and associated fixed points for a wide class of Gauge-Yukawa theories in d = 4 + ɛ dimensions. The theories we investigate involve non-abelian gauge fields, fermions and scalars in the Veneziano-Witten limit. The analysis is performed in steps, we start with QCD d and then we add Yukawa interactions and scalars which we study at next-to- and next-to-next-to-leading order. Interacting infrared fixed points naturally emerge in dimensions lower than four while ultraviolet ones appear above four. We also analyse the stability of the scalar potential for the discovered fixed points. We argue for a very rich phase diagram in three dimensions while in dimensions higher than four certain Gauge-Yukawa theories are ultraviolet complete because of the emergence of an asymptotically safe fixed point.

  16. On higher holonomy invariants in higher gauge theory II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    This is the second of a series of two technical papers devoted to the analysis of holonomy invariants in strict higher gauge theory with end applications in higher Chern-Simons theory. We provide a definition of trace over a crossed module to yield surface knot invariants upon application to 2-holonomies. We show further that the properties of the trace are best described using the theory quandle crossed modules.

  17. Algebraic isomorphism in two-dimensional anomalous gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalhaes, C.G.; Natividade, C.P.

    1997-08-01

    The operator solution of the anomalous chiral Schwinger model is discussed on the basis of the general principles of Wightman field theory. Some basic structural properties of the model are analyzed taking a careful control on the Hilbert space associated with the Wightman functions. The isomorphism between gauge noninvariant and gauge invariant descriptions of the anomalous theory is established in terms of the corresponding field algebras. We show that (i) the {Theta}-vacuum representation and (ii) the suggested equivalence of vector Schwinger model and chiral Schwinger model cannot be established in terms of the intrinsic field algebra. {copyright} 1997 Academic Press, Inc.

  18. Chern-Simons theory with finite gauge group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Daniel S.; Quinn, Frank

    1993-10-01

    We construct in detail a 2+1 dimensional gauge field theory with finite gauge group. In this case the path integral reduces to a finite sum, so there are no analytic problems with the quantization. The theory was originally introduced by Dijkgraaf and Witten without details. The point of working it out carefully is to focus on the algebraic structure, and particularly the construction of quantum Hilbert spaces on closed surfaces by cutting and pasting. This includes the “Verlinde formula”. The careful development may serve as a model for dealing with similar issues in more complicated cases.

  19. Conformally flat black holes in Poincaré gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagojević, M.; Cvetković, B.

    2016-02-01

    General criteria for the existence of conformally flat Riemannian solutions in three-dimensional Poincaré gauge theory without matter are formulated. Using these criteria, we show that the Oliva-Tempo-Troncoso black hole, a solution of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend gravity, is also an exact vacuum solution of the Poincaré gauge theory. The related conserved charges, calculated from the Hamiltonian boundary term, are shown to satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics. The form of the boundary term is verified by using the covariant Hamiltonian approach.

  20. Worldsheet theory of light-cone gauge noncritical strings on higher genus Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    It is possible to formulate light-cone gauge string field theory in noncritical dimensions. Such a theory corresponds to conformal gauge worldsheet theory with nonstandard longitudinal part. We study the longitudinal part of the worldsheet theory on higher genus Riemann surfaces. The results in this paper shall be used to study the dimensional regularization of light-cone gauge string field theory.

  1. Non-perturbative BRST quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in Curci-Ferrari gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, A. D.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we address the issue of the non-perturbative quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. In particular, we construct a refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for this gauge, which takes into account the presence of gauge copies as well as the dynamical formation of dimension-two condensates. This action enjoys a non-perturbative BRST symmetry recently proposed in Capri et al. (Phys. Rev. D 92(4), 045039. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.045039 arXiv:1506.06995 [hep-th], 2015). Finally, we pay attention to the gluon propagator in different space-time dimensions.

  2. Coulomb branches for rank 2 gauge groups in 3 d N=4 gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Sperling, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    The Coulomb branch of 3-dimensional N=4 gauge theories is the space of bare and dressed BPS monopole operators. We utilise the conformal dimension to define a fan which, upon intersection with the weight lattice of a GNO-dual group, gives rise to a collection of semi-groups. It turns out that the unique Hilbert bases of these semi-groups are a sufficient, finite set of monopole operators which generate the entire chiral ring. Moreover, the knowledge of the properties of the minimal generators is enough to compute the Hilbert series explicitly. The techniques of this paper allow an efficient evaluation of the Hilbert series for general rank gauge groups. As an application, we provide various examples for all rank two gauge groups to demonstrate the novel interpretation.

  3. Quantum equivalence of noncommutative and Yang-Mills gauge theories in 2D and matrix theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ydri, Badis

    2007-05-15

    We construct noncommutative U(1) gauge theory on the fuzzy sphere S{sub N}{sup 2} as a unitary 2Nx2N matrix model. In the quantum theory the model is equivalent to a non-Abelian U(N) Yang-Mills theory on a two-dimensional lattice with two plaquettes. This equivalence holds in the 'fuzzy sphere' phase where we observe a 3rd order phase transition between weak-coupling and strong-coupling phases of the gauge theory. In the matrix phase we have a U(N) gauge theory on a single point.

  4. BRST detour quantization: Generating gauge theories from constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, D.; Waldron, A.; Latini, E.

    2010-06-15

    We present the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) cohomologies of a class of constraint (super) Lie algebras as detour complexes. By interpreting the components of detour complexes as gauge invariances, Bianchi identities, and equations of motion, we obtain a large class of new gauge theories. The pivotal new machinery is a treatment of the ghost Hilbert space designed to manifest the detour structure. Along with general results, we give details for three of these theories which correspond to gauge invariant spinning particle models of totally symmetric, antisymmetric, and Kaehler antisymmetric forms. In particular, we give details of our recent announcement of a (p,q)-form Kaehler electromagnetism. We also discuss how our results generalize to other special geometries.

  5. Quantized vortices in interacting gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butera, Salvatore; Valiente, Manuel; Öhberg, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional weakly interacting ultracold Bose gas whose constituents are two-level atoms. We study the effects of a synthetic density-dependent gauge field that arises from laser-matter coupling in the adiabatic limit with a laser configuration such that the single-particle zeroth-order vector potential corresponds to a constant synthetic magnetic field. We find a new exotic type of current nonlinearity in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation which affects the dynamics of the order parameter of the condensate. We investigate the rotational properties of this system in the Thomas-Fermi limit, focusing in particular on the physical conditions that make the existence of a quantized vortex in the system energetically favourable with respect to the non-rotating solution. We point out that two different physical interpretations can be given to this new nonlinearity: firstly it can be seen as a local modification of the mean field coupling constant, whose value depends on the angular momentum of the condensate. Secondly, it can be interpreted as a density modulated angular velocity given to the cloud. Looking at the problem from both of these viewpoints, we show that the effect of the new nonlinearity is to induce a rotation to the condensate, where the transition from non-rotating to rotating states depends on the density of the cloud.

  6. Quantized vortices in interacting gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butera, Salvatore; Valiente, Manuel; Ohberg, Patrik

    2015-05-01

    We consider a two-dimensional weakly interacting ultracold Bose gas whose constituents are two-level atoms. We study the effects of a synthetic density-dependent gauge field that arises from laser-matter coupling in the adiabatic limit with a laser configuration such that the single-particle vector potential corresponds to a constant synthetic magnetic field. We find a new type of current non-linearity in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation which affects the dynamics of the order parameter of the condensate. We investigate on the physical conditions that make the nucleation of a quantized vortex in the system energetically favourable with respect to the non rotating solution. Two different physical interpretations can be given to this new non linearity: firstly it can be seen as a local modification of the mean field coupling constant, whose value depends on the angular momentum of the condensate. Secondly, it can be interpreted as a density modulated angular velocity given to the cloud. We analyze the physical conditions that make a single vortex state energetically favourable. In the Thomas-Fermi limit, we show that the effect of the new nonlinearity is to induce a rotation to the condensate, where the transition from non-rotating to rotating depends on the density of the cloud. The authors acknowledge support from CM-DTC and EPSRC.

  7. The gravity dual of supersymmetric gauge theories on a squashed S 1 × S 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassani, Davide; Martelli, Dario

    2014-08-01

    We present a new one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions deforming AdS5. This is constructed as an asymptotically locally anti de Sitter (AlAdS) solution of five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity, with topology ℝ × ℝ4 and a non-trivial graviphoton field, and can be uplifted to ten or eleven dimensional supergravities. An analytic continuation of this solution yields the gravity dual to a class of four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories on a curved manifold with topology S 1 × S 3, comprising an SU(2) × U(1)-symmetric squashed three-sphere, with a non-trivial background gauge field coupling to the R-symmetry current. We compute the holographically renormalised on-shell action and interpret it in terms of the Casimir energy of the dual field theory. We also determine the holographic conserved charges of the solution and discuss relations between them.

  8. Renormalization In Quantum Gauge Theory Using Zeta-Function Method

    SciTech Connect

    Chiritoiu, Viorel; Zet, Gheorghe

    2009-05-22

    It is possible to consider space-time symmetries (for example Poincare or de Sitter) as purely inner symmetries. A formulation of the de Sitter symmetry as purely inner symmetry defined on a fixed Minkowski space-time is presented. We define the generators of the de Sitter group and write the equations of structure using a constant deformation parameter {lambda}. Local gauge transformations and corresponding covariant derivative depending on gauge fields are obtained. The method of generalized zeta-function is used to realize the renormalization. An effective integral of action is obtained and a comparison with other results is given.

  9. Large Nc gauge theory with quarks in high representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Thomas D.; Sen, Srimoyee

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores a novel tractable regime for ultraviolet-complete quantum field theories—the large Nc limit of non-Abelian gauge theories with quarks in high-dimensional representations (scaling with Nc faster than Nc2), such as quarks with "a" fundamental indices with a ≥3. A smooth and nontrivial Nc limit can be obtained if g2Nca -1 is held fixed instead of the standard 't Hooft coupling g2Nc as Nc→∞ where g is the gauge coupling. SU(Nc) gauge theories in 3+1 dimensions are not asymptotically free at large Nc when they contain quarks in representations for which the dimensions scale faster than Nc2 and hence are not ultraviolet complete. However, in lower space-time dimensions (2+1, 1+1), for any Nc, renormalization group flow for such theories always has a stable ultraviolet fixed point at g =0; the theory is thus ultraviolet complete. For the case of massless quarks, the theory has an infrared fixed point. For massive quarks, the theory is confining. The confining scale is parametrically of the order Nc2-a/4-d and is driven to zero at large Nc for theories with a >2 and d<4 where d is the space-time dimension.

  10. Hamiltonian flow in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Leder, Markus; Reinhardt, Hugo; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Weber, Axel

    2011-01-15

    We derive a new functional renormalization group equation for Hamiltonian Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge. The flow equations for the static gluon and ghost propagators are solved under the assumption of ghost dominance within different diagrammatic approximations. The results are compared to those obtained in the variational approach and the reliability of the approximations is discussed.

  11. Lattice gauge theory simulations in the quantum information era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmonte, M.; Montangero, S.

    2016-07-01

    The many-body problem is ubiquitous in the theoretical description of physical phenomena, ranging from the behaviour of elementary particles to the physics of electrons in solids. Most of our understanding of many-body systems comes from analysing the symmetric properties of Hamiltonian and states: the most striking examples are gauge theories such as quantum electrodynamics, where a local symmetry strongly constrains the microscopic dynamics. The physics of such gauge theories is relevant for the understanding of a diverse set of systems, including frustrated quantum magnets and the collective dynamics of elementary particles within the standard model. In the last few years, several approaches have been put forward to tackle the complex dynamics of gauge theories using quantum information concepts. In particular, quantum simulation platforms have been put forward for the realisation of synthetic gauge theories, and novel classical simulation algorithms based on quantum information concepts have been formulated. In this review, we present an introduction to these approaches, illustrating the basics concepts and highlighting the connections between apparently very different fields, and report the recent developments in this new thriving field of research.

  12. Vacuum stability of asymptotically safe gauge-Yukawa theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litim, Daniel F.; Mojaza, Matin; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We study the phase diagram and the stability of the ground state for certain four-dimensional gauge-Yukawa theories whose high-energy behaviour is controlled by an interacting fixed point. We also provide analytical and numerical results for running couplings, their crossover scales, the separatrix, and the Coleman-Weinberg effective potential. Classical and quantum stability of the vacuum is established.

  13. A note on large gauge transformations in double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseer, Usman

    2015-06-01

    We give a detailed proof of the conjecture by Hohm and Zwiebach in double field theory. This result implies that their proposal for large gauge transformations in terms of the Jacobian matrix for coordinate transformations is, as required, equivalent to the standard exponential map associated with the generalized Lie derivative along a suitable parameter.

  14. Nonlocal Hamiltonian gauge theories and their connection with lattice Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect

    Ktorides, C.N.; Mavromatos, N.E.

    1985-06-15

    We introduce the concept of primitive Hamiltonian density for nonlocal Abelian gauge theories. We subsequently study the local limit both with respect to the continuum and with respect to a lattice structure introduced via hypercubic cells. The non-Abelian case is also discussed.

  15. Stringy Instantons and Quiver Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Florea, Bogdan; Kachru, Shamit; McGreevy, John; Saulina, Natalia

    2006-10-24

    We explore contributions to the 4D effective superpotential which arise from Euclidean D3 branes (''instantons'') that intersect space-filling D-branes. These effects can perturb the effective field theory on the space-filling branes by nontrivial operators composed of charged matter fields, changing the vacuum structure in a qualitative way in some examples. Our considerations are exemplified throughout by a careful study of a fractional brane configuration on a del Pezzo surface.

  16. Gauge theories from D7-branes over vanishing 4-cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, Sebastian; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-12-16

    We study quiver gauge theories on D7-branes wrapped over vanishing holomorphic 4-cycles. We investigate how to incorporate O7-planes and/or flavor D7-branes, which are necessary to cancel anomalies. These theories are chiral, preserve four supercharges and exhibit very rich infrared dynamics. Geometric transitions and duality in the presence of O-planes are analyzed. We study the Higgs branch of these quiver theories, showing the emergence of fuzzy internal dimensions. This branch is related to noncommutative instantons on the divisor wrapped by the seven-branes. Our results have a natural application to the recently introduced F(uzz) limit of F-theory.

  17. Nontrivial asymptotically nonfree gauge theories and dynamical unification of couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, J.

    1995-12-01

    Evidence for the nontriviality of asymptotically nonfree (ANF) Yang-Mills theories is found on the basis of optimized perturbation theory. It is argued that these theories with matter couplings can be made nontrivial by means of the reduction of couplings, leading to the idea of the dynamical unification of couplings (DUC). The second-order reduction of couplings in the ANF SU(3)-gauged Higgs-Yukawa theory, which is assumed to be nontrivial here, is carried out to motivate independent investigations on its nontriviality and DUC.

  18. Quantum Ontology in the Light of Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catren, Gabriel

    2014-03-01

    By using the conceptual framework provided by the theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems, we propose a quantum ontology based on two independent postulates, namely the phase postulate and the quantum postulate. The phase postulate generalizes the gauge correspondence between first-class constraints and gauge transformations to the observables of unconstrained Hamiltonian systems. The quantum postulate establishes a faithful correspondence between the observables that allow us to identify the states and the operators that act on these states. According to this quantum ontology, quantum states provide a complete description of all the objective properties of quantum systems.

  19. The master space of Script N = 1 gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcella, Davide; Hanany, Amihay; He, Yang-Hui; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2008-08-01

    The full moduli space Script M of a class of Script N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories is studied. For gauge theories living on a stack of D3-branes at Calabi-Yau singularities Script X, Script M is a combination of the mesonic and baryonic branches. In consonance with the mathematical literature, the single brane moduli space is called the master space Script Fflat. Illustrating with a host of explicit examples, we exhibit many algebro-geometric properties of the master space such as when Script Fflat is toric Calabi-Yau, behaviour of its Hilbert series, its irreducible components and its symmetries. In conjunction with the plethystic programme, we investigate the counting of BPS gauge invariants, baryonic and mesonic, using the geometry of Script Fflat and show how its refined Hilbert series not only engenders the generating functions for the counting but also beautifully encode ``hidden'' global symmetries of the gauge theory which manifest themselves as symmetries of the complete moduli space Script M for N number of branes.

  20. Gauge symmetry and localized gravity in M-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Susskind, Leonard; Silverstein, Eva

    2001-05-01

    We discuss the possibility of having gravity ``localized'' in dimension d in a system where gauge bosons propagate in dimension d+1. In such a circumstance - depending on the rate of falloff of the field strengths in d dimensions - one might expect the gauge symmetry in d+1 dimensions to behave like a global symmetry in d dimensions, despite the presence of gravity. Naive extrapolation of warped long-wavelength solutions of general relativity coupled to scalars and gauge fields suggests that such an effect might be possible. However, in some basic realizations of such solutions in M theory, we find that this effect does not persist microscopically. It turns over either to screening or the Higgs mechanism at long distances in the d-dimensional description of the system. We briefly discuss the physics of charged objects in this type of system.

  1. Gauge Symmetry and Localized Gravity in M Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, Eva M

    2000-12-07

    We discuss the possibility of having gravity localized in dimension d in a system where gauge bosons propagate in dimension d+1. In such a circumstance--depending on the rate of fall off of the field strengths in d dimensions--one might expect the gauge symmetry in d+1 dimensions to behave like a global symmetry in d dimensions, despite the presence of gravity. Naive extrapolation of warped long-wavelength solutions of general relativity coupled to scalars and gauge fields suggests that such an effect might be possible. However, in some basic realizations of such solutions in M theory, we find that this effect does not persist microscopically. It turns over either to screening or the Higgs mechanism at long distances in the d-dimensional description of the system. We briefly discuss the physics of charged objects in this type of system.

  2. Gauge Symmetry and Localized Gravity in M Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, Eva M

    2000-12-07

    We discuss the possibility of having gravity ''localized'' in dimension d in a system where gauge bosons propagate in dimension d+1. In such a circumstance--depending on the rate of falloff of the field strengths in d dimensions--one might expect the gauge symmetry in d+1 dimensions to behave like a global symmetry in d dimensions, despite the presence of gravity. Naive extrapolation of warped long-wavelength solutions of general relativity coupled to scalars and gauge fields suggests that such an effect might be possible. However, in some basic realizations of such solutions in M theory, we find that this effect does not persist microscopically. It turns over either to screening or the Higgs mechanism at long distances in the d-dimensional description of the system. We briefly discuss the physics of charged objects in this type of system.

  3. Spontaneous parity violation and SUSY strong gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Haba, Naoyuki; Ohki, Hiroshi

    2012-07-27

    We suggest simple models of spontaneous parity violation in supersymmetric strong gauge theory. We focus on left-right symmetric model and investigate vacuum with spontaneous parity violation. Non-perturbative effects are calculable in supersymmetric gauge theory, and we suggest new models. Our models show confinement, so that we try to understand them by using a dual description of the theory. The left-right symmetry breaking and electroweak symmetry breaking are simultaneously occurred with the suitable energy scale hierarchy. This structure has several advantages compared to the MSSM. The scale of the Higgs mass (left-right breaking scale) and that of VEVs are different, so the SUSY little hierarchy problems are absent. The second model also induces spontaneous supersymmetry breaking.

  4. A general theory for gauge-free lifting

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, P. J.

    2013-01-15

    A theory for lifting equations of motion for charged particle dynamics, subject to given electromagnetic like forces, up to a gauge-free system of coupled Hamiltonian Vlasov-Maxwell like equations is given. The theory provides very general expressions for the polarization and magnetization vector fields in terms of the particle dynamics description of matter. Thus, as is common in plasma physics, the particle dynamics replaces conventional constitutive relations for matter. Several examples are considered including the usual Vlasov-Maxwell theory, a guiding center kinetic theory, Vlasov-Maxwell theory with the inclusion of spin, and a Vlasov-Maxwell theory with the inclusion of Dirac's magnetic monopoles. All are shown to be Hamiltonian field theories and the Jacobi identity is proven directly.

  5. Gravity as an internal Yang-Mills gauge field theory of the Poincaré group.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Jörg; Nitsch, Jürgen

    1981-10-01

    In the framework of affine bundles we present gravity as an “internal” gauge field theory of the Poincaré group. The resulting geometry is a Riemann-Cartan space-time carrying torsion and curvature. In order to admit a nontrivial action of the translation group we formally extend the matter Lagrangian to affine field variables. Finally, we establish the relation of our approach with the formalism of Hehl et al.

  6. A nonabelian particle-vortex duality in gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu

    2016-08-01

    We define a nonabelian version of particle-vortex duality, by dimensionally extending usual (1+1)-dimensional nonabelian T-duality to (2+1) dimensions. While we will explicitly describe a global SU(2) symmetry, our methods can also be applied to a larger group G, by gauging an appropriate subgroup. We will exemplify our duality with matter in both adjoint and fundamental representations by considering a modification of {N} = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (Seiberg-Witten theory reduced to (2+1) dimensions), and an SU(2) × U(1) color-flavor locked theory that exhibits nonabelian vortex solutions.

  7. Gauge fluxes in F-theory and type IIB orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Sven; Mayrhofer, Christoph; Weigand, Timo

    2012-08-01

    We provide a detailed correspondence between G 4 gauge fluxes in F-theory compactifications with SU( n) and SU( n) × U(1) gauge symmetry and their Type IIB orientifold limit. Based on the resolution of the relevant F-theory Tate models, we classify the factorisable G 4-fluxes and match them with the set of universal D5-tadpole free U(1)-fluxes in Type IIB. Where available, the global version of the universal spectral cover flux corresponds to Type IIB gauge flux associated with a massive diagonal U(1). In U(1)-restricted Tate models extra massless abelian fluxes exist which are associated with specific linear combinations of Type IIB fluxes. Key to a quantitative match between F-theory and Type IIB is a proper treatment of the conifold singularity encountered in the Sen limit of generic F-theory models. We also shed further light on the brane recombination process relating generic and U(1)-restricted Tate models.

  8. The Corolla Polynomial for Spontaneously Broken Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, David

    2016-09-01

    In Kreimer and Yeats (Electr. J. Comb. 41-41, 2013), Kreimer et al. (Annals Phys. 336, 180-222, 2013) and Sars (2015) the Corolla Polynomial C ({Γ }) in C [a_{h1}, ldots , a_{h_{ \\vert {Γ }^{[1/2]} \\vert }}] was introduced as a graph polynomial in half-edge variables {ah}_{h in {Γ }^{[1/2]}} over a 3-regular scalar quantum field theory (QFT) Feynman graph Γ. It allows for a covariant quantization of pure Yang-Mills theory without the need for introducing ghost fields, clarifies the relation between quantum gauge theory and scalar QFT with cubic interaction and translates back the problem of renormalizing quantum gauge theory to the problem of renormalizing scalar QFT with cubic interaction (which is super renormalizable in 4 dimensions of spacetime). Furthermore, it is, as we believe, useful for computer calculations. In Prinz (2015) on which this paper is based the formulation of Kreimer and Yeats (Electr. J. Comb. 41-41, 2013), Kreimer et al. (Annals Phys. 336, 180-222, 2013) and Sars (2015) gets slightly altered in a fashion specialized in the case of the Feynman gauge. It is then formulated as a graph polynomial C ({Γ } ) in C [a_{h_{1 ± }}, ldots , a_{h_{ \\vert {Γ }^{[1/2]} \\vert } {h}_{± }}, b_{h1}, ldots , b_{h_{ \\vert {Γ }^{[1/2]} \\vert }}] in three different types of half-edge variables {a_{h+} , a_{h-} , bh}_{h in {Γ }^{[1/2]}} . This formulation is also suitable for the generalization to the case of spontaneously broken gauge theories (in particular all bosons from the Standard Model), as was first worked out in Prinz (2015) and gets reviewed here.

  9. General quantum-mechanical setting for field–antifield formalism as a hyper-gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.

    2016-09-01

    A general quantum-mechanical setting is proposed for the field-antifield formalism as a unique hyper-gauge theory in the field-antifield space. We formulate a Schr\\"odinger-type equation to describe the quantum evolution in a "current time" purely formal in its nature. The corresponding Hamiltonian is defined in the form of a supercommutator of the delta-operator with a hyper-gauge Fermion. The initial wave function is restricted to be annihilated with the delta-operator. The Schr\\"odinger's equation is resolved in a closed form of the path integral, whose action contains the symmetric Weyl's symbol of the Hamiltonian. We take the path integral explicitly in the case of being a hyper-gauge Fermion an arbitrary function rather than an operator.

  10. N >= 4 Supergravity Amplitudes from Gauge Theory at Two Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher-Veronneau, C.; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    We present the full two-loop four-graviton amplitudes in N = 4, 5, 6 supergravity. These results were obtained using the double-copy structure of gravity, which follows from the recently conjectured color-kinematics duality in gauge theory. The two-loop four-gluon scattering amplitudes in N = 0, 1, 2 supersymmetric gauge theory are a second essential ingredient. The gravity amplitudes have the expected infrared behavior: the two-loop divergences are given in terms of the squares of the corresponding one-loop amplitudes. The finite remainders are presented in a compact form. The finite remainder for N = 8 supergravity is also presented, in a form that utilizes a pure function with a very simple symbol.

  11. Bound states in gauge theories as the Poincare group representations

    SciTech Connect

    Cherny, A. Yu.; Dorokhov, A. E.; Han, Nguyen Suan; Pervushin, V. N. Shilin, V. I.

    2013-03-15

    The bound-state generating functional is constructed in gauge theories. This construction is based on the Dirac Hamiltonian approach to gauge theories, the Poincare group classification of fields and their nonlocal bound states, and the Markov-Yukawa constraint of irreducibility. The generating functional contains additional anomalous creations of pseudoscalar bound states: para-positronium in QED and mesons inQCDin the two-gamma processes of the type of {gamma} + {gamma} {yields} {pi}{sub 0} +para-positronium. The functional allows us to establish physically clear and transparent relations between the perturbativeQCD to its nonperturbative low-energy model by means of normal ordering and the quark and gluon condensates. In the limit of small current quark masses, the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation is derived from the Schwinger-Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter equations. The constituent quark masses can be calculated from a self-consistent nonlinear equation.

  12. A gauge invariant theory for time dependent heat current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; ShangGuan, Minhui; Wang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we develop a general gauge-invariant theory for AC heat current through multi-probe systems. Using the non-equilibrium Green’s function, a general expression for time-dependent electrothermal admittance is obtained where we include the internal potential due to the Coulomb interaction explicitly. We show that the gauge-invariant condition is satisfied for heat current if the self-consistent Coulomb interaction is considered. It is known that the Onsager relation holds for dynamic charge conductance. We show in this work that the Onsager relation for electrothermal admittance is violated, except for a special case of a quantum dot system with a single energy level. We apply our theory to a nano capacitor where the Coulomb interaction plays an essential role. We find that, to the first order in frequency, the heat current is related to the electrochemical capacitance as well as the phase accumulated in the scattering event.

  13. Phases of N=1 Supersymmetric Chiral Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Nathaniel; Essig, Rouven; Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2012-02-17

    We analyze the phases of supersymmetric chiral gauge theories with an antisymmetric tensor and (anti)fundamental flavors, in the presence of a classically marginal superpotential deformation. Varying the number of flavors that appear in the superpotential reveals rich infrared chiral dynamics and novel dualities. The dualities are characterized by an infinite family of magnetic duals with arbitrarily large gauge groups describing the same fixed point, correlated with arbitrarily large classical global symmetries that are truncated nonperturbatively. At the origin of moduli space, these theories exhibit a phase with confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, an interacting nonabelian Coulomb phase, and phases where an interacting sector coexists with a sector that either s-confines or is in a free magnetic phase. Properties of these intriguing 'mixed phases' are studied in detail using duality and a-maximization, and the presence of superpotential interactions provides further insights into their formation.

  14. Lattice gauge theory as a nuclear many-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.; Bloom, S.D.; Snyderman, N.J.

    1986-10-15

    We discuss the conceptual connection between lattice quantum chromodynamics and a nuclear many-body problem. We begin with an illustrative example of how the 0(3) nonlinear sigma model in (1+1) dimensions can be computed with a nuclear shell-model code with a speed which is competitive with other approaches. We then describe progress toward the implementation of this technology in lattice SU(2) Yang-Mills gauge theory.

  15. Lattice gauge theory as a nuclear many-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.; Bloom, S.D.; Snyderman, N.J.

    1986-05-01

    The conceptual connection between lattice quantum chromodynamics and a nuclear many-body problem is discussed. An illustrative example is given now the 0(3) nonlinear sigma model in (1 + 1) dimensions can be computered with a nuclear shell-model code with a speed which is competitive with other approaches. Progress toward the implementation of this technology in lattice SU(2) Yang-Mills gauge theory is described. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Gauge theory on fuzzy S2 × S2 and regularization on noncommutative Bbb R4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Wolfgang; Meyer, Frank; Steinacker, Harold

    2005-07-01

    We define U(n) gauge theory on fuzzy S2N × S2N as a multi-matrix model, which reduces to ordinary Yang-Mills theory on S2 × S2 in the commutative limit N→∞. The model can be used as a regularization of gauge theory on noncommutative Bbb R4θ in a particular scaling limit, which is studied in detail. We also find topologically non-trivial U(1) solutions, which reduce to the known ``fluxon'' solutions in the limit of Bbb R4θ, reproducing their full moduli space. Other solutions which can be interpreted as 2-dimensional branes are also found. The quantization of the model is defined non-perturbatively in terms of a path integral which is finite. A gauge-fixed BRST-invariant action is given as well. Fermions in the fundamental representation of the gauge group are included using a formulation based on SO(6), by defining a fuzzy Dirac operator which reduces to the standard Dirac operator on S2 × S2 in the commutative limit. The chirality operator and Weyl spinors are also introduced.

  17. Local gauge transformation for the quark propagator in an SU(N) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, M. Jamil; Bashir, A.; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L. X.

    2016-04-01

    In an S U (N ) gauge field theory, the n -point Green functions, namely, propagators and vertices, transform under the simultaneous local gauge variations of the gluon vector potential and the quark matter field in such a manner that the physical observables remain invariant. In this article, we derive this intrinsically nonperturbative transformation law for the quark propagator within the system of covariant gauges. We carry out its explicit perturbative expansion up to O (gs6) and, for some terms, up to O (gs8) . We study the implications of this transformation for the quark-antiquark condensate, multiplicative renormalizability of the massless quark propagator, as well as its relation with the quark-gluon vertex at the one-loop order. Setting the color factors CF=1 and CA=0 , Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformation for the Abelian case of quantum electrodynamics is trivially recovered. We also test whether the usually employed proposals for the truncations of Schwinger-Dyson equations are consistent with what the Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations entail for the massless quark propagator.

  18. [Investigations in dynamics of gauge theories in theoretical particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The major theme of the theoretical physics research conducted under DOE support over the past several years has been within the rubric of the standard model, and concerned the interplay between symmetries and dynamics. The research was thus carried out mostly in the context of gauge field theories, and usually in the presence of chiral fermions. Dynamical symmetry breaking was examined both from the point of view of perturbation theory, as well as from non-perturbative techniques associated with certain characteristic features of specific theories. Among the topics of research were: the implications of abelian and non-abelian anomalies on the spectrum and possible dynamical symmetry breaking in any theory, topological and conformal properties of quantum fields in two and higher dimensions, the breaking of global chiral symmetries by vector-like gauge theories such as QCD, the phenomenological implications of a strongly interacting Higgs sector in the standard model, and the application of soliton ideas to the physics to be explored at the SSC.

  19. Simplicial pseudorandom lattice study of a three-dimensional Abelian gauge model, the regular lattice as an extremum of the action

    SciTech Connect

    Pertermann, D.; Ranft, J.

    1986-09-15

    We introduce a simplicial pseudorandom version of lattice gauge theory. In this formulation it is possible to interpolate continuously between a regular simplicial lattice and a pseudorandom lattice. Using this method we study a simple three-dimensional Abelian lattice gauge theory. Calculating average plaquette expectation values, we find an extremum of the action for our regular simplicial lattice. Such a behavior was found in analytical studies in one and two dimensions.

  20. Two-dimensional lattice gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Marcos, D.; Widmer, P.; Rico, E.; Hafezi, M.; Rabl, P.; Wiese, U.-J.; Zoller, P.

    2014-12-15

    A quantum simulator of U(1) lattice gauge theories can be implemented with superconducting circuits. This allows the investigation of confined and deconfined phases in quantum link models, and of valence bond solid and spin liquid phases in quantum dimer models. Fractionalized confining strings and the real-time dynamics of quantum phase transitions are accessible as well. Here we show how state-of-the-art superconducting technology allows us to simulate these phenomena in relatively small circuit lattices. By exploiting the strong non-linear couplings between quantized excitations emerging when superconducting qubits are coupled, we show how to engineer gauge invariant Hamiltonians, including ring-exchange and four-body Ising interactions. We demonstrate that, despite decoherence and disorder effects, minimal circuit instances allow us to investigate properties such as the dynamics of electric flux strings, signaling confinement in gauge invariant field theories. The experimental realization of these models in larger superconducting circuits could address open questions beyond current computational capability.

  1. Two-dimensional lattice gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, D.; Widmer, P.; Rico, E.; Hafezi, M.; Rabl, P.; Wiese, U.-J.; Zoller, P.

    2014-01-01

    A quantum simulator of U(1) lattice gauge theories can be implemented with superconducting circuits. This allows the investigation of confined and deconfined phases in quantum link models, and of valence bond solid and spin liquid phases in quantum dimer models. Fractionalized confining strings and the real-time dynamics of quantum phase transitions are accessible as well. Here we show how state-of-the-art superconducting technology allows us to simulate these phenomena in relatively small circuit lattices. By exploiting the strong non-linear couplings between quantized excitations emerging when superconducting qubits are coupled, we show how to engineer gauge invariant Hamiltonians, including ring-exchange and four-body Ising interactions. We demonstrate that, despite decoherence and disorder effects, minimal circuit instances allow us to investigate properties such as the dynamics of electric flux strings, signaling confinement in gauge invariant field theories. The experimental realization of these models in larger superconducting circuits could address open questions beyond current computational capability. PMID:25512676

  2. Supersymmetry breaking metastable vacua in runaway quiver gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Etxebarria, Inaki; Saad, Fouad; M. Uranga, Angel

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we consider quiver gauge theories with fractional branes whose infrared dynamics removes the classical supersymmetric vacua (DSB branes). We show that addition of flavors to these theories (via additional non-compact branes) leads to local meta-stable supersymmetry breaking minima, closely related to those of SQCD with massive flavors. We simplify the study of the one-loop lifting of the accidental classical flat directions by direct computation of the pseudomoduli masses via Feynman diagrams. This new approach allows to obtain analytic results for all these theories. This work extends the results for the dP1 theory in hep-th/0607218. The new approach allows to generalize the computation to general examples of DSB branes, and for arbitrary values of the superpotential couplings.

  3. Simulation of non-Abelian gauge theories with optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Tagliacozzo, L; Celi, A; Orland, P; Mitchell, M W; Lewenstein, M

    2013-01-01

    Many phenomena occurring in strongly correlated quantum systems still await conclusive explanations. The absence of isolated free quarks in nature is an example. It is attributed to quark confinement, whose origin is not yet understood. The phase diagram for nuclear matter at general temperatures and densities, studied in heavy-ion collisions, is not settled. Finally, we have no definitive theory of high-temperature superconductivity. Though we have theories that could underlie such physics, we lack the tools to determine the experimental consequences of these theories. Quantum simulators may provide such tools. Here we show how to engineer quantum simulators of non-Abelian lattice gauge theories. The systems we consider have several applications: they can be used to mimic quark confinement or to study dimer and valence-bond states (which may be relevant for high-temperature superconductors). PMID:24162080

  4. Simulation of non-Abelian gauge theories with optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliacozzo, L.; Celi, A.; Orland, P.; Mitchell, M. W.; Lewenstein, M.

    2013-10-01

    Many phenomena occurring in strongly correlated quantum systems still await conclusive explanations. The absence of isolated free quarks in nature is an example. It is attributed to quark confinement, whose origin is not yet understood. The phase diagram for nuclear matter at general temperatures and densities, studied in heavy-ion collisions, is not settled. Finally, we have no definitive theory of high-temperature superconductivity. Though we have theories that could underlie such physics, we lack the tools to determine the experimental consequences of these theories. Quantum simulators may provide such tools. Here we show how to engineer quantum simulators of non-Abelian lattice gauge theories. The systems we consider have several applications: they can be used to mimic quark confinement or to study dimer and valence-bond states (which may be relevant for high-temperature superconductors).

  5. Yang-Mills gauge theory and Higgs particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tai Tsun; Wu, Sau Lan

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the experimental data on the Higgs particle from the ATLAS Collaboration and the CMS Collaboration at CERN, the standard model, which is a Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge theory with the group U(1) × SU(2) × SU(3), is augmented by scalar quarks and scalar leptons without changing the gauge group and without any additional Higgs particle. Thus there is fermion-boson symmetry between these new particles and the known quarks and leptons. In a simplest scenario, the cancellation of the quadratic divergences in this augmented standard model leads to a determination of the masses of all these scalar quarks and scalar leptons. All these masses are found to be less than 100 GeV/c2, and the right-handed scalar neutrinos are especially light. Alterative procedures are given with less reliance on the experimental data, leading to the same conclusions.

  6. Yang-Mills Gauge Theory and Higgs Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tai Tsun; Wu, Sau Lan

    Motivated by the experimental data on the Higgs particle from the ATLAS Collaboration and the CMS Collaboration at CERN, the standard model, which is a Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge theory with the group U(1) × SU (2) × SU (3), is augmented by scalar quarks and scalar leptons without changing the gauge group and without any additional Higgs particle. Thus there is fermion-boson symmetry between these new particles and the known quarks and leptons. In a simplest scenario, the cancellation of the quadratic divergences in this augmented standard model leads to a determination of the masses of all these scalar quarks and scalar leptons. All these masses are found to be less than 100 GeV/c2, and the right-handed scalar neutrinos are especially light. Alterative procedures are given with less reliance on the experimental data, leading to the same conclusions.

  7. Simple U (1 ) gauge theory explanation of the diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Spencer

    2016-03-01

    The recent ATLAS and CMS diphoton resonance excesses are explored in a simple U (1 ) gauge theory extension of the Standard Model where the resonance is the Higgs boson of the U (1 ) symmetry breaking, ϕ . This particle couples to exotic quarks which, through loops, can produce a large enough rate to explain the excess. Due to the choice of U (1 ) charges, flavor constraints are naturally suppressed, allowing arbitrary flavor violation in the decays of the new quarks to up-type quarks, modifying their signal topologies. An additional heavy quark in the model decays to the lighter exotic quark by emitting either ϕ or the U (1 ) gauge boson Ax, giving extra signals containing diphoton and digluon resonances. Finally, the new Higgs can decay into γ Ax and Z Ax, followed by Ax decaying into Standard Model fermions through kinetic mixing. Thus, this model gives interesting modified signals to the general class of exotic quark models explaining the diphoton resonance.

  8. Pauli-Villars Regularization of Non-Abelian Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, J. R.

    2016-07-01

    As an extension of earlier work on QED, we construct a BRST-invariant Lagrangian for SU(N) Yang-Mills theory with fundamental matter, regulated by the inclusion of massive Pauli-Villars (PV) gluons and PV quarks. The underlying gauge symmetry for massless PV gluons is generalized to accommodate the PV-index-changing currents that are required by the regularization. Auxiliary adjoint scalars are used, in a mechanism due to Stueckelberg, to attribute mass to the PV gluons and the PV quarks. The addition of Faddeev-Popov ghosts then establishes a residual BRST symmetry. Although there are drawbacks to the approach, in particular the computational load of a large number of PV fields and a nonlocal interaction of the ghost fields, this formulation could provide a foundation for renormalizable nonperturbative solutions of light-front QCD in an arbitrary covariant gauge.

  9. On the relation between gauge theories, moving frames, fiber bundles, and parastatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrae, Kenneth I.

    1985-07-01

    We write down standard gauge field theory in a basis-independent manner using the ideas of moving frames (fiber bundles). Then we describe the construction of frames for gauging parafields. To do this (frames) bases for fields are replaced by Clifford matrices. These matrices are in one-to-one correspondence with the number of spinor components. We briefly examine the objects upon which they can act (through matrix multiplication on the left). These objects bear the same relations to spinors that spinors do to vectors. Finally, we show how to construct a set of inner products for the parabases that yield the same action and n-point functions as in the standard field theory.

  10. Renormalized Polyakov loop in the deconfined phase of SU(N) gauge theory and gauge-string duality.

    PubMed

    Andreev, Oleg

    2009-05-29

    We use gauge-string duality to analytically evaluate the renormalized Polyakov loop in pure Yang-Mills theories. For SU(3), the result is in quite good agreement with lattice simulations for a broad temperature range.

  11. Cohomological gauge theory, quiver matrix models and Donaldson-Thomas theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirafici, Michele; Sinkovics, Annamaria; Szabo, Richard J.

    2009-03-01

    We study the relation between Donaldson-Thomas theory of Calabi-Yau threefolds and a six-dimensional topological Yang-Mills theory. Our main example is the topological U(N) gauge theory on flat space in its Coulomb branch. To evaluate its partition function we use equivariant localization techniques on its noncommutative deformation. As a result the gauge theory localizes on noncommutative instantons which can be classified in terms of N-coloured three-dimensional Young diagrams. We give to these noncommutative instantons a geometrical description in terms of certain stable framed coherent sheaves on projective space by using a higher-dimensional generalization of the ADHM formalism. From this formalism we construct a topological matrix quantum mechanics which computes an index of BPS states and provides an alternative approach to the six-dimensional gauge theory.

  12. Higher abelian gauge theory associated to gerbes on noncommutative deformed M5-branes and S-duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathai, Varghese; Sati, Hisham

    2015-06-01

    We enhance the action of higher abelian gauge theory associated to a gerbe on an M5-brane with an action of a torus Tn(n ≥ 2), by a noncommutative Tn-deformation of the M5-brane. The ingredients of the noncommutative action and equations of motion include the deformed Hodge duality, deformed wedge product, and the noncommutative integral over the noncommutative space obtained by strict deformation quantization. As an application we then introduce a variant model with an enhanced action in which we show that the corresponding partition function is a modular form, which is a purely noncommutative geometry phenomenon since the usual theory only has a Z2-symmetry. In particular, S-duality in this 6-dimensional higher abelian gauge theory model is shown to be, in this sense, on par with the usual 4-dimensional case.

  13. F-Theory, T-Duality on K3 Surfaces and N = 2 Supersymmetric Gauge Theories in Four Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, K.; Oz, Y.

    1997-02-26

    We construct T-duality on K3 surfaces. The T-duality exchanges a 4-brane R-R charge and a O-brane R-R charge. We study the action of the T-duality on the moduli space of O-branes located at points of K3 and 4-branes wrapping it. We apply the construction to F-theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau 4-fold and study the duality of N = 2 SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories in four dimensions. We discuss the generalization to the N = 1 duality scenario.

  14. Comments on twisted indices in 3d supersymmetric gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closset, Cyril; Kim, Heeyeon

    2016-08-01

    We study three-dimensional {N} = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories on Σ g × S 1 with a topological twist along Σ g , a genus- g Riemann surface. The twisted supersymmetric index at genus g and the correlation functions of half-BPS loop operators on S 1 can be computed exactly by supersymmetric localization. For g = 1, this gives a simple UV computation of the 3d Witten index. Twisted indices provide us with a clean derivation of the quantum algebra of supersymmetric Wilson loops, for any Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons-matter theory, in terms of the associated Bethe equations for the theory on {{R}}^2× {S}^1 . This also provides a powerful and simple tool to study 3d {N} = 2 Seiberg dualities. Finally, we study A- and B-twisted indices for {N} = 4 supersymmetric gauge theories, which turns out to be very useful for quantitative studies of three-dimensional mirror symmetry. We also briefly comment on a relation between the S 2 × S 1 twisted indices and the Hilbert series of {N} = 4 moduli spaces.

  15. F-theory vacua with Z3 gauge symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Donagi, Ron; Klevers, Denis; Piragua, Hernan; Poretschkin, Maximilian

    2015-09-01

    Discrete gauge groups naturally arise in F-theory compactifications on genus-one fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds. Such geometries appear in families that are parameterized by the Tate-Shafarevich group of the genus-one fibration. While the F-theory compactification on any element of this family gives rise to the same physics, the corresponding M-theory compactifications on these geometries differ and are obtained by a fluxed circle reduction of the former. In this note, we focus on an element of order three in the Tate-Shafarevich group of the general cubic. We discuss how the different M-theory vacua and the associated discrete gauge groups can be obtained by Higgsing of a pair of five-dimensional U(1) symmetries. The Higgs fields arise from vanishing cycles in I2-fibers that appear at certain codimension two loci in the base. We explicitly identify all three curves that give rise to the corresponding Higgs fields. In this analysis the investigation of different resolved phases of the underlying geometry plays a crucial rôle.

  16. Abelian p-form (p = 1, 2, 3) gauge theories as the field theoretic models for the Hodge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Krishna, S.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R. P.

    2014-09-01

    Taking the simple examples of an Abelian 1-form gauge theory in two (1+1)-dimensions, a 2-form gauge theory in four (3+1)-dimensions and a 3-form gauge theory in six (5+1)-dimensions of space-time, we establish that such gauge theories respect, in addition to the gauge symmetry transformations that are generated by the first-class constraints of the theory, additional continuous symmetry transformations. We christen the latter symmetry transformations as the dual-gauge transformations. We generalize the above gauge and dual-gauge transformations to obtain the proper (anti-)BRST and (anti-)dual-BRST transformations for the Abelian 3-form gauge theory within the framework of BRST formalism. We concisely mention such symmetries for the 2D free Abelian 1-form and 4D free Abelian 2-form gauge theories and briefly discuss their topological aspects in our present endeavor. We conjecture that any arbitrary Abelian p-form gauge theory would respect the above cited additional symmetry in D = 2p(p = 1, 2, 3, …) dimensions of space-time. By exploiting the above inputs, we establish that the Abelian 3-form gauge theory, in six (5+1)-dimensions of space-time, is a perfect model for the Hodge theory whose discrete and continuous symmetry transformations provide the physical realizations of all aspects of the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry. As far as the physical utility of the above nilpotent symmetries is concerned, we demonstrate that the 2D Abelian 1-form gauge theory is a perfect model of a new class of topological theory and 4D Abelian 2-form as well as 6D Abelian 3-form gauge theories are the field theoretic models for the quasi-topological field theory.

  17. Can Poincaré gauge theory be saved\\?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, R. D.; Lemke, J.; Wallner, R. P.

    1991-10-01

    Recent investigations on the field equations of Poincaré gauge theory seem to indicate that the only subclass of theories well founded on a reasonable translation limit are actually ruled out by the lack of a well-defined initial-value problem, and, in particular, by tachyonic torsion solutions. We show, however, that these nonphysical torsion fields may be transformed into mere Lagrange multipliers by symmetries that necessarily come along with any 3+1 decomposition of space-time. We even invert the argument by pointing out that the incriminated theories are the only ones that allow for the nonphysical fields to be trivialized in that way, and the canonical variables to be reduced to a set with a well-defined initial-value problem.

  18. Torsional Newton–Cartan geometry from Galilean gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Mukherjee, Pradip

    2016-11-01

    Using the recently advanced Galilean gauge theory (GGT) we give a comprehensive construction of torsional Newton–Cartan (NC) geometry. The coupling of a Galilean symmetric model with background NC geometry following GGT is illustrated by a free nonrelativistic scalar field theory. The issue of spatial diffeomorphism (Son and Wingate 2006 Ann. Phys. 321 197–224 Banerjee et al 2015 Phys. Rev. D 91 084021) is focussed from a new angle. The expression of the torsionful connection is worked out, which is in complete parallel with the relativistic theory. Also, smooth transition of the connection to its well known torsionless expression is demonstrated. A complete (implicit) expression of the torsion tensor for the NC spacetime is provided where the first-order variables occur in a suggestive way. The well known result for the temporal part of torsion is reproduced from our expression.

  19. Phases of thermal Script N = 2 quiver gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Kasper J.; Obers, Niels A.

    2008-01-01

    We consider large N U(N)M thermal Script N = 2 quiver gauge theories on S1 × S3. We obtain a phase diagram of the theory with R-symmetry chemical potentials, separating a low-temperature/high-chemical potential region from a high-temperature/low-chemical potential region. In close analogy with the Script N = 4 SYM case, the free energy is of order Script O(1) in the low-temperature region and of order Script O(N2M) in the high-temperature phase. We conclude that the Script N = 2 theory undergoes a first order Hagedorn phase transition at the curve in the phase diagram separating these two regions. We observe that in the region of zero temperature and critical chemical potential the Hilbert space of gauge invariant operators truncates to smaller subsectors. We compute a 1-loop effective potential with non-zero VEV's for the scalar fields in a sector where the VEV's are homogeneous and mutually commuting. At low temperatures the eigenvalues of these VEV's are distributed uniformly over an S5/Bbb ZM which we interpret as the emergence of the S5/Bbb ZM factor of the holographically dual geometry AdS5 × S5/Bbb ZM. Above the Hagedorn transition the eigenvalue distribution of the Polyakov loop opens a gap, resulting in the collapse of the joint eigenvalue distribution from S5/Bbb ZM × S1 into S6/Bbb ZM.

  20. Monopole Condensation and Confining Phase of N=1 Gauge Theories Via M Theory Fivebrane

    SciTech Connect

    de Boer, Jan; Oz, Yaron

    1997-08-07

    The fivebrane of M theory is used in order to study the moduli space of vacua of confining phase N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories in four dimensions. The supersymmetric vacua correspond to the condensation of massless monopoles and confinement of photons. The monopole and meson vacuum expectation values are computed using the fivebrane configuration. The comparison of the fivebrane computation and the field theory analysis shows that at vacua with a classically enhanced gauge group SU(r) the effective superpotential obtained by the"integrating in" method is exact for r=2 but is not exact for r> 2. The fivebrane configuration corresponding to N=1 gauge theories with Landau-Ginzburg type superpotentials is studied. N=1 non-trivial fixed points are analyzed using the brane geometry.

  1. Off-shell invariant D = N = 2 twisted super Yang-Mills theory with a gauged central charge without constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Keisuke; Kato, Junji; Kawamoto, Noboru; Miyake, Akiko

    2013-11-01

    We formulate N=2 twisted super Yang-Mills theory with a gauged central charge by superconnection formalism in two dimensions. We obtain off-shell invariant supermultiplets and actions with and without constraints, which is in contrast with the off-shell invariant D=N=4 super Yang-Mills formulation with unavoidable constraints.

  2. Gauge-fields and integrated quantum-classical theory

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical situations in which quantum systems communicate continuously to their classically described environment are not covered by contemporary quantum theory, which requires a temporary separation of quantum degrees of freedom from classical ones. A generalization would be needed to cover these situations. An incomplete proposal is advanced for combining the quantum and classical degrees of freedom into a unified objective description. It is based on the use of certain quantum-classical structures of light that arise from gauge invariance to coordinate the quantum and classical degrees of freedom. Also discussed is the question of where experimenters should look to find phenomena pertaining to the quantum-classical connection. 17 refs.

  3. Tachyonic torsion shock waves in Poincaré gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, R. D.; Lemke, J.; Wallner, R. P.

    1990-11-01

    The requirement that the Poincaré gauge theory of gravitation has a correct Newtonian limit leads to tachyonic torsion shock waves. We show that the problems are due to those parts of the Levi-Civita connection which are vertical to the hypersurface in which the shock waves propagate. We argue that, as a consequence of certain symmetries of a (3 + 1)-decomposition of spacetime, the non-dynamical parts are Lagrange multipliers. We point out that this interpretation is not compatible with the minimal coupling procedure.

  4. Lattice Gauge Theory and the Origin of Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Kronfeld, Andreas S.

    2013-08-01

    Most of the mass of everyday objects resides in atomic nuclei/ the total of the electrons' mass adds up to less than one part in a thousand. The nuclei are composed of nucleons---protons and neutrons---whose nuclear binding energy, though tremendous on a human scale, is small compared to their rest energy. The nucleons are, in turn, composites of massless gluons and nearly massless quarks. It is the energy of these confined objects, via $M=E/c^2$, that is responsible for everyday mass. This article discusses the physics of this mechanism and the role of lattice gauge theory in establishing its connection to quantum chromodynamics.

  5. MATRIX PRODUCT VARIATIONAL FORMULATION FOR LATTICE GAUGE THEORY.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGIHARA,T.

    2004-09-21

    For hamiltonian lattice gauge theory, we introduce the matrix product ansatz inspired from density matrix renormalization group. In this method, wavefunction of the target state is assumed to be a product of finite matrices. As a result, the energy becomes a simple function of the matrices, which can be evaluated using a computer. The minimum of the energy function corresponds to the vacuum state. We show that the S = 1/2 Heisenberg chain model are well described with the ansatz. The method is also applied to the two-dimensional S = 1/2 Heisenberg and U(1) plaquette chain models.

  6. Lattice gauge theory on the Intel parallel scientific computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb, Steven

    1990-08-01

    Intel Scientific Computers (ISC) has just started producing its third general of parallel computer, the iPSC/860. Based on the i860 chip that has a peak performance of 80 Mflops and with a current maximum of 128 nodes, this computer should achieve speeds in excess of those obtainable on conventional vector supercomputers. The hardware, software and computing techniques appropriate for lattice gauge theory calculations are described. The differences between a staggered fermion conjugate gradient program written under CANOPY and for the iPSC are detailed.

  7. Gauge Invariant U(1) Field Theories with Magnetic Monopole Symmetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Neil

    1982-03-01

    A quantum field theory of a magnetically and electrically charged fermion field is developed. This is done for an abelian duet of vector boson fields in a U(1), gauge invariant manner. The U(1) symmetry is maintained through a scalar field interacting with the boson fields. The gauge invariance is preserved by extending the Mandelstam path dependent method for electromagnetism. This is done without recourse to Dirac strings or solitons. Further, the energy momentum and angular momentum tensor operators are found explicitly in terms of path dependent variables. A two dimensional charge space is coupled invariantly with the vector boson duet preserving the symmetry of the fermion monopole interactions with the use of the axial vector current, avoiding explicit use of the dual field tensor terms. It is found that if the postulated symmetries are not broken, only part of the Lorentz force law's dual tensor interaction term emerges in the low energy first order in the coupling constant limit. If the mediating scalar field is in the Higg's gauge, the following constraint is found:. 2(pi)n = SQRT.(2m(,0)(lamda)/f, where n = 0, (+OR -)1, (+OR-)2...,. and m(,0) and f are the Higg's model parameters and (lamda) is the coupling constant for the vector boson fields with the scalar fields. The Feynman diagrams are found for the Green's functions in a path dependent, gauge invariant formulation. This situation leads to a specific model for studying the scalar mediating field from a vacuum point of view, and for future work, by breaking the symmetry with the fermion field interaction.

  8. N = 2 gauge theories, instanton moduli spaces and geometric representation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Richard J.

    2016-11-01

    We survey some of the AGT relations between N = 2 gauge theories in four dimensions and geometric representations of symmetry algebras of two-dimensional conformal field theory on the equivariant cohomology of their instanton moduli spaces. We treat the cases of gauge theories on both flat space and ALE spaces in some detail, and with emphasis on the implications arising from embedding them into supersymmetric theories in six dimensions. Along the way we construct new toric noncommutative ALE spaces using the general theory of complex algebraic deformations of toric varieties, and indicate how to generalize the construction of instanton moduli spaces. We also compute the equivariant partition functions of topologically twisted six-dimensional Yang-Mills theory with maximal supersymmetry in a general Ω-background, and use the construction to obtain novel reductions to theories in four dimensions.

  9. AGT relations for abelian quiver gauge theories on ALE spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrini, Mattia; Sala, Francesco; Szabo, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    We construct level one dominant representations of the affine Kac-Moody algebra gl̂k on the equivariant cohomology groups of moduli spaces of rank one framed sheaves on the orbifold compactification of the minimal resolution Xk of the Ak-1 toric singularity C2 /Zk. We show that the direct sum of the fundamental classes of these moduli spaces is a Whittaker vector for gl̂k, which proves the AGT correspondence for pure N = 2 U(1) gauge theory on Xk. We consider Carlsson-Okounkov type Ext-bundles over products of the moduli spaces and use their Euler classes to define vertex operators. Under the decomposition gl̂k ≃ h ⊕sl̂k, these vertex operators decompose as products of bosonic exponentials associated to the Heisenberg algebra h and primary fields of sl̂k. We use these operators to prove the AGT correspondence for N = 2 superconformal abelian quiver gauge theories on Xk.

  10. Exact WKB analysis of {N} = 2 gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Sujay K.; Jatkar, Dileep P.; John, Renjan R.; Raman, M.; Troost, Jan

    2016-07-01

    We study {N} = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories with gauge group SU(2) coupled to fundamental flavours, covering all asymptotically free and conformal cases. We re-derive, from the conformal field theory perspective, the differential equations satisfied by ɛ 1- and ɛ 2-deformed instanton partition functions. We confirm their validity at leading order in ɛ 2 via a saddle-point analysis of the partition function. In the semi-classical limit we show that these differential equations take a form amenable to exact WKB analysis. We compute the monodromy group associated to the differential equations in terms of ɛ 1-deformed and Borel resummed Seiberg-Witten data. For each case, we study pairs of Stokes graphs that are related by flips and pops, and show that the monodromy groups allow one to confirm the Stokes automorphisms that arise as the phase of ɛ 1 is varied. Finally, we relate the Borel resummed monodromies with the traditional Seiberg-Witten variables in the semi-classical limit.

  11. Unifying all classical spin models in a lattice gauge theory.

    PubMed

    De las Cuevas, G; Dür, W; Briegel, H J; Martin-Delgado, M A

    2009-06-12

    The partition function of all classical spin models, including all discrete standard statistical models and all Abelian discrete lattice gauge theories (LGTs), is expressed as a special instance of the partition function of the 4D Z2 LGT. This unifies all classical spin models with apparently very different features in a single complete model. This result is applied to establish a new method to compute the mean-field theory of Abelian discrete LGTs with d > or = 4, and to show that computing the partition function of the 4D Z2 LGT is computationally hard (#P hard). The 4D Z2 LGT is also proved to be approximately complete for Abelian continuous models. The proof uses techniques from quantum information.

  12. Higher gauge theories from Lie n-algebras and off-shell covariantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, Ursula; Heller, Marc Andre; Ikeda, Noriaki; Kaneko, Yukio; Watamura, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    We analyze higher gauge theories in various dimensions using a supergeometric method based on a differential graded symplectic manifold, called a QP-manifold, which is closely related to the BRST-BV formalism in gauge theories. Extensions of the Lie 2-algebra gauge structure are formulated within the Lie n-algebra induced by the QP-structure. We find that in 5 and 6 dimensions there are special extensions of the gauge algebra. In these cases, a restriction of the gauge symmetry by imposing constraints on the auxiliary gauge fields leads to a covariantized theory. As an example we show that we can obtain an off-shell covariantized higher gauge theory in 5 dimensions, which is similar to the one proposed in [1].

  13. Finite and Gauge-Yukawa unified theories: Theory and predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Kubo, J.; Mondragon, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    1999-10-25

    All-loop Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are very interesting N=1 GUTs in which a complete reduction of couplings has been achieved. FUTs realize an old field theoretical dream and have remarkable predictive power. Reduction of dimensionless couplings in N=1 GUTs is achieved by searching for renormalization group invariant (RGI) relations among them holding beyond the unification scale. Finiteness results from the fact that there exists RGI relations among dimensionless couplings that guarantee the vanishing of the {beta}- functions in certain N=1 supersymmetric GUTS even to all orders. Recent developments in the soft supersymmetry breaking (SSB) sector of N=1 GUTs and FUTs lead to exact RGI relations also in this sector of the theories. Of particular interest is a RGI sum rule for the soft scalar masses holding to all orders. The characteristic features of SU(5) models that have been constructed based on the above tools are: a) the old agreement of the top quark prediction with the measured value remains unchanged, b) the lightest Higgs boson is predicted to be around 120 GeV, c) the s-spectrum starts above several hundreds of GeV.

  14. On the notion of gauge symmetries of generic Lagrangian field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giachetta, G.; Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G.

    2009-01-01

    General Lagrangian theory of even and odd fields on an arbitrary smooth manifold is considered. Its nontrivial reducible gauge symmetries and their algebra are defined in this very general setting by means of the inverse second Noether theorem. In contrast with gauge symmetries, nontrivial Noether and higher-stage Noether identities of Lagrangian theory can be intrinsically defined by constructing the exact Koszul-Tate complex. The inverse second Noether theorem that we prove associates with this complex the cochain sequence with the ascent operator whose components define nontrivial gauge and higher-stage gauge symmetries. These gauge symmetries are said to be algebraically closed if the ascent operator can be extended to a nilpotent operator. The necessary conditions for this extension are stated. The characteristic examples of Yang-Mills supergauge theory, topological Chern-Simons theory, gauge gravitation theory, and topological background field (BF) theory are presented.

  15. Investigations in gauge theories, topological solitons and string theories. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This is the Final Report on a supported research project on theoretical particle physics entitled ``Investigations in Gauge Theories, Topological Solitons and String Theories.`` The major theme of particle theory pursued has been within the rubric of the standard model, particularly on the interplay between symmetries and dynamics. Thus, the research has been carried out primarily in the context of gauge with or without chiral fermions and in effective chiral lagrangian field theories. The topics studied include the physical implications of abelian and non-abelian anomalies on the spectrum and possible dynamical symmetry breaking in a wide range of theories. A wide range of techniques of group theory, differential geometry and function theory have been applied to probe topological and conformal properties of quantum field theories in two and higher dimensions, the breaking of global chiral symmetries by vector-like gauge theories such as QCD,the phenomenology of a possibly strongly interacting Higgs sector within the minimal standard model, and the relevance of solitonic ideas to non-perturbative phenomena at SSC energies.

  16. Spectral dualities in XXZ spin chains and five dimensional gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Runov, B.; Zenkevich, Y.; Zotov, A.

    2013-12-01

    Motivated by recent progress in the study of supersymmetric gauge theories we propose a very compact formulation of spectral duality between XXZ spin chains. The action of the quantum duality is given by the Fourier transform in the spectral parameter. We investigate the duality in various limits and, in particular, prove it for q → 1, i.e. when it reduces to the XXX/Gaudin duality. We also show that the universal difference operators are given by the normal ordering of the classical spectral curves.

  17. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jim B.; Harding, Kelly J.

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested "colonial" hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and…

  18. CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe". The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions". This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher

  19. Infrared singularities in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Alkofer, Reinhard; Huber, Markus Q.; Schwenzer, Kai

    2010-05-15

    We present a more detailed picture of the infrared regime of Landau-gauge Yang-Mills theory. This is done within a novel framework that allows one to take into account the influence of finite scales within an infrared power counting analysis. We find that there are two qualitatively different infrared fixed points of the full system of Dyson-Schwinger equations. The first extends the known scaling solution, where the ghost dynamics is dominant and gluon propagation is strongly suppressed. It features in addition to the strong divergences of gluonic vertex functions in the previously considered uniform scaling limit, when all external momenta tend to zero, also weaker kinematic divergences, when only some of the external momenta vanish. The second solution represents the recently proposed decoupling scenario where the gluons become massive and the ghosts remain bare. In this case we find that none of the vertex functions is enhanced, so that the infrared dynamics is entirely suppressed. Our analysis also provides a strict argument why the Landau-gauge gluon dressing function cannot be infrared divergent.

  20. Study of the all orders multiplicative renormalizability of a local confining quark action in the Landau gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Capri, M.A.L. Fiorentini, D. Sorella, S.P.

    2015-05-15

    The inverse of the Faddeev–Popov operator plays a pivotal role within the Gribov–Zwanziger approach to the quantization of Euclidean Yang–Mills theories in Landau gauge. Following a recent proposal (Capri et al., 2014), we show that the inverse of the Faddeev–Popov operator can be consistently coupled to quark fields. Such a coupling gives rise to a local action while reproducing the behaviour of the quark propagator observed in lattice numerical simulations in the non-perturbative infrared region. By using the algebraic renormalization framework, we prove that the aforementioned local action is multiplicatively renormalizable to all orders.

  1. More on Gribov copies and propagators in Landau-gauge Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, Axel

    2009-01-01

    Fixing a gauge in the nonperturbative domain of Yang-Mills theory is a nontrivial problem due to the presence of Gribov copies. In particular, there are different gauges in the nonperturbative regime which all correspond to the same definition of a gauge in the perturbative domain. Gauge-dependent correlation functions may differ in these gauges. Two such gauges are the minimal Landau gauge and the absolute Landau gauge, both corresponding to the perturbative Landau gauge. These, and their numerical implementation, are described and presented in detail. Other choices will also be discussed. This investigation is performed, using numerical lattice gauge theory calculations, by comparing the propagators of gluons and ghosts for the minimal Landau gauge and the absolute Landau gauge in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the propagators are different in the far infrared and even at energy scales of the order of half a GeV. In particular, the finite-volume effects are also modified. This is observed in two and three dimensions. Some remarks on the four-dimensional case are provided as well.

  2. de Sitter gauge theory of gravity: an alternative torsion cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Ao, Xi-Chen; Li, Xin-Zhou E-mail: kychz@shnu.edu.cn

    2011-10-01

    A new cosmological model based on the de Sitter gauge theory (dSGT) is studied in this paper. By some transformations, we find, in the dust universe, the cosmological equations of dSGT could form an autonomous system. We conduct dynamics analysis to this system, and find 9 critical points, among which there exist one positive attractor and one negative attractor. The positive attractor shows us that our universe will enter a exponential expansion phase in the end, which is similar to the conclusion of ΛCDM. We also carry out some numerical calculations, which confirms the conclusion of dynamics analysis. Finally, we fit the model parameter and initial values to the Union 2 SNIa dataset, present the confidence contour of parameters and obtain the best-fit values of parameters of dSGT.

  3. Generalization of trinification to theories with 3N SU(3) gauge groups

    SciTech Connect

    Carone, Christopher D.

    2005-04-01

    We consider a natural generalization of trinification to theories with 3N SU(3) gauge groups. These theories have a simple moose representation and a gauge boson spectrum that can be interpreted via the deconstruction of a 5D theory with unified symmetry broken on a boundary. Although the matter and Higgs sectors of the theory have no simple extra-dimensional analog, gauge unification retains features characteristic of the 5D theory. We determine possible assignments of the matter and Higgs fields to unified multiplets and present theories that are viable alternatives to minimal trinified GUTs.

  4. Wilson loops in noncompact U(1) gauge theories at criticality

    SciTech Connect

    Metlitski, Max A.

    2008-04-15

    We study the properties of Wilson loops in three-dimensional noncompact U(1) gauge theories with global Abelian symmetries. We use duality in the continuum and on the lattice to argue that, close to the critical point between the Higgs and Coulomb phases, all correlators of the Wilson loops are periodic functions of the Wilson loop charge, Q. The period depends on the global symmetry of the theory, which determines the magnetic flux carried by the dual particles. For single flavor scalar electrodynamics, the emergent period is Q=1. In the general case of N complex scalars with a U(1){sup N-1} global symmetry, the period is Q=N. We also give some arguments why this phenomenon does not generalize to theories with a full non-Abelian SU(N) symmetry, where no periodicity in Q is expected. Implications for lattice simulations, as well as for physical systems, such as easy-plane antiferromagnets and disordered superfluids, are noted.

  5. Instanton Effective Action in Deformed Super Yang-Mills Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Hiroaki; Ito, Katsushi; Sasaki, Shin

    2008-11-23

    We study the ADHM construction of instantons in N = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory deformed in constant Ramond-Ramond (R-R) 3-form field strength background in type IIB superstrings. We compare the deformed instanton effective action with the effective action of fractional D3/D(-1) branes at the orbifold singularity of C{sup 2}/Z{sub 2} in the same R-R background. We find discrepancy between them at the second order in deformation parameters, which comes from the coupling of the translational zero modes of the D(-1)-branes to the R-R background. We improve the deformed action by adding a term with spacetime dependent gauge coupling such that the action reproduces the effective action of the fractional branes.

  6. Type I non-abelian superconductors in supersymmetric gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzzi, Roberto; Eto, Minoru; Vinci, Walter

    2007-11-01

    Non-BPS non-Abelian vortices with Bbb CBbb P1 internal moduli space are studied in an Script N = 2 supersymmetric U(1) × SU(2) gauge theory with adjoint mass terms. For generic internal orientations the classical force between two vortices can be attractive or repulsive. On the other hand, the mass of the scalars in the theory is always less than that of the vector bosons; also, the force between two vortices with the same Bbb CBbb P1 orientation is always attractive: for these reasons we interpret our model as a non-Abelian generalization of type I superconductors. We compute the effective potential in the limit of two well separated vortices. It is a function of the distance and of the relative colour-flavour orientation of the two vortices; in this limit we find an effective description in terms of two interacting Bbb CBbb P1 sigma models. In the limit of two coincident vortices we find two different solutions with the same topological winding and, for generic values of the parameters, different tensions. One of the two solutions is described by a Bbb CBbb P1 effective sigma model, while the other is just an Abelian vortex without internal degrees of freedom. For generic values of the parameters, one of the two solutions is metastable, while there are evidences that the other one is truly stable.

  7. Field theory representation of mixed gauge-gravity symmetry-protected topological invariants, group cohomology and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juven; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    The challenge of identifying symmetry-protected topological states (SPTs) is due to their lack of symmetry-breaking order parameters and intrinsic topological orders. For this reason, it is impossible to formulate SPTs under Ginzburg-Landau theory or probe SPTs via fractionalized bulk excitations and topology-dependent ground state degeneracy. However, the partition functions from path integrals with various symmetry twists are universal SPT invariants, fully characterizing SPTs. In this work, we use gauge fields to represent those symmetry twists in closed spacetimes of any dimensionality and arbitrary topology. This allows us to express the SPT invariants in terms of continuum field theory. We show that SPT invariants of pure gauge actions describe the SPTs predicted by group cohomology, while the mixed gauge-gravity actions describe the beyond-group-cohomology SPTs, recently observed by Kapustin. We find new examples of mixed gauge-gravity actions for U(1) SPTs in 3+1D and 4+1D via the Stiefel-Whitney class and the gravitational Chern-Simons term. [Work based on Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 031601 (2015) arXiv:1405.7689

  8. Abelian spatial string tension in finite temperature SU(2) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Takashige; Ishiguro, Katsuya

    2016-09-01

    We investigate Abelian and monopole contributions to spatial string tension in the deconfined phase of finite temperature SU(2) gauge theory without imposing any gauge fixing conditions. Lattice calculations of non-Abelian and Abelian spatial string tensions from the Wilson action at gauge coupling β = 2.74 and lattice volume 243 × N t (Nt = {24, 8, 6, 4, 2}) show that these string tensions agree with each other within error bars at any adopted value of Nt, which implies Abelian dominance. From measurements of non-Abelian, Abelian and monopole forces that arise from the corresponding spatial string tension, furthermore, we find the tendency that the monopole contribution to the spatial string tension can be almost as large as the non-Abelian and Abelian ones. The temperature dependence of the calculated non-Abelian and Abelian spatial string tensions allows us to conclude that the concept of dimensional reduction holds both for non-Abelian and Abelian sectors at temperatures higher than twice the critical temperature.

  9. Probability distribution of the index in gauge theory on 2d non-commutative geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Hajime; Nishimura, Jun; Susaki, Yoshiaki

    2007-10-01

    We investigate the effects of non-commutative geometry on the topological aspects of gauge theory using a non-perturbative formulation based on the twisted reduced model. The configuration space is decomposed into topological sectors labeled by the index ν of the overlap Dirac operator satisfying the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. We study the probability distribution of ν by Monte Carlo simulation of the U(1) gauge theory on 2d non-commutative space with periodic boundary conditions. In general the distribution is asymmetric under ν mapsto -ν, reflecting the parity violation due to non-commutative geometry. In the continuum and infinite-volume limits, however, the distribution turns out to be dominated by the topologically trivial sector. This conclusion is consistent with the instanton calculus in the continuum theory. However, it is in striking contrast to the known results in the commutative case obtained from lattice simulation, where the distribution is Gaussian in a finite volume, but the width diverges in the infinite-volume limit. We also calculate the average action in each topological sector, and provide deeper understanding of the observed phenomenon.

  10. Perturbative Quantum Gravity as a Double Copy of Gauge Theory and Implications for UV Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    The talk will review recent developments showing that in a precise sense gravity scattering amplitudes are double copies of corresponding gauge theory ones used to describe the strong subnuclear interactions. Underlying this is a correspondence between the color charges and kinematic numerators appearing in gauge theory scattering amplitudes. An application of these ideas will be given, demonstrating that within perturbation theory standard supergravity theories are much tamer in the ultraviolet than had been believed possible.

  11. Yang-Mills theory on a momentum lattice: Gauge invariance, chiral invariance, and no fermion doubling

    SciTech Connect

    Berube, D.; Kroeger, H.; Lafrance, R.; Marleau, L. )

    1991-02-15

    We discuss properties of a noncompact formulation of gauge theories with fermions on a momentum ({ital k}) lattice. (a) This formulation is suitable to build in Fourier acceleration in a direct way. (b) The numerical effort to compute the action (by fast Fourier transform) goes essentially like log{ital V} with the lattice volume {ital V}. (c) For the Yang-Mills theory we find that the action conserves gauge symmetry and chiral symmetry in a weak sense: On a finite lattice the action is invariant under infinitesimal transformations with compact support. Under finite transformations these symmetries are approximately conserved and they are restored on an infinite lattice and in the continuum limit. Moreover, these symmetries also hold on a finite lattice under finite transformations, if the classical fields, instead of being {ital c}-number valued, take values from a finite Galois field. (d) There is no fermion doubling. (e) For the {phi}{sup 4} model we investigate the transition towards the continuum limit in lattice perturbation theory up to second order. We compute the two- and four-point functions and find local and Lorentz-invariant results. (f) In QED we compute a one-loop vacuum polarization and find in the continuum limit the standard result. (g) As a numerical application, we compute the propagator {l angle}{phi}({ital k}){phi}({ital k}{prime}){r angle} in the {phi}{sup 4} model, investigate Euclidean invariance, and extract {ital m}{sub {ital R}} as well as {ital Z}{sub {ital R}}. Moreover we compute {l angle}{ital F}{sub {mu}{nu}}({ital k}){ital F}{sub {mu}{nu}}({ital k}{prime}){r angle} in the SU(2) model.

  12. Topics in Lattice Gauge Theory and Theoretical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komijani, Javad

    This dissertation contains two completely independent parts. In Part 1, I investigate effective field theories and their applications in lattice gauge theory. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) as a part of the standard model (SM) describes the physics of quarks and gluons. There are several numerical and analytical methods to tackle the QCD problems. Lattice QCD is the dominant numerical method. Effective field theories, on the other hand, provide analytic methods to describe the low-energy dynamics of QCD. To use the effective theories in lattice QCD, I develop chiral perturbation theory for heavy-light mesons with staggered quarks---an implementation of fermions on lattice. I use this effective chiral theory to study the pattern of taste splitting in masses of the mesons with staggered quarks. I also calculate the leptonic decay constant of the heavy-light mesons with staggered quarks to one-loop order in the chiral expansion. The resulting chiral formula provides a suitable fit form to combine and analyze a large number of decay constants of heavy-light mesons computed from different lattice ensembles with various choices of input parameters. I perform a comprehensive chiral fit to the lattice data for D mesons computed by the MILC collaboration. Consequently, I determine the physical values of the decay constants of D mesons. These precise results place narrow restrictions on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix elements. In Part 2, I introduce the concept of a nonlinear eigenvalue problem by investigating three nonlinear differential equations. First, equation y'(x) = cos[pixy(x)] is investigated. A discrete set of initial conditions y(0) = an, leading to unstable separatrix behavior, are identified as the eigenvalues of the problem. I calculate the asymptotic behavior of the initial conditions an and their corresponding solutions for large n by reducing the equation to a linear one-dimensional random-walk problem. Second, I investigate equation y''(x)=6[y( x

  13. On inherited duality in Script N = 1 d = 4 supersymmetric gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyres, Philip C.; Intriligator, Ken; Leigh, Robert G.; Strassler, Matthew J.

    2000-04-01

    Four-dimensional Script N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories with two adjoints and a quartic superpotential are believed, from AdS/CFT duality, to have SL(2,Bbb Z) invariance. In this note we review an old, unpublished argument for this property, based solely on field theory. The technique involves a complexified flavor rotation which deforms an Script N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theory with matter to an Script N = 1 theory, leaving all holomorphic invariants unchanged. We apply this to the Script N = 1 gauge theory with two massless adjoints and show that it has the same auxiliary torus as that of Script N = 4 gauge theory, from which SL(2,Bbb Z) invariance follows. In the appendix, we check that our arguments are consistent with earlier work on the SU(2) case. Our technique is general and applies to many other Script N = 1 theories.

  14. Sine-Gordon quantum mechanics on the complex plane and N=2 gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    He Wei

    2010-05-15

    We study the relation between the N=2 gauge theory in the {Omega} background and the quantized integral system recently proposed by Nekrasov and Shatashvili. We focus on the simplest case, the pure Yang-Mills theory with the SU(2) gauge group and the corresponding sine-Gordon integral model on the complex plane. We analyze the periodic wave function and the corresponding energy spectrum of the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics, and find this model contains information of the low energy effective theory of the gauge theory.

  15. Quaternion-Octonion Analyticity for Abelian and Non-Abelian Gauge Theories of Dyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, P. S.; Negi, O. P. S.

    2008-06-01

    Einstein-Schrödinger (ES) non-symmetric theory has been extended to accommodate the Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories of dyons in terms of the quaternion-octonion metric realization. Corresponding covariant derivatives for complex, quaternion and octonion spaces in internal gauge groups are shown to describe the consistent field equations and generalized Dirac equation of dyons. It is also shown that quaternion and octonion representations extend the so-called unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism to the Yang-Mill’s fields leading to two SU(2) gauge theories of internal spaces due to the presence of electric and magnetic charges on dyons.

  16. Quantum field theory of gravity with spin and scaling gauge invariance and spacetime dynamics with quantum inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Treating the gravitational force on the same footing as the electroweak and strong forces, we present a quantum field theory of gravity based on spin and scaling gauge symmetries. A biframe spacetime is initiated to describe such a quantum gravity theory. The gravifield sided on both locally flat noncoordinate spacetime and globally flat Minkowski spacetime is an essential ingredient for gauging global spin and scaling symmetries. The locally flat gravifield spacetime spanned by the gravifield is associated with a noncommutative geometry characterized by a gauge-type field strength of the gravifield. A coordinate-independent and gauge-invariant action for the quantum gravity is built in the gravifield basis. In the coordinate basis, we derive equations of motion for all quantum fields including the gravitational effect and obtain basic conservation laws for all symmetries. The equation of motion for the gravifield tensor is deduced in connection directly with the total energy-momentum tensor. When the spin and scaling gauge symmetries are broken down to a background structure that possesses the global Lorentz and scaling symmetries, we obtain exact solutions by solving equations of motion for the background fields in a unitary basis. The massless graviton and massive spinon result as physical quantum degrees of freedom. The resulting Lorentz-invariant and conformally flat background gravifield spacetime is characterized by a cosmic vector with a nonzero cosmological mass scale. The evolving Universe is, in general, not isotropic in terms of conformal proper time. The conformal size of the Universe becomes singular at the cosmological horizon and turns out to be inflationary in light of cosmic proper time. A mechanism for quantum scalinon inflation is demonstrated such that it is the quantum effect that causes the breaking of global scaling symmetry and generates the inflation of the early Universe, which is ended when the evolving vacuum expectation value of the

  17. Six-dimensional (1,0) superconformal models and higher gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Sam; Sämann, Christian

    2013-11-15

    We analyze the gauge structure of a recently proposed superconformal field theory in six dimensions. We find that this structure amounts to a weak Courant-Dorfman algebra, which, in turn, can be interpreted as a strong homotopy Lie algebra. This suggests that the superconformal field theory is closely related to higher gauge theory, describing the parallel transport of extended objects. Indeed we find that, under certain restrictions, the field content and gauge transformations reduce to those of higher gauge theory. We also present a number of interesting examples of admissible gauge structures such as the structure Lie 2-algebra of an abelian gerbe, differential crossed modules, the 3-algebras of M2-brane models, and string Lie 2-algebras.

  18. Gravitationally induced zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov operator in the Coulomb gauge for Abelian gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio

    2010-08-15

    It is shown that on curved backgrounds, the Coulomb gauge Faddeev-Popov operator can have zero modes even in the Abelian case. These zero modes cannot be eliminated by restricting the path integral over a certain region in the space of gauge potentials. The conditions for the existence of these zero modes are studied for static spherically symmetric spacetimes in arbitrary dimensions. For this class of metrics, the general analytic expression of the metric components in terms of the zero modes is constructed. Such expression allows one to find the asymptotic behavior of background metrics, which induce zero modes in the Coulomb gauge, an interesting example being the three-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. Some of the implications for quantum field theory on curved spacetimes are discussed.

  19. Gauging the twisted Poincare symmetry as a noncommutative theory of gravitation

    SciTech Connect

    Chaichian, M.; Tureanu, A.; Oksanen, M.; Zet, G.

    2009-02-15

    Einstein's theory of general relativity was formulated as a gauge theory of Lorentz symmetry by Utiyama in 1956, while the Einstein-Cartan gravitational theory was formulated by Kibble in 1961 as the gauge theory of Poincare transformations. In this framework, we propose a formulation of the gravitational theory on canonical noncommutative space-time by covariantly gauging the twisted Poincare symmetry, in order to fulfil the requirement of covariance under the general coordinate transformations, an essential ingredient of the theory of general relativity. It appears that the twisted Poincare symmetry cannot be gauged by generalizing the Abelian twist to a covariant non-Abelian twist, nor by introducing a more general covariant twist element. The advantages of such a formulation as well as the related problems are discussed and possible ways out are outlined.

  20. Topics in Nonsupersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes in Gauge and Gravity Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohle, Joshua David

    In Chapters 1 and 2, we introduce and review the duality between color and kinematics in Yang-Mills theory uncovered by Bern, Carrasco and Johansson (BCJ). In Chapter 3, we provide evidence in favor of the conjectured duality between color and kinematics for the case of nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills amplitudes by constructing a form of the one-loop four-point amplitude of this theory that makes the duality manifest. Our construction is valid in any dimension. We also describe a duality-satisfying representation for the two-loop four-point amplitude with identical four-dimensional external helicities. We use these results to obtain corresponding gravity integrands for a theory containing a graviton, dilaton, and antisymmetric tensor, simply by replacing color factors with specified diagram numerators. Using this, we give explicit forms of ultraviolet divergences at one loop in four, six, and eight dimensions, and at two loops in four dimensions. In Chapter 4, we extend the four-point one-loop nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills discussion of Chapter 3 to include fermions and scalars circulating in the loop with all external gluons. This gives another nontrivial loop-level example showing that the duality between color and kinematics holds in nonsupersymmetric gauge theory. The construction is valid in any spacetime dimension and written in terms of formal polarization vectors. We also convert these expressions into a four-dimensional form with explicit external helicity states. Using this, we compare our results to one-loop duality-satisfying amplitudes that are already present in literature. In Chapter 5, we switch from the topic of color-kinematics duality to discuss the recently renewed interest in the soft behavior of gravitons and gluons. Specifically, we discuss the subleading low-energy behavior. Cachazo and Strominger recently proposed an extension of the soft-graviton theorem found by Weinberg. In addition, they proved the validity of their extension at

  1. The arithmetic of elliptic fibrations in gauge theories on a circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Thomas W.; Kapfer, Andreas; Klevers, Denis

    2016-06-01

    The geometry of elliptic fibrations translates to the physics of gauge theories in F-theory. We systematically develop the dictionary between arithmetic structures on elliptic curves as well as desingularized elliptic fibrations and symmetries of gauge theories on a circle. We show that the Mordell-Weil group law matches integral large gauge transformations around the circle in Abelian gauge theories and explain the significance of Mordell-Weil torsion in this context. We also use Higgs transitions and circle large gauge transformations to introduce a group law for genus-one fibrations with multi-sections. Finally, we introduce a novel arithmetic structure on elliptic fibrations with non-Abelian gauge groups in F-theory. It is defined on the set of exceptional divisors resolving the singularities and divisor classes of sections of the fibration. This group structure can be matched with certain integral non-Abelian large gauge transformations around the circle when studying the theory on the lower-dimensional Coulomb branch. Its existence is required by consistency with Higgs transitions from the non-Abelian theory to its Abelian phases in which it becomes the Mordell-Weil group. This hints towards the existence of a new underlying geometric symmetry.

  2. Hamiltonian approach to 1 + 1 dimensional Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, H. Schleifenbaum, W.

    2009-04-15

    We study the Hamiltonian approach to 1 + 1 dimensional Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge, considering both the pure Coulomb gauge and the gauge where in addition the remaining constant gauge field is restricted to the Cartan algebra. We evaluate the corresponding Faddeev-Popov determinants, resolve Gauss' law and derive the Hamiltonians, which differ in both gauges due to additional zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov kernel in the pure Coulomb gauge. By Gauss' law the zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov kernel constrain the physical wave functionals to zero colour charge states. We solve the Schroedinger equation in the pure Coulomb gauge and determine the vacuum wave functional. The gluon and ghost propagators and the static colour Coulomb potential are calculated in the first Gribov region as well as in the fundamental modular region, and Gribov copy effects are studied. We explicitly demonstrate that the Dyson-Schwinger equations do not specify the Gribov region while the propagators and vertices do depend on the Gribov region chosen. In this sense, the Dyson-Schwinger equations alone do not provide the full non-abelian quantum gauge theory, but subsidiary conditions must be required. Implications of Gribov copy effects for lattice calculations of the infrared behaviour of gauge-fixed propagators are discussed. We compute the ghost-gluon vertex and provide a sensible truncation of Dyson-Schwinger equations. Approximations of the variational approach to the 3 + 1 dimensional theory are checked by comparison to the 1 + 1 dimensional case.

  3. Cold Atoms in Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials: From the Hofstadter Moth to Lattice Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Osterloh, K.; Baig, M.; Santos, L.; Zoller, P.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-07-01

    We demonstrate how to create artificial external non-Abelian gauge potentials acting on cold atoms in optical lattices. The method employs atoms with k internal states, and laser assisted state sensitive tunneling, described by unitary kxk matrices. The single-particle dynamics in the case of intense U(2) vector potentials lead to a generalized Hofstadter butterfly spectrum which shows a complex mothlike structure. We discuss the possibility to realize non-Abelian interferometry (Aharonov-Bohm effect) and to study many-body dynamics of ultracold matter in external lattice gauge fields.

  4. Hidden gauge structure and derivation of microcanonical ensemble theory of bosons from quantum principles.

    PubMed

    Abe, Sumiyoshi; Kobayashi, Tsunehiro

    2003-03-01

    Microcanonical ensemble theory of free bosons is derived from quantum mechanics by making use of the hidden gauge structure. The relative phase interaction associated with this gauge structure, described by the Pegg-Barnett formalism, is shown to lead to perfect decoherence in the thermodynamic limit and the principle of equal a priori probability, simultaneously.

  5. Permanent quark confinement in four-dimensional hierarchical lattice gauge theories of Migdal-Kadanoff type

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, K.R.

    1985-08-05

    Permanent quark confinement is established for four-dimensional hierarchical lattice gauge theories in which the Migdal-Kadanoff approximate renormalization recursion formulas hold exactly. This holds for gauge groups G = SU(N) as well as G = U(N).

  6. The energy-momentum tensor(s) in classical gauge theories

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gieres, Francois; Blaschke, Daniel N.; Reboud, Meril; Schweda, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    We give an introduction to, and review of, the energy–momentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved space–time. For the canonical energy–momentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energy–momentum tensor. Here, the relationship with the Einstein–Hilbert tensor following from the coupling to a gravitational field is also discussed.

  7. Action Research: Theory and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Renée N.

    2014-01-01

    Action research as a methodology is suitable for use within academic library settings. Its theoretical foundations are located in several disciplines and its applications span across many professions. In this article, an overview of the theoretical beginnings and evolution of action research is presented. Approaches generally used in conducting an…

  8. Multi-instanton calculus in N=2 supersymmetric gauge theory. II. Coupling to matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorey, Nicholas; Khoze, Valentin V.; Mattis, Michael P.

    1996-12-01

    We further discuss the N=2 superinstantons in SU(2) gauge theory, obtained from the general self-dual solutions of topological charge n constructed by Atiyah, Drinfeld, Hitchin, and Manin (ADHM). We realize the N=2 supersymmetry algebra as actions on the superinstanton moduli. This allows us to recast in concise superfield notation our previously obtained expression for the exact classical interaction between n ADHM superinstantons mediated by the adjoint Higgs bosons, and, moreover, to incorporate NF flavors of hypermultiplets. We perform explicit one- and two-instanton checks of the Seiberg-Witten prepotentials for all NF and arbitrary hypermultiplet masses. Our results for the low-energy couplings are all in precise agreement with the predictions of Seiberg and Witten except for NF=4, where we find a finite renormalization of the coupling which is absent in the proposed solution.

  9. The chiral magnetic effect and chiral symmetry breaking in SU(3) quenched lattice gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Braguta, V. V.; Buividovich, P. V. Kalaydzhyan, T. Kuznetsov, S. V. Polikarpov, M. I.

    2012-04-15

    We study some properties of the non-Abelian vacuum induced by strong external magnetic field. We perform calculations in the quenched SU(3) lattice gauge theory with tadpole-improved Luescher-Weisz action and chirally invariant lattice Dirac operator. The following results are obtained: The chiral symmetry breaking is enhanced by the magnetic field. The chiral condensate depends on the strength of the applied field as a power function with exponent {nu} = 1.6 {+-} 0.2. There is a paramagnetic polarization of the vacuum. The corresponding susceptibility and other magnetic properties are calculated and compared with the theoretical estimations. There are nonzero local fluctuations of the chirality and electromagnetic current, which grow with the magnetic field strength. These fluctuations can be a manifestation of the Chiral Magnetic Effect.

  10. Gauge invariant perturbation theory and non-critical string models of Yang-Mills theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, Adrián R.; Sturla, Mauricio B.

    2010-04-01

    We carry out a gauge invariant analysis of certain perturbations of D - 2-branes solutions of low energy string theories. We get generically a system of second order coupled differential equations, and show that only in very particular cases it is possible to reduce it to just one differential equation. Later, we apply it to a multi-parameter, generically singular family of constant dilaton solutions of non-critical string theories in D dimensions, a generalization of that recently found in arXiv:0709.0471 [hep-th]. According to arguments coming from the holographic gauge theory-gravity correspondence, and at least in some region of the parameters space, we obtain glue-ball spectra of Yang-Mills theories in diverse dimensions, putting special emphasis in the scalar metric perturbations not considered previously in the literature in the non critical setup. We compare our numerical results to those studied previously and to lattice results, finding qualitative and in some cases, tuning properly the parameters, quantitative agreement. These results seem to show some kind of universality of the models, as well as an irrelevance of the singular character of the solutions. We also develop the analysis for the T-dual, non trivial dilaton family of solutions, showing perfect agreement between them.

  11. Electric-magnetic dualities in non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Jun-Kai; Ma, Chen-Te

    2016-08-01

    Electric-magnetic dualities are equivalence between strong and weak coupling constants. A standard example is the exchange of electric and magnetic fields in an abelian gauge theory. We show three methods to perform electric-magnetic dualities in the case of the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory. The first method is to use covariant field strengths to be the electric and magnetic fields. We find an invariant form of an equation of motion after performing the electric-magnetic duality. The second method is to use the Seiberg-Witten map to rewrite the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory in terms of abelian field strength. The third method is to use the large Neveu Schwarz-Neveu Schwarz (NS-NS) background limit (non-commutativity parameter only has one degree of freedom) to consider the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory or D3-brane. In this limit, we introduce or dualize a new one-form gauge potential to get a D3-brane in a large Ramond-Ramond (R-R) background via field redefinition. We also use perturbation to study the equivalence between two D3-brane theories. Comparison of these methods in the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory gives different physical implications. The comparison reflects the differences between the non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories in the electric-magnetic dualities. For a complete study, we also extend our studies to the simplest abelian and non-abelian p-form gauge theories, and a non-commutative theory with the non-abelian structure.

  12. Complete action for open superstring field theory with cyclic A ∞ structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Theodore; Okawa, Yuji; Takezaki, Tomoyuki

    2016-08-01

    We construct a gauge invariant action for the Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond sectors of open superstring field theory realizing a cyclic A ∞ structure, providing the first complete and fully explicit solution to the classical Batalin-Vilkovisky master equation in superstring field theory. We also demonstrate the equivalence of our action to the Wess-Zumino-Witten-based construction of Kunitomo and one of the authors.

  13. Program package for multicanonical simulations of U(1) lattice gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazavov, Alexei; Berg, Bernd A.

    2009-11-01

    We document our Fortran 77 code for multicanonical simulations of 4D U(1) lattice gauge theory in the neighborhood of its phase transition. This includes programs and routines for canonical simulations using biased Metropolis heatbath updating and overrelaxation, determination of multicanonical weights via a Wang-Landau recursion, and multicanonical simulations with fixed weights supplemented by overrelaxation sweeps. Measurements are performed for the action, Polyakov loops and some of their structure factors. Many features of the code transcend the particular application and are expected to be useful for other lattice gauge theory models as well as for systems in statistical physics. Catalogue identifier: AEET_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEET_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 376 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 205 183 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: Any capable of compiling and executing Fortran code Operating system: Any capable of compiling and executing Fortran code Classification: 11.5 Nature of problem: Efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation of U(1) lattice gauge theory close to its phase transition. Measurements and analysis of the action per plaquette, the specific heat, Polyakov loops and their structure factors. Solution method: Multicanonical simulations with an initial Wang-Landau recursion to determine suitable weight

  14. Probing the W-Z-Higgs sector of electroweak gauge theories at the superconducting super collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gunion, J.F.

    1986-10-01

    We review and summarize the procedures for exploring at the SSC the W-Z-Higgs sector of SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) and extended gauge theory versions thereof, including supersymmetric and left-right symmetric models.

  15. Generalized flux-tube solution in Abelian-projected SU(N) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Yoshiaki

    2002-12-01

    The [U(1)]N-1 dual Ginzburg-Landau (DGL) theory as a low-energy effective theory of Abelian-projected SU(N) gauge theory is formulated in a Weyl symmetric way. The string tensions of the flux-tube solutions of the DGL theory associated with color-electric charges in various representations of SU(N) are calculated analytically at the border between type I and type II of the dual superconducting vacuum (Bogomol’nyi limit). The resulting string tensions satisfy the flux counting rule, which reflects the non-Abelian nature of gauge theory.

  16. Masslessness of ghosts in equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theories

    SciTech Connect

    Golterman, Maarten; Zimmerman, Leah

    2005-06-01

    We show that the one-loop ghost self-energy in an equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theory vanishes at zero momentum. A ghost mass is forbidden by equivariant BRST symmetry, and our calculation confirms this explicitly. The four-ghost self interaction which appears in the equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theory is needed in order to obtain this result.

  17. Gauge theory dynamics and Kähler potential for Calabi-Yau complex moduli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroud, Nima; Gomis, Jaume

    2013-12-01

    We compute the exact two-sphere partition function and matrix of two-point functions of operators in the chiral ring with their complex conjugates in two-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories. For gauge theories that flow in the infrared to a CalabiYau nonlinear sigma model, these renormalization group invariant observables determine the exact Kähler potential and associated Zamolodchikov metric in the complex structure moduli space of the Calabi-Yau manifold.

  18. Finite-size scaling tests for SU(3) lattice gauge theory with color sextet fermions

    SciTech Connect

    DeGrand, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    The observed slow running of the gauge coupling in SU(3) lattice gauge theory with two flavors of color sextet fermions naturally suggests it is a theory with one relevant coupling, the fermion mass, and that at zero mass correlation functions decay algebraically. I perform a finite-size scaling study on simulation data at two values of the bare gauge coupling with this assumption and observe a common exponent for the scaling of the correlation length with the fermion mass, y{sub m}{approx}1.5. An analysis of the scaling of valence Dirac eigenvalues at one of these bare couplings produces a similar number.

  19. Confluent Heun functions in gauge theories on thick braneworlds

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, M. S.; Christiansen, H. R.

    2011-10-15

    We investigate the propagation modes of gauge fields in an infinite Randall-Sundrum scenario. In this model a sine-Gordon soliton represents our thick four-dimensional braneworld while an exponentially coupled scalar acts for the dilaton field. For the gauge-field motion we find a differential equation which can be transformed into a confluent Heun equation. By means of another change of variables we obtain a related Schroedinger equation with a family of symmetric rational ({gamma}-{omega}z{sup 2})/(1-z{sup 2}){sup 2} potential functions. We discuss both results and present the infinite spectrum of analytical solutions for the gauge field. Finally, we assess the existence and the relative weights of Kaluza-Klein modes in the present setup.

  20. Chiral gauge theories and a dirac neutrino - Dark matter connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    It is proposed that all light fermionic degrees of freedom, including the Standard Model (SM) fermions and all possible light beyond-the-standard model fields, are chiral with respect to some spontaneously broken abelian gauge symmetry. A new gauge symmetry U(1)ν is required if light fermionic new states are to exist. Anomaly cancellations mandate the existence of several new fields with nontrivial U(1)ν charges. A general technique to write down chiral-fermions-only models that are at least anomaly-free under a U(1) gauge symmetry is described. A concrete example that provides a Dark Matter candidate and leads to parametrically small Dirac neutrino masses is further developed.

  1. Noncommutative Chern-Simons gauge and gravity theories and their geometric Seiberg-Witten map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschieri, Paolo; Castellani, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    We use a geometric generalization of the Seiberg-Witten map between noncommutative and commutative gauge theories to find the expansion of noncommutative Chern-Simons (CS) theory in any odd dimension D and at first order in the noncommutativity parameter θ. This expansion extends the classical CS theory with higher powers of the curvatures and their derivatives.

  2. SO/Sp Chern-Simons Gauge Theories at Large N, SO/Sp Penner Models and the Gauge Group Volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chair, N.; Dalabeeh, M.

    2012-02-01

    We construct a deformed SO/Sp Penner generating function responsible for the close connection between SO/Sp Chern-Simons gauge theories at large N and the SO/Sp Penner models. This construction is then shown to follow from a sector of a Chern-Simons gauge theory with coupling constant λ. The free energy and its continuum limit of the perturbative Chern-Simons gauge theory are obtained from the Penner model. Finally, asymptotic expansions for the logarithm of the gauge group volumes are given for every genus g ≥ 0 and shown to be equivalent to the continuum limits of the SO/Sp Chern-Simons gauge theories and the SO/Sp Penner models.

  3. Gauge coupling unification and light exotica in string theory.

    PubMed

    Raby, Stuart; Wingerter, Akin

    2007-08-01

    In this Letter we consider the consequences for the CERN Large Hadron Collider of light vectorlike exotica with fractional electric charge. It is shown that such states are found in orbifold constructions of the heterotic string. Moreover, these exotica are consistent with gauge coupling unification at one loop, even though they do not come in complete multiplets of SU(5).

  4. An Interacting Gauge Field Theoretic Model for Hodge Theory: Basic Canonical Brackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R., Kumar; Gupta, S.; R. P., Malik

    2014-06-01

    We derive the basic canonical brackets amongst the creation and annihilation operators for a two (1 + 1)-dimensional (2D) gauge held theoretic model of an interacting Hodge theory where a U(1) gauge field (Aμ) is coupled with the fermionic Dirac fields (ψ and bar psi). In this derivation, we exploit the spin-statistics theorem, normal ordering and the strength of the underlying six infinitesimal continuous symmetries (and the concept of their generators) that are present in the theory. We do not use the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta (corresponding to the basic fields of the theory) anywhere in our whole discussion. Thus, we conjecture that our present approach provides an alternative to the canonical method of quantization for a class of gauge field theories that are physical examples of Hodge theory where the continuous symmetries (and corresponding generators) provide the physical realizations of the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry at the algebraic level.

  5. Energy-momentum tensor and transformation properties of the gauge potentials in gravitation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, Andrei M.

    1991-04-01

    It is shown that the transformation properties of the translational gauge potentials eαi(x), will be chosen in another way [compared with the exposition of Hehl et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 48, 393 (1976)]. The term containing the total (symmetric) energy-momentum tensor remains in the variation of the action. This approach allows us to change the transformation properties of the gauge potentials and the conservation laws of energy momentum.

  6. Comments on Worldsheet Theories Dual to Free Large N Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Aharony, Ofer; David, Justin R.; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Komargodski, Zohar; Razamat, Shlomo S.; /Technion

    2007-03-21

    We continue to investigate properties of the worldsheet conformal field theories (CFTs) which are conjectured to be dual to free large N gauge theories, using the mapping of Feynman diagrams to the worldsheet suggested in [1]. The modular invariance of these CFTs is shown to be built into the formalism. We show that correlation functions in these CFTs which are localized on subspaces of the moduli space may be interpreted as delta-function distributions, and that this can be consistent with a local worldsheet description given some constraints on the operator product expansion coefficients. We illustrate these features by a detailed analysis of a specific four-point function diagram. To reliably compute this correlator we use a novel perturbation scheme which involves an expansion in the large dimension of some operators.

  7. Introduction to gauge theories of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1980-07-01

    The plan of these notes is as follows. Chapter 1 is devoted to a brief evocative review of current beliefs and prejudices that form the context for the discussion to follow. The idea of Gauge Invariance is introduced in Chapter 2, and the connection between conservation laws and symmetries of the Lagrangian is recalled. Non-Abelian gauge field theories are constructed in Chapter 3, by analogy with the familiar case of electromagnetism. The Yang-Mills theory based upon isospin symmetry is constructed explicitly, and the generalization is made to other gauge groups. Chapter 4 is concerned with spontaneous symmetry breaking and the phenomena that occur in the presence or absence of local gauge symmetries. The existence of massless scalar fields (Goldstone particles) and their metamorphosis by means of the Higgs mechanism are illustrated by simple examples. The Weinberg-Salam model is presented in Chapter 5, and a brief resume of applications to experiment is given. Quantum Chromodynamics, the gauge theory of colored quarks and gluons, is developed in Chapter 6. Asymptotic freedom is derived schematically, and a few simple applications of perturbative QCD ae exhibited. Details of the conjectured confinement mechanism are omitted. The strategy of grand unified theories of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions is laid out in Chapter 7. Some properties and consequences of the minimal unifying group SU(5) are presented, and the gauge hierarchy problem is introduced in passing. The final chapter contains an essay on the current outlook: aspirations, unanswered questions, and bold scenarios.

  8. Gauge Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: a Theory of Something.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapere, Alfred Dudley

    The treatment of the motion of deformable bodies requires a specification of axes for each shape. We present a natural kinematic formulation of this problem in terms of a gauge structure over the space of shapes that the body may assume. Our first and simplest application is to a freely -falling self-deforming body. We show how deformations of a body with angular momentum zero can result in a change in orientation, and we give a general expression for the gauge potential describing the net rotation due to an arbitrary change of shape. The problem of swimming at low Reynolds number may also be formulated in terms of a gauge potential. Effective methods for computing it, by solving a linear boundary value problem, are described. We employ conformal mapping techniques to calculate swimming motions for cylinders with a variety of cross-sections. We also determine the net translational motions due to arbitrary infinitesimal deformations of the sphere and the circular cylinder. The solution is compactly expressed in terms of the field strength tensor of the gauge potential. Having solved for all cyclic swimming motions of a nearly spherical body, it makes sense to ask which motions are the best. We define a notion of efficiency and use it to determine optimal swimming strokes. These strokes are composed of propagating waves, symmetric about the axis of propulsion. Qualitatively, they resemble the swimming strokes of ciliated micro-organisms, such as the Paramecium. The solution of Stokes' equations is not feasible analytically, except for the simplest shapes. Two approximation schemes may help in studying more general swimming strokes. We discuss and test a short-wavelength analytic approximation, valid when the scales associated with a deformation are small relative to the radius of curvature of the average shape. The complementary domain of large deformations is probably best dealt with on a computer. We sketch a general method for solving Stokes' equations numerically.

  9. Cascading gauge theory on dS4 and String Theory landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchel, Alex; Galante, Damián A.

    2014-06-01

    Placing anti-D3 branes at the tip of the conifold in Klebanov-Strassler geometry provides a generic way of constructing meta-stable de Sitter (dS) vacua in String Theory. A local geometry of such vacua exhibit gravitational solutions with a D3 charge measured at the tip opposite to the asymptotic charge. We discuss a restrictive set of such geometries, where anti-D3 branes are smeared at the tip. Such geometries represent holographic dual of cascading gauge theory in dS4 with or without chiral symmetry breaking. We find that in the phase with unbroken chiral symmetry the D3 charge at the tip is always positive. Furthermore, this charge is zero in the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. We show that the effective potential of the chirally symmetric phase is lower than that in the symmetry broken phase, i.e., there is no spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking for cascading gauge theory in dS4. The positivity of the D3 brane charge in smooth de-Sitter deformed conifold geometries with fluxes presents difficulties in uplifting AdS vacua to dS ones in String Theory via smeared anti-D3 branes. First, turning on fluxes on Calabi-Yau compactifications of type IIB string theory produces highly warped geometry with stabilized complex structure (but not Kähler) moduli of the compactification [3]; Next, including non-perturbative effects (which are under control given the unbroken supersymmetry), one obtains anti-de Sitter (AdS4) vacua with all moduli fixed; Finally, one uses anti-D3 branes of type IIB string theory to uplift AdS4 to de Sitter (dS4) vacua. As the last step of the construction completely breaks supersymmetry, it is much less controlled. In fact, in [4-7] it was argued that putting anti-D3 branes at the tip of the Klebanov-Strassler (KS) [8] geometry (as done in KKLT construction) leads to a naked singularity. Whether or not the resulting singularity is physical is subject to debates. When M4=dS4 and the chiral symmetry is unbroken, the D3 brane

  10. Trilinear neutral gauge boson couplings in effective theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larios, F.; Pérez, M. A.; Tavares-Velasco, G.; Toscano, J. J.

    2001-06-01

    We list all the lowest dimension effective operators inducing off-shell trilinear neutral gauge boson couplings ZZγ, Zγγ, and ZZZ within the effective Lagrangian approach, both in the linear and nonlinear realizations of SU(2)L × U(1)Y gauge symmetry. In the linear scenario we find that these couplings can be generated only by dimension-8 operators necessarily including the Higgs boson field, whereas in the nonlinear case they are induced by dimension-6 operators. We consider the impact of these couplings on some precision measurements such as the magnetic and electric dipole moments of fermions, as well as the Z boson rare decay Z-->νν¯γ. If the underlying new physics is of a decoupling nature, it is not expected that trilinear neutral gauge boson couplings may affect considerably any of these observables. On the contrary, it is just in the nonlinear scenario where these couplings have the more promising prospects of being perceptible through high precision experiments.

  11. Z2 gauge theory for valence bond solids on the kagome lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Kyusung; Huh, Yejin; Kim, Yong Baek

    2015-11-01

    We present an effective Z2 gauge theory that captures various competing phases in spin-1/2 kagome lattice antiferromagnets: the topological Z2 spin liquid (SL) phase, and the 12-site and 36-site valence bond solid (VBS) phases. Our effective theory is a generalization of the recent Z2 gauge theory proposed for SL phases by Wan and Tchernyshyov. In particular, we investigate possible VBS phases that arise from vison condensations in the SL. In addition to the 12-site and 36-site VBS phases, there exists 6-site VBS that is closely related to the symmetry-breaking valence bond modulation patterns observed in the recent density matrix renormalization group simulations. We find that our results have remarkable consistency with a previous study using a different Z2 gauge theory. Motivated by the lattice geometry in the recently reported vanadium oxyfluoride kagome antiferromagnet, our gauge theory is extended to incorporate lowered symmetry by inequivalent up and down triangles. We investigate effects of this anisotropy on the 12-site, 36-site, and 6-site VBS phases. The 12-site VBS is stable to anisotropy while the 36-site VBS undergoes severe dimer melting. Interestingly, any analog of the 6-site VBS is not found in this approach. We discuss the implications of these findings and also compare the results with a different type of Z2 gauge theory used in previous studies.

  12. Z2 gauge theory for valence bond solids on the kagome lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Kyusung; Huh, Yejin; Kim, Yong Baek

    We present an effective Z2 gauge theory that captures various competing phases in spin-1/2 kagome lattice antiferromagnets: the topological Z2 spin liquid (SL) phase, and the 12-site and 36- site valence bond solid (VBS) phases. Our effective theory is a generalization of the recent Z2 gauge theory proposed for SL phases by Wan and Tchernyshyov. In particular, we investigate possible VBS phases that arise from vison condensations in the SL. In addition to the 12-site and 36-site VBS phases, there exists 6-site VBS that is closely related to the symmetry-breaking valence bond modulation patterns observed in the recent density matrix renormalization group simulations. We find that our results have remarkable consistency with a previous study using a different Z2 gauge theory. Motivated by the lattice geometry in the recently reported vanadium oxyfluoride kagome antiferromagnet, our gauge theory is extended to incorporate lowered symmetry by inequivalent up- and down-triangles. We investigate effects of this anisotropy on the 12-site, 36-site, and 6-site VBS phases. Particularly, interesting dimer melting effects are found in the 36-site VBS. We discuss the implications of our findings and also compare the results with a different type of Z2 gauge theory used in previous studies.

  13. Renormalization in Chern-Simons Gauge Theories and Vector Meson Theory 2+1 Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Suresh

    1991-02-01

    The study of radiative corrections to the topological mass of the photon in Chern-Simons gauge theories and the current coupled vector meson model in 2 + 1 space comprise the major concerns of this thesis. Some general aspects of 2 + 1 dimensional field theories, including CS gauge theories, are reviewed. The photon topological mass is renormalized through the addition of the parity odd part of the current correlation function evaluated at zero external momentum (|Pi(0)). Nontrivial contributions arise from a spinor current. It is argued that the Coleman-Hill theorem, which postulates that the one loop fermion graph constitutes the only correction, is overly restrictive. It is shown by explicit calculation that charged vector mesons also contribute. The topological mass corrections from spin zero, spin one-half and (the finite contribution of) spin one fields are combined into a unified expression, suggestive of generalization to higher spins. The current coupled vector meson model is considered next, utilizing a general formulation. Sum rules are derived for the spectral functions characterizing the propagator. One of the sum rules is found to allow the wave function renormalization constant (Z) to exceed unity. A rescaling of the fields, however, is found to resolve the problem. Such behaviour is shown perturbatively for a coupling to a spinor current, and in a soluble model. The former results also reveal parity violation induced through radiative corrections. A bound state is found to exist near the two fermion threshold, for arbitrarily weak coupling. Chapter V considers Aharonov-Bohm scattering of spinning particles. Known results for spin zero and spin one-half scattering are reviewed. In the case of scattering of spin one particles, the wave equation is found to be too singular for spin effects to survive. In the Galilean limit of the problem, the unboundedness disappears and results parallel those for spin one-half. Cross sections for some pure state

  14. Charged particles with electromagnetic interactions and U(1)-gauge theory: Hamiltonian and Lagrangian formalisms

    SciTech Connect

    Beckers, J.; Hussin, V.

    1984-06-15

    The motion of charged particles in external electromagnetic fields is reviewed with the purpose of determining the whole set of constants of motion. The Johnson-Lippmann results concerning the interaction with a constant magnetic field are taken as the starting point of the study. Our results are obtained through simple group-theoretical arguments based essentially on extended Lie algebras associated with the kinematical group of the (constant) electromagnetic field involved in the interaction. Nonrelativistic Schroedinger (or Pauli) and relativistic Dirac Hamiltonians are considered. The corresponding Lagrangian densities are then studied when the charged particles move in arbitrary electromagnetic fields. Through Noether's theorem, we get the constants of motion when coordinate and gauge transformations are combined. These results complete the U(1)-gauge theory and relate the works of Bacry, Combe, and Richard and of Jackiw and Manton when external gauge fields are considered. These developments enhance the minimal-coupling principle, the U(1)-gauge theory, and Noether's theorem.

  15. Study of Z(N) gauge theories on a three-dimensional pseudorandom lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Pertermann, D.; Ranft, J. )

    1988-01-01

    Using the simplicial pseudorandom version of lattice gauge theory the authors study simple Z(eta) gauge models in D = 3 dimensions. In this formulation it is possible to interpolate continuously between a regular simplicial lattice and a pseudorandom lattice. Calculating average plaquette expectation values they look for the phase transitions of the Z(eta) gauge models with eta = 2 and 3. They find all the phase transitions to be of first order, also in the case of the Z(2) model. The critical couplings increase with the irregularity of the lattice.

  16. Non-Abelian SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theories in Superconducting Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacapo, A.; Rico, E.; Sabín, C.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Lamata, L.; Solano, E.

    2015-12-01

    We propose a digital quantum simulator of non-Abelian pure-gauge models with a superconducting circuit setup. Within the framework of quantum link models, we build a minimal instance of a pure SU(2) gauge theory, using triangular plaquettes involving geometric frustration. This realization is the least demanding, in terms of quantum simulation resources, of a non-Abelian gauge dynamics. We present two superconducting architectures that can host the quantum simulation, estimating the requirements needed to run possible experiments. The proposal establishes a path to the experimental simulation of non-Abelian physics with solid-state quantum platforms.

  17. Non-Abelian SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theories in Superconducting Circuits.

    PubMed

    Mezzacapo, A; Rico, E; Sabín, C; Egusquiza, I L; Lamata, L; Solano, E

    2015-12-11

    We propose a digital quantum simulator of non-Abelian pure-gauge models with a superconducting circuit setup. Within the framework of quantum link models, we build a minimal instance of a pure SU(2) gauge theory, using triangular plaquettes involving geometric frustration. This realization is the least demanding, in terms of quantum simulation resources, of a non-Abelian gauge dynamics. We present two superconducting architectures that can host the quantum simulation, estimating the requirements needed to run possible experiments. The proposal establishes a path to the experimental simulation of non-Abelian physics with solid-state quantum platforms. PMID:26705616

  18. The (IR-)relevance of the Gribov ambiguity in SU(2)×U(1) gauge theories with fundamental Higgs matter

    SciTech Connect

    Capri, M.A.L.; Dudal, D.; Guimaraes, M.S.; Justo, I.F.; Sorella, S.P.; and others

    2014-04-15

    It is well accepted that dealing with the Gribov ambiguity has a major impact on correlation functions in gauge-fixed Yang–Mills theories, in particular in the low momentum regime where standard perturbation theory based on the Faddeev–Popov approach fails. Recent results, derived from functional tools (Dyson–Schwinger equations or exact RG) or the effective Gribov–Zwanziger action method, pointed towards e.g. gauge boson correlation functions that are not compatible with the properties of observable degrees of freedom. Although such an observation is a welcome feature for gauge theories exhibiting confinement, it would be a discomfort for gauge theories supplemented with Higgs fields, cf. the experimental success of the electroweak model based on a SU(2)×U(1) gauge group. The purpose of this short note is to assure that the effective action resolution to the Gribov ambiguity reduces to the standard Faddeev–Popov method in the perturbative regime of sufficiently small coupling/large Higgs condensate, thereby not compromising the physical particle spectrum of massive gauge bosons and a massless photon for the SU(2)×U(1) gauge–Higgs model. The closer the theory gets to the limit of vanishing Higgs condensate, the more the Gribov problem resurfaces with all its consequences. We give some speculations w.r.t. the Fradkin–Shenker insights about the phase diagram. -- Highlights: •Gribov horizon influences gauge propagators in a strong-coupling regime. •No influence of Gribov horizon in weak-coupling. •Inclusion of U(1) factor leads to very rich behavior of propagators.

  19. Real-time dynamics of lattice gauge theories with a few-qubit quantum computer.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Esteban A; Muschik, Christine A; Schindler, Philipp; Nigg, Daniel; Erhard, Alexander; Heyl, Markus; Hauke, Philipp; Dalmonte, Marcello; Monz, Thomas; Zoller, Peter; Blatt, Rainer

    2016-06-23

    Gauge theories are fundamental to our understanding of interactions between the elementary constituents of matter as mediated by gauge bosons. However, computing the real-time dynamics in gauge theories is a notorious challenge for classical computational methods. This has recently stimulated theoretical effort, using Feynman's idea of a quantum simulator, to devise schemes for simulating such theories on engineered quantum-mechanical devices, with the difficulty that gauge invariance and the associated local conservation laws (Gauss laws) need to be implemented. Here we report the experimental demonstration of a digital quantum simulation of a lattice gauge theory, by realizing (1 + 1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (the Schwinger model) on a few-qubit trapped-ion quantum computer. We are interested in the real-time evolution of the Schwinger mechanism, describing the instability of the bare vacuum due to quantum fluctuations, which manifests itself in the spontaneous creation of electron-positron pairs. To make efficient use of our quantum resources, we map the original problem to a spin model by eliminating the gauge fields in favour of exotic long-range interactions, which can be directly and efficiently implemented on an ion trap architecture. We explore the Schwinger mechanism of particle-antiparticle generation by monitoring the mass production and the vacuum persistence amplitude. Moreover, we track the real-time evolution of entanglement in the system, which illustrates how particle creation and entanglement generation are directly related. Our work represents a first step towards quantum simulation of high-energy theories using atomic physics experiments-the long-term intention is to extend this approach to real-time quantum simulations of non-Abelian lattice gauge theories. PMID:27337339

  20. Real-time dynamics of lattice gauge theories with a few-qubit quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Esteban A.; Muschik, Christine A.; Schindler, Philipp; Nigg, Daniel; Erhard, Alexander; Heyl, Markus; Hauke, Philipp; Dalmonte, Marcello; Monz, Thomas; Zoller, Peter; Blatt, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Gauge theories are fundamental to our understanding of interactions between the elementary constituents of matter as mediated by gauge bosons. However, computing the real-time dynamics in gauge theories is a notorious challenge for classical computational methods. This has recently stimulated theoretical effort, using Feynman’s idea of a quantum simulator, to devise schemes for simulating such theories on engineered quantum-mechanical devices, with the difficulty that gauge invariance and the associated local conservation laws (Gauss laws) need to be implemented. Here we report the experimental demonstration of a digital quantum simulation of a lattice gauge theory, by realizing (1 + 1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (the Schwinger model) on a few-qubit trapped-ion quantum computer. We are interested in the real-time evolution of the Schwinger mechanism, describing the instability of the bare vacuum due to quantum fluctuations, which manifests itself in the spontaneous creation of electron–positron pairs. To make efficient use of our quantum resources, we map the original problem to a spin model by eliminating the gauge fields in favour of exotic long-range interactions, which can be directly and efficiently implemented on an ion trap architecture. We explore the Schwinger mechanism of particle–antiparticle generation by monitoring the mass production and the vacuum persistence amplitude. Moreover, we track the real-time evolution of entanglement in the system, which illustrates how particle creation and entanglement generation are directly related. Our work represents a first step towards quantum simulation of high-energy theories using atomic physics experiments—the long-term intention is to extend this approach to real-time quantum simulations of non-Abelian lattice gauge theories.

  1. Real-time dynamics of lattice gauge theories with a few-qubit quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Esteban A.; Muschik, Christine A.; Schindler, Philipp; Nigg, Daniel; Erhard, Alexander; Heyl, Markus; Hauke, Philipp; Dalmonte, Marcello; Monz, Thomas; Zoller, Peter; Blatt, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Gauge theories are fundamental to our understanding of interactions between the elementary constituents of matter as mediated by gauge bosons. However, computing the real-time dynamics in gauge theories is a notorious challenge for classical computational methods. This has recently stimulated theoretical effort, using Feynman’s idea of a quantum simulator, to devise schemes for simulating such theories on engineered quantum-mechanical devices, with the difficulty that gauge invariance and the associated local conservation laws (Gauss laws) need to be implemented. Here we report the experimental demonstration of a digital quantum simulation of a lattice gauge theory, by realizing (1 + 1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (the Schwinger model) on a few-qubit trapped-ion quantum computer. We are interested in the real-time evolution of the Schwinger mechanism, describing the instability of the bare vacuum due to quantum fluctuations, which manifests itself in the spontaneous creation of electron-positron pairs. To make efficient use of our quantum resources, we map the original problem to a spin model by eliminating the gauge fields in favour of exotic long-range interactions, which can be directly and efficiently implemented on an ion trap architecture. We explore the Schwinger mechanism of particle-antiparticle generation by monitoring the mass production and the vacuum persistence amplitude. Moreover, we track the real-time evolution of entanglement in the system, which illustrates how particle creation and entanglement generation are directly related. Our work represents a first step towards quantum simulation of high-energy theories using atomic physics experiments—the long-term intention is to extend this approach to real-time quantum simulations of non-Abelian lattice gauge theories.

  2. Real-time dynamics of lattice gauge theories with a few-qubit quantum computer.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Esteban A; Muschik, Christine A; Schindler, Philipp; Nigg, Daniel; Erhard, Alexander; Heyl, Markus; Hauke, Philipp; Dalmonte, Marcello; Monz, Thomas; Zoller, Peter; Blatt, Rainer

    2016-06-22

    Gauge theories are fundamental to our understanding of interactions between the elementary constituents of matter as mediated by gauge bosons. However, computing the real-time dynamics in gauge theories is a notorious challenge for classical computational methods. This has recently stimulated theoretical effort, using Feynman's idea of a quantum simulator, to devise schemes for simulating such theories on engineered quantum-mechanical devices, with the difficulty that gauge invariance and the associated local conservation laws (Gauss laws) need to be implemented. Here we report the experimental demonstration of a digital quantum simulation of a lattice gauge theory, by realizing (1 + 1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (the Schwinger model) on a few-qubit trapped-ion quantum computer. We are interested in the real-time evolution of the Schwinger mechanism, describing the instability of the bare vacuum due to quantum fluctuations, which manifests itself in the spontaneous creation of electron-positron pairs. To make efficient use of our quantum resources, we map the original problem to a spin model by eliminating the gauge fields in favour of exotic long-range interactions, which can be directly and efficiently implemented on an ion trap architecture. We explore the Schwinger mechanism of particle-antiparticle generation by monitoring the mass production and the vacuum persistence amplitude. Moreover, we track the real-time evolution of entanglement in the system, which illustrates how particle creation and entanglement generation are directly related. Our work represents a first step towards quantum simulation of high-energy theories using atomic physics experiments-the long-term intention is to extend this approach to real-time quantum simulations of non-Abelian lattice gauge theories.

  3. Local existence of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theory in four Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Akbar, Fiki T.; Gunara, Bobby E.; Zen, Freddy P.; Triyanta

    2015-04-16

    In this paper, we shall prove the local existence of N=1 supersymmetry gauge theory in 4 dimension. We start from the Lagrangian for coupling chiral and vector multiplets with constant gauge kinetic function and only considering a bosonic part by setting all fermionic field to be zero at level equation of motion. We consider a U(n) model as isometry for scalar field internal geometry. And we use a nonlinear semigroup method to prove the local existence.

  4. Symmetry breaking and restoration for interacting scalar and gauge fields in Lifshitz type theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farakos, K.; Metaxas, D.

    2012-05-01

    We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling, with critical exponent z = 2, including both scalar and gauge fields. Depending on the relative strength of the coupling constants for the gauge and scalar interactions, we find that there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature.

  5. The Black Hole in the Throat - Thermodynamics of Strongly Coupled Cascading Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Aharony, Ofer; Buchel, Alex; Kerner, Patrick; /Western Ontario U.

    2007-06-14

    We numerically construct black hole solutions corresponding to the deconfined, chirally symmetric phase of strongly coupled cascading gauge theories at various temperatures. We compute the free energy as a function of the temperature, and we show that it becomes positive below some critical temperature, indicating the possibility of a first order phase transition at which the theory deconfines and restores the chiral symmetry.

  6. Beyond gauge theory: positivity and causal localization in the presence of vector mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroer, Bert

    2016-07-01

    The Hilbert space formulation of interacting s=1 vector-potentials stands is an interesting contrast with the point-local Krein space setting of gauge theory. Already in the absence of interactions the Wilson loop in a Hilbert space setting has a topological property which is missing in the gauge-theoretic description (Haag duality, Aharonov-Bohm effect); the conceptual differences increase in the presence of interactions. The Hilbert space positivity weakens the causal localization properties of interacting fields, which results in the replacement of the gauge-variant point-local matter fields in Krein space by string-local physical fields in Hilbert space. The gauge invariance of the perturbative S-matrix corresponds to its independence of the space-like string direction of its interpolating fields. In contrast to gauge theory, whose direct physical range is limited to a gauge-invariant perturbative S-matrix and local observables, its Hilbert space string-local counterpart is a full-fledged quantum field theory (QFT). The new setting reveals that the Lie structure of self-coupled vector mesons results from perturbative implementation of the causal localization principles of QFT.

  7. Three-dimensional gauge theory in Dirac formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Kiyoshi

    1986-08-01

    The Hagen model [C. R. Hagen, Ann. Phys. (NY) 157, 342 (1984); Phys. Rev. D 31, 331 (1985)] is studied using the method of constrained Hamiltonian formalism developed by Dirac [P. A. M. Dirac, Can. J. Math. 2, 129 (1950); Lectures on Quantum Mechanics (Yeshiva U. P., New York, 1964)]. The results recently obtained by Burnel and Van Der Rest-Jaspers [A. Burnel and M. Van Der Rest-Jaspers, J. Math. Phys. 26, 3155 (1985)] are reexamined and modified. There appear two second-class constraints and their choice is not crucial. The equivalence of different gauges is proved without referring to the current conservation law.

  8. Chern-Simons actions and their gaugings in 4D, N =1 superspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Linch, William D.; Robbins, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We gauge the abelian hierarchy of tensor fields in 4D by a Lie algebra mathfrak{g} . The resulting non-abelian tensor hierarchy can be interpreted via a mathfrak{g} -equivariant chain complex. We lift this structure to N = 1 superspace by constructing superfield analogs for the tensor fields, along with covariant superfield strengths. Next we construct Chern-Simons actions, for both the bosonic and N = 1 cases, and note that the condition of gauge invariance can be presented cohomologically. Finally, we provide an explicit realization of these structures by dimensional reduction, for example by reducing the three-form of eleven-dimensional supergravity into a superspace with manifest 4D, N = 1 supersymmetry.

  9. Connecting Polyakov loops to the thermodynamics of SU(Nc) gauge theories using the gauge-string duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noronha, Jorge

    2010-02-01

    We show that in four-dimensional gauge theories dual to five-dimensional Einstein gravity coupled to a single scalar field in the bulk, the derivative of the single heavy quark free energy in the deconfined phase is dFQ(T)/dT˜-1/cs2(T), where cs(T) is the speed of sound. This general result provides a direct link between the softest point in the equation of state of strongly-coupled plasmas and the deconfinement phase transition described by the expectation value of the Polyakov loop. We give an explicit example of a gravity dual with black hole solutions that can reproduce the lattice results for the expectation value of the Polyakov loop and the thermodynamics of SU(3) Yang-Mills theory in the (nonperturbative) temperature range between Tc and 3Tc.

  10. On supercurrent superfields and Fayet-Iliopoulos terms in N=1 gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Daniel; Derendinger, Jean-Pierre; Hartong, Jelle

    2013-02-01

    We revisit the supermultiplet structure of Noether currents for N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. Using superfield identities and the field equations we show how to derive a superfield equation for the divergences of the Noether currents in terms of the supercurrent and anomaly superfields containing 16B+16F components. We refer to this as the natural supercurrent structure as it is invariant under all local symmetries of the theory. It corresponds to the S-multiplet of Komargodski and Seiberg. We clarify the on/off-shell nature of the currents appearing in this multiplet and we study in detail the effect of specific improvement transformations leading to (1) a Ferrara-Zumino multiplet and to (2) a multiplet containing the new improved energy-momentum tensor of Callan, Coleman and Jackiw. Our methods also apply to supersymmetric gauge theories with a Fayet-Iliopoulos term. We construct the natural supercurrent multiplet for such a theory and show how to improve this to a formally gauge-invariant Ferrara-Zumino multiplet by introducing a non-dynamical chiral superfield S to ensure superfield gauge invariance. Finally we study the coupling of this theory to supergravity and show that S remains non-dynamical if the theory is R-symmetric and that S becomes propagating if the theory is not R-symmetric, leading to non-minimal 16B+16F supergravity.

  11. The deconfining phase transition of SO(N) gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Richard; Teper, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the deconfining temperature of SO(N ) gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions, and determine the order of the phase transition as a function of N , for various values of N ∈ [4 , 16]. We do so by extrapolating our lattice results to the infinite volume limit, and then to the continuum limit, for each value of N. We then extrapolate to the N =∞ limit and observe that the SO(N) and SU(N) deconfining temperatures agree in that limit. We find that the the deconfining temperatures of all the SO(N ) gauge theories appear to follow a single smooth function of N , despite the lack of a non-trivial centre for odd N . We also compare the deconfining temperatures of SO(6) with SU(4), and of SO(4) with SU(2) × SU(2), motivated by the fact that these pairs of gauge theories share the same Lie algebras.

  12. All-order results for infrared and collinear singularities in massless gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Lance J.; Gardi, Einan; Magnea, Lorenzo; /CERN

    2010-05-26

    We review recent results concerning the all-order structure of infrared and collinear divergences in massless gauge theory amplitudes. While the exponentiation of these divergences for nonabelian gauge theories has been understood for a long time, in the past couple of years we have begun to unravel the all-order structure of the anomalous dimensions that build up the perturbative exponent. In the large-N{sub c} limit, all infrared and collinear divergences are determined by just three functions; one of them, the cusp anomalous dimension, plays a key role also for non-planar contributions. Indeed, all infrared and collinear divergences of massless gauge theory amplitudes with any number of hard partonsmay be captured by a surprisingly simple expression constructed as a sum over color dipoles. Potential corrections to this expression, correlating four or more hard partons at three loops or beyond, are tightly constrained and are currently under study.

  13. Nash Equilibria in Theory of Reasoned Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Leando; Cruz, José; Ferreira, Helena; Pinto, Alberto Adrego

    2009-08-01

    Game theory and Decision Theory have been applied to many different areas such as Physics, Economics, Biology, etc. In its application to Psychology, we introduce, in the literature, a Game Theoretical Model of Planned Behavior or Reasoned Action by establishing an analogy between two specific theories. In this study we take in account that individual decision-making is an outcome of a process where group decisions can determine individual probabilistic behavior. Using Game Theory concepts, we describe how intentions can be transformed in behavior and according to the Nash Equilibrium, this process will correspond to the best individual decision/response taking in account the collective response. This analysis can be extended to several examples based in the Game Theoretical Model of Planned Behavior or Reasoned Action.

  14. Optimization of pressure gauge locations for water distribution systems using entropy theory.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Do Guen; Chang, Dong Eil; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2012-12-01

    It is essential to select the optimal pressure gauge location for effective management and maintenance of water distribution systems. This study proposes an objective and quantified standard for selecting the optimal pressure gauge location by defining the pressure change at other nodes as a result of demand change at a specific node using entropy theory. Two cases are considered in terms of demand change: that in which demand at all nodes shows peak load by using a peak factor and that comprising the demand change of the normal distribution whose average is the base demand. The actual pressure change pattern is determined by using the emitter function of EPANET to reflect the pressure that changes practically at each node. The optimal pressure gauge location is determined by prioritizing the node that processes the largest amount of information it gives to (giving entropy) and receives from (receiving entropy) the whole system according to the entropy standard. The suggested model is applied to one virtual and one real pipe network, and the optimal pressure gauge location combination is calculated by implementing the sensitivity analysis based on the study results. These analysis results support the following two conclusions. Firstly, the installation priority of the pressure gauge in water distribution networks can be determined with a more objective standard through the entropy theory. Secondly, the model can be used as an efficient decision-making guide for gauge installation in water distribution systems.

  15. 2d Affine XY-Spin Model/4d Gauge Theory Duality and Deconfinement

    SciTech Connect

    Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /San Francisco State U.

    2012-08-16

    We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2) = Z{sub 2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R{sup 1,2} x S{sup 1}, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of 'affine' XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with n{sub f} {ge} 1 adjoint Weyl fermions.

  16. Pure gauge configurations and tachyon solutions to string field theories equations of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'eva, Irina Ya.; Gorbachev, Roman V.; Grigoryev, Dmitry A.; Khromov, Pavel N.; Maltsev, Maxim V.; Medvedev, Peter B.

    2009-05-01

    In construction of analytical solutions to open string field theories pure gauge configurations parameterized by wedge states play an essential role. These pure gauge configurations are constructed as perturbation expansions and to guaranty that these configurations are asymptotical solutions to equations of motion one needs to study convergence of the perturbation expansions. We demonstrate that for the large parameter of the perturbation expansion these pure gauge truncated configurations give divergent contributions to the equation of motion on the subspace of the wedge states. We perform this demonstration numerically for the pure gauge configurations related to tachyon solutions for the bosonic and NS fermionic SFT. By the numerical calculations we also show that the perturbation expansions are cured by adding extra terms. These terms are nothing but the terms necessary to make valued the Sen conjectures.

  17. N=2 gauge theories: Congruence subgroups, coset graphs, and modular surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang-Hui; McKay, John

    2013-01-01

    We establish a correspondence between generalized quiver gauge theories in four dimensions and congruence subgroups of the modular group, hinging upon the trivalent graphs, which arise in both. The gauge theories and the graphs are enumerated and their numbers are compared. The correspondence is particularly striking for genus zero torsion-free congruence subgroups as exemplified by those which arise in Moonshine. We analyze in detail the case of index 24, where modular elliptic K3 surfaces emerge: here, the elliptic j-invariants can be recast as dessins d'enfant, which dictate the Seiberg-Witten curves.

  18. Hamiltonian Approach to Yang-Mills Theory in Coulomb Gauge--Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, Hugo; Campagnari, Davide R.; Leder, Markus; Burgio, Giuseppe; Quandt, Markus; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Weber, Axel

    2011-05-24

    I briefly review results obtained within the variational Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge and confront them with recent lattice data. The variational approach is extended to non-Gaussian wave functionals including three- and four-gluon kernels in the exponential of the vacuum wave functional and used to calculate the three-gluon vertex. A new functional renormalization group flow equation for Hamiltonian Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge is solved for the gluon and ghost propagator under the assumption of ghost dominance. The results are compared to those obtained in the variational approach.

  19. Confinement Driven by Scalar Field in 4d Non Abelian Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Chabab, Mohamed

    2007-01-12

    We review some of the most recent work on confinement in 4d gauge theories with a massive scalar field (dilaton). Emphasis is put on the derivation of confining analytical solutions to the Coulomb problem versus dilaton effective couplings to gauge terms. It is shown that these effective theories can be relevant to model quark confinement and may shed some light on confinement mechanism. Moreover, the study of interquark potential, derived from Dick Model, in the heavy meson sector proves that phenomenological investigation of tmechanism is more than justified and deserves more efforts.

  20. Anomalies of E8 Gauge Theory on String Manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sati, Hisham

    In this paper we revisit the subject of anomaly cancelation in string theory and M-theory on manifolds with string structure and give three observations. First, that on string manifolds there is no E8 × E8 global anomaly in heterotic string theory. Second, that the description of the anomaly in the phase of the M-theory partition function of Diaconescu-Moore-Witten extends from the spin case to the string case. Third, that the cubic refinement law of Diaconescu-Freed-Moore for the phase of the M-theory partition function extends to string manifolds. The analysis relies on extending from invariants which depend on the spin structure to invariants which instead depend on the string structure. Along the way, the one-loop term is refined via the Witten genus.

  1. Politicising Action Research through Queer Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filax, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    Queer theory and action research together offer possibilities for exposing the deep injustice of both homophobia and heterosexism. Underpinning identity categories of sexuality and gender, these forms of social injustice lurk in schools, families, religions, communities, and nation-states. For educators and educational researchers, addressing…

  2. Quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Reznik, Benni

    2016-01-01

    Can high-energy physics be simulated by low-energy, non-relativistic, many-body systems such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure an atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective low-energy symmetry, or as an exact symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to a new type of (table-top) experiments which will be used to study various QCD (quantum chromodynamics) phenomena, such as the confinement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions and other effects, which are inaccessible using the currently known computational methods. In this report, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories, and then describe our recent progress in constructing the quantum simulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories in 1  +  1 and 2  +  1 dimensions using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.

  3. Quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J Ignacio; Reznik, Benni

    2016-01-01

    Can high-energy physics be simulated by low-energy, non-relativistic, many-body systems such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure an atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective low-energy symmetry, or as an exact symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to a new type of (table-top) experiments which will be used to study various QCD (quantum chromodynamics) phenomena, such as the confinement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions and other effects, which are inaccessible using the currently known computational methods. In this report, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories, and then describe our recent progress in constructing the quantum simulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories in 1  +  1 and 2  +  1 dimensions using ultracold atoms in optical lattices. PMID:26684222

  4. Six-dimensional (1,0) effective action of F-theory via M-theory on Calabi-Yau threefolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Federico; Grimm, Thomas W.

    2012-05-01

    The 6d effective action of F-theory compactified on an elliptically fibred CalabiYau threefold is determined using an M-theory lift. The non-Abelian gauge theory arises on a stack of seven-branes located on the singularities of the threefold. The gauge theory is analysed in the 5d Coulomb branch by resolving the Calabi-Yau threefold. The reduction includes an arbitrary number of 6d tensor multiplets for which the self- and anti-self duality constraints can be imposed in the 5d M-theory set-up. Higher curvature terms are crucial for anomaly cancellation in six dimensions, and are obtained from corrections to the 11d supergravity action. The chiral spectrum in a 6d supergravity theory is linked to the form of the Green-Schwarz couplings via anomalies. We find that these data are encoded in the 5d effective action via one loop corrections.

  5. Large N phase transitions in massive N = 2 gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, J. G.

    2014-07-23

    Using exact results obtained from localization on S{sup 4}, we explore the large N limit of N = 2 super Yang-Mills theories with massive matter multiplets. In this talk we discuss two cases: N = 2* theory, describing a massive hypermultiplet in the adjoint representation, and super QCD with massive quarks. When the radius of the four-sphere is sent to infinity these theories are described by solvable matrix models, which exhibit a number of interesting phenomena including quantum phase transitions at finite 't Hooft coupling.

  6. Modularity and 4D-2D spectral equivalences for large- N gauge theories with adjoint matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basar, Gökçe; Cherman, Aleksey; Dienes, Keith R.; McGady, David A.

    2016-06-01

    In recent work, we demonstrated that the confined-phase spectrum of non-supersymmetric pure Yang-Mills theory coincides with the spectrum of the chiral sector of a two-dimensional conformal field theory in the large- N limit. This was done within the tractable setting in which the gauge theory is compactified on a three-sphere whose radius is small compared to the strong length scale. In this paper, we generalize these observations by demonstrating that similar results continue to hold even when massless adjoint matter fields are introduced. These results hold for both thermal and (-1) F -twisted partition functions, and collectively suggest that the spectra of large- N confining gauge theories are organized by the symmetries of two-dimensional conformal field theories.

  7. On the N={1}^{ast } gauge theory on a circle and elliptic integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We continue our study of the N={1}^{ast } supersymmetric gauge theory on R^{2,1}× {S}^1 and its relation to elliptic integrable systems. Upon compactification on a circle, we show that the semi-classical analysis of the massless and massive vacua depends on the classification of nilpotent orbits, as well as on the conjugacy classes of the component group of their centralizer. We demonstrate that semi-classically massless vacua can be lifted by Wilson lines in unbroken discrete gauge groups. The pseudo-Levi subalgebras that play a classifying role in the nilpotent orbit theory are also key in defining generalized Inozemtsev limits of (twisted) elliptic integrable systems. We illustrate our analysis in the N={1}^{ast } theories with gauge algebras su(3), su(4), so(5) and for the exceptional gauge algebra G 2. We map out modular duality diagrams of the massive and massless vacua. Moreover, we provide an analytic description of the branches of massless vacua in the case of the su(3) and the so(5) theory. The description of these branches in terms of the complexified Wilson lines on the circle invokes the Eichler-Zagier technique for inverting the elliptic Weierstrass function. After fine-tuning the coupling to elliptic points of order three, we identify the Argyres-Douglas singularities of the su(3) N={1}^{ast } theory.

  8. Large-N volume independence in conformal and confining gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, Mithat; Yaffe, Laurence G.; /Washington U., Seattle

    2010-08-26

    Consequences of large N volume independence are examined in conformal and confining gauge theories. In the large N limit, gauge theories compactified on R{sup d-k} x (S{sup 1}){sup k} are independent of the S{sup 1} radii, provided the theory has unbroken center symmetry. In particular, this implies that a large N gauge theory which, on R{sup d}, flows to an IR fixed point, retains the infinite correlation length and other scale invariant properties of the decompactified theory even when compactified on R{sup d-k} x (S{sup 1}){sup k}. In other words, finite volume effects are 1/N suppressed. In lattice formulations of vector-like theories, this implies that numerical studies to determine the boundary between confined and conformal phases may be performed on one-site lattice models. In N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, the center symmetry realization is a matter of choice: the theory on R{sup 4-k} x (S{sup 1}){sup k} has a moduli space which contains points with all possible realizations of center symmetry. Large N QCD with massive adjoint fermions and one or two compactified dimensions has a rich phase structure with an infinite number of phase transitions coalescing in the zero radius limit.

  9. Exact Schwarzschild-like solution for SU(N) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, D.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper we extend our previously discovered exact solution for an SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, to the general group SU(N+1). Using the first-order formalism of Bogomolny, an exact, spherically symmetric solution for the gauge and scalar fields is found. This solution is similar to the Schwarzschild solution of general relativity, in that the gauge and scalar fields become infinite on a spherical shell of radius r 0= K. However in the Schwarzschild case the singularity at the event horizon is a coordinate singularity while for the present solution the singularity is a true singularity. It is speculated that this solution may give a confinement mechanism for non-Abelian gauge theories, since any particle which carries the SU(N+1) charge would become permanently trapped inside the region r< r 0.

  10. Gauge theories on A(dS) space and Killing vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Rabin Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2008-03-15

    We provide a general technique for collectively analysing a manifestly covariant formulation of non-abelian gauge theories on both anti-de Sitter as well as de Sitter spaces. This is done by stereographically projecting the corresponding theories, defined on a flat Minkowski space, onto the surface of the A(dS) hyperboloid. The gauge and matter fields in the two descriptions are mapped by conformal Killing vectors and conformal Killing spinors, respectively. A bilinear map connecting the spinors with the vector is established. Different forms of gauge fixing conditions and their equivalence are discussed. The U(1) axial anomaly as well as the non-abelian covariant and consistent chiral anomalies on A(dS) space are obtained. Electric-magnetic duality is demonstrated. The zero curvature limit is shown to yield consistent findings.

  11. Decorated tensor network renormalization for lattice gauge theories and spin foam models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, Bianca; Mizera, Sebastian; Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    Tensor network techniques have proved to be powerful tools that can be employed to explore the large scale dynamics of lattice systems. Nonetheless, the redundancy of degrees of freedom in lattice gauge theories (and related models) poses a challenge for standard tensor network algorithms. We accommodate for such systems by introducing an additional structure decorating the tensor network. This allows to explicitly preserve the gauge symmetry of the system under coarse graining and straightforwardly interpret the fixed point tensors. We propose and test (for models with finite Abelian groups) a coarse graining algorithm for lattice gauge theories based on decorated tensor networks. We also point out that decorated tensor networks are applicable to other models as well, where they provide the advantage to give immediate access to certain expectation values and correlation functions.

  12. Radiative contribution to the effective potential in composite Higgs models from lattice gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrand, Thomas; Golterman, Maarten; Jay, William I.; Neil, Ethan T.; Shamir, Yigal; Svetitsky, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    We develop methods to calculate the electroweak gauge boson contribution to the effective Higgs potential in the context of composite Higgs models, using lattice gauge theory. The calculation is analogous to that of the electromagnetic mass splitting of the pion multiplet in QCD. We discuss technical details of carrying out this calculation, including modeling of the momentum and fermion-mass dependence of the underlying current-current correlation function, direct integration of the correlation function over momentum, and fits based on the minimal-hadron approximation. We show results of a numerical study using valence overlap fermions, carried out in an SU(4) gauge theory with two flavors of Dirac fermions in the two-index antisymmetric representation.

  13. The gauge structure of exceptional field theories and the tensor hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldazabal, G.; Graña, M.; Marqués, D.; Rosabal, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    We address the construction of manifest U-duality invariant generalized diffeomorphisms. The closure of the algebra requires an extension of the tangent space to include a tensor hierarchy indicating the existence of an underlying unifying structure, compatible with E 11 and Borcherds algebras constructions. We begin with four-dimensional gauged maximal supergravity, and build a generalized Lie derivative that encodes all the gauge transformations of the theory. A generalized frame is introduced, which accommodates for all the degrees of freedom, including the tensor hierarchy. The generalized Lie derivative defines generalized field-dependent fluxes containing all the covariant quantities in the theory, and the closure conditions give rise to their corresponding Bianchi Identities. We then move towards the construction of a full generalized Lie derivative defined on an extended space, analyze the closure conditions, and explore the connection with that of maximal gauged supergravity via a generalized Scherk-Schwarz reduction, and with 11-dimensional supergravity.

  14. Canonical quantization theory of general singular QED system of Fermi field interaction with generally decomposed gauge potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhen-Lu; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2014-03-15

    Quantization theory gives rise to transverse phonons for the traditional Coulomb gauge condition and to scalar and longitudinal photons for the Lorentz gauge condition. We describe a new approach to quantize the general singular QED system by decomposing a general gauge potential into two orthogonal components in general field theory, which preserves scalar and longitudinal photons. Using these two orthogonal components, we obtain an expansion of the gauge-invariant Lagrangian density, from which we deduce the two orthogonal canonical momenta conjugate to the two components of the gauge potential. We then obtain the canonical Hamiltonian in the phase space and deduce the inherent constraints. In terms of the naturally deduced gauge condition, the quantization results are exactly consistent with those in the traditional Coulomb gauge condition and superior to those in the Lorentz gauge condition. Moreover, we find that all the nonvanishing quantum commutators are permanently gauge-invariant. A system can only be measured in physical experiments when it is gauge-invariant. The vanishing longitudinal vector potential means that the gauge invariance of the general QED system cannot be retained. This is similar to the nucleon spin crisis dilemma, which is an example of a physical quantity that cannot be exactly measured experimentally. However, the theory here solves this dilemma by keeping the gauge invariance of the general QED system. -- Highlights: •We decompose the general gauge potential into two orthogonal parts according to general field theory. •We identify a new approach for quantizing the general singular QED system. •The results obtained are superior to those for the Lorentz gauge condition. •The theory presented solves dilemmas such as the nucleon spin crisis.

  15. Exact partition functions for the Ω-deformed {N}={2}^{ast } SU(2) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Macorini, Guido

    2016-07-01

    We study the low energy effective action of the Ω-deformed {N}={2}^{ast } SU(2) gauge theory. It depends on the deformation parameters ɛ 1, ɛ 2, the scalar field expectation value a, and the hypermultiplet mass m. We explore the plane (m/ɛ_1,ɛ_2/ɛ_1) looking for special features in the multi-instanton contributions to the prepotential, motivated by what happens in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit ɛ 2 → 0. We propose a simple condition on the structure of poles of the k-instanton prepotential and show that it is admissible at a finite set of points in the above plane. At these special points, the prepotential has poles at fixed positions independent on the instanton number. Besides and remarkably, both the instanton partition function and the full prepotential, including the perturbative contribution, may be given in closed form as functions of the scalar expectation value a and the modular parameter q appearing in special combinations of Eisenstein series and Dedekind η function. As a byproduct, the modular anomaly equation can be tested at all orders at these points. We discuss these special features from the point of view of the AGT correspondence and provide explicit toroidal 1-blocks in non-trivial closed form. The full list of solutions with 1, 2, 3, and 4 poles is determined and described in details.

  16. Covariance and gauge invariance in relativistic theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Giorgio

    2014-04-01

    Any metric theory of gravity whose interaction with quantum particles is described by a covariant wave equation is equivalent to a vector theory that satisfies Maxwell-type equations identically. This result does not depend on any particular set of field equations for the metric tensor, but only on covariance. It is derived in the linear case, but can be extended to any order of approximation in the metric deviation. In this formulation of the interaction of gravity with matter, angular momentum and momentum are conserved locally.

  17. Hamiltonian Dyson-Schwinger and FRG Flow Equations of Yang-Mills Theory in Coulomb Gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, Hugo; Leder, Markus; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Weber, Axel

    2011-05-23

    A new functional renormalization group equation for Hamiltonian Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge is presented and solved for the static gluon and ghost propagators under the assumption of ghost dominance. The results are compared to those obtained in the variational approach.

  18. Note on Gauge Theory on M4 × ZN with Auxiliary Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, T.; Taira, H.

    1997-06-01

    It is shown that the discrete gauge theory on ZN is well formulated with the auxiliary fields due to Chamseddine et al. and Okumura et al. together with the exterior algebra of Dimakis and Müller-Hoissen. A Lagrangian of the Yang-Mills-Higgs fields is also given.

  19. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory SciDAC-2 Closeout Report Indiana University Component

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, Steven Arthur; DeTar, Carleton; Tousaint, Doug

    2014-07-24

    This is the closeout report for the Indiana University portion of the National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory project supported by the United States Department of Energy under the SciDAC program. It includes information about activities at Indian University, the University of Arizona, and the University of Utah, as those three universities coordinated their activities.

  20. Infrared Renormalons versus Operator Product Expansions in Supersymmetric and Related Gauge Theories.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Gerald V; Shifman, M; Ünsal, Mithat

    2015-05-15

    We use the connection between infrared (IR) renormalons and condensates in the operator product expansion for correlation functions to make predictions concerning the structure of singularities in the Borel plane for the perturbative series in quantum field theories with different levels of supersymmetry. The same conspiracy can be used for establishing the absence of condensates or IR renormalons in gauge theories with an IR conformal regime or gauge theories in the Higgs phase. The absence of the renormalon-induced factorial divergence implies that instanton contributions (where present) must be well defined. We show that the conventional bubble-chain method for detecting renormalon-induced factorial divergences in these theories is not sufficient. PMID:26024159

  1. Infrared Renormalons versus Operator Product Expansions in Supersymmetric and Related Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, Gerald V.; Shifman, M.; Ünsal, Mithat

    2015-05-01

    We use the connection between infrared (IR) renormalons and condensates in the operator product expansion for correlation functions to make predictions concerning the structure of singularities in the Borel plane for the perturbative series in quantum field theories with different levels of supersymmetry. The same conspiracy can be used for establishing the absence of condensates or IR renormalons in gauge theories with an IR conformal regime or gauge theories in the Higgs phase. The absence of the renormalon-induced factorial divergence implies that instanton contributions (where present) must be well defined. We show that the conventional bubble-chain method for detecting renormalon-induced factorial divergences in these theories is not sufficient.

  2. Pure gauge configurations and solutions to fermionic superstring field theory equations of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'eva, I. Ya; Gorbachev, R. V.; Medvedev, P. B.

    2009-07-01

    Recent results on solutions to the equation of motion of the cubic fermionic string field theory and an equivalence of nonpolynomial and cubic string field theory are discussed. To have the possibility of dealing with both GSO(+) and GSO(-) sectors in the uniform way, a matrix formulation for the NS fermionic SFT is used. In constructions of analytical solutions to open-string field theories truncated pure gauge configurations parametrized by wedge states play an essential role. The matrix form of this parametrization for NS fermionic SFT is presented. Using the cubic open superstring field theory as an example we demonstrate explicitly that for the large parameter of the perturbation expansion these truncated pure gauge configurations give divergent contributions to the equations of motion on the subspace of the wedge states. The perturbation expansion is corrected by adding extra terms that are just those necessary for the equation of motion contracted with the solution itself to be satisfied.

  3. Anti-De Sitter Space, Thermal Phase Transition, and Confinement in Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witten, Edward

    2014-03-01

    The correspondence between supergravity (and string theory) on AdS space and boundary conformal field theory relates the thermodynamics of N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions to the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild black holes in Anti-de Sitter space. In this description, quantum phenomena such as the spontaneous breaking of the center of the gauge group, magnetic confinement, and the mass gap are coded in classical geometry. The correspondence makes it manifest that the entropy of a very large AdS Schwarzschild black hole must scale "holographically" with the volume of its horizon. By similar methods, one can also make a speculative proposal for the description of large N gauge theories in four dimensions without supersymmetry.

  4. Conformal window of SU(N) gauge theories with fermions in higher dimensional representations

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Dennis D.; Sannino, Francesco

    2007-04-15

    We study the phase diagram as a function of the number of colors and flavors of asymptotically free nonsupersymmetric theories with matter in higher-dimensional representations of arbitrary SU(N) gauge groups. Since matter in higher-dimensional representations screens more than in the fundamental a general feature is that a lower number of flavors is needed to achieve a near-conformal theory.

  5. Gauge-invariant theories of linear response for strongly correlated superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyack, Rufus; Anderson, Brandon M.; Wu, Chien-Te; Levin, K.

    2016-09-01

    We present a diagrammatic theory for determining consistent electromagnetic response functions in strongly correlated fermionic superfluids. While a gauge-invariant electromagnetic response is well understood at the BCS level, a treatment of correlations beyond BCS theory requires extending this theoretical formalism. The challenge in such systems is to maintain gauge invariance, while simultaneously incorporating additional self-energy terms arising from strong correlation effects. Central to our approach is the application of the Ward-Takahashi identity, which introduces collective mode contributions in the response functions and guarantees that the f -sum rule is satisfied. We outline a powerful method, which determines these collective modes in the presence of correlation effects and in a manner compatible with gauge invariance. Since this method is based on fundamental aspects of quantum field theory, the underlying principles are broadly applicable to strongly correlated superfluids. As an illustration of the technique, we apply it to a simple class of theoretical models that contain a frequency-independent order parameter. These models include BCS-BEC crossover theories of the ultracold Fermi gases, along with models specifically associated with the high-Tc cuprates. Finally, as an alternative approach, we contrast with the path integral formalism. Here, the calculation of gauge-invariant response appears more straightforward. However, the collective modes introduced are those of strict BCS theory, without any modification from additional correlations. As the path integral simultaneously addresses electrodynamics and thermodynamics, we emphasize that it should be subjected to a consistency test beyond gauge invariance, namely that of the compressibility sum rule. We show how this sum rule fails in the conventional path integral approach.

  6. N >= 4 Supergravity Amplitudes from Gauge Theory at One Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.; Boucher-Veronneau, C.; Johansson, H.; /Saclay

    2011-08-19

    We expose simple and practical relations between the integrated four- and five-point one-loop amplitudes of N {ge} 4 supergravity and the corresponding (super-)Yang-Mills amplitudes. The link between the amplitudes is simply understood using the recently uncovered duality between color and kinematics that leads to a double-copy structure for gravity. These examples provide additional direct confirmations of the duality and double-copy properties at loop level for a sample of different theories.

  7. Study of the Gribov region in Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the maximal Abelian gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Capri, M. A. L.; Gomez, A. J.; Lemes, V. E. R.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.

    2009-01-15

    The properties of the Gribov region in SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the maximal Abelian gauge are investigated. This region turns out to be bounded in all off-diagonal directions, while it is unbounded along the diagonal one. The soft breaking of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin invariance due to the restriction of the domain of integration in the path integral to the Gribov region is scrutinized. Owing to the unboundedness in the diagonal direction, the invariance with respect to Abelian transformations is preserved, a property which is at the origin of the local U(1) Ward identity of the maximal Abelian gauge.

  8. Measurement Models for Reasoned Action Theory.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Quantitative researchers distinguish between causal and effect indicators. What are the analytic problems when both types of measures are present in a quantitative reasoned action analysis? To answer this question, we use data from a longitudinal study to estimate the association between two constructs central to reasoned action theory: behavioral beliefs and attitudes toward the behavior. The belief items are causal indicators that define a latent variable index while the attitude items are effect indicators that reflect the operation of a latent variable scale. We identify the issues when effect and causal indicators are present in a single analysis and conclude that both types of indicators can be incorporated in the analysis of data based on the reasoned action approach.

  9. Phase Transition in Gauge Theories, Monopoles and the Multiple Point Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, C. R.; Laperashvili, L. V.

    This review is devoted to the Multiple Point Principle (MPP), according to which several vacuum states with the same energy density exist in Nature. The MPP is implemented to the Standard Model (SM), Family replicated gauge group model (FRGGM) and phase transitions in gauge theories with/without monopoles. Using renormalization group equations for the SM, the effective potential in the two-loop approximation is investigated, and the existence of its postulated second minimum at the fundamental scale is confirmed. Phase transitions in the lattice gauge theories are reviewed. The lattice results for critical coupling constants are compared with those of the Higgs monopole model, in which the lattice artifact monopoles are replaced by the point-like Higgs scalar particles with magnetic charge. Considering our (3+1)-dimensional space-time as, in some way, discrete or imagining it as a lattice with a parameter a = λP, where λP is the Planck length, we have investigated the additional contributions of monopoles to the β-functions of renormalization group equations for running fine structure constants αi(μ) (i = 1, 2, 3 correspond to the U(1), SU(2) and SU(3) gauge groups of the SM) in the FRGGM extended beyond the SM at high energies. It is shown that monopoles have Nfam times smaller magnetic charge in the FRGGM than in the SM (Nfam is a number of families in the FRGGM). We have estimated also the enlargement of a number of fermions in the FRGGM leading to the suppression of the asymptotic freedom in the non-Abelian theory. We have reviewed that, in contrast to the case of the Anti-grand-unified-theory (AGUT), there exists a possibility of unification of all gauge interactions (including gravity) near the Planck scale due to monopoles. The possibility of the [SU(5)]3 or [SO(10)]3 unification at the GUT-scale ~1018 GeV is briefly considered.

  10. Non-linear gauge transformations in D = 10 SYM theory and the BCJ duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjin; Mafra, Carlos R.; Schlotterer, Oliver

    2016-03-01

    Recent progress on scattering amplitudes in super Yang-Mills and super-string theory benefitted from the use of multiparticle superfields. They universally capture tree-level subdiagrams, and their generating series solve the non-linear equations of ten-dimensional super Yang-Mills. We provide simplified recursions for multiparticle superfields and relate them to earlier representations through non-linear gauge transformations of their generating series. Moreover, we discuss the gauge transformations which enforce their Lie symmetries as suggested by the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson duality between color and kine-matics. Another gauge transformation due to Harnad and Shnider is shown to streamline the theta-expansion of multiparticle superfields, bypassing the need to use their recursion relations beyond the lowest components. The findings of this work tremendously simplify the component extraction from kinematic factors in pure spinor superspace.

  11. Nonabelian 2D gauge theories for determinantal Calabi-Yau varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jockers, Hans; Kumar, Vijay; Lapan, Joshua M.; Morrison, David R.; Romo, Mauricio

    2012-11-01

    The two-dimensional supersymmetric gauged linear sigma model (GLSM) with abelian gauge groups and matter fields has provided many insights into string theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds of a certain type: complete intersections in toric varieties. In this paper, we consider two GLSM constructions with nonabelian gauge groups and charged matter whose infrared CFTs correspond to string propagation on determinantal Calabi-Yau varieties, furnishing another broad class of Calabi-Yau geometries in addition to complete intersections. We show that these two models — which we refer to as the PAX and the PAXY model — are dual descriptions of the same low-energy physics. Using GLSM techniques, we determine the quantum Kähler moduli space of these varieties and find no disagreement with existing results in the literature.

  12. Radiation-like scalar field and gauge fields in cosmology for a theory with dynamical time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benisty, David; Guendelman, E. I.

    2016-09-01

    Cosmological solutions with a scalar field behaving as radiation are obtained, in the context of gravitational theory with dynamical time. The solution requires the spacial curvature of the universe k, to be zero, unlike the standard radiation solutions, which do not impose any constraint on the spatial curvature of the universe. This is because only such k = 0 radiation solutions pose a homothetic Killing vector. This kind of theory can be used to generalize electromagnetism and other gauge theories, in curved spacetime, and there are no deviations from standard gauge field equation (like Maxwell equations) in the case there exist a conformal Killing vector. But there could be departures from Maxwell and Yang-Mills equations, for more general spacetimes.

  13. Discrete gauge symmetries by Higgsing in four-dimensional F-theory compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayrhofer, Christoph; Palti, Eran; Till, Oskar; Weigand, Timo

    2014-12-01

    We study F-theory compactifications to four dimensions that exhibit discrete gauge symmetries. Geometrically these arise by deforming elliptic fibrations with two sections to a genus-one fibration with a bi-section. From a four-dimensional field theory perspective they are remnant symmetries from a Higgsed U(1) gauge symmetry. We implement such symmetries in the presence of an additional SU(5) symmetry and associated matter fields, giving a geometric prescription for calculating the induced discrete charge for the matter curves and showing the absence of Yukawa couplings that are forbidden by this charge. We present a detailed map between the field theory and the geometry, including an identification of the Higgs field and the massless states before and after the Higgsing. Finally we show that the Higgsing of the U(1) induces a G-flux which precisely accounts for the change in the Calabi-Yau Euler number so as to leave the D3 tadpole invariant.

  14. M2-brane surface operators and gauge theory dualities in Toda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Le Floch, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    We give a microscopic two dimensional {N} = (2, 2) gauge theory description of arbitrary M2-branes ending on N f M5-branes wrapping a punctured Riemann surface. These realize surface operators in four dimensional {N} = 2 field theories. We show that the expectation value of these surface operators on the sphere is captured by a Toda CFT correlation function in the presence of an additional degenerate vertex operator labelled by a representation {R} of SU( N f ), which also labels M2-branes ending on M5-branes. We prove that symmetries of Toda CFT correlators provide a geometric realization of dualities between two dimensional gauge theories, including {N} = (2, 2) analogues of Seiberg and Kutasov-Schwimmer dualities. As a bonus, we find new explicit conformal blocks, braiding matrices, and fusion rules in Toda CFT.

  15. Exact results for N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories on compact toric manifolds and equivariant Donaldson invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bershtein, Mikhail; Bonelli, Giulio; Ronzani, Massimiliano; Tanzini, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    We provide a contour integral formula for the exact partition function of N = 2 supersymmetric U( N) gauge theories on compact toric four-manifolds by means of supersymmetric localisation. We perform the explicit evaluation of the contour integral for U(2) N = 2∗ theory on {P}^2 for all instanton numbers. In the zero mass case, corresponding to the N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory, we obtain the generating function of the Euler characteristics of instanton moduli spaces in terms of mock-modular forms. In the decoupling limit of infinite mass we find that the generating function of local and surface observables computes equivariant Donaldson invariants, thus proving in this case a longstanding conjecture by N. Nekrasov. In the case of vanishing first Chern class the resulting equivariant Donaldson polynomials are new.

  16. Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keegan, Liam; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; van der Schee, Wilke; Zhu, Yan

    2016-04-01

    We present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of the system.

  17. Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Keegan, Liam; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; van der Schee, Wilke; Zhu, Yan

    2016-04-06

    In this study, we present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of themore » system.« less

  18. QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: Challenges and perspectives

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brambilla, N.; Eidelman, S.; Foka, P.; Gardner, S.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Alford, M. G.; Alkofer, R.; Butenschoen, M.; Cohen, T. D.; Erdmenger, J.; et al

    2014-10-21

    We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to stongly-coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many researchmore » streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments.« less

  19. QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: Challenges and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Brambilla, N.; Eidelman, S.; Foka, P.; Gardner, S.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Alford, M. G.; Alkofer, R.; Butenschoen, M.; Cohen, T. D.; Erdmenger, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Faber, M.; Goity, J. L.; Ketzer, B.; Lin, H. W.; Llanes-Estrada, F. J.; Meyer, H. B.; Pakhlov, P.; Pallante, E.; Polikarpov, M. I.; Sazdjian, H.; Schmitt, A.; Snow, W. M.; Vairo, A.; Vogt, R.; Vuorinen, A.; Wittig, H.; Arnold, P.; Christakoglou, P.; Di Nezza, P.; Fodor, Z.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Höllwieser, R.; Janik, M. A.; Kalweit, A.; Keane, D.; Kiritsis, E.; Mischke, A.; Mizuk, R.; Odyniec, G.; Papadodimas, K.; Pich, A.; Pittau, R.; Qiu, J. -W.; Ricciardi, G.; Salgado, C. A.; Schwenzer, K.; Stefanis, N. G.; von Hippel, G. M.; Zakharov, V. I.

    2014-10-21

    We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to stongly-coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments.

  20. Yang-Mills field theory in an axial field-strength gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyburski, Lawrence

    1984-02-01

    We introduce what we call an axial field-strength gauge as an alternative to the conventional Coulomb gauge in the Yang-Mills field theory. This new gauge does not share the pathologies that were shown to exist in the Coulomb gauge by Gribov and Mandelstam. We apply this new gauge to the calculation, in two special cases, of the energy possessed by sources J1,20 interacting in the presence of a background field produced by a source J30, which is assumed to be of order g-1, in the limit g goes to zero, where g is the coupling constant. In the case in which the charge density J30 consists of two infinite uniform parallel plates bearing charge densities equal in magnitude but opposite in sign, we find that the potential energy possessed by two point particles bearing charge densities J1,20 grows linearly in proportion to the distance between them at large distances when the two particles are separated along a line parallel to the background field. This is a confining potential.

  1. Metric Projective Geometry, BGG Detour Complexes and Partially Massless Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gover, A. Rod; Latini, Emanuele; Waldron, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    A projective geometry is an equivalence class of torsion free connections sharing the same unparametrised geodesics; this is a basic structure for understanding physical systems. Metric projective geometry is concerned with the interaction of projective and pseudo-Riemannian geometry. We show that the BGG machinery of projective geometry combines with structures known as Yang-Mills detour complexes to produce a general tool for generating invariant pseudo-Riemannian gauge theories. This produces (detour) complexes of differential operators corresponding to gauge invariances and dynamics. We show, as an application, that curved versions of these sequences give geometric characterizations of the obstructions to propagation of higher spins in Einstein spaces. Further, we show that projective BGG detour complexes generate both gauge invariances and gauge invariant constraint systems for partially massless models: the input for this machinery is a projectively invariant gauge operator corresponding to the first operator of a certain BGG sequence. We also connect this technology to the log-radial reduction method and extend the latter to Einstein backgrounds.

  2. Doubled lattice Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills theories with discrete gauge group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspar, S.; Mesterházy, D.; Olesen, T. Z.; Vlasii, N. D.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2016-11-01

    We construct doubled lattice Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills theories with discrete gauge group G in the Hamiltonian formulation. Here, these theories are considered on a square spatial lattice and the fundamental degrees of freedom are defined on pairs of links from the direct lattice and its dual, respectively. This provides a natural lattice construction for topologically-massive gauge theories, which are invariant under parity and time-reversal symmetry. After defining the building blocks of the doubled theories, paying special attention to the realization of gauge transformations on quantum states, we examine the dynamics in the group space of a single cross, which is spanned by a single link and its dual. The dynamics is governed by the single-cross electric Hamiltonian and admits a simple quantum mechanical analogy to the problem of a charged particle moving on a discrete space affected by an abstract electromagnetic potential. Such a particle might accumulate a phase shift equivalent to an Aharonov-Bohm phase, which is manifested in the doubled theory in terms of a nontrivial ground-state degeneracy on a single cross. We discuss several examples of these doubled theories with different gauge groups including the cyclic group Z(k) ⊂ U(1) , the symmetric group S3 ⊂ O(2) , the binary dihedral (or quaternion) group D¯2 ⊂ SU(2) , and the finite group Δ(27) ⊂ SU(3) . In each case the spectrum of the single-cross electric Hamiltonian is determined exactly. We examine the nature of the low-lying excited states in the full Hilbert space, and emphasize the role of the center symmetry for the confinement of charges. Whether the investigated doubled models admit a non-Abelian topological state which allows for fault-tolerant quantum computation will be addressed in a future publication.

  3. On gauge independence for gauge models with soft breaking of BRST symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    A consistent quantum treatment of general gauge theories with an arbitrary gauge-fixing in the presence of soft breaking of the BRST symmetry in the field-antifield formalism is developed. It is based on a gauged (involving a field-dependent parameter) version of finite BRST transformations. The prescription allows one to restore the gauge-independence of the effective action at its extremals and therefore also that of the conventional S-matrix for a theory with BRST-breaking terms being additively introduced into a BRST-invariant action in order to achieve a consistency of the functional integral. We demonstrate the applicability of this prescription within the approach of functional renormalization group to the Yang-Mills and gravity theories. The Gribov-Zwanziger action and the refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for a many-parameter family of gauges, including the Coulomb, axial and covariant gauges, are derived perturbatively on the basis of finite gauged BRST transformations starting from Landau gauge. It is proved that gauge theories with soft breaking of BRST symmetry can be made consistent if the transformed BRST-breaking terms satisfy the same soft BRST symmetry breaking condition in the resulting gauge as the untransformed ones in the initial gauge, and also without this requirement.

  4. Massive Yang-Mills theory based on the nonlinearly realized gauge group

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinelli, D.; Ferrari, R.; Quadri, A.

    2008-02-15

    We propose a subtraction scheme for a massive Yang-Mills theory realized via a nonlinear representation of the gauge group [here SU(2)]. It is based on the subtraction of the poles in D-4 of the amplitudes, in dimensional regularization, after a suitable normalization has been performed. Perturbation theory is in the number of loops, and the procedure is stable under iterative subtraction of the poles. The unphysical Goldstone bosons, the Faddeev-Popov ghosts, and the unphysical mode of the gauge field are expected to cancel out in the unitarity equation. The spontaneous symmetry breaking parameter is not a physical variable. We use the tools already tested in the nonlinear sigma model: hierarchy in the number of Goldstone boson legs and weak-power-counting property (finite number of independent divergent amplitudes at each order). It is intriguing that the model is naturally based on the symmetry SU(2){sub L} local x SU(2){sub R} global. By construction the physical amplitudes depend on the mass and on the self-coupling constant of the gauge particle and moreover on the scale parameter of the radiative corrections. The Feynman rules are in the Landau gauge.

  5. Topics in gauge theories and the unification of elementary particle interactions. [Northeastern Univ. , Boston Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Y.N.; Vaughn, M.T.

    1993-02-01

    Work done on the following topics is summarized: (1) Coulomb potential in QED on the lattice; (2) Weyl cosmic strings and their consequences; (3) Interference between past and future events in [phi] [yields] K[bar K]; (4) Quantum effects of strong classical electromagnetic fields; (5) Application of computer algebra to calculations in supersymmetry and supergravity; (6) numerical studies of classical scalar [phi][sup 4] field theory and related nonlinear [sigma]-models; (7) Analysis of a cubic model field theory; and, (8) Renormalization group analysis of unified gauge theories.

  6. Effective theory of two-dimensional chiral superfluids: Gauge duality and Newton-Cartan formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Sergej; Hoyos, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    We present a theory of Galilean-invariant conventional and chiral px±i py fermionic superfluids at zero temperature in two spatial dimensions in terms of a dual gauge theory. Our formulation is general coordinate invariant. The parity-violating effects are encoded in the Wen-Zee term that gives rise to the Hall viscosity and edge current. We show that the relativistic superfluid with the Euler current reduces to the chiral superfluid in the limit c →∞ . Using Newton-Cartan geometry, we construct the covariant formulation of the effective theory and calculate the energy current.

  7. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, and strings defects in hypercomplex gauge field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartas-Fuentevilla, R.; Meza-Aldama, O.

    2016-02-01

    Inspired by the appearance of split-complex structures in the dimensional reduction of string theory, and in the theories emerging as byproducts, we study the hypercomplex formulation of Abelian gauge field theories by incorporating a new complex unit to the usual complex one. The hypercomplex version of the traditional Mexican hat potential associated with the U(1) gauge field theory, corresponds to a hybrid potential with two real components, and with U(1)× SO(1,1) as symmetry group. Each component corresponds to a deformation of the hat potential, with the appearance of a new degenerate vacuum. Hypercomplex electrodynamics will show novel properties, such as spontaneous symmetry breaking scenarios with running masses for the vectorial and scalar Higgs fields, and such as Aharonov-Bohm type strings defects as exact solutions; these topological defects may be detected only by quantum interference of charged particles through gauge invariant loop integrals. In a particular limit, the hyperbolic electrodynamics does not admit topological defects associated with continuous symmetries.

  8. Strong-weak coupling duality in non-abelian gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank

    1997-05-01

    This is a general introduction to electric-magnetic duality in non-abelian gauge theories. In chapter I, I review the general ideas which led in the late 70s to the idea of electric/magnetic duality in quantum field theory. In chapters II and III, I focus mainly on N=2 supersymmetric theories. I present the lagrangians and explain in more or less detail the non-renormalization theorems, rigid special geometry, supersymmetric instanton calculus, charge fractionization, the semiclassical theory of monopoles, duality in Maxwell theory and the famous Seiberg-Witten solution. I discuss various physical applications, as electric charge confinement, chiral symmetry breaking or non-trivial superconformal theories in four dimensions. In Section II.3 new material is presented, related to the computation of the eta invariant of certain Dirac operators coupled minimally to non-trivial monopole field configurations. I explain how these invariants can be obtained exactly by a one-loop calculation in a suitable N=2 supersymmetric gauge theory. This is an unexpected application of the holomorphy properties of N=2 supersymmetry, and constitutes a tremendous simplification of the usual computation. An expanded version of these new results will be published soon.

  9. Non-Gaussian wave functionals in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Campagnari, Davide R.; Reinhardt, Hugo

    2010-11-15

    A general method to treat non-Gaussian vacuum wave functionals in the Hamiltonian formulation of a quantum field theory is presented. By means of Dyson-Schwinger techniques, the static Green functions are expressed in terms of the kernels arising in the Taylor expansion of the exponent of the vacuum wave functional. These kernels are then determined by minimizing the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian. The method is applied to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge, using a vacuum wave functional whose exponent contains up to quartic terms in the gauge field. An estimate of the cubic and quartic interaction kernels is given using as input the gluon and ghost propagators found with a Gaussian wave functional.

  10. On higher derivatives in 3D gravity and higher-spin gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Bergshoeff, Eric A. Hohm, Olaf Townsend, Paul K.

    2010-05-15

    The general second-order massive field equations for arbitrary positive integer spin in three spacetime dimensions, and their 'self-dual' limit to first-order equations, are shown to be equivalent to gauge-invariant higher-derivative field equations. We recover most known equivalences for spins 1 and 2, and find some new ones. In particular, we find a non-unitary massive 3D gravity theory with a 5th order term obtained by contraction of the Ricci and Cotton tensors; this term is part of an N=2 super-invariant that includes the 'extended Chern-Simons' term of 3D electrodynamics. We also find a new unitary 6th order gauge theory for 'self-dual' spin 3.

  11. Twenty-first Century Lattice Gauge Theory: Results from the QCD Lagrangian

    SciTech Connect

    Kronfeld, Andreas S.; /Fermilab

    2012-03-01

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) reduces the strong interactions, in all their variety, to an elegant nonabelian gauge theory. It clearly and elegantly explains hadrons at short distances, which has led to its universal acceptance. Since its advent, however, many of its long-distance, emergent properties have been believed to be true, without having been demonstrated to be true. This paper reviews a variety of results in this regime that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian. This body of work sheds light on the origin of hadron masses, its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, as well as on other intriguing features such as the phase structure of QCD. In addition, nonperturbative QCD is quantitatively important to many aspects of particle physics (especially the quark flavor sector), nuclear physics, and astrophysics. This review also surveys some of the most interesting connections to those subjects.

  12. Toward a gauge theory for evolution equations on vector-valued spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cardanobile, Stefano; Mugnolo, Delio

    2009-10-15

    We investigate symmetry properties of vector-valued diffusion and Schroedinger equations. For a separable Hilbert space H we characterize the subspaces of L{sup 2}(R{sup 3};H) that are local (i.e., defined pointwise) and discuss the issue of their invariance under the time evolution of the differential equation. In this context, the possibility of a connection between our results and the theory of gauge symmetries in mathematical physics is explored.

  13. Mechanisms of CP violation in gauge theory and the recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, D. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1990-12-20

    Various mechanisms of CP violation in gauge theory are reviewed. We discuss the impact of recent developments associated with electric dipole moment(EDM) of neutron (D{sub n}), EDM of quarks(D{sub q}), chromo-EDM of quarks(D{sub q}{sup c}), chromo-EDM of gluon(D{sub G}{sup c}), EDM of electron(D{sub e}), and EDM of W boson(D{sub W}). 89 refs., 31 figs.

  14. Quantum corrections in modern gauge theories of fundamental interactions and the search for new physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zucchini, R.

    1988-01-01

    We show that the analysis of the quantum effects in gauge theories yields several constraints which may be used to test their internal consistency and physical viability. We have studied, in particular, the Higgs sector of the minimal standard model and tested the universality of the weak interactions and the conserved-vector-current hypothesis. Finally, we have analyzed modular invariance in the closed bosonic string.

  15. Global asymmetry of many-qubit correlations: A lattice-gauge-theory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, Mark S.; Ericsson, Marie; Johansson, Markus; Sjoeqvist, Erik; Sudbery, Anthony; Vedral, Vlatko

    2011-09-15

    We introduce a bridge between the familiar gauge field theory approaches used in many areas of modern physics such as quantum field theory and the stochastic local operations and classical communication protocols familiar in quantum information. Although the mathematical methods are the same, the meaning of the gauge group is different. The measure we introduce, ''twist,'' is constructed as a Wilson loop from a correlation-induced holonomy. The measure can be understood as the global asymmetry of the bipartite correlations in a loop of three or more qubits; if the holonomy is trivial (the identity matrix), the bipartite correlations can be globally untwisted using general local qubit operations, the gauge group of our theory, which turns out to be the group of Lorentz transformations familiar from special relativity. If it is not possible to globally untwist the bipartite correlations in a state using local operations, the twistedness is given by a nontrivial element of the Lorentz group, the correlation-induced holonomy. We provide several analytical examples of twisted and untwisted states for three qubits, the most elementary nontrivial loop one can imagine.

  16. Canonical transformations and loop formulation of SU(N) lattice gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Manu; Sreeraj, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    We construct canonical transformations to reformulate SU(N) Kogut-Susskind lattice gauge theory in terms of a set of fundamental loop and string flux operators along with their canonically conjugate loop and string electric fields. The canonical relations between the initial SU(N) link operators and the final SU(N) loop and string operators, consistent with SU(N) gauge transformations, are explicitly constructed over the entire lattice. We show that as a consequence of SU(N) Gauss laws all SU(N) string degrees of freedom become cyclic and decouple from the physical Hilbert space Hp. The Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian rewritten in terms of the fundamental physical loop operators has global SU(N) invariance. There are no gauge fields. We further show that the (1 /g2 ) magnetic field terms on plaquettes create and annihilate the fundamental plaquette loop fluxes while the (g2 ) electric field terms describe all their interactions. In the weak coupling (g2→0 ) continuum limit the SU(N) loop dynamics is described by SU(N) spin Hamiltonian with nearest neighbor interactions. In the simplest SU(2) case, where the canonical transformations map the SU(2) loop Hilbert space into the Hilbert spaces of hydrogen atoms, we analyze the special role of the hydrogen atom dynamical symmetry group S O (4 ,2 ) in the loop dynamics and the spectrum. A simple tensor network ansatz in the SU(2) gauge invariant hydrogen atom loop basis is discussed.

  17. Uniqueness of infrared asymptotics in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory. II

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Christian S.; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2009-07-15

    We present a shortened and simplified version of our proof [C. S. Fischer and J. M. Pawlowski, Phys. Rev. D 75, 025012 (2007).] of the uniqueness of the scaling solution for the infrared asymptotics of Green functions in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory. The simplification relates to a new renormalization group-invariant arrangement of Green functions applicable to general theories. As before the proof relies on the necessary consistency between Dyson-Schwinger equations and functional renormalization group equations. We also demonstrate the existence of a specific scaling solution for both, Dyson-Schwinger equations and functional renormalization group equations, that displays uniform and soft kinematic singularities.

  18. Model independent determination of the gluon condensate in four dimensional SU(3) gauge theory.

    PubMed

    Bali, Gunnar S; Bauer, Clemens; Pineda, Antonio

    2014-08-29

    We determine the nonperturbative gluon condensate of four-dimensional SU(3) gauge theory in a model-independent way. This is achieved by carefully subtracting high-order perturbation theory results from nonperturbative lattice QCD determinations of the average plaquette. No indications of dimension-two condensates are found. The value of the gluon condensate turns out to be of a similar size as the intrinsic ambiguity inherent to its definition. We also determine the binding energy of a B meson in the heavy quark mass limit. PMID:25215978

  19. Global structure of conformal theories in the SU(3) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, K.-I.; Iwasaki, Y.; Nakayama, Yu; Yoshie, T.

    2014-06-01

    We investigate SU(3) gauge theories in four dimensions with Nf fundamental fermions on a lattice using the Wilson fermion. Clarifying the vacuum structure in terms of Polyakov loops in spatial directions and properties of temporal propagators using a new method that we call "local analysis," we conjecture that the "conformal region" exists together with the confining region and the deconfining region in the phase structure parametrized by β and K, both in the cases of the large Nf QCD within the conformal window (referred as conformal QCD) with an IR cutoff and small Nf QCD at T/Tc>1 with Tc being the chiral transition temperature (referred to as high-temperature QCD). Our numerical simulation on a lattice of the size 163×64 shows the following evidence of the conjecture. In the conformal region, we find that the vacuum is the nontrivial Z(3) twisted vacuum modified by nonperturbative effects and that temporal propagators of mesons behave at large t as a power-law-corrected Yukawa-type decaying form. The transition from the conformal region to the deconfining region or the confining region is a sharp transition between different vacua, and therefore, it suggests a first-order transition both in conformal QCD and high-temperature QCD. To confirm the conjecture and distinguish it from the possibility of crossover phenomena, we need to take the continuum/thermodynamic limit, which we do not attempt in this work. Within our fixed-lattice simulation, we find that there is a precise correspondence between conformal QCD and high-temperature QCD in the temporal propagators under the change of the parameters Nf and T/Tc, respectively: one boundary is close to meson states, and the other is close to free quark states. In particular, conformal QCD with Nf=7 corresponds to high-temperature QCD with Nf=2 at T˜2Tc, both of which are in close relation to a meson unparticle model. From this, we estimate the anomalous mass dimension γ*=1.2(1) for Nf=7. We also show that the

  20. On Algebraic Singularities, Finite Graphs and D-Brane Gauge Theories: A String Theoretic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang-Hui

    2002-09-01

    In this writing we shall address certain beautiful inter-relations between the construction of 4-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories and resolution of algebraic singularities, from the perspective of String Theory. We review in some detail the requisite background in both the mathematics, such as orbifolds, symplectic quotients and quiver representations, as well as the physics, such as gauged linear sigma models, geometrical engineering, Hanany-Witten setups and D-brane probes. We investigate aspects of world-volume gauge dynamics using D-brane resolutions of various Calabi-Yau singularities, notably Gorenstein quotients and toric singularities. Attention will be paid to the general methodology of constructing gauge theories for these singular backgrounds, with and without the presence of the NS-NS B-field, as well as the T-duals to brane setups and branes wrapping cycles in the mirror geometry. Applications of such diverse and elegant mathematics as crepant resolution of algebraic singularities, representation of finite groups and finite graphs, modular invariants of affine Lie algebras, etc. will naturally arise. Various viewpoints and generalisations of McKay's Correspondence will also be considered. The present work is a transcription of excerpts from the first three volumes of the author's PhD thesis which was written under the direction of Prof. A. Hanany - to whom he is much indebted - at the Centre for Theoretical Physics of MIT, and which, at the suggestion of friends, he posts to the ArXiv pro hac vice; it is his sincerest wish that the ensuing pages might be of some small use to the beginning student.

  1. Projective and volume-preserving bundle structures involved in the formulation of A(4) gauge theories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulp, R. O.; Davis, W. R.; Norris, L. K.

    1986-01-01

    The bundle structures required by volume-preserving and related projective properties are developed and discussed in the context ofA(4) gauge theories which may be taken as the proper framework for Poincaré gauge theories. The results of this paper include methods for extending both tensors and connections to a principal fiber bundle havingG1(4,R)xG1(4,R) as its structure group. This bundle structure is shown to be a natural arena for the generalized (±) covariant differentiation utilized by Einstein for his extended gravitational theories involving nonsymmetric connections. In particular, it is shown that this generalized (±) covariant differentiation is actually a special case of ordinary covariant differentiation with respect to a connection on theG1(4,R) xG1(4,R) bundle. These results are discussed in relation to certain properties of generalized gravitational theories based on a nonsymmetric connection which include the metric affine theories of Hehl et al. and the general requirement that it should be possible to formulate well-defined local conservation laws. In terms of the extended bundle structure considered in this paper, it is found that physically distinct particle number type conservation expressions could exist for certain given types of matter currents.

  2. [Investigations in dynamics of gauge theories in theoretical particle physics]. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute State Univ. , Blacksburg

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The major theme of the theoretical physics research conducted under DOE support over the past several years has been within the rubric of the standard model, and concerned the interplay between symmetries and dynamics. The research was thus carried out mostly in the context of gauge field theories, and usually in the presence of chiral fermions. Dynamical symmetry breaking was examined both from the point of view of perturbation theory, as well as from non-perturbative techniques associated with certain characteristic features of specific theories. Among the topics of research were: the implications of abelian and non-abelian anomalies on the spectrum and possible dynamical symmetry breaking in any theory, topological and conformal properties of quantum fields in two and higher dimensions, the breaking of global chiral symmetries by vector-like gauge theories such as QCD, the phenomenological implications of a strongly interacting Higgs sector in the standard model, and the application of soliton ideas to the physics to be explored at the SSC.

  3. Duality of gauge field singularities and the structure of the flux tube in Abelian-projected SU(2) gauge theory and the dual Abelian Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Y.; Koma, M.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Suzuki, T.; Polikarpov, M. I.

    2003-11-01

    The structure of the flux-tube profile in Abelian-projected (AP) SU(2) gauge theory in the maximally Abelian gauge is studied. The connection between the AP flux tube and the classical flux-tube solution of the U(1) dual Abelian Higgs model is clarified in terms of the path-integral duality transformation. This connection suggests that the electric photon and the magnetic monopole parts of the Abelian Wilson loop can act as separate sources creating the Coulombic and the solenoidal electric field inside a flux tube. The conjecture is confirmed by a lattice simulation which shows that the AP flux tube is composed of these two contributions.

  4. Instantons in N=2 Sp( N) superconformal gauge theories and the AdS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gava, E.; Narain, K. S.; Sarmadi, M. H.

    2000-03-01

    We study, using ADHM construction, instanton effects in an N=2 superconformal Sp( N) gauge theory, arising as effective field theory on a system of N D3-branes near an orientifold 7-plane and eight D7-branes in type I' string theory. We work out the measure for the collective coordinates of multi-instantons in the gauge theory and compare with the measure for the collective coordinates of (-1)-branes in the presence of 3- and 7-branes in type I' theory. We analyse the large- N limit of the measure and find that it admits two classes of saddle points: In the first class the space of collective coordinates has the geometry of AdS 5× S3 which on the string theory side has the interpretation of the D-instantons being stuck on the 7-branes and therefore the resulting moduli space being AdS 5× S3, In the second class the geometry is AdS 5× S5/ Z2 and on the string theory side it means that the D-instantons are free to move in the ten-dimensional bulk. We discuss in detail a correlator of four O(8) flavour currents on the Yang-Mills side, which receives contributions from the first type of saddle points only, and show that it matches with the correlator obtained from F4 coupling on the string theory side, which receives contribution from D-instantons, in perfect accord with the AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular we observe that the sectors with an odd number of instantons give contributions to an O(8)-odd invariant coupling, thereby breaking O(8) down to SO(8) in type I' string theory. We finally discuss correlators related to R4, which receive contributions from both saddle points.

  5. Planck-scale induced left-right gauge theory at LHC and experimental tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, M. K.; Sahoo, Biswonath

    2016-05-01

    Recent measurements at LHC have inspired searches for TeV scale left-right gauge theory originating from grand unified theories. We show that inclusion of Planck-scale induced effects due to dim . 5 operator not only does away with all the additional intermediate symmetries, but also it predicts the minimal set of light Higgs scalars tailored after neutrino masses and dilepton, or trilepton signals. The heavy-light neutrino mixings are predicted from charged fermion mass fits in SO (10) and LFV constraints which lead to new predictions for dilepton or trilepton production signals. Including fine-structure constant matching and two-loop, and threshold effects predict MWR =g2R10 4.3 ± 1.5 ± 0.2 GeV and proton lifetime τp =10 36.15 ± 5.8 ± 0.2 yrs with WR gauge boson coupling g2R = 0.56- 0.57. Predictions on lepton flavour and lepton number violations are accessible to ongoing experiments. Current CMS data on di-electron excess at √{ s} = 8 TeV are found to be consistent with WR gauge boson mass MWR ≥ 1.9- 2.2 TeV which also agrees with the values obtained from dijet resonance production data. We also discuss plausible explanations for diboson production excesses observed at LHC and make predictions expected at √{ s} = 14 TeV.

  6. A Deconstruction Lattice Description of the D1/D5 Brane World-Volume Gauge Theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Giedt, Joel

    2011-01-01

    I genermore » alize the deconstruction lattice formulation of Endres and Kaplan to two-dimensional super-QCD with eight supercharges, denoted by (4,4), and bifundamental matter. I specialize to a particularly interesting (4,4) gauge theory, with gauge group U ( N c ) × U ( N f ) , and U ( N f ) being weakly gauged. It describes the infrared limit of the D1/D5 brane system, which has been studied extensively as an example of the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence. The construction here preserves two supercharges exactly and has a lattice structure quite similar to that which has previously appeared in the deconstruction approach, that is, site, link, and diagonal fields with both the Bose and Fermi statistics. I remark on possible applications of the lattice theory that would test the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence, particularly one that would exploit the recent worldsheet instanton analysis of Chen and Tong.« less

  7. Complete Construction of Magical, Symmetric, and Homogeneous N=2 Supergravities as Double Copies of Gauge Theories.

    PubMed

    Chiodaroli, M; Günaydin, M; Johansson, H; Roiban, R

    2016-07-01

    We show that scattering amplitudes in magical, symmetric or homogeneous N=2 Maxwell-Einstein supergravities can be obtained as double copies of two gauge theories, using the framework of color-kinematics duality. The left-hand copy is N=2 super-Yang-Mills theory coupled to a hypermultiplet, whereas the right-hand copy is a nonsupersymmetric theory that can be identified as the dimensional reduction of a D-dimensional Yang-Mills theory coupled to P fermions. For generic D and P, the double copy gives homogeneous supergravities. For P=1 and D=7, 8, 10, 14, it gives the magical supergravities. We compute explicit amplitudes, discuss their soft limits, and study the UV behavior at one loop. PMID:27419560

  8. Complete Construction of Magical, Symmetric, and Homogeneous N =2 Supergravities as Double Copies of Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodaroli, M.; Günaydin, M.; Johansson, H.; Roiban, R.

    2016-07-01

    We show that scattering amplitudes in magical, symmetric or homogeneous N =2 Maxwell-Einstein supergravities can be obtained as double copies of two gauge theories, using the framework of color-kinematics duality. The left-hand copy is N =2 super-Yang-Mills theory coupled to a hypermultiplet, whereas the right-hand copy is a nonsupersymmetric theory that can be identified as the dimensional reduction of a D -dimensional Yang-Mills theory coupled to P fermions. For generic D and P , the double copy gives homogeneous supergravities. For P =1 and D =7 , 8, 10, 14, it gives the magical supergravities. We compute explicit amplitudes, discuss their soft limits, and study the UV behavior at one loop.

  9. Density of states and Fisher's zeros in compact U(1) pure gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazavov, A.; Berg, B. A.; Du, Daping; Meurice, Y.

    2012-03-01

    We present high-accuracy calculations of the density of states using multicanonical methods for lattice gauge theory with a compact gauge group U(1) on 44, 64, and 84 lattices. We show that the results are consistent with weak and strong coupling expansions. We present methods based on Chebyshev interpolations and Cauchy theorem to find the (Fisher’s) zeros of the partition function in the complex β=1/g2 plane. The results are consistent with reweighting methods whenever the latter are accurate. We discuss the volume dependence of the imaginary part of the Fisher’s zeros, the width and depth of the plaquette distribution at the value of β where the two peaks have equal height. We discuss strategies to discriminate between first- and second-order transitions and explore them with data at larger volume but lower statistics. Higher statistics and even larger lattices are necessary to draw strong conclusions regarding the order of the transition.

  10. Gauge theories of partial compositeness: scenarios for Run-II of the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    We continue our investigation of gauge theories in which the Higgs boson arises as a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (pNGB) and top-partners arise as bound states of three hyperfermions. All models have additional pNGBs in their spectrum that should be accessible at LHC. We analyze the patterns of symmetry breaking and present all relevant couplings of the pNGBs with the gauge fields. We discuss how vacuum misalignment and a mass for the pNGBs is generated by a loop-induced potential. Finally, we paint a very broad, qualitative, picture of the kind of experimental signatures these models give rise to, setting the stage for further analysis.

  11. Effective action theory of Andreev level spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaktionov, Artem V.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2015-12-01

    With the aid of the Keldysh effective action technique we develop a microscopic theory describing Andreev level spectroscopy experiments in nontunnel superconducting contacts. We derive an effective impedance of such contacts which accounts for the presence of Andreev levels in the system. At subgap bias voltages and low temperatures, inelastic Cooper pair tunneling is accompanied by transitions between these levels resulting in a set of sharp current peaks. We evaluate the intensities of such peaks, establish their dependence on the external magnetic flux piercing the structure and estimate the thermal broadening of these peaks. We also specifically address the effect of capacitance renormalization in a nontunnel superconducting contact and its impact on both the positions and heights of the current peaks. At overgap bias voltages, the I -V curve is determined by quasiparticle tunneling and contains current steps related to the presence of discrete Andreev states in our system.

  12. Functional integral equation for the complete effective action in quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharnhorst, K.

    1997-02-01

    Based on a methodological analysis of the effective action approach, certain conceptual foundations of quantum field theory are reconsidered to establish a quest for an equation for the effective action. Relying on the functional integral formulation of Lagrangian quantum field theory, we propose a functional integral equation for the complete effective action which can be understood as a certain fixed-point condition. This is motivated by a critical attitude toward the distinction, artificial from an experimental point of view, between classical and effective action. While for free field theories nothing new is accomplished, for interacting theories the concept differs from the established paradigm. The analysis of this new concept concentrates on gauge field theories, treating QED as the prototype model. An approximative approach to the functional integral equation for the complete effective action of QED is exploited to obtain certain nonperturbative information about the quadratic kernels of the action. As a particular application the approximate calculation of the QED coupling constant α is explicitly studied. It is understood as one of the characteristics of a fixed point given as a solution of the functional integral equation proposed. Finally, within the present approach the vacuum energy problem is considered, as are possible implications for the concept of induced gravity.

  13. Low energy gauge couplings in grand unified theories and high precision physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, B.W. |

    1993-09-01

    I generalize the leading log relations between low energy SU(3){sub QCD}, SU(2){sub {rvec I}} and U(l){sub Y} effective gauge couplings to include all one-loop threshold effects of matter fields in oblique vector self energy quantum corrections for both supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified theories. These always involve an exactly conserved current from the unbroken SU(3){sub QCD} {times} U(L){sub QED} subgroup; this fact strongly constrains any non-decoupling of heavy states as well as the generic character of threshold effects. Relations between low energy gauge couplings depend on the details of the spectra of both the superheavy and low mass sectors; I display the common origin of the logs appropriate to superheavy matter states, which can be found with well known renormalization group techniques, and the combination of logs and polynomials appropriate for light matter states, which cannot. Relations between any two or all three low energy effective gauge couplings do not depend on the top quark or standard model Higgs` masses. Neither do they depend on neutral color singlet states such as other neutral color singlet Higgs` or higgsinos, neutrinos, zinos or photinos. Further, they do not depend on degenerate SU(5) matter representations, of either spin 0 or spin 1/2 of any mass; matter representations of SU(5) can affect such relations only if there is mass splitting within them. The b quark splitting from the {tau} and {nu}{sub {tau}} can affect the relation between gauge couplings for {vert_bar}q{sub 2}{vert_bar} {yields} m{sub b}{sup 2} as can hadronic resonances and multi-hadron states for lower {vert_bar}q{sub 2}{vert_bar}. New mass-split representations of light states, such as occur in supersymmetric theories, can also affect such relations.

  14. Cartan's Spiral Staircase in Physics and, in Particular, in the Gauge Theory of Dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Markus; Hehl, Friedrich W.

    2010-10-01

    In 1922, Cartan introduced in differential geometry, besides the Riemannian curvature, the new concept of torsion. He visualized a homogeneous and isotropic distribution of torsion in three dimensions (3d) by the “helical staircase”, which he constructed by starting from a 3d Euclidean space and by defining a new connection via helical motions. We describe this geometric procedure in detail and define the corresponding connection and the torsion. The interdisciplinary nature of this subject is already evident from Cartan’s discussion, since he argued—but never proved—that the helical staircase should correspond to a continuum with constant pressure and constant internal torque. We discuss where in physics the helical staircase is realized: (i) In the continuum mechanics of Cosserat media, (ii) in (fairly speculative) 3d theories of gravity, namely (a) in 3d Einstein-Cartan gravity—this is Cartan’s case of constant pressure and constant intrinsic torque—and (b) in 3d Poincaré gauge theory with the Mielke-Baekler Lagrangian, and, eventually, (iii) in the gauge field theory of dislocations of Lazar et al., as we prove for the first time by arranging a suitable distribution of screw dislocations. Our main emphasis is on the discussion of dislocation field theory.

  15. The moduli spaces of 3 d N≥ 2 Chern-Simons gauge theories and their Hilbert series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonesi, Stefano; Mekareeya, Noppadol; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    We present a formula for the Hilbert series that counts gauge invariant chiral operators in a large class of 3d N≥ 2 Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theories. The formula counts 't Hooft monopole operators dressed by gauge invariants of a residual gauge theory of massless fields in the monopole background. We provide a general formula for the case of abelian theories, where nonperturbative corrections are absent, and consider a few examples of nonabelian theories where nonperturbative corrections are well understood. We also analyze in detail nonabelian ABJ(M) theories as well as worldvolume theories of M2-branes probing Calabi-Yau fourfold and hyperKähler twofold singularities with N≥ 2 and N≥ 3 supersymmetry.

  16. Classifying BPS states in supersymmetric gauge theories coupled to higher derivative chiral models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Muneto; Sasaki, Shin

    2015-06-01

    We study N =1 supersymmetric gauge theories coupled with higher derivative chiral models in four dimensions in the off-shell superfield formalism. We solve the equation of motion for the auxiliary fields and find two distinct on-shell structures of the Lagrangian that we call the canonical and noncanonical branches characterized by zero and nonzero auxiliary fields, respectively. We classify Bogomol'nyi-Prasado-Sommerfield (BPS) states of the models in Minkowski and Euclidean spaces. In Minkowski space, we find Abelian and non-Abelian vortices, vortex lumps (or gauged lumps with fractional lump charges) as 1 /2 BPS states in the canonical branch, and higher derivative generalization of vortices and vortex-(BPS)baby Skyrmions (or gauged BPS baby Skyrmions with fractional baby Skyrme charges) as 1 /4 BPS states in the noncanonical branch. In four-dimensional Euclidean space, we find Yang-Mills instantons trapped inside a non-Abelian vortex, intersecting vortices, and intersecting vortex-(BPS)baby Skyrmions as 1 /4 BPS states in the canonical branch but no BPS states in the noncanonical branch other than those in the Minkowski space.

  17. Duality and modularity in elliptic integrable systems and vacua of gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan

    2015-04-01

    We study complexified elliptic Calogero-Moser integrable systems. We determine the value of the potential at isolated extrema, as a function of the modular parameter of the torus on which the integrable system lives. We calculate the extrema for low rank B,C,D root systems using a mix of analytical and numerical tools. For so(5) we find convincing evidence that the extrema constitute a vector valued modular form for the Γ0(4) congruence subgroup of the modular group. For so(7) and so(8), the extrema split into two sets. One set contains extrema that make up vector valued modular forms for congruence subgroups (namely Γ0(4), Γ(2) and Γ(3)), and a second set contains extrema that exhibit monodromies around points in the interior of the fundamental domain. The former set can be described analytically, while for the latter, we provide an analytic value for the point of monodromy for so(8), as well as extensive numerical predictions for the Fourier coefficients of the extrema. Our results on the extrema provide a rationale for integrality properties observed in integrable models, and embed these into the theory of vector valued modular forms. Moreover, using the data we gather on the modularity of complexified integrable system extrema, we analyse the massive vacua of mass deformed supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories with low rank gauge group of type B, C and D. We map out their transformation properties under the infrared electric-magnetic duality group as well as under triality for with gauge algebra so(8). We compare the exact massive vacua on to those found in a semi-classical analysis on . We identify several intriguing features of the quantum gauge theories.

  18. Abelian gauge symmetries and proton decay in global F-theory GUTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Thomas W.; Weigand, Timo

    2010-10-01

    The existence of Abelian gauge symmetries in four-dimensional F-theory compactifications depends on the global geometry of the internal Calabi-Yau four-fold and has important phenomenological consequences. We study conceptual and phenomenological aspects of such U(1) symmetries along the Coulomb and the Higgs branch. As one application we examine Abelian gauge factors arising after a certain global restriction of the Tate model that goes beyond a local spectral cover analysis. In SU(5) grand unified theory (GUT) models this mechanism enforces a global U(1)X symmetry that prevents dimension-4 proton decay and allows for an identification of candidate right-handed neutrinos. We invoke a detailed account of the singularities of Calabi-Yau four-folds and their mirror duals starting from an underlying E8 and E7×U(1) enhanced Tate model. The global resolutions and deformations of these singularities can be used as the appropriate framework to analyze F-theory GUT models.

  19. Thermodynamics of large N gauge theories with chemical potentials in a 1/ D expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Takeshi

    2010-08-01

    In order to understand thermodynamical properties of N D-branes with chemical potentials associated with R-symmetry charges, we study a one dimensional large N gauge theory (bosonic BFSS type model) as a first step. This model is obtained through a dimensional reduction of a 1 + D dimensional SU( N) Yang-Mills theory and we use a 1 /D expansion to investigate the phase structure. We find three phases in the μ - T plane. We also show that all the adjoint scalars condense at large D and obtain a mass dynamically. This dynamical mass protects our model from the usual perturbative instability of massless scalars in a non-zero chemical potential. We find that the system is at least meta-stable for arbitrary large values of the chemical potentials in D → ∞ limit. We also explore the existence of similar condensation in higher dimensional gauge theories in a high temperature limit. In 2 and 3 dimensions, the condensation always happens as in one dimensional case. On the other hand, if the dimension is higher than 4, there is a critical chemical potential and the condensation happens only if the chemical potentials are below it.

  20. Chiral Lagrangians from lattice gauge theories in the strong coupling limit

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, Taro; Nishigaki, Shinsuke M.

    2001-07-01

    We derive nonlinear {sigma} models (chiral Lagrangians) over symmetric spaces U(n), U(2n)/Sp(2n), and U(2n)/O(2n) from U(N), O(N), and Sp(2N) lattice gauge theories coupled to n flavors of staggered fermions, in the large-N and g{sup 2}N limit. To this end, we employ Zirnbauer{close_quote}s color-flavor transformation. We prove the spatial homogeneity of the vacuum configurations of mesons by explicitly solving the large-N saddle point equations, and thus establish these patterns of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the above limit.

  1. Invariant conserved currents in gravity theories: Diffeomorphisms and local gauge symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Yuri N.; Rubilar, Guillermo F.

    2007-12-01

    Previously, we developed a general method to construct invariant conserved currents and charges in gravitational theories with Lagrangians that are invariant under spacetime diffeomorphisms and local Lorentz transformations. This approach is now generalized to the case when the local Lorentz group is replaced by an arbitrary local gauge group. The particular examples include the Maxwell and Yang-Mills fields coupled to gravity with Abelian and non-Abelian local internal symmetries and the metric-affine gravity in which the local Lorentz spacetime group is extended to the local general linear group.

  2. Dynamic mean field theory of the SK-spin glass. II. Order parameters and gauge invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, H.

    1984-03-01

    The probability distribution of overlaps proposed by Parisi as order parameter for the SK-spin glass is calculated via dynamics. It is deduced from dynamic response functions and also directly obtained from a treatment with replicas and dynamics. The replica trick is not required. The comparison of the two results shows in which sense fluctuation dissipation theorems hold. Overlaps between three or more states are found to agree with those obtained by Mézard et al. using the replica trick. The origin of the ultrametric topology of spin glass states is investigated within the dynamic mean field theory and a gauge invariance is explored.

  3. Numerical algebraic geometry: a new perspective on gauge and string theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Dhagash; He, Yang-Hui; Hauensteine, Jonathan D.

    2012-07-01

    There is a rich interplay between algebraic geometry and string and gauge theories which has been recently aided immensely by advances in computational algebra. However, symbolic (Gröbner) methods are severely limited by algorithmic issues such as exponential space complexity and being highly sequential. In this paper, we introduce a novel paradigm of numerical algebraic geometry which in a plethora of situations overcomes these shortcomings. The so-called `embarrassing parallelizability' allows us to solve many problems and extract physical information which elude symbolic methods. We describe the method and then use it to solve various problems arising from physics which could not be otherwise solved.

  4. Infrared behavior of the ghost-gluon vertex in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleifenbaum, W.; Maas, A.; Wambach, J.; Alkofer, R.

    2005-07-01

    A semiperturbative calculation of the ghost-gluon vertex in Landau-gauge Yang-Mills theory in four and three Euclidean space-time dimensions is presented. Nonperturbative gluon and ghost propagators are employed, which have previously been calculated from a truncated set of Dyson-Schwinger equations and which are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with corresponding lattice results. Our results for the ghost-gluon vertex show only relatively small deviations from the tree-level one in agreement with recent lattice data. In particular, we do not see any sign for a singular behavior of the ghost-gluon vertex in the infrared.

  5. A highly optimized vectorized code for Monte Carlo simulations of SU(3) lattice gauge theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkai, D.; Moriarty, K. J. M.; Rebbi, C.

    1984-01-01

    New methods are introduced for improving the performance of the vectorized Monte Carlo SU(3) lattice gauge theory algorithm using the CDC CYBER 205. Structure, algorithm and programming considerations are discussed. The performance achieved for a 16(4) lattice on a 2-pipe system may be phrased in terms of the link update time or overall MFLOPS rates. For 32-bit arithmetic, it is 36.3 microsecond/link for 8 hits per iteration (40.9 microsecond for 10 hits) or 101.5 MFLOPS.

  6. Critical exponents in U(1) lattice gauge theory with a monopole term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, G.; Kerler, W.

    1998-04-01

    We investigate critical properties of the phase transition in the four-dimensional compact U(1) lattice gauge theory supplemented by a monopole term for values of the monopole coupling λ such that the transition is of second order. It has been previously shown that at λ = 0.9 the critical exponent is already characteristic of a second-order transition and that it is different from the one of the Gaussian case. In the present study we perform a finite size analysis at λ = 1.1 to get information wether the value of this exponent is universal.

  7. Global Constraints on Anomalous Triple Gauge Couplings in the Effective Field Theory Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, Adam; González-Alonso, Martín; Greljo, Admir; Marzocca, David

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined analysis of LHC Higgs data (signal strengths) together with LEP-2 W W production measurements. To characterize possible deviations from the standard model (SM) predictions, we employ the framework of an effective field theory (EFT) where the SM is extended by higher-dimensional operators suppressed by the mass scale of new physics Λ . The analysis is performed consistently at the order Λ-2 in the EFT expansion keeping all the relevant operators. While the two data sets suffer from flat directions, together they impose stringent model-independent constraints on the anomalous triple gauge couplings.

  8. Global Constraints on Anomalous Triple Gauge Couplings in the Effective Field Theory Approach.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, Adam; González-Alonso, Martín; Greljo, Admir; Marzocca, David

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined analysis of LHC Higgs data (signal strengths) together with LEP-2 WW production measurements. To characterize possible deviations from the standard model (SM) predictions, we employ the framework of an effective field theory (EFT) where the SM is extended by higher-dimensional operators suppressed by the mass scale of new physics Λ. The analysis is performed consistently at the order Λ(-2) in the EFT expansion keeping all the relevant operators. While the two data sets suffer from flat directions, together they impose stringent model-independent constraints on the anomalous triple gauge couplings. PMID:26799011

  9. Deconfinement Phase Transition in a 3D Nonlocal U(1) Lattice Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Gaku; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo; Sakakibara, Kazuhiko

    2005-06-03

    We introduce a 3D compact U(1) lattice gauge theory having nonlocal interactions in the temporal direction, and study its phase structure. The model is relevant for the compact QED{sub 3} and strongly correlated electron systems like the t-J model of cuprates. For a power-law decaying long-range interaction, which simulates the effect of gapless matter fields, a second-order phase transition takes place separating the confinement and deconfinement phases. For an exponentially decaying interaction simulating matter fields with gaps, the system exhibits no signals of a second-order transition.

  10. Fortran code for SU(3) lattice gauge theory with and without MPI checkerboard parallelization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Bernd A.; Wu, Hao

    2012-10-01

    We document plain Fortran and Fortran MPI checkerboard code for Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory with the Wilson action in D dimensions. The Fortran code uses periodic boundary conditions and is suitable for pedagogical purposes and small scale simulations. For the Fortran MPI code two geometries are covered: the usual torus with periodic boundary conditions and the double-layered torus as defined in the paper. Parallel computing is performed on checkerboards of sublattices, which partition the full lattice in one, two, and so on, up to D directions (depending on the parameters set). For updating, the Cabibbo-Marinari heatbath algorithm is used. We present validations and test runs of the code. Performance is reported for a number of currently used Fortran compilers and, when applicable, MPI versions. For the parallelized code, performance is studied as a function of the number of processors. Program summary Program title: STMC2LSU3MPI Catalogue identifier: AEMJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 26666 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 233126 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 compatible with the use of Fortran 90/95 compilers, in part with MPI extensions. Computer: Any capable of compiling and executing Fortran 77 or Fortran 90/95, when needed with MPI extensions. Operating system: Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 6.1 with OpenMPI + pgf77 11.8-0, Centos 5.3 with OpenMPI + gfortran 4.1.2, Cray XT4 with MPICH2 + pgf90 11.2-0. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes, parallelized using MPI extensions. Number of processors used: 2 to 11664 RAM: 200 Mega bytes per process. Classification: 11

  11. Maximal Abelian gauge and a generalized BRST transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Shinichi; Pandey, Vipul Kumar; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2016-05-01

    We apply a generalized Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formulation to establish a connection between the gauge-fixed SU (2) Yang-Mills (YM) theories formulated in the Lorenz gauge and in the Maximal Abelian (MA) gauge. It is shown that the generating functional corresponding to the Faddeev-Popov (FP) effective action in the MA gauge can be obtained from that in the Lorenz gauge by carrying out an appropriate finite and field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformation. In this procedure, the FP effective action in the MA gauge is found from that in the Lorenz gauge by incorporating the contribution of non-trivial Jacobian due to the FFBRST transformation of the path integral measure. The present FFBRST formulation might be useful to see how Abelian dominance in the MA gauge is realized in the Lorenz gauge.

  12. Tackling health inequalities: moving theory to action

    PubMed Central

    Signal, Louise; Martin, Jennifer; Reid, Papaarangi; Carroll, Christopher; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Ormsby, Vera Keefe; Richards, Ruth; Robson, Bridget; Wall, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper reports on health inequalities awareness-raising workshops conducted with senior New Zealand health sector staff as part of the Government's goal of reducing inequalities in health, education, employment and housing. Methods The workshops were based on a multi-method needs assessment with senior staff in key health institutions. The workshops aimed to increase the knowledge and skills of health sector staff to act on, and advocate for, eliminating inequalities in health. They were practical, evidence-based, and action oriented and took a social approach to the causes of inequalities in health. The workshops used ethnicity as a case study and explored racism as a driver of inequalities. They focused on the role of institutionalized racism, or racism that is built into health sector institutions. Institutional theory provided a framework for participants to analyse how their institutions create and maintain inequalities and how they can act to change this. Results Participants identified a range of institutional mechanisms that promote inequalities and a range of ways to address them including: undertaking further training, using Māori (the indigenous people) models of health in policy-making, increasing Māori participation and partnership in decision making, strengthening sector relationships with iwi (tribes), funding and supporting services provided 'by Māori for Māori', ensuring a strategic approach to intersectoral work, encouraging stronger community involvement in the work of the institution, requiring all evaluations to assess impact on inequalities, and requiring the sector to report on progress in addressing health inequalities. The workshops were rated highly by participants, who indicated increased commitment to tackle inequalities as a result of the training. Discussion Government and sector leadership were critical to the success of the workshops and subsequent changes in policy and practice. The use of locally adapted equity

  13. "Just Do It!" Theory and Practice as Dilemmas of Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Sean

    1992-01-01

    The growing respect for practice is not incompatible with theory. Reflective practice and participatory research stress the importance of linking theory with practice within concrete forms of everyday action. (SK)

  14. Can (electric-magnetic) duality be gauged?

    SciTech Connect

    Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc

    2011-02-15

    There exists a formulation of the Maxwell theory in terms of two vector potentials, one electric and one magnetic. The action is then manifestly invariant under electric-magnetic duality transformations, which are rotations in the two-dimensional internal space of the two potentials, and local. We ask the question: Can duality be gauged? The only known and battle-tested method of accomplishing the gauging is the Noether procedure. In its decanted form, it amounts to turning on the coupling by deforming the Abelian gauge group of the free theory, out of whose curvatures the action is built, into a non-Abelian group which becomes the gauge group of the resulting theory. In this article, we show that the method cannot be successfully implemented for electric-magnetic duality. We thus conclude that, unless a radically new idea is introduced, electric-magnetic duality cannot be gauged. The implication of this result for supergravity is briefly discussed.

  15. Amplitudes for massive vector and scalar bosons in spontaneously-broken gauge theory from the CHY representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naculich, Stephen G.

    2015-09-01

    In the formulation of Cachazo, He, and Yuan, tree-level amplitudes for massless particles in gauge theory and gravity can be expressed as rational functions of the Lorentz invariants k a · k b , ɛ a · k b , and ɛ a · ɛ b , valid in any number of spacetime dimensions. We use dimensional reduction of higher-dimensional amplitudes of particles with internal momentum κ to obtain amplitudes for massive particles in lower dimensions. In the case of gauge theory, we argue that these massive amplitudes belong to a theory in which the gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken by an adjoint Higgs field. Consequently, we show that tree-level n-point amplitudes containing massive vector and scalar bosons in this theory can be obtained by simply replacing k a · k b with k a · k b - κ a κ b in the corresponding massless amplitudes, where the masses of the particles are given by | κ a |.

  16. Running coupling from the four-gluon vertex in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kellermann, Christian; Fischer, Christian S.

    2008-07-15

    We consider the running coupling from the four-gluon vertex in Landau gauge, SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills theory as given by a combination of dressing functions of the vertex and the gluon propagator. We determine these functions numerically from a coupled set of Dyson-Schwinger equations. We reproduce asymptotic freedom in the ultraviolet momentum region and find a coupling of order one at mid-momenta. In the infrared we find a nontrivial (i.e. nonzero) fixed point which is 3 orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding fixed point in the coupling of the ghost-gluon vertex. This result explains why the Dyson-Schwinger and the functional renormalization group equations for the two point functions can agree in the infrared, although their structure is quite different. Our findings also support Zwanziger's notion of an infrared effective theory driven by the Faddeev-Popov determinant.

  17. Vectorizing the Monte Carlo algorithm for lattice gauge theory calculations on the CDC cyber 205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkai, D.; Moriarty, K. J. M.

    1982-06-01

    Lattice gauge theory is a technique for studying quantum field theory free of divergences. All the Monte Carlo computer calculations up to now have been performed on scalar machines. A technique has been developed for effectively vectorizing this class of Monte Carlo problems. The key for vectorizing is in finding groups in finding groups of points on the space-time lattice which are independent of each other. This requires a particular ordering of points along diagonals. A technique for matrix multiply is used which enables one to get the whole of the result matrix in one pass. The CDC CYBER 205 is most suitable for this class of problems using random "index-lists" (arising from the ordering algorithm and the use of random numbers) due to the hardware implementation of "GATHER" and "SCATTER" operations performing at a streaming-rate. A preliminary implementation of this method has executed 5 times faster than on the CDC 7600 system.

  18. Magnetic-Field-Induced Insulator-Conductor Transition in SU(2) Quenched Lattice Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Buividovich, P.V.; Kharzeev, D.; Chernodub, M.N., Kalaydzhyan, T., Luschevskaya, E.V., and M.I. Polikarpov

    2010-09-24

    We study the correlator of two vector currents in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with a chirally invariant lattice Dirac operator with a constant external magnetic field. It is found that in the confinement phase the correlator of the components of the current parallel to the magnetic field decays much slower than in the absence of a magnetic field, while for other components the correlation length slightly decreases. We apply the maximal entropy method to extract the corresponding spectral function. In the limit of zero frequency this spectral function yields the electric conductivity of quenched theory. We find that in the confinement phase the external magnetic field induces nonzero electric conductivity along the direction of the field, transforming the system from an insulator into an anisotropic conductor. In the deconfinement phase the conductivity does not exhibit any sizable dependence on the magnetic field.

  19. Magnetic-field-induced insulator-conductor transition in SU(2) quenched lattice gauge theory.

    PubMed

    Buividovich, P V; Chernodub, M N; Kharzeev, D E; Kalaydzhyan, T; Luschevskaya, E V; Polikarpov, M I

    2010-09-24

    We study the correlator of two vector currents in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with a chirally invariant lattice Dirac operator with a constant external magnetic field. It is found that in the confinement phase the correlator of the components of the current parallel to the magnetic field decays much slower than in the absence of a magnetic field, while for other components the correlation length slightly decreases. We apply the maximal entropy method to extract the corresponding spectral function. In the limit of zero frequency this spectral function yields the electric conductivity of quenched theory. We find that in the confinement phase the external magnetic field induces nonzero electric conductivity along the direction of the field, transforming the system from an insulator into an anisotropic conductor. In the deconfinement phase the conductivity does not exhibit any sizable dependence on the magnetic field. PMID:21230764

  20. Bimetric theory of gravity from the nonchiral Plebanski action

    SciTech Connect

    Speziale, Simone

    2010-09-15

    We study a modification of the Plebanski action for general relativity, which leads to a modified theory of gravity with 8 degrees of freedom. We show how the action can be recasted as a bimetric theory of gravity, and expanding around a biflat background we identify the 6 extra degrees of freedom with a second, massive graviton and a scalar mode.

  1. Origin of Abelian gauge symmetries in heterotic/F-theory duality

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Grassi, Antonella; Klevers, Denis; Poretschkin, Maximilian; Song, Peng

    2016-04-07

    Here, we study aspects of heterotic/F-theory duality for compactifications with Abelian gauge symmetries. We consider F-theory on general Calabi-Yau manifolds with a rank one Mordell-Weil group of rational sections. By rigorously performing the stable degeneration limit in a class of toric models, and also derive both the Calabi-Yau geometry and the spectral cover describing the vector bundle in the heterotic dual theory. We carefully investigate the spectral cover employing the group law on the elliptic curve in the heterotic theory. We find in explicit examples that there are three different classes of heterotic duals that have U(1) factors in theirmore » low energy effective theories: split spectral covers describing bundles with S(U(m) x U(1)) structure group, spectral covers containing torsional sections that seem to give rise to bundles with SU(m) x Z_k structure group and bundles with purely non-Abelian structure groups having a centralizer in E_8 containing a U(1) factor. In the former two cases, it is required that the elliptic fibration on the heterotic side has a non-trivial Mordell-Weil group. And while the number of geometrically massless U(1)'s is determined entirely by geometry on the F-theory side, on the heterotic side the correct number of U(1)'s is found by taking into account a Stuckelberg mechanism in the lower-dimensional effective theory. Finally, in geometry, this corresponds to the condition that sections in the two half K3 surfaces that arise in the stable degeneration limit of F-theory can be glued together globally.« less

  2. Dirichlet branes and nonperturbative aspects of supersymmetric string and gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Zheng

    1999-05-01

    In chapter 1 the author reviews some elements of string theory relevant to the rest of this report. He touches on both the classical, i.e. perturbative, string physics before D-branes rise to prominence, and some of the progresses they brought forth. In chapter 2 he proceeds to give an exact algebraic formulation of D-branes in curved spaces. This allows one to classify them in backgrounds of interest and study their geometric properties. He applies this formalism to string theory on Calabi-Yau and other supersymmetry preserving manifolds. Then he studies the behavior of the D-branes under mirror symmetry in chapter 3. Mirror symmetry is known to be a symmetry of string theory perturbatively. He finds evidence for its nonperturbative validity when D-branes are also considered and compute some dynamical consequences. In chapter 4 he turns to examine the consistency of curved and/or intersecting D-brane configurations. They have been used recently to extract information about the field theories that arise in certain limits. It turns out that there are potential quantum mechanical inconsistencies associated with them. What saves the day are certain subtle topological properties of D-branes. This resolution has implications for the conserved charges carried by the D-branes, which he computes for the cases studied in chapter 2. In chapter 5 he uses intersecting brane configurations to study three dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories. There is also a mirror symmetry there that, among other things, exchanges classical and quantum mechanical quantities of a (mirror) pair of theories. It has an elegant realization in term of a symmetry of string theory involving D-branes. The author employs it to study a wide class of 3d models. He also predicts new mirror pairs and unconventional 3d field theories without Lagrangian descriptions.

  3. Simplifying Multi-loop Integrands of Gauge Theory and Gravity Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J.J.M.; Dixon, L.J.; Johansson, H.; Roiban, R.

    2012-02-15

    We use the duality between color and kinematics to simplify the construction of the complete four-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, including the nonplanar contributions. The duality completely determines the amplitude's integrand in terms of just two planar graphs. The existence of a manifestly dual gauge-theory amplitude trivializes the construction of the corresponding N = 8 supergravity integrand, whose graph numerators are double copies (squares) of the N = 4 super-Yang-Mills numerators. The success of this procedure provides further nontrivial evidence that the duality and double-copy properties hold at loop level. The new form of the four-loop four-point supergravity amplitude makes manifest the same ultraviolet power counting as the corresponding N = 4 super-Yang-Mills amplitude. We determine the amplitude's ultraviolet pole in the critical dimension of D = 11/2, the same dimension as for N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. Strikingly, exactly the same combination of vacuum integrals (after simplification) describes the ultraviolet divergence of N = 8 supergravity as the subleading-in-1/N{sub c}{sup 2} single-trace divergence in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  4. Proposals for quantum simulating simple lattice gauge theory models using optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Unmuth-Yockey, Judah; Bazavov, Alexei; Meurice, Yannick; Tsai, Shan-Wen

    We derive an effective spin Hamiltonian for the (1 +1)-dimensional Abelian Higgs model in the strongly coupled region by integrating out the link variables. With finite spin truncations, the Hamiltonian can be matched with a 1-dimensional two-species Bose Hubbard model in the strong-coupling limit that can be implemented with cold atoms on an optical lattice. We study the phase diagram of the original Abelian Higgs model with Monte Carlo simulation and Tensor Renormalization Group methods. The results show a crossover line which terminates near the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition point. The effective quantum Hamiltonian is also studied with the DMRG method, and we find that they have a similar behavior. We discuss practical experimental implementations for our quantum simulator. Species-dependent optical lattices and ladder systems with double-well potentials are considered. We show how to obtain each of the interaction parameters required in the Bose-Hubbard model that we obtained, and confirm the possibility of tuning these interactions to the region in which our mapping is valid. We emphasize that this proposal for quantum simulating a gauge theory uses a manifestly gauge-invariant formulation and Gauss's Law is therefore automatically satisfied. Supported by DoD ARO under Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0119 and by the NSF under Grants No. DMR-1411345.

  5. Re-Visioning Action: Participatory Action Research and Indigenous Theories of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve

    2009-01-01

    This article observes that participatory action research (PAR), by nature of being collaborative, necessitates making explicit theories of change that may have otherwise gone unseen or unexamined. The article explores the limits of the reform/revolution paradox on actions and theories of change in PAR. Citing examples from two recent youth PAR…

  6. Cosmological attractor inflation from the RG-improved Higgs sector of finite gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Emilio; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Pozdeeva, Ekaterina O.; Vernov, Sergey Yu.

    2016-02-01

    The possibility to construct an inflationary scenario for renormalization-group improved potentials corresponding to the Higgs sector of finite gauge models is investigated. Taking into account quantum corrections to the renormalization-group potential which sums all leading logs of perturbation theory is essential for a successful realization of the inflationary scenario, with very reasonable parameter values. The inflationary models thus obtained are seen to be in good agreement with the most recent and accurate observational data. More specifically, the values of the relevant inflationary parameters, ns and r, are close to the corresponding ones in the R2 and Higgs-driven inflation scenarios. It is shown that the model here constructed and Higgs-driven inflation belong to the same class of cosmological attractors.

  7. Gauge theory high-energy behavior from J-plane unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Coriano, C. |; White, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    In a non-abelian gauge theory the t-channel multiparticle unitarity equations continued in the complex j-plane can be systematically expanded around j = 1. The combination of Ward identity constraints with unitarity is sufficient to produce directly many results obtained by Regge limit leading-log and next-to-leading log momentum space calculations. The O(g{sup 2}) BFKL kernel is completely determined. O(g{sup 4}) contributions to the kernel are also determined, including the leading contribution of a new partial-wave amplitude--previously identified as a separate forward component with a holomorphically factorizable spectrum. For this amplitude the only scale ambiguity is the overall normalization and it is anticipated to be a new conformally invariant kernel. The results suggest that all conformally invariant reggeon interactions are determined by t-channel unitarity.

  8. Gravitational energy for GR and Poincaré gauge theories: A covariant Hamiltonian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chiang-Mei; Nester, James M.; Tung, Roh-Suan

    2015-08-01

    Our topic concerns a long standing puzzle: The energy of gravitating systems. More precisely we want to consider, for gravitating systems, how to best describe energy-momentum and angular momentum/center-of-mass momentum (CoMM). It is known that these quantities cannot be given by a local density. The modern understanding is that (i) they are quasi-local (associated with a closed 2-surface), (ii) they have no unique formula, (iii) they have no reference frame independent description. In the first part of this work, we review some early history, much of it not so well known, on the subject of gravitational energy in Einstein's general relativity (GR), noting especially Noether's contribution. In the second part, we review (including some new results) much of our covariant Hamiltonian formalism and apply it to Poincaré gauge theories of gravity (PG), with GR as a special case. The key point is that the Hamiltonian boundary term has two roles, it determines the quasi-local quantities, and furthermore, it determines the boundary conditions for the dynamical variables. Energy-momentum and angular momentum/CoMM are associated with the geometric symmetries under Poincaré transformations. They are best described in a local Poincaré gauge theory. The type of spacetime that naturally has this symmetry is Riemann-Cartan spacetime, with a metric compatible connection having, in general, both curvature and torsion. Thus our expression for the energy-momentum of physical systems is obtained via our covariant Hamiltonian formulation applied to the PG.

  9. The foundation of Piaget's theories: mental and physical action.

    PubMed

    Beilin, H; Fireman, G

    1999-01-01

    Piaget's late theory of action and action implication was the realization of a long history of development. A review of that history shows the central place of action in all of his theoretical assertions, despite the waxing and waning of other important features of his theories. Action was said to be the primary source of knowledge with perception and language in secondary roles. Action is for the most part not only organized but there is logic in action. Action, which is at first physical, becomes internalized and transformed into mental action and mental representation, largely in the development of the symbolic or semiotic function in the sensorimotor period. A number of alternative theories of cognitive development place primary emphasis on mental representation. Piaget provided it with an important place as well, but subordinated it to mental action in the form of operations. In this, as Russell claims, he paralleled Schopenhauer's distinction between representation and will. Piaget's theory of action was intimately related to the gradual development of intentionality in childhood. Intentions were tied to actions by way of the conscious awareness of goals and the means to achieve them. Mental action, following the sensorimotor period, was limited in its logical form to semilogical or one-way functions. These forms were said by Piaget to lack logical reversibility, which was achieved only in the sixth or seventh year, in concrete operations. Mental action was not to be fully realized until the development of formal operations, with hypothetical reasoning, in adolescence, according to the classical Piagetian formulation. This view of the child's logical development, which relied heavily on truth-table (extensional) logic, underwent a number of changes. First from the addition of other logics: category theory and the theory of functions among them. In his last theory, however, an even more radical change occurred. With the collaboration of R. Garcia, he proposed

  10. The foundation of Piaget's theories: mental and physical action.

    PubMed

    Beilin, H; Fireman, G

    1999-01-01

    Piaget's late theory of action and action implication was the realization of a long history of development. A review of that history shows the central place of action in all of his theoretical assertions, despite the waxing and waning of other important features of his theories. Action was said to be the primary source of knowledge with perception and language in secondary roles. Action is for the most part not only organized but there is logic in action. Action, which is at first physical, becomes internalized and transformed into mental action and mental representation, largely in the development of the symbolic or semiotic function in the sensorimotor period. A number of alternative theories of cognitive development place primary emphasis on mental representation. Piaget provided it with an important place as well, but subordinated it to mental action in the form of operations. In this, as Russell claims, he paralleled Schopenhauer's distinction between representation and will. Piaget's theory of action was intimately related to the gradual development of intentionality in childhood. Intentions were tied to actions by way of the conscious awareness of goals and the means to achieve them. Mental action, following the sensorimotor period, was limited in its logical form to semilogical or one-way functions. These forms were said by Piaget to lack logical reversibility, which was achieved only in the sixth or seventh year, in concrete operations. Mental action was not to be fully realized until the development of formal operations, with hypothetical reasoning, in adolescence, according to the classical Piagetian formulation. This view of the child's logical development, which relied heavily on truth-table (extensional) logic, underwent a number of changes. First from the addition of other logics: category theory and the theory of functions among them. In his last theory, however, an even more radical change occurred. With the collaboration of R. Garcia, he proposed

  11. Remarks on the N=1 SU(M+p)×SU(p) quiver gauge theory with flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benini, Francesco; Dymarsky, Anatoly

    2012-02-01

    We study supersymmetric vacua of the N=1 cascading SU(M+p)×SU(p) gauge theory with flavor—the theory on p D3-branes and M wrapped D5-branes at the tip of the conifold, and Nf flavor D7-branes wrapping a holomorphic four-cycle inside the conifold. The Coulomb branch of the moduli space is inherited from the pure gauge theory without flavor and was thoroughly studied in the past. Besides, there is a Higgs branch where some D3- and/or D5-branes dissolve in the D7-branes forming the worldvolume gauge instantons. We study the Higgs branch both from the field theory and the bulk point of view. On the classical level the moduli space is closely related to the one of the N=2 C2/Z2 orbifold theory, in particular, certain vacua of the N=1 theory are related to noncommutative instantons on the resolved C2/Z2. On the quantum level the Higgs branch acquires corrections due to renormalization of the Kähler potential and nonperturbative effects in field theory. In the bulk this is encoded in the classical D7-brane geometry. We compute the vacuum expectation value (VEV)s of the protected operators and the field theory RG flow and find an agreement with the parallel computations in the bulk.

  12. The IR obstruction to UV completion for Dante's Inferno model with higher-dimensional gauge theory origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki; Koyama, Yoji

    2016-06-01

    We continue our investigation of large field inflation models obtained from higher-dimensional gauge theories, initiated in our previous study [1]. We focus on Dante's Inferno model which was the most preferred model in our previous analysis. We point out the relevance of the IR obstruction to UV completion, which constrains the form of the potential of the massive vector field, under the current observational upper bound on the tensor to scalar ratio. We also show that in simple examples of the potential arising from DBI action of a D5-brane and that of an NS5-brane that the inflation takes place in the field range which is within the convergence radius of the Taylor expansion. This is in contrast to the well known examples of axion monodromy inflation where inflaton takes place outside the convergence radius of the Taylor expansion. This difference arises from the very essence of Dante's Inferno model that the effective inflaton potential is stretched in the inflaton field direction compared with the potential for the original field.

  13. The massive fermion phase for the U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory in D=3 at large N

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bardeen, William A.

    2014-10-07

    We explore the phase structure of fermions in the U(N) Chern-Simons Gauge theory in three dimensions using the large N limit where N is the number of colors and the fermions are taken to be in the fundamental representation of the U(N) gauge group. In the large N limit, the theory retains its classical conformal behavior and considerable attention has been paid to possible AdS/CFT dualities of the theory in the conformal phase. In this paper we present a solution for the massive phase of the fermion theory that is exact to the leading order of ‘t Hooft’s large Nmore » expansion. We present evidence for the spontaneous breaking of the exact scale symmetry and analyze the properties of the dilaton that appears as the Goldstone boson of scale symmetry breaking.« less

  14. The massive fermion phase for the U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory in D=3 at large N

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, William A.

    2014-10-07

    We explore the phase structure of fermions in the U(N) Chern-Simons Gauge theory in three dimensions using the large N limit where N is the number of colors and the fermions are taken to be in the fundamental representation of the U(N) gauge group. In the large N limit, the theory retains its classical conformal behavior and considerable attention has been paid to possible AdS/CFT dualities of the theory in the conformal phase. In this paper we present a solution for the massive phase of the fermion theory that is exact to the leading order of ‘t Hooft’s large N expansion. We present evidence for the spontaneous breaking of the exact scale symmetry and analyze the properties of the dilaton that appears as the Goldstone boson of scale symmetry breaking.

  15. Gauge equivalence in two-dimensional gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, T. ); Igarashi, Y. ); Kubo, J. ); Tabei, T. )

    1993-08-15

    Two-dimensional quantum gravity is identified as a second-class system which we convert into a first-class system via the Batalin-Fradkin (BF) procedure. Using the extended phase space method, we then formulate the theory in the most general class of gauges. The conformal gauge action suggested by David, Distler, and Kawai is derived from first principles. We find a local, light-cone gauge action whose Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin invariance implies Polyakov's curvature equation [partial derivative][sub [minus

  16. PyR@TE. Renormalization group equations for general gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyonnet, F.; Schienbein, I.; Staub, F.; Wingerter, A.

    2014-03-01

    Although the two-loop renormalization group equations for a general gauge field theory have been known for quite some time, deriving them for specific models has often been difficult in practice. This is mainly due to the fact that, albeit straightforward, the involved calculations are quite long, tedious and prone to error. The present work is an attempt to facilitate the practical use of the renormalization group equations in model building. To that end, we have developed two completely independent sets of programs written in Python and Mathematica, respectively. The Mathematica scripts will be part of an upcoming release of SARAH 4. The present article describes the collection of Python routines that we dubbed PyR@TE which is an acronym for “Python Renormalization group equations At Two-loop for Everyone”. In PyR@TE, once the user specifies the gauge group and the particle content of the model, the routines automatically generate the full two-loop renormalization group equations for all (dimensionless and dimensionful) parameters. The results can optionally be exported to LaTeX and Mathematica, or stored in a Python data structure for further processing by other programs. For ease of use, we have implemented an interactive mode for PyR@TE in form of an IPython Notebook. As a first application, we have generated with PyR@TE the renormalization group equations for several non-supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model and found some discrepancies with the existing literature. Catalogue identifier: AERV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 924959 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 495197 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python. Computer

  17. Equivariant fields in an S U (N ) gauge theory with new spontaneously generated fuzzy extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürkçüoǧlu, S.; Ünal, G.

    2016-05-01

    We find new spontaneously generated fuzzy extra dimensions emerging from a certain deformation of N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with cubic soft supersymmetry breaking and mass deformation terms. First, we determine a particular four-dimensional fuzzy vacuum that may be expressed in terms of a direct sum of product of two fuzzy spheres, and denote it in short as SF2 Int×SF2 Int . The direct sum structure of the vacuum is clearly revealed by a suitable splitting of the scalar fields in the model in a manner that generalizes our approach in [Phys. Rev. D 92, 025022 (2015)]. Fluctuations around this vacuum have the structure of gauge fields over SF2 Int×SF2 Int, and this enables us to conjecture the spontaneous broken model as an effective U (n ) (n gauge theory on the product manifold M4×SF2 Int×SF2 Int. We support this interpretation by examining the U (4 ) theory and determining all of the S U (2 )×S U (2 ) equivariant fields in the model, characterizing its low energy degrees of freedom. Monopole sectors with winding numbers (±1 ,0 ),(0 ,±1 ),(±1 ,±1 ) are accessed from SF2 Int×SF2 Int after suitable projections, and subsequently equivariant fields in these sectors are obtained. We indicate how Abelian Higgs type models with vortex solutions emerge after dimensionally reducing over the fuzzy monopole sectors as well. A family of fuzzy vacua is determined by giving a systematic treatment for the splitting of the scalar fields, and it is made manifest that suitable projections of these vacuum solutions yield all higher winding number fuzzy monopole sectors. We observe that the vacuum configuration SF2 Int×SF2 Int identifies with the bosonic part of the product of two fuzzy superspheres with O S P (2 ,2 )×O S P (2 ,2 ) supersymmetry and elaborate on this unexpected and intriguing feature.

  18. Phase Transition Couplings in U(1) and SU(N) Regularized Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laperashvili, L. V.; Ryzhikh, D. A.; Nielsen, H. B.

    Using a two-loop approximation for β functions, we have considered the corresponding renormalization group improved effective potential in the dual Abelian Higgs model (DAHM) of scalar monopoles and calculated the phase transition (critical) couplings in U(1) and SU(N) regularized gauge theories. In contrast to our previous result αcrit 0.17, obtained in the one-loop approximation with the DAHM effective potential (see Ref. 20), the critical value of the electric fine structure constant in the two-loop approximation, calculated in the present paper, is equal to αcrit 0.208 and coincides with the lattice result for compact QED10: α crit lat≈ 0.20+/- 0.015. Following the 't Hooft's idea of the ``Abelization'' of monopole vacuum in the Yang-Mills theories, we have obtained an estimation of the SU(N) triple point coupling constants, which is α {N, crit}-1= (N)/(2) √ {(N+1)/(N-1)} α { U(1),crit}-1. This relation was used for the description of the Planck scale values of the inverse running constants α i-1(μ ) (i= 1, 2, 3 correspond to U(1), SU(2) and SU(3) groups), according to the ideas of the multiple point model.16

  19. Topics in gauge theories and the unification of elementary particle interactions. Progress report, February 1, 1993--January 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Y.N.; Vaughn, M.T.

    1994-02-01

    We report on work done by the principal investigators (Y.N. Srivastava and M.T. Vaughn) and their collaborators on (1) Interference Between Past and Future Events in Neutral Kaon Decays in {Phi} {yields} K{bar K}; (2) Single Top Production at LEP II and at Electron -- Photon Colliders; (3) Renormahzation Group Studies of Unified Gauge Theories; (4) Analysis of Classical Field Theories; and (5) Quantum Effects of Strong Classical Electromagnetic Fields.

  20. Pupils' Documentation Enlightening Teachers' Practical Theory and Pedagogical Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Reetta; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a pedagogical action research initiative comprising two research cycles. The study explores what constitutes meaningful experiences in the classroom from the pupils' perspectives and how understanding pupils' perspectives can foster the development of teachers' practical theory and classroom actions. Photography and group…

  1. Interdisciplinarity in Vocational Guidance: An Action Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valach, Ladislav; Young, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    In addressing the issue of interdisciplinary research in vocational guidance, twelve propositions important for understanding the vocational guidance process as joint, goal-directed action are presented. They address the encounter between client and counsellor leading to relational ethics, the relevance of everyday action theory and methods for…

  2. Infant Attention to Intentional Action Predicts Preschool Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Henry M.; Lopez-Duran, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Hamilton, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    This research examines whether there are continuities between infant social attention and later theory of mind. Forty-five children were studied as infants and then again as 4-year-olds. Measures of infant social attention (decrement of attention during habituation to displays of intentional action) significantly predicted later theory of mind…

  3. Effective action of softly broken supersymmetric theories

    SciTech Connect

    Nibbelink, Stefan Groot; Nyawelo, Tino S.

    2007-02-15

    We study the renormalization of (softly) broken supersymmetric theories at the one loop level in detail. We perform this analysis in a superspace approach in which the supersymmetry breaking interactions are parametrized using spurion insertions. We comment on the uniqueness of this parametrization. We compute the one loop renormalization of such theories by calculating superspace vacuum graphs with multiple spurion insertions. To perform this computation efficiently we develop algebraic properties of spurion operators, that naturally arise because the spurions are often surrounded by superspace projection operators. Our results are general apart from the restrictions that higher super covariant derivative terms and some finite effects due to noncommutativity of superfield dependent mass matrices are ignored. One of the soft potentials induces renormalization of the Kaehler potential.

  4. Phases of S U (3 ) gauge theories with fundamental quarks via Dirac spectral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Horváth, Ivan

    2015-08-01

    We propose that, in S U (3 ) gauge theories with fundamental quarks, confinement can be inferred from spectral density of the Dirac operator. This stems from the proposition that its possible behaviors are exhausted by three distinct types (Fig. 1). The monotonic cases are standard and entail confinement with valence chiral symmetry breaking (A) or the lack of both (C,C'). The bimodal (anomalous) option (B) was frequently regarded as an artifact (lattice or other) in previous studies, but we show for the first time that it persists in the continuum limit, and conclude that it informs of a nonconfining phase with broken valence chiral symmetry. This generalization rests on the following. (α ) We show that bimodality in Nf=0 theory past deconfinement temperature Tc is stable with respect to removal of both infrared and ultraviolet cutoffs, indicating that anomalous phase is not an artifact. (β ) We demonstrate that transition to bimodality in Nf=0 is simultaneous with the loss of confinement: anomalous phase occurs for Tctheories revealed that bimodality also arises via purely light-quark effects. As a result, we expect to encounter the anomalous phase on generic paths to valence chiral restoration. We predict its existence also for Nf massless flavors (T =0 ) in the range Nfc

  5. Fluctuations in a cosmology with a spacelike singularity and their gauge theory dual description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Ferreira, Elisa G. M.; Morrison, Ian A.; Cai, Yi-Fu; Das, Sumit R.; Wang, Yi

    2016-10-01

    We consider a time-dependent deformation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time which contains a spacelike "singularity"—a spacelike region of high curvature. Making use of the AdS/CFT correspondence we can map the bulk dynamics onto the boundary. The boundary theory has a time dependent coupling constant which becomes small at times when the bulk space-time is highly curved. We investigate the propagation of small fluctuations of a test scalar field from early times before the bulk singularity to late times after the singularity. Under the assumption that the AdS/CFT correspondence extends to deformed AdS space-times, we can map the bulk evolution of the scalar field onto the evolution of the boundary gauge field. The time evolution of linearized fluctuations is well-defined in the boundary theory as long as the coupling remains finite, so that we can extend the boundary perturbations to late times after the singularity. Assuming that the spacetime in the future of the singularity has a weakly coupled region near the boundary, we reconstruct the bulk fluctuations after the singularity crossing making use of generic properties of boundary-to-bulk propagators. Finally, we extract the spectrum of the fluctuations at late times given some initial spectrum. We find that the spectral index is unchanged, but the amplitude increases due to the squeezing of the fluctuations during the course of the evolution. This investigation can teach us important lessons on how the spectrum of cosmological perturbations passes through a bounce which is singular from the bulk point of view but which is resolved using an ultraviolet complete theory of quantum gravity.

  6. Theory of cosmological perturbations formulated in terms of a complete set of basic gauge-invariant quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banach, Zbigniew; Piekarski, Sławomir

    1996-03-01

    An annoying paradox which has plagued the “naive” description of density perturbations in homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models has been the gauge-dependent character of this description. The corollary of this observation is that only gauge-invariant quantities have any inherent physical meaning. Thus the present paper develops, from a new geometric point of view, a totally gauge-invariant formulation of perturbation theory applicable to the case of a general perfect fluid with two essential thermodynamic variables. Precisely speaking, the main purpose here is the systematic construction of a complete set of basic gauge-invariant variables. This set consists of 17 linearly independent, not identically vanishing quantities. It turns out that these quantities can be used to divide the infinitesimal perturbations into equivalence classes: two perturbations P and P' are said to be equivalent if their difference is equal to the Lie derivative of the background solution of Einstein's propagation equations with respect to an arbitrary vector field on the space-time manifold. In fact, the gauge-invariant perturbations, whose mathematical definition is best understood by introducing the elements of a certain quotient space, are uniquely determined from the basic variables. An additional welcome feature is that any gauge-invariant quantity can be constructed directly from the basic variables through purely algebraic and differential operations. In a companion paper, these results are used to derive the full, gauge-invariant system of equations governing the evolution of basic variables. In this sense, then, the present analysis is complete.

  7. Derivative expansion and gauge independence of the false vacuum decay rate in various gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, D.

    2001-04-01

    In theories with radiative symmetry breaking, the calculation of the false vacuum decay rate requires the inclusion of higher-order terms in the derivative expansion of the effective action. I show here that, in the case of covariant gauges, the presence of infrared singularities forbids the consistent calculation by keeping the lowest-order terms. The situation is remedied, however, in the case of Rξ gauges. Using the Nielsen identities I show that the final result is gauge independent for generic values of the gauge parameter v that are not anomalously small.

  8. Low-energy effective theory of Fermi surface coupled with U(1) gauge field in 2+1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Sik

    2009-10-01

    We study the low-energy effective theory for a non-Fermi-liquid state in 2+1 dimensions, where a transverse U(1) gauge field is coupled with a patch of Fermi surface with N flavors of fermion in the large N limit. In the low-energy limit, quantum corrections are classified according to the genus of the two-dimensional surface on which Feynman diagrams can be drawn without a crossing in a double line representation and all planar diagrams are important in the leading order. The emerging theory has the similar structure to the four-dimensional SU(N) gauge theory in the large N limit. Because of strong quantum fluctuations caused by the abundant low-energy excitations near the Fermi surface, low-energy fermions remain strongly coupled even in the large N limit. As a result, there are infinitely many quantum corrections that contribute to the leading frequency dependence of the Green’s function of fermion on the Fermi surface. On the contrary, the boson self-energy is not modified beyond the one-loop level and the theory is stable in the large N limit. The nonperturbative nature of the theory also shows up in correlation functions of gauge-invariant operators.

  9. Action, Consciousness and Theory of Mind: Children's Ability to Coordinate Story Characters' Actions and Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Janette; Astington, Janet Wilde

    2004-01-01

    This study reports on an analysis of the relation between kindergarten children's developing theory of mind and their understanding of characters' actions and consciousness in story narrative, based on Bruner's (1986) notion of the dual landscapes of action and consciousness. Wordless picture books were used to model these two aspects of…

  10. Interplay of the sign problem and the infinite volume limit: Gauge theories with a theta term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yiming; Cohen, Thomas; Goldbloom-Helzner, Ari; McPeak, Brian

    2016-06-01

    QCD and related gauge theories have a sign problem when a θ term is included; this complicates the extraction of physical information from Euclidean-space calculations as one would do in lattice studies. The sign problem arises in this system because the partition function for configurations with fixed topological charge Q , ZQ, are summed weighted by exp (i Q θ ) to obtain the partition function for fixed θ , Z (θ ). The sign problem gets exponentially worse numerically as the space-time volume is increased. Here it is shown that, apart from the practical numerical issues associated with large volumes, there are some interesting issues of principle. A key quantity is the energy density as a function of θ , ɛ (θ )=-log (Z (θ ) )/V . This is expected to be well defined in the large four-volume limit. Similarly, one expects the energy density for a fixed topological density ɛ ˜(Q /V )=-log (ZQ )/V to be well defined in the limit of large four volumes. Intuitively, one might expect that if one had the infinite volume expression for ɛ ˜(Q /V ) to arbitrary accuracy, then one could reconstruct ɛ (θ ) by directly summing over the topological sectors of the partition function. We show here that there are circumstances where this is not the case. In particular, this occurs in regions where the curvature of ɛ (θ ) is negative.

  11. {N} =2 supersymmetric Janus solutions and flows: from gauged supergravity to M theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilch, Krzysztof; Tyukov, Alexander; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate a family of SU(3)×U(1)×U(1)-invariant holographic flows and Janus solutions obtained from gauged {N} = 8 supergravity in four dimensions. We give complete details of how to use the uplift formulae to obtain the corresponding solutions in M theory. While the flow solutions appear to be singular from the four-dimensional perspective, we find that the eleven-dimensional solutions are much better behaved and give rise to interesting new classes of compactification geometries that are smooth, up to orbifolds, in the infra-red limit. Our solutions involve new phases in which M2 branes polarize partially or even completely into M5 branes. We derive the eleven-dimensional supersymmetries and show that the eleven-dimensional equations of motion and BPS equations are indeed satisfied as a consequence of their four-dimensional counterparts. Apart from elucidating a whole new class of eleven-dimensional Janus and flow solutions, our work provides extensive and highly non-trivial tests of the recently-derived uplift formulae.

  12. Poincare gauge theory of gravity: Friedman cosmology with even and odd parity modes: Analytic part

    SciTech Connect

    Baekler, Peter; Hehl, Friedrich W.; Nester, James M.

    2011-01-15

    We propose a cosmological model in the framework of the Poincare gauge theory of gravity (PG). The gravitational Lagrangian is quadratic in both curvature and torsion. In our specific model, the Lagrangian contains (i) the curvature scalar R and the curvature pseudoscalar X linearly and quadratically (including an RX term) and (ii) pieces quadratic in the torsion vector V and the torsion axial vector A (including a VA term). We show generally that in quadratic PG models we have nearly the same number of parity conserving terms ('world') and of parity violating terms ('shadow world'). This offers new perspectives in cosmology for the coupling of gravity to matter and antimatter. Our specific model generalizes the fairly realistic ''torsion cosmologies'' of Shie-Nester-Yo (2008) and Chen et al. (2009). With a Friedman type ansatz for an orthonormal coframe and a Lorentz connection, we derive the two field equations of PG in an explicit form and discuss their general structure in detail. In particular, the second field equation can be reduced to first order ordinary differential equations for the curvature pieces R(t) and X(t). Including these along with certain relations obtained from the first field equation and curvature definitions, we present a first order system of equations suitable for numerical evaluation. This is deferred to the second, numerical part of this paper.

  13. Latent heat at the first order phase transition point of SU(3) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirogane, Mizuki; Ejiri, Shinji; Iwami, Ryo; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Kitazawa, Masakiyo; WHOT-QCD Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    We calculate the energy gap (latent heat) and pressure gap between the hot and cold phases of the SU(3) gauge theory at the first order deconfining phase transition point. We perform simulations around the phase transition point with the lattice size in the temporal direction Nt=6 , 8 and 12 and extrapolate the results to the continuum limit. We also investigate the spatial volume dependence. The energy density and pressure are evaluated by the derivative method with nonperturabative anisotropy coefficients. We adopt a multipoint reweighting method to determine the anisotropy coefficients. We confirm that the anisotropy coefficients approach the perturbative values as Nt increases. We find that the pressure gap vanishes at all values of Nt when the nonperturbative anisotropy coefficients are used. The spatial volume dependence in the latent heat is found to be small on large lattices. Performing extrapolation to the continuum limit, we obtain Δ ɛ /T4=0.75 ±0.17 and Δ (ɛ -3 p )/T4=0.623 ±0.056 .

  14. Dismantling institutional racism: theory and action.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Mason, Mondi; Yonas, Michael; Eng, Eugenia; Jeffries, Vanessa; Plihcik, Suzanne; Parks, Barton

    2007-06-01

    Despite a strong commitment to promoting social change and liberation, there are few community psychology models for creating systems change to address oppression. Given how embedded racism is in institutions such as healthcare, a significant shift in the system's policies, practices, and procedures is required to address institutional racism and create organizational and institutional change. This paper describes a systemic intervention to address racial inequities in healthcare quality called dismantling racism. The dismantling racism approach assumes healthcare disparities are the result of the intersection of a complex system (healthcare) and a complex problem (racism). Thus, dismantling racism is a systemic and systematic intervention designed to illuminate where and how to intervene in a given healthcare system to address proximal and distal factors associated with healthcare disparities. This paper describes the theory behind dismantling racism, the elements of the intervention strategy, and the strengths and limitations of this systems change approach.

  15. High-energy amplitudes in gauge theories in the next-to-leading-order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirilli, Giovanni Antonio

    Scattering processes play a central role in physics, and high-energies experiments give us an insight into the fine structure of matter. The high-energy behavior of amplitudes in gauge theories can be reformulated in terms of the evolution of Wilson-line operators. In the leading order this evolution is governed by the non-linear Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation. In order to see if this equation is relevant for existing or future deep inelastic scattering (DIS) accelerators (like Electron Ion Collider (EIC) or Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC)) one needs to know how large are the next-to-leading order (NLO) corrections. In addition, the NLO corrections define the scale of the running-coupling constant in the BK equation and therefore determine the magnitude of the leading-order cross sections. The first main result of this thesis is the calculation of these NLO corrections. In Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the next-to-leading order BK equation has both conformal and non-conformal parts. To separate the conformally invariant effects from the running-coupling effects, we first restore the conformal NLO BFKL kernel out of the eigenvalues known from the forward NLO BFKL result using the requirement of Mobius invariance of N=4 SYM amplitudes in the Regge limit, and then we calculate the NLO evolution of the color dipoles in the conformal N=4 SYM theory. To this end we define the "composite dipole operator" with the rapidity cutoff preserving conformal invariance, and the resulting Mobius invariant kernel for this operator agrees with the forward NLO BFKL calculation of Ref. [47]. In QCD, the NLO kernel for the composite operators resolves in a sum of the conformal part and the running-coupling part.

  16. Topics in gauge theories and the unification of elementary particle interactions. Progress report, February 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Y.N.; Vaughn, M.T.

    1993-02-01

    Work done on the following topics is summarized: (1) Coulomb potential in QED on the lattice; (2) Weyl cosmic strings and their consequences; (3) Interference between past and future events in {phi} {yields} K{bar K}; (4) Quantum effects of strong classical electromagnetic fields; (5) Application of computer algebra to calculations in supersymmetry and supergravity; (6) numerical studies of classical scalar {phi}{sup 4} field theory and related nonlinear {sigma}-models; (7) Analysis of a cubic model field theory; and, (8) Renormalization group analysis of unified gauge theories.

  17. Beyond the standard gauging: gauge symmetries of Dirac sigma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios; Deser, Andreas; Jonke, Larisa; Strobl, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study the general conditions that have to be met for a gauged extension of a two-dimensional bosonic σ-model to exist. In an inversion of the usual approach of identifying a global symmetry and then promoting it to a local one, we focus directly on the gauge symmetries of the theory. This allows for action functionals which are gauge invariant for rather general background fields in the sense that their invariance conditions are milder than the usual case. In particular, the vector fields that control the gauging need not be Killing. The relaxation of isometry for the background fields is controlled by two connections on a Lie algebroid L in which the gauge fields take values, in a generalization of the common Lie-algebraic picture. Here we show that these connections can always be determined when L is a Dirac structure in the H-twisted Courant algebroid. This also leads us to a derivation of the general form for the gauge symmetries of a wide class of two-dimensional topological field theories called Dirac σ-models, which interpolate between the G/G Wess-Zumino-Witten model and the (Wess-Zumino-term twisted) Poisson sigma model.

  18. Gauge Fixing in the Maxwell Like Gravitational Theory in Minkowski Spacetime and in the Equivalent Lorentzian Spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Roldao da; Rodrigues, Waldyr A. Jr.

    2010-12-22

    In a previous paper we investigate a Lagrangian field theory for the gravitational field, which is there represented by a section {l_brace}g{sup {alpha}}{r_brace} of the coframe bundle over Minkowski spacetime (M{approx_equal}R{sup 4},g ring, D ring,{tau}{sub g{sup ring}},{up_arrow}). Such theory, under appropriate conditions, has been proved to be equivalent to a Lorentzian spacetime structure (M{approx_equal}R{sup 4},g,D,{tau}{sub g},{up_arrow}) where the metric tensor g satisfies the Einstein field equation. Here, we first recall that according to quantum field theory ideas gravitation is described by a Lagrangian theory of a possible massive graviton field (generated by matter fields and coupling also to itself) living in Minkowski spacetime. The massive graviton field is moreover supposed to be represented by a symmetric tensor field h carrying the representations of spin two and zero of the Lorentz group. Such a field, then (as it is well known) must necessarily satisfy the gauge condition given by Eq.(10) below. Next, we introduce an ansatz relating h with the 1-form fields {l_brace}g{sup {alpha}}{r_brace}. Then, using the Clifford bundle formalism we derive from our Lagrangian theory the exact wave equation for the graviton and investigate the role of the gauge condition given by Eq.(10) by asking the question: does Eq.(10) fix any gauge condition for the field g of the effective Lorentzian spacetime structure (M{approx_equal}R{sup 4},g,D,{tau}{sub g},{up_arrow}) that represents the field h in our theory? We show that no gauge condition is fixed a priory, as it is the case in General Relativity. Moreover we prove that if we use Logunov gauge condition, i.e., D ring{sub {gamma}}({radical}-detgg{sup {gamma}{kappa}} = 0) then only a restricted class of coordinate systems (including harmonic ones) are allowed by the theory.

  19. The exact decomposition of gauge variables in lattice Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Akihiro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shinohara, Toru

    2010-07-01

    In this Letter, we consider lattice versions of the decomposition of the Yang-Mills field a la Cho-Faddeev-Niemi, which was extended by Kondo, Shinohara and Murakami in the continuum formulation. For the SU (N) gauge group, we propose a set of defining equations for specifying the decomposition of the gauge link variable and solve them exactly without using the ansatz adopted in the previous studies for SU (2) and SU (3). As a result, we obtain the general form of the decomposition for SU (N) gauge link variables and confirm the previous results obtained for SU (2) and SU (3).

  20. On the Infrared Behaviour of Landau Gauge Yang-Mills Theory with Differently Charged Scalar Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Alkofer, Reinhard; Maas, Axel; Macher, Veronika; Fister, Leonard

    2011-05-23

    Recently it has been argued that infrared singularities of the quark-gluon vertex of Landau gauge QCD can confine static quarks via a linear potential. It is demonstrated that the same mechanism also may confine fundamental scalar fields. This opens the possibility that within functional approaches static confinement is an universal property of the gauge sector even though it is formally represented in the functional equations of the matter sector. The colour structure of Dyson-Schwinger equations for fundamental and adjoint scalar fields is determined for the gauge groups SU(N) and G(2) exhibiting interesting cancellations purely due to colour algebra.

  1. THEORY OF REGENERATION BASED ON MASS ACTION.

    PubMed

    Loeb, J

    1923-07-20

    1. The writer's older experiment, proving that equal masses of isolated sister leaves of Bryophyllum regenerate under equal conditions and in equal time equal masses (in dry weight) of shoots and roots, is confirmed. It is shown that in the dark this regeneration is reduced to a small fraction of that observed in light. 2. The writer's former observation is confirmed, that when a piece of stem inhibits or diminishes the regeneration in a leaf, the dry weight of the stem increases by as much or more than the weight by which the regeneration in the leaf is diminished. It is shown that this is also true when the axillary bud in the stem is removed or when the regeneration occurs in the dark. 3. These facts show that the regeneration of an isolated leaf of Bryophyllum is determined by the mass of material available or formed in the leaf during the experiment and that such a growth does not occur in a leaf connected with a normal plant for the reason that in the latter case the material available or formed in the leaf flows into the stem where it is consumed for normal growth. 4. It is shown that the sap sent out by a leaf in the descending current of a stem is capable of increasing also the rate of growth of shoots in the basal parts of the leaf when the sap has an opportunity to reach the anlagen for such shoots. 5. The fact that a defoliated piece of stem forms normally no shoots in its basal part therefore demands an explanation of the polar character of regeneration which lays no or less emphasis on the chemical difference between ascending and descending sap than does Sachs' theory of specific root- or shoot-forming substances (though such substances may in reality exist), but which uses as a basis the general mass relation as expressed in the first three statements of this summary. 6. It is suggested that the polar character of the regeneration in a stem of Bryophyllum is primarily due to the fact that the descending sap reaches normally only the root

  2. Manifestly gauge invariant theory of the nonlinear cosmological perturbations in the leading order of the gradient expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi

    2011-07-01

    In the full nonlinear cosmological perturbation theory in the leading order of the gradient expansion, all the types of the gauge invariant perturbation variables are defined. The metric junction conditions across the spacelike transition hypersurface are formulated in a manifestly gauge invariant manner. It is manifestly shown that all the physical laws such as the evolution equations, the constraint equations, and the junction conditions can be written using the gauge invariant variables which we defined only. Based on the existence of the universal adiabatic growing mode in the nonlinear perturbation theory and the ρ philosophy where the physical evolution are described using the energy density ρ as the evolution parameter, we give the definitions of the adiabatic perturbation variable and the entropic perturbation variables in the full nonlinear perturbation theory. In order to give the analytic order estimate of the nonlinear parameter fNL, we present the exponent evaluation method. As the models where fNL changes continuously and becomes large, using the ρ philosophy, we investigate the non-Gaussianity induced by the entropic perturbation of the component which does not govern the cosmic energy density, and we show that in order to obtain the significant non-Gaussianity it is necessary that the scalar field which supports the entropic perturbation is extremely small compared with the scalar field which supports the adiabatic perturbation.

  3. Principal fiber bundle description of number scaling for scalars and vectors: application to gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benioff, Paul

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to put the description of number scaling and its effects on physics and geometry on a firmer foundation, and to make it more understandable. A main point is that two different concepts, number and number value are combined in the usual representations of number structures. This is valid as long as just one structure of each number type is being considered. It is not valid when different structures of each number type are being considered. Elements of base sets of number structures, considered by themselves, have no meaning. They acquire meaning or value as elements of a number structure. Fiber bundles over a space or space time manifold, M, are described. The fiber consists of a collection of many real or complex number structures and vector space structures. The structures are parameterized by a real or complex scaling factor, s. A vector space at a fiber level, s, has, as scalars, real or complex number structures at the same level. Connections are described that relate scalar and vector space structures at both neighbor M locations and at neighbor scaling levels. Scalar and vector structure valued fields are described and covariant derivatives of these fields are obtained. Two complex vector fields, each with one real and one imaginary field, appear, with one complex field associated with positions in M and the other with position dependent scaling factors. A derivation of the covariant derivative for scalar and vector valued fields gives the same vector fields. The derivation shows that the complex vector field associated with scaling fiber levels is the gradient of a complex scalar field. Use of these results in gauge theory shows that the imaginary part of the vector field associated with M positions acts like the electromagnetic field. The physical relevance of the other three fields, if any, is not known.

  4. Reference frames, gauge transformations and gravitomagnetism in the post-Newtonian theory of the lunar motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yi; Kopeikin, Sergei

    2010-01-01

    We construct a set of reference frames for description of the orbital and rotational motion of the Moon. We use a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two parameters of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism and utilize the concepts of the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat. The primary reference frame has the origin at the solar-system barycenter (SSB) and spatial axes are going to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to distant quasars. The secondary reference frame has the origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is local with its spatial axes spreading out to the orbits of Venus and Mars and not rotating dynamically in the sense that both the Coriolis and centripetal forces acting on a free-falling test particle, moving with respect to the EMB frame, are excluded. Two other local frames, the geocentric (GRF) and the selenocentric (SRF) frames, have the origin at the center of mass of the Earth and Moon respectively. They are both introduced in order to connect the coordinate description of the lunar motion, observer on the Earth, and a retro-reflector on the Moon to the observable quantities which are the proper time and the laser-ranging distance. We solve the gravity field equations and find the metric tensor and the scalar field in all frames. We also derive the post-Newtonian coordinate transformations between the frames and analyze the residual gauge freedom of the solutions of the field equations. We discuss the gravitomagnetic effects in the barycentric equations of the motion of the Moon and argue that they are beyond the current accuracy of lunar laser ranging (LLR) observations.

  5. D-branes in asymmetrically gauged WZW models and axial-vector duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Mark A.; Zhou, Jian-Ge

    2003-01-01

    We construct D-branes in a left-right asymmetrically gauged WZW model, with the gauge subgroup embedded differently on the left and the right of the group element. The symmetry-preserving boundary conditions for the group-valued field g are described, and the corresponding action is found. When the subgroup H= U(1), we can implement T-duality on the axially gauged WZW action; an orbifold of the vectorially gauged theory is produced. For the parafermion SU(2)/ U(1) coset model, a σ-model is obtained with vanishing gauge field on D-branes. We show that a boundary condition surviving from the SU(2) parent theory characterizes D-branes in the parafermion theory, determining the shape of A-branes. The gauge field on B-branes is obtained from the boundary condition for A-branes, by the orbifold construction and T-duality. These gauge fields stabilize the B-branes.

  6. Spontaneous Breaking of Scale Invariance in U(N) Chern-Simons Gauge Theories in Three Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, William A.

    2015-09-24

    I explore the existence of a massive phase in a conformally invariant U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theories in D = 3 with matter fields in the fundamental representation. These models have attracted recent attention as being dual, in the conformal phase, to theories of higher spin gravity on AdS 4. Using the 0t Hooft large N expansion, exact solutions are obtained for scalar current correlators in the massive phase where the conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. A massless dilaton appears as a composite state, and its properties are discussed. Solutions exist for matters field that are either bosons or fermions.

  7. Spontaneous Breaking of Scale Invariance in U(N) Chern-Simons Gauge Theories in Three Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, William

    2014-10-24

    I explore the existence of a massive phase in a conformally invariant U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theories in D = 3 with matter fields in the fundamental representation. These models have attracted recent attention as being dual, in the conformal phase, to theories of higher spin gravity on AdS 4. Using the 1t Hooft large N expansion, exact solutions are obtained for scalar current correlators in the massive phase where the conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. A massless dilaton appears as a composite state, and its properties are discussed. Solutions exist for matters field that are either bosons or fermions.

  8. N = 2 Maxwell-Einstein Supergravity theories: their compact and non-compact gaugings and Jordan algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Guenaydin, M.; Sierra, G.; Townsend, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    In this talk we give a review of our work on the construction and classification of N = 2 Maxwell-Einstein Supergravity theories (MESGT), study of the underlying algebraical and geometrical structure of these theories, and their compact and non-compact gaugings. We begin by summarizing our construction of the N = 2 MESGT's in five dimensions and give a geometrical interpretation to various scalar dependent quantities in the Lagrangian, based on the constraiants implied by supersymmetry. This is followed by a complete classification of the N = 2 MESGT's whose target manifolds parametrized by the scalar fields are symmetric spaces. 39 refs.

  9. Using Action Research Methodology to Unite Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The author describes an action research project given to masters-level preservice teachers in her educational psychology classes to help them connect the theories they are learning with educational problems they have observed or experienced. Students' responses on a six-item survey indicated that they valued the better understanding of how…

  10. A Characterization of Children's Intuitive Theories of Drug Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Elizabeth P.; Sigelman, Carol K.; Bridges, Lisa J.; Rinehart, Cheryl S.; Sorongon, Alberto G.

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to devise a methodology for characterizing children's intuitive theories of drug action, 217 children in Grades 1 to 6 were interviewed about how two substances, alcohol and cocaine, cause behavioral changes in their users. Measures tapped both structure (Piagetian complexity of causal reasoning, coherence, and construction of a…

  11. Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…

  12. Action Regulation Theory and Career Self-Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raabe, Babette; Frese, Michael; Beehr, Terry A.

    2007-01-01

    Much of the responsibility for managing careers is shifting from employers to adaptive and proactive employees. A career management intervention based on action regulation theory trained 205 white collar employees to engage actively in their own career building by increasing their self-knowledge, career goal commitment, and career plan quality. As…

  13. Action and entanglement in gravity and field theory.

    PubMed

    Neiman, Yasha

    2013-12-27

    In nongravitational quantum field theory, the entanglement entropy across a surface depends on the short-distance regularization. Quantum gravity should not require such regularization, and it has been conjectured that the entanglement entropy there is always given by the black hole entropy formula evaluated on the entangling surface. We show that these statements have precise classical counterparts at the level of the action. Specifically, we point out that the action can have a nonadditive imaginary part. In gravity, the latter is fixed by the black hole entropy formula, while in nongravitating theories it is arbitrary. From these classical facts, the entanglement entropy conjecture follows by heuristically applying the relation between actions and wave functions. PMID:24483789

  14. Action and entanglement in gravity and field theory.

    PubMed

    Neiman, Yasha

    2013-12-27

    In nongravitational quantum field theory, the entanglement entropy across a surface depends on the short-distance regularization. Quantum gravity should not require such regularization, and it has been conjectured that the entanglement entropy there is always given by the black hole entropy formula evaluated on the entangling surface. We show that these statements have precise classical counterparts at the level of the action. Specifically, we point out that the action can have a nonadditive imaginary part. In gravity, the latter is fixed by the black hole entropy formula, while in nongravitating theories it is arbitrary. From these classical facts, the entanglement entropy conjecture follows by heuristically applying the relation between actions and wave functions.

  15. Renormalization of composite operators in Yang-Mills theories using a general covariant gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.C.; Scalise, R.J. )

    1994-09-15

    Essential to QCD applications of the operator product expansion, etc., is a knowledge of those operators that mix with gauge-invariant operators. A standard theorem asserts that the renormalization matrix is triangular: Gauge-invariant operators have alien'' gauge-variant operators among their counterterms, but, with a suitably chosen basis, the necessary alien operators have only themselves as counterterms. Moreover, the alien operators are supposed to vanish in physical matrix elements. A recent calculation by Hamberg and van Neerven apparently contradicts these results. By explicit calculations with the energy-momentum tensor, we show that the problems arise because of subtle infrared singularities that appear when gluonic matrix elements are taken on shell at zero momentum transfer.

  16. Electric-magnetic duality of Abelian gauge theory on the four-torus, from the fivebrane on T 2 × T 4, via their partition functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Louise; Sun, Yang

    2015-06-01

    We compute the partition function of four-dimensional abelian gauge theory on a general four-torus T 4 with flat metric using Dirac quantization. In addition to an symmetry, it possesses symmetry that is electromagnetic S-duality. We show explicitly how this S-duality of the 4 d abelian gauge theory has its origin in symmetries of the 6 d (2 , 0) tensor theory, by computing the partition function of a single fivebrane compactified on T 2 times T 4, which has symmetry. If we identify the couplings of the abelian gauge theory with the complex modulus of the T 2 torus , then in the small T 2 limit, the partition function of the fivebrane tensor field can be factorized, and contains the partition function of the 4 d gauge theory. In this way the symmetry of the 6d tensor partition function is identified with the S-duality symmetry of the 4d gauge partition function. Each partition function is the product of zero mode and oscillator contributions, where the acts suitably. For the 4d gauge theory, which has a Lagrangian, this product redistributes when using path integral quantization.

  17. Electroweak theory based on S U (4 )L⊗U (1 )X gauge group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, H. N.; Hue, L. T.; Loi, D. V.

    2016-07-01

    This paper includes two main parts. In the first part, we present generalized gauge models based on the S U (3 )C⊗S U (4 )L⊗U (1 )X (3-4-1) gauge group with arbitrary electric charges of exotic leptons. The mixing matrix of neutral gauge bosons is analyzed, and the eigenmasses and eigenstates are obtained. The anomaly-free as well as matching conditions are discussed precisely. In the second part, we present a new development of the original 3-4-1 model [R. Foot, H. N. Long, and T. A. Tran, Phys. Rev. D 50, R34 (1994), F. Pisano and V. Pleitez, Phys. Rev. D 51, 3865 (1995).]. Different from previous works, in this paper the neutrinos, with the help of the scalar decuplet H , get the Dirac masses at the tree level. The vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the Higgs boson field in the decuplet H acquiring the VEV responsible for neutrino Dirac mass leads to mixing in separated pairs of singly charged gauge bosons, namely the Standard Model (SM) W boson and K , the new gauge boson acting in the right-handed lepton sector, as well as the singly charged bileptons X and Y . Due to the mixing, there occurs a right-handed current carried by the W boson. From the expression of the electromagnetic coupling constant, ones get the limit of the sine-squared of the Weinberg angle, sin2θW<0.25 , and a constraint on electric charges of extra leptons. In the limit of lepton number conservation, the Higgs sector contains all massless Goldstone bosons for massive gauge bosons and the SM-like Higgs boson. Some phenomenology is discussed.

  18. Spin connection as Lorentz gauge field in Fairchild’s action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfrani, Francesco; Montani, Giovanni; Scopelliti, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    We propose a modified gravitational action containing besides the Einstein-Cartan term some quadratic contributions resembling the Yang-Mills Lagrangian for the Lorentz spin connections. We outline how a propagating torsion arises and we solve explicitly the linearized equations of motion on a Minkowski background. We identify among torsion components six degrees of freedom: one is carried by a pseudo-scalar particle, five by a tachyon field. By adding spinor fields and neglecting backreaction on the geometry, we point out how only the pseudo-scalar particle couples directly with fermions, but the resulting coupling constant is suppressed by the ratio between fermion and Planck masses. Including backreaction, we demonstrate how the tachyon field provides causality violation in the matter sector, via an interaction mediated by gravitational waves.

  19. Managing in the interprofessional environment: a theory of action perspective.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Tim

    2004-08-01

    Managers of multidisciplinary teams face difficult dilemmas in managing competing interests, diverse perspectives and interpersonal conflicts. This paper illustrates the potential of the theory of action methodology of Argyris and Schön (1974, 1996) to illuminate these problems and contribute to their resolution. An empirical example of a depth-investigation with one multidisciplinary community health care team leader in Australia demonstrates that the theory of action offers a more accurate account of the causal dimensions of her dilemmas and provides more scope for effective intervention than her lay explanation will allow. It also provides a more satisfactory analysis of her difficulties with two common problems identified in the literature: defining the appropriate level of autonomy for team members and developing constructive dialogue across perceived discipline-based differences of opinion. Consequently the theory of action appears to offer enormous promise to managers of multidisciplinary teams wanting to understand and resolve their problems and develop a rigorous reflective practice. Further research on the viability of the theory to facilitate a self-correcting system that can promote learning even under conditions of stress and conflict is suggested and implications for learning and teaching for the multidisciplinary environment are briefly discussed. PMID:15369967

  20. Divine action in the framework of scientific knowledge: From quantum theory to divine action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lameter, Christoph

    During the Enlightenment, many theologians gave up the claim that God could act in the universe because the world was envisioned to be completely describable and governed by scientific laws. Surprisingly the development of quantum theory has resulted in the discovery of limits to causality, the universe is no longer conceived to be a closed system and therefore an account of divine action compatible with scientific theories might be possible now. First, the concept of divine intervention as envisioned in the nineteenth century is investigated and then a survey of the development of quantum theory is provided. The disputed character of the interpretation of quantum theory and of the measurement problem noted. It is suggested that the controversy continues because the straightforward acceptance of quantum theory---as already suggested by von Neumann in 1932---would imply a connection between mind and matter and question the notion of an objective, observer independent universe. It is shown using the literature on quantum theory that other solutions to the measurement problem are questionable on scientific grounds alone. Henry Stapp's recent rearticulation of von Neumann's arguments integrating them with Heisenberg's thinking is then selected as a potential basis for a theory of divine action. Existing theories of divine action are investigated starting with William James's idea of an indeterministic universe and ending with the contemporary approaches by Robert Russell and Nancey Murphy. Contemporary proposals are based on the notion of quantum events. A search is made for a scientific basis for quantum events but it is found that none of the interpretations of quantum theory would be compatible with the proposed idea of quantum events. Finally, a new theory of divine action is proposed understanding divine action as a holistic act, analogous to personal agency, through quantum determination. The universe is creating potentialities that are then collapsed by

  1. PREFACE: Lectures from the CERN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories, CERN, 9-13 February 2009 Lectures from the CERN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories, CERN, 9-13 February 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uranga, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    This special section is devoted to the proceedings of the conference `Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', which took place at CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland 9-13 February 2009. This event is part of a yearly series of scientific schools, which represents a well established tradition. Previous events have been held at SISSA, in Trieste, Italy, in February 2005 and at CERN in January 2006, January 2007 and January 2008, and were funded by the European Mobility Research and Training Network `Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe'. The next event will take place again at CERN, in January 2010. The school was primarily meant for young doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers working in the area of string theory. It consisted of several general lectures of four hours each, whose notes are published in this special section, and six working group discussion sessions, focused on specific topics of the network research program. It was well attended by over 200 participants. The topics of the lectures were chosen to provide an introduction to some of the areas of recent progress, and to the open problems, in string theory. One of the most active areas in string theory in recent years has been the AdS/CFT or gauge/gravity correspondence, which proposes the complete equivalence of string theory on (asymptotically) anti de Sitter spacetimes with certain quantum (gauge) field theories. The duality has recently been applied to understanding the hydrodynamical properties of a hot plasma in gauge theories (like the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy ion collisions at the RHIC experiment at Brookhaven, and soon at the LHC at CERN) in terms of a dual gravitational AdS theory in the presence of a black hole. These developments were reviewed in the lecture notes by M Rangamani. In addition, the AdS/CFT duality has been proposed as a tool to study interesting physical properties in other

  2. Final Report for "Infrared Fixed Points in Multiflavor Lattice Gauge Theory"

    SciTech Connect

    Meurice, Yannick; Sinclair, Donald K.

    2013-09-27

    The goal of the grant was to apply methods that we have developed with spin and pure gauge models to models with dynamical fermions which are considered as candidates for an alternative to the Higgs mechanism. The work on SU(3) with fundamental quarks and with sextet quarks is described.

  3. Note on Stochastic Quantization of Field Theories with Bottomless Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, M.; Morita, K.

    1993-07-01

    It is shown that the kerneled Langevin equation, which has recently been proposed by Tanaka et al. to quantize field theories with bottomless actions, reproduces perturbation theory results independent of the initial conditions. The effective potential is approximately determined from the kerneled Langevin equation to be bounded from below. The evolution equation for the two-point correlation function also defines the effective potential for the propagator, which is given for the zero-dimensional ``wrong-sign'' -λφ4 model under the assumption that all higher-moment cumulants than the second vanish.

  4. Holographic renormalization group flows in N =3 Chern-Simons-Matter theory from N =3 4D gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karndumri, Parinya

    2016-08-01

    We study various supersymmetric renormalization group (RG) flows of N =3 Chern-Simons-Matter theory in three dimensions by using four-dimensional N =3 gauged supergravity coupled to eight vector multiplets with S O (3 )×S U (3 ) gauge group. The AdS4 critical point preserving the full S O (3 )×S U (3 ) provides a gravity dual of N =3 superconformal field theory with flavor symmetry S U (3 ). We study the scalar potential and identify a new supersymmetric AdS4 critical point preserving the full N =3 supersymmetry and unbroken S O (3 )×U (1 ) symmetry. An analytic RG flow solution interpolating between S O (3 )×S U (3 ) and S O (3 )×U (1 ) critical points is explicitly given. We then investigate possible RG flows from these AdS4 critical points to nonconformal field theories in the IR. All of the singularities appearing in the IR turn out to be physically acceptable. Furthermore, we look for supersymmetric solutions of the form AdS2×Σ2 with Σ2 being a two-sphere or a two-dimensional hyperbolic space and find a number of AdS2 geometries preserving four supercharges with S O (2 )×S O (2 )×S O (2 ) and S O (2 )×S O (2 ) symmetries.

  5. Torsion cosmology of Poincaré gauge theory and the constraints of its parameters via SNeIa data

    SciTech Connect

    Ao, Xi-Chen; Li, Xin-Zhou E-mail: kychz@shnu.edu.cn

    2012-02-01

    Poincarè gauge theory (PGT) is an alternative gravity theory, which brings the gravity into the gauge-theoretic framework, where the Lagrangian includes both quadratic torsion and curvature terms. Recently, the cosmological models with torsion based on this theory, which explained the cosmic acceleration in a new way, have received much attention. Among these PGT cosmological models, the one with only even parity dynamical modes-SNY model, for its realistic meaning, is very attractive. In this paper, we first analyze the past-time cosmic evolution of SNY model analytically. And based on these results we fit this model to the most comprehensive SNeIa data (Union 2) and thus find the best-fit values of model parameters and initial conditions, whose related χ{sup 2} value is consistent with the one from ΛCMD at the 1σ level. Also by the χ{sup 2} estimate, we provide certain constraints on these parameters. Using these best-fit values for the Union 2 SNeIa dataset, we are able to predict the evolution of our real universe in late time. From this prediction, we know that the fate of our universe is that it would expand forever, slowly asymptotically to a halt, which is in accordance with the earlier works.

  6. Using the theory of reasoned action to predict organizational misbehavior.

    PubMed

    Vardi, Yoav; Weitz, Ely

    2002-12-01

    A review of literature on organizational behavior and management on predicting work behavior indicated that most reported studies emphasize positive work outcomes, e.g., attachment, performance, and satisfaction, while job related misbehaviors have received relatively less systematic research attention. Yet, forms of employee misconduct in organizations are pervasive and quite costly for both individuals and organizations. We selected two conceptual frameworks for the present investigation: Vardi and Wiener's model of organizational misbehavior and Fishbein and Ajzen's Theory of Reasoned Action. The latter views individual behavior as intentional, a function of rationally based attitudes toward the behavior, and internalized normative pressures concerning such behavior. The former model posits that different (normative and instrumental) internal forces lead to the intention to engage in job-related misbehavior. In this paper we report a scenario based quasi-experimental study especially designed to test the utility of the Theory of Reasoned Action in predicting employee intentions to engage in self-benefitting (Type S), organization-benefitting (Type O, or damaging (Type D) organizational misbehavior. Results support the Theory of Reasoned Action in predicting negative workplace behaviors. Both attitude and subjective norm are useful in explaining organizational misbehavior. We discuss some theoretical and methodological implications for the study of misbehavior intentions in organizations.

  7. The mass-action-law theory of micellization revisited.

    PubMed

    Rusanov, Anatoly I

    2014-12-01

    Among numerous definitions of the critical micelle concentration (CMC), there is one related to the constant K of the mass action law as CMC = K(1-n) (n is the aggregation number). In this paper, the generalization of this definition for multicomponent micelles and the development of the mass-action-law theory of micellization based on this definition and the analysis of a multiple-equilibrium polydisperse micellar system have been presented. This variant of the theory of micellization looks more consistent than the earlier one. In addition, two thermodynamic findings are reported: the stability conditions for micellar systems and the dependence of aggregation numbers on the surfactant concentrations. The growth of the monomer concentration with the total surfactant concentration is shown to be a thermodynamic rule only in the case of a single sort of aggregative particles or at adding a single surfactant to a mixture. The stability condition takes more complex form when adding a mixture of aggregative particles. For the aggregation number of a micelle, it has been deduced a thermodynamic rule obeying it to increase with the total surfactant concentration. However, if the monomer concentration increases slowly, the aggregation number increases much more slowly and the more slowly the more pronounced is a maximum corresponding to a micelle on the distribution hypersurface (curve in the one-component case). This forms grounding for the quasi-chemical approximation in the mass-action-law theory (the constancy of aggregation numbers). PMID:25405954

  8. SU (2) lattice gauge theory in 2 + 1 dimensions: Critical couplings from twisted boundary conditions and universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Sam R.; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2009-11-01

    We present a precision determination of the critical coupling βc for the deconfinement transition in pure SU (2) gauge theory in 2 + 1 dimensions. This is possible from universality, by intersecting the center vortex free energy as a function of the lattice coupling β with the exactly known value of the interface free energy in the 2D Ising model at criticality. The method allows us to find critical couplings with unprecedented numerical accuracy. Results for lattices with different numbers of sites Nt along the Euclidean time direction are used to determine how β varies with temperature for a given Nt around the deconfinement transition.

  9. From toric geometry to quiver gauge theory: The equivalence of a-maximization and Z-minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butti, A.; Zaffaroni, A.

    2006-05-01

    AdS/CFT predicts a precise relation between the central charge a, the scaling dimensions of some operators in the CFT on D3-branes at conical singularities and the volumes of the horizon and of certain cycles in the supergravity dual. We review how this quantitative check can be performed for all toric singularities. We discuss how these results are related to the recently discovered map between toric singularities and tilings; in particular, we discuss how to find the precise distribution of R-charges in the quiver gauge theory using dimers technology.

  10. Generalizing the Tomboulis-Yaffe inequality to SU(N) lattice gauge theories and general classical spin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kanazawa, Takuya

    2009-08-15

    We extend the inequality of Tomboulis and Yaffe in SU(2) lattice gauge theory (LGT) to SU(N) LGT and to general classical spin systems, by use of reflection positivity. Basically the inequalities guarantee that a system in a box that is sufficiently insensitive to boundary conditions has a non-zero mass gap. We explicitly illustrate the theorem in some solvable models. Strong-coupling expansion is then utilized to discuss some aspects of the theorem. Finally, a conjecture for exact expression to the off-axis mass gap of the triangular Ising model is presented. The validity of the conjecture is tested in multiple ways.

  11. Gauge coupling unification in gauge-Higgs grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamatsu, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    We discuss renormalization group equations for gauge coupling constants in gauge-Higgs grand unification on five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum warped space. We show that all four-dimensional Standard Model gauge coupling constants are asymptotically free and are effectively unified in SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unified theories on 5D Randall-Sundrum warped space.

  12. Black hole entropy from strongly coupled gauge theory--direct confirmation by Monte Carlo simulaton

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Shingo

    2008-11-23

    We present the first Monte Carlo results for supersymmetric matrix quantum mechanics with sixteen supercharges at finite temperature. The recently proposed non-lattice simulation enables us to include the effects of fermionic matrices in a transparent and reliable manner. The internal energy nicely interpolates the weak coupling behavior obtained by the high temperature expansion, and the strong coupling behavior predicted from the dual black hole geometry. This results provide highly non-trivial evidences for the gauge/gravity duality.

  13. Gauge choices in the Hamiltonian theory of fractionally filled Chern bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Ganpathy; Shankar, R.

    2014-05-01

    In the Hamiltonian approach to Chern bands one constructs an algebraically exact mapping which expresses the electron density projected to the Chern band ρFCB as a sum of Girvin-MacDonald-Platzman density operators ρGMP. The ρGMP operators, which obey the magnetic translation algebra, are expressed in terms of auxiliary composite fermion (CF) variables, while preserving the algebra. This produces, in a natural way, a unique Hartree-Fock ground state for the CFs, which can be used as a springboard for various computations. In previous presentations we had not realized that this procedure, which works in any gauge, in principle, is greatly optimized by one family of gauges introduced by Y.-L. Wu, N. Regnault, and B. A. Bernevig [Phys. Rev. B 86, 085129 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.085129; Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 106802 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.106802] in their exact diagonalization program for Laughlin-like fractions. Here we explain in detail why their gauge choices also enable us to obtain better variational energies in our Hamiltonian approach. We illustrate the ideas with some results on the Haldane model, comparing our results to exact diagonalizations.

  14. EDITORIAL: Lectures from the European RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories, CERN, 21 25 January 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derendinger, J.-P.; Orlando, D.; Uranga, A.

    2008-11-01

    This special issue is devoted to the proceedings of the conference 'RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', which took place at CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland, on the 21 25 January 2008. This event was organized in the framework of the European Mobility Research and Training Network entitled 'Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe'. It is part of a yearly series of scientific schools, which represents what is by now a well established tradition. The previous ones have been held at SISSA, in Trieste, Italy, in February 2005 and at CERN in January 2006. The next one will again take place at CERN, in February 2009. The school was primarily meant for young doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers working in the area of string theory. It consisted of several general lectures of four hours each, whose notes are published in the present proceedings, and five working group discussion sessions, focused on specific topics of the network research program. It was attended by approximatively 250 participants. The topics of the lectures were chosen to provide an introduction to some of the areas of recent progress, and to the open problems, in string theory. One of the most active areas in string theory in recent years is the AdS/CFT or gauge/gravity correspondence, which proposes the complete equivalence of string theory on (asymptotically) anti-de Sitter spacetimes with gauge theories. The duality relates the weak coupling regime of one system to the strongly coupled regime of the other, and is therefore very non-trivial to test beyond the supersymmetry-protected BPS sector. One of the key ideas to quantitatively match several quantities on both sides is the use of integrability, both in the gauge theory and the string side. The lecture notes by Nick Dorey provide a pedagogical introduction to the fascinating topic of integrability in AdS/CFT. On the string theory side, progress has

  15. Mimic therapeutic actions against keloid by thermostatted kinetic theory methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianca, Carlo; Riposo, Julien

    2015-08-01

    This paper deals with the modeling of a wound-healing disease under a therapeutic action by employing the methods of the thermostatted kinetic theory for active particles. In particular, in order to test therapeutic actions against keloid formation and the possible development of a cancer, an external force field coupled to a Gaussian thermostat is introduced into a mathematical model recently proposed. Specifically the model depicts the competition of the immune system cells with a virus, the mutated fibroblast cells, and the cancer cells. Employing a computational analysis, the effects of three different external forces mimic therapeutic actions are analyzed: A vaccine for the virus, the PUVA therapy for the keloid and a vaccine for the cancer. The results are in agreement with the evidence that the sole action of the immune system is not sufficient to obtain a total depletion of keloid thus requiring the definition of a therapy. Further refinements and developments of the model are also discussed in the paper.

  16. Boson stars in a theory of complex scalar fields coupled to the U(1) gauge field and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kulshreshtha, Usha; Shankar Kulshreshtha, Daya

    2014-08-01

    We study boson shells and boson stars in a theory of a complex scalar field coupled to the U(1) gauge field {{A}_{\\mu }} and Einstein gravity with the potential V(|\\Phi |)\\;:=\\frac{1}{2}{{m}^{2}}{{\\left( |\\Phi |+a \\right)}^{2}}. This could be considered either as a theory of a massive complex scalar field coupled to an electromagnetic field and gravity in a conical potential, or as a theory in the presence of a potential that is an overlap of a parabolic and conical potential. Our theory has a positive cosmological constant (\\Lambda :=4\\pi G{{m}^{2}}{{a}^{2}}). Boson stars are found to come in two types, having either ball-like or shell-like charge density. We studied the properties of these solutions and also determined their domains of existence for some specific values of the parameters of the theory. Similar solutions have also been obtained by Kleihaus, Kunz, Laemmerzahl and List, in a V-shaped scalar potential.

  17. Integral group actions on symmetric spaces and discrete duality symmetries of supergravity theories

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Lisa; Murray, Scott H.; Sati, Hisham

    2015-10-15

    For G = G(ℝ), a split, simply connected, semisimple Lie group of rank n and K the maximal compact subgroup of G, we give a method for computing Iwasawa coordinates of K∖G using the Chevalley generators and the Steinberg presentation. When K∖G is a scalar coset for a supergravity theory in dimensions ≥3, we determine the action of the integral form G(ℤ) on K∖G. We give explicit results for the action of the discrete U-duality groups SL{sub 2}(ℤ) and E{sub 7}(ℤ) on the scalar cosets SO(2)∖SL{sub 2}(ℝ) and [SU(8)/( ± Id)]∖E{sub 7(+7)}(ℝ) for type IIB supergravity in ten dimensions and 11-dimensional supergravity reduced to D = 4 dimensions, respectively. For the former, we use this to determine the discrete U-duality transformations on the scalar sector in the Borel gauge and we describe the discrete symmetries of the dyonic charge lattice. We determine the spectrum-generating symmetry group for fundamental BPS solitons of type IIB supergravity in D = 10 dimensions at the classical level and we propose an analog of this symmetry at the quantum level. We indicate how our methods can be used to study the orbits of discrete U-duality groups in general.

  18. Renormalized action improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  19. Infant attention to intentional action predicts preschool theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Henry M; Lopez-Duran, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Hamilton, Betsy

    2008-03-01

    This research examines whether there are continuities between infant social attention and later theory of mind. Forty-five children were studied as infants and then again as 4-year-olds. Measures of infant social attention (decrement of attention during habituation to displays of intentional action) significantly predicted later theory of mind (false-belief understanding). Possibly, this longitudinal association could have been explained by more general developments in IQ, verbal competence, or executive function (rather than continuities in the realm of social cognition). However, the association remained significant and undiminished even when IQ, verbal competence, and executive function were controlled. The findings thus provide strong support for an important continuity in social cognition separable from continuities in more general information processing. PMID:18331149

  20. Gauge origin independent calculations of molecular magnetisabilities in relativistic four-component theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliaš, Miroslav; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa.; Bast, Radovan; Saue, Trond

    2013-07-01

    The use of magnetic-field dependent London atomic orbitals, also called gauge including atomic orbitals, is known to be an efficient choice for accurate non-relativistic calculations of magnetisabilities. In this work, the appropriate formulas were extended and implemented in the framework of the four-component relativistic linear response method at the self-consistent field single reference level. Benefits of employing the London atomic orbitals in relativistic calculations are illustrated with Hartree-Fock wave functions on the XF3 (X = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) series of molecules. Significantly better convergence of magnetisabilities with respect to the basis set size is observed compared to calculations employing a common gauge origin. In fact, it is mandatory to use London atomic orbitals unless you want to use ridiculously large basis sets. Relativistic effects on magnetisabilities are found to be quite small (<5%) for this particular set of molecules, but should be investigated on a larger set of molecules. We emphasise the breakdown of the connection between the paramagnetic contribution to magnetisabilities and rotational g tensors in the relativistic domain and discuss its origin. Finally, we visualise the magnetisability density which shows markedly atomic features evocative of Pascal's rules.

  1. Propagator Dyson-Schwinger equations of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory within the first order formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.

    2007-02-15

    Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory within the first order formalism is considered with a view of deriving the propagator Dyson-Schwinger equations. The first order formalism is studied with special emphasis on the Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) invariance and it is found that there exists two forms of invariance--invariance under the standard BRS transform and under a second, nonstandard transform. The field equations of motion and symmetries are derived explicitly and certain exact relations that simplify the formalism are presented. It is shown that the Ward-Takahashi identity arising from invariance under the nonstandard part of the BRS transform is guaranteed by the functional equations of motion. The Feynman rules and the general decomposition of the two-point Green's functions are derived. The propagator Dyson-Schwinger equations are derived and certain aspects (energy independence of ghost Green's functions and the cancellation of energy divergences) are discussed.

  2. Light-cone gauge for 1 + 1 strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eric

    1992-09-01

    Explicit construction of the light-cone gauge quantum theory of bosonic strings in 1 + 1 space-time dimensions reveals unexpected structures. One is the existence of a gauge choice that gives a free action at the price of propagating ghosts and a nontrivial BRST charge. Fixing this gauge leaves a U(1) Kac-Moody algebra of residual symmetry, generated by a conformal tensor of rank two and a conformal scalar. Another is that the BRST charge made from these currents is nilpotent when the action includes a linear dilaton background, independent of the particular value of the dilaton gradient. Space-time Lorentz invariance in this theory is still elusive, however, because of the linear dilaton background and the nature of the gauge symmetries.

  3. Constraining gravitational interactions in the M theory effective action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2014-08-01

    We consider purely gravitational interactions of the type {{D}^{6n}}{{{ R}}^{4}} in the effective action of M theory in 11 dimensional flat spacetime. The duality between M theory on S 1 and type IIA string theory relates them to the type IIA interactions of the form {{e}^{2n{{\\phi }_{A}}}}{{D}^{6n}}{{{ R}}^{4}} where {{\\phi }_{A}} is the type IIA dilaton. The coefficients of the M theory interactions are determined by the strongly coupled type IIA theory. Given the nature of the dilaton dependence, it is plausible that for low values of n, the coefficient has a similar structure as the genus (n+1) string amplitude of the type IIA {{D}^{6n}}{{{ R}}^{4}} interaction, namely the transcendental nature. Assuming this, and focussing on the even-even spin structure part of the type IIA string amplitude, this coefficient is given by the type IIB genus (n+1) amplitude, which we constrain using supersymmetry, S-duality and maximal supergravity. The source terms of the Poisson equations satisfied by the S-duality invariant IIB couplings play a central role in the analysis. This procedure yields partial contributions to several multi-loop type IIB string amplitudes, from which we extract the transcendental nature of the corresponding M theory couplings. For n\\leqslant 2, all possible source terms involve only BPS couplings. While the {{{ R}}^{4}} and {{D}^{6}}{{{ R}}^{4}} M theory couplings agree with known results, the coefficient of the {{D}^{12}}{{{ R}}^{4}} interaction takes the form \\zeta {{(2)}^{3}}({{\\Omega }_{1}}+{{\\Omega }_{2}}\\zeta (3)). We also analyze the {{D}^{18}}{{{ R}}^{4}} and {{D}^{24}}{{{ R}}^{4}} interactions, and show that their coefficients have at least the terms \\zeta {{(2)}^{4}}({{\\tilde{\\Omega }}_{1}}+{{\\tilde{\\Omega }}_{2}}\\zeta (3)+{{\\tilde{\\Omega }}_{3}}\\zeta (5)) and \\zeta {{(2)}^{5}}({{\\underline{\\Omega }}_{1}}+{{\\underline{\\Omega }}_{2}}\\zeta (3)+{{\\underline{\\Omega }}_{3}}\\zeta (5) +\\;{{\\underline{\\Omega }}_{4

  4. Multifractality to Photonic Crystal & Self-Organization to Metamaterials through Anderson Localizations & Group/Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Widastra

    2015-04-01

    Arthur Cayley at least investigate by creating the theory of permutation group[F:∖∖Group_theory.htm] where in cell elements addressing of the lattice Qmf used a Cayley tree, the self-afine object Qmf is described by the combination of the finite groups of rotation & inversion and the infinite groups of translation & dilation[G Corso & LS Lacena: ``Multifractal lattice and group theory'', Physica A: Statistical Mechanics &Its Applications, 2005, v 357, issue I, h 64-70; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/articel/pii/S0378437105005005 ] hence multifractal can be related to group theory. Many grateful Thanks to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE. Mr. Ir. SARWONO KUSUMAATMADJA.

  5. Some global problems in gauge theories (Variations on a theme of Aharonov and Bohm)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, F.

    1989-12-01

    Several situations are discussed, in which the sort of global considerations made famous by Aharonov and Bohm in their discussion of the interaction of charged particles with magnetic flux tubes have important physical implications. It is argued that discrete gauge symmetries in the continuum make sense, and manifest themselves most clearly in Aharonov-Bohm type scattering of charged particles off string singularities. The existence of such discrete symmetries has important implications for the quantum mechanics of topologically non-trivial space-times in general and black holes in particular. It is argued that in the non-abelian case essentially new features arise, most notably that the symmetry group of the homogeneous ground state generally ceases to be globally defined in the presence of a string. When continuous rather than discrete symmetries are involved, a variety of fascinating and as yet poorly understood dynamical effects occur. Perhaps the most striking is a new form of string superconductivity, that exists for purely topological reasons, and is not well modeled by regarding the string as a superconducting wire. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Compound dual radiation action theory for 252Cf brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, C K; Zhang, X

    2004-01-01

    The existing dosimetry protocol that uses the concept of RBE for 252Cf brachytherapy contains large uncertainties. A new formula has been developed to correlate the biological effect (i.e. cell survival fraction) resulting from a mixed n + gamma radiation field with two physical quantities and two biological quantities. The formula is based on a pathway model evolved from that of the compound-dual-radiation-action (CDRA) theory, previously proposed by Rossi and Zaider. The new model employs the recently published data on radiation-induced DNA lesions. The new formula is capable of predicting quantitatively the synergistic effect caused by the interactions between neutron events and gamma ray events, and it is intended to be included into a new dosimetry protocol for future 252Cf brachytherapy.

  7. Gauge fields and infinite chains of dualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Nicolas; Sundell, Per; West, Peter

    2015-09-01

    We show that the particle states of Maxwell's theory, in D dimensions, can be represented in an infinite number of ways by using different gauge fields. Using this result we formulate the dynamics in terms of an infinite set of duality relations which are first order in space-time derivatives. We derive a similar result for the three form in eleven dimensions where such a possibility was first observed in the context of E 11. We also give an action formulation for some of the gauge fields. In this paper we give a pedagogical account of the Lorentz and gauge covariant formulation of the irreducible representations of the Poincaré group, used previously in higher spin theories, as this plays a key role in our constructions. It is clear that our results can be generalised to any particle.

  8. Gauge groups and matter fields on some models of F-theory without section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yusuke

    2016-03-01

    We investigate F-theory on an elliptic Calabi-Yau 4-fold without a section to the fibration. To construct an elliptic Calabi-Yau 4-fold without a section, we introduce families of elliptic K3 surfaces which do not admit a section. A product K3 × K3, with one of the K3's chosen from these families of elliptic K3 surfaces without a section, realises an elliptic Calabi-Yau 4-fold without a section. We then compactify F-theory on such K3 × K3's.

  9. All torsion-free spherical vacuum solutions of the quadratic Poincare gauge theory of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baekler, P.; Yasskin, P. B.

    1984-12-01

    The complete torsion-free spherically symmetric vacuum solutions of the theory of gravity proposed by Hehl et al. (1978) are obtained analytically and characterized. The solutions are shown to correspond to either Schwarzschild metrics (including a gravitational confinement potential when the cosmological constant Lambda is less than zero), Narai-Bertotti metrics, or conformally flat metrics (including some asymptotically flat but nonstationary solutions). The relationships of the theory of Hehl et al. to those of Eddington (1924), Nordstrom (1913), Einstein (1917, with cosmological constant), and Yang (1974) are explored.

  10. Kaon B-parameter in mixed action chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Aubin, C.; Laiho, Jack; Water, Ruth S. van de

    2007-02-01

    We calculate the kaon B-parameter, B{sub K}, in chiral perturbation theory for a partially quenched, mixed-action theory with Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks and staggered sea quarks. We find that the resulting expression is similar to that in the continuum, and in fact has only two additional unknown parameters. At 1-loop order, taste-symmetry violations in the staggered sea sector only contribute to flavor-disconnected diagrams by generating an O(a{sup 2}) shift to the masses of taste-singlet sea-sea mesons. Lattice discretization errors also give rise to an analytic term which shifts the tree-level value of B{sub K} by an amount of O(a{sup 2}). This term, however, is not strictly due to taste breaking, and is therefore also present in the expression for B{sub K} for pure Ginsparg-Wilson lattice fermions. We also present a numerical study of the mixed B{sub K} expression in order to demonstrate that both discretization errors and finite volume effects are small and under control on the MILC improved staggered lattices.

  11. Gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, T.; Odintsov, S. D.; Sakamoto, H.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in curved space-time at the large Nc limit and in slow-roll approximation. The model can be described by the renormalization group corrected gauge-Higgs-Yukawa theory with the corresponding compositeness conditions. Evaluating the renormalization group (RG) improved effective action, we show that such model can produce CMB fluctuations and find inflationary parameters: spectral index, tensor-to-scalar-ratio and running of the spectral index. We demonstrate that the model can naturally satisfy the Planck 2015 data and maybe considered as an alternative candidate for Higgs inflation.

  12. Topics in gauge theories and the unification of elementary particle interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Y.N.; Vaughn, M.T.

    1992-02-01

    We report on work done by the principal investigators and their collaborators on: purely fermionic composite models, gravitational diamagnetism, dynamical Casimir effect, N-particle amplitudes for large N beyond the three approximation, and analysis of classical scalar {phi}{sup 4} field theory.

  13. Phases of N=\\infty Gauge Theories on S^3 \\times S^1 and Nonperturbative Orbifold-orientifold Equivalences

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, Mithat

    2007-03-06

    We study the phase diagrams of N = {infinity} vector-like, asymptotically free gauge theories as a function of volume, on S{sup 3} x S{sup 1}. The theories of interest are the ones with fermions in two index representations [adjoint, (anti)symmetric, and bifundamental abbreviated as QCD(adj), QCD(AS/S) and QCD(BF)], and are interrelated via orbifold or orientifold projections. The phase diagrams reveal interesting phenomena such as disentangled realizations of chiral and center symmetry, confinement without chiral symmetry breaking, zero temperature chiral transitions, and in some cases, exotic phases which spontaneously break the discrete symmetries such as C, P, T as well as CPT. In a regime where the theories are perturbative, the deconfinement temperature in SYM, and QCD(AS/S/BF) coincide. The thermal phase diagrams of thermal orbifold QCD(BF), orientifold QCD(AS/S), and N = 1 SYM coincide, provided charge conjugation symmetry for QCD(AS/S) and Z{sub 2} interchange symmetry of the QCD(BF) are not broken in the phase continuously connected to R{sup 4} limit. When the S{sup 1} circle is endowed with periodic boundary conditions, the (nonthermal) phase diagrams of orbifold and orientifold QCD are still the same, however, both theories possess chirally symmetric phases which are absent in N=1 SYM. The match and mismatch of the phase diagrams depending on the spin structure of fermions along the S{sup 1} circle is naturally explained in terms of the necessary and sufficient symmetry realization conditions which determine the validity of the nonperturbative orbifold orientifold equivalence.

  14. Study of the maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theory in the presence of the Gribov horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Capri, M. A. L.; Lemes, V. E. R.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.; Thibes, R.

    2006-11-15

    We pursue the study of SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theory in the maximal Abelian gauge by taking into account the effects of the Gribov horizon. The Gribov approximation, previously introduced in [M. A. L. Capri, V. E. R. Lemes, R. F. Sobreiro, S. P. Sorella, and R. Thibes, Phys. Rev. D 72, 085021 (2005).], is improved through the introduction of the horizon function, which is constructed under the requirements of localizability and renormalizability. By following Zwanziger's treatment of the horizon function in the Landau gauge, we prove that, when cast in local form, the horizon term of the maximal Abelian gauge leads to a quantized theory which enjoys multiplicative renormalizability, a feature which is established to all orders by means of the algebraic renormalization. Furthermore, it turns out that the horizon term is compatible with the local residual U(1) Ward identity, typical of the maximal Abelian gauge, which is easily derived. As a consequence, the nonrenormalization theorem, Z{sub g}Z{sub A}{sup 1/2}=1, relating the renormalization factors of the gauge coupling constant Z{sub g} and of the diagonal gluon field Z{sub A}, still holds in the presence of the Gribov horizon. Finally, we notice that a generalized dimension two gluon operator can be also introduced. It is BRST invariant on-shell, a property which ensures its multiplicative renormalizability. Its anomalous dimension is not an independent parameter of the theory, being obtained from the renormalization factors of the gauge coupling constant and of the diagonal antighost field.

  15. Minimally extended elctroweak gauge theories in SO(10) and E/sub 6/

    SciTech Connect

    Robinett, R.W.; Rosner, J.L.

    1982-11-01

    The possibility of minimally extending the standard SU(2)/sub L/xU(1) electroweak theory within the context of SO(10) and E/sub 6/ grand unification by adding U(1) factors is explored. The neutrino neutral-current interactions in these schemes are arranged to coincide with the standard-model predictions. Limits on the masses of the extra Z's generated by these U(1) factors are obtained by considering other parity-violating effects. Additional Z's as light as 2.5 to 3.0 times the standard model Z/sup 0/ mass are allowed.

  16. Lectures from the European RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories, CERN, 16 20 January, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derendinger, J.-P.; Scrucca, C. A.; Uranga, A. M.

    2006-11-01

    This special issue is devoted to the proceedings of the conference 'Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', which took place at CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland, from the 16 to the 20 of January 2006. This event was organized in the framework of the European Mobility Research and Training Network entitled 'Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe'. It is part of a yearly series of scientific schools which have become a traditional rendezvous for young researchers of the community. The previous one was held at SISSA, in Trieste, Italy, in February 2005, and the next one will take place again at CERN, in January 2007. The school was primarily meant for young doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers working in the area of string theory. It consisted of five general lectures of four hours each, whose notes are published in the present proceedings, and five working group discussion sessions, focused on specific topics of the network research program. It was attended by approximately 250 participants. The topics of the lectures were chosen to provide an introduction to some of the areas of recent progress and to the open problems in string theory. String theory is expected to provide insights into the description of systems where the role of gravity is crucial. One prominent example of such systems are time-dependent backgrounds with big bang singularities, whose status in string theory is reviewed in the lecture notes by Ben Craps. In another main problem in quantum gravity, string theory gives a fascinating microscopic description of black holes and their properties. The lectures by Shiraz Minwalla review the thermal properties of black holes from their microscopic description in terms of a holographically dual large N field theory. Progress in the description of black hole microstates, and its interplay with the macroscopic description in terms of supergravity solutions via the

  17. The Secret Life of Quarks: National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Sugar, Robert L.

    2013-05-13

    The objective of this grant was to develop algorithms and software for the numerical study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and of quantum field theories of interest for the understanding of physical phenomena that go beyond the standard model of high energy physics. Thirteen institutions were involved in this effort. The roles of the University of California, Santa Barbara in the project were to supply overall leadership and coordination, and to administer travel funds for participants at institutions that did not receive direct funding from the DOE. The purposes of these trips were to enable collaborative research on algorithms and software, and to report on algorithm and software development, and on scientific results obtained from it, at scientific meetings. These funds were also used to support travel by the Santa Barbara Principal Investigator in support of the project, and by co-Principal Investigators at institutions not receiving DOE funding. A total of 126 trips were supported.

  18. Toward a General Theory for Multiphase Turbulence Part I: Development and Gauging of the Model Equations

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Kashiwa; W. B. VanderHeyden

    2000-12-01

    A formalism for developing multiphase turbulence models is introduced by analogy to the phenomenological method used for single-phase turbulence. A sample model developed using the formalism is given in detail. The procedure begins with ensemble averaging of the exact conservation equations, with closure accomplished by using a combination of analytical and experimental results from the literature. The resulting model is applicable to a wide range of common multiphase flows including gas-solid, liquid-solid and gas-liquid (bubbly) flows. The model is positioned for ready extension to three-phase turbulence, or for use in two-phase turbulence in which one phase is accounted for in multiple size classes, representing polydispersivity. The formalism is expected to suggest directions toward a more fundamentally based theory, similar to the way that early work in single-phase turbulence has led to the spectral theory. The approach is unique in that a portion of the total energy decay rate is ascribed to each phase, as is dictated by the exact averaged equations, and results in a transport equation for energy decay rate associated with each phase. What follows is a straightforward definition of a turbulent viscosity for each phase, and accounts for the effect of exchange of fluctuational energy among phases on the turbulent shear viscosity. The model also accounts for the effect of slip momentum transfer among the phases on the production of turbulence kinetic energy and on the tensor character of the Reynolds stress. Collisional effects, when appropriate, are included by superposition. The model reduces to a standard form in limit of a single, pure material, and is expected to do a credible job of describing multiphase turbulent flows in a wide variety of regimes using a single set of coefficients.

  19. Holomorphic field realization of SH c and quantum geometry of quiver gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile; Matsuo, Yutaka; Zhang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    In the context of 4D/2D dualities, SH c algebra, introduced by Schiffmann and Vasserot, provides a systematic method to analyse the instanton partition functions of N=2 supersymmetricgaugetheories. Inthispaper,werewritetheSH c algebrainterms of three holomorphic fields D 0( z), D ±1( z) with which the algebra and its representations are simplified. The instanton partition functions for arbitrary N=2 super Yang-Mills theories with A n and A n (1) type quiver diagrams are compactly expressed as a product of four building blocks, Gaiotto state, dilatation, flavor vertex operator and intertwiner which are written in terms of SH c and the orthogonal basis introduced by Alba, Fateev, Litvinov and Tarnopolskiy. These building blocks are characterized by new conditions which generalize the known ones on the Gaiotto state and the Carlsson-Okounkov vertex. Consistency conditions of the inner product give algebraic relations for the chiral ring generating functions defined by Nekrasov, Pestun and Shatashvili. In particular we show the polynomiality of the qq-characters which have been introduced as a deformation of the Yangian characters. These relations define a second quantization of the Seiberg-Witten geometry, and, accordingly, reduce to a Baxter TQ-equation in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the Omega-background.

  20. Hope Theory: A Framework for Understanding Suicidal Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grewal, Parveen; Porter, James

    2007-01-01

    This article examines C. R. Snyder's (1994, 2000a) theory of hope and its application for understanding suicide. Strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in the suicide literature are outlined, and A. T. Beck's theory of hopelessness is compared with Snyder's hope theory. Hope theory constructs are used to examine the relationship of suicide to…