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Sample records for gc-content dna codes

  1. Biased Gene Conversion and GC-Content Evolution in the Coding Sequences of Reptiles and Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Figuet, Emeric; Ballenghien, Marion; Romiguier, Jonathan; Galtier, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian and avian genomes are characterized by a substantial spatial heterogeneity of GC-content, which is often interpreted as reflecting the effect of local GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), a meiotic repair bias that favors G and C over A and T alleles in high-recombining genomic regions. Surprisingly, the first fully sequenced nonavian sauropsid (i.e., reptile), the green anole Anolis carolinensis, revealed a highly homogeneous genomic GC-content landscape, suggesting the possibility that gBGC might not be at work in this lineage. Here, we analyze GC-content evolution at third-codon positions (GC3) in 44 vertebrates species, including eight newly sequenced transcriptomes, with a specific focus on nonavian sauropsids. We report that reptiles, including the green anole, have a genome-wide distribution of GC3 similar to that of mammals and birds, and we infer a strong GC3-heterogeneity to be already present in the tetrapod ancestor. We further show that the dynamic of coding sequence GC-content is largely governed by karyotypic features in vertebrates, notably in the green anole, in agreement with the gBGC hypothesis. The discrepancy between third-codon positions and noncoding DNA regarding GC-content dynamics in the green anole could not be explained by the activity of transposable elements or selection on codon usage. This analysis highlights the unique value of third-codon positions as an insertion/deletion-free marker of nucleotide substitution biases that ultimately affect the evolution of proteins. PMID:25527834

  2. Biased gene conversion and GC-content evolution in the coding sequences of reptiles and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Figuet, Emeric; Ballenghien, Marion; Romiguier, Jonathan; Galtier, Nicolas

    2014-12-19

    Mammalian and avian genomes are characterized by a substantial spatial heterogeneity of GC-content, which is often interpreted as reflecting the effect of local GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), a meiotic repair bias that favors G and C over A and T alleles in high-recombining genomic regions. Surprisingly, the first fully sequenced nonavian sauropsid (i.e., reptile), the green anole Anolis carolinensis, revealed a highly homogeneous genomic GC-content landscape, suggesting the possibility that gBGC might not be at work in this lineage. Here, we analyze GC-content evolution at third-codon positions (GC3) in 44 vertebrates species, including eight newly sequenced transcriptomes, with a specific focus on nonavian sauropsids. We report that reptiles, including the green anole, have a genome-wide distribution of GC3 similar to that of mammals and birds, and we infer a strong GC3-heterogeneity to be already present in the tetrapod ancestor. We further show that the dynamic of coding sequence GC-content is largely governed by karyotypic features in vertebrates, notably in the green anole, in agreement with the gBGC hypothesis. The discrepancy between third-codon positions and noncoding DNA regarding GC-content dynamics in the green anole could not be explained by the activity of transposable elements or selection on codon usage. This analysis highlights the unique value of third-codon positions as an insertion/deletion-free marker of nucleotide substitution biases that ultimately affect the evolution of proteins.

  3. GC content evolution in coding regions of angiosperm genomes: a unifying hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Glémin, Sylvain; Clément, Yves; David, Jacques; Ressayre, Adrienne

    2014-07-01

    In angiosperms (as in other species), GC content varies along and between genes, within a genome, and between genomes of different species, but the reason for this distribution is still an open question. Grass genomes are particularly intriguing because they exhibit a strong bimodal distribution of genic GC content and a sharp 5'-3' decreasing GC content gradient along most genes. Here, we propose a unifying model to explain the main patterns of GC content variation at the gene and genome scale. We argue that GC content patterns could be mainly determined by the interactions between gene structure, recombination patterns, and GC-biased gene conversion. Recent studies on fine-scale recombination maps in angiosperms support this hypothesis and previous results also fit this model. We propose that our model could be used as a null hypothesis to search for additional forces that affect GC content in angiosperms.

  4. Large-scale evaluation of experimentally determined DNA G+C contents with whole genome sequences of prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mincheol; Park, Sang-Cheol; Baek, Inwoo; Chun, Jongsik

    2015-03-01

    Historically, DNA G+C content has played a critical role in the description of bacterial and archaeal species. Despite its importance in prokaryote taxonomy, its accuracy has been questioned due to methodological heterogeneity and measurement errors of conventional methods. Here we investigated the extent of accuracy of experimentally determined DNA G+C contents by comparing the reference values calculated from whole genome sequences. The large-scale comparison revealed that G+C contents determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and buoyant density centrifugation methods were more similar to the genome-derived reference values than those generated by thermal denaturation method. However, there was a substantial degree of discrepancy in DNA G+C contents between values obtained by conventional methods and genome-derived reference values. The majority of the differences between them fell out of the acceptable range (i.e. 1 mol% G+C content difference) for species delimitation of prokaryotes. In contrast, when average nucleotide identity (ANI) was correlated to G+C difference among genomes, most G+C difference was confined to less than 1% within species. Therefore, erroneous conventional methods are not meaningful in the description of bacterial and archaeal species. For taxonomic purposes, DNA G+C content should be determined by calculating directly from high-quality genome sequences with at least 16× or higher sequencing depth of coverage.

  5. Relevance of GC content to the conservation of DNA polymerase III/mismatch repair system in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Akashi, Motohiro; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of DNA replication is one of the driving forces of genome evolution. Bacterial DNA polymerase III, the primary complex of DNA replication, consists of PolC and DnaE. PolC is conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, especially in the Firmicutes with low GC content, whereas DnaE is widely conserved in most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. PolC contains two domains, the 3′-5′exonuclease domain and the polymerase domain, while DnaE only possesses the polymerase domain. Accordingly, DnaE does not have the proofreading function; in Escherichia coli, another enzyme DnaQ performs this function. In most bacteria, the fidelity of DNA replication is maintained by 3′-5′ exonuclease and a mismatch repair (MMR) system. However, we found that most Actinobacteria (a group of Gram-positive bacteria with high GC content) appear to have lost the MMR system and chromosomes may be replicated by DnaE-type DNA polymerase III with DnaQ-like 3′-5′ exonuclease. We tested the mutation bias of Bacillus subtilis, which belongs to the Firmicutes and found that the wild type strain is AT-biased while the mutS-deletant strain is remarkably GC-biased. If we presume that DnaE tends to make mistakes that increase GC content, these results can be explained by the mutS deletion (i.e., deletion of the MMR system). Thus, we propose that GC content is regulated by DNA polymerase and MMR system, and the absence of polC genes, which participate in the MMR system, may be the reason for the increase of GC content in Gram-positive bacteria such as Actinobacteria. PMID:24062730

  6. DNA G+C content of the third codon position and codon usage biases of human genes.

    PubMed

    Sueoka, N; Kawanishi, Y

    2000-12-30

    The human genome, as in other eukaryotes, has a wide heterogeneity in the DNA base composition. The evolutionary basis for this heterogeneity has been unknown. A previous study of the human genome (846 genes analyzed) has shown that, in the major range of the G+C content in the third codon position (0.25-0.75), biases from the Parity Rule 2 (PR2) among the synonymous codons of the four-codon amino acids are similar except in the highest G+C range (Sueoka, N., 1999. Translation-coupled violation of Parity Rule 2 in human genes is not the cause of heterogeneity of the DNA G+C content of third codon position. Gene 238, 53-58.). PR2 is an intra-strand rule where A=T and G=C are expected when there are no biases between the two complementary strands of DNA in mutation and selection rates (substitution rates). In this study, 14,026 human genes were analyzed. In addition, the third codon positions of two-codon amino acids were analyzed. New results show the following: (a) The G+C contents of the third codon position of human genes are scattered in the G+C range of 0.22-0.96 in the third codon position. (b) The PR2 biases are similar in the range of 0.25-0.75, whereas, in the high G+C range (0.75-0.96; 13% of the genes), the PR2-bias fingerprints are different from those of the major range. (c) Unlike the PR2 biases, the G+C contents of the third codon position for both four-codon and two-codon amino acids are all correlated almost perfectly with the G+C content of the third codon position over the total G+C ranges. These results support the notion that the directional mutation pressure, rather than the directional selection pressure, is mainly responsible for the heterogeneity of the G+C content of the third codon position.

  7. NullSeq: A Tool for Generating Random Coding Sequences with Desired Amino Acid and GC Contents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sophia S.; Hockenberry, Adam J.; Lancichinetti, Andrea; Jewett, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of over- and under-represented sequence motifs in genomes provides evidence of selective evolutionary pressures on biological mechanisms such as transcription, translation, ligand-substrate binding, and host immunity. In order to accurately identify motifs and other genome-scale patterns of interest, it is essential to be able to generate accurate null models that are appropriate for the sequences under study. While many tools have been developed to create random nucleotide sequences, protein coding sequences are subject to a unique set of constraints that complicates the process of generating appropriate null models. There are currently no tools available that allow users to create random coding sequences with specified amino acid composition and GC content for the purpose of hypothesis testing. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we developed a method that generates unbiased random sequences with pre-specified amino acid and GC content, which we have developed into a python package. Our method is the simplest way to obtain maximally unbiased random sequences that are subject to GC usage and primary amino acid sequence constraints. Furthermore, this approach can easily be expanded to create unbiased random sequences that incorporate more complicated constraints such as individual nucleotide usage or even di-nucleotide frequencies. The ability to generate correctly specified null models will allow researchers to accurately identify sequence motifs which will lead to a better understanding of biological processes as well as more effective engineering of biological systems. PMID:27835644

  8. Two aspects of DNA base composition: G+C content and translation-coupled deviation from intra-strand rule of A = T and G = C.

    PubMed

    Sueoka, N

    1999-07-01

    The relative contribution of mutation and selection to the G+C content of DNA was analyzed in bacterial species having widely different G+C contents. The analysis used two methods that were developed previously. The first method was to plot the average G+C content of a set of nucleotides against the G+C content of the third codon position for each gene. This method was used to present the G+C distribution of the third codon position and to assess the relative neutrality of a set of nucleotides to that of the G+C content of the third codon position. The second method was to plot the intrastrand bias of the third codon position from Parity Rule 2 (PR2), where A = T and G = C. It was found that whereas intragenomic distributions of the DNA G+C content of these bacteria are narrow in the majority of species, in some species the G+C content of the minor class of genes distributes over wider ranges than the major class of genes. On the other hand, ubiquitous PR2 biases are amino acid specific and independent of the G+C content of DNA, so that when averaged over the amino acids, the biases are small and not correlated with the DNA G+C content. Therefore, translation coupled PR2-biases are unlikely to explain the wide range of G+C contents among different species. Considering all data available, it was concluded that the amino acid-specific PR2 bias has only a minor effect, if any, on the average G+C content. In addition, PR2 bias patterns of different species show phylogenetic relationships, and the pattern can be as a taxal fingerprint.

  9. Modified ‘one amino acid-one codon’ engineering of high GC content TaqII-coding gene from thermophilic Thermus aquaticus results in radical expression increase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An industrial approach to protein production demands maximization of cloned gene expression, balanced with the recombinant host’s viability. Expression of toxic genes from thermophiles poses particular difficulties due to high GC content, mRNA secondary structures, rare codon usage and impairing the host’s coding plasmid replication. TaqII belongs to a family of bifunctional enzymes, which are a fusion of the restriction endonuclease (REase) and methyltransferase (MTase) activities in a single polypeptide. The family contains thermostable REases with distinct specificities: TspGWI, TaqII, Tth111II/TthHB27I, TspDTI and TsoI and a few enzymes found in mesophiles. While not being isoschizomers, the enzymes exhibit amino acid (aa) sequence homologies, having molecular sizes of ~120 kDa share common modular architecture, resemble Type-I enzymes, cleave DNA 11/9 nt from the recognition sites, their activity is affected by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Results We describe the taqIIRM gene design, cloning and expression of the prototype TaqII. The enzyme amount in natural hosts is extremely low. To improve expression of the taqIIRM gene in Escherichia coli (E. coli), we designed and cloned a fully synthetic, low GC content, low mRNA secondary structure taqIIRM, codon-optimized gene under a bacteriophage lambda (λ) P R promoter. Codon usage based on a modified ‘one amino acid–one codon’ strategy, weighted towards low GC content codons, resulted in approximately 10-fold higher expression of the synthetic gene. 718 codons of total 1105 were changed, comprising 65% of the taqIIRM gene. The reason for we choose a less effective strategy rather than a resulting in high expression yields ‘codon randomization’ strategy, was intentional, sub-optimal TaqII in vivo production, in order to decrease the high ‘toxicity’ of the REase-MTase protein. Conclusions Recombinant wt and synthetic taqIIRM gene were cloned and expressed in E. coli. The modified

  10. Translation-coupled violation of Parity Rule 2 in human genes is not the cause of heterogeneity of the DNA G+C content of third codon position.

    PubMed

    Sueoka, N

    1999-09-30

    The genome of higher eukaryotes consists of genes having a widely heterogeneous base composition at the third codon position. Ubiquitous variability of the DNA base composition has the following two aspects: intragenomic heterogeneity of the G+C content and the amino-acid-specific translation-coupled biases from the Parity Rule 2 (PR2). PR2 is an intrastrand rule where A = T and G = C are expected if there is no bias in mutation and selection between the two complementary strands of DNA. To examine whether or not the biases from PR2 are responsible for the wide heterogeneity of the DNA G+C content in human, the third codon position of 846 human genes was analyzed. Genes were separated into six groups according to their G+C content of the third codon position, and each group was examined for the translation-coupled PR2 biases in the nucleotide composition of the third codon position for two- and four-codon amino acids. The results show that genes in the different G+C content groups have similar PR2 biases, indicating that the intragenomic heterogeneity of the G+C content is not correlated with translation-coupled biases from the PR2. Therefore, the heterogeneity of the G+C content is likely to be determined by some other mechanism (e.g. locally variable directional mutation pressures) than amino-acid-specific selections for the codon preference.

  11. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA IN THE OOGAMOCHLAMYS CLADE (CHLOROPHYCEAE): HIGH GC CONTENT AND UNIQUE GENOME ARCHITECTURE FOR GREEN ALGAE(1).

    PubMed

    Borza, Tudor; Redmond, Erin K; Laflamme, Mark; Lee, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    Most mitochondrial genomes in the green algal phylum Chlorophyta are AT-rich, circular-mapping DNA molecules. However, mitochondrial genomes from the Reinhardtii clade of the Chlorophyceae lineage are linear and sometimes fragmented into subgenomic forms. Moreover, Polytomella capuana, from the Reinhardtii clade, has an elevated GC content (57.2%). In the present study, we examined mitochondrial genome conformation and GC bias in the Oogamochlamys clade of the Chlorophyceae, which phylogenetic data suggest is closely related to the Reinhardtii clade. Total DNA from selected Oogamochlamys taxa, including four Lobochlamys culleus (H. Ettl) Pröschold, B. Marin, U. G. Schlöss. et Melkonian strains, Lobochlamys segnis (H. Ettl) Pröschold, B. Marin, U. G. Schlöss. et Melkonian, and Oogamochlamys gigantea (O. Dill) Pröschold, B. Marin, U. G. Schlöss. et Melkonian, was subjected to Southern blot analyses with cob and cox1 probes, and the results suggest that the mitochondrial genome of these taxa is represented by multiple-sized linear DNA fragments with overlapping homologies. On the basis of these data, we propose that linear mitochondrial DNA with a propensity to become fragmented arose in an ancestor common to the Reinhardtii and Oogamochlamys clades or even earlier in the evolutionary history of the Chlorophyceae. Analyses of partial cob and cox1 sequences from these Oogamochlamys taxa revealed an unusually high GC content (49.9%-65.1%) and provided evidence for the accumulation of cob and cox1 pseudogenes and truncated sequences in the mitochondrial genome of all L. culleus strains examined.

  12. Correlation of Inter-Locus Polyglutamine Toxicity with CAG•CTG Triplet Repeat Expandability and Flanking Genomic DNA GC Content

    PubMed Central

    Nestor, Colm E.; Monckton, Darren G.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic expansions of toxic polyglutamine (polyQ)-encoding CAG repeats in ubiquitously expressed, but otherwise unrelated, genes cause a number of late-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington disease and the spinocerebellar ataxias. As polyQ toxicity in these disorders increases with repeat length, the intergenerational expansion of unstable CAG repeats leads to anticipation, an earlier age-at-onset in successive generations. Crucially, disease associated alleles are also somatically unstable and continue to expand throughout the lifetime of the individual. Interestingly, the inherited polyQ length mediating a specific age-at-onset of symptoms varies markedly between disorders. It is widely assumed that these inter-locus differences in polyQ toxicity are mediated by protein context effects. Previously, we demonstrated that the tendency of expanded CAG•CTG repeats to undergo further intergenerational expansion (their ‘expandability’) also differs between disorders and these effects are strongly correlated with the GC content of the genomic flanking DNA. Here we show that the inter-locus toxicity of the expanded polyQ tracts of these disorders also correlates with both the expandability of the underlying CAG repeat and the GC content of the genomic DNA flanking sequences. Inter-locus polyQ toxicity does not correlate with properties of the mRNA or protein sequences, with polyQ location within the gene or protein, or steady state transcript levels in the brain. These data suggest that the observed inter-locus differences in polyQ toxicity are not mediated solely by protein context effects, but that genomic context is also important, an effect that may be mediated by modifying the rate at which somatic expansion of the DNA delivers proteins to their cytotoxic state. PMID:22163004

  13. Ecological and evolutionary significance of genomic GC content diversity in monocots

    PubMed Central

    Šmarda, Petr; Bureš, Petr; Horová, Lucie; Leitch, Ilia J.; Mucina, Ladislav; Pacini, Ettore; Tichý, Lubomír; Grulich, Vít; Rotreklová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Genomic DNA base composition (GC content) is predicted to significantly affect genome functioning and species ecology. Although several hypotheses have been put forward to address the biological impact of GC content variation in microbial and vertebrate organisms, the biological significance of GC content diversity in plants remains unclear because of a lack of sufficiently robust genomic data. Using flow cytometry, we report genomic GC contents for 239 species representing 70 of 78 monocot families and compare them with genomic characters, a suite of life history traits and climatic niche data using phylogeny-based statistics. GC content of monocots varied between 33.6% and 48.9%, with several groups exceeding the GC content known for any other vascular plant group, highlighting their unusual genome architecture and organization. GC content showed a quadratic relationship with genome size, with the decreases in GC content in larger genomes possibly being a consequence of the higher biochemical costs of GC base synthesis. Dramatic decreases in GC content were observed in species with holocentric chromosomes, whereas increased GC content was documented in species able to grow in seasonally cold and/or dry climates, possibly indicating an advantage of GC-rich DNA during cell freezing and desiccation. We also show that genomic adaptations associated with changing GC content might have played a significant role in the evolution of the Earth’s contemporary biota, such as the rise of grass-dominated biomes during the mid-Tertiary. One of the major selective advantages of GC-rich DNA is hypothesized to be facilitating more complex gene regulation. PMID:25225383

  14. Analytical Biases Associated with GC-Content in Molecular Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Romiguier, Jonathan; Roux, Camille

    2017-01-01

    Molecular evolution is being revolutionized by high-throughput sequencing allowing an increased amount of genome-wide data available for multiple species. While base composition summarized by GC-content is one of the first metrics measured in genomes, its genomic distribution is a frequently neglected feature in downstream analyses based on DNA sequence comparisons. Here, we show how base composition heterogeneity among loci and taxa can bias common molecular evolution analyses such as phylogenetic tree reconstruction, detection of natural selection and estimation of codon usage. We then discuss the biological, technical and methodological causes of these GC-associated biases and suggest approaches to overcome them. PMID:28261263

  15. GC Content Heterogeneity Transition of Conserved Noncoding Sequences Occurred at the Emergence of Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hettiarachchi, Nilmini; Saitou, Naruya

    2016-01-01

    Conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs) of Eukaryotes are known to be significantly enriched in regulatory sequences. CNSs of diverse lineages follow different patterns in abundance, sequence composition, and location. Here, we report a thorough analysis of CNSs in diverse groups of Eukaryotes with respect to GC content heterogeneity. We examined 24 fungi, 19 invertebrates, and 12 non-mammalian vertebrates so as to find lineage specific features of CNSs. We found that fungi and invertebrate CNSs are predominantly GC rich as in plants we previously observed, whereas vertebrate CNSs are GC poor. This result suggests that the CNS GC content transition occurred from the ancestral GC rich state of Eukaryotes to GC poor in the vertebrate lineage due to the enrollment of GC poor transcription factor binding sites that are lineage specific. CNS GC content is closely linked with the nucleosome occupancy that determines the location and structural architecture of DNAs. PMID:28040773

  16. Mutational pressure is a cause of inter- and intragenomic differences in GC-content of simplex and varicello viruses.

    PubMed

    Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich; Barkovsky, Eugene Victorovich

    2009-08-01

    Total GC-content (G+C), GC-content in codon positions and 0-fold, 2-fold and 4-fold degenerated sites in all coding districts from 10 completely sequenced genomes of simplex and varicello viruses have been calculated by the original "Coding Genome Scanner" algorithm. The low coefficient of correlation (R<0.5) between 3GC and G+C in all coding districts from unique regions (UL and US) of alphaherpesvirus genome is a new criterion of the strong mutational pressure that is the process of increasing the rates of nonsynonymous mutations because of the extreme saturation (GC-pressure) or desaturation (AT-pressure) of third (liberal) codon positions with G and C. Unique regions of HSV1, HSV2, CeHV1, CeHV2, CeHV16 and BoHV5 are under the influence of strong GC-pressure caused mostly by AT to GC transversions. Unique regions of EqHV1 are under the influence of weak GC-pressure. In unique regions of CeHV9 AT-pressure is strong; in EqHV4 and VZV unique regions AT-pressure is weak. Mutational AT-pressure in CeHV9 and VZV is caused mostly by transitions, while in EqHV4 it is caused mostly by transversions. The level of 3GC in coding districts situated in long terminal inverted repeats (LTR) of all these viruses is much higher than in coding districts from UL and US. Higher GC-content does not seem to depend on the gene itself, but it does depend on its location. V67 gene of EqHV1 is situated in LTR (3GC=0.853), while V67 gene of EqHV4 is situated in US (3GC=0.397). Higher rates of AT to GC transversions in coding districts situated in LTR should be due to the "anatomy" of long terminal inverted repeats. The process of AT to GC transversions is thought to take place only in doublestranded DNA. Indeed, in the potential secondary structure formed by singlestranded genomic DNA of alphaherpesviruses only joined inverted repeats should be doublestranded.

  17. DNA: Polymer and molecular code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivashankar, G. V.

    1999-10-01

    The thesis work focusses upon two aspects of DNA, the polymer and the molecular code. Our approach was to bring single molecule micromanipulation methods to the study of DNA. It included a home built optical microscope combined with an atomic force microscope and an optical tweezer. This combined approach led to a novel method to graft a single DNA molecule onto a force cantilever using the optical tweezer and local heating. With this method, a force versus extension assay of double stranded DNA was realized. The resolution was about 10 picoN. To improve on this force measurement resolution, a simple light backscattering technique was developed and used to probe the DNA polymer flexibility and its fluctuations. It combined the optical tweezer to trap a DNA tethered bead and the laser backscattering to detect the beads Brownian fluctuations. With this technique the resolution was about 0.1 picoN with a millisecond access time, and the whole entropic part of the DNA force-extension was measured. With this experimental strategy, we measured the polymerization of the protein RecA on an isolated double stranded DNA. We observed the progressive decoration of RecA on the l DNA molecule, which results in the extension of l , due to unwinding of the double helix. The dynamics of polymerization, the resulting change in the DNA entropic elasticity and the role of ATP hydrolysis were the main parts of the study. A simple model for RecA assembly on DNA was proposed. This work presents a first step in the study of genetic recombination. Recently we have started a study of equilibrium binding which utilizes fluorescence polarization methods to probe the polymerization of RecA on single stranded DNA. In addition to the study of material properties of DNA and DNA-RecA, we have developed experiments for which the code of the DNA is central. We studied one aspect of DNA as a molecular code, using different techniques. In particular the programmatic use of template specificity makes

  18. A tailing genome walking method suitable for genomes with high local GC content.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taian; Fang, Yongxiang; Yao, Wenjuan; Guan, Qisai; Bai, Gang; Jing, Zhizhong

    2013-10-15

    The tailing genome walking strategies are simple and efficient. However, they sometimes can be restricted due to the low stringency of homo-oligomeric primers. Here we modified their conventional tailing step by adding polythymidine and polyguanine to the target single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The tailed ssDNA was then amplified exponentially with a specific primer in the known region and a primer comprising 5' polycytosine and 3' polyadenosine. The successful application of this novel method for identifying integration sites mediated by φC31 integrase in goat genome indicates that the method is more suitable for genomes with high complexity and local GC content.

  19. Superimposed Code Theorectic Analysis of DNA Codes and DNA Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    that the hybridization that occurs between a DNA strand and its Watson - Crick complement can be used to perform mathematical computation. This research... Watson - Crick (WC) duplex, e.g., TCGCA TCGCA . Note that non-WC duplexes can form and such a formation is called a cross-hybridization. Cross...5’GAAAGTCGCGTA3’ Watson Crick (WC) Duplexes TACGCGACTTTC Cross Hybridized (CH) Duplexes ATTTTTGCGTTA GAAAAAGAAGAA Coding Strands for Ligation

  20. Random Coding Bounds for DNA Codes Based on Fibonacci Ensembles of DNA Sequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    COVERED (From - To) 6 Jul 08 – 11 Jul 08 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RANDOM CODING BOUNDS FOR DNA CODES BASED ON FIBONACCI ENSEMBLES OF DNA SEQUENCES ... sequences which are generalizations of the Fibonacci sequences . 15. SUBJECT TERMS DNA Codes, Fibonacci Ensembles, DNA Computing, Code Optimization 16...coding bound on the rate of DNA codes is proved. To obtain the bound, we use some ensembles of DNA sequences which are generalizations of the Fibonacci

  1. The decline of isochores in mammals: an assessment of the GC content variation along the mammalian phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Belle, Elise M S; Duret, Laurent; Galtier, Nicolas; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2004-06-01

    Whether isochores, the large-scale variation of the GC content in mammalian genomes, are being maintained has recently been questioned. It has been suggested that GC-rich isochores originated in the ancestral amniote genome but that whatever force gave rise to them is no longer effective and that isochores are now disappearing from mammalian genomes. Here we investigated the evolution of the GC content of 41 coding genes in 6 to 66 species of mammals by estimating the ancestral GC content using a method which allows for different rates of substitution between sites. We found a highly significant decrease in the GC content during early mammalian evolution, as well as a weaker but still significant decrease in the GC content of GC-rich genes later in at least three groups of mammals: primates, rodents, and carnivores. These results are of interest because they confirm the recently suggested disappearance of GC-rich isochores in some mammalian genomes, and more importantly, they suggest that this disappearance started very early in mammalian evolution.

  2. GC Content-Based Pan-Pox Universal PCR Assays for Poxvirus Detection▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Meyer, Hermann; Zhao, Hui; Damon, Inger K.

    2010-01-01

    Chordopoxviruses of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, family Poxviridae, infect vertebrates and consist of at least eight genera with broad host ranges. For most chordopoxviruses, the number of viral genes and their relative order are highly conserved in the central region. The GC content of chordopoxvirus genomes, however, evolved into two distinct types: those with genome GC content of more than 60% and those with a content of less than 40% GC. Two standard PCR assays were developed to identify chordopoxviruses based on whether the target virus has a low or high GC content. In design of the assays, the genus Avipoxvirus, which encodes major rearrangements of gene clusters, was excluded. These pan-pox assays amplify DNA from more than 150 different isolates and strains, including from primary clinical materials, from all seven targeted genera of chordopoxviruses and four unclassified new poxvirus species. The pan-pox assays represent an important advance for the screening and diagnosis of human and animal poxvirus infections, and the technology used is accessible to many laboratories worldwide. PMID:19906902

  3. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Drimys, Liriodendron, andPiper: Implications for the phylogeny of magnoliids and the evolution ofGC content

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengqiu, C.; Penaflor, C.; Kuehl, J.V.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Carlson, J.; dePamphilis, C.W.; Boore, J.L.; Jansen, R.K.

    2006-06-01

    the inverted repeat due to the presence of rRNA genes and lowest in the small single copy region where most NADH genes are located. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes. Trees from both analyses provided strong support for the monophyly of magnoliids and two strongly supported groups were identified, the Canellales/Piperales and the Laurales/Magnoliales. The phylogenies also provided moderate to strong support for the basal position of Amborella, and a sister relationship of magnoliids to a clade that includes monocots and eudicots. The complete sequences of three magnoliid chloroplast genomes provide new data from the largest basal angiosperm clade. Evolutionary comparisons of these new genome sequences, combined with other published angiosperm genome, confirm that GC content is unevenly distributed across the genome by location, codon position, and functional group. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses provide the strongest support so far for the hypothesis that the magnoliids are sister to a large clade that includes both monocots and eudicots.

  4. Coding capacity of complementary DNA strands.

    PubMed Central

    Casino, A; Cipollaro, M; Guerrini, A M; Mastrocinque, G; Spena, A; Scarlato, V

    1981-01-01

    A Fortran computer algorithm has been used to analyze the nucleotide sequence of several structural genes. The analysis performed on both coding and complementary DNA strands shows that whereas open reading frames shorter than 100 codons are randomly distributed on both DNA strands, open reading frames longer than 100 codons ("virtual genes") are significantly more frequent on the complementary DNA strand than on the coding one. These "virtual genes" were further investigated by looking at intron sequences, splicing points, signal sequences and by analyzing gene mutations. On the basis of this analysis coding and complementary DNA strands of several eukaryotic structural genes cannot be distinguished. In particular we suggest that the complementary DNA strand of the human epsilon-globin gene might indeed code for a protein. PMID:7015290

  5. Superimposed Code Theoretic Analysis of DNA Codes and DNA Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    complements of one another and the DNA duplex formed is a Watson - Crick (WC) duplex. However, there are many instances when the formation of non-WC...that the user’s requirements for probe selection are met based on the Watson - Crick probe locality within a target. The second type, called

  6. Telomeres, histone code, and DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Misri, S; Pandita, S; Kumar, R; Pandita, T K

    2008-01-01

    Genomic stability is maintained by telomeres, the end terminal structures that protect chromosomes from fusion or degradation. Shortening or loss of telomeric repeats or altered telomere chromatin structure is correlated with telomere dysfunction such as chromosome end-to-end associations that could lead to genomic instability and gene amplification. The structure at the end of telomeres is such that its DNA differs from DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) to avoid nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), which is accomplished by forming a unique higher order nucleoprotein structure. Telomeres are attached to the nuclear matrix and have a unique chromatin structure. Whether this special structure is maintained by specific chromatin changes is yet to be thoroughly investigated. Chromatin modifications implicated in transcriptional regulation are thought to be the result of a code on the histone proteins (histone code). This code, involving phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, and sumoylation of histones, is believed to regulate chromatin accessibility either by disrupting chromatin contacts or by recruiting non-histone proteins to chromatin. The histone code in which distinct histone tail-protein interactions promote engagement may be the deciding factor for choosing specific DSB repair pathways. Recent evidence suggests that such mechanisms are involved in DNA damage detection and repair. Altered telomere chromatin structure has been linked to defective DNA damage response (DDR), and eukaryotic cells have evolved DDR mechanisms utilizing proficient DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints in order to maintain genomic stability. Recent studies suggest that chromatin modifying factors play a critical role in the maintenance of genomic stability. This review will summarize the role of DNA damage repair proteins specifically ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and its effectors and the telomere complex in maintaining genome stability.

  7. The mutation spectrum in genomic late replication domains shapes mammalian GC content

    PubMed Central

    Kenigsberg, Ephraim; Yehuda, Yishai; Marjavaara, Lisette; Keszthelyi, Andrea; Chabes, Andrei; Tanay, Amos; Simon, Itamar

    2016-01-01

    Genome sequence compositions and epigenetic organizations are correlated extensively across multiple length scales. Replication dynamics, in particular, is highly correlated with GC content. We combine genome-wide time of replication (ToR) data, topological domains maps and detailed functional epigenetic annotations to study the correlations between replication timing and GC content at multiple scales. We find that the decrease in genomic GC content at large scale late replicating regions can be explained by mutation bias favoring A/T nucleotide, without selection or biased gene conversion. Quantification of the free dNTP pool during the cell cycle is consistent with a mechanism involving replication-coupled mutation spectrum that favors AT nucleotides at late S-phase. We suggest that mammalian GC content composition is shaped by independent forces, globally modulating mutation bias and locally selecting on functional element. Deconvoluting these forces and analyzing them on their native scales is important for proper characterization of complex genomic correlations. PMID:27085808

  8. MicroRNA Stability in FFPE Tissue Samples: Dependence on GC Content

    PubMed Central

    Kakimoto, Yu; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Ochiai, Eriko; Osawa, Motoki

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs responsible for fine-tuning of gene expression at post-transcriptional level. The alterations in miRNA expression levels profoundly affect human health and often lead to the development of severe diseases. Currently, high throughput analyses, such as microarray and deep sequencing, are performed in order to identify miRNA biomarkers, using archival patient tissue samples. MiRNAs are more robust than longer RNAs, and resistant to extreme temperatures, pH, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedding (FFPE) process. Here, we have compared the stability of miRNAs in FFPE cardiac tissues using next-generation sequencing. The mode read length in FFPE samples was 11 nucleotides (nt), while that in the matched frozen samples was 22 nt. Although the read counts were increased 1.7-fold in FFPE samples, compared with those in the frozen samples, the average miRNA mapping rate decreased from 32.0% to 9.4%. These results indicate that, in addition to the fragmentation of longer RNAs, miRNAs are to some extent degraded in FFPE tissues as well. The expression profiles of total miRNAs in two groups were highly correlated (0.88 GC content (p<0.0001). The unequal degradation of each miRNA affected the abundance ranking in the library, and miR-133a was shown to be the most abundant in FFPE cardiac tissues instead of miR-1, which was predominant before fixation. Subsequent quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses revealed that miRNAs with GC content of less than 40% are more degraded than GC-rich miRNAs (p<0.0001). We showed that deep sequencing data obtained using FFPE samples cannot be directly compared with that of fresh frozen samples. The combination of miRNA deep sequencing and other quantitative analyses, such as qPCR, may improve the utility of archival FFPE tissue samples. PMID:27649415

  9. The evolution of genomic GC content undergoes a rapid reversal within the genus Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Nikbakht, Hamid; Xia, Xuhua; Hickey, Donal A

    2014-09-01

    The genome of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum is extremely AT rich. This bias toward a low GC content is a characteristic of several, but not all, species within the genus Plasmodium. We compared 4283 orthologous pairs of protein-coding sequences between Plasmodium falciparum and the less AT-biased Plasmodium vivax. Our results indicate that the common ancestor of these two species was also extremely AT rich. This means that, although there was a strong bias toward A+T during the early evolution of the ancestral Plasmodium lineage, there was a subsequent reversal of this trend during the more recent evolution of some species, such as P. vivax. Moreover, we show that not only is the P. vivax genome losing its AT richness, it is actually gaining a very significant degree of GC richness. This example illustrates the potential volatility of nucleotide content during the course of molecular evolution. Such reversible fluxes in nucleotide content within lineages could have important implications for phylogenetic reconstruction based on molecular sequence data.

  10. A convolutional code-based sequence analysis model and its application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Geng, Xiaoli

    2013-04-16

    A new approach for encoding DNA sequences as input for DNA sequence analysis is proposed using the error correction coding theory of communication engineering. The encoder was designed as a convolutional code model whose generator matrix is designed based on the degeneracy of codons, with a codon treated in the model as an informational unit. The utility of the proposed model was demonstrated through the analysis of twelve prokaryote and nine eukaryote DNA sequences having different GC contents. Distinct differences in code distances were observed near the initiation and termination sites in the open reading frame, which provided a well-regulated characterization of the DNA sequences. Clearly distinguished period-3 features appeared in the coding regions, and the characteristic average code distances of the analyzed sequences were approximately proportional to their GC contents, particularly in the selected prokaryotic organisms, presenting the potential utility as an added taxonomic characteristic for use in studying the relationships of living organisms.

  11. DNA-guided establishment of nucleosome patterns within coding regions of a eukaryotic genome.

    PubMed

    Beh, Leslie Y; Müller, Manuel M; Muir, Tom W; Kaplan, Noam; Landweber, Laura F

    2015-11-01

    A conserved hallmark of eukaryotic chromatin architecture is the distinctive array of well-positioned nucleosomes downstream from transcription start sites (TSS). Recent studies indicate that trans-acting factors establish this stereotypical array. Here, we present the first genome-wide in vitro and in vivo nucleosome maps for the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. In contrast with previous studies in yeast, we find that the stereotypical nucleosome array is preserved in the in vitro reconstituted map, which is governed only by the DNA sequence preferences of nucleosomes. Remarkably, this average in vitro pattern arises from the presence of subsets of nucleosomes, rather than the whole array, in individual Tetrahymena genes. Variation in GC content contributes to the positioning of these sequence-directed nucleosomes and affects codon usage and amino acid composition in genes. Given that the AT-rich Tetrahymena genome is intrinsically unfavorable for nucleosome formation, we propose that these "seed" nucleosomes--together with trans-acting factors--may facilitate the establishment of nucleosome arrays within genes in vivo, while minimizing changes to the underlying coding sequences.

  12. DNA Code Validation Using Experimental Fluorescence Measurements and Thermodynamic Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    1 SUMMARY A DNA code is a collection of single-stranded DNA molecules. In DNA hybridization assays, the formation of any Watson - Crick ...combinations represent the canonical Watson - Crick pairings. To obtain the reverse complement of a strand of DNA , one must first reverse the order of the... DNA codes. Using software designed by A.Macula and V. Rykov, (Macula, 2003), a set of 13 pairs, (X, WC(X)), of Watson - Crick reverse complementary

  13. V(D)J recombination coding junction formation without DNA homology: processing of coding termini.

    PubMed Central

    Boubnov, N V; Wills, Z P; Weaver, D T

    1993-01-01

    Coding junction formation in V(D)J recombination generates diversity in the antigen recognition structures of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor molecules by combining processes of deletion of terminal coding sequences and addition of nucleotides prior to joining. We have examined the role of coding end DNA composition in junction formation with plasmid substrates containing defined homopolymers flanking the recombination signal sequence elements. We found that coding junctions formed efficiently with or without terminal DNA homology. The extent of junctional deletion was conserved independent of coding ends with increased, partial, or no DNA homology. Interestingly, G/C homopolymer coding ends showed reduced deletion regardless of DNA homology. Therefore, DNA homology cannot be the primary determinant that stabilizes coding end structures for processing and joining. PMID:8413286

  14. BioCode: Two biologically compatible Algorithms for embedding data in non-coding and coding regions of DNA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent times, the application of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has diversified with the emergence of fields such as DNA computing and DNA data embedding. DNA data embedding, also known as DNA watermarking or DNA steganography, aims to develop robust algorithms for encoding non-genetic information in DNA. Inherently DNA is a digital medium whereby the nucleotide bases act as digital symbols, a fact which underpins all bioinformatics techniques, and which also makes trivial information encoding using DNA straightforward. However, the situation is more complex in methods which aim at embedding information in the genomes of living organisms. DNA is susceptible to mutations, which act as a noisy channel from the point of view of information encoded using DNA. This means that the DNA data embedding field is closely related to digital communications. Moreover it is a particularly unique digital communications area, because important biological constraints must be observed by all methods. Many DNA data embedding algorithms have been presented to date, all of which operate in one of two regions: non-coding DNA (ncDNA) or protein-coding DNA (pcDNA). Results This paper proposes two novel DNA data embedding algorithms jointly called BioCode, which operate in ncDNA and pcDNA, respectively, and which comply fully with stricter biological restrictions. Existing methods comply with some elementary biological constraints, such as preserving protein translation in pcDNA. However there exist further biological restrictions which no DNA data embedding methods to date account for. Observing these constraints is key to increasing the biocompatibility and in turn, the robustness of information encoded in DNA. Conclusion The algorithms encode information in near optimal ways from a coding point of view, as we demonstrate by means of theoretical and empirical (in silico) analyses. Also, they are shown to encode information in a robust way, such that mutations have isolated

  15. Chloroplast DNA codes for transfer RNA.

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, J M; Hershberger, C L

    1976-01-01

    Transfer RNA's were isolated from Euglena gracilis. Chloroplast cistrons for tRNA were quantitated by hybridizing tRNA to ct DNA. Species of tRNA hybridizing to ct DNA were partially purified by hybridization-chromatography. The tRNA's hybridizing to ct DNA and nuclear DNA appear to be different. Total cellular tRNA was hybridized to ct DNA to an equivalent of approximately 25 cistrons. The total cellular tRNA was also separated into 2 fractions by chromatography on dihydroxyboryl substituted amino ethyl cellulose. Fraction I hybridized to both nuclear and ct DNA. Hybridizations to ct DNA indicated approximately 18 cistrons. Fraction II-tRNA hybridized only to ct DNA, saturating at a level of approximately 7 cistrons. The tRNA from isolated chloroplasts hybridized to both chloroplast and nuclear DNA. The level of hybridization to ct DNA indicated approximately 18 cistrons. Fraction II-type tRNA could not be detected in the isolated chloroplasts. PMID:823529

  16. DNA Barcoding through Quaternary LDPC Codes

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Elizabeth; Spetale, Flavio; Krsticevic, Flavia; Angelone, Laura; Bulacio, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    For many parallel applications of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies short barcodes able to accurately multiplex a large number of samples are demanded. To address these competitive requirements, the use of error-correcting codes is advised. Current barcoding systems are mostly built from short random error-correcting codes, a feature that strongly limits their multiplexing accuracy and experimental scalability. To overcome these problems on sequencing systems impaired by mismatch errors, the alternative use of binary BCH and pseudo-quaternary Hamming codes has been proposed. However, these codes either fail to provide a fine-scale with regard to size of barcodes (BCH) or have intrinsic poor error correcting abilities (Hamming). Here, the design of barcodes from shortened binary BCH codes and quaternary Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes is introduced. Simulation results show that although accurate barcoding systems of high multiplexing capacity can be obtained with any of these codes, using quaternary LDPC codes may be particularly advantageous due to the lower rates of read losses and undetected sample misidentification errors. Even at mismatch error rates of 10−2 per base, 24-nt LDPC barcodes can be used to multiplex roughly 2000 samples with a sample misidentification error rate in the order of 10−9 at the expense of a rate of read losses just in the order of 10−6. PMID:26492348

  17. DNA Barcoding through Quaternary LDPC Codes.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Elizabeth; Spetale, Flavio; Krsticevic, Flavia; Angelone, Laura; Bulacio, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    For many parallel applications of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies short barcodes able to accurately multiplex a large number of samples are demanded. To address these competitive requirements, the use of error-correcting codes is advised. Current barcoding systems are mostly built from short random error-correcting codes, a feature that strongly limits their multiplexing accuracy and experimental scalability. To overcome these problems on sequencing systems impaired by mismatch errors, the alternative use of binary BCH and pseudo-quaternary Hamming codes has been proposed. However, these codes either fail to provide a fine-scale with regard to size of barcodes (BCH) or have intrinsic poor error correcting abilities (Hamming). Here, the design of barcodes from shortened binary BCH codes and quaternary Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes is introduced. Simulation results show that although accurate barcoding systems of high multiplexing capacity can be obtained with any of these codes, using quaternary LDPC codes may be particularly advantageous due to the lower rates of read losses and undetected sample misidentification errors. Even at mismatch error rates of 10(-2) per base, 24-nt LDPC barcodes can be used to multiplex roughly 2000 samples with a sample misidentification error rate in the order of 10(-9) at the expense of a rate of read losses just in the order of 10(-6).

  18. Ancient DNA sequence revealed by error-correcting codes

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Marcelo M.; Spoladore, Larissa; Faria, Luzinete C. B.; Rocha, Andréa S. L.; Silva-Filho, Marcio C.; Palazzo, Reginaldo

    2015-01-01

    A previously described DNA sequence generator algorithm (DNA-SGA) using error-correcting codes has been employed as a computational tool to address the evolutionary pathway of the genetic code. The code-generated sequence alignment demonstrated that a residue mutation revealed by the code can be found in the same position in sequences of distantly related taxa. Furthermore, the code-generated sequences do not promote amino acid changes in the deviant genomes through codon reassignment. A Bayesian evolutionary analysis of both code-generated and homologous sequences of the Arabidopsis thaliana malate dehydrogenase gene indicates an approximately 1 MYA divergence time from the MDH code-generated sequence node to its paralogous sequences. The DNA-SGA helps to determine the plesiomorphic state of DNA sequences because a single nucleotide alteration often occurs in distantly related taxa and can be found in the alternative codon patterns of noncanonical genetic codes. As a consequence, the algorithm may reveal an earlier stage of the evolution of the standard code. PMID:26159228

  19. Alu elements in primates are preferentially lost from areas of high GC content

    PubMed Central

    Brookfield, John FY

    2013-01-01

    The currently-accepted dogma when analysing human Alu transposable elements is that ‘young’ Alu elements are found in low GC regions and ‘old’ Alus in high GC regions. The correlation between high GC regions and high gene frequency regions make this observation particularly difficult to explain. Although a number of studies have tackled the problem, no analysis has definitively explained the reason for this trend. These observations have been made by relying on the subfamily as a proxy for age of an element. In this study, we suggest that this is a misleading assumption and instead analyse the relationship between the taxonomic distribution of an individual element and its surrounding GC environment. An analysis of 103906 Alu elements across 6 human chromosomes was carried out, using the presence of orthologous Alu elements in other primate species as a proxy for age. We show that the previously-reported effect of GC content correlating with subfamily age is not reflected by the ages of the individual elements. Instead, elements are preferentially lost from areas of high GC content over time. The correlation between GC content and subfamily may be due to a change in insertion bias in the young subfamilies. The link between Alu subfamily age and GC region was made due to an over-simplification of the data and is incorrect. We suggest that use of subfamilies as a proxy for age is inappropriate and that the analysis of ortholog presence in other primate species provides a deeper insight into the data. PMID:23717800

  20. DNA barcode goes two-dimensions: DNA QR code web server.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Shi, Linchun; Xu, Xiaolan; Li, Huan; Xing, Hang; Liang, Dong; Jiang, Kun; Pang, Xiaohui; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2012-01-01

    The DNA barcoding technology uses a standard region of DNA sequence for species identification and discovery. At present, "DNA barcode" actually refers to DNA sequences, which are not amenable to information storage, recognition, and retrieval. Our aim is to identify the best symbology that can represent DNA barcode sequences in practical applications. A comprehensive set of sequences for five DNA barcode markers ITS2, rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH, and CO1 was used as the test data. Fifty-three different types of one-dimensional and ten two-dimensional barcode symbologies were compared based on different criteria, such as coding capacity, compression efficiency, and error detection ability. The quick response (QR) code was found to have the largest coding capacity and relatively high compression ratio. To facilitate the further usage of QR code-based DNA barcodes, a web server was developed and is accessible at http://qrfordna.dnsalias.org. The web server allows users to retrieve the QR code for a species of interests, convert a DNA sequence to and from a QR code, and perform species identification based on local and global sequence similarities. In summary, the first comprehensive evaluation of various barcode symbologies has been carried out. The QR code has been found to be the most appropriate symbology for DNA barcode sequences. A web server has also been constructed to allow biologists to utilize QR codes in practical DNA barcoding applications.

  1. Protection of the genome and central protein-coding sequences by non-coding DNA against DNA damage from radiation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guo-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Non-coding DNA comprises a very large proportion of the total genomic content in higher organisms, but its function remains largely unclear. Non-coding DNA sequences constitute the majority of peripheral heterochromatin, which has been hypothesized to be the genome's 'bodyguard' against DNA damage from chemicals and radiation for almost four decades. The bodyguard protective function of peripheral heterochromatin in genome defense has been strengthened by the results from numerous recent studies, which are summarized in this review. These data have suggested that cells and/or organisms with a higher level of heterochromatin and more non-coding DNA sequences, including longer telomeric DNA and rDNAs, exhibit a lower frequency of DNA damage, higher radioresistance and longer lifespan after IR exposure. In addition, the majority of heterochromatin is peripherally located in the three-dimensional structure of genome organization. Therefore, the peripheral heterochromatin with non-coding DNA could play a protective role in genome defense against DNA damage from ionizing radiation by both absorbing the radicals from water radiolysis in the cytosol and reducing the energy of IR. However, the bodyguard protection by heterochromatin has been challenged by the observation that DNA damage is less frequently detected in peripheral heterochromatin than in euchromatin, which is inconsistent with the expectation and simulation results. Previous studies have also shown that the DNA damage in peripheral heterochromatin is rarely repaired and moves more quickly, broadly and outwardly to approach the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Additionally, it has been shown that extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs) are formed in the nucleus, highly detectable in the cytoplasm (particularly under stress conditions) and shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Based on these studies, this review speculates that the sites of DNA damage in peripheral heterochromatin could occur more

  2. Correlation approach to identify coding regions in DNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ossadnik, S. M.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, it was observed that noncoding regions of DNA sequences possess long-range power-law correlations, whereas coding regions typically display only short-range correlations. We develop an algorithm based on this finding that enables investigators to perform a statistical analysis on long DNA sequences to locate possible coding regions. The algorithm is particularly successful in predicting the location of lengthy coding regions. For example, for the complete genome of yeast chromosome III (315,344 nucleotides), at least 82% of the predictions correspond to putative coding regions; the algorithm correctly identified all coding regions larger than 3000 nucleotides, 92% of coding regions between 2000 and 3000 nucleotides long, and 79% of coding regions between 1000 and 2000 nucleotides. The predictive ability of this new algorithm supports the claim that there is a fundamental difference in the correlation property between coding and noncoding sequences. This algorithm, which is not species-dependent, can be implemented with other techniques for rapidly and accurately locating relatively long coding regions in genomic sequences.

  3. Nonextensive statistical approach to non-coding human DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Th.; Provata, A.; Tirnakli, U.

    2008-04-01

    We use q-exponential distributions, which maximize the nonextensive entropy Sq (defined as Sq≡(1-∑ipiq)/(q-1)), to study the size distributions of non-coding DNA (including introns and intergenic regions) in all human chromosomes. We show that the value of the exponent q describing the non-coding size distributions is similar for all chromosomes and varies between 2≤q≤2.3 with the exception of chromosomes X and Y.

  4. The correlation coefficient of GC content of the genome-wide genes is positively correlated with animal evolutionary relationships.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongli; Hu, Haofu; Meng, Yuhuan; Zheng, Weihao; Ling, Fei; Wang, Jufang; Zhang, Xiquan; Nie, Qinghua; Wang, Xiaoning

    2010-09-24

    In this study, we present a new method for evaluating animal evolutionary relationships. We used the GC% levels of genome-wide genes to determine the correlation between the GC% content and evolutionary relationship. The correlation coefficients of the GC% content of the orthologous genes of the paired animal species were calculated for a total of 21 species, and the evolutionary branching dates of these 21 species were derived from fossil records. The correlation coefficient of the GC% content of the orthologous genes of the species pair under study served as an indicator of their evolutionary relationship. Moreover, there was a decreasing linear relationship between the correlation coefficient and evolutionary branching date (R(2)=0.930).

  5. DNA as a Binary Code: How the Physical Structure of Nucleotide Bases Carries Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallister, Gary

    2005-01-01

    The DNA triplet code also functions as a binary code. Because double-ring compounds cannot bind to double-ring compounds in the DNA code, the sequence of bases classified simply as purines or pyrimidines can encode for smaller groups of possible amino acids. This is an intuitive approach to teaching the DNA code. (Contains 6 figures.)

  6. Analysis of Ribosome-Associated mRNAs in Rice Reveals the Importance of Transcript Size and GC Content in Translation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dongyan; Hamilton, John P.; Hardigan, Michael; Yin, Dongmei; He, Tao; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Reynoso, Mauricio; Pauluzzi, Germain; Funkhouser, Scott; Cui, Yuehua; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Jiang, Jiming; Buell, C. Robin; Jiang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels including decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) into polypeptides via ribosome-mediated translation. Translational regulation has been intensively studied in the model dicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and in this study, we assessed the translational status [proportion of steady-state mRNA associated with ribosomes] of mRNAs by Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification followed by mRNA-sequencing (TRAP-seq) in rice (Oryza sativa), a model monocot plant and the most important food crop. A survey of three tissues found that most transcribed rice genes are translated whereas few transposable elements are associated with ribosomes. Genes with short and GC-rich coding regions are overrepresented in ribosome-associated mRNAs, suggesting that the GC-richness characteristic of coding sequences in grasses may be an adaptation that favors efficient translation. Transcripts with retained introns and extended 5′ untranslated regions are underrepresented on ribosomes, and rice genes belonging to different evolutionary lineages exhibited differential enrichment on the ribosomes that was associated with GC content. Genes involved in photosynthesis and stress responses are preferentially associated with ribosomes, whereas genes in epigenetic regulation pathways are the least enriched on ribosomes. Such variation is more dramatic in rice than that in Arabidopsis and is correlated with the wide variation of GC content of transcripts in rice. Taken together, variation in the translation status of individual transcripts reflects important mechanisms of gene regulation, which may have a role in evolution and diversification. PMID:27852012

  7. Genes Translocated into the Plastid Inverted Repeat Show Decelerated Substitution Rates and Elevated GC Content

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fay-Wei; Kuo, Li-Yaung; Pryer, Kathleen M.; Rothfels, Carl J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant chloroplast genomes (plastomes) are characterized by an inverted repeat (IR) region and two larger single copy (SC) regions. Patterns of molecular evolution in the IR and SC regions differ, most notably by a reduced rate of nucleotide substitution in the IR compared to the SC region. In addition, the organization and structure of plastomes is fluid, and rearrangements through time have repeatedly shuffled genes into and out of the IR, providing recurrent natural experiments on how chloroplast genome structure can impact rates and patterns of molecular evolution. Here we examine four loci (psbA, ycf2, rps7, and rps12 exon 2–3) that were translocated from the SC into the IR during fern evolution. We use a model-based method, within a phylogenetic context, to test for substitution rate shifts. All four loci show a significant, 2- to 3-fold deceleration in their substitution rate following translocation into the IR, a phenomenon not observed in any other, nontranslocated plastid genes. Also, we show that after translocation, the GC content of the third codon position and of the noncoding regions is significantly increased, implying that gene conversion within the IR is GC-biased. Taken together, our results suggest that the IR region not only reduces substitution rates, but also impacts nucleotide composition. This finding highlights a potential vulnerability of correlating substitution rate heterogeneity with organismal life history traits without knowledge of the underlying genome structure. PMID:27401175

  8. Contrasting GC-content dynamics across 33 mammalian genomes: relationship with life-history traits and chromosome sizes.

    PubMed

    Romiguier, Jonathan; Ranwez, Vincent; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Galtier, Nicolas

    2010-08-01

    The origin, evolution, and functional relevance of genomic variations in GC content are a long-debated topic, especially in mammals. Most of the existing literature, however, has focused on a small number of model species and/or limited sequence data sets. We analyzed more than 1000 orthologous genes in 33 fully sequenced mammalian genomes, reconstructed their ancestral isochore organization in the maximum likelihood framework, and explored the evolution of third-codon position GC content in representatives of 16 orders and 27 families. We showed that the previously reported erosion of GC-rich isochores is not a general trend. Several species (e.g., shrew, microbat, tenrec, rabbit) have independently undergone a marked increase in GC content, with a widening gap between the GC-poorest and GC-richest classes of genes. The intensively studied apes and (especially) murids do not reflect the general placental pattern. We correlated GC-content evolution with species life-history traits and cytology. Significant effects of body mass and genome size were detected, with each being consistent with the GC-biased gene conversion model.

  9. Preliminary analysis of length and GC content variation in the ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of marine animals.

    PubMed

    Chow, S; Ueno, Y; Toyokawa, M; Oohara, I; Takeyama, H

    2009-01-01

    Length and guanine-cytosine (GC) content of the ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) were compared across a wide variety of marine animal species, and its phylogenetic utility was investigated. From a total of 773 individuals representing 599 species, we only failed to amplify the ITS1 sequence from 87 individuals by polymerase chain reaction with universal ITS1 primers. No species was found to have an ITS1 region shorter than 100 bp. In general, the ITS1 sequences of vertebrates were longer (318 to 2,318 bp) and richer in GC content (56.8% to 78%) than those of invertebrates (117 to 1,613 bp and 35.8% to 71.3%, respectively). Specifically, gelatinous animals (Cnidaria and Ctenophora) were observed to have short ITS1 sequences (118 to 422 bp) with lower GC content (35.8% to 61.7%) than the other animal taxa. Mollusca and Crustacea were diverse groups with respect to ITS1 length, ranging from 108 to 1,118 and 182 to 1,613 bp, respectively. No universal relationship between length and GC content was observed. Our data indicated that ITS1 has a limited utility for phylogenetic analysis as obtaining confident sequence alignment was often impossible between different genera of the same family and even between congeneric species.

  10. Free Energy Gap and Statistical Thermodynamic Fidelity of DNA Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    reverse-complement unless otherwise stated. For strand x, let Nx denote its complement. A (perfect) Watson - Crick duplex is the joining of complement...is possible for complementary sequences to form a non-perfectly aligned duplex, we will call any x W Nx duplex a Watson - Crick (WC) duplex. Two...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FREE ENERGY GAP AND STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMIC FIDELITY OF DNA CODES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-07

  11. Structural Code for DNA Recognition Revealed in Crystal Structures of Papillomavirus E2-DNA Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenberg, Haim; Rabinovich, Dov; Frolow, Felix; Hegde, Rashmi S.; Shakked, Zippora

    1998-12-01

    Transcriptional regulation in papillomaviruses depends on sequence-specific binding of the regulatory protein E2 to several sites in the viral genome. Crystal structures of bovine papillomavirus E2 DNA targets reveal a conformational variant of B-DNA characterized by a roll-induced writhe and helical repeat of 10.5 bp per turn. A comparison between the free and the protein-bound DNA demonstrates that the intrinsic structure of the DNA regions contacted directly by the protein and the deformability of the DNA region that is not contacted by the protein are critical for sequence-specific protein/DNA recognition and hence for gene-regulatory signals in the viral system. We show that the selection of dinucleotide or longer segments with appropriate conformational characteristics, when positioned at correct intervals along the DNA helix, can constitute a structural code for DNA recognition by regulatory proteins. This structural code facilitates the formation of a complementary protein-DNA interface that can be further specified by hydrogen bonds and nonpolar interactions between the protein amino acids and the DNA bases.

  12. Superimposed Code Theoretic Analysis of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Codes and DNA Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    hybridization that occurs between a DNA strand and its Watson - Crick complement can be used to perform mathematical computation. This research addresses how the...are 5′→3′ and strands with strikethrough are 3′→5′. A dsDNA duplex formed between a strand and its reverse complement is called a Watson - Crick (WC...3’ 5’ 3’ 5’TACGCGACTTTC3’ 5’GAAAGTCGCGTA3’ ATCAAACGATGC GCATCGTTTGAT Watson Crick (WC) Duplexes TACGCGACTTTC

  13. Extra-coding RNAs regulate neuronal DNA methylation dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Savell, Katherine E.; Gallus, Nancy V. N.; Simon, Rhiana C.; Brown, Jordan A.; Revanna, Jasmin S.; Osborn, Mary Katherine; Song, Esther Y.; O'Malley, John J.; Stackhouse, Christian T.; Norvil, Allison; Gowher, Humaira; Sweatt, J. David; Day, Jeremy J.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are essential regulators of the function and information storage capacity of neurons. DNA methylation is highly dynamic in the developing and adult brain, and is actively regulated by neuronal activity and behavioural experiences. However, it is presently unclear how methylation status at individual genes is targeted for modification. Here, we report that extra-coding RNAs (ecRNAs) interact with DNA methyltransferases and regulate neuronal DNA methylation. Expression of ecRNA species is associated with gene promoter hypomethylation, is altered by neuronal activity, and is overrepresented at genes involved in neuronal function. Knockdown of the Fos ecRNA locus results in gene hypermethylation and mRNA silencing, and hippocampal expression of Fos ecRNA is required for long-term fear memory formation in rats. These results suggest that ecRNAs are fundamental regulators of DNA methylation patterns in neuronal systems, and reveal a promising avenue for therapeutic targeting in neuropsychiatric disease states. PMID:27384705

  14. An efficient and rapid method for cDNA cloning from difficult templates using codon optimization and SOE-PCR: with human RANK and TIMP2 gene as examples.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang; Wen, Qianjun; Gao, Qiangguo; Zhang, Fang; Bai, Yun

    2011-10-01

    As gene cloning from difficult templates with regionalized high GC content is a long recognized problem, we have developed a novel and reliable method to clone such genes. Firstly, the high GC content region of the target cDNA was synthesized directly after codon optimization and the remaining cDNA fragment without high GC content was generated by routine RT-PCR. Then the entire redesigned coding sequence of the target gene was obtained by fusing the above available two cDNA fragments with SOE-PCR (splicing by overlapping extension-PCR). We have cloned the human RANK gene (ten exons; CDS 1851 bp) using this strategy. The redesigned cDNA was transfected into an eukaryotic expression system (A459 cells) to verify its expression. RT-PCR and western blotting confirmed this. To validate our method, we also successfully cloned human TIMP2 gene (five exons; CDS 660 bp) also having a regionalized high GC content. Our strategy for combining codon optimization and SOE-PCR to clone difficult genes is thus feasible and potentially universally applicable.

  15. Imperfect DNA mirror repeats in E. coli TnsA and other protein-coding DNA.

    PubMed

    Lang, Dorothy M

    2005-09-01

    DNA imperfect mirror repeats (DNA-IMRs) are ubiquitous in protein-coding DNA. However, they overlap and often have different centers of symmetry, making it difficult to evaluate their relationship to each other and to specific DNA and protein motifs and structures. This paper describes a systematic method of determining a hierarchy for DNA-IMRs and evaluates their relationship to protein structural elements (PSEs)--helices, turns and beta-sheets. DNA-IMRs are identifed by two different methods--DNA-IMRs terminated by reverse dinucleotides (rd-IMRs) and DNA-IMRs terminated by a single (mono) matching nucleotide (m-IMRs). Both rd-IMRs and m-IMRs are evaluated in 17 proteins, and illustrated in detail for TnsA. For each of the proteins, Fisher's exact test (FET) is used to measure the coincidence between the terminal dinucleotides of rd-IMRs and the terminal amino acids of individual PSEs. A significant correlation over a span of about 3 nt was found for each protein. The correlation is robust and for most genes, all rd-IMRs16 nt contain approximately 88% of the potential functional motifs. The protein translation of the longest rd- and m-IMRs span sequences important to the protein's structure and function. In all 17 proteins studied, the population of rd-IMRs is substantially less than the expected number and the population of m-IMRs greater than the expected number, indicating strong selective pressures. The association of rd-IMRs with PSEs restricts their spatial distribution, and therefore, their number. The greater than predicted number of m-IMRs indicates that DNA symmetry exists throughout the entire protein-coding region and may stabilize the sequence.

  16. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences through chaos-game representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Mayukha; Satish, B.; Srinivas, K.; Rao, P. Madhusudana; Manimaran, P.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new approach combining the chaos game representation and the two dimensional multifractal detrended cross correlation analysis methods to examine multifractal behavior in power law cross correlation between any pair of nucleotide sequences of unequal lengths. In this work, we analyzed the characteristic behavior of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of eight prokaryotes. The results show the presence of strong multifractal nature between coding and non-coding sequences of all data sets. We found that this integrative approach helps us to consider complete DNA sequences for characterization, and further it may be useful for classification, clustering, identification of class affiliation of nucleotide sequences etc. with high precision.

  17. Coding DNA repeated throughout intergenic regions of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome: Evolutionary footprints of RNA silencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyknons are non-random sequence patterns significantly repeated throughout non-coding genomic DNA that also appear at least once among genes. They are interesting because they portend an unforeseen connection between coding and non-coding DNA. Pyknons have only been discovered in the human genome,...

  18. Evolutionary analysis of DNA-protein-coding regions based on a genetic code cube metric.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Robersy

    2014-01-01

    The right estimation of the evolutionary distance between DNA or protein sequences is the cornerstone of the current phylogenetic analysis based on distance methods. Herein, it is demonstrated that the Manhattan distance (dw), weighted by the evolutionary importance of the nucleotide bases in the codon, is a naturally derived metric in the standard genetic code cube inserted into the three-dimensional Euclidean space. Based on the application of distance dw, a novel evolutionary model is proposed. This model includes insertion/deletion mutations that are very important for cancer studies, but usually discarded in classical evolutionary models. In this study, the new evolutionary model was applied to the phylogenetic analysis of the DNA protein-coding regions of 13 mammal mitochondrial genomes and of four cancer genetic- susceptibility genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2 and p53) from nine mammals. The opossum (a marsupial) was used as an out-group species for both sets of sequences. The new evolutionary model yielded the correct topology, while the current models failed to separate the evolutionarily distant species of mouse and opossum.

  19. Non-extensive trends in the size distribution of coding and non-coding DNA sequences in the human genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Th.; Provata, A.

    2006-03-01

    We study the primary DNA structure of four of the most completely sequenced human chromosomes (including chromosome 19 which is the most dense in coding), using non-extensive statistics. We show that the exponents governing the spatial decay of the coding size distributions vary between 5.2 ≤r ≤5.7 for the short scales and 1.45 ≤q ≤1.50 for the large scales. On the contrary, the exponents governing the spatial decay of the non-coding size distributions in these four chromosomes, take the values 2.4 ≤r ≤3.2 for the short scales and 1.50 ≤q ≤1.72 for the large scales. These results, in particular the values of the tail exponent q, indicate the existence of correlations in the coding and non-coding size distributions with tendency for higher correlations in the non-coding DNA.

  20. Length and GC content variability of introns among teleostean genomes in the light of the metabolic rate hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Ankita; Tarallo, Andrea; Bernà, Luisa; Yagi, Mitsuharu; Agnisola, Claudio; D'Onofrio, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A comparative analysis of five teleostean genomes, namely zebrafish, medaka, three-spine stickleback, fugu and pufferfish was performed with the aim to highlight the nature of the forces driving both length and base composition of introns (i.e., bpi and GCi). An inter-genome approach using orthologous intronic sequences was carried out, analyzing independently both variables in pairwise comparisons. An average length shortening of introns was observed at increasing average GCi values. The result was not affected by masking transposable and repetitive elements harbored in the intronic sequences. The routine metabolic rate (mass specific temperature-corrected using the Boltzmann's factor) was measured for each species. A significant correlation held between average differences of metabolic rate, length and GC content, while environmental temperature of fish habitat was not correlated with bpi and GCi. Analyzing the concomitant effect of both variables, i.e., bpi and GCi, at increasing genomic GC content, a decrease of bpi and an increase of GCi was observed for the significant majority of the intronic sequences (from ∼ 40% to ∼ 90%, in each pairwise comparison). The opposite event, concomitant increase of bpi and decrease of GCi, was counter selected (from <1% to ∼ 10%, in each pairwise comparison). The results further support the hypothesis that the metabolic rate plays a key role in shaping genome architecture and evolution of vertebrate genomes.

  1. Length and GC Content Variability of Introns among Teleostean Genomes in the Light of the Metabolic Rate Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Ankita; Tarallo, Andrea; Bernà, Luisa; Yagi, Mitsuharu; Agnisola, Claudio; D’Onofrio, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A comparative analysis of five teleostean genomes, namely zebrafish, medaka, three-spine stickleback, fugu and pufferfish was performed with the aim to highlight the nature of the forces driving both length and base composition of introns (i.e., bpi and GCi). An inter-genome approach using orthologous intronic sequences was carried out, analyzing independently both variables in pairwise comparisons. An average length shortening of introns was observed at increasing average GCi values. The result was not affected by masking transposable and repetitive elements harbored in the intronic sequences. The routine metabolic rate (mass specific temperature-corrected using the Boltzmann's factor) was measured for each species. A significant correlation held between average differences of metabolic rate, length and GC content, while environmental temperature of fish habitat was not correlated with bpi and GCi. Analyzing the concomitant effect of both variables, i.e., bpi and GCi, at increasing genomic GC content, a decrease of bpi and an increase of GCi was observed for the significant majority of the intronic sequences (from ∼40% to ∼90%, in each pairwise comparison). The opposite event, concomitant increase of bpi and decrease of GCi, was counter selected (from <1% to ∼10%, in each pairwise comparison). The results further support the hypothesis that the metabolic rate plays a key role in shaping genome architecture and evolution of vertebrate genomes. PMID:25093416

  2. In search of coding and non-coding regions of DNA sequences based on balanced estimation of diffusion entropy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Wenqing; Yang, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    Identification of coding regions in DNA sequences remains challenging. Various methods have been proposed, but these are limited by species-dependence and the need for adequate training sets. The elements in DNA coding regions are known to be distributed in a quasi-random way, while those in non-coding regions have typical similar structures. For short sequences, these statistical characteristics cannot be extracted correctly and cannot even be detected. This paper introduces a new way to solve the problem: balanced estimation of diffusion entropy (BEDE).

  3. Integrative RNA-seq and microarray data analysis reveals GC content and gene length biases in the psoriasis transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xianying; Voorhees, John J.; Elder, James T.; Johnston, Andrew; Gudjonsson, Johann E.

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of psoriasis has driven research advances and may soon provide the basis for clinical applications. For expression profiling studies, RNA-seq is now a competitive technology, but RNA-seq results may differ from those obtained by microarray. We therefore compared findings obtained by RNA-seq with those from eight microarray studies of psoriasis. RNA-seq and microarray datasets identified similar numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), with certain genes uniquely identified by each technology. Correspondence between platforms and the balance of increased to decreased DEGs was influenced by mRNA abundance, GC content, and gene length. Weakly expressed genes, genes with low GC content, and long genes were all biased toward decreased expression in psoriasis lesions. The strength of these trends differed among array datasets, most likely due to variations in RNA quality. Gene length bias was by far the strongest trend and was evident in all datasets regardless of the expression profiling technology. The effect was due to differences between lesional and uninvolved skin with respect to the genome-wide correlation between gene length and gene expression, which was consistently more negative in psoriasis lesions. These findings demonstrate the complementary nature of RNA-seq and microarray technology and show that integrative analysis of both data types can provide a richer view of the transcriptome than strict reliance on a single method alone. Our results also highlight factors affecting correspondence between technologies, and we have established that gene length is a major determinant of differential expression in psoriasis lesions. PMID:24844236

  4. Insights into corn genes derived from large-scale cDNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Nickolai N; Brover, Vyacheslav V; Freidin, Stanislav; Troukhan, Maxim E; Tatarinova, Tatiana V; Zhang, Hongyu; Swaller, Timothy J; Lu, Yu-Ping; Bouck, John; Flavell, Richard B; Feldmann, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    We present a large portion of the transcriptome of Zea mays, including ESTs representing 484,032 cDNA clones from 53 libraries and 36,565 fully sequenced cDNA clones, out of which 31,552 clones are non-redundant. These and other previously sequenced transcripts have been aligned with available genome sequences and have provided new insights into the characteristics of gene structures and promoters within this major crop species. We found that although the average number of introns per gene is about the same in corn and Arabidopsis, corn genes have more alternatively spliced isoforms. Examination of the nucleotide composition of coding regions reveals that corn genes, as well as genes of other Poaceae (Grass family), can be divided into two classes according to the GC content at the third position in the amino acid encoding codons. Many of the transcripts that have lower GC content at the third position have dicot homologs but the high GC content transcripts tend to be more specific to the grasses. The high GC content class is also enriched with intronless genes. Together this suggests that an identifiable class of genes in plants is associated with the Poaceae divergence. Furthermore, because many of these genes appear to be derived from ancestral genes that do not contain introns, this evolutionary divergence may be the result of horizontal gene transfer from species not only with different codon usage but possibly that did not have introns, perhaps outside of the plant kingdom. By comparing the cDNAs described herein with the non-redundant set of corn mRNAs in GenBank, we estimate that there are about 50,000 different protein coding genes in Zea. All of the sequence data from this study have been submitted to DDBJ/GenBank/EMBL under accession numbers EU940701-EU977132 (FLI cDNA) and FK944382-FL482108 (EST).

  5. Dualism of gene GC content and CpG pattern in regard to expression in the human genome: magnitude versus breadth.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander E

    2005-12-01

    In this article, I show that, in the human genome, the GC content in genes (but not the CpG island in the promoter) is related to the maximum level of gene expression among tissues, whereas the promoter CpG island and gene CpG level are more strongly related to the breadth of expression among tissues. The relevance of gene GC content to expression cannot be a consequence (i.e. a byproduct) of transcription because it does not correlate with expression in the germline. The variation of GC content and CpG level can determine the characteristics of gene expression in a synergistic interplay with transcription-factor-binding sites (mediated by chromatin condensation).

  6. Evaluation of DHPLC analysis in mutational scanning of Notch3, a gene with a high G-C content.

    PubMed

    Escary, J L; Cécillon, M; Maciazek, J; Lathrop, M; Tournier-Lasserve, E; Joutel, A

    2000-12-01

    Notch3 mutations cause CADASIL, an increasingly recognized cause of subcortical ischemic stroke and vascular dementia in human adults. In the absence of any specific diagnostic criteria, CADASIL diagnosis is based on mutational scanning of Notch3, which is a large gene composed of 33 exons with a high G-C content. In this study we examined the sensitivity of denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). First we established the theoretical optimal parameters, then we examined a large collection of amplicons in which we had previously identified distinct pathogenic mutations or polymorphisms. We further performed Notch3 mutational scanning in five patients suspected of CADASIL diagnosis in which previous scanning, including SSCP and heteroduplexes analysis, failed to detect any pathogenic mutation. DHPLC resolved 97% of mutations previously detected by sequencing and allowed identification of two novel pathogenic mutations: R607C and F984C. These data indicate that DHPLC is a sensitive screening method particularly suitable for epidemio-genetic screening of CADASIL.

  7. Differences in codon bias and GC content contribute to the balanced expression of TLR7 and TLR9

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Zachary R.; Young, Janet M.; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Barton, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system detects diverse microbial species with a limited repertoire of immune receptors that recognize nucleic acids. The cost of this immune surveillance strategy is the potential for inappropriate recognition of self-derived nucleic acids and subsequent autoimmune disease. The relative expression of two closely related receptors, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR9, is balanced to allow recognition of microbial nucleic acids while limiting recognition of self-derived nucleic acids. Situations that tilt this balance toward TLR7 promote inappropriate responses, including autoimmunity; therefore, tight control of expression is critical for proper homeostasis. Here we report that differences in codon bias limit TLR7 expression relative to TLR9. Codon optimization of Tlr7 increases protein levels as well as responses to ligands, but, unexpectedly, these changes only modestly affect translation. Instead, we find that much of the benefit attributed to codon optimization is actually the result of enhanced transcription. Our findings, together with other recent examples, challenge the dogma that codon optimization primarily increases translation. We propose that suboptimal codon bias, which correlates with low guanine-cytosine (GC) content, limits transcription of certain genes. This mechanism may establish low levels of proteins whose overexpression leads to particularly deleterious effects, such as TLR7. PMID:26903634

  8. What Information is Stored in DNA: Does it Contain Digital Error Correcting Codes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebovitch, Larry

    1998-03-01

    The longest term correlations in living systems are the information stored in DNA which reflects the evolutionary history of an organism. The 4 bases (A,T,G,C) encode sequences of amino acids as well as locations of binding sites for proteins that regulate DNA. The fidelity of this important information is maintained by ANALOG error check mechanisms. When a single strand of DNA is replicated the complementary base is inserted in the new strand. Sometimes the wrong base is inserted that sticks out disrupting the phosphate backbone. The new base is not yet methylated, so repair enzymes, that slide along the DNA, can tear out the wrong base and replace it with the right one. The bases in DNA form a sequence of 4 different symbols and so the information is encoded in a DIGITAL form. All the digital codes in our society (ISBN book numbers, UPC product codes, bank account numbers, airline ticket numbers) use error checking code, where some digits are functions of other digits to maintain the fidelity of transmitted informaiton. Does DNA also utitlize a DIGITAL error chekcing code to maintain the fidelity of its information and increase the accuracy of replication? That is, are some bases in DNA functions of other bases upstream or downstream? This raises the interesting mathematical problem: How does one determine whether some symbols in a sequence of symbols are a function of other symbols. It also bears on the issue of determining algorithmic complexity: What is the function that generates the shortest algorithm for reproducing the symbol sequence. The error checking codes most used in our technology are linear block codes. We developed an efficient method to test for the presence of such codes in DNA. We coded the 4 bases as (0,1,2,3) and used Gaussian elimination, modified for modulus 4, to test if some bases are linear combinations of other bases. We used this method to analyze the base sequence in the genes from the lac operon and cytochrome C. We did not find

  9. Sequences encoding identical peptides for the analysis and manipulation of coding DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    The use of sequences encoding identical peptides (SEIP) for the in silico analysis of coding DNA from different species has not been reported; the study of such sequences could directly reveal properties of coding DNA that are independent of peptide sequences. For practical purposes SEIP might also be manipulated for e.g. heterologous protein expression. We extracted 1,551 SEIP from human and E. coli and 2,631 SEIP from human and D. melanogaster. We then analyzed codon usage and intercodon dinucleotide tendencies and found differences in both, with more conspicuous disparities between human and E. coli than between human and D. melanogaster. We also briefly manipulated SEIP to find out if they could be used to create new coding sequences. We hence attempted replacement of human by E. coli codons via dicodon exchange but found that full replacement was not possible, this indicated robust species-specific dicodon tendencies. To test another form of codon replacement we isolated SEIP from human and the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) and we then re-constructed the GFP coding DNA with human tetra-peptide-coding sequences. Results provide proof-of-principle that SEIP may be used to reveal differences in the properties of coding DNA and to reconstruct in pieces a protein coding DNA with sequences from a different organism, the latter might be exploited in heterologous protein expression. PMID:23861567

  10. Sequences encoding identical peptides for the analysis and manipulation of coding DNA.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    The use of sequences encoding identical peptides (SEIP) for the in silico analysis of coding DNA from different species has not been reported; the study of such sequences could directly reveal properties of coding DNA that are independent of peptide sequences. For practical purposes SEIP might also be manipulated for e.g. heterologous protein expression. We extracted 1,551 SEIP from human and E. coli and 2,631 SEIP from human and D. melanogaster. We then analyzed codon usage and intercodon dinucleotide tendencies and found differences in both, with more conspicuous disparities between human and E. coli than between human and D. melanogaster. We also briefly manipulated SEIP to find out if they could be used to create new coding sequences. We hence attempted replacement of human by E. coli codons via dicodon exchange but found that full replacement was not possible, this indicated robust species-specific dicodon tendencies. To test another form of codon replacement we isolated SEIP from human and the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) and we then re-constructed the GFP coding DNA with human tetra-peptide-coding sequences. Results provide proof-of-principle that SEIP may be used to reveal differences in the properties of coding DNA and to reconstruct in pieces a protein coding DNA with sequences from a different organism, the latter might be exploited in heterologous protein expression.

  11. Fact or fiction: updates on how protein-coding genes might emerge de novo from previously non-coding DNA.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Jonathan F; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increasing amount of evidence for the de novo emergence of protein-coding genes, i.e. out of non-coding DNA. Here, we review the current literature and summarize the state of the field. We focus specifically on open questions and challenges in the study of de novo protein-coding genes such as the identification and verification of de novo-emerged genes. The greatest obstacle to date is the lack of high-quality genomic data with very short divergence times which could help precisely pin down the location of origin of a de novo gene. We conclude that, while there is plenty of evidence from a genetics perspective, there is a lack of functional studies of bona fide de novo genes and almost no knowledge about protein structures and how they come about during the emergence of de novo protein-coding genes. We suggest that future studies should concentrate on the functional and structural characterization of de novo protein-coding genes as well as the detailed study of the emergence of functional de novo protein-coding genes.

  12. Fact or fiction: updates on how protein-coding genes might emerge de novo from previously non-coding DNA

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Jonathan F; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increasing amount of evidence for the de novo emergence of protein-coding genes, i.e. out of non-coding DNA. Here, we review the current literature and summarize the state of the field. We focus specifically on open questions and challenges in the study of de novo protein-coding genes such as the identification and verification of de novo-emerged genes. The greatest obstacle to date is the lack of high-quality genomic data with very short divergence times which could help precisely pin down the location of origin of a de novo gene. We conclude that, while there is plenty of evidence from a genetics perspective, there is a lack of functional studies of bona fide de novo genes and almost no knowledge about protein structures and how they come about during the emergence of de novo protein-coding genes. We suggest that future studies should concentrate on the functional and structural characterization of de novo protein-coding genes as well as the detailed study of the emergence of functional de novo protein-coding genes. PMID:28163910

  13. TOWARDS A PROBABILISTIC RECOGNITION CODE FOR PROTEIN-DNA INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    P. BENOS; ET AL

    2000-09-01

    We are investigating the rules that govern protein-DNA interactions, using a statistical mechanics based formalism that is related to the Boltzmann Machine of the neural net literature. Our approach is data-driven, in which probabilistic algorithms are used to model protein-DNA interactions, given SELEX and phage data as input. Under the ''one-to-one'' model for interactions (i.e. one amino acid contacts one base), we can successfully identify the wild-type binding sites of EGR and MIG protein families. The predictions using our method are the same or better than that of methods existing in the literature, however our methodology offers the potential to capitalize in quantitative detail on more data as it becomes available.

  14. Genetic analysis of an aphid endosymbiont DNA fragment homologous to the rnpA-rpmH-dnaA-dnaN-gyrB region of eubacteria.

    PubMed

    Lai, C Y; Baumann, P

    1992-04-15

    Buchnera aphidicola is a Gram- eubacterium with a DNA G+C content of 28-30 mol%. This organism is an obligate intracellular symbiont of aphids. To determine its similarity to or difference from other eubacteria, a 4.9-kb DNA fragment from B. aphidicola containing the gene homologous to Escherichia coli dnaA (a gene involved in the initiation of chromosome replication) was cloned into E. coli and sequenced. The order of genes on this fragment, 60K-10K-rnpA-rpmH-dnaA-dnaN-gyrB, was similar to that found in other eubacteria. The sole difference was the absence of recF between dnaN and gyrB. The deduced amino acid sequence of these proteins resembled those of E. coli by a 41 to 83% identity. Except for E. coli, in all the eubacteria so far examined, dnaA is preceded by multiple 9-nucleotide repeats known as a DnaA boxes. No DnaA boxes were detected in the endosymbiont DNA. The possibility that this observation is a consequence of the low G+C content of this DNA fragment (14 mol% G+C) is unlikely since in Mycoplasma capricolum this fragment (19 mol% G+C) has eight DnaA boxes (Fujita et al., 1992). The presence of the sequence, GATC, recognized by the Dam methyl-transferase system, only within six regions coding for proteins suggests that methylation is not a factor in the regulation of the initiation of endosymbiont chromosome replication.

  15. [Cloning and insertion mutagenesis of DNA fragment coding for the luminescent system of Photobacterium leiognathi].

    PubMed

    Ptitsyn, L R; Gurevich, V B; Barsanova, T G; Shenderov, A N; Khaĭkinson, M Ia

    1988-10-01

    Fragments of DNA, obtained from the luminescent bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi and inserted into the plasmid pBR322, were found to code for the luminescence expressed in E. coli cells. The genetic functions necessary for light production in E. coli are localized on a DNA fragment of about 7 kbp. The insertion mutagenesis was used to define the luminescence functions encoded by the hybrid plasmid.

  16. DNA methylation patterns of protein-coding genes and long non-coding RNAs in males with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qi; Wang, Yunliang; Cheng, Jia; Dai, Dongjun; Zhou, Xingyu; Zhang, Yuzheng; Li, Jinfeng; Yin, Honglei; Gao, Shugui; Duan, Shiwei

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is one of the most complex mental illnesses affecting ~1% of the population worldwide. SCZ pathogenesis is considered to be a result of genetic as well as epigenetic alterations. Previous studies have aimed to identify the causative genes of SCZ. However, DNA methylation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) involved in SCZ has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation was conducted using samples from two male patients with paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ, respectively. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing was used. In the two patients with paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ, 1,397 and 1,437 peaks were identified, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that peaks were enriched in protein-coding genes, which exhibited nervous system and brain functions. A number of these peaks in gene promoter regions may affect gene expression and, therefore, influence SCZ-associated pathways. Furthermore, 7 and 20 lncRNAs, respectively, in the Refseq database were hypermethylated. According to the lncRNA dataset in the NONCODE database, ~30% of intergenic peaks overlapped with novel lncRNA loci. The results of the present study demonstrated that aberrant hypermethylation of lncRNA genes may be an important epigenetic factor associated with SCZ. However, further studies using larger sample sizes are required.

  17. Synonymous codon bias and functional constraint on GC3-related DNA backbone dynamics in the prokaryotic nucleoid

    PubMed Central

    Babbitt, Gregory A.; Alawad, Mohammed A.; Schulze, Katharina V.; Hudson, André O.

    2014-01-01

    While mRNA stability has been demonstrated to control rates of translation, generating both global and local synonymous codon biases in many unicellular organisms, this explanation cannot adequately explain why codon bias strongly tracks neighboring intergene GC content; suggesting that structural dynamics of DNA might also influence codon choice. Because minor groove width is highly governed by 3-base periodicity in GC, the existence of triplet-based codons might imply a functional role for the optimization of local DNA molecular dynamics via GC content at synonymous sites (≈GC3). We confirm a strong association between GC3-related intrinsic DNA flexibility and codon bias across 24 different prokaryotic multiple whole-genome alignments. We develop a novel test of natural selection targeting synonymous sites and demonstrate that GC3-related DNA backbone dynamics have been subject to moderate selective pressure, perhaps contributing to our observation that many genes possess extreme DNA backbone dynamics for their given protein space. This dual function of codons may impose universal functional constraints affecting the evolution of synonymous and non-synonymous sites. We propose that synonymous sites may have evolved as an ‘accessory’ during an early expansion of a primordial genetic code, allowing for multiplexed protein coding and structural dynamic information within the same molecular context. PMID:25200075

  18. Synonymous codon bias and functional constraint on GC3-related DNA backbone dynamics in the prokaryotic nucleoid.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Gregory A; Alawad, Mohammed A; Schulze, Katharina V; Hudson, André O

    2014-01-01

    While mRNA stability has been demonstrated to control rates of translation, generating both global and local synonymous codon biases in many unicellular organisms, this explanation cannot adequately explain why codon bias strongly tracks neighboring intergene GC content; suggesting that structural dynamics of DNA might also influence codon choice. Because minor groove width is highly governed by 3-base periodicity in GC, the existence of triplet-based codons might imply a functional role for the optimization of local DNA molecular dynamics via GC content at synonymous sites (≈GC3). We confirm a strong association between GC3-related intrinsic DNA flexibility and codon bias across 24 different prokaryotic multiple whole-genome alignments. We develop a novel test of natural selection targeting synonymous sites and demonstrate that GC3-related DNA backbone dynamics have been subject to moderate selective pressure, perhaps contributing to our observation that many genes possess extreme DNA backbone dynamics for their given protein space. This dual function of codons may impose universal functional constraints affecting the evolution of synonymous and non-synonymous sites. We propose that synonymous sites may have evolved as an 'accessory' during an early expansion of a primordial genetic code, allowing for multiplexed protein coding and structural dynamic information within the same molecular context.

  19. Diversity and recombination of dispersed ribosomal DNA and protein coding genes in microsporidia.

    PubMed

    Ironside, Joseph Edward

    2013-01-01

    Microsporidian strains are usually classified on the basis of their ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences. Although rDNA occurs as multiple copies, in most non-microsporidian species copies within a genome occur as tandem arrays and are homogenised by concerted evolution. In contrast, microsporidian rDNA units are dispersed throughout the genome in some species, and on this basis are predicted to undergo reduced concerted evolution. Furthermore many microsporidian species appear to be asexual and should therefore exhibit reduced genetic diversity due to a lack of recombination. Here, DNA sequences are compared between microsporidia with different life cycles in order to determine the effects of concerted evolution and sexual reproduction upon the diversity of rDNA and protein coding genes. Comparisons of cloned rDNA sequences between microsporidia of the genus Nosema with different life cycles provide evidence of intragenomic variability coupled with strong purifying selection. This suggests a birth and death process of evolution. However, some concerted evolution is suggested by clustering of rDNA sequences within species. Variability of protein-coding sequences indicates that considerable intergenomic variation also occurs between microsporidian cells within a single host. Patterns of variation in microsporidian DNA sequences indicate that additional diversity is generated by intragenomic and/or intergenomic recombination between sequence variants. The discovery of intragenomic variability coupled with strong purifying selection in microsporidian rRNA sequences supports the hypothesis that concerted evolution is reduced when copies of a gene are dispersed rather than repeated tandemly. The presence of intragenomic variability also renders the use of rDNA sequences for barcoding microsporidia questionable. Evidence of recombination in the single-copy genes of putatively asexual microsporidia suggests that these species may undergo cryptic sexual reproduction, a

  20. Diversity and Recombination of Dispersed Ribosomal DNA and Protein Coding Genes in Microsporidia

    PubMed Central

    Ironside, Joseph Edward

    2013-01-01

    Microsporidian strains are usually classified on the basis of their ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences. Although rDNA occurs as multiple copies, in most non-microsporidian species copies within a genome occur as tandem arrays and are homogenised by concerted evolution. In contrast, microsporidian rDNA units are dispersed throughout the genome in some species, and on this basis are predicted to undergo reduced concerted evolution. Furthermore many microsporidian species appear to be asexual and should therefore exhibit reduced genetic diversity due to a lack of recombination. Here, DNA sequences are compared between microsporidia with different life cycles in order to determine the effects of concerted evolution and sexual reproduction upon the diversity of rDNA and protein coding genes. Comparisons of cloned rDNA sequences between microsporidia of the genus Nosema with different life cycles provide evidence of intragenomic variability coupled with strong purifying selection. This suggests a birth and death process of evolution. However, some concerted evolution is suggested by clustering of rDNA sequences within species. Variability of protein-coding sequences indicates that considerable intergenomic variation also occurs between microsporidian cells within a single host. Patterns of variation in microsporidian DNA sequences indicate that additional diversity is generated by intragenomic and/or intergenomic recombination between sequence variants. The discovery of intragenomic variability coupled with strong purifying selection in microsporidian rRNA sequences supports the hypothesis that concerted evolution is reduced when copies of a gene are dispersed rather than repeated tandemly. The presence of intragenomic variability also renders the use of rDNA sequences for barcoding microsporidia questionable. Evidence of recombination in the single-copy genes of putatively asexual microsporidia suggests that these species may undergo cryptic sexual reproduction, a

  1. Heterogeneous base distribution in mitochondrial DNA of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Terpstra, P; Holtrop, M; Kroon, A

    1977-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA of Neurospora crassa has a heterogeneous intramolecular base distribution. A contiguous piece, representing at least 30% of the total genome, has a G+C content that is 6% lower than the overall G+C content of the DNA. The genes for both ribosomal RNAs are contained in the remaining, relatively G+C rich, part of the genome. PMID:141040

  2. Correcting sequencing errors in DNA coding regions using a dynamic programming approach

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Mural, R.J.; Uberbacher, E.C.

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for detecting and ``correcting`` sequencing errors that occur in DNA coding regions. The types of sequencing error addressed include insertions and deletions (indels) of DNA bases. The goal is to provide a capability which makes single-pass or low-redundancy sequence data more informative, reducing the need for high-redundancy sequencing for gene identification and characterization purposes. The algorithm detects sequencing errors by discovering changes in the statistically preferred reading frame within a putative coding region and then inserts a number of ``neutral`` bases at a perceived reading frame transition point to make the putative exon candidate frame consistent. The authors have implemented the algorithm as a front-end subsystem of the GRAIL DNA sequence analysis system to construct a version which is very error tolerant and also intend to use this as a testbed for further development of sequencing error-correction technology. On a test set consisting of 68 Human DNA sequences with 1% randomly generated indels in coding regions, the algorithm detected and corrected 76% of the indels. The average distance between the position of an indel and the predicted one was 9.4 bases. With this subsystem in place, GRAIL correctly predicted 89% of the coding messages with 10% false message on the ``corrected`` sequences, compared to 69% correctly predicted coding messages and 11% falsely predicted messages on the ``corrupted`` sequences using standard GRAIL II method. The method uses a dynamic programming algorithm, and runs in time and space linear to the size of the input sequence.

  3. Correcting sequencing errors in DNA coding regions using a dynamic programming approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Mural, R J; Uberbacher, E C

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for detecting and 'correcting' sequencing errors that occur in DNA coding regions. The types of sequencing errors addressed are insertions and deletions (indels) of DNA bases. The goal is to provide a capability which makes single-pass or low-redundancy sequence data more informative, reducing the need for high-redundancy sequencing for gene identification and characterization purposes. This would permit improved sequencing efficiency and reduce genome sequencing costs. The algorithm detects sequencing errors by discovering changes in the statistically preferred reading frame within a putative coding region and then inserts a number of 'neutral' bases at a perceived reading frame transition point to make the putative exon candidate frame consistent. We have implemented the algorithm as a front-end subsystem of the GRAIL DNA sequence analysis system to construct a version which is very error tolerant and also intend to use this as a testbed for further development of sequencing error-correction technology. Preliminary test results have shown the usefulness of this algorithm and also exhibited some of its weakness, providing possible directions for further improvement. On a test set consisting of 68 human DNA sequences with 1% randomly generated indels in coding regions, the algorithm detected and corrected 76% of the indels. The average distance between the position of an indel and the predicted one was 9.4 bases. With this subsystem in place, GRAIL correctly predicted 89% of the coding messages with 10% false message on the 'corrected' sequences, compared to 69% correctly predicted coding messages and 11% falsely predicted messages on the 'corrupted' sequences using standard GRAIL II method (version 1.2).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Systematic analysis of coding and noncoding DNA sequences using methods of statistical linguistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantegna, R. N.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We compare the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions in eukaryotic and viral DNA sequences by adapting two tests developed for the analysis of natural languages and symbolic sequences. The data set comprises all 30 sequences of length above 50 000 base pairs in GenBank Release No. 81.0, as well as the recently published sequences of C. elegans chromosome III (2.2 Mbp) and yeast chromosome XI (661 Kbp). We find that for the three chromosomes we studied the statistical properties of noncoding regions appear to be closer to those observed in natural languages than those of coding regions. In particular, (i) a n-tuple Zipf analysis of noncoding regions reveals a regime close to power-law behavior while the coding regions show logarithmic behavior over a wide interval, while (ii) an n-gram entropy measurement shows that the noncoding regions have a lower n-gram entropy (and hence a larger "n-gram redundancy") than the coding regions. In contrast to the three chromosomes, we find that for vertebrates such as primates and rodents and for viral DNA, the difference between the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions is not pronounced and therefore the results of the analyses of the investigated sequences are less conclusive. After noting the intrinsic limitations of the n-gram redundancy analysis, we also briefly discuss the failure of the zeroth- and first-order Markovian models or simple nucleotide repeats to account fully for these "linguistic" features of DNA. Finally, we emphasize that our results by no means prove the existence of a "language" in noncoding DNA.

  5. A Conserved Structural Signature of the Homeobox Coding DNA in HOX genes

    PubMed Central

    Fongang, Bernard; Kong, Fanping; Negi, Surendra; Braun, Werner; Kudlicki, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The homeobox encodes a DNA-binding domain found in transcription factors regulating key developmental processes. The most notable examples of homeobox containing genes are the Hox genes, arranged on chromosomes in the same order as their expression domains along the body axis. The mechanisms responsible for the synchronous regulation of Hox genes and the molecular function of their colinearity remain unknown. Here we report the discovery of a conserved structural signature of the 180-base pair DNA fragment comprising the homeobox. We demonstrate that the homeobox DNA has a characteristic 3-base-pair periodicity in the hydroxyl radical cleavage pattern. This periodic pattern is significant in most of the 39 mammalian Hox genes and in other homeobox-containing transcription factors. The signature is present in segmented bilaterian animals as evolutionarily distant as humans and flies. It remains conserved despite the fact that it would be disrupted by synonymous mutations, which raises the possibility of evolutionary selective pressure acting on the structure of the coding DNA. The homeobox coding DNA may therefore have a secondary function, possibly as a regulatory element. The existence of such element may have important consequences for understanding how these genes are regulated. PMID:27739488

  6. A Conserved Structural Signature of the Homeobox Coding DNA in HOX genes.

    PubMed

    Fongang, Bernard; Kong, Fanping; Negi, Surendra; Braun, Werner; Kudlicki, Andrzej

    2016-10-14

    The homeobox encodes a DNA-binding domain found in transcription factors regulating key developmental processes. The most notable examples of homeobox containing genes are the Hox genes, arranged on chromosomes in the same order as their expression domains along the body axis. The mechanisms responsible for the synchronous regulation of Hox genes and the molecular function of their colinearity remain unknown. Here we report the discovery of a conserved structural signature of the 180-base pair DNA fragment comprising the homeobox. We demonstrate that the homeobox DNA has a characteristic 3-base-pair periodicity in the hydroxyl radical cleavage pattern. This periodic pattern is significant in most of the 39 mammalian Hox genes and in other homeobox-containing transcription factors. The signature is present in segmented bilaterian animals as evolutionarily distant as humans and flies. It remains conserved despite the fact that it would be disrupted by synonymous mutations, which raises the possibility of evolutionary selective pressure acting on the structure of the coding DNA. The homeobox coding DNA may therefore have a secondary function, possibly as a regulatory element. The existence of such element may have important consequences for understanding how these genes are regulated.

  7. Free Energy Gap and Statistical Thermodynamic Fidelity of DNA Codes (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    reverse-complement unless otherwise stated. For strand x, let Nx denote its complement. A (perfect) Watson - Crick duplex is the joining of complement...is possible for complementary sequences to form a non-perfectly aligned duplex, we will call any x W Nx duplex a Watson - Crick (WC) duplex. Two...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FREE ENERGY GAP AND STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMIC FIDELITY OF DNA CODES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-07

  8. Junk DNA and the long non-coding RNA twist in cancer genetics

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Hui; Vincent, Kimberly; Pichler, Martin; Fodde, Riccardo; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Slack, Frank J.; Calin, George A

    2015-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information moves from DNA to RNA to protein. However, in the last decade this dogma has been challenged by new findings on non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs). More recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have attracted much attention due to their large number and biological significance. Many lncRNAs have been identified as mapping to regulatory elements including gene promoters and enhancers, ultraconserved regions, and intergenic regions of protein-coding genes. Yet, the biological function and molecular mechanisms of lncRNA in human diseases in general and cancer in particular remain largely unknown. Data from the literature suggest that lncRNA, often via interaction with proteins, functions in specific genomic loci or use their own transcription loci for regulatory activity. In this review, we summarize recent findings supporting the importance of DNA loci in lncRNA function, and the underlying molecular mechanisms via cis or trans regulation, and discuss their implications in cancer. In addition, we use the 8q24 genomic locus, a region containing interactive SNPs, DNA regulatory elements and lncRNAs, as an example to illustrate how single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within lncRNAs may be functionally associated with the individual’s susceptibility to cancer. PMID:25619839

  9. HyDEn: a hybrid steganocryptographic approach for data encryption using randomized error-correcting DNA codes.

    PubMed

    Tulpan, Dan; Regoui, Chaouki; Durand, Guillaume; Belliveau, Luc; Léger, Serge

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hybrid DNA encryption (HyDEn) approach that uses randomized assignments of unique error-correcting DNA Hamming code words for single characters in the extended ASCII set. HyDEn relies on custom-built quaternary codes and a private key used in the randomized assignment of code words and the cyclic permutations applied on the encoded message. Along with its ability to detect and correct errors, HyDEn equals or outperforms existing cryptographic methods and represents a promising in silico DNA steganographic approach.

  10. HyDEn: A Hybrid Steganocryptographic Approach for Data Encryption Using Randomized Error-Correcting DNA Codes

    PubMed Central

    Regoui, Chaouki; Durand, Guillaume; Belliveau, Luc; Léger, Serge

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hybrid DNA encryption (HyDEn) approach that uses randomized assignments of unique error-correcting DNA Hamming code words for single characters in the extended ASCII set. HyDEn relies on custom-built quaternary codes and a private key used in the randomized assignment of code words and the cyclic permutations applied on the encoded message. Along with its ability to detect and correct errors, HyDEn equals or outperforms existing cryptographic methods and represents a promising in silico DNA steganographic approach. PMID:23984392

  11. A molecular code dictates sequence-specific DNA recognition by homeodomains.

    PubMed Central

    Damante, G; Pellizzari, L; Esposito, G; Fogolari, F; Viglino, P; Fabbro, D; Tell, G; Formisano, S; Di Lauro, R

    1996-01-01

    Most homeodomains bind to DNA sequences containing the motif 5'-TAAT-3'. The homeodomain of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1HD) binds to sequences containing a 5'-CAAG-3' core motif, delineating a new mechanism for differential DNA recognition by homeodomains. We investigated the molecular basis of the DNA binding specificity of TTF-1HD by both structural and functional approaches. As already suggested by the three-dimensional structure of TTF-1HD, the DNA binding specificities of the TTF-1, Antennapedia and Engrailed homeodomains, either wild-type or mutants, indicated that the amino acid residue in position 54 is involved in the recognition of the nucleotide at the 3' end of the core motif 5'-NAAN-3'. The nucleotide at the 5' position of this core sequence is recognized by the amino acids located in position 6, 7 and 8 of the TTF-1 and Antennapedia homeodomains. These data, together with previous suggestions on the role of amino acids in position 50, indicate that the DNA binding specificity of homeodomains can be determined by a combinatorial molecular code. We also show that some specific combinations of the key amino acid residues involved in DNA recognition do not follow a simple, additive rule. Images PMID:8890172

  12. A novel DNA sequence similarity calculation based on simplified pulse-coupled neural network and Huffman coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Nie, Rencan; Zhou, Dongming; Yao, Shaowen; Chen, Yanyan; Yu, Jiefu; Wang, Quan

    2016-11-01

    A novel method for the calculation of DNA sequence similarity is proposed based on simplified pulse-coupled neural network (S-PCNN) and Huffman coding. In this study, we propose a coding method based on Huffman coding, where the triplet code was used as a code bit to transform DNA sequence into numerical sequence. The proposed method uses the firing characters of S-PCNN neurons in DNA sequence to extract features. Besides, the proposed method can deal with different lengths of DNA sequences. First, according to the characteristics of S-PCNN and the DNA primary sequence, the latter is encoded using Huffman coding method, and then using the former, the oscillation time sequence (OTS) of the encoded DNA sequence is extracted. Simultaneously, relevant features are obtained, and finally the similarities or dissimilarities of the DNA sequences are determined by Euclidean distance. In order to verify the accuracy of this method, different data sets were used for testing. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective.

  13. Long-range correlation properties of coding and noncoding DNA sequences: GenBank analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Matsa, M. E.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    An open question in computational molecular biology is whether long-range correlations are present in both coding and noncoding DNA or only in the latter. To answer this question, we consider all 33301 coding and all 29453 noncoding eukaryotic sequences--each of length larger than 512 base pairs (bp)--in the present release of the GenBank to dtermine whether there is any statistically significant distinction in their long-range correlation properties. Standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis indicates that coding sequences have practically no correlations in the range from 10 bp to 100 bp (spectral exponent beta=0.00 +/- 0.04, where the uncertainty is two standard deviations). In contrast, for noncoding sequences, the average value of the spectral exponent beta is positive (0.16 +/- 0.05) which unambiguously shows the presence of long-range correlations. We also separately analyze the 874 coding and the 1157 noncoding sequences that have more than 4096 bp and find a larger region of power-law behavior. We calculate the probability that these two data sets (coding and noncoding) were drawn from the same distribution and we find that it is less than 10(-10). We obtain independent confirmation of these findings using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is designed to treat sequences with statistical heterogeneity, such as DNA's known mosaic structure ("patchiness") arising from the nonstationarity of nucleotide concentration. The near-perfect agreement between the two independent analysis methods, FFT and DFA, increases the confidence in the reliability of our conclusion.

  14. Characterization of the cDNA and gene coding for the biotin synthase of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, L M; Yu, F; Wurtele, E S; Nikolau, B J

    1996-01-01

    Biotin, an essential cofactor, is synthesized de novo only by plants and some microbes. An Arabidopsis thaliana expressed sequence tag that shows sequence similarity to the carboxyl end of biotin synthase from Escherichia coli was used to isolate a near-full-length cDNA. This cDNA was shown to code for the Arabidopsis biotin synthase by its ability to complement a bioB mutant of E. coli. Site-specific mutagenesis indicates that residue threonine-173, which is highly conserved in biotin synthases, is important for catalytic competence of the enzyme. The primary sequence of the Arabidopsis biotin synthase is most similar to biotin synthases from E. coli, Serratia marcescens, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (about 50% sequence identity) and more distantly related to the Bacillus sphaericus enzyme (33% sequence identity). The primary sequence of the amino terminus of the Arabidopsis biotin synthase may represent an organelle-targeting transit peptide. The single Arabidopsis gene coding for biotin synthase, BIO2, was isolated and sequenced. The biotin synthase coding sequence is interrupted by five introns. The gene sequence upstream of the translation start site has several unusual features, including imperfect palindromes and polypyrimidine sequences, which may function in the transcriptional regulation of the BIO2 gene. PMID:8819873

  15. Context-dependent DNA recognition code for C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajian; Stormo, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Modeling and identifying the DNA-protein recognition code is one of the most challenging problems in computational biology. Several quantitative methods have been developed to model DNA-protein interactions with specific focus on the C2H2 zinc-finger proteins, the largest transcription factor family in eukaryotic genomes. In many cases, they performed well. But the overall the predictive accuracy of these methods is still limited. One of the major reasons is all these methods used weight matrix models to represent DNA-protein interactions, assuming all base-amino acid contacts contribute independently to the total free energy of binding. Results: We present a context-dependent model for DNA–zinc-finger protein interactions that allows us to identify inter-positional dependencies in the DNA recognition code for C2H2 zinc-finger proteins. The degree of non-independence was detected by comparing the linear perceptron model with the non-linear neural net (NN) model for their predictions of DNA–zinc-finger protein interactions. This dependency is supported by the complex base-amino acid contacts observed in DNA–zinc-finger interactions from structural analyses. Using extensive published qualitative and quantitative experimental data, we demonstrated that the context-dependent model developed in this study can significantly improves predictions of DNA binding profiles and free energies of binding for both individual zinc fingers and proteins with multiple zinc fingers when comparing to previous positional-independent models. This approach can be extended to other protein families with complex base-amino acid residue interactions that would help to further understand the transcriptional regulation in eukaryotic genomes. Availability:The software implemented as c programs and are available by request. http://ural.wustl.edu/softwares.html Contact: stormo@ural.wustl.edu PMID:18586699

  16. DNA methylation patterns of protein coding genes and long noncoding RNAs in female schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qi; Wang, Yunliang; Cheng, Jia; Dai, Dongjun; Zhou, Xingyu; Zhang, Yuzheng; Gao, Shugui; Duan, Shiwei

    2015-02-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder contributed by both genetic and epigenetic factors. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) was recently found playing an important regulatory role in mental disorders. However, little was known about the DNA methylation of lncRNAs, although numerous SCZ studies have been performed on genetic polymorphisms or epigenetic marks in protein coding genes. We presented a comprehensive genome wide DNA methylation study of both protein coding genes and lncRNAs in female patients with paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ. Using the methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-seq), 8,163 and 764 peaks were identified in paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ, respectively (p < 1 × 10-5). Gene ontology analysis showed that the hypermethylated regions were enriched in the genes related to neuron system and brain for both paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ (p < 0.05). Among these peaks, 121 peaks were located in gene promoter regions that might affect gene expression and influence the SCZ related pathways. Interestingly, DNA methylation of 136 and 23 known lncRNAs in Refseq database were identified in paranoid and undifferentiated SCZ, respectively. In addition, ∼20% of intergenic peaks annotated based on Refseq genes were overlapped with lncRNAs in UCSC and gencode databases. In order to show the results well for most biological researchers, we created an online database to display and visualize the information of DNA methyation peaks in both types of SCZ (http://www.bioinfo.org/scz/scz.htm). Our results showed that the aberrant DNA methylation of lncRNAs might be another important epigenetic factor for SCZ.

  17. DNA strand breaks induced by electrons simulated with Nanodosimetry Monte Carlo Simulation Code: NASIC.

    PubMed

    Li, Junli; Li, Chunyan; Qiu, Rui; Yan, Congchong; Xie, Wenzhang; Wu, Zhen; Zeng, Zhi; Tung, Chuanjong

    2015-09-01

    The method of Monte Carlo simulation is a powerful tool to investigate the details of radiation biological damage at the molecular level. In this paper, a Monte Carlo code called NASIC (Nanodosimetry Monte Carlo Simulation Code) was developed. It includes physical module, pre-chemical module, chemical module, geometric module and DNA damage module. The physical module can simulate physical tracks of low-energy electrons in the liquid water event-by-event. More than one set of inelastic cross sections were calculated by applying the dielectric function method of Emfietzoglou's optical-data treatments, with different optical data sets and dispersion models. In the pre-chemical module, the ionised and excited water molecules undergo dissociation processes. In the chemical module, the produced radiolytic chemical species diffuse and react. In the geometric module, an atomic model of 46 chromatin fibres in a spherical nucleus of human lymphocyte was established. In the DNA damage module, the direct damages induced by the energy depositions of the electrons and the indirect damages induced by the radiolytic chemical species were calculated. The parameters should be adjusted to make the simulation results be agreed with the experimental results. In this paper, the influence study of the inelastic cross sections and vibrational excitation reaction on the parameters and the DNA strand break yields were studied. Further work of NASIC is underway.

  18. [Molecular evolution of MHC DQA genes. I. The maintenance of interallelic divergence and the influence of GC content on gene structure].

    PubMed

    Pan, X; Fu, J

    1997-06-01

    The analyses of the proportion of synonymous and missense nucleotide substitution (PS and PN) in different exons, antigen recognition sites (ARS) and non-ARS of EN2 (NAEN2) of 23 alleles at MHC DQA loci in 7 mammal species gave rise to the following findings. (1) PN was about twice as much as PS in ARS among the alleles at DQA1 of any given species, i.e. 7 alleles at HLA-DQA1 or 8 alleles at IaAa this accords with overdominant selection; (2) PS showed more or less the same as PN in ARS among different loci (DQA1 or DQA2 in different species, or DQA1 and DQA2 in one species) or NAEN2 of all comparative pairs, this conforms the expectation of neutral selection; (3) In exon4 and exon3, not only was the substitution proportion extremely low, but also PS was much higher than PN (the ratio PS over PN is 19.5 in alleles at IaAa of mouse and 4 among alleles at different loci), this coincides obviously with purification selection. The analysis of GC content of MHC DQA showed that its peaks were in the regions corresponding to the middle bulks of some domains, that the highest and constant level was in exon4 and that GC content in the third codon position (GC III content) associates inversely with PS. These results indicate that the specified maintenance mechanisms of interallelic diversity relevant to their functions exist in given exons corresponding to some domains of the same MHC DQA locus and GC III content is an important factor in keeping the structure and function of gene under selection constraint. The method for estimating nucleotide substitution proportion was modified.

  19. DANIO-CODE: Toward an Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tan, Haihan; Onichtchouk, Daria; Winata, Cecilia

    2016-02-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a model organism for genomics studies. The symposium "Toward an encyclopedia of DNA elements in zebrafish" held in London in December 2014, was coorganized by Ferenc Müller and Fiona Wardle. This meeting is a follow-up of a similar previous workshop held 2 years earlier and represents a push toward the formalization of a community effort to annotate functional elements in the zebrafish genome. The meeting brought together zebrafish researchers, bioinformaticians, as well as members of established consortia, to exchange scientific findings and experience, as well as to discuss the initial steps toward the formation of a DANIO-CODE consortium. In this study, we provide the latest updates on the current progress of the consortium's efforts, opening up a broad invitation to researchers to join in and contribute to DANIO-CODE.

  20. DANIO-CODE: Toward an Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish has emerged as a model organism for genomics studies. The symposium “Toward an encyclopedia of DNA elements in zebrafish” held in London in December 2014, was coorganized by Ferenc Müller and Fiona Wardle. This meeting is a follow-up of a similar previous workshop held 2 years earlier and represents a push toward the formalization of a community effort to annotate functional elements in the zebrafish genome. The meeting brought together zebrafish researchers, bioinformaticians, as well as members of established consortia, to exchange scientific findings and experience, as well as to discuss the initial steps toward the formation of a DANIO-CODE consortium. In this study, we provide the latest updates on the current progress of the consortium's efforts, opening up a broad invitation to researchers to join in and contribute to DANIO-CODE. PMID:26671609

  1. Low mitochondrial DNA variation among American alligators and a novel non-coding region in crocodilians.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Travis C; Staton, Joseph L; Vu, Alex T; Davis, Lisa M; Bremer, Jaime R Alvarado; Rhodes, Walter E; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sawyer, Roger H

    2002-12-15

    We analyzed 1317-1823 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA sequence beginning in the 5' end of cytochrome b (cyt b) and ending in the central domain of the control region for 25 American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and compared these to a homologous sequence from a Chinese alligator (A. sinensis). Both species share a non-coding spacer between cyt b and tRNA(Thr). Chinese alligator cyt b differs from that of the American alligator by 17.5% at the nucleotide level and 13.8% for inferred amino acids, which is consistent with their presumed ancient divergence. Only two cyt b haplotypes were detected among the 25 American alligators (693-1199 bp surveyed), with one haplotype shared among 24 individuals. One alligator from Mississippi differed from all other alligators by a single silent substitution. The control region contained only slightly more variation among the 25 American alligators, with two variable positions (624 bp surveyed), yielding three haplotypes with 22, two, and one individuals in each of these groups. Previous genetic studies examining allozymes and the proportion of variable microsatellite DNA loci also found low levels of genetic diversity in American alligators. However, in contrast with allozymes, microsatellites, and morphology, the mtDNA data shows no evidence of differentiation among populations from the extremes of the species range. These results suggest that American alligators underwent a severe population bottleneck in the late Pleistocene, resulting in nearly homogenous mtDNA among all American alligators today.

  2. Quartz crystal microbalance detection of DNA single-base mutation based on monobase-coded cadmium tellurium nanoprobe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqin; Lin, Fanbo; Zhang, Youyu; Li, Haitao; Zeng, Yue; Tang, Hao; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2011-01-01

    A new method for the detection of point mutation in DNA based on the monobase-coded cadmium tellurium nanoprobes and the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique was reported. A point mutation (single-base, adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine, namely, A, T, C and G, mutation in DNA strand, respectively) DNA QCM sensor was fabricated by immobilizing single-base mutation DNA modified magnetic beads onto the electrode surface with an external magnetic field near the electrode. The DNA-modified magnetic beads were obtained from the biotin-avidin affinity reaction of biotinylated DNA and streptavidin-functionalized core/shell Fe(3)O(4)/Au magnetic nanoparticles, followed by a DNA hybridization reaction. Single-base coded CdTe nanoprobes (A-CdTe, T-CdTe, C-CdTe and G-CdTe, respectively) were used as the detection probes. The mutation site in DNA was distinguished by detecting the decreases of the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric quartz crystal when the coded nanoprobe was added to the test system. This proposed detection strategy for point mutation in DNA is proved to be sensitive, simple, repeatable and low-cost, consequently, it has a great potential for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection.

  3. Wide Host Ranges of Herbivorous Beetles? Insights from DNA Bar Coding

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kamiya, Koichi; Meleng, Paulus; Diway, Bibian; Kaliang, Het; Chong, Lucy; Itioka, Takao; Sakai, Shoko; Ito, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    There are very few studies that have investigated host-specificity among tropical herbivorous insects. Indeed, most of the trophic interactions of herbivorous insects in Southeast Asian tropical rainforests remain unknown, and whether polyphagous feeding is common in the herbivores of this ecosystem has not been determined. The present study employed DNA bar coding to reveal the trophic associations of adult leaf-chewing chrysomelid beetles in a Bornean rainforest. Plant material ingested by the adults was retrieved from the bodies of the insects, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. The plants were identified at the family level using an existing reference database of chloroplast DNA. Our DNA-based diet analysis of eleven chrysomelid species successfully identified their host plant families and indicated that five beetle species fed on more than two families within the angiosperms, and four species fed on several families of gymnosperms and/or ferns together with multiple angiosperm families. These findings suggest that generalist chrysomelid beetles associated with ecologically and taxonomically distant plants constitute a part of the plant-insect network of the Bornean rainforest. PMID:24073210

  4. Comparison of Geant4-DNA simulation of S-values with other Monte Carlo codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, T.; Morini, F.; Karamitros, M.; Delorme, R.; Le Loirec, C.; Campos, L.; Champion, C.; Groetz, J.-E.; Fromm, M.; Bordage, M.-C.; Perrot, Y.; Barberet, Ph.; Bernal, M. A.; Brown, J. M. C.; Deleuze, M. S.; Francis, Z.; Ivanchenko, V.; Mascialino, B.; Zacharatou, C.; Bardiès, M.; Incerti, S.

    2014-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of S-values have been carried out with the Geant4-DNA extension of the Geant4 toolkit. The S-values have been simulated for monoenergetic electrons with energies ranging from 0.1 keV up to 20 keV, in liquid water spheres (for four radii, chosen between 10 nm and 1 μm), and for electrons emitted by five isotopes of iodine (131, 132, 133, 134 and 135), in liquid water spheres of varying radius (from 15 μm up to 250 μm). The results have been compared to those obtained from other Monte Carlo codes and from other published data. The use of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has allowed confirming the statistical compatibility of all simulation results.

  5. Humans and chimpanzees differ in their cellular response to DNA damage and non-coding sequence elements of DNA repair-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Weis, E; Galetzka, D; Herlyn, H; Schneider, E; Haaf, T

    2008-01-01

    Compared to humans, chimpanzees appear to be less susceptible to many types of cancer. Because DNA repair defects lead to accumulation of gene and chromosomal mutations, species differences in DNA repair are one plausible explanation. Here we analyzed the repair kinetics of human and chimpanzee cells after cisplatin treatment and irradiation. Dot blots for the quantification of single-stranded (ss) DNA repair intermediates revealed a biphasic response of human and chimpanzee lymphoblasts to cisplatin-induced damage. The early phase of DNA repair was identical in both species with a peak of ssDNA intermediates at 1 h after DNA damage induction. However, the late phase differed between species. Human cells showed a second peak of ssDNA intermediates at 6 h, chimpanzee cells at 5 h. One of four analyzed DNA repair-associated genes, UBE2A, was differentially expressed in human and chimpanzee cells at 5 h after cisplatin treatment. Immunofluorescent staining of gammaH2AX foci demonstrated equally high numbers of DNA strand breaks in human and chimpanzee cells at 30 min after irradiation and equally low numbers at 2 h. However, at 1 h chimpanzee cells had significantly less DNA breaks than human cells. Comparative sequence analyses of approximately 100 DNA repair-associated genes in human and chimpanzee revealed 13% and 32% genes, respectively, with evidence for an accelerated evolution in promoter regions and introns. This is strikingly contrasting to the 3% of DNA repair-associated genes with positive selection in the coding sequence. Compared to the rhesus macaque as an outgroup, chimpanzees have a higher accelerated evolution in non-coding sequences than humans. The TRF1-interacting, ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase (TNKS) gene showed an accelerated intraspecific evolution among humans. Our results are consistent with the view that chimpanzee cells repair different types of DNA damage faster than human cells, whereas the overall repair capacity is similar in

  6. Detection of coding microsatellite frameshift mutations in DNA mismatch repair-deficient mouse intestinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Woerner, Stefan M; Tosti, Elena; Yuan, Yan P; Kloor, Matthias; Bork, Peer; Edelmann, Winfried; Gebert, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Different DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient mouse strains have been developed as models for the inherited cancer predisposing Lynch syndrome. It is completely unresolved, whether coding mononucleotide repeat (cMNR) gene mutations in these mice can contribute to intestinal tumorigenesis and whether MMR-deficient mice are a suitable molecular model of human microsatellite instability (MSI)-associated intestinal tumorigenesis. A proof-of-principle study was performed to identify mouse cMNR-harboring genes affected by insertion/deletion mutations in MSI murine intestinal tumors. Bioinformatic algorithms were developed to establish a database of mouse cMNR-harboring genes. A panel of five mouse noncoding mononucleotide markers was used for MSI classification of intestinal matched normal/tumor tissues from MMR-deficient (Mlh1(-/-) , Msh2(-/-) , Msh2(LoxP/LoxP) ) mice. cMNR frameshift mutations of candidate genes were determined by DNA fragment analysis. Murine MSI intestinal tumors but not normal tissues from MMR-deficient mice showed cMNR frameshift mutations in six candidate genes (Elavl3, Tmem107, Glis2, Sdccag1, Senp6, Rfc3). cMNRs of mouse Rfc3 and Elavl3 are conserved in type and length in their human orthologs that are known to be mutated in human MSI colorectal, endometrial and gastric cancer. We provide evidence for the utility of a mononucleotide marker panel for detection of MSI in murine tumors, the existence of cMNR instability in MSI murine tumors, the utility of mouse subspecies DNA for identification of polymorphic repeats, and repeat conservation among some orthologous human/mouse genes, two of them showing instability in human and mouse MSI intestinal tumors. MMR-deficient mice hence are a useful molecular model system for analyzing MSI intestinal carcinogenesis.

  7. SV-Bay: structural variant detection in cancer genomes using a Bayesian approach with correction for GC-content and read mappability

    PubMed Central

    Iakovishina, Daria; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Barillot, Emmanuel; Regnier, Mireille; Boeva, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Whole genome sequencing of paired-end reads can be applied to characterize the landscape of large somatic rearrangements of cancer genomes. Several methods for detecting structural variants with whole genome sequencing data have been developed. So far, none of these methods has combined information about abnormally mapped read pairs connecting rearranged regions and associated global copy number changes automatically inferred from the same sequencing data file. Our aim was to create a computational method that could use both types of information, i.e. normal and abnormal reads, and demonstrate that by doing so we can highly improve both sensitivity and specificity rates of structural variant prediction. Results: We developed a computational method, SV-Bay, to detect structural variants from whole genome sequencing mate-pair or paired-end data using a probabilistic Bayesian approach. This approach takes into account depth of coverage by normal reads and abnormalities in read pair mappings. To estimate the model likelihood, SV-Bay considers GC-content and read mappability of the genome, thus making important corrections to the expected read count. For the detection of somatic variants, SV-Bay makes use of a matched normal sample when it is available. We validated SV-Bay on simulated datasets and an experimental mate-pair dataset for the CLB-GA neuroblastoma cell line. The comparison of SV-Bay with several other methods for structural variant detection demonstrated that SV-Bay has better prediction accuracy both in terms of sensitivity and false-positive detection rate. Availability and implementation: https://github.com/InstitutCurie/SV-Bay Contact: valentina.boeva@inserm.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26740523

  8. Analysis of phylogeny and codon usage bias and relationship of GC content, amino acid composition with expression of the structural nif genes.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sunil Kanti; Kundu, Sudip; Das, Rabindranath; Roy, Sujit

    2016-08-01

    Bacteria and archaea have evolved with the ability to fix atmospheric dinitrogen in the form of ammonia, catalyzed by the nitrogenase enzyme complex which comprises three structural genes nifK, nifD and nifH. The nifK and nifD encodes for the beta and alpha subunits, respectively, of component 1, while nifH encodes for component 2 of nitrogenase. Phylogeny based on nifDHK have indicated that Cyanobacteria is closer to Proteobacteria alpha and gamma but not supported by the tree based on 16SrRNA. The evolutionary ancestor for the different trees was also different. The GC1 and GC2% analysis showed more consistency than GC3% which appeared to below for Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Euarchaeota while highest in Proteobacteria beta and clearly showed the proportional effect on the codon usage with a few exceptions. Few genes from Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, Proteobacteria alpha and delta were found under mutational pressure. These nif genes with low and high GC3% from different classes of organisms showed similar expected number of codons. Distribution of the genes and codons, based on codon usage demonstrated opposite pattern for different orientation of mirror plane when compared with each other. Overall our results provide a comprehensive analysis on the evolutionary relationship of the three structural nif genes, nifK, nifD and nifH, respectively, in the context of codon usage bias, GC content relationship and amino acid composition of the encoded proteins and exploration of crucial statistical method for the analysis of positive data with non-constant variance to identify the shape factors of codon adaptation index.

  9. The dnaN gene codes for the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme of escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, P M; Kornberg, A; Sakakibara, Y

    1981-01-01

    An Escherichia coli mutant, dnaN59, stops DNA synthesis promptly upon a shift to a high temperature; the wild-type dnaN gene carried in a transducing phage encodes a polypeptide of about 41,000 daltons [Sakakibara, Y. & Mizukami, T. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 178, 541-553; Yuasa, S. & Sakakibara, Y. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 180, 267-273]. We now find that the product of dnaN gene is the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, the principal DNA synthetic multipolypeptide complex in E. coli. The conclusion is based on the following observations: (i) Extracts from dnaN59 cells were defective in phage phi X174 and G4 DNA synthesis after the mutant cells had been exposed to the increased temperature. (ii) The enzymatic defect was overcome by addition of purified beta subunit but not by other subunits of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme or by other replication proteins required for phi X174 DNA synthesis. (iii) Partially purified beta subunit from the dnaN mutant, unlike that from the wild type, was inactive in reconstituting the holoenzyme when mixed with the other purified subunits. (iv) Increased dosage of the dnaN gene provided by a plasmid carrying the gene raised cellular levels of the beta subunit 5- to 6-fold. PMID:6458041

  10. The dnaN gene codes for the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme of escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Burgers, P M; Kornberg, A; Sakakibara, Y

    1981-09-01

    An Escherichia coli mutant, dnaN59, stops DNA synthesis promptly upon a shift to a high temperature; the wild-type dnaN gene carried in a transducing phage encodes a polypeptide of about 41,000 daltons [Sakakibara, Y. & Mizukami, T. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 178, 541-553; Yuasa, S. & Sakakibara, Y. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 180, 267-273]. We now find that the product of dnaN gene is the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, the principal DNA synthetic multipolypeptide complex in E. coli. The conclusion is based on the following observations: (i) Extracts from dnaN59 cells were defective in phage phi X174 and G4 DNA synthesis after the mutant cells had been exposed to the increased temperature. (ii) The enzymatic defect was overcome by addition of purified beta subunit but not by other subunits of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme or by other replication proteins required for phi X174 DNA synthesis. (iii) Partially purified beta subunit from the dnaN mutant, unlike that from the wild type, was inactive in reconstituting the holoenzyme when mixed with the other purified subunits. (iv) Increased dosage of the dnaN gene provided by a plasmid carrying the gene raised cellular levels of the beta subunit 5- to 6-fold.

  11. DNA sequence-based "bar codes" for tracking the origins of expressed sequence tags from a maize cDNA library constructed using multiple mRNA sources.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fang; Guo, Ling; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Liu, Feng; Ashlock, Daniel A; Schnable, Patrick S

    2003-10-01

    To enhance gene discovery, expressed sequence tag (EST) projects often make use of cDNA libraries produced using diverse mixtures of mRNAs. As such, expression data are lost because the origins of the resulting ESTs cannot be determined. Alternatively, multiple libraries can be prepared, each from a more restricted source of mRNAs. Although this approach allows the origins of ESTs to be determined, it requires the production of multiple libraries. A hybrid approach is reported here. A cDNA library was prepared using 21 different pools of maize (Zea mays) mRNAs. DNA sequence "bar codes" were added during first-strand cDNA synthesis to uniquely identify the mRNA source pool from which individual cDNAs were derived. Using a decoding algorithm that included error correction, it was possible to identify the source mRNA pool of more than 97% of the ESTs. The frequency at which a bar code is represented in an EST contig should be proportional to the abundance of the corresponding mRNA in the source pool. Consistent with this, all ESTs derived from several genes (zein and adh1) that are known to be exclusively expressed in kernels or preferentially expressed under anaerobic conditions, respectively, were exclusively tagged with bar codes associated with mRNA pools prepared from kernel and anaerobically treated seedlings, respectively. Hence, by allowing for the retention of expression data, the bar coding of cDNA libraries can enhance the value of EST projects.

  12. Large-scale motif discovery using DNA Gray code and equiprobable oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Ichinose, Natsuhiro; Yada, Tetsushi; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: How to find motifs from genome-scale functional sequences, such as all the promoters in a genome, is a challenging problem. Word-based methods count the occurrences of oligomers to detect excessively represented ones. This approach is known to be fast and accurate compared with other methods. However, two problems have hampered the application of such methods to large-scale data. One is the computational cost necessary for clustering similar oligomers, and the other is the bias in the frequency of fixed-length oligomers, which complicates the detection of significant words. Results: We introduce a method that uses a DNA Gray code and equiprobable oligomers, which solve the clustering problem and the oligomer bias, respectively. Our method can analyze 18 000 sequences of ~1 kbp long in 30 s. We also show that the accuracy of our method is superior to that of a leading method, especially for large-scale data and small fractions of motif-containing sequences. Availability: The online and stand-alone versions of the application, named Hegma, are available at our website: http://www.genome.ist.i.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~ichinose/hegma/ Contact: ichinose@i.kyoto-u.ac.jp; o.gotoh@i.kyoto-u.ac.jp PMID:22057160

  13. Widespread selection across coding and noncoding DNA in the pea aphid genome.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Ryan D; Dunham, Joseph P; Brisson, Jennifer A

    2013-06-21

    Genome-wide patterns of diversity and selection are critical measures for understanding how evolution has shaped the genome. Yet, these population genomic estimates are available for only a limited number of model organisms. Here we focus on the population genomics of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). The pea aphid is an emerging model system that exhibits a range of intriguing biological traits not present in classic model systems. We performed low-coverage genome resequencing of 21 clonal pea aphid lines collected from alfalfa host plants in North America to characterize genome-wide patterns of diversity and selection. We observed an excess of low-frequency polymorphisms throughout coding and noncoding DNA, which we suggest is the result of a founding event and subsequent population expansion in North America. Most gene regions showed lower levels of Tajima's D than synonymous sites, suggesting that the majority of the genome is not evolving neutrally but rather exhibits significant constraint. Furthermore, we used the pea aphid's unique manner of X-chromosome inheritance to assign genomic scaffolds to either autosomes or the X chromosome. Comparing autosomal vs. X-linked sequence variation, we discovered that autosomal genes show an excess of low frequency variants indicating that purifying selection acts more efficiently on the X chromosome. Overall, our results provide a critical first step in characterizing the genetic diversity and evolutionary pressures on an aphid genome.

  14. Functional expression in primate cells of cloned DNA coding for the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein of influenza virus.

    PubMed Central

    Sveda, M M; Lai, C J

    1981-01-01

    We have used simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA as a vector for expression of functional activity of a cloned influenza viral DNA segment in primate cells. Cloned full-length DNA sequences coding for the hemagglutinin of influenza A virus (Udorn/72/[H3N2]) were inserted into the late region of a viable deletion mutant of SV40, and the hybrid DNA was propagated in the presence of an early SV40 mutant (tsA28) helper. Infection of primate cells with the hybrid virus produced a polypeptide similar in molecular size to the hemagglutinin of influenza virus, as shown by immunoprecipitation and gel electrophoresis. The polypeptide was glycosylated, as shown by incorporation of radioactive sugars. The putative hemagglutinin exhibited functional activity, as shown by agglutination of erythrocytes. In addition, an indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that the hemagglutinin polypeptide of the hybrid virus could be detected on the surface of infected cells. Images PMID:6272305

  15. Phytoplasma plasmid DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mark T; Liefting, Lia W

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasma plasmids have generally been detected from DNA extracted from plants and insects using methods designed for the purification of total phytoplasma DNA. Methods include extraction from tissues that are high in phytoplasma titre, such as the phloem of plants, with the use of CsCl-bisbenzimide gradients that exploit the low G+C content of phytoplasma DNA. Many of the methods employed for phytoplasma purification have been described elsewhere in this book. Here we describe in detail two methods that are specifically aimed at isolating plasmid DNA.

  16. Natural selection on coding and noncoding DNA sequences is associated with virulence genes in a plant pathogenic fungus.

    PubMed

    Rech, Gabriel E; Sanz-Martín, José M; Anisimova, Maria; Sukno, Serenella A; Thon, Michael R

    2014-09-04

    Natural selection leaves imprints on DNA, offering the opportunity to identify functionally important regions of the genome. Identifying the genomic regions affected by natural selection within pathogens can aid in the pursuit of effective strategies to control diseases. In this study, we analyzed genome-wide patterns of selection acting on different classes of sequences in a worldwide sample of eight strains of the model plant-pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola. We found evidence of selective sweeps, balancing selection, and positive selection affecting both protein-coding and noncoding DNA of pathogenicity-related sequences. Genes encoding putative effector proteins and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes show evidence of positive selection acting on the coding sequence, consistent with an Arms Race model of evolution. The 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) of genes coding for effector proteins and genes upregulated during infection show an excess of high-frequency polymorphisms likely the consequence of balancing selection and consistent with the Red Queen hypothesis of evolution acting on these putative regulatory sequences. Based on the findings of this work, we propose that even though adaptive substitutions on coding sequences are important for proteins that interact directly with the host, polymorphisms in the regulatory sequences may confer flexibility of gene expression in the virulence processes of this important plant pathogen.

  17. Signalign: An Ontology of DNA as Signal for Comparative Gene Structure Prediction Using Information-Coding-and-Processing Techniques.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ning; Guo, Xuan; Gu, Feng; Pan, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Conventional character-analysis-based techniques in genome analysis manifest three main shortcomings-inefficiency, inflexibility, and incompatibility. In our previous research, a general framework, called DNA As X was proposed for character-analysis-free techniques to overcome these shortcomings, where X is the intermediates, such as digit, code, signal, vector, tree, graph network, and so on. In this paper, we further implement an ontology of DNA As Signal, by designing a tool named Signalign for comparative gene structure analysis, in which DNA sequences are converted into signal series, processed by modified method of dynamic time warping and measured by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The ontology of DNA As Signal integrates the principles and concepts of other disciplines including information coding theory and signal processing into sequence analysis and processing. Comparing with conventional character-analysis-based methods, Signalign can not only have the equivalent or superior performance, but also enrich the tools and the knowledge library of computational biology by extending the domain from character/string to diverse areas. The evaluation results validate the success of the character-analysis-free technique for improved performances in comparative gene structure prediction.

  18. The molecular cloning and characterisation of cDNA coding for the alpha subunit of the acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Sumikawa, K; Houghton, M; Smith, J C; Bell, L; Richards, B M; Barnard, E A

    1982-01-01

    A rare cDNA coding for most of the alpha subunit of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor has been cloned into bacteria. The use of a mismatched oligonucleotide primer of reverse transcriptase facilitated the design of an efficient, specific probe for recombinant bacteria. DNA sequence analysis has enabled the elucidation of a large part of the polypeptide primary sequence which is discussed in relation to its acetylcholine binding activity and the location of receptor within the plasma membrane. When used as a radioactive probe, the cloned cDNA binds specifically to a single Torpedo mRNA species of about 2350 nucleotides in length but fails to show significant cross-hybridisation with alpha subunit mRNA extracted from cat muscle. Images PMID:6183641

  19. Improved PCR Amplification of Broad Spectrum GC DNA Templates.

    PubMed

    Guido, Nicholas; Starostina, Elena; Leake, Devin; Saaem, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    Many applications in molecular biology can benefit from improved PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. Conventional PCR amplification of DNA sequences with regions of GC less than 30%, or higher than 70%, is complex due to secondary structures that block the DNA polymerase as well as mispriming and mis-annealing of the DNA. This complexity will often generate incomplete or nonspecific products that hamper downstream applications. In this study, we address multiplexed PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. In order to mitigate amplification complications due to high or low GC regions, we tested a combination of different PCR cycling conditions and chemical additives. To assess the fate of specific oligonucleotide (oligo) species with varying GC content in a multiplexed PCR, we developed a novel method of sequence analysis. Here we show that subcycling during the amplification process significantly improved amplification of short template pools (~200 bp), particularly when the template contained a low percent of GC. Furthermore, the combination of subcycling and 7-deaza-dGTP achieved efficient amplification of short templates ranging from 10-90% GC composition. Moreover, we found that 7-deaza-dGTP improved the amplification of longer products (~1000 bp). These methods provide an updated approach for PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a broad range of GC content.

  20. Run-length encoding graphic rules, biochemically editable designs and steganographical numeric data embedment for DNA-based cryptographical coding system.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Tomonori

    2013-03-01

    There have been a wide variety of approaches for handling the pieces of DNA as the "unplugged" tools for digital information storage and processing, including a series of studies applied to the security-related area, such as DNA-based digital barcodes, water marks and cryptography. In the present article, novel designs of artificial genes as the media for storing the digitally compressed data for images are proposed for bio-computing purpose while natural genes principally encode for proteins. Furthermore, the proposed system allows cryptographical application of DNA through biochemically editable designs with capacity for steganographical numeric data embedment. As a model case of image-coding DNA technique application, numerically and biochemically combined protocols are employed for ciphering the given "passwords" and/or secret numbers using DNA sequences. The "passwords" of interest were decomposed into single letters and translated into the font image coded on the separate DNA chains with both the coding regions in which the images are encoded based on the novel run-length encoding rule, and the non-coding regions designed for biochemical editing and the remodeling processes revealing the hidden orientation of letters composing the original "passwords." The latter processes require the molecular biological tools for digestion and ligation of the fragmented DNA molecules targeting at the polymerase chain reaction-engineered termini of the chains. Lastly, additional protocols for steganographical overwriting of the numeric data of interests over the image-coding DNA are also discussed.

  1. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity. PMID:26472689

  2. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity.

  3. The vicilin gene family of pea (Pisum sativum L.): a complete cDNA coding sequence for preprovicilin.

    PubMed Central

    Lycett, G W; Delauney, A J; Gatehouse, J A; Gilroy, J; Croy, R R; Boulter, D

    1983-01-01

    A cDNA plasmid bank has been constructed using mRNA from developing pea seeds and three cDNAs coding for vicilin polypeptides have been selected. These cDNAs have been sequenced and between them cover the whole of the coding sequence plus part of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions. Comparison with amino acid sequence data from the protein indicates that vicilin is synthesised as preprovicilin with subsequent removal of a signal peptide and a C-terminal peptide as well as post translational endo-proteolytic cleavage. The cDNAs represent two different classes of vicilin genes whilst amino acid data show that there are at least three major classes of vicilin polypeptide. The vicilin sequences show extensive homology with conglycinin and phaseolin except in the regions of the internal proteolytic cleavages. The evolutionary significance of this relationship is discussed. Images PMID:6687941

  4. Genome of Staphylococcal Phage K: a New Lineage of Myoviridae Infecting Gram-Positive Bacteria with a Low G+C Content

    PubMed Central

    O'Flaherty, S.; Coffey, A.; Edwards, R.; Meaney, W.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Ross, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    Phage K is a polyvalent phage of the Myoviridae family which is active against a wide range of staphylococci. Phage genome sequencing revealed a linear DNA genome of 127,395 bp, which carries 118 putative open reading frames. The genome is organized in a modular form, encoding modules for lysis, structural proteins, DNA replication, and transcription. Interestingly, the structural module shows high homology to the structural module from Listeria phage A511, suggesting intergenus horizontal transfer. In addition, phage K exhibits the potential to encode proteins necessary for its own replisome, including DNA ligase, primase, helicase, polymerase, RNase H, and DNA binding proteins. Phage K has a complete absence of GATC sites, making it insensitive to restriction enzymes which cleave this sequence. Three introns (lys-I1, pol-I2, and pol-I3) encoding putative endonucleases were located in the genome. Two of these (pol-I2 and pol-I3) were found to interrupt the DNA polymerase gene, while the other (lys-I1) interrupts the lysin gene. Two of the introns encode putative proteins with homology to HNH endonucleases, whereas the other encodes a 270-amino-acid protein which contains two zinc fingers (CX2CX22CX2C and CX2CX23CX2C). The availability of the genome of this highly virulent phage, which is active against infective staphylococci, should provide new insights into the biology and evolution of large broad-spectrum polyvalent phages. PMID:15090528

  5. Bio-bar-code dendrimer-like DNA as signal amplifier for cancerous cells assay using ruthenium nanoparticle-based ultrasensitive chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sai; Hao, Shuangyuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Shusheng

    2010-09-07

    Bio-bar-code dendrimer-like DNA (bbc-DL-DNA) is employed as a label for the amplification assay of cancer cells in combination with the newly explored chemiluminescence (CL) system of luminol-H(2)O(2)-Ru(3+) and specificity of structure-switching aptamers selected by cell-based SELEX.

  6. A novel non-coding RNA lncRNA-JADE connects DNA damage signalling to histone H4 acetylation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Guohui; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yunhua; Han, Cecil; Sood, Anil K; Calin, George A; Zhang, Xinna; Lu, Xiongbin

    2013-10-30

    A prompt and efficient DNA damage response (DDR) eliminates the detrimental effects of DNA lesions in eukaryotic cells. Basic and preclinical studies suggest that the DDR is one of the primary anti-cancer barriers during tumorigenesis. The DDR involves a complex network of processes that detect and repair DNA damage, in which long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new class of regulatory RNAs, may play an important role. In the current study, we identified a novel lncRNA, lncRNA-JADE, that is induced after DNA damage in an ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent manner. LncRNA-JADE transcriptionally activates Jade1, a key component in the HBO1 (human acetylase binding to ORC1) histone acetylation complex. Consequently, lncRNA-JADE induces histone H4 acetylation in the DDR. Markedly higher levels of lncRNA-JADE were observed in human breast tumours in comparison with normal breast tissues. Knockdown of lncRNA-JADE significantly inhibited breast tumour growth in vivo. On the basis of these results, we propose that lncRNA-JADE is a key functional link that connects the DDR to histone H4 acetylation, and that dysregulation of lncRNA-JADE may contribute to breast tumorigenesis.

  7. Conservation of genetic information: a code for site-specific DNA recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L F; Sullivan, M R; Hickok, D F

    1993-01-01

    We present findings of genetic information conservation between the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) DNA and the cDNA encoding the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) DNA-binding domain (DBD). The regions of nucleotide sub-sequence similarity to the GRE in the GR DBD occur specifically at nucleotide sequences on the ends of exons 3,4, and 5 at their splice junction sites. These sequences encode the DNA recognition helix on exon 3, a beta-strand on exon 4, and a putative alpha-helix on exon 5, respectively. The nucleotide sequence of exon 5 that encodes the putative alpha-helix located on the carboxyl terminus of the GR DBD shares sequence similarity with the flanking nucleotide regions of the GRE. We generated a computer model of the GR DBD using atomic coordinates derived from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to which we attached the exon 5-encoded putative alpha-helix. We docked this GR DBD structure at the 39-base-pair nucleotide sequence containing the GRE binding site and flanking nucleotides, which contained conserved genetic information. We observed that amino acids of the DNA recognition helix, the beta-strand, and the putative alpha-helix are spatially aligned with trinucleotides identical to their cognate codons within the GRE and its flanking nucleotides. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8516297

  8. Characterization of EBV Promoters and Coding Regions by Sequencing PCR-Amplified DNA Fragments.

    PubMed

    Szenthe, Kalman; Bánáti, Ferenc

    2017-01-01

    DNA sequencing approaches originally developed in two directions, the chemical degradation method and the chain-termination method. The latter one became more widespread and a huge amount of sequencing data including whole genome sequences accumulated, based on the use of capillary sequencer systems and the application of a modified chain-termination method which proved to be relatively easy, fast, and reliable. In addition, relatively long, up to 1000 bp sequences could be obtained with a single read with high per-base accuracy. Although the recent appearance of next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technologies enabled high-throughput and low cost analysis of DNA, the modified chain-terminating methods are often applied in research until now. In the following, we shall present the application of capillary sequencing for the sequence characterization of viral genomes in case of partial and whole genome sequencing, and demonstrate it on the BARF1 promoter of Epstein Barr virus (EBV).

  9. Methods for sequencing GC-rich and CCT repeat DNA templates

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Donna L.

    2007-02-20

    The present invention is directed to a PCR-based method of cycle sequencing DNA and other polynucleotide sequences having high CG content and regions of high GC content, and includes for example DNA strands with a high Cytosine and/or Guanosine content and repeated motifs such as CCT repeats.

  10. RAMICS: trainable, high-speed and biologically relevant alignment of high-throughput sequencing reads to coding DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Imogen A.; Travers, Simon A.

    2014-01-01

    The challenge presented by high-throughput sequencing necessitates the development of novel tools for accurate alignment of reads to reference sequences. Current approaches focus on using heuristics to map reads quickly to large genomes, rather than generating highly accurate alignments in coding regions. Such approaches are, thus, unsuited for applications such as amplicon-based analysis and the realignment phase of exome sequencing and RNA-seq, where accurate and biologically relevant alignment of coding regions is critical. To facilitate such analyses, we have developed a novel tool, RAMICS, that is tailored to mapping large numbers of sequence reads to short lengths (<10 000 bp) of coding DNA. RAMICS utilizes profile hidden Markov models to discover the open reading frame of each sequence and aligns to the reference sequence in a biologically relevant manner, distinguishing between genuine codon-sized indels and frameshift mutations. This approach facilitates the generation of highly accurate alignments, accounting for the error biases of the sequencing machine used to generate reads, particularly at homopolymer regions. Performance improvements are gained through the use of graphics processing units, which increase the speed of mapping through parallelization. RAMICS substantially outperforms all other mapping approaches tested in terms of alignment quality while maintaining highly competitive speed performance. PMID:24861618

  11. An Abundant Class of Non-coding DNA Can Prevent Stochastic Gene Silencing in the C. elegans Germline.

    PubMed

    Frøkjær-Jensen, Christian; Jain, Nimit; Hansen, Loren; Davis, M Wayne; Li, Yongbin; Zhao, Di; Rebora, Karine; Millet, Jonathan R M; Liu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K; Dupuy, Denis; Jorgensen, Erik M; Fire, Andrew Z

    2016-07-14

    Cells benefit from silencing foreign genetic elements but must simultaneously avoid inactivating endogenous genes. Although chromatin modifications and RNAs contribute to maintenance of silenced states, the establishment of silenced regions will inevitably reflect underlying DNA sequence and/or structure. Here, we demonstrate that a pervasive non-coding DNA feature in Caenorhabditis elegans, characterized by 10-base pair periodic An/Tn-clusters (PATCs), can license transgenes for germline expression within repressive chromatin domains. Transgenes containing natural or synthetic PATCs are resistant to position effect variegation and stochastic silencing in the germline. Among endogenous genes, intron length and PATC-character undergo dramatic changes as orthologs move from active to repressive chromatin over evolutionary time, indicating a dynamic character to the An/Tn periodicity. We propose that PATCs form the basis of a cellular immune system, identifying certain endogenous genes in heterochromatic contexts as privileged while foreign DNA can be suppressed with no requirement for a cellular memory of prior exposure.

  12. Cloning and sequence analysis of a cDNA clone coding for the mouse GM2 activator protein.

    PubMed Central

    Bellachioma, G; Stirling, J L; Orlacchio, A; Beccari, T

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA (1.1 kb) containing the complete coding sequence for the mouse GM2 activator protein was isolated from a mouse macrophage library using a cDNA for the human protein as a probe. There was a single ATG located 12 bp from the 5' end of the cDNA clone followed by an open reading frame of 579 bp. Northern blot analysis of mouse macrophage RNA showed that there was a single band with a mobility corresponding to a size of 2.3 kb. We deduce from this that the mouse mRNA, in common with the mRNA for the human GM2 activator protein, has a long 3' untranslated sequence of approx. 1.7 kb. Alignment of the mouse and human deduced amino acid sequences showed 68% identity overall and 75% identity for the sequence on the C-terminal side of the first 31 residues, which in the human GM2 activator protein contains the signal peptide. Hydropathicity plots showed great similarity between the mouse and human sequences even in regions of low sequence similarity. There is a single N-glycosylation site in the mouse GM2 activator protein sequence (Asn151-Phe-Thr) which differs in its location from the single site reported in the human GM2 activator protein sequence (Asn63-Val-Thr). Images Figure 1 PMID:7689829

  13. The non-coding B2 RNA binds to the DNA cleft and active site region of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Ponicsan, Steven L.; Houel, Stephane; Old, William M.; Ahn, Natalie G.; Goodrich, James A.; Kugel, Jennifer F.

    2013-01-01

    The B2 family of short interspersed elements is transcribed into non-coding RNA by RNA polymerase III. The ~180 nt B2 RNA has been shown to potently repress mRNA transcription by binding tightly to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and assembling with it into complexes on promoter DNA, where it keeps the polymerase from properly engaging the promoter DNA. Mammalian Pol II is a ~500 kD complex that contains 12 different protein subunits, providing many possible surfaces for interaction with B2 RNA. We found that the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest Pol II subunit was not required for B2 RNA to bind Pol II and repress transcription in vitro. To identify the surface on Pol II to which the minimal functional region of B2 RNA binds, we coupled multi-step affinity purification, reversible formaldehyde crosslinking, peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry, and analysis of peptide enrichment. The Pol II peptides most highly recovered after crosslinking to B2 RNA mapped to the DNA binding cleft and active site region of Pol II. These studies determine the location of a defined nucleic acid binding site on a large, native, multi-subunit complex and provide insight into the mechanism of transcriptional repression by B2 RNA. PMID:23416138

  14. The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Grimwood, J; Gordon, L A; Olsen, A; Terry, A; Schmutz, J; Lamerdin, J; Hellsten, U; Goodstein, D; Couronne, O; Tran-Gyamfi, M

    2004-04-06

    Chromosome 19 has the highest gene density of all human chromosomes, more than double the genome-wide average. The large clustered gene families, corresponding high GC content, CpG islands and density of repetitive DNA indicate a chromosome rich in biological and evolutionary significance. Here we describe 55.8 million base pairs of highly accurate finished sequence representing 99.9% of the euchromatin portion of the chromosome. Manual curation of gene loci reveals 1,461 protein-coding genes and 321 pseudogenes. Among these are genes directly implicated in Mendelian disorders, including familial hypercholesterolemia and insulin-resistant diabetes. Nearly one quarter of these genes belong to tandemly arranged families, encompassing more than 25% of the chromosome. Comparative analyses show a fascinating picture of conservation and divergence, revealing large blocks of gene orthology with rodents, scattered regions with more recent gene family expansions and deletions, and segments of coding and non-coding conservation with the distant fish species Takifugu.

  15. Population dynamics coded in DNA: genetic traces of the expansion of modern humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, Marek

    1999-12-01

    It has been proposed that modern humans evolved from a small ancestral population, which appeared several hundred thousand years ago in Africa. Descendants of the founder group migrated to Europe and then to Asia, not mixing with the pre-existing local populations but replacing them. Two demographic elements are present in this “out of Africa” hypothesis: numerical growth of the modern humans and their migration into Eurasia. Did these processes leave an imprint in our DNA? To address this question, we use the classical Fisher-Wright-Moran model of population genetics, assuming variable population size and two models of mutation: the infinite-sites model and the stepwise-mutation model. We use the coalescence theory, which amounts to tracing the common ancestors of contemporary genes. We obtain mathematical formulae expressing the distribution of alleles given the time changes of population size . In the framework of the infinite-sites model, simulations indicate that the pattern of past population size change leaves its signature on the pattern of DNA polymorphism. Application of the theory to the published mitochondrial DNA sequences indicates that the current mitochondrial DNA sequence variation is not inconsistent with the logistic growth of the modern human population. In the framework of the stepwise-mutation model, we demonstrate that population bottleneck followed by growth in size causes an imbalance between allele-size variance and heterozygosity. We analyze a set of data on tetranucleotide repeats which reveals the existence of this imbalance. The pattern of imbalance is consistent with the bottleneck being most ancient in Africans, most recent in Asians and intermediate in Europeans. These findings are consistent with the “out of Africa” hypothesis, although by no means do they constitute its proof.

  16. Fine-tuning the ubiquitin code at DNA double-strand breaks: deubiquitinating enzymes at work

    PubMed Central

    Citterio, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a reversible protein modification broadly implicated in cellular functions. Signaling processes mediated by ubiquitin (ub) are crucial for the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), one of the most dangerous types of DNA lesions. In particular, the DSB response critically relies on active ubiquitination by the RNF8 and RNF168 ub ligases at the chromatin, which is essential for proper DSB signaling and repair. How this pathway is fine-tuned and what the functional consequences are of its deregulation for genome integrity and tissue homeostasis are subject of intense investigation. One important regulatory mechanism is by reversal of substrate ubiquitination through the activity of specific deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), as supported by the implication of a growing number of DUBs in DNA damage response processes. Here, we discuss the current knowledge of how ub-mediated signaling at DSBs is controlled by DUBs, with main focus on DUBs targeting histone H2A and on their recent implication in stem cell biology and cancer. PMID:26442100

  17. African swine fever virus ORF P1192R codes for a functional type II DNA topoisomerase.

    PubMed

    Coelho, João; Martins, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando; Leitão, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Topoisomerases modulate the topological state of DNA during processes, such as replication and transcription, that cause overwinding and/or underwinding of the DNA. African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a nucleo-cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA virus shown to contain an OFR (P1192R) with homology to type II topoisomerases. Here we observed that pP1192R is highly conserved among ASFV isolates but dissimilar from other viral, prokaryotic or eukaryotic type II topoisomerases. In both ASFV/Ba71V-infected Vero cells and ASFV/L60-infected pig macrophages we detected pP1192R at intermediate and late phases of infection, cytoplasmically localized and accumulating in the viral factories. Finally, we used a Saccharomyces cerevisiae temperature-sensitive strain in order to demonstrate, through complementation and in vitro decatenation assays, the functionality of P1192R, which we further confirmed by mutating its predicted catalytic residue. Overall, this work strengthens the idea that P1192R constitutes a target for studying, and possibly controlling, ASFV transcription and replication.

  18. Run-length encoding graphic rules, biochemically editable designs and steganographical numeric data embedment for DNA-based cryptographical coding system

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Tomonori

    2013-01-01

    There have been a wide variety of approaches for handling the pieces of DNA as the “unplugged” tools for digital information storage and processing, including a series of studies applied to the security-related area, such as DNA-based digital barcodes, water marks and cryptography. In the present article, novel designs of artificial genes as the media for storing the digitally compressed data for images are proposed for bio-computing purpose while natural genes principally encode for proteins. Furthermore, the proposed system allows cryptographical application of DNA through biochemically editable designs with capacity for steganographical numeric data embedment. As a model case of image-coding DNA technique application, numerically and biochemically combined protocols are employed for ciphering the given “passwords” and/or secret numbers using DNA sequences. The “passwords” of interest were decomposed into single letters and translated into the font image coded on the separate DNA chains with both the coding regions in which the images are encoded based on the novel run-length encoding rule, and the non-coding regions designed for biochemical editing and the remodeling processes revealing the hidden orientation of letters composing the original “passwords.” The latter processes require the molecular biological tools for digestion and ligation of the fragmented DNA molecules targeting at the polymerase chain reaction-engineered termini of the chains. Lastly, additional protocols for steganographical overwriting of the numeric data of interests over the image-coding DNA are also discussed. PMID:23750303

  19. Isolation and identification of a cDNA clone coding for an HLA-DR transplantation antigen alpha-chain.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, K; Bill, P; Larhammar, D; Wiman, K; Claesson, L; Schenning, L; Servenius, B; Sundelin, J; Rask, L; Peterson, P A

    1982-10-01

    Membrane-bound mRNA was isolated from Raji cells and enriched for message coding for the HLA-DR transplantation antigen alpha-chain by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Double-stranded cDNA was constructed from this mRNA fraction, ligated to plasmid pBR322, and cloned into Escherichia coli. By hybrid selection, a plasmid, pDR-alpha-1, able to hybridize with mRNA coding for the HLA-DR alpha-chain was identified. From the nucleotide sequence of one end of the insert an amino acid sequence was predicted which is identical to part of the amino-terminal sequence of an HLA-DR alpha-chain preparation isolated from Raji cells. This clearly shows that pDR-alpha-1 carries almost the complete message for an HLD-DR alpha-chain. From the nucleotide sequence of this plasmid it will be possible to predict the primary structure of an HLA-DR alpha-chain.

  20. Analysis of cDNA coding MHC class II beta chain of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Hatta, Yuki; Kanai, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Hayasaka, Ikuo; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2002-04-01

    The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, Patr) is the closest zoological living relative of humans and shares approximately 98.6% genetic homology to human beings. Although major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a critical role in T cell-mediated immune responses in vertebrates, the information on Patr MHC remains at a relatively poor level. Therefore, we attempted to isolate Patr MHC class II genes and determine their nucleotide sequences. The cDNAs encoding Patr MHC class II DP, DQ and DR beta chains were isolated from the cDNA library of a chimpanzee B lymphocyte cell line Bch261. As a result of screening, the clone 6-3-1 as a representative of Patr DP clone, clone 30-1 as a Patr DQ clone, and clones 4-7-1 and 55-1 having different sequences as Patr DR clones were detected. The clone 6-3-1 consisted of 1,062 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF) of 777 bp. In the same way, clone 30-1 consisted of 1,172 nucleotides including ORF of 786 bp, clones 4-7-1 and 55-1 consisted of 1,163 nucleotides including ORF of 801 bp. Except for five nucleotide changes, clones 4-7-1 and 55-1 were the same sequence. By comparison with the nucleotide sequences already reported on chimpanzee MHC class II beta 1 genes, clones 6-3-1, 30-1, 4-7-1 and 55-1 were classified as PatrDPB1*16, PatrDQB1*0302, PatrDRB1*0201 and PatrDRB1*0204, respectively. This is the first report to describe complete cDNA sequences of Patr DP and DQ molecules. The nucleotide sequence data of Patr MHC class II genes obtained in this study will be useful for the genotyping of Patr MHC class II genes in individual chimpanzees.

  1. Variable continental distribution of polymorphisms in the coding regions of DNA-repair genes.

    PubMed

    Mathonnet, Géraldine; Labuda, Damian; Meloche, Caroline; Wambach, Tina; Krajinovic, Maja; Sinnett, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    DNA-repair pathways are critical for maintaining the integrity of the genetic material by protecting against mutations due to exposure-induced damages or replication errors. Polymorphisms in the corresponding genes may be relevant in genetic epidemiology by modifying individual cancer susceptibility or therapeutic response. We report data on the population distribution of potentially functional variants in XRCC1, APEX1, ERCC2, ERCC4, hMLH1, and hMSH3 genes among groups representing individuals of European, Middle Eastern, African, Southeast Asian and North American descent. The data indicate little interpopulation differentiation in some of these polymorphisms and typical FST values ranging from 10 to 17% at others. Low FST was observed in APEX1 and hMSH3 exon 23 in spite of their relatively high minor allele frequencies, which could suggest the effect of balancing selection. In XRCC1, hMSH3 exon 21 and hMLH1 Africa clusters either with Middle East and Europe or with Southeast Asia, which could be related to the demographic history of human populations, whereby human migrations and genetic drift rather than selection would account for the observed differences.

  2. A positive detecting code and its decoding algorithm for DNA library screening.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Hiroaki; Jimbo, Masakazu

    2009-01-01

    The study of gene functions requires high-quality DNA libraries. However, a large number of tests and screenings are necessary for compiling such libraries. We describe an algorithm for extracting as much information as possible from pooling experiments for library screening. Collections of clones are called pools, and a pooling experiment is a group test for detecting all positive clones. The probability of positiveness for each clone is estimated according to the outcomes of the pooling experiments. Clones with high chance of positiveness are subjected to confirmatory testing. In this paper, we introduce a new positive clone detecting algorithm, called the Bayesian network pool result decoder (BNPD). The performance of BNPD is compared, by simulation, with that of the Markov chain pool result decoder (MCPD) proposed by Knill et al. in 1996. Moreover, the combinatorial properties of pooling designs suitable for the proposed algorithm are discussed in conjunction with combinatorial designs and d-disjunct matrices. We also show the advantage of utilizing packing designs or BIB designs for the BNPD algorithm.

  3. Adaption of SYBR Green-based reagent kit for real-time PCR quantitation of GC-rich DNA.

    PubMed

    Chang, G J; Seyfert, H M; Shen, X Z

    2015-07-28

    In the mammalian genome, approximately 50% of all genes are controlled by promoters with high GC contents. Analyzing the epigenetic mechanisms regulating their expression is difficult. Hence, we examined a method for stable quantification of such GC-rich DNA sequences. Quantification of DNA during real-time PCR is often based on reagent kits containing the fluorescent dye SYBR Green. However, these ready-made kits may not be suitable for amplifying DNA samples with a high GC content (>70%). DNA segments with eccentric GC contents are frequently found in proximal promoter areas, and their quantification may be necessary in chromatin accessibility by real-time polymerase chain reaction or chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses of epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation. We therefore optimized the SYBR Green I FastStart reaction system by supplementing the system with dimethyl sulfoxide, betaine, and increased DNA polymerase content. Here, we describe the development of the assay and demonstrate its effectiveness for two different DNA templates, showing that these modifications allow for the reliable amplification and quantification of DNA with GC contents exceeding >70% using the LightCycler instrument.

  4. Counterintuitive DNA Sequence Dependence in Supercoiling-Induced DNA Melting

    PubMed Central

    Vlijm, Rifka; v.d. Torre, Jaco; Dekker, Cees

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of DNA in cells relies on the balance between hybridized double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and local de-hybridized regions of ssDNA that provide access to binding proteins. Traditional melting experiments, in which short pieces of dsDNA are heated up until the point of melting into ssDNA, have determined that AT-rich sequences have a lower binding energy than GC-rich sequences. In cells, however, the double-stranded backbone of DNA is destabilized by negative supercoiling, and not by temperature. To investigate what the effect of GC content is on DNA melting induced by negative supercoiling, we studied DNA molecules with a GC content ranging from 38% to 77%, using single-molecule magnetic tweezer measurements in which the length of a single DNA molecule is measured as a function of applied stretching force and supercoiling density. At low force (<0.5pN), supercoiling results into twisting of the dsDNA backbone and loop formation (plectonemes), without inducing any DNA melting. This process was not influenced by the DNA sequence. When negative supercoiling is introduced at increasing force, local melting of DNA is introduced. We measured for the different DNA molecules a characteristic force Fchar, at which negative supercoiling induces local melting of the dsDNA. Surprisingly, GC-rich sequences melt at lower forces than AT-rich sequences: Fchar = 0.56pN for 77% GC but 0.73pN for 38% GC. An explanation for this counterintuitive effect is provided by the realization that supercoiling densities of a few percent only induce melting of a few percent of the base pairs. As a consequence, denaturation bubbles occur in local AT-rich regions and the sequence-dependent effect arises from an increased DNA bending/torsional energy associated with the plectonemes. This new insight indicates that an increased GC-content adjacent to AT-rich DNA regions will enhance local opening of the double-stranded DNA helix. PMID:26513573

  5. DNA-LCEB: a high-capacity and mutation-resistant DNA data-hiding approach by employing encryption, error correcting codes, and hybrid twofold and fourfold codon-based strategy for synonymous substitution in amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Ibbad; Khan, Asifullah; Qadir, Abdul

    2014-11-01

    Data-hiding in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences can be used to develop an organic memory and to track parent genes in an offspring as well as in genetically modified organism. However, the main concerns regarding data-hiding in DNA sequences are the survival of organism and successful extraction of watermark from DNA. This implies that the organism should live and reproduce without any functional disorder even in the presence of the embedded data. Consequently, performing synonymous substitution in amino acids for watermarking becomes a primary option. In this regard, a hybrid watermark embedding strategy that employs synonymous substitution in both twofold and fourfold codons of amino acids is proposed. This work thus presents a high-capacity and mutation-resistant watermarking technique, DNA-LCEB, for hiding secret information in DNA of living organisms. By employing the different types of synonymous codons of amino acids, the data storage capacity has been significantly increased. It is further observed that the proposed DNA-LCEB employing a combination of synonymous substitution, lossless compression, encryption, and Bose-Chaudary-Hocquenghem coding is secure and performs better in terms of both capacity and robustness compared to existing DNA data-hiding schemes. The proposed DNA-LCEB is tested against different mutations, including silent, miss-sense, and non-sense mutations, and provides substantial improvement in terms of mutation detection/correction rate and bits per nucleotide. A web application for DNA-LCEB is available at http://111.68.99.218/DNA-LCEB.

  6. A non-coding plastid DNA phylogeny of Asian Begonia (Begoniaceae): evidence for morphological homoplasy and sectional polyphyly.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D C; Hughes, M; Phutthai, T; Rajbhandary, S; Rubite, R; Ardi, W H; Richardson, J E

    2011-09-01

    Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of non-coding plastid DNA sequence data based on a broad sampling of all major Asian Begonia sections (ndhA intron, ndhF-rpl32 spacer, rpl32-trnL spacer, 3977 aligned characters, 84 species) were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of Asian Begonia and to test the monophyly of major Asian Begonia sections. Ovary and fruit characters which are crucial in current sectional circumscriptions were mapped on the phylogeny to assess their utility in infrageneric classifications. The results indicate that the strong systematic emphasis placed on single, homoplasious characters such as undivided placenta lamellae (section Reichenheimia) and fleshy pericarps (section Sphenanthera), and the recognition of sections primarily based on a suite of plesiomorphic characters including three-locular ovaries with axillary, bilamellate placentae and dry, dehiscent pericarps (section Diploclinium), has resulted in the circumscription of several polyphyletic sections. Moreover, sections Platycentrum and Petermannia were recovered as paraphyletic. Because of the homoplasy of systematically important characters, current classifications have a certain diagnostic, but only poor predictive value. The presented phylogeny provides for the first time a reasonably resolved and supported phylogenetic framework for Asian Begonia which has the power to inform future taxonomic, biogeographic and evolutionary studies.

  7. Genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids in eukaryotes by non-coding DNA occurs through CRISPR-like mechanisms in the cytosol and the bodyguard protection in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the protective function of the abundant non-coding DNA in the eukaryotic genome is discussed from the perspective of genome defense against exogenous nucleic acids. Peripheral non-coding DNA has been proposed to act as a bodyguard that protects the genome and the central protein-coding sequences from ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. In the proposed mechanism of protection, the radicals generated by water radiolysis in the cytosol and IR energy are absorbed, blocked and/or reduced by peripheral heterochromatin; then, the DNA damage sites in the heterochromatin are removed and expelled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes, most likely through the formation of extrachromosomal circular DNA. To strengthen this hypothesis, this review summarizes the experimental evidence supporting the protective function of non-coding DNA against exogenous nucleic acids. Based on these data, I hypothesize herein about the presence of an additional line of defense formed by small RNAs in the cytosol in addition to their bodyguard protection mechanism in the nucleus. Therefore, exogenous nucleic acids may be initially inactivated in the cytosol by small RNAs generated from non-coding DNA via mechanisms similar to the prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system. Exogenous nucleic acids may enter the nucleus, where some are absorbed and/or blocked by heterochromatin and others integrate into chromosomes. The integrated fragments and the sites of DNA damage are removed by repetitive non-coding DNA elements in the heterochromatin and excluded from the nucleus. Therefore, the normal eukaryotic genome and the central protein-coding sequences are triply protected by non-coding DNA against invasion by exogenous nucleic acids. This review provides evidence supporting the protective role of non-coding DNA in genome defense.

  8. The Arabidopsis HOMOLOGY-DEPENDENT GENE SILENCING1 Gene Codes for an S-Adenosyl-l-Homocysteine Hydrolase Required for DNA Methylation-Dependent Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Pedro S.C.F.; Sheikh, Mazhar; Melchiorre, Rosalba; Fagard, Mathilde; Boutet, Stéphanie; Loach, Rebecca; Moffatt, Barbara; Wagner, Conrad; Vaucheret, Hervé; Furner, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Genes introduced into higher plant genomes can become silent (gene silencing) and/or cause silencing of homologous genes at unlinked sites (homology-dependent gene silencing or HDG silencing). Mutations of the HOMOLOGY-DEPENDENT GENE SILENCING1 (HOG1) locus relieve transcriptional gene silencing and methylation-dependent HDG silencing and result in genome-wide demethylation. The hog1 mutant plants also grow slowly and have low fertility and reduced seed germination. Three independent mutants of HOG1 were each found to have point mutations at the 3′ end of a gene coding for S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) hydrolase, and hog1-1 plants show reduced SAH hydrolase activity. A transposon (hog1-4) and a T-DNA tag (hog1-5) in the HOG1 gene each behaved as zygotic embryo lethal mutants and could not be made homozygous. The results suggest that the homozygous hog1 point mutants are leaky and result in genome demethylation and poor growth and that homozygous insertion mutations result in zygotic lethality. Complementation of the hog1-1 point mutation with a T-DNA containing the gene coding for SAH hydrolase restored gene silencing, HDG silencing, DNA methylation, fast growth, and normal seed viability. The same T-DNA also complemented the zygotic embryo lethal phenotype of the hog1-4 tagged mutant. A model relating the HOG1 gene, DNA methylation, and methylation-dependent HDG silencing is presented. PMID:15659630

  9. New Insights into the Lake Chad Basin Population Structure Revealed by High-Throughput Genotyping of Mitochondrial DNA Coding SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Černý, Viktor; Carracedo, Ángel

    2011-01-01

    Background Located in the Sudan belt, the Chad Basin forms a remarkable ecosystem, where several unique agricultural and pastoral techniques have been developed. Both from an archaeological and a genetic point of view, this region has been interpreted to be the center of a bidirectional corridor connecting West and East Africa, as well as a meeting point for populations coming from North Africa through the Saharan desert. Methodology/Principal Findings Samples from twelve ethnic groups from the Chad Basin (n = 542) have been high-throughput genotyped for 230 coding region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (mtSNPs) using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. This set of mtSNPs allowed for much better phylogenetic resolution than previous studies of this geographic region, enabling new insights into its population history. Notable haplogroup (hg) heterogeneity has been observed in the Chad Basin mirroring the different demographic histories of these ethnic groups. As estimated using a Bayesian framework, nomadic populations showed negative growth which was not always correlated to their estimated effective population sizes. Nomads also showed lower diversity values than sedentary groups. Conclusions/Significance Compared to sedentary population, nomads showed signals of stronger genetic drift occurring in their ancestral populations. These populations, however, retained more haplotype diversity in their hypervariable segments I (HVS-I), but not their mtSNPs, suggesting a more ancestral ethnogenesis. Whereas the nomadic population showed a higher Mediterranean influence signaled mainly by sub-lineages of M1, R0, U6, and U5, the other populations showed a more consistent sub-Saharan pattern. Although lifestyle may have an influence on diversity patterns and hg composition, analysis of molecular variance has not identified these differences. The present study indicates that analysis of mt

  10. Detecting Selection in the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Using DNA Sequence Data from Multiple Nuclear Protein-Coding Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yednock, Bree K.; Neigel, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of genes involved in the adaptive evolution of non-model organisms with uncharacterized genomes constitutes a major challenge. This study employed a rigorous and targeted candidate gene approach to test for positive selection on protein-coding genes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Four genes with putative roles in physiological adaptation to environmental stress were chosen as candidates. A fifth gene not expected to play a role in environmental adaptation was used as a control. Large samples (n>800) of DNA sequences from C. sapidus were used in tests of selective neutrality based on sequence polymorphisms. In combination with these, sequences from the congener C. similis were used in neutrality tests based on interspecific divergence. In multiple tests, significant departures from neutral expectations and indicative of positive selection were found for the candidate gene trehalose 6-phosphate synthase (tps). These departures could not be explained by any of the historical population expansion or bottleneck scenarios that were evaluated in coalescent simulations. Evidence was also found for balancing selection at ATP-synthase subunit 9 (atps) using a maximum likelihood version of the Hudson, Kreitmen, and Aguadé test, and positive selection favoring amino acid replacements within ATP/ADP translocase (ant) was detected using the McDonald-Kreitman test. In contrast, test statistics for the control gene, ribosomal protein L12 (rpl), which presumably has experienced the same demographic effects as the candidate loci, were not significantly different from neutral expectations and could readily be explained by demographic effects. Together, these findings demonstrate the utility of the candidate gene approach for investigating adaptation at the molecular level in a marine invertebrate for which extensive genomic resources are not available. PMID:24896825

  11. Detecting selection in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, using DNA sequence data from multiple nuclear protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Yednock, Bree K; Neigel, Joseph E

    2014-01-01

    The identification of genes involved in the adaptive evolution of non-model organisms with uncharacterized genomes constitutes a major challenge. This study employed a rigorous and targeted candidate gene approach to test for positive selection on protein-coding genes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Four genes with putative roles in physiological adaptation to environmental stress were chosen as candidates. A fifth gene not expected to play a role in environmental adaptation was used as a control. Large samples (n>800) of DNA sequences from C. sapidus were used in tests of selective neutrality based on sequence polymorphisms. In combination with these, sequences from the congener C. similis were used in neutrality tests based on interspecific divergence. In multiple tests, significant departures from neutral expectations and indicative of positive selection were found for the candidate gene trehalose 6-phosphate synthase (tps). These departures could not be explained by any of the historical population expansion or bottleneck scenarios that were evaluated in coalescent simulations. Evidence was also found for balancing selection at ATP-synthase subunit 9 (atps) using a maximum likelihood version of the Hudson, Kreitmen, and Aguadé test, and positive selection favoring amino acid replacements within ATP/ADP translocase (ant) was detected using the McDonald-Kreitman test. In contrast, test statistics for the control gene, ribosomal protein L12 (rpl), which presumably has experienced the same demographic effects as the candidate loci, were not significantly different from neutral expectations and could readily be explained by demographic effects. Together, these findings demonstrate the utility of the candidate gene approach for investigating adaptation at the molecular level in a marine invertebrate for which extensive genomic resources are not available.

  12. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  13. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  14. C.U.R.R.F. (Codon Usage regarding Restriction Finder): a free Java(®)-based tool to detect potential restriction sites in both coding and non-coding DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Gatter, Michael; Gatter, Thomas; Matthäus, Falk

    2012-10-01

    The synthesis of complete genes is becoming a more and more popular approach in heterologous gene expression. Reasons for this are the decreasing prices and the numerous advantages in comparison to classic molecular cloning methods. Two of these advantages are the possibility to adapt the codon usage to the host organism and the option to introduce restriction enzyme target sites of choice. C.U.R.R.F. (Codon Usage regarding Restriction Finder) is a free Java(®)-based software program which is able to detect possible restriction sites in both coding and non-coding DNA sequences by introducing multiple silent or non-silent mutations, respectively. The deviation of an alternative sequence containing a desired restriction motive from the sequence with the optimal codon usage is considered during the search of potential restriction sites in coding DNA and mRNA sequences as well as protein sequences. C.U.R.R.F is available at http://www.zvm.tu-dresden.de/die_tu_dresden/fakultaeten/fakultaet_mathematik_und_naturwissenschaften/fachrichtung_biologie/mikrobiologie/allgemeine_mikrobiologie/currf.

  15. A gene for a Class II DNA photolyase from Oryza sativa: cloning of the cDNA by dilution-amplification.

    PubMed

    Hirouchi, T; Nakajima, S; Najrana, T; Tanaka, M; Matsunaga, T; Hidema, J; Teranishi, M; Fujino, T; Kumagai, T; Yamamoto, K

    2003-07-01

    Ultraviolet radiation induces the formation of two classes of photoproducts in DNA-the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and the pyrimidine [6-4] pyrimidone photoproduct (6-4 product). Many organisms produce enzymes, termed photolyases, which specifically bind to these lesions and split them via a UV-A/blue light-dependent mechanism, thereby reversing the damage. These photolyases are specific for either CPDs or 6-4 products. Two classes of photolyases (class I and class II) repair CPDs. A gene that encodes a protein with class II CPD photolyase activity in vitro has been cloned from several plants including Arabidopsis thaliana, Cucumis sativus and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We report here the isolation of a homolog of this gene from rice (Oryza sativa), which was cloned on the basis of sequence similarity and PCR-based dilution-amplification. The cDNA comprises a very GC-rich (75%) 5; region, while the 3; portion has a GC content of 50%. This gene encodes a protein with CPD photolyase activity when expressed in E. coli. The CPD photolyase gene encodes at least two types of mRNA, formed by alternative splicing of exon 5. One of the mRNAs encodes an ORF for 506 amino acid residues, while the other is predicted to code for 364 amino acid residues. The two RNAs occur in about equal amounts in O. sativa cells.

  16. A sandwich-hybridization assay for simultaneous determination of HIV and tuberculosis DNA targets based on signal amplification by quantum dots-PowerVision™ polymer coding nanotracers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhongdan; Gan, Ning; Zhang, Huairong; Wang, De; Qiao, Li; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua; Hu, Futao

    2015-09-15

    A novel sandwich-hybridization assay for simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple DNA targets related to human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) was developed based on the different quantum dots-PowerVision(TM) polymer nanotracers. The polymer nanotracers were respectively fabricated by immobilizing SH-labeled oligonucleotides (s-HIV or s-TB), which can partially hybrid with virus DNA (HIV or TB), on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and then modified with PowerVision(TM) (PV) polymer-encapsulated quantum dots (CdS or PbS) as signal tags. PV is a dendrimer enzyme linked polymer, which can immobilize abundant QDs to amplify the stripping voltammetry signals from the metal ions (Pb or Cd). The capture probes were prepared through the immobilization of SH-labeled oligonucleotides, which can complementary with HIV and TB DNA, on the magnetic Fe3O4@Au (GMPs) beads. After sandwich-hybridization, the polymer nanotracers together with HIV and TB DNA targets were simultaneously introduced onto the surface of GMPs. Then the two encoding metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) were used to differentiate two viruses DNA due to the different subsequent anodic stripping voltammetric peaks at -0.84 V (Cd) and -0.61 V (Pb). Because of the excellent signal amplification of the polymer nanotracers and the great specificity of DNA targets, this assay could detect targets DNA as low as 0.2 femtomolar and exhibited excellent selectivity with the dynamitic range from 0.5 fM to 500 pM. Those results demonstrated that this electrochemical coding assay has great potential in applications for screening more viruses DNA while changing the probes.

  17. The Use and Effectiveness of Triple Multiplex System for Coding Region Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Mitochondrial DNA Typing of Archaeologically Obtained Human Skeletons from Premodern Joseon Tombs of Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Soong Deok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Previous study showed that East Asian mtDNA haplogroups, especially those of Koreans, could be successfully assigned by the coupled use of analyses on coding region SNP markers and control region mutation motifs. In this study, we tried to see if the same triple multiplex analysis for coding regions SNPs could be also applicable to ancient samples from East Asia as the complementation for sequence analysis of mtDNA control region. By the study on Joseon skeleton samples, we know that mtDNA haplogroup determined by coding region SNP markers successfully falls within the same haplogroup that sequence analysis on control region can assign. Considering that ancient samples in previous studies make no small number of errors in control region mtDNA sequencing, coding region SNP analysis can be used as good complimentary to the conventional haplogroup determination, especially of archaeological human bone samples buried underground over long periods.

  18. Identification of a cDNA clone that contains the complete coding sequence for a 140-kD rat NCAM polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) are cell surface glycoproteins that appear to mediate cell-cell adhesion. In vertebrates NCAMs exist in at least three different polypeptide forms of apparent molecular masses 180, 140, and 120 kD. The 180- and 140-kD forms span the plasma membrane whereas the 120-kD form lacks a transmembrane region. In this study, we report the isolation of NCAM clones from an adult rat brain cDNA library. Sequence analysis indicated that the longest isolate, pR18, contains a 2,574 nucleotide open reading frame flanked by 208 bases of 5' and 409 bases of 3' untranslated sequence. The predicted polypeptide encoded by clone pR18 contains a single membrane-spanning region and a small cytoplasmic domain (120 amino acids), suggesting that it codes for a full-length 140-kD NCAM form. In Northern analysis, probes derived from 5' sequences of pR18, which presumably code for extracellular portions of the molecule hybridized to five discrete mRNA size classes (7.4, 6.7, 5.2, 4.3, and 2.9 kb) in adult rat brain but not to liver or muscle RNA. However, the 5.2- and 2.9-kb mRNA size classes did not hybridize to either a large restriction fragment or three oligonucleotides derived from the putative transmembrane coding region and regions that lie 3' to it. The 3' probes did hybridize to the 7.4-, 6.7-, and 4.3-kb message size classes. These combined results indicate that clone pR18 is derived from either the 7.4-, 6.7-, or 4.3- kb adult rat brain RNA size class. Comparison with chicken and mouse NCAM cDNA sequences suggests that pR18 represents the amino acid coding region of the 6.7- or 4.3-kb mRNA. The isolation of pR18, the first cDNA that contains the complete coding sequence of an NCAM polypeptide, unambiguously demonstrates the predicted linear amino acid sequence of this probable rat 140-kD polypeptide. This cDNA also contains a 30-base pair segment not found in NCAM cDNAs isolated from other species. The significance of this segment and other

  19. Mitochondrial DNA of Clathrina clathrus (Calcarea, Calcinea): six linear chromosomes, fragmented rRNAs, tRNA editing, and a novel genetic code.

    PubMed

    Lavrov, Dennis V; Pett, Walker; Voigt, Oliver; Wörheide, Gert; Forget, Lise; Lang, B Franz; Kayal, Ehsan

    2013-04-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are a large and ancient group of morphologically simple but ecologically important aquatic animals. Although their body plan and lifestyle are relatively uniform, sponges show extensive molecular and genetic diversity. In particular, mitochondrial genomes from three of the four previously studied classes of Porifera (Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha) have distinct gene contents, genome organizations, and evolutionary rates. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome of Clathrina clathrus (Calcinea, Clathrinidae), a representative of the fourth poriferan class, the Calcarea, which proves to be the most unusual. Clathrina clathrus mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) consists of six linear chromosomes 7.6-9.4 kb in size and encodes at least 37 genes: 13 protein codings, 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and 24 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Protein genes include atp9, which has now been found in all major sponge lineages, but no atp8. Our analyses further reveal the presence of a novel genetic code that involves unique reassignments of the UAG codons from termination to tyrosine and of the CGN codons from arginine to glycine. Clathrina clathrus mitochondrial rRNAs are encoded in three (srRNA) and ≥6 (lrRNA) fragments distributed out of order and on several chromosomes. The encoded tRNAs contain multiple mismatches in the aminoacyl acceptor stems that are repaired posttranscriptionally by 3'-end RNA editing. Although our analysis does not resolve the phylogenetic position of calcareous sponges, likely due to their high rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution, it confirms mtDNA as a promising marker for population studies in this group. The combination of unusual mitochondrial features in C. clathrus redefines the extremes of mtDNA evolution in animals and further argues against the idea of a "typical animal mtDNA."

  20. Genetic Code Evolution Reveals the Neutral Emergence of Mutational Robustness, and Information as an Evolutionary Constraint

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The standard genetic code (SGC) is central to molecular biology and its origin and evolution is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology, the elucidation of which promises to reveal much about the origins of life. In addition, we propose that study of its origin can also reveal some fundamental and generalizable insights into mechanisms of molecular evolution, utilizing concepts from complexity theory. The first is that beneficial traits may arise by non-adaptive processes, via a process of “neutral emergence”. The structure of the SGC is optimized for the property of error minimization, which reduces the deleterious impact of point mutations. Via simulation, it can be shown that genetic codes with error minimization superior to the SGC can emerge in a neutral fashion simply by a process of genetic code expansion via tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase duplication, whereby similar amino acids are added to codons related to that of the parent amino acid. This process of neutral emergence has implications beyond that of the genetic code, as it suggests that not all beneficial traits have arisen by the direct action of natural selection; we term these “pseudaptations”, and discuss a range of potential examples. Secondly, consideration of genetic code deviations (codon reassignments) reveals that these are mostly associated with a reduction in proteome size. This code malleability implies the existence of a proteomic constraint on the genetic code, proportional to the size of the proteome (P), and that its reduction in size leads to an “unfreezing” of the codon – amino acid mapping that defines the genetic code, consistent with Crick’s Frozen Accident theory. The concept of a proteomic constraint may be extended to propose a general informational constraint on genetic fidelity, which may be used to explain variously, differences in mutation rates in genomes with differing proteome sizes, differences in DNA repair capacity and genome GC content

  1. H3.3 demarcates GC-rich coding and subtelomeric regions and serves as potential memory mark for virulence gene expression in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Fraschka, Sabine Anne-Kristin; Henderson, Rob Wilhelmus Maria; Bártfai, Richárd

    2016-01-01

    Histones, by packaging and organizing the DNA into chromatin, serve as essential building blocks for eukaryotic life. The basic structure of the chromatin is established by four canonical histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4), while histone variants are more commonly utilized to alter the properties of specific chromatin domains. H3.3, a variant of histone H3, was found to have diverse localization patterns and functions across species but has been rather poorly studied in protists. Here we present the first genome-wide analysis of H3.3 in the malaria-causing, apicomplexan parasite, P. falciparum, which revealed a complex occupancy profile consisting of conserved and parasite-specific features. In contrast to other histone variants, PfH3.3 primarily demarcates euchromatic coding and subtelomeric repetitive sequences. Stable occupancy of PfH3.3 in these regions is largely uncoupled from the transcriptional activity and appears to be primarily dependent on the GC-content of the underlying DNA. Importantly, PfH3.3 specifically marks the promoter region of an active and poised, but not inactive antigenic variation (var) gene, thereby potentially contributing to immune evasion. Collectively, our data suggest that PfH3.3, together with other histone variants, indexes the P. falciparum genome to functionally distinct domains and contribute to a key survival strategy of this deadly pathogen. PMID:27555062

  2. DNA Repair Is Associated with Information Content in Bacteria, Archaea, and DNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Sharlene; Carela, Miguelina; Garcia-Gonzalez, Aurian; Gines, Mariela; Vicens, Luis; Cruet, Ricardo; Massey, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a "proteomic constraint" proposes that DNA repair capacity is positively correlated with the information content of a genome, which can be approximated to the size of the proteome (P). This in turn implies that DNA repair genes are more likely to be present in genomes with larger values of P. This stands in contrast to the common assumption that informational genes have a core function and so are evenly distributed across organisms. We examined the presence/absence of 18 DNA repair genes in bacterial genomes. A positive relationship between gene presence and P was observed for 17 genes in the total dataset, and 16 genes when only nonintracellular bacteria were examined. A marked reduction of DNA repair genes was observed in intracellular bacteria, consistent with their reduced value of P. We also examined archaeal and DNA virus genomes, and show that the presence of DNA repair genes is likewise related to a larger value of P. In addition, the products of the bacterial genes mutY, vsr, and ndk, involved in the correction of GC/AT mutations, are strongly associated with reduced genome GC content. We therefore propose that a reduction in information content leads to a loss of DNA repair genes and indirectly to a reduction in genome GC content in bacteria by exposure to the underlying AT mutation bias. The reduction in P may also indirectly lead to the increase in substitution rates observed in intracellular bacteria via loss of DNA repair genes.

  3. Molecular cloning and expression in photosynthetic bacteria of a soybean cDNA coding for phytoene desaturase, an enzyme of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, G E; Viitanen, P V; Pecker, I; Chamovitz, D; Hirschberg, J; Scolnik, P A

    1991-01-01

    Carotenoids are orange, yellow, or red photo-protective pigments present in all plastids. The first carotenoid of the pathway is phytoene, a colorless compound that is converted into colored carotenoids through a series of desaturation reactions. Genes coding for carotenoid desaturases have been cloned from microbes but not from plants. We report the cloning of a cDNA for pds1, a soybean (Glycine max) gene that, based on a complementation assay using the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, codes for an enzyme that catalyzes the two desaturation reactions that convert phytoene into zeta-carotene, a yellow carotenoid. The 2281-base-pair cDNA clone analyzed contains an open reading frame with the capacity to code for a 572-residue protein of predicted Mr 63,851. Alignment of the deduced Pds1 peptide sequence with the sequences of fungal and bacterial carotenoid desaturases revealed conservation of several amino acid residues, including a dinucleotide-binding motif that could mediate binding to FAD. The Pds1 protein is synthesized in vitro as a precursor that, upon import into isolated chloroplasts, is processed to a smaller mature form. Hybridization of the pds1 cDNA to genomic blots indicated that this gene is a member of a low-copy-number gene family. One of these loci was genetically mapped using restriction fragment length polymorphisms between Glycine max and Glycine soja. We conclude that pds1 is a nuclear gene encoding a phytoene desaturase enzyme that, as its microbial counterparts, contains sequence motifs characteristic of flavoproteins. Images PMID:1862081

  4. Identification of an androgen-repressed mRNA in rat ventral prostate as coding for sulphated glycoprotein 2 by cDNA cloning and sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bettuzzi, S; Hiipakka, R A; Gilna, P; Liao, S T

    1989-01-01

    The concentrations of a small number of mRNAs in the rat ventral prostate increase after castration and then decrease upon androgen treatment. Since the repression of specific gene expression may be important in the regulation of organ growth, we have cloned a cDNA for an androgen-repressed mRNA, the concentration of which increased 17-fold 4 days after castration, and this increase was reversed rapidly by androgen treatment. By sequence analysis the androgen-repressed mRNA was identified as that coding for sulphated glycoprotein 2. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2920020

  5. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA coding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary CoA reductase involved in glycyrrhizic acid biosynthesis in Glycyrrhiza uralensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Qiao-Xian; Xi, Pei-Yu; Chen, Hong-Hao; Liu, Chun-Sheng

    2013-05-01

    The roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis are widely used in Chinese medicine for their action of clearing heat, detoxicating, relieving cough, dispelling sputum and tonifying spleen and stomach. The reason why Glycyrrhiza uralensis has potent and significant actions is that it contains various active secondary metabolites, especially glycyrrhizic acid. In the present study, we cloned the cDNA coding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary CoA reductase (HMGR) involved in glycyrrhizic acid biosynthesis in Glycyrrhiza uralensis. The corresponding cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins. Recombinant HMGR exhibited catalysis activity in reduction of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid (MVA) just as HMGR isolated from other species. Because HMGR gene is very important in the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizic acid in Glycyrrhiza uralensis, this work is significant for further studies concerned with strengthening the efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis by means of increasing glycyrrhizic acid content and exploring the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizic acid in vitro.

  6. DNMT3B interacts with constitutive centromere protein CENP-C to modulate DNA methylation and the histone code at centromeric regions.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Suhasni; Sullivan, Beth A; Trazzi, Stefania; Della Valle, Giuliano; Robertson, Keith D

    2009-09-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetically imposed mark of transcriptional repression that is essential for maintenance of chromatin structure and genomic stability. Genome-wide methylation patterns are mediated by the combined action of three DNA methyltransferases: DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B. Compelling links exist between DNMT3B and chromosome stability as emphasized by the mitotic defects that are a hallmark of ICF syndrome, a disease arising from germline mutations in DNMT3B. Centromeric and pericentromeric regions are essential for chromosome condensation and the fidelity of segregation. Centromere regions contain distinct epigenetic marks, including dense DNA hypermethylation, yet the mechanisms by which DNA methylation is targeted to these regions remains largely unknown. In the present study, we used a yeast two-hybrid screen and identified a novel interaction between DNMT3B and constitutive centromere protein CENP-C. CENP-C is itself essential for mitosis. We confirm this interaction in mammalian cells and map the domains responsible. Using siRNA knock downs, bisulfite genomic sequencing and ChIP, we demonstrate for the first time that CENP-C recruits DNA methylation and DNMT3B to both centromeric and pericentromeric satellite repeats and that CENP-C and DNMT3B regulate the histone code in these regions, including marks characteristic of centromeric chromatin. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of CENP-C or DNMT3B leads to elevated chromosome misalignment and segregation defects during mitosis and increased transcription of centromeric repeats. Taken together, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which DNA methylation is targeted to discrete regions of the genome and contributes to chromosomal stability.

  7. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for the human platelet-derived growth factor receptor: Evidence for more than one receptor class

    SciTech Connect

    Gronwald, R.G.K.; Grant, F.J.; Haldeman, B.A.; Hart, C.E.; O'Hara, P.J.; Hagen, F.S.; Ross, R.; Bowen-Pope, D.F.; Murray, M.J. )

    1988-05-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding the human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor is presented. The cDNA contains an open reading frame that codes for a protein of 1106 amino acids. Comparison to the mouse PDGF receptor reveals an overall amino acid sequence identity of 86%. This sequence identity rises to 98% in the cytoplasmic split tyrosine kinase domain. RNA blot hybridization analysis of poly(A){sup +} RNA from human dermal fibroblasts detects a major and a minor transcript using the cDNA as a probe. Baby hamster kidney cells, transfected with an expression vector containing the receptor cDNA, express an {approx} 190-kDa cell surface protein that is recognized by an anti-human PDGF receptor antibody. The recombinant PDGF receptor is functional in the transfected baby hamster kidney cells as demonstrated by ligand-induced phosphorylation of the receptor. Binding properties of the recombinant PDGF receptor were also assessed with pure preparations of BB and AB isoforms of PDGF. Unlike human dermal fibroblasts, which bind both isoforms with high affinity, the transfected baby hamster kidney cells bind only the BB isoform of PDGF with high affinity. This observation is consistent with the existence of more than one PDGF receptor class.

  8. DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Gary

    1985-01-01

    Structural form, bonding scheme, and chromatin structure of and gene-modification experiments with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are described. Indicates that DNA's double helix is variable and also flexible as it interacts with regulatory and other molecules to transfer hereditary messages. (DH)

  9. Electron slowing-down spectra in water for electron and photon sources calculated with the Geant4-DNA code.

    PubMed

    Vassiliev, Oleg N

    2012-02-21

    Recently, a very low energy extension was added to the Monte Carlo simulation toolkit Geant4. It is intended for radiobiological modeling and is referred to as Geant4-DNA. Its performance, however, has not been systematically benchmarked in terms of transport characteristics. This study reports on the electron slowing-down spectra and mean energy per ion pair, the W-value, in water for monoenergetic electron and photon sources calculated with Geant4-DNA. These quantities depend on electron energy, but not on spatial or angular variables which makes them a good choice for testing the model of energy transfer processes. The spectra also have a scientific value for radiobiological modeling as they describe the energy distribution of electrons entering small volumes, such as the cell nucleus. Comparisons of Geant4-DNA results with previous studies showed overall good agreement. Some differences in slowing-down spectra between Geant4-DNA and previous studies were found at 100 eV and at approximately 500 eV that were attributed to approximations in models of vibrational excitations and atomic de-excitation after ionization by electron impact. We also found that the high-energy part of the Geant4-DNA spectrum for a 1 keV electron source was higher, and the asymptotic high-energy W-value was lower than previous studies reported.

  10. Characterization of Non-coding DNA Satellites Associated with Sweepoviruses (Genus Begomovirus, Geminiviridae) – Definition of a Distinct Class of Begomovirus-Associated Satellites

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Gloria; Trenado, Helena P.; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Briddon, Rob W.; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted, plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that cause crop losses throughout the warmer parts of the World. Sweepoviruses are a phylogenetically distinct group of begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae, including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Two classes of subviral molecules are often associated with begomoviruses, particularly in the Old World; the betasatellites and the alphasatellites. An analysis of sweet potato and Ipomoea indica samples from Spain and Merremia dissecta samples from Venezuela identified small non-coding subviral molecules in association with several distinct sweepoviruses. The sequences of 18 clones were obtained and found to be structurally similar to tomato leaf curl virus-satellite (ToLCV-sat, the first DNA satellite identified in association with a begomovirus), with a region with significant sequence identity to the conserved region of betasatellites, an A-rich sequence, a predicted stem–loop structure containing the nonanucleotide TAATATTAC, and a second predicted stem–loop. These sweepovirus-associated satellites join an increasing number of ToLCV-sat-like non-coding satellites identified recently. Although sharing some features with betasatellites, evidence is provided to suggest that the ToLCV-sat-like satellites are distinct from betasatellites and should be considered a separate class of satellites, for which the collective name deltasatellites is proposed. PMID:26925037

  11. Temporal and spatial trends in prey composition of wahoo Acanthocybium solandri: a diet analysis from the central North Pacific Ocean using visual and DNA bar-coding techniques.

    PubMed

    Oyafuso, Z S; Toonen, R J; Franklin, E C

    2016-04-01

    A diet analysis was conducted on 444 wahoo Acanthocybium solandri caught in the central North Pacific Ocean longline fishery and a nearshore troll fishery surrounding the Hawaiian Islands from June to December 2014. In addition to traditional observational methods of stomach contents, a DNA bar-coding approach was integrated into the analysis by sequencing the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) region of the mtDNA genome to taxonomically identify individual prey items that could not be classified visually to species. For nearshore-caught A. solandri, juvenile pre-settlement reef fish species from various families dominated the prey composition during the summer months, followed primarily by Carangidae in autumn months. Gempylidae, Echeneidae and Scombridae were dominant prey taxa from the offshore fishery. Molidae was a common prey family found in stomachs collected north-east of the Hawaiian Archipelago while tetraodontiform reef fishes, known to have extended pelagic stages, were prominent prey items south-west of the Hawaiian Islands. The diet composition of A. solandri was indicative of an adaptive feeder and thus revealed dominant geographic and seasonal abundances of certain taxa from various ecosystems in the marine environment. The addition of molecular bar-coding to the traditional visual method of prey identifications allowed for a more comprehensive range of the prey field of A. solandri to be identified and should be used as a standard component in future diet studies.

  12. Characterization of Non-coding DNA Satellites Associated with Sweepoviruses (Genus Begomovirus, Geminiviridae) - Definition of a Distinct Class of Begomovirus-Associated Satellites.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Gloria; Trenado, Helena P; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Briddon, Rob W; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted, plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that cause crop losses throughout the warmer parts of the World. Sweepoviruses are a phylogenetically distinct group of begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae, including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Two classes of subviral molecules are often associated with begomoviruses, particularly in the Old World; the betasatellites and the alphasatellites. An analysis of sweet potato and Ipomoea indica samples from Spain and Merremia dissecta samples from Venezuela identified small non-coding subviral molecules in association with several distinct sweepoviruses. The sequences of 18 clones were obtained and found to be structurally similar to tomato leaf curl virus-satellite (ToLCV-sat, the first DNA satellite identified in association with a begomovirus), with a region with significant sequence identity to the conserved region of betasatellites, an A-rich sequence, a predicted stem-loop structure containing the nonanucleotide TAATATTAC, and a second predicted stem-loop. These sweepovirus-associated satellites join an increasing number of ToLCV-sat-like non-coding satellites identified recently. Although sharing some features with betasatellites, evidence is provided to suggest that the ToLCV-sat-like satellites are distinct from betasatellites and should be considered a separate class of satellites, for which the collective name deltasatellites is proposed.

  13. Replication of a pathogenic non-coding RNA increases DNA methylation in plants associated with a bromodomain-containing viroid-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Dian-Qiu; Liu, Shang-Wu; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Bang-Jun; Wang, Shao-Peng; Guo, Hui-Shan; Fang, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Viroids are plant-pathogenic molecules made up of single-stranded circular non-coding RNAs. How replicating viroids interfere with host silencing remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of a nuclear-replicating Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) on interference with plant RNA silencing. Using transient induction of silencing in GFP transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants (line 16c), we found that PSTVd replication accelerated GFP silencing and increased Virp1 mRNA, which encodes bromodomain-containing viroid-binding protein 1 and is required for PSTVd replication. DNA methylation was increased in the GFP transgene promoter of PSTVd-replicating plants, indicating involvement of transcriptional gene silencing. Consistently, accelerated GFP silencing and increased DNA methylation in the of GFP transgene promoter were detected in plants transiently expressing Virp1. Virp1 mRNA was also increased upon PSTVd infection in natural host potato plants. Reduced transcript levels of certain endogenous genes were also consistent with increases in DNA methylation in related gene promoters in PSTVd-infected potato plants. Together, our data demonstrate that PSTVd replication interferes with the nuclear silencing pathway in that host plant, and this is at least partially attributable to Virp1. This study provides new insights into the plant-viroid interaction on viroid pathogenicity by subverting the plant cell silencing machinery. PMID:27767195

  14. The Stat3/GR interaction code: predictive value of direct/indirect DNA recruitment for transcription outcome.

    PubMed

    Langlais, David; Couture, Catherine; Balsalobre, Aurélio; Drouin, Jacques

    2012-07-13

    Transcription factor recruitment to genomic sites of action is primarily due to direct protein:DNA interactions. The subsequent recruitment of coregulatory complexes leads to either transcriptional activation or repression. In contrast to this canonical scheme, some transcription factors, such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), behave as transcriptional repressors when recruited to target genes through protein tethering. We have investigated the genome-wide prevalence of tethering between GR and Stat3 and found nonreciprocal interactions, namely that GR tethering to DNA-bound Stat3 results in transcriptional repression, whereas Stat3 tethering to GR results in synergism. Further, other schemes of GR and Stat3 corecruitment to regulatory modules result in transcriptional synergism, including neighboring and composite binding sites. The results indicate extensive transcriptional interactions between Stat3 and GR; further, they provide a genome-wide assessment of transcriptional regulation by tethering and a molecular basis for integration of signals mediated by GR and Stats in health and disease.

  15. Effective Protective Immunity to Yersinia pestis Infection Conferred by DNA Vaccine Coding for Derivatives of the F1 Capsular Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Grosfeld, Haim; Cohen, Sara; Bino, Tamar; Flashner, Yehuda; Ber, Raphael; Mamroud, Emanuelle; Kronman, Chanoch; Shafferman, Avigdor; Velan, Baruch

    2003-01-01

    Three plasmids expressing derivatives of the Yersinia pestis capsular F1 antigen were evaluated for their potential as DNA vaccines. These included plasmids expressing the full-length F1, F1 devoid of its putative signal peptide (deF1), and F1 fused to the signal-bearing E3 polypeptide of Semliki Forest virus (E3/F1). Expression of these derivatives in transfected HEK293 cells revealed that deF1 is expressed in the cytosol, E3/F1 is targeted to the secretory cisternae, and the nonmodified F1 is rapidly eliminated from the cell. Intramuscular vaccination of mice with these plasmids revealed that the vector expressing deF1 was the most effective in eliciting anti-F1 antibodies. This response was not limited to specific mouse strains or to the mode of DNA administration, though gene gun-mediated vaccination was by far more effective than intramuscular needle injection. Vaccination of mice with deF1 DNA conferred protection against subcutaneous infection with the virulent Y. pestis Kimberley53 strain, even at challenge amounts as high as 4,000 50% lethal doses. Antibodies appear to play a major role in mediating this protection, as demonstrated by passive transfer of anti-deF1 DNA antiserum. Taken together, these observations indicate that a tailored genetic vaccine based on a bacterial protein can be used to confer protection against plague in mice without resorting to regimens involving the use of purified proteins. PMID:12496187

  16. Sequence of a novel cytochrome CYP2B cDNA coding for a protein which is expressed in a sebaceous gland, but not in the liver.

    PubMed Central

    Friedberg, T; Grassow, M A; Bartlomowicz-Oesch, B; Siegert, P; Arand, M; Adesnik, M; Oesch, F

    1992-01-01

    The major phenobarbital-inducible rat hepatic cytochromes P-450, CYP2B1 and CYP2B2, are the paradigmatic members of a cytochrome P-450 gene subfamily that contains at least seven additional members. Specific oligonucleotide probes for these genomic members of the CYP2B subfamily were used to assess their tissue-specific expression. In Northern-blot analysis a probe specific to gene 4 (which is designated now as CYP2B12) hybridized to a single mRNA present in the preputial gland, an organ which is used as a model for sebaceous glands, but did not hybridize to mRNA isolated from the liver or from five other tissues of untreated or Aroclor 1254-treated rats. The cDNA sequence for the CYP2B12 RNA was determined from overlapping cDNA clones and contained a long open reading frame of 1476 bp. The nucleotide sequence of the CYP2B12 cDNA was 85% similar to the sequence of the CYP2B1 cDNA in its coding region and was different from any CYP2B cDNA characterized until now. The cDNA-derived primary structure of the CYP2B12 protein contains a signal sequence for its insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum and the putative haem-binding site characteristic of cytochromes P-450. A part of the potential haem pocket of CYP2B12 was identical with a similar structure in a bacterial protocatechuate dioxygenase. In immunoblot analysis of preputial-gland microsomes, antibodies against CYP2B1 recognized a single abundant protein with a lower apparent molecular mass than that of CYP2B1. Our results demonstrate that the CYP2B12 protein has the potential to be enzymically active and are the first demonstration that a member of the CYP2B subfamily is expressed exclusively and at high levels in an extrahepatic organ. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1445240

  17. DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1970-01-01

    This history for molecular genetics and its explanation of DNA begins with an analysis of the Golden Jubilee essay papers, 1955. The paper ends stating that the higher nervous system is the one major frontier of biological inquiry which still offers some romance of research. (Author/VW)

  18. Molecular cloning of the cDNA coding for the (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase of Prunus amygdalus: temporal and spatial expression patterns in flowers and mature seeds.

    PubMed

    Suelves, M; Puigdomènech, P

    1998-10-01

    A gene highly expressed in the floral organs of almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch), and coding for the cyanogenic enzyme (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase (EC 4.1.2.10), has been identified and the full-length cDNA sequenced. The temporal expression pattern in maturing seeds and during floral development was analyzed by RNA blot, and the highest mRNA levels were detected in floral tissues. The spatial mRNA accumulation pattern in almond flower buds was also analyzed by in-situ hybridization. The mRNA levels were compared during seed maturation and floral development in fruit and floral samples from cultivars classified as homozygous or heterozygous for the sweet-almond trait or homozygous for the bitter trait. No correlation was found between these characteristics and levels of mandelonitrile lyase mRNA, suggesting that the presence of this protein is not the limiting factor in the production of hydrogen cyanide.

  19. Dose point kernels in liquid water: an intra-comparison between GEANT4-DNA and a variety of Monte Carlo codes.

    PubMed

    Champion, C; Incerti, S; Perrot, Y; Delorme, R; Bordage, M C; Bardiès, M; Mascialino, B; Tran, H N; Ivanchenko, V; Bernal, M; Francis, Z; Groetz, J-E; Fromm, M; Campos, L

    2014-01-01

    Modeling the radio-induced effects in biological medium still requires accurate physics models to describe the interactions induced by all the charged particles present in the irradiated medium in detail. These interactions include inelastic as well as elastic processes. To check the accuracy of the very low energy models recently implemented into the GEANT4 toolkit for modeling the electron slowing-down in liquid water, the simulation of electron dose point kernels remains the preferential test. In this context, we here report normalized radial dose profiles, for mono-energetic point sources, computed in liquid water by using the very low energy "GEANT4-DNA" physics processes available in the GEANT4 toolkit. In the present study, we report an extensive intra-comparison of profiles obtained by a large selection of existing and well-documented Monte-Carlo codes, namely, EGSnrc, PENELOPE, CPA100, FLUKA and MCNPX.

  20. Rare Failures of DNA Bar Codes to Separate Morphologically Distinct Species in a Biodiversity Survey of Iberian Leaf Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Baselga, Andrés; Gómez-Rodríguez, Carola; Novoa, Francisco; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2013-01-01

    During a survey of genetic and species diversity patterns of leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) assemblages across the Iberian Peninsula we found a broad congruence between morphologically delimited species and variation in the cytochrome oxidase (cox1) gene. However, one species pair each in the genera Longitarsus Berthold and Pachybrachis Chevrolat was inseparable using molecular methods, whereas diagnostic morphological characters (including male or female genitalia) unequivocally separated the named species. Parsimony haplotype networks and maximum likelihood trees built from cox1 showed high genetic structure within each species pair, but no correlation with the morphological types and neither with geographic distributions. This contrasted with all analysed congeneric species, which were recovered as monophyletic. A limited number of specimens were sequenced for the nuclear 18S rRNA gene, which showed no or very limited variation within the species pair and no separation of morphological types. These results suggest that processes of lineage sorting for either group are lagging behind the clear morphological and presumably reproductive separation. In the Iberian chrysomelids, incongruence between DNA-based and morphological delimitations is a rare exception, but the discovery of these species pairs may be useful as an evolutionary model for studying the process of speciation in this ecological and geographical setting. In addition, the study of biodiversity patterns based on DNA requires an evolutionary understanding of these incongruences and their potential causes. PMID:24040352

  1. Application of DNA Bar Codes for Screening of Industrially Important Fungi: the Haplotype of Trichoderma harzianum Sensu Stricto Indicates Superior Chitinase Formation▿

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Viviana; Seidl, Verena; Szakacs, George; Komoń-Zelazowska, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P.; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2007-01-01

    Selection of suitable strains for biotechnological purposes is frequently a random process supported by high-throughput methods. Using chitinase production by Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum as a model, we tested whether fungal strains with superior enzyme formation may be diagnosed by DNA bar codes. We analyzed sequences of two phylogenetic marker loci, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 of the rRNA-encoding gene cluster and the large intron of the elongation factor 1-alpha gene, tef1, from 50 isolates of H. lixii/T. harzianum, which were also tested to determine their ability to produce chitinases in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Statistically supported superior chitinase production was obtained for strains carrying one of the observed ITS1 and ITS2 and tef1 alleles corresponding to an allele of T. harzianum type strain CBS 226.95. A tef1-based DNA bar code tool, TrichoCHIT, for rapid identification of these strains was developed. The geographic origin of the strains was irrelevant for chitinase production. The improved chitinase production by strains containing this haplotype was not due to better growth on N-acetyl-β-d-glucosamine or glucosamine. Isoenzyme electrophoresis showed that neither the isoenzyme profile of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidases or the endochitinases nor the intensity of staining of individual chitinase bands correlated with total chitinase in the culture filtrate. The superior chitinase producers did not exhibit similarly increased cellulase formation. Biolog Phenotype MicroArray analysis identified lack of N-acetyl-β-d-mannosamine utilization as a specific trait of strains with the chitinase-overproducing haplotype. This observation was used to develop a plate screening assay for rapid microbiological identification of the strains. The data illustrate that desired industrial properties may be an attribute of certain populations within a species, and screening procedures should thus include a balanced mixture of all

  2. Structure and expression of the gene coding for the alpha-subunit of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from the chloroplast genome of Zea mays.

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, M; Kössel, H

    1988-01-01

    The rpoA gene coding for the alpha-subunit of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase located on the DNA of Zea mays chloroplasts has been characterized with respect to its position on the chloroplast genome and its nucleotide sequence. The amino acid sequence derived for a 39 Kd polypeptide shows strong homology with sequences derived from the rpoA genes of other chloroplast species and with the amino acid sequence of the alpha-subunit from E. coli RNA polymerase. Transcripts of the rpoA gene were identified by Northern hybridization and characterized by S1 mapping using total RNA isolated from maize chloroplasts. Antibodies raised against a synthetic C-terminal heptapeptide show cross reactivity with a 39 Kd polypeptide contained in the stroma fraction of maize chloroplasts. It is concluded that the rpoA gene is a functional gene and that therefore, at least the alpha-subunit of plastidic RNA polymerase, is expressed in chloroplasts. Images PMID:3399379

  3. Lichenase and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2000-08-15

    The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  4. Ribosomal DNA analysis of tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted Ethiopian Trypanosoma vivax strains in view of improved molecular diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fikru, Regassa; Matetovici, Irina; Rogé, Stijn; Merga, Bekana; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe; Van Reet, Nick

    2016-04-15

    Animal trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma vivax (T. vivax) is a devastating disease causing serious economic losses. Most molecular diagnostics for T. vivax infection target the ribosomal DNA locus (rDNA) but are challenged by the heterogeneity among T. vivax strains. In this study, we investigated the rDNA heterogeneity of Ethiopian T. vivax strains in relation to their presence in tsetse-infested and tsetse-free areas and its effect on molecular diagnosis. We sequenced the rDNA loci of six Ethiopian (three from tsetse-infested and three from tsetse-free areas) and one Nigerian T. vivax strain. We analysed the obtained sequences in silico for primer-mismatches of some commonly used diagnostic PCR assays and for GC content. With these data, we selected some rDNA diagnostic PCR assays for evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore we constructed two phylogenetic networks based on sequences within the smaller subunit (SSU) of 18S and within the 5.8S and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) to assess the relatedness of Ethiopian T. vivax strains to strains from other African countries and from South America. In silico analysis of the rDNA sequence showed important mismatches of some published diagnostic PCR primers and high GC content of T. vivax rDNA. The evaluation of selected diagnostic PCR assays with specimens from cattle under natural T. vivax challenge showed that this high GC content interferes with the diagnostic accuracy of PCR, especially in cases of mixed infections with T. congolense. Adding betain to the PCR reaction mixture can enhance the amplification of T. vivax rDNA but decreases the sensitivity for T. congolense and Trypanozoon. The networks illustrated that Ethiopian T. vivax strains are considerably heterogeneous and two strains (one from tsetse-infested and one from tsetse-free area) are more related to the West African and South American strains than to the East African strains. The rDNA locus sequence of six Ethiopian T. vivax

  5. Sequence analysis of coding DNA fragments of pfcrt and pfmdr-1 genes in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Sutar, Sasmita Kumari Das; Gupta, Bhavna; Ranjit, Manoranjan; Kar, Shantanu Kumar; Das, Aparup

    2011-02-01

    The global emergence and spread of malaria parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs is the major problem in malaria control. The genetic basis of the parasite's resistance to the antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) is well-documented, allowing for the analysis of field isolates of malaria parasites to address evolutionary questions concerning the origin and spread of CQ-resistance. Here, we present DNA sequence analyses of both the second exon of the Plasmodium falciparum CQ-resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene and the 5' end of the P. falciparum multidrug-resistance 1 (pfmdr-1) gene in 40 P. falciparum field isolates collected from eight different localities of Odisha, India. First, we genotyped the samples for the pfcrt K76T and pfmdr-1 N86Y mutations in these two genes, which are the mutations primarily implicated in CQ-resistance. We further analyzed amino acid changes in codons 72-76 of the pfcrt haplotypes. Interestingly, both the K76T and N86Y mutations were found to co-exist in 32 out of the total 40 isolates, which were of either the CVIET or SVMNT haplotype, while the remaining eight isolates were of the CVMNK haplotype. In total, eight nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed, six in the pfcrt gene and two in the pfmdr-1 gene. One poorly studied SNP in the pfcrt gene (A97T) was found at a high frequency in many P. falciparum samples. Using population genetics to analyze these two gene fragments, we revealed comparatively higher nucleotide diversity in the pfcrt gene than in the pfmdr-1 gene. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium was found to be tight between closely spaced SNPs of the pfcrt gene. Finally, both the pfcrt and the pfmdr-1 genes were found to evolve under the standard neutral model of molecular evolution.

  6. The effect of non-coding DNA variations on P53 and cMYC competitive inhibition at cis-overlapping motifs.

    PubMed

    Kin, Katherine; Chen, Xi; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel; Fakhouri, Walid D

    2016-04-15

    Non-coding DNA variations play a critical role in increasing the risk for development of common complex diseases, and account for the majority of SNPs highly associated with cancer. However, it remains a challenge to identify etiologic variants and to predict their pathological effects on target gene expression for clinical purposes. Cis-overlapping motifs (COMs) are elements of enhancer regions that impact gene expression by enabling competitive binding and switching between transcription factors. Mutations within COMs are especially important when the involved transcription factors have opposing effects on gene regulation, like P53 tumor suppressor and cMYC proto-oncogene. In this study, genome-wide analysis of ChIP-seq data from human cancer and mouse embryonic cells identified a significant number of putative regulatory elements with signals for both P53 and cMYC. Each co-occupied element contains, on average, two COMs, and one common SNP every two COMs. Gene ontology of predicted target genes for COMs showed that the majority are involved in DNA damage, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and RNA processing. EMSA results showed that both cMYC and P53 bind to cis-overlapping motifs within a ChIP-seq co-occupied region in Chr12. In vitro functional analysis of selected co-occupied elements verified enhancer activity, and also showed that the occurrence of SNPs within three COMs significantly altered enhancer activity. We identified a list of COM-associated functional SNPs that are in close proximity to SNPs associated with common diseases in large population studies. These results suggest a potential molecular mechanism to identify etiologic regulatory mutations associated with common diseases.

  7. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA coding for Astacus embryonic astacin, a member of the astacin family of metalloproteases from the crayfish Astacus astacus.

    PubMed

    Geier, G; Zwilling, R

    1998-05-01

    The astacin family of zinc endopeptidases was named after the digestive enzyme astacin isolated from the crayfish Astacus astacus. Employing a reverse transcription/PCR strategy with degenerate oligonucleotide primers specific for two signature seqences of the astacin family, we have isolated a 1602-bp cDNA from embryos of developing A. astacus eggs, which was designated Astacus embryonic astacin (AEA). This cDNA was found to code for an astacin-like protease domain which accounts for the N-terminal half of the predicted protein. The C-terminal half mainly consists of two complement subcomponent C1r/C1s/embryonic sea urchin protein Uegf/bone morphogenetic protein 1 (CUB) domains. The metalloprotease domain displays an amino acid sequence identity of 42% with astacin. A higher sequence similarity was found to astacin family members that act as hatching enzymes in different species, e.g. chorioallantoic membrane protein 1 (CAM-1; from quail) and Xenopus hatching enzyme (formerly UVS.2), both of which show 54% identity, and high and low choriolytic enzymes (HCE and LCE) from the teleost Oryzias latipes (52% and 48% identity, respectively). A relationship to astacin-like hatching enzymes is further supported by a phylogenetic analysis of the protease domains. Expression of AEA mRNA in developing embryos was found to be restricted to unhatched juveniles (larvae) during the last 8 days before hatching. AEA transcripts could not be detected in various tissues of adult animals or in eggs and embryos from an earlier developmental stage. AEA expression starts about 8 days prior to hatching, followed by a strong (18-fold) induction with a maximum at day 4 before hatching. Newly hatched juveniles were found not to express the AEA mRNA.

  8. Polar Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes. iii CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...the most common. Many civilian systems use low density parity check (LDPC) FEC codes, and the Navy is planning to use LDPC for some future systems...other forward error correction methods: a turbo code, a low density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes

  9. Isolation and sequencing of cDNA clones coding for the catalytic unit of glucose-6-phosphatase from two haplochromine cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Nagl, S; Mayer, W E; Klein, J

    1999-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones coding for the catalytic unit of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) were obtained from Haplochromis nubilus and Haplochromis xenognathus, two cichlid fish species from Lake Victoria. The translated sequence of these two cDNAs identifies a polypeptide consisting of 352 amino acid residues and showing a 54.4% similarity to the human form of G6Pase. The amino acid sequences of the two fish species are identical. The comparison of the fish amino acid sequence with the corresponding sequences of rat, mouse, and human G6Pase revealed that the amino acid residues, which are involved in G6Pase catalysis in humans, are also conserved in fish G6Pase. Northern blot analysis showed that G6Pase is expressed at the same level in 6- and 10-day-old fish. A three base pair insertion/deletion polymorphism was found in the 3'-untranslated region of the fish G6Pase gene. The polymorphism will be a useful marker in a phylogenetic study of Lake Victoria cichlids.

  10. A region of the polyoma virus genome between the replication origin and late protein coding sequences is required in cis for both early gene expression and viral DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Tyndall, C; La Mantia, G; Thacker, C M; Favaloro, J; Kamen, R

    1981-01-01

    Deletion mutants within the Py DNA region between the replication origin and the beginning of late protein coding sequences have been constructed and analysed for viability, early gene expression and viral DNA replication. Assay of replicative competence was facilitated by the use of Py transformed mouse cells (COP lines) which express functional large T-protein but contain no free viral DNA. Viable mutants defined three new nonessential regions of the genome. Certain deletions spanning the PvuII site at nt 5130 (67.4 mu) were unable to express early genes and had a cis-acting defect in DNA replication. Other mutants had intermediate phenotypes. Relevance of these results to eucaryotic "enhancer" elements is discussed. Images PMID:6275353

  11. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships.

  12. Single-molecule study of DNA polymerization activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase on DNA templates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangjin; Schroeder, Charles M; Xie, X Sunney

    2010-02-05

    HIV-1 RT (human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase) is a multifunctional polymerase responsible for reverse transcription of the HIV genome, including DNA replication on both RNA and DNA templates. During reverse transcription in vivo, HIV-1 RT replicates through various secondary structures on RNA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) templates without the need for a nucleic acid unwinding protein, such as a helicase. In order to understand the mechanism of polymerization through secondary structures, we investigated the DNA polymerization activity of HIV-1 RT on long ssDNA templates using a multiplexed single-molecule DNA flow-stretching assay. We observed that HIV-1 RT performs fast primer extension DNA synthesis on single-stranded regions of DNA (18.7 nt/s) and switches its activity to slow strand displacement synthesis at DNA hairpin locations (2.3 nt/s). Furthermore, we found that the rate of strand displacement synthesis is dependent on the GC content in hairpin stems and template stretching force. This indicates that the strand displacement synthesis occurs through a mechanism that is neither completely active nor passive: that is, the opening of the DNA hairpin is driven by a combination of free energy released during dNTP (deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate) hydrolysis and thermal fraying of base pairs. Our experimental observations provide new insight into the interchanging modes of DNA replication by HIV-1 RT on long ssDNA templates.

  13. Systematic biases in DNA copy number originate from isolation procedures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to accurately detect DNA copy number variation in both a sensitive and quantitative manner is important in many research areas. However, genome-wide DNA copy number analyses are complicated by variations in detection signal. Results While GC content has been used to correct for this, here we show that coverage biases are tissue-specific and independent of the detection method as demonstrated by next-generation sequencing and array CGH. Moreover, we show that DNA isolation stringency affects the degree of equimolar coverage and that the observed biases coincide with chromatin characteristics like gene expression, genomic isochores, and replication timing. Conclusion These results indicate that chromatin organization is a main determinant for differential DNA retrieval. These findings are highly relevant for germline and somatic DNA copy number variation analyses. PMID:23618369

  14. The evolution of the mitochondrial genetic code in arthropods revisited.

    PubMed

    Abascal, Federico; Posada, David; Zardoya, Rafael

    2012-04-01

    A variant of the invertebrate mitochondrial genetic code was previously identified in arthropods (Abascal et al. 2006a, PLoS Biol 4:e127) in which, instead of translating the AGG codon as serine, as in other invertebrates, some arthropods translate AGG as lysine. Here, we revisit the evolution of the genetic code in arthropods taking into account that (1) the number of arthropod mitochondrial genomes sequenced has triplicated since the original findings were published; (2) the phylogeny of arthropods has been recently resolved with confidence for many groups; and (3) sophisticated probabilistic methods can be applied to analyze the evolution of the genetic code in arthropod mitochondria. According to our analyses, evolutionary shifts in the genetic code have been more common than previously inferred, with many taxonomic groups displaying two alternative codes. Ancestral character-state reconstruction using probabilistic methods confirmed that the arthropod ancestor most likely translated AGG as lysine. Point mutations at tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Ser correlated with the meaning of the AGG codon. In addition, we identified three variables (GC content, number of AGG codons, and taxonomic information) that best explain the use of each of the two alternative genetic codes.

  15. SINGLE-MOLECULE STUDY OF DNA POLYMERIZATION ACTIVITY OF HIV-1 REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE ON DNA TEMPLATES

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangjin; Schroeder, Charles M.; Xie, X. Sunney

    2009-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) is a multifunctional polymerase responsible for reverse transcription of the HIV genome, including DNA replication on both RNA and DNA templates. During reverse transcription in vivo, HIV-1 RT replicates through various secondary structures on RNA and single-stranded DNA templates without the need for a nucleic acid unwinding protein, such as a helicase. In order to understand the mechanism of polymerization through secondary structures, we investigated the DNA polymerization activity of HIV-1 RT on long single-stranded DNA templates using a multiplexed single-molecule DNA flow-stretching assay. We observed that HIV-1 RT performs fast primer extension DNA synthesis on single-stranded regions of DNA (18.7 nt/s) and switches its activity to slow strand displacement synthesis at DNA hairpin locations (2.3 nt/s). Furthermore, we found that the rate of strand displacement synthesis is dependent on the GC content in hairpin stems and template stretching force. This indicates that the strand displacement synthesis occurs through a mechanism that is neither completely active nor passive, i.e. the opening of the DNA hairpin is driven by a combination of free energy released during dNTP hydrolysis and thermal fraying of base pairs. Our experimental observations provide new insight into the interchanging modes of DNA replication by HIV-1 RT on long single-stranded DNA templates. PMID:19968999

  16. [A DNA study of rat liver oligonucleosomes enriched by transcriptionally active genes during induction due to the administration of an amino acid mixture].

    PubMed

    Vardevanian, P O; Davtian, A M; Tiratsuian, S G; Vardevanian, A O

    1990-01-01

    A highly active fraction of rat liver oligonucleosome DNA has been isolated and studied by means of thermal denaturation after induction by amino acid mixture or hydrocortisone. A considerable redistribution of DNA content has been shown in sucrose gradient fractions during these forms of induction. The changes are revealed in melting temperature, differential melting profile of DNA, isolated from actively transcribed chromatine fractions. Analysis of melting profiles shows changes of GC content of oligonucleosome DNA, suggesting that there are differences in activation during two studied forms of induction.

  17. DNA nucleoside composition and methylation in several species of microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Brown, L.M. )

    1992-06-01

    Total DNA was isolated from 10 species of microalgae, including representatives of the Chlorophyceae (Chlorella ellipsoidea, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Monoraphidium minutum), Bacillariophyceae (Cyclotella cryptica, Navicula saprophila, Nitzschia pusilla, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum), Charophyceae (Stichococcus sp.), Dinophyceae (Crypthecodinium cohnii), and Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis suecica). Control samples of Escherichia coli and calf thymus DNA were also analyzed. The nucleoside base composition of each DNA sample was determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. All samples contained 5-methyldeoxycytidine, although at widely varying levels. In M. minutum, about one-third of the cytidine residues were methylated. Restriction analysis supported this high degree of methylation in M. minutum and suggested that methylation is biased toward 5[prime]-CG dinucleotides. The guanosine + cytosine (GC) contents of the green algae were, with the exception of Stichococcus sp., consistently higher than those of the diatoms. Monoraphidium minutum exhibited an extremely high GC content of 71%. Such a value is rare among eukaryotic organisms and might indicate an unusual codon usage. This work is important for developing strategies for transformation and gene cloning in these algae. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Superstatistical model of bacterial DNA architecture

    PubMed Central

    Bogachev, Mikhail I.; Markelov, Oleg A.; Kayumov, Airat R.; Bunde, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the physical principles that govern the complex DNA structural organization as well as its mechanical and thermodynamical properties is essential for the advancement in both life sciences and genetic engineering. Recently we have discovered that the complex DNA organization is explicitly reflected in the arrangement of nucleotides depicted by the universal power law tailed internucleotide interval distribution that is valid for complete genomes of various prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Here we suggest a superstatistical model that represents a long DNA molecule by a series of consecutive ~150 bp DNA segments with the alternation of the local nucleotide composition between segments exhibiting long-range correlations. We show that the superstatistical model and the corresponding DNA generation algorithm explicitly reproduce the laws governing the empirical nucleotide arrangement properties of the DNA sequences for various global GC contents and optimal living temperatures. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our model in terms of the DNA mechanical properties. As an outlook, we focus on finding the DNA sequences that encode a given protein while simultaneously reproducing the nucleotide arrangement laws observed from empirical genomes, that may be of interest in the optimization of genetic engineering of long DNA molecules. PMID:28225058

  19. Superstatistical model of bacterial DNA architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, Mikhail I.; Markelov, Oleg A.; Kayumov, Airat R.; Bunde, Armin

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the physical principles that govern the complex DNA structural organization as well as its mechanical and thermodynamical properties is essential for the advancement in both life sciences and genetic engineering. Recently we have discovered that the complex DNA organization is explicitly reflected in the arrangement of nucleotides depicted by the universal power law tailed internucleotide interval distribution that is valid for complete genomes of various prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Here we suggest a superstatistical model that represents a long DNA molecule by a series of consecutive ~150 bp DNA segments with the alternation of the local nucleotide composition between segments exhibiting long-range correlations. We show that the superstatistical model and the corresponding DNA generation algorithm explicitly reproduce the laws governing the empirical nucleotide arrangement properties of the DNA sequences for various global GC contents and optimal living temperatures. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our model in terms of the DNA mechanical properties. As an outlook, we focus on finding the DNA sequences that encode a given protein while simultaneously reproducing the nucleotide arrangement laws observed from empirical genomes, that may be of interest in the optimization of genetic engineering of long DNA molecules.

  20. Determination of Trichuris muris from murid hosts and T. arvicolae (Nematoda) from arvicolid rodents by amplification and sequentiation of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 segment of the ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Cutillas, C; Oliveros, R; de Rojas, M; Guevara, D C

    2002-06-01

    Trichuris muris has been isolated from murid hosts ( Apodemus sylvaticus and Mus musculus) and Trichuris arvicolae from arvicolid rodents in Barcelona, Spain. Genomic DNA was isolated and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 segment from the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified and sequenced using polymerase chain reaction techniques. The ITS2 of both populations isolated from Apodemus and Mus was 382 nucleotides in length and had a GC content of about 60.73%, while the ITS2 of T. arvicolae was 442 nucleotides in length and had a GC content of about 59.8%. Furthermore, the ITS1 of Trichuris from murids was 448 nucleotides in length and had a GC content of about 56.47%, while T. arvicolae was 446 nucleotides in length and had 57.62% of GC content. A total of 161 and 173 nucleotides were observed along the 5.8S gene of T. murisand T. arvicolae, respectively; This difference in nucleotides was due to the insertion of a DNA segment (transposon) in the 5.8S sequence of the latter species. Slight intraindividual and intraspecific variations were detected in the rDNA of both species. The presence of microsatellites was observed in all of the individuals assayed. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers and the 5.8S gene demonstrated no sequence differences between T. muris isolated from both of its murid hosts. Nevertheless, clear differences were detected between the ITS2, ITS1 and 5.8S gene of T. muris and T. arvicolae. This corroborates the existence of two separate Trichuris species in murid and arvicolid hosts. Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis was carried out and endonucleases restriction maps were elaborated for both species.

  1. DNA barcoding Australia's fish species

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Robert D; Zemlak, Tyler S; Innes, Bronwyn H; Last, Peter R; Hebert, Paul D.N

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred and seven species of fish, mostly Australian marine fish, were sequenced (barcoded) for a 655 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (cox1). Most species were represented by multiple specimens, and 754 sequences were generated. The GC content of the 143 species of teleosts was higher than the 61 species of sharks and rays (47.1% versus 42.2%), largely due to a higher GC content of codon position 3 in the former (41.1% versus 29.9%). Rays had higher GC than sharks (44.7% versus 41.0%), again largely due to higher GC in the 3rd codon position in the former (36.3% versus 26.8%). Average within-species, genus, family, order and class Kimura two parameter (K2P) distances were 0.39%, 9.93%, 15.46%, 22.18% and 23.27%, respectively. All species could be differentiated by their cox1 sequence, although single individuals of each of two species had haplotypes characteristic of a congener. Although DNA barcoding aims to develop species identification systems, some phylogenetic signal was apparent in the data. In the neighbour-joining tree for all 754 sequences, four major clusters were apparent: chimaerids, rays, sharks and teleosts. Species within genera invariably clustered, and generally so did genera within families. Three taxonomic groups—dogfishes of the genus Squalus, flatheads of the family Platycephalidae, and tunas of the genus Thunnus—were examined more closely. The clades revealed after bootstrapping generally corresponded well with expectations. Individuals from operational taxonomic units designated as Squalus species B through F formed individual clades, supporting morphological evidence for each of these being separate species. We conclude that cox1 sequencing, or ‘barcoding’, can be used to identify fish species. PMID:16214743

  2. Ethical coding.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Barry I

    2009-01-01

    It is ethical, legal, and proper for a dermatologist to maximize income through proper coding of patient encounters and procedures. The overzealous physician can misinterpret reimbursement requirements or receive bad advice from other physicians and cross the line from aggressive coding to coding fraud. Several of the more common problem areas are discussed.

  3. Cross-species analysis of genic GC3 content and DNA methylation patterns.

    PubMed

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Elhaik, Eran; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The GC content in the third codon position (GC(3)) exhibits a unimodal distribution in many plant and animal genomes. Interestingly, grasses and homeotherm vertebrates exhibit a unique bimodal distribution. High GC(3) was previously found to be associated with variable expression, higher frequency of upstream TATA boxes, and an increase of GC(3) from 5' to 3'. Moreover, GC(3)-rich genes are predominant in certain gene classes and are enriched in CpG dinucleotides that are potential targets for methylation. Based on the GC(3) bimodal distribution we hypothesize that GC(3) has a regulatory role involving methylation and gene expression. To test that hypothesis, we selected diverse taxa (rice, thale cress, bee, and human) that varied in the modality of their GC(3) distribution and tested the association between GC(3), DNA methylation, and gene expression. We examine the relationship between cytosine methylation levels and GC(3), gene expression, genome signature, gene length, and other gene compositional features. We find a strong negative correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = -0.67, P value < 0.0001) between GC(3) and genic CpG methylation. The comparison between 5'-3' gradients of CG(3)-skew and genic methylation for the taxa in the study suggests interplay between gene-body methylation and transcription-coupled cytosine deamination effect. Compositional features are correlated with methylation levels of genes in rice, thale cress, human, bee, and fruit fly (which acts as an unmethylated control). These patterns allow us to generate evolutionary hypotheses about the relationships between GC(3) and methylation and how these affect expression patterns. Specifically, we propose that the opposite effects of methylation and compositional gradients along coding regions of GC(3)-poor and GC(3)-rich genes are the products of several competing processes.

  4. Cross-Species Analysis of Genic GC3 Content and DNA Methylation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Elhaik, Eran; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The GC content in the third codon position (GC3) exhibits a unimodal distribution in many plant and animal genomes. Interestingly, grasses and homeotherm vertebrates exhibit a unique bimodal distribution. High GC3 was previously found to be associated with variable expression, higher frequency of upstream TATA boxes, and an increase of GC3 from 5′ to 3′. Moreover, GC3-rich genes are predominant in certain gene classes and are enriched in CpG dinucleotides that are potential targets for methylation. Based on the GC3 bimodal distribution we hypothesize that GC3 has a regulatory role involving methylation and gene expression. To test that hypothesis, we selected diverse taxa (rice, thale cress, bee, and human) that varied in the modality of their GC3 distribution and tested the association between GC3, DNA methylation, and gene expression. We examine the relationship between cytosine methylation levels and GC3, gene expression, genome signature, gene length, and other gene compositional features. We find a strong negative correlation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = −0.67, P value < 0.0001) between GC3 and genic CpG methylation. The comparison between 5′-3′ gradients of CG3-skew and genic methylation for the taxa in the study suggests interplay between gene-body methylation and transcription-coupled cytosine deamination effect. Compositional features are correlated with methylation levels of genes in rice, thale cress, human, bee, and fruit fly (which acts as an unmethylated control). These patterns allow us to generate evolutionary hypotheses about the relationships between GC3 and methylation and how these affect expression patterns. Specifically, we propose that the opposite effects of methylation and compositional gradients along coding regions of GC3-poor and GC3-rich genes are the products of several competing processes. PMID:23833164

  5. A putative insect intracellular endosymbiont stem clade, within the Enterobacteriaceae, infered from phylogenetic analysis based on a heterogeneous model of DNA evolution.

    PubMed

    Charles, H; Heddi, A; Rahbe, Y

    2001-05-01

    Insect intracellular symbiotic bacteria (intracellular endosymbionts, or endocytobionts) were positioned within the gamma 3-Proteobacteria using a non-homogeneous model of DNA evolution, allowing for rate variability among sites, for GC content heterogeneity among sequences, and applied to a maximum likelihood framework. Most of them were found to be closely related within the Enterobacteriaceae family, located between Proteus and Yersinia. These results suggest that such a bacterial group might possess several traits allowing for insect infection and the stable establishment of symbiotic relationships and that this could represent a stem clade for numerous insect endocytobionts. Based on the estimations of the equilibrium GC content and branch lengths in the phylogenetic tree, we have made comparisons of the relative ages of these different symbioses.

  6. Analysis of the complete DNA sequence of murine cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Rawlinson, W D; Farrell, H E; Barrell, B G

    1996-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the Smith strain of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) was determined from virion DNA by using a whole-genome shotgun approach. The genome has an overall G+C content of 58.7%, consists of 230,278 bp, and is arranged as a single unique sequence with short (31-bp) terminal direct repeats and several short internal repeats. Significant similarity to the genome of the sequenced human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD169 is evident, particularly for 78 open reading frames encoded by the central part of the genome. There is a very similar distribution of G+C content across the two genomes. Sequences toward the ends of the MCMV genome encode tandem arrays of homologous glycoproteins (gps) arranged as two gene families. The left end encodes 15 gps that represent one family, and the right end encodes a different family of 11 gps. A homolog (m144) of cellular major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes is located at the end of the genome opposite the HCMV MHC class I homolog (UL18). G protein-coupled receptor (GCR) homologs (M33 and M78) occur in positions congruent with two (UL33 and UL78) of the four putative HCMV GCR homologs. Counterparts of all of the known enzyme homologs in HCMV are present in the MCMV genome, including the phosphotransferase gene (M97), whose product phosphorylates ganciclovir in HCMV-infected cells, and the assembly protein (M80). PMID:8971012

  7. Time scale for cyclostome evolution inferred with a phylogenetic diagnosis of hagfish and lamprey cDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kuraku, Shigehiro; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2006-12-01

    The Cyclostomata consists of the two orders Myxiniformes (hagfishes) and Petromyzoniformes (lampreys), and its monophyly has been unequivocally supported by recent molecular phylogenetic studies. Under this updated vertebrate phylogeny, we performed in silico evolutionary analyses using currently available cDNA sequences of cyclostomes. We first calculated the GC-content at four-fold degenerate sites (GC(4)), which revealed that an extremely high GC-content is shared by all the lamprey species we surveyed, whereas no striking pattern in GC-content was observed in any of the hagfish species surveyed. We then estimated the timing of diversification in cyclostome evolution using nucleotide and amino acid sequences. We obtained divergence times of 470-390 million years ago (Mya) in the Ordovician-Silurian-Devonian Periods for the interordinal split between Myxiniformes and Petromyzoniformes; 90-60 Mya in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Periods for the split between the two hagfish subfamilies, Myxininae and Eptatretinae; 280-220 Mya in the Permian-Triassic Periods for the split between the two lamprey subfamilies, Geotriinae and Petromyzoninae; and 30-10 Mya in the Tertiary Period for the split between the two lamprey genera, Petromyzon and Lethenteron. This evolutionary configuration indicates that Myxiniformes and Petromyzoniformes diverged shortly after the common ancestor of cyclostomes split from the future gnathostome lineage. Our results also suggest that intra-subfamilial diversification in hagfish and lamprey lineages (especially those distributed in the northern hemisphere) occurred in the Cretaceous or Tertiary Periods.

  8. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  9. DNA polymorphism in morels: complete sequences of the internal transcribed spacer of genes coding for rRNA in Morchella esculenta (yellow morel) and Morchella conica (black morel).

    PubMed

    Wipf, D; Munch, J C; Botton, B; Buscot, F

    1996-09-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the gene coding for rRNA was sequenced in both directions with the gene walking technique in a black morel (Morchella conica) and a yellow morel (M. esculenta) to elucidate the ITS length discrepancy between the two species groups (750-bp ITS in black morels and 1,150-bp ITS in yellow morels.

  10. Isolation and expression of a novel chick G-protein cDNA coding for a G alpha i3 protein with a G alpha 0 N-terminus.

    PubMed Central

    Kilbourne, E J; Galper, J B

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned cDNAs coding for G-protein alpha subunits from a chick brain cDNA library. Based on sequence similarity to G-protein alpha subunits from other eukaryotes, one clone was designated G alpha i3. A second clone, G alpha i3-o, was identical to the G alpha i3 clone over 932 bases on the 3' end. The 5' end of G alpha i3-o, however, contained an alternative sequence in which the first 45 amino acids coded for are 100% identical to the conserved N-terminus of G alpha o from species such as rat, mouse, human, bovine and hamster. Both clones were found to be expressed in all tissues studied. The unusual alpha o-alpha i3-like G-protein chimera, G alpha i3-o, was found to be expressed at significantly lower levels than G alpha i3. In vitro transcription and translation of the G alpha i3-o cDNA clone gave a protein of approx. 41 kDa which stably bound guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate. G alpha i3-o appears to be the first G-protein alpha subunit cloned which contains ends that are homologous to two different alpha subunit isoforms, G alpha o and G alpha i3. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8297335

  11. cDNA-based gene mapping and GC3 profiling in the soft-shelled turtle suggest a chromosomal size-dependent GC bias shared by sauropsids.

    PubMed

    Kuraku, Shigehiro; Ishijima, Junko; Nishida-Umehara, Chizuko; Agata, Kiyokazu; Kuratani, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian and avian genomes comprise several classes of chromosomal segments that vary dramatically in GC-content. Especially in chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher GC-content and a higher gene density than macrochromosomes. To understand the evolutionary history of the intra-genome GC heterogeneity in amniotes, it is necessary to examine the equivalence of this GC heterogeneity at the nucleotide level between these animals including reptiles, from which birds diverged. We isolated cDNAs for 39 protein-coding genes from the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, and performed chromosome mapping of 31 genes. The GC-content of exonic third positions (GC3) of P. sinensis genes showed a heterogeneous distribution, and exhibited a significant positive correlation with that of chicken and human orthologs, indicating that the last common ancestor of extant amniotes had already established a GC-compartmentalized genomic structure. Furthermore, chromosome mapping in P. sinensis revealed that microchromosomes tend to contain more GC-rich genes than GC-poor genes, as in chicken. These results illustrate two modes of genome evolution in amniotes: mammals elaborated the genomic configuration in which GC-rich and GC-poor regions coexist in individual chromosomes, whereas sauropsids (reptiles and birds) refined the chromosomal size-dependent GC compartmentalization in which GC-rich genomic fractions tend to be confined to microchromosomes.

  12. Direct DNA amplification from crude clinical samples using a PCR enhancer cocktail and novel mutants of Taq.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhian; Kermekchiev, Milko B; Barnes, Wayne M

    2010-03-01

    PCR-based clinical and forensic tests often have low sensitivity or even false-negative results caused by potent PCR inhibitors found in blood and soil. It is widely accepted that purification of target DNA before PCR is necessary for successful amplification. In an attempt to overcome PCR inhibition, enhance PCR amplification, and simplify the PCR protocol, we demonstrate improved PCR-enhancing cocktails containing nonionic detergent, l-carnitine, d-(+)-trehalose, and heparin. These cocktails, in combination with two inhibitor-resistant Taq mutants, OmniTaq and Omni Klentaq, enabled efficient amplification of exogenous, endogenous, and high-GC content DNA targets directly from crude samples containing human plasma, serum, and whole blood without DNA purification. In the presence of these enhancer cocktails, the mutant enzymes were able to tolerate at least 25% plasma, serum, or whole blood and as high as 80% GC content templates in PCR reactions. These enhancer cocktails also improved the performance of the novel Taq mutants in real-time PCR amplification using crude samples, both in SYBR Green fluorescence detection and TaqMan assays. The novel enhancer mixes also facilitated DNA amplification from crude samples with various commercial Taq DNA polymerases.

  13. Sharing code

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

  14. Genome size and DNA base composition of geophytes: the mirror of phenology and ecology?

    PubMed Central

    Veselý, Pavel; Bureš, Petr; Šmarda, Petr; Pavlíček, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome size is known to affect various plant traits such as stomatal size, seed mass, and flower or shoot phenology. However, these associations are not well understood for species with very large genomes, which are laregly represented by geophytic plants. No detailed associations are known between DNA base composition and genome size or species ecology. Methods Genome sizes and GC contents were measured in 219 geophytes together with tentative morpho-anatomical and ecological traits. Key Results Increased genome size was associated with earliness of flowering and tendency to grow in humid conditions, and there was a positive correlation between an increase in stomatal size in species with extremely large genomes. Seed mass of geophytes was closely related to their ecology, but not to genomic parameters. Genomic DNA GC content showed a unimodal relationship with genome size but no relationship with species ecology. Conclusions Evolution of genome size in geophytes is closely related to their ecology and phenology and is also associated with remarkable changes in DNA base composition. Although geophytism together with producing larger cells appears to be an advantageous strategy for fast development of an organism in seasonal habitats, the drought sensitivity of large stomata may restrict the occurrence of geophytes with very large genomes to regions not subject to water stress. PMID:22021815

  15. Terminal repetitive sequences in herpesvirus saimiri virion DNA.

    PubMed

    Bankier, A T; Dietrich, W; Baer, R; Barrell, B G; Colbère-Garapin, F; Fleckenstein, B; Bodemer, W

    1985-07-01

    The H-DNA repeat unit of Herpesvirus saimiri strain 11 was cloned in plasmid vector pAGO, and the nucleotide sequence was determined by the dideoxy chain termination method. One unit of repetitive DNA has 1,444 base pairs with 70.8% G+C content. The structural features of repeat DNA sequences at the termini of intact virion M-DNA (160 kilobases) and orientation of reiterated DNA were analyzed by radioactive end labeling of M-DNA, followed by cleavage of the end fragments with restriction endonucleases. The termini appeared to be blunt ended with a 5'-phosphate group, probably generated during encapsidation by cleavage in the immediate vicinity of the single ApaI recognition site in the H-DNA repeat unit. The sequence did not reveal sizeable open reading frames, the longest hypothetical peptide from H-DNA being 85 amino acids. There was no evidence for an mRNA promoter or terminator element, and H-DNA-specific transcription could not be found in productively infected cells.

  16. The coding region of the UFGT gene is a source of diagnostic SNP markers that allow single-locus DNA genotyping for the assessment of cultivar identity and ancestry in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera L. is one of society’s most important agricultural crops with a broad genetic variability. The difficulty in recognizing grapevine genotypes based on ampelographic traits and secondary metabolites prompted the development of molecular markers suitable for achieving variety genetic identification. Findings Here, we propose a comparison between a multi-locus barcoding approach based on six chloroplast markers and a single-copy nuclear gene sequencing method using five coding regions combined with a character-based system with the aim of reconstructing cultivar-specific haplotypes and genotypes to be exploited for the molecular characterization of 157 V. vinifera accessions. The analysis of the chloroplast target regions proved the inadequacy of the DNA barcoding approach at the subspecies level, and hence further DNA genotyping analyses were targeted on the sequences of five nuclear single-copy genes amplified across all of the accessions. The sequencing of the coding region of the UFGT nuclear gene (UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-0-glucosyltransferase, the key enzyme for the accumulation of anthocyanins in berry skins) enabled the discovery of discriminant SNPs (1/34 bp) and the reconstruction of 130 V. vinifera distinct genotypes. Most of the genotypes proved to be cultivar-specific, and only few genotypes were shared by more, although strictly related, cultivars. Conclusion On the whole, this technique was successful for inferring SNP-based genotypes of grapevine accessions suitable for assessing the genetic identity and ancestry of international cultivars and also useful for corroborating some hypotheses regarding the origin of local varieties, suggesting several issues of misidentification (synonymy/homonymy). PMID:24298902

  17. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  18. Phylogenetic footprinting of non-coding RNA: hammerhead ribozyme sequences in a satellite DNA family of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The great variety in sequence, length, complexity, and abundance of satellite DNA has made it difficult to ascribe any function to this genome component. Recent studies have shown that satellite DNA can be transcribed and be involved in regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Some satellite DNAs, such as the pDo500 sequence family in Dolichopoda cave crickets, have a catalytic hammerhead (HH) ribozyme structure and activity embedded within each repeat. Results We assessed the phylogenetic footprints of the HH ribozyme within the pDo500 sequences from 38 different populations representing 12 species of Dolichopoda. The HH region was significantly more conserved than the non-hammerhead (NHH) region of the pDo500 repeat. In addition, stems were more conserved than loops. In stems, several compensatory mutations were detected that maintain base pairing. The core region of the HH ribozyme was affected by very few nucleotide substitutions and the cleavage position was altered only once among 198 sequences. RNA folding of the HH sequences revealed that a potentially active HH ribozyme can be found in most of the Dolichopoda populations and species. Conclusions The phylogenetic footprints suggest that the HH region of the pDo500 sequence family is selected for function in Dolichopoda cave crickets. However, the functional role of HH ribozymes in eukaryotic organisms is unclear. The possible functions have been related to trans cleavage of an RNA target by a ribonucleoprotein and regulation of gene expression. Whether the HH ribozyme in Dolichopoda is involved in similar functions remains to be investigated. Future studies need to demonstrate how the observed nucleotide changes and evolutionary constraint have affected the catalytic efficiency of the hammerhead. PMID:20047671

  19. Epigenetic DNA-methylation regulation of genes coding for lipid raft-associated components: a role for raft proteins in cell transformation and cancer progression (review).

    PubMed

    Patra, Samir K; Bettuzzi, Saverio

    2007-06-01

    Metastatic progression is the cause of most cancer deaths. Host tumour cell separation (fission) is accompanied by simultaneous acquisition of migrating capability of cancer cells, remodeling of cellular architecture and effective 'homing' in body host environment. Cell remodeling involves cytoskeletal protein-protein and lipid-protein interaction together with altered signaling. Alteration of signaling in tumour cells may affect expression of many genes also by DNA-methylation/demethylation. This would alter the steady-state intracellular level of structural proteins or metabolic enzymes, and notably enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of lipids, affecting the composition of membranes. Lipid rafts are small, heterogeneous, highly dynamic, sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched domains that compartmentalize cellular processes. Small rafts can be stabilized to form larger platforms through protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. Lipid rafts play an important role in intracellular protein transport, membrane fusion and trans-cytosis, also being platforms for cell surface antigens and adhesion molecules which are crucial for cell activation, polarization and signaling. Detachment of individual tumour cells from the host tumour lump requires lipid-protein-lipid raft (LPLR) reordering. Lipid rafts are also involved in angiogenesis and local invasion, which occurs within the host tumour vicinity by exchange of enzymes, cytokines and motility factors that modify the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Many cell surface adhesion, ECM, and signaling proteins (such as E-cadherin, catenin, CD44, MMP-9 and caveolin-1) are known to be absent or reduced following gene promoter-CpG-island hypermethylation in mid-stage growing tumours, but re-expressed (by gene promoter-mCpG-DNA demethylation) in carcinomas such as metastasized lung, prostate and sarcomas. The recent research acquisitions on lipid rafts have tremendous implications in understanding the genetic and

  20. Characterization of the Dominant and Rare Members of a Young Hawaiian Soil Bacterial Community with Small-Subunit Ribosomal DNA Amplified from DNA Fractionated on the Basis of Its Guanine and Cytosine Composition

    PubMed Central

    Nüsslein, Klaus; Tiedje, James M.

    1998-01-01

    The small-subunit ribosomal DNA (rDNA) diversity was found to be very high in a Hawaiian soil community that might be expected to have lower diversity than the communities in continental soils because the Hawaiian soil is geographically isolated and only 200 years old, is subjected to a constant climate, and harbors low plant diversity. Since an underlying community structure could not be revealed by analyzing the total eubacterial rDNA, we first fractionated the DNA on the basis of guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) content by using bis-benzimidazole and equilibrium centrifugation and then analyzed the bacterial rDNA amplified from a fraction with a high biomass (63% G+C fraction) and a fraction with a low biomass (35% G+C fraction). The rDNA clone libraries were screened by amplified rDNA restriction analysis to determine phylotype distribution. The dominant biomass reflected by the 63% G+C fraction contained several dominant phylotypes, while the community members that were less successful (35% G+C fraction) did not show dominance but there was a very high diversity of phylotypes. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed taxa belonging to the groups expected for the G+C contents used. The dominant phylotypes in the 63% G+C fraction were members of the Pseudomonas, Rhizobium-Agrobacterium, and Rhodospirillum assemblages, while all of the clones sequenced from the 35% G+C fraction were affiliated with several Clostridium assemblages. The two-step rDNA analysis used here uncovered more diversity than can be detected by direct rDNA analysis of total community DNA. The G+C separation step is also a way to detect some of the less dominant organisms in a community. PMID:9546163

  1. Genome-Wide Prediction of DNA Methylation Using DNA Composition and Sequence Complexity in Human

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chengchao; Yao, Shixin; Li, Xinghao; Chen, Chujia; Hu, Xuehai

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a significant role in transcriptional regulation by repressing activity. Change of the DNA methylation level is an important factor affecting the expression of target genes and downstream phenotypes. Because current experimental technologies can only assay a small proportion of CpG sites in the human genome, it is urgent to develop reliable computational models for predicting genome-wide DNA methylation. Here, we proposed a novel algorithm that accurately extracted sequence complexity features (seven features) and developed a support-vector-machine-based prediction model with integration of the reported DNA composition features (trinucleotide frequency and GC content, 65 features) by utilizing the methylation profiles of embryonic stem cells in human. The prediction results from 22 human chromosomes with size-varied windows showed that the 600-bp window achieved the best average accuracy of 94.7%. Moreover, comparisons with two existing methods further showed the superiority of our model, and cross-species predictions on mouse data also demonstrated that our model has certain generalization ability. Finally, a statistical test of the experimental data and the predicted data on functional regions annotated by ChromHMM found that six out of 10 regions were consistent, which implies reliable prediction of unassayed CpG sites. Accordingly, we believe that our novel model will be useful and reliable in predicting DNA methylation. PMID:28212312

  2. Deppdb--DNA electrostatic potential properties database: electrostatic properties of genome DNA.

    PubMed

    Osypov, Alexander A; Krutinin, Gleb G; Kamzolova, Svetlana G

    2010-06-01

    The electrostatic properties of genome DNA influence its interactions with different proteins, in particular, the regulation of transcription by RNA-polymerases. DEPPDB--DNA Electrostatic Potential Properties Database--was developed to hold and provide all available information on the electrostatic properties of genome DNA combined with its sequence and annotation of biological and structural properties of genome elements and whole genomes. Genomes in DEPPDB are organized on a taxonomical basis. Currently, the database contains all the completely sequenced bacterial and viral genomes according to NCBI RefSeq. General properties of the genome DNA electrostatic potential profile and principles of its formation are revealed. This potential correlates with the GC content but does not correspond to it exactly and strongly depends on both the sequence arrangement and its context (flanking regions). Analysis of the promoter regions for bacterial and viral RNA polymerases revealed a correspondence between the scale of these proteins' physical properties and electrostatic profile patterns. We also discovered a direct correlation between the potential value and the binding frequency of RNA polymerase to DNA, supporting the idea of the role of electrostatics in these interactions. This matches a pronounced tendency of the promoter regions to possess higher values of the electrostatic potential.

  3. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  4. Double-coding nucleic acids: introduction of a nucleobase sequence in the major groove of the DNA duplex using double-headed nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Sorinas, Antoni Figueras; Nielsen, Lise J; Slot, Maria; Skytte, Kirstine; Nielsen, Annie S; Jensen, Michael D; Sharma, Pawan K; Vester, Birte; Petersen, Michael; Nielsen, Poul

    2014-09-05

    A series of double-headed nucleosides were synthesized using the Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. In the reactions, additional nucleobases (thymine, cytosine, adenine, or guanine) were attached to the 5-position of 2'-deoxyuridine or 2'-deoxycytidine through a propyne linker. The modified nucleosides were incorporated into oligonucleotides, and these were combined in different duplexes that were analyzed by thermal denaturation studies. All of the monomers were well tolerated in the DNA duplexes and induced only small changes in the thermal stability. Consecutive incorporations of the monomers led to increases in duplex stability owing to increased stacking interactions. The modified nucleotide monomers maintained the Watson-Crick base pair fidelity. Stable duplexes were observed with heavily modified oligonucleotides featuring 14 consecutive incorporations of different double-headed nucleotide monomers. Thus, modified duplexes with an array of nucleobases on the exterior of the duplex were designed. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that the additional nucleobases could expose their Watson-Crick and/or Hoogsteen faces for recognition in the major groove. This presentation of nucleobases may find applications in providing molecular information without unwinding the duplex.

  5. Isolation and characterization of an atypical LEA protein coding cDNA and its promoter from drought-tolerant plant Prosopis juliflora.

    PubMed

    George, Suja; Usha, B; Parida, Ajay

    2009-05-01

    Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic and biotic stress factors. Despite the wealth of information on abiotic stress and stress tolerance in plants, many aspects still remain unclear. Prosopis juliflora is a hardy plant reported to be tolerant to drought, salinity, extremes of soil pH, and heavy metal stress. In this paper, we report the isolation and characterization of the complementary DNA clone for an atypical late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein (Pj LEA3) and its putative promoter sequence from P. juliflora. Unlike typical LEA proteins, rich in glycine, Pj LEA3 has alanine as the most abundant amino acid followed by serine and shows an average negative hydropathy. Pj LEA3 is significantly different from other LEA proteins in the NCBI database and shows high similarity to indole-3 acetic-acid-induced protein ARG2 from Vigna radiata. Northern analysis for Pj LEA3 in P. juliflora leaves under 90 mM H2O2 stress revealed up-regulation of transcript at 24 and 48 h. A 1.5-kb fragment upstream the 5' UTR of this gene (putative promoter) was isolated and analyzed in silico. The possible reasons for changes in gene expression during stress in relation to the host plant's stress tolerance mechanisms are discussed.

  6. Breaking the DNA-binding code of Ralstonia solanacearum TAL effectors provides new possibilities to generate plant resistance genes against bacterial wilt disease.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Orlando; Schreiber, Tom; Schandry, Niklas; Radeck, Jara; Braun, Karl Heinz; Koszinowski, Julia; Heuer, Holger; Strauß, Annett; Lahaye, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating bacterial phytopathogen with a broad host range. Ralstonia solanacearum injected effector proteins (Rips) are key to the successful invasion of host plants. We have characterized Brg11(hrpB-regulated 11), the first identified member of a class of Rips with high sequence similarity to the transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors of Xanthomonas spp., collectively termed RipTALs. Fluorescence microscopy of in planta expressed RipTALs showed nuclear localization. Domain swaps between Brg11 and Xanthomonas TAL effector (TALE) AvrBs3 (avirulence protein triggering Bs3 resistance) showed the functional interchangeability of DNA-binding and transcriptional activation domains. PCR was used to determine the sequence of brg11 homologs from strains infecting phylogenetically diverse host plants. Brg11 localizes to the nucleus and activates promoters containing a matching effector-binding element (EBE). Brg11 and homologs preferentially activate promoters containing EBEs with a 5' terminal guanine, contrasting with the TALE preference for a 5' thymine. Brg11 and other RipTALs probably promote disease through the transcriptional activation of host genes. Brg11 and the majority of homologs identified in this study were shown to activate similar or identical target sequences, in contrast to TALEs, which generally show highly diverse target preferences. This information provides new options for the engineering of plants resistant to R. solanacearum.

  7. Sequencing of the coding exons of the LRP1 and LDLR genes on individual DNA samples reveals novel mutations in both genes.

    PubMed

    Van Leuven, F; Thiry, E; Lambrechts, M; Stas, L; Boon, T; Bruynseels, K; Muls, E; Descamps, O

    2001-02-15

    Five coding polymorphisms in de LRP1 gene, i.e. A217V, A775P, D2080N, D2632E and G4379S were discovered by sequencing its 89 exons in three test-groups of 22 healthy individuals, 29 Alzheimer patients and 18 individuals with different clinical and molecularly uncharacterized lipid metabolism problems. No genetic defect was evident in the LRP1 gene of any of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, further excluding LRP1 as a major genetic problem in AD. Lipoprotein receptor related protein (LRP) A217V (exon 6) was clearly present in all groups as a polymorphism, while D2632E was observed only once in a healthy volunteer. On the other hand, LRP1 alleles A775P, D2080N, and G4379 were encountered only in patients with FH or with undefined problems of lipid metabolism. This finding forced one to also analyze the LDL receptor (LDLR) gene, for which a method was devised to sequence the entire region comprising LDLR exons 2-18. The resulting sequence contig of 33567 nucleotides yielded finally an exact physical map that corrects published and listed LDLR gene maps in many positions. In addition, next to known mutations in LDLR that cause FH, four novel LDLR defects were defined, i.e. del e7-10, exon 9 mutation N407T, a 20 bp insertion in exon 4, and a double mutation C292W/K290R in exon 6. No evidence for pathology connected to the LRP1 'mutations' was obtained by subsequent screening for the five LRP1 variants in larger groups of 110 FH patients and 118 patients with molecularly undefined, clinical problems of cholesterol and/or lipid metabolism. In three individuals with a mutant LDLR gene a variant LRP1 allele was also present, but without direct, obvious clinical compound effects, indicating that the variant LRP1 alleles must, for the present, be considered polymorphisms.

  8. Comparison of the measured phase diagrams in the force-temperature plane for the unzipping of two different natural DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. H.; Danilowicz, C.; Coljee, V. W.; Prentiss, M.

    2006-03-01

    In this work, we consider the critical force required to unzip two different naturally occurring sequences of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) at temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 50 °C, where one of the sequences has a 53% average guanine-cytosine (GC) content and the other has a 40% GC content. We demonstrate that the force required to separate the dsDNA of the 53% GC sequence into single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is approximately 0.5 pN, or approximately 5% greater than the critical force required to unzip the 40% GC sequence at the same temperature. In the temperature range between 20 and 40 °C the measured critical forces correspond reasonably well to predictions based on a simple theoretical homopolymeric model, but at temperatures above 40 °C the measured critical forces are much smaller than the predicted forces. The correspondence between theory and experiment is not improved by using Monte Carlo simulations that consider the heteropolymeric nature of the sequences.

  9. ITS1: a DNA barcode better than ITS2 in eukaryotes?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Cun; Liu, Chang; Huang, Liang; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Chen, Haimei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Cai, Dayong; Li, Jian-Qin

    2015-05-01

    A DNA barcode is a short piece of DNA sequence used for species determination and discovery. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS/ITS2) region has been proposed as the standard DNA barcode for fungi and seed plants and has been widely used in DNA barcoding analyses for other biological groups, for example algae, protists and animals. The ITS region consists of both ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Here, a large-scale meta-analysis was carried out to compare ITS1 and ITS2 from three aspects: PCR amplification, DNA sequencing and species discrimination, in terms of the presence of DNA barcoding gaps, species discrimination efficiency, sequence length distribution, GC content distribution and primer universality. In total, 85 345 sequence pairs in 10 major groups of eukaryotes, including ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, liverworts, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, monocotyledons, eudicotyledons, insects and fishes, covering 611 families, 3694 genera, and 19 060 species, were analysed. Using similarity-based methods, we calculated species discrimination efficiencies for ITS1 and ITS2 in all major groups, families and genera. Using Fisher's exact test, we found that ITS1 has significantly higher efficiencies than ITS2 in 17 of the 47 families and 20 of the 49 genera, which are sample-rich. By in silico PCR amplification evaluation, primer universality of the extensively applied ITS1 primers was found superior to that of ITS2 primers. Additionally, shorter length of amplification product and lower GC content was discovered to be two other advantages of ITS1 for sequencing. In summary, ITS1 represents a better DNA barcode than ITS2 for eukaryotic species.

  10. A Method for the Annotation of Functional Similarities of Coding DNA Sequences: the Case of a Populated Cluster of Transmembrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Miguel Angel; Rodrigo, José Ramón; Alonso, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of a large number of human and mouse genes codifying for a populated cluster of transmembrane proteins revealed that some of the genes significantly vary in their primary nucleotide sequence inter-species and also intra-species. In spite of that divergence and of the fact that all these genes share a common parental function we asked the question of whether at DNA level they have some kind of common compositional structure, not evident from the analysis of their primary nucleotide sequence. To reveal the existence of gene clusters not based on primary sequence relationships we have analyzed 13574 human and 14047 mouse genes by the composon-clustering methodology. The data presented show that most of the genes from each one of the samples are distributed in 18 clusters sharing the common compositional features between the particular human and mouse clusters. It was observed, in addition, that between particular human and mouse clusters having similar composon-profiles large variations in gene population were detected as an indication that a significant amount of orthologs between both species differs in compositional features. A gene cluster containing exclusively genes codifying for transmembrane proteins, an important fraction of which belongs to the Rhodopsin G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, was also detected. This indicates that even though some of them display low sequence similarity, all of them, in both species, participate with similar compositional features in terms of composons. We conclude that in this family of transmembrane proteins in general and in the Rhodopsin G-protein coupled receptor in particular, the composon-clustering reveals the existence of a type of common compositional structure underlying the primary nucleotide sequence closely correlated to function.

  11. FY05 LDRD Fianl Report Investigation of AAA+ protein machines that participate in DNA replication, recombination, and in response to DNA damage LDRD Project Tracking Code: 04-LW-049

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicka, D; de Carvalho-Kavanagh, M S; Barsky, D; Venclovas, C

    2006-12-04

    The AAA+ proteins are remarkable macromolecules that are able to self-assemble into nanoscale machines. These protein machines play critical roles in many cellular processes, including the processes that manage a cell's genetic material, but the mechanism at the molecular level has remained elusive. We applied computational molecular modeling, combined with advanced sequence analysis and available biochemical and genetic data, to structurally characterize eukaryotic AAA+ proteins and the protein machines they form. With these models we have examined intermolecular interactions in three-dimensions (3D), including both interactions between the components of the AAA+ complexes and the interactions of these protein machines with their partners. These computational studies have provided new insights into the molecular structure and the mechanism of action for AAA+ protein machines, thereby facilitating a deeper understanding of processes involved in DNA metabolism.

  12. 5-Hydroxymethyluracil in the DNA of a Dinoflagellate

    PubMed Central

    Rae, Peter M. M.

    1973-01-01

    During the characterization of DNA from the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium cohnii, a large discrepancy was detected between the estimation of guanine + cytosine content from the buoyant density of the DNA in CsCl (56.1% G+C) and from the midpoint (Tm) of its hyperchromicity induced by a thermal gradient (35.6% G+C). Composition analyses of 32P-labeled nucleotides revealed an actual G+C content of 41.3%, and the presence of an unusual nucleotide amounting to about 37% of the expected thymidylate in unfractionated DNA-a feature that can explain the aberrant behavior of the DNA. The chromatographic properties of the unusual base and UV spectral analyses of the base and its corresponding nucleotide are consistent with its identification as hydroxymethyluracil. This base is not uniformly interspersed with thymine in the DNA. About 10% of Gyrodinium DNA is contributed by a fraction with low hydroxymethyluracil content, which behaves anomalously in Ag+-Cs2SO4 density gradients but not in CsCl. Images PMID:4515611

  13. DNA rearrangements located over 100 kb 5' of the Steel (Sl)-coding region in Steel-panda and Steel-contrasted mice deregulate Sl expression and cause female sterility by disrupting ovarian follicle development.

    PubMed

    Bedell, M A; Brannan, C I; Evans, E P; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A; Donovan, P J

    1995-02-15

    The Steel (Sl) locus is essential for the development of germ cells, hematopoietic cells, and melanocytes and encodes a growth factor (Mgf) that is the ligand for c-kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by the W locus. We have identified the molecular and germ cell defects in two mutant Sl alleles, Steel-panda (Slpan) and Steel-contrasted (Slcon), that cause sterility only in females. Unexpectedly, both mutant alleles are shown to contain DNA rearrangements, located > 100 kb 5' of Mgf-coding sequences, that lead to tissue-specific effects on Mgf mRNA expression. In Slpan embryos, decreased Mgf mRNA expression in the gonads causes a reduced number of primordial germ cells in both sexes. However, Mgf expression and spermatogenesis in the postnatal mutant tests is normal, and spermatogonial proliferation compensates for deficiencies in germ cell numbers. In Slpan and Slcon homozygous females, decreased Mgf mRNA expression causes sterility by affecting the initiation and maintenance of ovarian follicle development. Thus, regulated expression of Mgf is required for multiple stages of embryonic and postnatal germ cell development. Surprisingly, other areas of the Slcon female reproductive tract displayed ectopic expression of Mgf mRNA. We propose that the Slpan and Slcon rearrangements alter Mgf mRNA abundance through position effects on expression that act at a distance from the Sl gene.

  14. GC-Rich Extracellular DNA Induces Oxidative Stress, Double-Strand DNA Breaks, and DNA Damage Response in Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kostyuk, Svetlana; Smirnova, Tatiana; Kameneva, Larisa; Porokhovnik, Lev; Speranskij, Anatolij; Ershova, Elizaveta; Stukalov, Sergey; Izevskaya, Vera; Veiko, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cell free DNA (cfDNA) circulates throughout the bloodstream of both healthy people and patients with various diseases. CfDNA is substantially enriched in its GC-content as compared with human genomic DNA. Principal Findings. Exposure of haMSCs to GC-DNA induces short-term oxidative stress (determined with H2DCFH-DA) and results in both single- and double-strand DNA breaks (comet assay and γH2AX, foci). As a result in the cells significantly increases the expression of repair genes (BRCA1 (RT-PCR), PCNA (FACS)) and antiapoptotic genes (BCL2 (RT-PCR and FACS), BCL2A1, BCL2L1, BIRC3, and BIRC2 (RT-PCR)). Under the action of GC-DNA the potential of mitochondria was increased. Here we show that GC-rich extracellular DNA stimulates adipocyte differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (haMSCs). Exposure to GC-DNA leads to an increase in the level of RNAPPARG2 and LPL (RT-PCR), in the level of fatty acid binding protein FABP4 (FACS analysis) and in the level of fat (Oil Red O). Conclusions. GC-rich fragments in the pool of cfDNA can potentially induce oxidative stress and DNA damage response and affect the direction of mesenchymal stem cells differentiation in human adipose—derived mesenchymal stem cells. Such a response may be one of the causes of obesity or osteoporosis. PMID:26273425

  15. What Advances Are Being Made in DNA Sequencing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA building blocks (nucleotides) in an individual's genetic code, called DNA sequencing, has advanced the study of ... breakthrough that helped scientists determine the human genetic code, but it is time-consuming and expensive. The ...

  16. Structural evolution of nrDNA ITS in Pinaceae and its phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Kan, Xian-Zhao; Wang, Shan-Shan; Ding, Xin; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) has been considered as an important tool for inferring phylogenetic relationships at many taxonomic levels. In comparison with its fast concerted evolution in angiosperms, nrDNA is symbolized by slow concerted evolution and substantial ITS region length variation in gymnosperms, particularly in Pinaceae. Here we studied structure characteristics, including subrepeat composition, size, GC content and secondary structure, of nrDNA ITS regions of all Pinaceae genera. The results showed that the ITS regions of all taxa studied contained subrepeat units, ranging from 2 to 9 in number, and these units could be divided into two types, longer subrepeat (LSR) without the motif (5'-GGCCACCCTAGTC) and shorter subrepeat (SSR) with the motif. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the homology of some SSRs still can be recognized, providing important informations for the evolutionary history of nrDNA ITS and phylogeny of Pinaceae. In particular, the adjacent tandem SSRs are not more closely related to one another than they are to remote SSRs in some genera, which may imply that multiple structure variations such as recombination have occurred in the ITS1 region of these groups. This study also found that GC content in the ITS1 region is relevant to its sequence length and subrepeat number, and could provide some phylogenetic information, especially supporting the close relationships among Picea, Pinus, and Cathaya. Moreover, several characteristics of the secondary structure of Pinaceae ITS1 were found as follows: (1) the structure is dominated by several extended hairpins; (2) the configuration complexity is positively correlated with subrepeat number; (3) paired subrepeats often partially overlap at the conserved motif (5'-GGCCACCCTAGTC), and form a long stem, while other subrepeats fold onto itself, leaving part of the conserved motif exposed in hairpin loops.

  17. Nucleotide sequence of the LuxC gene and the upstream DNA from the bioluminescent system of Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, C M; Graham, A F; Meighen, E A

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene (1431 bp) and the upstream DNA (1049 bp) of the luminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi has been determined. The luxC gene can be translated into a polypeptide of 55 kDa in excellent agreement with the molecular mass of the reductase polypeptide required for synthesis of the aldehyde substrate for the bioluminescent reaction. Analyses of codon usage showed a high frequency (1.9%) of the isoleucine codon, AUA, in the luxC gene compared to that found in Escherichia coli genes (0.2%) and its absence in the luxA, B and D genes. The low G/C content of the luxC gene and upstream DNA (38-39%) compared to that found in the other lux genes of V. harveyi (45%) was primarily due to a stretch of 500 nucleotides with only a 24% G/C content, extending from 200 bp inside lux C to 300 bp upstream. Moreover, an open reading frame did not extend for more than 48 codons between the luxC gene and 600 bp upstream at which point a gene transcribed in the opposite direction started. As the lux system in the luminescent bacterium, V. fischeri, contains a regulatory gene immediately upstream of luxC transcribed in the same direction, these results show that the organization and regulation of the lux genes have diverged in different luminescent bacteria. PMID:3347497

  18. Detecting non-coding selective pressure in coding regions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Blanchette, Mathieu

    2007-01-01

    Background Comparative genomics approaches, where orthologous DNA regions are compared and inter-species conserved regions are identified, have proven extremely powerful for identifying non-coding regulatory regions located in intergenic or intronic regions. However, non-coding functional elements can also be located within coding region, as is common for exonic splicing enhancers, some transcription factor binding sites, and RNA secondary structure elements affecting mRNA stability, localization, or translation. Since these functional elements are located in regions that are themselves highly conserved because they are coding for a protein, they generally escaped detection by comparative genomics approaches. Results We introduce a comparative genomics approach for detecting non-coding functional elements located within coding regions. Codon evolution is modeled as a mixture of codon substitution models, where each component of the mixture describes the evolution of codons under a specific type of coding selective pressure. We show how to compute the posterior distribution of the entropy and parsimony scores under this null model of codon evolution. The method is applied to a set of growth hormone 1 orthologous mRNA sequences and a known exonic splicing elements is detected. The analysis of a set of CORTBP2 orthologous genes reveals a region of several hundred base pairs under strong non-coding selective pressure whose function remains unknown. Conclusion Non-coding functional elements, in particular those involved in post-transcriptional regulation, are likely to be much more prevalent than is currently known. With the numerous genome sequencing projects underway, comparative genomics approaches like that proposed here are likely to become increasingly powerful at detecting such elements. PMID:17288582

  19. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  20. Sensitive Detection of Polyalanine Expansions in PHOX2B by Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Bisulfite-Converted DNA

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Hidekazu; Sasaki, Ayako; Osawa, Motoki; Kijima, Kazuki; Ino, Yukiko; Matoba, Ryoji; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, also known as Ondine’s curse, is characterized by idiopathic abnormal control of respiration during sleep. Recent studies indicate that a polyalanine expansion of PHOX2B is relevant to the pathogenesis of this disorder. However, it is difficult to detect the repeated tract because its high GC content inhibits conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Here, we describe a bisulfite treatment for DNA in which uracil is obtained by deamination of unmethylated cytosine residues. Deamination of DNA permitted direct PCR amplification that yielded a product of 123 bp for the common 20-residue repetitive tract with replacement of C with T by sequencing. It settled allele dropouts accompanied by insufficient amplification of expanded alleles. The defined procedure dramatically improved detection of expansions to 9 of 10 congenital central hypoventilation syndrome patients examined in a previous study. The chemical conversion of DNA before PCR amplification facilitates effective detection of GC-rich polyalanine tracts. PMID:16258163

  1. DNA Nanotechnology-- Architectures Designed with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dongran

    As the genetic information storage vehicle, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules are essential to all known living organisms and many viruses. It is amazing that such a large amount of information about how life develops can be stored in these tiny molecules. Countless scientists, especially some biologists, are trying to decipher the genetic information stored in these captivating molecules. Meanwhile, another group of researchers, nanotechnologists in particular, have discovered that the unique and concise structural features of DNA together with its information coding ability can be utilized for nano-construction efforts. This idea culminated in the birth of the field of DNA nanotechnology which is the main topic of this dissertation. The ability of rationally designed DNA strands to self-assemble into arbitrary nanostructures without external direction is the basis of this field. A series of novel design principles for DNA nanotechnology are presented here, from topological DNA nanostructures to complex and curved DNA nanostructures, from pure DNA nanostructures to hybrid RNA/DNA nanostructures. As one of the most important and pioneering fields in controlling the assembly of materials (both DNA and other materials) at the nanoscale, DNA nanotechnology is developing at a dramatic speed and as more and more construction approaches are invented, exciting advances will emerge in ways that we may or may not predict.

  2. Chilean Pitavia more closely related to Oceania and Old World Rutaceae than to Neotropical groups: evidence from two cpDNA non-coding regions, with a new subfamilial classification of the family

    PubMed Central

    Groppo, Milton; Kallunki, Jacquelyn A.; Pirani, José Rubens; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The position of the plant genus Pitavia within an infrafamilial phylogeny of Rutaceae (rue, or orange family) was investigated with the use of two non-coding regions from cpDNA, the trnL-trnF region and the rps16 intron. The only species of the genus, Pitavia punctata Molina, is restricted to the temperate forests of the Coastal Cordillera of Central-Southern Chile and threatened by loss of habitat. The genus traditionally has been treated as part of tribe Zanthoxyleae (subfamily Rutoideae) where it constitutes the monogeneric tribe Pitaviinae. This tribe and genus are characterized by fruits of 1 to 4 fleshy drupelets, unlike the dehiscent fruits typical of the subfamily. Fifty-five taxa of Rutaceae, representing 53 genera (nearly one-third of those in the family) and all subfamilies, tribes, and almost all subtribes of the family were included. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used to infer the phylogeny; six taxa of Meliaceae, Sapindaceae, and Simaroubaceae, all members of Sapindales, were also used as out-groups. Results from both analyses were congruent and showed Pitavia as sister to Flindersia and Lunasia, both genera with species scattered through Australia, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea and the Malayan region, and phylogenetically far from other Neotropical Rutaceae, such as the Galipeinae (Galipeeae, Rutoideae) and Pteleinae (Toddalieae, former Toddalioideae). Additionally, a new circumscription of the subfamilies of Rutaceae is presented and discussed. Only two subfamilies (both monophyletic) are recognized: Cneoroideae (including Dictyolomatoideae, Spathelioideae, Cneoraceae, and Ptaeroxylaceae) and Rutoideae (including not only traditional Rutoideae but also Aurantioideae, Flindersioideae, and Toddalioideae). As a consequence, Aurantioideae (Citrus and allies) is reduced to tribal rank as Aurantieae. PMID:23717188

  3. TU-EF-304-10: Efficient Multiscale Simulation of the Proton Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) for DNA Double Strand Break (DSB) Induction and Bio-Effective Dose in the FLUKA Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Moskvin, V; Tsiamas, P; Axente, M; Farr, J; Stewart, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: One of the more critical initiating events for reproductive cell death is the creation of a DNA double strand break (DSB). In this study, we present a computationally efficient way to determine spatial variations in the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of proton therapy beams within the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code. Methods: We used the independently tested Monte Carlo Damage Simulation (MCDS) developed by Stewart and colleagues (Radiat. Res. 176, 587–602 2011) to estimate the RBE for DSB induction of monoenergetic protons, tritium, deuterium, hellium-3, hellium-4 ions and delta-electrons. The dose-weighted (RBE) coefficients were incorporated into FLUKA to determine the equivalent {sup 6}°60Co γ-ray dose for representative proton beams incident on cells in an aerobic and anoxic environment. Results: We found that the proton beam RBE for DSB induction at the tip of the Bragg peak, including primary and secondary particles, is close to 1.2. Furthermore, the RBE increases laterally to the beam axis at the area of Bragg peak. At the distal edge, the RBE is in the range from 1.3–1.4 for cells irradiated under aerobic conditions and may be as large as 1.5–1.8 for cells irradiated under anoxic conditions. Across the plateau region, the recorded RBE for DSB induction is 1.02 for aerobic cells and 1.05 for cells irradiated under anoxic conditions. The contribution to total effective dose from secondary heavy ions decreases with depth and is higher at shallow depths (e.g., at the surface of the skin). Conclusion: Multiscale simulation of the RBE for DSB induction provides useful insights into spatial variations in proton RBE within pristine Bragg peaks. This methodology is potentially useful for the biological optimization of proton therapy for the treatment of cancer. The study highlights the need to incorporate spatial variations in proton RBE into proton therapy treatment plans.

  4. An integrated, structure- and energy-based view of the genetic code

    PubMed Central

    Grosjean, Henri; Westhof, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The principles of mRNA decoding are conserved among all extant life forms. We present an integrative view of all the interaction networks between mRNA, tRNA and rRNA: the intrinsic stability of codon–anticodon duplex, the conformation of the anticodon hairpin, the presence of modified nucleotides, the occurrence of non-Watson–Crick pairs in the codon–anticodon helix and the interactions with bases of rRNA at the A-site decoding site. We derive a more information-rich, alternative representation of the genetic code, that is circular with an unsymmetrical distribution of codons leading to a clear segregation between GC-rich 4-codon boxes and AU-rich 2:2-codon and 3:1-codon boxes. All tRNA sequence variations can be visualized, within an internal structural and energy framework, for each organism, and each anticodon of the sense codons. The multiplicity and complexity of nucleotide modifications at positions 34 and 37 of the anticodon loop segregate meaningfully, and correlate well with the necessity to stabilize AU-rich codon–anticodon pairs and to avoid miscoding in split codon boxes. The evolution and expansion of the genetic code is viewed as being originally based on GC content with progressive introduction of A/U together with tRNA modifications. The representation we present should help the engineering of the genetic code to include non-natural amino acids. PMID:27448410

  5. Statistical properties of DNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We review evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing non-coding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, nucleotides thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene. We resolve the problem of the "non-stationarity" feature of the sequence of base pairs by applying a new algorithm called detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We address the claim of Voss that there is no difference in the statistical properties of coding and non-coding regions of DNA by systematically applying the DFA algorithm, as well as standard FFT analysis, to every DNA sequence (33301 coding and 29453 non-coding) in the entire GenBank database. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work showing that the non-coding sequences have certain statistical features in common with natural and artificial languages. Specifically, we adapt to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts. These statistical properties of non-coding sequences support the possibility that non-coding regions of DNA may carry biological information.

  6. Genome-wide profiling of yeast DNA:RNA hybrid prone sites with DRIP-chip.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yujia A; Aristizabal, Maria J; Lu, Phoebe Y T; Luo, Zongli; Hamza, Akil; Kobor, Michael S; Stirling, Peter C; Hieter, Philip

    2014-04-01

    DNA:RNA hybrid formation is emerging as a significant cause of genome instability in biological systems ranging from bacteria to mammals. Here we describe the genome-wide distribution of DNA:RNA hybrid prone loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by DNA:RNA immunoprecipitation (DRIP) followed by hybridization on tiling microarray. These profiles show that DNA:RNA hybrids preferentially accumulated at rDNA, Ty1 and Ty2 transposons, telomeric repeat regions and a subset of open reading frames (ORFs). The latter are generally highly transcribed and have high GC content. Interestingly, significant DNA:RNA hybrid enrichment was also detected at genes associated with antisense transcripts. The expression of antisense-associated genes was also significantly altered upon overexpression of RNase H, which degrades the RNA in hybrids. Finally, we uncover mutant-specific differences in the DRIP profiles of a Sen1 helicase mutant, RNase H deletion mutant and Hpr1 THO complex mutant compared to wild type, suggesting different roles for these proteins in DNA:RNA hybrid biology. Our profiles of DNA:RNA hybrid prone loci provide a resource for understanding the properties of hybrid-forming regions in vivo, extend our knowledge of hybrid-mitigating enzymes, and contribute to models of antisense-mediated gene regulation. A summary of this paper was presented at the 26th International Conference on Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology, August 2013.

  7. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  8. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  9. Phylogeny of genetic codes and punctuation codes within genetic codes.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Punctuation codons (starts, stops) delimit genes, reflect translation apparatus properties. Most codon reassignments involve punctuation. Here two complementary approaches classify natural genetic codes: (A) properties of amino acids assigned to codons (classical phylogeny), coding stops as X (A1, antitermination/suppressor tRNAs insert unknown residues), or as gaps (A2, no translation, classical stop); and (B) considering only punctuation status (start, stop and other codons coded as -1, 0 and 1 (B1); 0, -1 and 1 (B2, reflects ribosomal translational dynamics); and 1, -1, and 0 (B3, starts/stops as opposites)). All methods separate most mitochondrial codes from most nuclear codes; Gracilibacteria consistently cluster with metazoan mitochondria; mitochondria co-hosted with chloroplasts cluster with nuclear codes. Method A1 clusters the euplotid nuclear code with metazoan mitochondria; A2 separates euplotids from mitochondria. Firmicute bacteria Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma and Protozoan (and lower metazoan) mitochondria share codon-amino acid assignments. A1 clusters them with mitochondria, they cluster with the standard genetic code under A2: constraints on amino acid ambiguity versus punctuation-signaling produced the mitochondrial versus bacterial versions of this genetic code. Punctuation analysis B2 converges best with classical phylogenetic analyses, stressing the need for a unified theory of genetic code punctuation accounting for ribosomal constraints.

  10. Evaluation of a transposase protocol for rapid generation of shotgun high-throughput sequencing libraries from nanogram quantities of DNA.

    PubMed

    Marine, Rachel; Polson, Shawn W; Ravel, Jacques; Hatfull, Graham; Russell, Daniel; Sullivan, Matthew; Syed, Fraz; Dumas, Michael; Wommack, K Eric

    2011-11-01

    Construction of DNA fragment libraries for next-generation sequencing can prove challenging, especially for samples with low DNA yield. Protocols devised to circumvent the problems associated with low starting quantities of DNA can result in amplification biases that skew the distribution of genomes in metagenomic data. Moreover, sample throughput can be slow, as current library construction techniques are time-consuming. This study evaluated Nextera, a new transposon-based method that is designed for quick production of DNA fragment libraries from a small quantity of DNA. The sequence read distribution across nine phage genomes in a mock viral assemblage met predictions for six of the least-abundant phages; however, the rank order of the most abundant phages differed slightly from predictions. De novo genome assemblies from Nextera libraries provided long contigs spanning over half of the phage genome; in four cases where full-length genome sequences were available for comparison, consensus sequences were found to match over 99% of the genome with near-perfect identity. Analysis of areas of low and high sequence coverage within phage genomes indicated that GC content may influence coverage of sequences from Nextera libraries. Comparisons of phage genomes prepared using both Nextera and a standard 454 FLX Titanium library preparation protocol suggested that the coverage biases according to GC content observed within the Nextera libraries were largely attributable to bias in the Nextera protocol rather than to the 454 sequencing technology. Nevertheless, given suitable sequence coverage, the Nextera protocol produced high-quality data for genomic studies. For metagenomics analyses, effects of GC amplification bias would need to be considered; however, the library preparation standardization that Nextera provides should benefit comparative metagenomic analyses.

  11. Biological basis of miRNA action when their targets are located in human protein coding region.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wanjun; Wang, Xiaofei; Zhai, Chuanying; Zhou, Tong; Xie, Xueying

    2013-01-01

    Recent analyses have revealed many functional microRNA (miRNA) targets in mammalian protein coding regions. But, the mechanisms that ensure miRNA function when their target sites are located in protein coding regions of mammalian mRNA transcripts are largely unknown. In this paper, we investigate some potential biological factors, such as target site accessibility and local translation efficiency. We computationally analyze these two factors using experimentally identified miRNA targets in human protein coding region. We find site accessibility is significantly increased in miRNA target region to facilitate miRNA binding. At the mean time, local translation efficiency is also selectively decreased near miRNA target region. GC-poor codons are preferred in the flank region of miRNA target sites to ease the access of miRNA targets. Within-genome analysis shows substantial variations of site accessibility and local translation efficiency among different miRNA targets in the genome. Further analyses suggest target gene's GC content and conservation level could explain some of the differences in site accessibility. On the other hand, target gene's functional importance and conservation level can affect local translation efficiency near miRNA target region. We hence propose both site accessibility and local translation efficiency are important in miRNA action when miRNA target sites are located in mammalian protein coding regions.

  12. DNA Polymerases of Low-GC Gram-Positive Eubacteria: Identification of the Replication-Specific Enzyme Encoded by dnaE

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Marjorie H.; Miller, Shelley D.; Brown, Neal C.

    2002-01-01

    dnaE, the gene encoding one of the two replication-specific DNA polymerases (Pols) of low-GC-content gram-positive bacteria (E. Dervyn et al., Science 294:1716-1719, 2001; R. Inoue et al., Mol. Genet. Genomics 266:564-571, 2001), was cloned from Bacillus subtilis, a model low-GC gram-positive organism. The gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant product displayed inhibitor responses and physical, catalytic, and antigenic properties indistinguishable from those of the low-GC gram-positive-organism-specific enzyme previously named DNA Pol II after the polB-encoded DNA Pol II of E. coli. Whereas a polB-like gene is absent from low-GC gram-positive genomes and whereas the low-GC gram-positive DNA Pol II strongly conserves a dnaE-like, Pol III primary structure, it is proposed that it be renamed DNA polymerase III E (Pol III E) to accurately reflect its replicative function and its origin from dnaE. It is also proposed that DNA Pol III, the other replication-specific Pol of low-GC gram-positive organisms, be renamed DNA polymerase III C (Pol III C) to denote its origin from polC. By this revised nomenclature, the DNA Pols that are expressed constitutively in low-GC gram-positive bacteria would include DNA Pol I, the dispensable repair enzyme encoded by polA, and the two essential, replication-specific enzymes Pol III C and Pol III E, encoded, respectively, by polC and dnaE. PMID:12081953

  13. Genome size and metabolic intensity in tetrapods: a tale of two lines.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander E; Anatskaya, Olga V

    2006-01-07

    We show the negative link between genome size and metabolic intensity in tetrapods, using the heart index (relative heart mass) as a unified indicator of metabolic intensity in poikilothermal and homeothermal animals. We found two separate regression lines of heart index on genome size for reptiles-birds and amphibians-mammals (the slope of regression is steeper in reptiles-birds). We also show a negative correlation between GC content and nucleosome formation potential in vertebrate DNA, and, consistent with this relationship, a positive correlation between genome GC content and nuclear size (independent of genome size). It is known that there are two separate regression lines of genome GC content on genome size for reptiles-birds and amphibians-mammals: reptiles-birds have the relatively higher GC content (for their genome sizes) compared to amphibians-mammals. Our results suggest uniting all these data into one concept. The slope of negative regression between GC content and nucleosome formation potential is steeper in exons than in non-coding DNA (where nucleosome formation potential is generally higher), which indicates a special role of non-coding DNA for orderly chromatin organization. The chromatin condensation and nuclear size are supposed to be key parameters that accommodate the effects of both genome size and GC content and connect them with metabolic intensity. Our data suggest that the reptilian-birds clade evolved special relationships among these parameters, whereas mammals preserved the amphibian-like relationships. Surprisingly, mammals, although acquiring a more complex general organization, seem to retain certain genome-related properties that are similar to amphibians. At the same time, the slope of regression between nucleosome formation potential and GC content is steeper in poikilothermal than in homeothermal genomes, which suggests that mammals and birds acquired certain common features of genomic organization.

  14. Simple and efficient method for isolating cDNA fragments of lea3 genes with potential for wide application in the grasses (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Yu, L; Wu, X; Tang, X; Yan, B

    2010-07-06

    cDNA fragments of lea3 genes with a high GC content (from 68 to 77%) were found in several Poaceae, including Sorghum vulgare, Saccharum officinarum, Oryza officinalis, Oryza meyeriana, Ampelocalamus calcareus, Cynodon dactylon, and Zizania latifoli. They were successfully isolated by means of optimal experimental parameters, which included dimethyl sulfoxide as additive and degenerate primers "AGETKAS" and "AGKDKTG", and their sequences were analyzed. Compared to the method of isolating genes by screening of a cDNA library using abscisic acid- and other stress-responsive cDNA clones, which is time-consuming and costly, this method is relatively easy and inexpensive. Using this new method, many new homologue lea3 genes were rapidly determined.

  15. DNA structure and function.

    PubMed

    Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2015-06-01

    The proposal of a double-helical structure for DNA over 60 years ago provided an eminently satisfying explanation for the heritability of genetic information. But why is DNA, and not RNA, now the dominant biological information store? We argue that, in addition to its coding function, the ability of DNA, unlike RNA, to adopt a B-DNA structure confers advantages both for information accessibility and for packaging. The information encoded by DNA is both digital - the precise base specifying, for example, amino acid sequences - and analogue. The latter determines the sequence-dependent physicochemical properties of DNA, for example, its stiffness and susceptibility to strand separation. Most importantly, DNA chirality enables the formation of supercoiling under torsional stress. We review recent evidence suggesting that DNA supercoiling, particularly that generated by DNA translocases, is a major driver of gene regulation and patterns of chromosomal gene organization, and in its guise as a promoter of DNA packaging enables DNA to act as an energy store to facilitate the passage of translocating enzymes such as RNA polymerase.

  16. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  17. Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added at the modulation stage thereby increasing bandwidth efficiency. A digital communications system can be designed to use bandwidth-efficient multilevel/phase modulation such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Performance gain can be achieved by increasing the number of signals over the corresponding uncoded system to compensate for the redundancy introduced by the code. A considerable amount of research and development has been devoted toward developing good TCM codes for severely bandlimited applications. More recently, the use of TCM for satellite and deep space communications applications has received increased attention. This report describes the general approach of using a concatenated coding scheme that features TCM and RS coding. Results have indicated that substantial (6-10 dB) performance gains can be achieved with this approach with comparatively little bandwidth expansion. Since all of the bandwidth expansion is due to the RS code we see that TCM based concatenated coding results in roughly 10-50% bandwidth expansion compared to 70-150% expansion for similar concatenated scheme which use convolution code. We stress that combined coding and modulation optimization is important for achieving performance gains while maintaining spectral efficiency.

  18. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  19. Investigating the dynamics of surface-immobilized DNA nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Katherine E.; Trefzer, Martin A.; Johnson, Steven; Tyrrell, Andy M.

    2016-07-01

    Surface-immobilization of molecules can have a profound influence on their structure, function and dynamics. Toehold-mediated strand displacement is often used in solution to drive synthetic nanomachines made from DNA, but the effects of surface-immobilization on the mechanism and kinetics of this reaction have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we show that the kinetics of strand displacement in surface-immobilized nanomachines are significantly different to those of the solution phase reaction, and we attribute this to the effects of intermolecular interactions within the DNA layer. We demonstrate that the dynamics of strand displacement can be manipulated by changing strand length, concentration and G/C content. By inserting mismatched bases it is also possible to tune the rates of the constituent displacement processes (toehold-binding and branch migration) independently, and information can be encoded in the time-dependence of the overall reaction. Our findings will facilitate the rational design of surface-immobilized dynamic DNA nanomachines, including computing devices and track-based motors.

  20. Investigating the dynamics of surface-immobilized DNA nanomachines

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Katherine E.; Trefzer, Martin A.; Johnson, Steven; Tyrrell, Andy M.

    2016-01-01

    Surface-immobilization of molecules can have a profound influence on their structure, function and dynamics. Toehold-mediated strand displacement is often used in solution to drive synthetic nanomachines made from DNA, but the effects of surface-immobilization on the mechanism and kinetics of this reaction have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we show that the kinetics of strand displacement in surface-immobilized nanomachines are significantly different to those of the solution phase reaction, and we attribute this to the effects of intermolecular interactions within the DNA layer. We demonstrate that the dynamics of strand displacement can be manipulated by changing strand length, concentration and G/C content. By inserting mismatched bases it is also possible to tune the rates of the constituent displacement processes (toehold-binding and branch migration) independently, and information can be encoded in the time-dependence of the overall reaction. Our findings will facilitate the rational design of surface-immobilized dynamic DNA nanomachines, including computing devices and track-based motors. PMID:27387252

  1. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  2. Bar Codes for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Erwin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of standards for bar codes (series of printed lines and spaces that represent numbers, symbols, and/or letters of alphabet) and describes the two types most frequently adopted by libraries--Code-A-Bar and CODE 39. Format of the codes is illustrated. Six references and definitions of terminology are appended. (EJS)

  3. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  4. Large-scale oscillation of structure-related DNA sequence features in human chromosome 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wentian; Miramontes, Pedro

    2006-08-01

    Human chromosome 21 is the only chromosome in the human genome that exhibits oscillation of the (G+C) content of a cycle length of hundreds kilobases (kb) ( 500kb near the right telomere). We aim at establishing the existence of a similar periodicity in structure-related sequence features in order to relate this (G+C)% oscillation to other biological phenomena. The following quantities are shown to oscillate with the same 500kb periodicity in human chromosome 21: binding energy calculated by two sets of dinucleotide-based thermodynamic parameters, AA/TT and AAA/TTT bi- and tri-nucleotide density, 5'-TA-3' dinucleotide density, and signal for 10- or 11-base periodicity of AA/TT or AAA/TTT. These intrinsic quantities are related to structural features of the double helix of DNA molecules, such as base-pair binding, untwisting or unwinding, stiffness, and a putative tendency for nucleosome formation.

  5. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis of DNA--its role and potential in food analysis.

    PubMed

    Druml, Barbara; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2014-09-01

    DNA based methods play an increasing role in food safety control and food adulteration detection. Recent papers show that high resolution melting (HRM) analysis is an interesting approach. It involves amplification of the target of interest in the presence of a saturation dye by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent melting of the amplicons by gradually increasing the temperature. Since the melting profile depends on the GC content, length, sequence and strand complementarity of the product, HRM analysis is highly suitable for the detection of single-base variants and small insertions or deletions. The review gives an introduction into HRM analysis, covers important aspects in the development of an HRM analysis method and describes how HRM data are analysed and interpreted. Then we discuss the potential of HRM analysis based methods in food analysis, i.e. for the identification of closely related species and cultivars and the identification of pathogenic microorganisms.

  6. The Genomic Code for Nucleosome Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widom, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    Eukaryotic genomes encode an additional layer of genetic information, superimposed on top of the regulatory and coding information, that controls the organization of the genomic DNA into arrays of nucleosomes. We have developed a partial ability to read this nucleosome positioning code and predict the in vivo locations of nucleosomes. Our results suggest that genomes utilize the nucleosome positioning code to facilitate specific chromosome functions including to delineate functional versus nonfunctional binding sites for key gene regulatory proteins, and to define the next higher level of chromosome structure itself.

  7. Genomics dataset of unidentified disclosed isolates.

    PubMed

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of DNA sequences is necessary for higher hierarchical classification of the organisms. It gives clues about the characteristics of organisms and their taxonomic position. This dataset is chosen to find complexities in the unidentified DNA in the disclosed patents. A total of 17 unidentified DNA sequences were thoroughly analyzed. The quick response codes were generated. AT/GC content of the DNA sequences analysis was carried out. The QR is helpful for quick identification of isolates. AT/GC content is helpful for studying their stability at different temperatures. Additionally, a dataset on cleavage code and enzyme code studied under the restriction digestion study, which helpful for performing studies using short DNA sequences was reported. The dataset disclosed here is the new revelatory data for exploration of unique DNA sequences for evaluation, identification, comparison and analysis.

  8. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  9. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  10. Sequence-dependent nanometer-scale conformational dynamics of individual RecBCD–DNA complexes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Ashley R.; Seaberg, Maasa H.; Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Sun, Gang; Wilds, Christopher J.; Li, Hung-Wen; Perkins, Thomas T.

    2016-01-01

    RecBCD is a multifunctional enzyme that possesses both helicase and nuclease activities. To gain insight into the mechanism of its helicase function, RecBCD unwinding at low adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (2–4 μM) was measured using an optical-trapping assay featuring 1 base-pair (bp) precision. Instead of uniformly sized steps, we observed forward motion convolved with rapid, large-scale (∼4 bp) variations in DNA length. We interpret this motion as conformational dynamics of the RecBCD–DNA complex in an unwinding-competent state, arising, in part, by an enzyme-induced, back-and-forth motion relative to the dsDNA that opens and closes the duplex. Five observations support this interpretation. First, these dynamics were present in the absence of ATP. Second, the onset of the dynamics was coupled to RecBCD entering into an unwinding-competent state that required a sufficiently long 5′ strand to engage the RecD helicase. Third, the dynamics were modulated by the GC-content of the dsDNA. Fourth, the dynamics were suppressed by an engineered interstrand cross-link in the dsDNA that prevented unwinding. Finally, these dynamics were suppressed by binding of a specific non-hydrolyzable ATP analog. Collectively, these observations show that during unwinding, RecBCD binds to DNA in a dynamic mode that is modulated by the nucleotide state of the ATP-binding pocket. PMID:27220465

  11. Genome-wide quantitative assessment of variation in DNA methylation patterns

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hehuang; Wang, Min; de Andrade, Alexandre; de F. Bonaldo, Maria; Galat, Vasil; Arndt, Kelly; Rajaram, Veena; Goldman, Stewart; Tomita, Tadanori; Soares, Marcelo B.

    2011-01-01

    Genomic DNA methylation contributes substantively to transcriptional regulations that underlie mammalian development and cellular differentiation. Much effort has been made to decipher the molecular mechanisms governing the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation patterns. However, little is known about genome-wide variation of DNA methylation patterns. In this study, we introduced the concept of methylation entropy, a measure of the randomness of DNA methylation patterns in a cell population, and exploited it to assess the variability in DNA methylation patterns of Alu repeats and promoters. A few interesting observations were made: (i) within a cell population, methylation entropy varies among genomic loci; (ii) among cell populations, the methylation entropies of most genomic loci remain constant; (iii) compared to normal tissue controls, some tumors exhibit greater methylation entropies; (iv) Alu elements with high methylation entropy are associated with high GC content but depletion of CpG dinucleotides and (v) Alu elements in the intronic regions or far from CpG islands are associated with low methylation entropy. We further identified 12 putative allelic-specific methylated genomic loci, including four Alu elements and eight promoters. Lastly, using subcloned normal fibroblast cells, we demonstrated the highly variable methylation patterns are resulted from low fidelity of DNA methylation inheritance. PMID:21278160

  12. Determination of 5-methylcytosine from plant DNA by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wagner, I; Capesius, I

    1981-06-26

    The relative amounts of the five nucleosides (deoxycytidine, 5-methyldeoxycytidine, deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine and thymidine) in the DNA of nine plant species, one plant satellite DNA, and one animal species were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The method allows the clean separation of the nucleosides from 10 microgram samples with 15 min. The following values for the proportion of methylated cytosines among all cytosines were obtained: Lobularia maritima 18.5%, Nicotiana tabacum 32.6%, Pisum sativum 23.2%, Rhinanthus minor 29.2%, Sinapsis alba 12.2%, Vicia faba 30.5%, Viscum album 23.2%, Cymbidium pumilum 18.8%, Cymbidium pumilum AT-rich satellite DNA 15.8%, Triticum aestivum 22.4%. DNA of an animal, the gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, had a methylation percentage of 3.1%. An estimate of the GC content based on the buoyant density of DNA tends to be lower than the actual value, an estimate based on the melting temperature tends to be higher. This supports the finding by other authors that DNA methylation decreases the buoyant density and may increase the melting temperature at high m5C concentration.

  13. A mathematical formulation of DNA computation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjun; Cheng, Maggie X; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong

    2006-03-01

    DNA computation is to use DNA molecules for information storing and processing. The task is accomplished by encoding and interpreting DNA molecules in suspended solutions before and after the complementary binding reactions. DNA computation is attractive, due to its fast parallel information processing, remarkable energy efficiency, and high storing capacity. Challenges currently faced by DNA computation are: 1) lack of theoretical computational models for applications and 2) high error rate for implementation. This paper attempts to address these problems from mathematical modeling and genetic coding aspects. The first part of this paper presents a mathematical formulation of DNA computation. The model may serve as a theoretical framework for DNA computation. In the second part, a genetic code based DNA computation approach is presented to reduce error rate for implementation, which has been a major concern for DNA computation. The method provides a promising alternative to reduce error rate for DNA computation.

  14. Group-specific amplification of cDNA from DRB1 genes. Complete coding sequences of partially defined alleles and identification of the new alleles DRB1*040602, DRB1*111102, DRB1*080103, and DRB1*0113.

    PubMed

    Balas, Antonio; Vilches, Carlos; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Fernández, Begoña; Martinez, Maria Paz; de Pablo, Rosario; García-Sánchez, Félix; Vicario, Jose L

    2006-12-01

    We present here the complete coding sequences, previously unavailable, of the DRB1 alleles DRB1*030102, *0306, *040701, *0408, *1327, *1356, *1411, *1446, *1503, *1504, *0806, *0813, and *0818. For cDNA isolation, new group-specific primers located at the 5'UT and 3'UT regions were used to carry out allele-specific amplification and a convenient method for determining full-length sequences for DRB1 alleles. Complete coding sequencing of samples previously typed as DRB1*0406, DRB1*080101, and DRB1*1111 revealed new alleles with noncoding nucleotide changes at exons 1 and 3. In addition, we found a novel allele, DRB1*0113, whose second exon carries a sequence motif characteristic of DRB1*07 alleles. The predicted class II haplotypic associations of all alleles are reported and discussed.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocinogenic Strain Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, Isolated from Mallard Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Arbulu, Sara; Jimenez, Juan J.; Borrero, Juan; Sánchez, Jorge; Frantzen, Cyril; Herranz, Carmen; Nes, Ingolf F.; Cintas, Luis M.; Diep, Dzung B.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The assembly contains 2,836,724 bp, with a G+C content of 37.6%. The genome is predicted to contain 2,654 coding DNA sequences (CDSs) and 50 RNAs. PMID:27417838

  16. CRITICA: coding region identification tool invoking comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, J. H.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Gene recognition is essential to understanding existing and future DNA sequence data. CRITICA (Coding Region Identification Tool Invoking Comparative Analysis) is a suite of programs for identifying likely protein-coding sequences in DNA by combining comparative analysis of DNA sequences with more common noncomparative methods. In the comparative component of the analysis, regions of DNA are aligned with related sequences from the DNA databases; if the translation of the aligned sequences has greater amino acid identity than expected for the observed percentage nucleotide identity, this is interpreted as evidence for coding. CRITICA also incorporates noncomparative information derived from the relative frequencies of hexanucleotides in coding frames versus other contexts (i.e., dicodon bias). The dicodon usage information is derived by iterative analysis of the data, such that CRITICA is not dependent on the existence or accuracy of coding sequence annotations in the databases. This independence makes the method particularly well suited for the analysis of novel genomes. CRITICA was tested by analyzing the available Salmonella typhimurium DNA sequences. Its predictions were compared with the DNA sequence annotations and with the predictions of GenMark. CRITICA proved to be more accurate than GenMark, and moreover, many of its predictions that would seem to be errors instead reflect problems in the sequence databases. The source code of CRITICA is freely available by anonymous FTP (rdp.life.uiuc.edu in/pub/critica) and on the World Wide Web (http:/(/)rdpwww.life.uiuc.edu).

  17. Efficient entropy coding for scalable video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woong Il; Yang, Jungyoup; Jeon, Byeungwoo

    2005-10-01

    The standardization for the scalable extension of H.264 has called for additional functionality based on H.264 standard to support the combined spatio-temporal and SNR scalability. For the entropy coding of H.264 scalable extension, Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) scheme is considered so far. In this paper, we present a new context modeling scheme by using inter layer correlation between the syntax elements. As a result, it improves coding efficiency of entropy coding in H.264 scalable extension. In simulation results of applying the proposed scheme to encoding the syntax element mb_type, it is shown that improvement in coding efficiency of the proposed method is up to 16% in terms of bit saving due to estimation of more adequate probability model.

  18. DNA-based watermarks using the DNA-Crypt algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Dominik; Barnekow, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of watermarks based on DNA sequences to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) protected by patents. Predicted mutations in the genome can be corrected by the DNA-Crypt program leaving the encrypted information intact. Existing DNA cryptographic and steganographic algorithms use synthetic DNA sequences to store binary information however, although these sequences can be used for authentication, they may change the target DNA sequence when introduced into living organisms. Results The DNA-Crypt algorithm and image steganography are based on the same watermark-hiding principle, namely using the least significant base in case of DNA-Crypt and the least significant bit in case of the image steganography. It can be combined with binary encryption algorithms like AES, RSA or Blowfish. DNA-Crypt is able to correct mutations in the target DNA with several mutation correction codes such as the Hamming-code or the WDH-code. Mutations which can occur infrequently may destroy the encrypted information, however an integrated fuzzy controller decides on a set of heuristics based on three input dimensions, and recommends whether or not to use a correction code. These three input dimensions are the length of the sequence, the individual mutation rate and the stability over time, which is represented by the number of generations. In silico experiments using the Ypt7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that the DNA watermarks produced by DNA-Crypt do not alter the translation of mRNA into protein. Conclusion The program is able to store watermarks in living organisms and can maintain the original information by correcting mutations itself. Pairwise or multiple sequence alignments show that DNA-Crypt produces few mismatches between the sequences similar to all steganographic algorithms. PMID:17535434

  19. Numerical classification of coding sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, D. W.; Liu, C. C.; Jukes, T. H.

    1992-01-01

    DNA sequences coding for protein may be represented by counts of nucleotides or codons. A complete reading frame may be abbreviated by its base count, e.g. A76C158G121T74, or with the corresponding codon table, e.g. (AAA)0(AAC)1(AAG)9 ... (TTT)0. We propose that these numerical designations be used to augment current methods of sequence annotation. Because base counts and codon tables do not require revision as knowledge of function evolves, they are well-suited to act as cross-references, for example to identify redundant GenBank entries. These descriptors may be compared, in place of DNA sequences, to extract homologous genes from large databases. This approach permits rapid searching with good selectivity.

  20. EMdeCODE: a novel algorithm capable of reading words of epigenetic code to predict enhancers and retroviral integration sites and to identify H3R2me1 as a distinctive mark of coding versus non-coding genes

    PubMed Central

    Santoni, Federico Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Existence of some extra-genetic (epigenetic) codes has been postulated since the discovery of the primary genetic code. Evident effects of histone post-translational modifications or DNA methylation over the efficiency and the regulation of DNA processes are supporting this postulation. EMdeCODE is an original algorithm that approximate the genomic distribution of given DNA features (e.g. promoter, enhancer, viral integration) by identifying relevant ChIPSeq profiles of post-translational histone marks or DNA binding proteins and combining them in a supermark. EMdeCODE kernel is essentially a two-step procedure: (i) an expectation-maximization process calculates the mixture of epigenetic factors that maximize the Sensitivity (recall) of the association with the feature under study; (ii) the approximated density is then recursively trimmed with respect to a control dataset to increase the precision by reducing the number of false positives. EMdeCODE densities improve significantly the prediction of enhancer loci and retroviral integration sites with respect to previous methods. Importantly, it can also be used to extract distinctive factors between two arbitrary conditions. Indeed EMdeCODE identifies unexpected epigenetic profiles specific for coding versus non-coding RNA, pointing towards a new role for H3R2me1 in coding regions. PMID:23234700

  1. Exons, Introns, and DNA Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlon, Enrico; Malki, Mehdi Lejard; Blossey, Ralf

    2005-05-01

    The genes of eukaryotes are characterized by protein coding fragments, the exons, interrupted by introns, i.e., stretches of DNA which do not carry useful information for protein synthesis. We have analyzed the melting behavior of randomly selected human cDNA sequences obtained from genomic DNA by removing all introns. A clear correspondence is observed between exons and melting domains. This finding may provide new insights into the physical mechanisms underlying the evolution of genes.

  2. Revisiting the Physico-Chemical Hypothesis of Code Origin: An Analysis Based on Code-Sequence Coevolution in a Finite Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandhu, Ashutosh Vishwa; Aggarwal, Neha; Sengupta, Supratim

    2013-12-01

    The origin of the genetic code marked a major transition from a plausible RNA world to the world of DNA and proteins and is an important milestone in our understanding of the origin of life. We examine the efficacy of the physico-chemical hypothesis of code origin by carrying out simulations of code-sequence coevolution in finite populations in stages, leading first to the emergence of ten amino acid code(s) and subsequently to 14 amino acid code(s). We explore two different scenarios of primordial code evolution. In one scenario, competition occurs between populations of equilibrated code-sequence sets while in another scenario; new codes compete with existing codes as they are gradually introduced into the population with a finite probability. In either case, we find that natural selection between competing codes distinguished by differences in the degree of physico-chemical optimization is unable to explain the structure of the standard genetic code. The code whose structure is most consistent with the standard genetic code is often not among the codes that have a high fixation probability. However, we find that the composition of the code population affects the code fixation probability. A physico-chemically optimized code gets fixed with a significantly higher probability if it competes against a set of randomly generated codes. Our results suggest that physico-chemical optimization may not be the sole driving force in ensuring the emergence of the standard genetic code.

  3. Identification and Phylogenetic analysis of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field samples by 16S rDNA gene cloning and sequencing.

    PubMed

    Leu, J Y; McGovern-Traa, C P; Porter, A J; Harris, W J; Hamilton, W A

    1998-06-01

    Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been recognized as an important source of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in hydrocarbon reservoirs and in production systems. Four thermophilic SRB enrichment cultures from three different oil field samples (sandstone core, drilling mud, and production water) were investigated using 16S rDNA sequence comparative analysis. In total, 15 different clones were identified. We found spore-forming, low G+C content, thermophilic, sulfate-reducing Desulfotomaculum-related sequences present in all oil field samples, and additionally a clone originating from sandstone core which was assigned to the mesophilic Desulfomicrobium group. Furthermore, three clones related to Gram-positive, non-sulfate-reducing Thermoanaerobacter species and four clones close to Clostridium thermocopriae were found in enrichment cultures from sandstone core and from production water, respectively. In addition, the deeply rooted lineage of two of the clones suggested previously undescribed, Gram-positive, low G+C content, thermophilic, obligately anaerobic bacteria present in production water. Such thermophilic, non-sulfate-reducing microorganisms may play an important ecological role alongside SRB in oil field environments.

  4. Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA

    PubMed Central

    Irobalieva, Rossitza N.; Fogg, Jonathan M.; Catanese, Daniel J.; Sutthibutpong, Thana; Chen, Muyuan; Barker, Anna K.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Harris, Sarah A.; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    By regulating access to the genetic code, DNA supercoiling strongly affects DNA metabolism. Despite its importance, however, much about supercoiled DNA (positively supercoiled DNA, in particular) remains unknown. Here we use electron cryo-tomography together with biochemical analyses to investigate structures of individual purified DNA minicircle topoisomers with defined degrees of supercoiling. Our results reveal that each topoisomer, negative or positive, adopts a unique and surprisingly wide distribution of three-dimensional conformations. Moreover, we uncover striking differences in how the topoisomers handle torsional stress. As negative supercoiling increases, bases are increasingly exposed. Beyond a sharp supercoiling threshold, we also detect exposed bases in positively supercoiled DNA. Molecular dynamics simulations independently confirm the conformational heterogeneity and provide atomistic insight into the flexibility of supercoiled DNA. Our integrated approach reveals the three-dimensional structures of DNA that are essential for its function. PMID:26455586

  5. Honesty and Honor Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald; Trevino, Linda Klebe

    2002-01-01

    Explores the rise in student cheating and evidence that students cheat less often at schools with an honor code. Discusses effective use of such codes and creation of a peer culture that condemns dishonesty. (EV)

  6. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  7. DIANE multiparticle transport code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillaud, M.; Lemaire, S.; Ménard, S.; Rathouit, P.; Ribes, J. C.; Riz, D.

    2014-06-01

    DIANE is the general Monte Carlo code developed at CEA-DAM. DIANE is a 3D multiparticle multigroup code. DIANE includes automated biasing techniques and is optimized for massive parallel calculations.

  8. Genome Calligrapher: A Web Tool for Refactoring Bacterial Genome Sequences for de Novo DNA Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Christen, Matthias; Deutsch, Samuel; Christen, Beat

    2015-08-21

    Recent advances in synthetic biology have resulted in an increasing demand for the de novo synthesis of large-scale DNA constructs. Any process improvement that enables fast and cost-effective streamlining of digitized genetic information into fabricable DNA sequences holds great promise to study, mine, and engineer genomes. Here, we present Genome Calligrapher, a computer-aided design web tool intended for whole genome refactoring of bacterial chromosomes for de novo DNA synthesis. By applying a neutral recoding algorithm, Genome Calligrapher optimizes GC content and removes obstructive DNA features known to interfere with the synthesis of double-stranded DNA and the higher order assembly into large DNA constructs. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis revealed that synthesis constraints are prevalent among bacterial genomes. However, a low level of codon replacement is sufficient for refactoring bacterial genomes into easy-to-synthesize DNA sequences. To test the algorithm, 168 kb of synthetic DNA comprising approximately 20 percent of the synthetic essential genome of the cell-cycle bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was streamlined and then ordered from a commercial supplier of low-cost de novo DNA synthesis. The successful assembly into eight 20 kb segments indicates that Genome Calligrapher algorithm can be efficiently used to refactor difficult-to-synthesize DNA. Genome Calligrapher is broadly applicable to recode biosynthetic pathways, DNA sequences, and whole bacterial genomes, thus offering new opportunities to use synthetic biology tools to explore the functionality of microbial diversity. The Genome Calligrapher web tool can be accessed at https://christenlab.ethz.ch/GenomeCalligrapher  .

  9. Improving the performance of true single molecule sequencing for ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Second-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized our ability to recover genetic information from the past, allowing the characterization of the first complete genomes from past individuals and extinct species. Recently, third generation Helicos sequencing platforms, which perform true Single-Molecule DNA Sequencing (tSMS), have shown great potential for sequencing DNA molecules from Pleistocene fossils. Here, we aim at improving even further the performance of tSMS for ancient DNA by testing two novel tSMS template preparation methods for Pleistocene bone fossils, namely oligonucleotide spiking and treatment with DNA phosphatase. Results We found that a significantly larger fraction of the horse genome could be covered following oligonucleotide spiking however not reproducibly and at the cost of extra post-sequencing filtering procedures and skewed %GC content. In contrast, we showed that treating ancient DNA extracts with DNA phosphatase improved the amount of endogenous sequence information recovered per sequencing channel by up to 3.3-fold, while still providing molecular signatures of endogenous ancient DNA damage, including cytosine deamination and fragmentation by depurination. Additionally, we confirmed the existence of molecular preservation niches in large bone crystals from which DNA could be preferentially extracted. Conclusions We propose DNA phosphatase treatment as a mechanism to increase sequence coverage of ancient genomes when using Helicos tSMS as a sequencing platform. Together with mild denaturation temperatures that favor access to endogenous ancient templates over modern DNA contaminants, this simple preparation procedure can improve overall Helicos tSMS performance when damaged DNA templates are targeted. PMID:22574620

  10. Diversity and distribution of single-stranded DNA phages in the North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Kimberly P; Parsons, Rachel; Symonds, Erin M; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of marine phages is highly biased toward double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages; however, recent metagenomic surveys have also identified single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) phages in the oceans. Here, we describe two complete ssDNA phage genomes that were reconstructed from a viral metagenome from 80 m depth at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site in the northwestern Sargasso Sea and examine their spatial and temporal distributions. Both genomes (SARssφ1 and SARssφ2) exhibited similarity to known phages of the Microviridae family in terms of size, GC content, genome organization and protein sequence. PCR amplification of the replication initiation protein (Rep) gene revealed narrow and distinct depth distributions for the newly described ssDNA phages within the upper 200 m of the water column at the BATS site. Comparison of Rep gene sequences obtained from the BATS site over time revealed changes in the diversity of ssDNA phages over monthly time scales, although some nearly identical sequences were recovered from samples collected 4 years apart. Examination of ssDNA phage diversity along transects through the North Atlantic Ocean revealed a positive correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance between sampling sites. Together, the data suggest fundamental differences between the distribution of these ssDNA phages and the distribution of known marine dsDNA phages, possibly because of differences in host range, host distribution, virion stability, or viral evolution mechanisms and rates. Future work needs to elucidate the host ranges for oceanic ssDNA phages and determine their ecological roles in the marine ecosystem. PMID:21124487

  11. Experimental conditions improving in-solution target enrichment for ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Dávalos, Diana I; Llamas, Bastien; Gaunitz, Charleen; Fages, Antoine; Gamba, Cristina; Soubrier, Julien; Librado, Pablo; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Pruvost, Mélanie; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Scheu, Amelie; Beneke, Norbert; Ludwig, Arne; Cooper, Alan; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-08-27

    High-throughput sequencing has dramatically fostered ancient DNA research in recent years. Shotgun sequencing, however, does not necessarily appear as the best-suited approach due to the extensive contamination of samples with exogenous environmental microbial DNA. DNA capture-enrichment methods represent cost-effective alternatives that increase the sequencing focus on the endogenous fraction, whether it is from mitochondrial or nuclear genomes, or parts thereof. Here, we explored experimental parameters that could impact the efficacy of MYbaits in-solution capture assays of ~5000 nuclear loci or the whole genome. We found that varying quantities of the starting probes had only moderate effect on capture outcomes. Starting DNA, probe tiling, the hybridization temperature and the proportion of endogenous DNA all affected the assay, however. Additionally, probe features such as their GC content, number of CpG dinucleotides, sequence complexity and entropy and self-annealing properties need to be carefully addressed during the design stage of the capture assay. The experimental conditions and probe molecular features identified in this study will improve the recovery of genetic information extracted from degraded and ancient remains.

  12. Facile, High Quality Sequencing of Bacterial Genomes from Small Amounts of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Vuyisich, Momchilo; Arefin, Ayesha; Davenport, Karen; Feng, Shihai; Gleasner, Cheryl; McMurry, Kim; Parson-Quintana, Beverly; Price, Jennifer; Scholz, Matthew; Chain, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing bacterial genomes has traditionally required large amounts of genomic DNA (~1 μg). There have been few studies to determine the effects of the input DNA amount or library preparation method on the quality of sequencing data. Several new commercially available library preparation methods enable shotgun sequencing from as little as 1 ng of input DNA. In this study, we evaluated the NEBNext Ultra library preparation reagents for sequencing bacterial genomes. We have evaluated the utility of NEBNext Ultra for resequencing and de novo assembly of four bacterial genomes and compared its performance with the TruSeq library preparation kit. The NEBNext Ultra reagents enable high quality resequencing and de novo assembly of a variety of bacterial genomes when using 100 ng of input genomic DNA. For the two most challenging genomes (Burkholderia spp.), which have the highest GC content and are the longest, we also show that the quality of both resequencing and de novo assembly is not decreased when only 10 ng of input genomic DNA is used. PMID:25478564

  13. EMF wire code research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    1993-11-01

    This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

  14. Universal Noiseless Coding Subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlutsmeyer, A. P.; Rice, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Software package consists of FORTRAN subroutines that perform universal noiseless coding and decoding of integer and binary data strings. Purpose of this type of coding to achieve data compression in sense that coded data represents original data perfectly (noiselessly) while taking fewer bits to do so. Routines universal because they apply to virtually any "real-world" data source.

  15. Genetic coding and gene expression - new Quadruplet genetic coding model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar Singh, Rama

    2012-07-01

    Successful demonstration of human genome project has opened the door not only for developing personalized medicine and cure for genetic diseases, but it may also answer the complex and difficult question of the origin of life. It may lead to making 21st century, a century of Biological Sciences as well. Based on the central dogma of Biology, genetic codons in conjunction with tRNA play a key role in translating the RNA bases forming sequence of amino acids leading to a synthesized protein. This is the most critical step in synthesizing the right protein needed for personalized medicine and curing genetic diseases. So far, only triplet codons involving three bases of RNA, transcribed from DNA bases, have been used. Since this approach has several inconsistencies and limitations, even the promise of personalized medicine has not been realized. The new Quadruplet genetic coding model proposed and developed here involves all four RNA bases which in conjunction with tRNA will synthesize the right protein. The transcription and translation process used will be the same, but the Quadruplet codons will help overcome most of the inconsistencies and limitations of the triplet codes. Details of this new Quadruplet genetic coding model and its subsequent potential applications including relevance to the origin of life will be presented.

  16. Mapping Local Codes to Read Codes.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Wilfred; Galloway, James; Hall, Christopher; Ghattas, Mikhail; Tramma, Leandro; Nind, Thomas; Donnelly, Louise; Jefferson, Emily; Doney, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Legacy laboratory test codes make it difficult to use clinical datasets for meaningful translational research, where populations are followed for disease risk and outcomes over many years. The Health Informatics Centre (HIC) at the University of Dundee hosts continuous biochemistry data from the clinical laboratories in Tayside and Fife dating back as far as 1987. However, the HIC-managed biochemistry dataset is coupled with incoherent sample types and unstandardised legacy local test codes, which increases the complexity of using the dataset for reasonable population health outcomes. The objective of this study was to map the legacy local test codes to the Scottish 5-byte Version 2 Read Codes using biochemistry data extracted from the repository of the Scottish Care Information (SCI) Store.

  17. Evaluation of the Gibbs Free Energy Changes and Melting Temperatures of DNA/DNA Duplexes Using Hybridization Enthalpy Calculated by Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Lomzov, Alexander A; Vorobjev, Yury N; Pyshnyi, Dmitrii V

    2015-12-10

    A molecular dynamics simulation approach was applied for the prediction of the thermal stability of oligonucleotide duplexes. It was shown that the enthalpy of the DNA/DNA complex formation could be calculated using this approach. We have studied the influence of various simulation parameters on the secondary structure and the hybridization enthalpy value of Dickerson-Drew dodecamer. The optimal simulation parameters for the most reliable prediction of the enthalpy values were determined. The thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy and entropy changes) of a duplex formation were obtained experimentally for 305 oligonucleotides of various lengths and GC-content. The resulting database was studied with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation using the optimized simulation parameters. Gibbs free energy changes and the melting temperatures were evaluated using the experimental correlation between enthalpy and entropy changes of the duplex formation and the enthalpy values calculated by the MD simulation. The average errors in the predictions of enthalpy, the Gibbs free energy change, and the melting temperature of oligonucleotide complexes were 11%, 10%, and 4.4 °C, respectively. We have shown that the molecular dynamics simulation gives a possibility to calculate the thermal stability of native DNA/DNA complexes a priori with an unexpectedly high accuracy.

  18. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  19. Gene and genon concept: coding versus regulation

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    We analyse here the definition of the gene in order to distinguish, on the basis of modern insight in molecular biology, what the gene is coding for, namely a specific polypeptide, and how its expression is realized and controlled. Before the coding role of the DNA was discovered, a gene was identified with a specific phenotypic trait, from Mendel through Morgan up to Benzer. Subsequently, however, molecular biologists ventured to define a gene at the level of the DNA sequence in terms of coding. As is becoming ever more evident, the relations between information stored at DNA level and functional products are very intricate, and the regulatory aspects are as important and essential as the information coding for products. This approach led, thus, to a conceptual hybrid that confused coding, regulation and functional aspects. In this essay, we develop a definition of the gene that once again starts from the functional aspect. A cellular function can be represented by a polypeptide or an RNA. In the case of the polypeptide, its biochemical identity is determined by the mRNA prior to translation, and that is where we locate the gene. The steps from specific, but possibly separated sequence fragments at DNA level to that final mRNA then can be analysed in terms of regulation. For that purpose, we coin the new term “genon”. In that manner, we can clearly separate product and regulative information while keeping the fundamental relation between coding and function without the need to introduce a conceptual hybrid. In mRNA, the program regulating the expression of a gene is superimposed onto and added to the coding sequence in cis - we call it the genon. The complementary external control of a given mRNA by trans-acting factors is incorporated in its transgenon. A consequence of this definition is that, in eukaryotes, the gene is, in most cases, not yet present at DNA level. Rather, it is assembled by RNA processing, including differential splicing, from various

  20. Transcription of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Tabak, H F; Grivell, L A; Borst, P

    1983-01-01

    While mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the simplest DNA in nature, coding for rRNAs and tRNAs, results of DNA sequence, and transcript analysis have demonstrated that both the synthesis and processing of mitochondrial RNAs involve remarkably intricate events. At one extreme, genes in animal mtDNAs are tightly packed, both DNA strands are completely transcribed (symmetric transcription), and the appearance of specific mRNAs is entirely dependent on processing at sites signalled by the sequences of the tRNAs, which abut virtually every gene. At the other extreme, gene organization in yeast (Saccharomyces) is anything but compact, with long stretches of AT-rich DNA interspaced between coding sequences and no obvious logic to the order of genes. Transcription is asymmetric and several RNAs are initiated de novo. Nevertheless, extensive RNA processing occurs due largely to the presence of split genes. RNA splicing is complex, is controlled by both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and in some cases is accompanied by the formation of RNAs that behave as covalently closed circles. The present article reviews current knowledge of mitochondrial transcription and RNA processing in relation to possible mechanisms for the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression.

  1. Tissue-Specific Evolution of Protein Coding Genes in Human and Mouse.

    PubMed

    Kryuchkova-Mostacci, Nadezda; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding genes evolve at different rates, and the influence of different parameters, from gene size to expression level, has been extensively studied. While in yeast gene expression level is the major causal factor of gene evolutionary rate, the situation is more complex in animals. Here we investigate these relations further, especially taking in account gene expression in different organs as well as indirect correlations between parameters. We used RNA-seq data from two large datasets, covering 22 mouse tissues and 27 human tissues. Over all tissues, evolutionary rate only correlates weakly with levels and breadth of expression. The strongest explanatory factors of purifying selection are GC content, expression in many developmental stages, and expression in brain tissues. While the main component of evolutionary rate is purifying selection, we also find tissue-specific patterns for sites under neutral evolution and for positive selection. We observe fast evolution of genes expressed in testis, but also in other tissues, notably liver, which are explained by weak purifying selection rather than by positive selection.

  2. XSOR codes users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

  3. DLLExternalCode

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Flach, Frank Smith

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  4. Defeating the coding monsters.

    PubMed

    Colt, Ross

    2007-02-01

    Accuracy in coding is rapidly becoming a required skill for military health care providers. Clinic staffing, equipment purchase decisions, and even reimbursement will soon be based on the coding data that we provide. Learning the complicated myriad of rules to code accurately can seem overwhelming. However, the majority of clinic visits in a typical outpatient clinic generally fall into two major evaluation and management codes, 99213 and 99214. If health care providers can learn the rules required to code a 99214 visit, then this will provide a 90% solution that can enable them to accurately code the majority of their clinic visits. This article demonstrates a step-by-step method to code a 99214 visit, by viewing each of the three requirements as a monster to be defeated.

  5. Free energy estimation of short DNA duplex hybridizations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Estimation of DNA duplex hybridization free energy is widely used for predicting cross-hybridizations in DNA computing and microarray experiments. A number of software programs based on different methods and parametrizations are available for the theoretical estimation of duplex free energies. However, significant differences in free energy values are sometimes observed among estimations obtained with various methods, thus being difficult to decide what value is the accurate one. Results We present in this study a quantitative comparison of the similarities and differences among four published DNA/DNA duplex free energy calculation methods and an extended Nearest-Neighbour Model for perfect matches based on triplet interactions. The comparison was performed on a benchmark data set with 695 pairs of short oligos that we collected and manually curated from 29 publications. Sequence lengths range from 4 to 30 nucleotides and span a large GC-content percentage range. For perfect matches, we propose an extension of the Nearest-Neighbour Model that matches or exceeds the performance of the existing ones, both in terms of correlations and root mean squared errors. The proposed model was trained on experimental data with temperature, sodium and sequence concentration characteristics that span a wide range of values, thus conferring the model a higher power of generalization when used for free energy estimations of DNA duplexes under non-standard experimental conditions. Conclusions Based on our preliminary results, we conclude that no statistically significant differences exist among free energy approximations obtained with 4 publicly available and widely used programs, when benchmarked against a collection of 695 pairs of short oligos collected and curated by the authors of this work based on 29 publications. The extended Nearest-Neighbour Model based on triplet interactions presented in this work is capable of performing accurate estimations of free energies

  6. Refinement of the Diatom Episome Maintenance Sequence and Improvement of Conjugation-Based DNA Delivery Methods

    PubMed Central

    Diner, Rachel E.; Bielinski, Vincent A.; Dupont, Christopher L.; Allen, Andrew E.; Weyman, Philip D.

    2016-01-01

    Conjugation of episomal plasmids from bacteria to diatoms advances diatom genetic manipulation by simplifying transgene delivery and providing a stable and consistent gene expression platform. To reach its full potential, this nascent technology requires new optimized expression vectors and a deeper understanding of episome maintenance. Here, we present the development of an additional diatom vector (pPtPBR1), based on the parent plasmid pBR322, to add a plasmid maintained at medium copy number in Escherichia coli to the diatom genetic toolkit. Using this new vector, we evaluated the contribution of individual yeast DNA elements comprising the 1.4-kb tripartite CEN6-ARSH4-HIS3 sequence that enables episome maintenance in Phaeodactylum tricornutum. While various combinations of these individual elements enable efficient conjugation and high exconjugant yield in P. tricornutum, individual elements alone do not. Conjugation of episomes containing CEN6-ARSH4 and a small sequence from the low GC content 3′ end of HIS3 produced the highest number of diatom exconjugant colonies, resulting in a smaller and more efficient vector design. Our findings suggest that the CEN6 and ARSH4 sequences function differently in yeast and diatoms, and that low GC content regions of greater than ~500 bp are a potential indicator of a functional diatom episome maintenance sequence. Additionally, we have developed improvements to the conjugation protocol including a high-throughput option utilizing 12-well plates and plating methods that improve exconjugant yield and reduce time and materials required for the conjugation protocol. The data presented offer additional information regarding the mechanism by which the yeast-derived sequence enables diatom episome maintenance and demonstrate options for flexible vector design. PMID:27551676

  7. The place of 'codes' in nonlinear neurodynamics.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Walter J

    2007-01-01

    A key problem in cognitive science is to explain the neural mechanisms of the rapid transposition between stimulus energy and abstract concept--between the specific and the generic--in both material and conceptual aspects, not between neural and psychic aspects. Three approaches by researchers to a solution in terms of neural codes are considered. Materialists seek rate and frequency codes in the interspike intervals of trains of action potentials induced by stimuli and carried by topologically organized axonal lines. Cognitivists refer to the symbol grounding problem and search for symbolic codes in firings of hierarchically organized feature-detector neurons of phonemes, lines, odorants, pressures, etc., that object-detector neurons bind into representations of probabilities of stimulus occurrence. Dynamicists seek neural correlates of stimuli and associated behaviors in spatial patterns of oscillatory fields of dendritic activity that self-organize and evolve as trajectories through high-dimensional brain state space; the codes are landscapes of chaotic attractors. Unlike codes in DNA and the periodic table, these codes have neither alphabet nor syntax. They are epistemological metaphors required by experimentalists to measure neural activity and by engineers to model brain functions. Here I review the central neural mechanisms of olfaction as a paradigm for use of codes to explain how brains create cortical activities that mediate sensation, perception, comprehension, prediction, decision, and action or inaction.

  8. Do plant cell walls have a code?

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eveline Q P; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-12-01

    A code is a set of rules that establish correspondence between two worlds, signs (consisting of encrypted information) and meaning (of the decrypted message). A third element, the adaptor, connects both worlds, assigning meaning to a code. We propose that a Glycomic Code exists in plant cell walls where signs are represented by monosaccharides and phenylpropanoids and meaning is cell wall architecture with its highly complex association of polymers. Cell wall biosynthetic mechanisms, structure, architecture and properties are addressed according to Code Biology perspective, focusing on how they oppose to cell wall deconstruction. Cell wall hydrolysis is mainly focused as a mechanism of decryption of the Glycomic Code. Evidence for encoded information in cell wall polymers fine structure is highlighted and the implications of the existence of the Glycomic Code are discussed. Aspects related to fine structure are responsible for polysaccharide packing and polymer-polymer interactions, affecting the final cell wall architecture. The question whether polymers assembly within a wall display similar properties as other biological macromolecules (i.e. proteins, DNA, histones) is addressed, i.e. do they display a code?

  9. Putative mitochondrial polypeptides coded by expanded quadruplet codons, decoded by antisense tRNAs with unusual anticodons.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2012-11-01

    Weak triplet codon-anticodon interactions render ribosome-free translation unlikely. Some modern tRNAs read quadruplet codons (tetracodons), suggesting vestigial ribosome-free translation. Here, mitochondrial genomes are explored for tetracoded overlapping protein coding (tetra)genes. Occasional single tetracodons within regular mitochondrial genes coevolve positively/negatively with antisense tRNAs with predicted reduced/expanded anticodons (depending on taxon), suggesting complex tetra-decoding mechanisms. Transcripts of antisense tRNAs with unusual anticodons are more abundant than of homologues with regular anticodons. Assuming overlapping tetracoding with silent 4th tetracodon position, BLAST aligns 10 putative tetragenes spanning 17% of regular human mitochondrial protein coding tricodons with 14 GenBank proteins. Various tests including predicted peptide secondary structures, 3rd codon position (of the regular main frame of the protein coding gene) conservation against replicational deamination mutation gradients, and circular code usage (overlapping genes avoid using circular code codons) confirm tetracoding in these overlapping tetragenes with silent 4th position, but not for BLAST-predicted tetragenes assuming silent 2nd or 3rd positions. This converges with tetradecoding mechanisms that are more compatible with silent 4th, than at other, tetracodon positions. Tetracoding increases with (a) GC-contents, perhaps conserved or switched on in high temperature conditions; (b) usage of theoretically predicted 'tessera' tetracodons; (c) 12s rRNA stability; and d) antisense tRNA numbers with predicted expanded anticodons. Most detected tetragenes are not evolutionarily conserved, apparently reflect specific, transient adaptations. Tetracoding increases with mammal longevity.

  10. Genomics dataset on unclassified published organism (patent US 7547531).

    PubMed

    Khan Shawan, Mohammad Mahfuz Ali; Hasan, Md Ashraful; Hossain, Md Mozammel; Hasan, Md Mahmudul; Parvin, Afroza; Akter, Salina; Uddin, Kazi Rasel; Banik, Subrata; Morshed, Mahbubul; Rahman, Md Nazibur; Rahman, S M Badier

    2016-12-01

    Nucleotide (DNA) sequence analysis provides important clues regarding the characteristics and taxonomic position of an organism. With the intention that, DNA sequence analysis is very crucial to learn about hierarchical classification of that particular organism. This dataset (patent US 7547531) is chosen to simplify all the complex raw data buried in undisclosed DNA sequences which help to open doors for new collaborations. In this data, a total of 48 unidentified DNA sequences from patent US 7547531 were selected and their complete sequences were retrieved from NCBI BioSample database. Quick response (QR) code of those DNA sequences was constructed by DNA BarID tool. QR code is useful for the identification and comparison of isolates with other organisms. AT/GC content of the DNA sequences was determined using ENDMEMO GC Content Calculator, which indicates their stability at different temperature. The highest GC content was observed in GP445188 (62.5%) which was followed by GP445198 (61.8%) and GP445189 (59.44%), while lowest was in GP445178 (24.39%). In addition, New England BioLabs (NEB) database was used to identify cleavage code indicating the 5, 3 and blunt end and enzyme code indicating the methylation site of the DNA sequences was also shown. These data will be helpful for the construction of the organisms' hierarchical classification, determination of their phylogenetic and taxonomic position and revelation of their molecular characteristics.

  11. Mechanisms of immunity to Leishmania major infection in mice: the contribution of DNA vaccines coding for two novel sets of histones (H2A-H2B or H3-H4).

    PubMed

    Carrión, Javier

    2011-09-01

    The immune phenotype conferred by two different sets of histone genes (H2A-H2B or H3-H4) was assessed. BALB/c mice vaccinated with pcDNA3H2AH2B succumbed to progressive cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL), whereas vaccination with pcDNA3H3H4 resulted in partial resistance to Leishmania major challenge associated with the development of mixed T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2-type response and a reduction in parasite-specific Treg cells number at the site of infection. Therefore, the presence of histones H3 and H4 may be considered essential in the development of vaccine strategies against CL based on the Leishmania histones.

  12. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  13. [The value of low-molecular-weight DNA of blood plasma in the diagnostic of the patological processes of different genesis].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, I N; Zinkin, V N

    2013-01-01

    The low-molecular-weight DNA appears in blood plasma of irradiated rats, and its content correlates directly with the irradiation dose. Cloning has shown, that enrichment of low-molecular-weight DNA with G+C content and features of its nucleotide sequences point to its ability to form rather stable nucleosomes. DNA obtained after irradiation of rats with principally different doses 8 and 100 Gy differed not only quantitatively, but also by content of the dinucleotides CpG and CpT; this suggests their origin from different sites of genome. For the first time it has been shown that exposure to low-frequency noise results in an increase of the contents of blood plasma low-molecular-weight DNA. In stroke patients blood concentrations of this DNA increased 3 days after the beginning of the acute period, and dynamics of its excretion differs in ischemic and hemorrhagic forms; in the case of ischemia low-molecular-weight DNA appears in cerebrospinal fluid. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the state of remission is characterized by the decline of the level of low-molecular-weight DNA in the blood plasma unlike in the case of the chronic nonobstructive bronchitis. The clear dependence between formation and special features of the low-molecular-weight DNA fraction in blood plasma makes it possible to consider the low-molecular fraction as an universal index of apoptosis, which allows to distinguish basically different conditions of the body.

  14. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  15. More box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new investigation shows that, starting from the BCH (21,15;3) code represented as a 7 x 3 matrix and adding a row and column to add even parity, one obtains an 8 x 4 matrix (32,15;8) code. An additional dimension is obtained by specifying odd parity on the rows and even parity on the columns, i.e., adjoining to the 8 x 4 matrix, the matrix, which is zero except for the fourth column (of all ones). Furthermore, any seven rows and three columns will form the BCH (21,15;3) code. This box code has the same weight structure as the quadratic residue and BCH codes of the same dimensions. Whether there exists an algebraic isomorphism to either code is as yet unknown.

  16. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  17. Industrial Computer Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  18. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  19. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  20. Topological subsystem codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bombin, H.

    2010-03-15

    We introduce a family of two-dimensional (2D) topological subsystem quantum error-correcting codes. The gauge group is generated by two-local Pauli operators, so that two-local measurements are enough to recover the error syndrome. We study the computational power of code deformation in these codes and show that boundaries cannot be introduced in the usual way. In addition, we give a general mapping connecting suitable classical statistical mechanical models to optimal error correction in subsystem stabilizer codes that suffer from depolarizing noise.

  1. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Domino, Stefan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Gallegos, Carlos

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a code obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.

  2. Transonic airfoil codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garabedian, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Computer codes for the design and analysis of transonic airfoils are considered. The design code relies on the method of complex characteristics in the hodograph plane to construct shockless airfoil. The analysis code uses artificial viscosity to calculate flows with weak shock waves at off-design conditions. Comparisons with experiments show that an excellent simulation of two dimensional wind tunnel tests is obtained. The codes have been widely adopted by the aircraft industry as a tool for the development of supercritical wing technology.

  3. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions. PMID:26999741

  4. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Pengyu; Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions.

  5. Dress Codes for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

  6. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  7. Synthesizing Certified Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  8. Coding Acoustic Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Xie, Boyang; Tang, Kun; Cheng, Hua; Liu, Zhengyou; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Coding acoustic metasurfaces can combine simple logical bits to acquire sophisticated functions in wave control. The acoustic logical bits can achieve a phase difference of exactly π and a perfect match of the amplitudes for the transmitted waves. By programming the coding sequences, acoustic metasurfaces with various functions, including creating peculiar antenna patterns and waves focusing, have been demonstrated.

  9. Computerized mega code recording.

    PubMed

    Burt, T W; Bock, H C

    1988-04-01

    A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses.

  10. Pseudonoise code tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A delay-locked loop is presented for tracking a pseudonoise (PN) reference code in an incoming communication signal. The loop is less sensitive to gain imbalances, which can otherwise introduce timing errors in the PN reference code formed by the loop.

  11. Evolving genetic code

    PubMed Central

    OHAMA, Takeshi; INAGAKI, Yuji; BESSHO, Yoshitaka; OSAWA, Syozo

    2008-01-01

    In 1985, we reported that a bacterium, Mycoplasma capricolum, used a deviant genetic code, namely UGA, a “universal” stop codon, was read as tryptophan. This finding, together with the deviant nuclear genetic codes in not a few organisms and a number of mitochondria, shows that the genetic code is not universal, and is in a state of evolution. To account for the changes in codon meanings, we proposed the codon capture theory stating that all the code changes are non-disruptive without accompanied changes of amino acid sequences of proteins. Supporting evidence for the theory is presented in this review. A possible evolutionary process from the ancient to the present-day genetic code is also discussed. PMID:18941287

  12. Combustion chamber analysis code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  13. The PARTRAC code: Status and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, Werner; Kundrat, Pavel

    Biophysical modeling is of particular value for predictions of radiation effects due to manned space missions. PARTRAC is an established tool for Monte Carlo-based simulations of radiation track structures, damage induction in cellular DNA and its repair [1]. Dedicated modules describe interactions of ionizing particles with the traversed medium, the production and reactions of reactive species, and score DNA damage determined by overlapping track structures with multi-scale chromatin models. The DNA repair module describes the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) via the non-homologous end-joining pathway; the code explicitly simulates the spatial mobility of individual DNA ends in parallel with their processing by major repair enzymes [2]. To simulate the yields and kinetics of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations, the repair module has been extended by tracking the information on the chromosome origin of ligated fragments as well as the presence of centromeres [3]. PARTRAC calculations have been benchmarked against experimental data on various biological endpoints induced by photon and ion irradiation. The calculated DNA fragment distributions after photon and ion irradiation reproduce corresponding experimental data and their dose- and LET-dependence. However, in particular for high-LET radiation many short DNA fragments are predicted below the detection limits of the measurements, so that the experiments significantly underestimate DSB yields by high-LET radiation [4]. The DNA repair module correctly describes the LET-dependent repair kinetics after (60) Co gamma-rays and different N-ion radiation qualities [2]. First calculations on the induction of chromosome aberrations have overestimated the absolute yields of dicentrics, but correctly reproduced their relative dose-dependence and the difference between gamma- and alpha particle irradiation [3]. Recent developments of the PARTRAC code include a model of hetero- vs euchromatin structures to enable

  14. Stimulation of IgY responses in gene gun immunized laying hens by combined administration of vector DNA coding for the target antigen Botulinum toxin A1 and for avian cytokine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Niederstadt, Lars; Hohn, Oliver; Dorner, Brigitte G; Schade, Rüdiger; Bannert, Norbert

    2012-08-31

    DNA immunization is a convenient and effective way of inducing a specific antibody response. In mammals, co-administration of vectors encoding immunostimulatory cytokines can enhance the humoral response resulting in elevated antibody titers. We therefore set out to investigate the effect using avian interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and avian interleukin 6 (IL-6) as genetic adjuvants when immunizing laying hens. A BoNT A1 holotoxoid DNA immunogen carrying two inactivating mutations was evaluated for its ability to induce a specific and sustained IgY antibody response. Both the holotoxoid and the cytokine sequences were codon-optimized. In vitro, the proteins were efficiently expressed in transfected HEK 293T cells and the cytokines were secreted into the culture supernatants. Whereas eggs from hens immunized via gene gun using a prime boost strategy showed no differences in their total IgY content, the specific αBoNT A1 response was slightly elevated up to 1.4× by the IL-1β adjuvant vector and increased by 3.8× by the IL-6 vector. Finally, although hens receiving the IL-1β adjuvant had laying capacities above the average, hens receiving the IL-6 adjuvant experienced laying problems.

  15. PCR amplification of GC-rich DNA regions using the nucleotide analog N4-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate.

    PubMed

    Flores-Juárez, Cyntia R; González-Jasso, Eva; Antaramian, Anaid; Pless, Reynaldo C

    2016-10-01

    GC-rich DNA regions were PCR-amplified with Taq DNA polymerase using either the canonical set of deoxynucleoside triphosphates or mixtures in which the dCTP had been partially or completely replaced by its N4-methylated analog, N4-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate (N4me-dCTP). In the case of a particularly GC-rich region (78.9% GC), the PCR mixtures containing N4me-dCTP produced the expected amplicon in high yield, while mixtures containing the canonical set of nucleotides produced numerous alternative amplicons. For another GC-rich DNA region (80.6% GC), the target amplicon was only generated by re-amplifying a gel-purified sample of the original amplicon with N4me-dCTP-containing PCR mixtures. In a direct PCR comparison on a highly GC-rich template, mixtures containing N4me-dCTP clearly performed better than did solutions containing the canonical set of nucleotides mixed with various organic additives (DMSO, betaine, or ethylene glycol) that have been reported to resolve or alleviate problems caused by secondary structures in the DNA. This nucleotide analog was also tested in PCR amplification of DNA regions with intermediate GC content, producing the expected amplicon in each case with a melting temperature (Tm) clearly below the Tm of the same amplicon synthesized exclusively with the canonical bases.

  16. Francis Crick, DNA, and the Central Dogma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olby, Robert

    1970-01-01

    This essay describes how Francis Crick, ex-physicist, entered the field of biology and discovered the structure of DNA. Emphasis is upon the double helix, the sequence hypothesis, the central dogma, and the genetic code. (VW)

  17. Sequencing and analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) and coding regions in the EcoR I fragment of the ribosomal DNA of the Japanese pond frog Rana nigromaculata.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Masayuki; Kato, Yoji; Kurabayashi, Atsushi

    2004-04-01

    The rDNA of eukaryotic organisms is transcribed as the 40S-45S rRNA precursor, and this precursor contains the following segments: 5' - ETS - 18S rRNA - ITS 1 - 5.8S rRNA - ITS 2 - 28S rRNA - 3'. In amphibians, the nucleotide sequences of the rRNA precursor have been completely determined in only two species of Xenopus. In the other amphibian species investigated so far, only the short nucleotide sequences of some rDNA fragments have been reported. We obtained a genomic clone containing the rDNA precursor from the Japanese pond frog Rana nigromaculata and analyzed its nucleotide sequence. The cloned genomic fragment was 4,806 bp long and included the 3'-terminus of 18S rRNA, ITS 1, 5.8S rRNA, ITS 2, and a long portion of 28S rRNA. A comparison of nucleotide sequences among Rana, the two species of Xenopus, and human revealed the following: (1) The 3'-terminus of 18S rRNA and the complete 5.8S rRNA were highly conserved among these four taxa. (2) The regions corresponding to the stem and loop of the secondary structure in 28S rRNA were conserved between Xenopus and Rana, but the rate of substitutions in the loop was higher than that in the stem. Many of the human loop regions had large insertions not seen in amphibians. (3) Two ITS regions had highly diverged sequences that made it difficult to compare the sequences not only between human and frogs, but also between Xenopus and Rana. (4) The short tracts in the ITS regions were strictly conserved between the two Xenopus species, and there was a corresponding sequence for Rana. Our data on the nucleotide sequence of the rRNA precursor from the Japanese pond frog Rana nigromaculata were used to examine the potential usefulness of the rRNA genes and ITS regions for evolutionary studies on frogs, because the rRNA precursor contains both highly conserved regions and rapidly evolving regions.

  18. Structural analysis of the dnaA and dnaN genes of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, H; Kimura, M; Nagata, T; Sakakibara, Y

    1984-05-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the entire region containing the Escherichia coli dnaA and dnaN genes was determined. Base substitutions by such mutations as dnaA46, dnaA167, dnaN59, and dnaN806 were also identified. Analyses of coding frames, the mutational base substitutions, and other data indicate that dnaN follows dnaA, both have the same orientation, and are separated by only 4 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence specifies Mrs and isoelectric points consistent with those of the previously identified gene products. The transcriptional initiation site of the dnaA gene was assigned by analysis of in vitro RNA products. Examination of the intercistronic sequence and analysis of in vitro transcription supported the notion that the dnaA and dnaN genes constitute a single operon.

  19. Pyramid image codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.

  20. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  1. Embedded foveation image coding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Bovik, A C

    2001-01-01

    The human visual system (HVS) is highly space-variant in sampling, coding, processing, and understanding. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. By taking advantage of this fact, it is possible to remove considerable high-frequency information redundancy from the peripheral regions and still reconstruct a perceptually good quality image. Great success has been obtained previously by a class of embedded wavelet image coding algorithms, such as the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) and the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithms. Embedded wavelet coding not only provides very good compression performance, but also has the property that the bitstream can be truncated at any point and still be decoded to recreate a reasonably good quality image. In this paper, we propose an embedded foveation image coding (EFIC) algorithm, which orders the encoded bitstream to optimize foveated visual quality at arbitrary bit-rates. A foveation-based image quality metric, namely, foveated wavelet image quality index (FWQI), plays an important role in the EFIC system. We also developed a modified SPIHT algorithm to improve the coding efficiency. Experiments show that EFIC integrates foveation filtering with foveated image coding and demonstrates very good coding performance and scalability in terms of foveated image quality measurement.

  2. Geant4-DNA simulations using complex DNA geometries generated by the DnaFabric tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meylan, S.; Vimont, U.; Incerti, S.; Clairand, I.; Villagrasa, C.

    2016-07-01

    Several DNA representations are used to study radio-induced complex DNA damages depending on the approach and the required level of granularity. Among all approaches, the mechanistic one requires the most resolved DNA models that can go down to atomistic DNA descriptions. The complexity of such DNA models make them hard to modify and adapt in order to take into account different biological conditions. The DnaFabric project was started to provide a tool to generate, visualise and modify such complex DNA models. In the current version of DnaFabric, the models can be exported to the Geant4 code to be used as targets in the Monte Carlo simulation. In this work, the project was used to generate two DNA fibre models corresponding to two DNA compaction levels representing the hetero and the euchromatin. The fibres were imported in a Geant4 application where computations were performed to estimate the influence of the DNA compaction on the amount of calculated DNA damage. The relative difference of the DNA damage computed in the two fibres for the same number of projectiles was found to be constant and equal to 1.3 for the considered primary particles (protons from 300 keV to 50 MeV). However, if only the tracks hitting the DNA target are taken into account, then the relative difference is more important for low energies and decreases to reach zero around 10 MeV. The computations were performed with models that contain up to 18,000 DNA nucleotide pairs. Nevertheless, DnaFabric will be extended to manipulate multi-scale models that go from the molecular to the cellular levels.

  3. DNA sequences encoding osteoinductive products

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.A.; Wozney, J.M.; Rosen, V.

    1991-05-07

    This patent describes an isolated DNA sequence encoding an osteoinductive protein the DNA sequence comprising a coding sequence. It comprises: nucleotide No.1 through nucleotide No.387, nucleotide No.356 through nucleotide No.1543, nucleotide $402 through nucleotide No.1626, naturally occurring allelic sequences and equivalent degenerative codon sequences and sequences which hybridize to any of sequences under stringent hybridization conditions; and encode a protein characterized by the ability to induce the formation of bone and/or cartilage.

  4. Specific amplification of the HLA-DRB4 gene from c-DNA. Complete coding sequence of the HLA alleles DRB4*0103101 and DRB4*01033.

    PubMed

    De Pablo, R; Solís, R; Balas, A; Vilches, C

    2002-01-01

    We present the complete coding sequence of the HLA alleles DRB4*0103101 and DRB4*01033 derived from the lymphoblastoid cell line G081, established from an individual of Spanish Gypsy ethnic origin. This cell was typed by PCR-SSP and reverse SSO as DRB4*0103101 but further characterization of the DRB4 gene by sequence-based typing (SBT) demonstrated heterozygosity at codon 78 (TAC, TAT). With the aim of confirming this polymorphism, RNA isolated from G081 was subjected to RT-PCR using primers designed to recognize specifically the 5' and 3' UT regions of HLA-DRB4 and the product was cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequences derived from seven clones confirmed the heterozygosity of G081, as they corresponded to two open reading frames of 801 nucleotides that matched either DRB4*0103101 or the recently described DRB4*01033, for which a partial sequence, spanning exons 2 and 3, has been reported. The phenotype of G081 (A*01; B*0702, *1302/1303; Cw*0602, *07; DRB1*0403, *0701; DRB4*0103101, *01033; DQB1*0202, *0302; DQA1*0201, *0301) is consistent with a proposed association of DRB4*01033 with DRB1*0403 and DQB1*0302.

  5. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlbier, John Greaton; Kelley, Timothy M.; Rockefeller, Gabriel M.; Calef, Matthew Thomas

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  6. Compressible Astrophysics Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, L.; Singer, M.

    2007-07-18

    This is an astrophysics simulation code involving a radiation diffusion module developed at LLNL coupled to compressible hydrodynamics and adaptive mesh infrastructure developed at LBNL. One intended application is to neutrino diffusion in core collapse supernovae.

  7. Seals Flow Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.

  8. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  9. Phylogenetic position of Phthiraptera (Insecta: Paraneoptera) and elevated rate of evolution in mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Johnson, Kevin P

    2003-10-01

    Phthiraptera (chewing and sucking lice) and Psocoptera (booklice and barklice) are closely related to each other and compose the monophyletic taxon Psocodea. However, there are two hypotheses regarding their phylogenetic relationship: (1) monophyletic Psocoptera is the sister group of Phthiraptera or (2) Psocoptera is paraphyletic, and Liposcelididae of Psocoptera is the sister group of Phthiraptera. Each hypothesis is supported morphologically and/or embryologically, and this problem has not yet been resolved. In the present study, the phylogenetic position of Phthiraptera was examined using mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA sequences, with three methods of phylogenetic analysis. Results of all analyses strongly supported the close relationship between Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae. Results of the present analyses also provided some insight into the elevated rate of evolution in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Phthiraptera. An elevated substitution rate of mtDNA appears to originate in the common ancestor of Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae, and directly corresponds to an increased G+C content. Therefore, the elevated substitution rate of mtDNA in Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae appears to be directional. A high diversity of 12S rDNA secondary structure was also observed in wide range of Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae, but these structures seem to have evolved independently in different clades.

  10. Evolutionary changes in the genetic code.

    PubMed

    Jukes, T H; Osawa, S

    1993-11-01

    1. The genetic code was thought to be identical ("universal") in all biological systems until 1981, when it was discovered that the coding system in mammalian mitochondria differed from the universal code in the use of codons AUA, UGA, AGA and AGG. 2. Many other differences have since been discovered, some in mitochondria of various phyla, others in bacteria, ciliated protozoa, algae and yeasts. 3. The original thesis that the code was universal and "frozen" depended on the precept that any mutational change in the code would be lethal, because it would produce widespread alterations in the amino acid sequences of proteins. Such changes would destroy protein function, and hence would be intolerable. 4. The objection was "by-passed" by nature. It is possible for a codon to disappear from mRNA molecules, often as a result of directional mutation pressure in DNA: thus all UGA stop codons can be replaced by UAA. 5. The missing UGA codon can then reappear when some UGG tryptophan codons mutate to UGA. The new UGA codons will be translated as tryptophan, as is the case in non-plant mitochondria and Mycoplasma. Therefore, no changes have taken place in the amino acid sequences of proteins. 6. Variations of this procedure have occurred, affecting various codons, and discoveries are still being made. The findings illustrate the evolutionary interplay between tRNA, release factors and codon-anticodon pairing.

  11. Non-coding RNAs: An Introduction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jennifer X; Rastetter, Raphael H; Wilhelm, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    For many years the main role of RNA, it addition to the housekeeping functions of for example tRNAs and rRNAs, was believed to be a messenger between the genes encoded on the DNA and the functional units of the cell, the proteins. This changed drastically with the identification of the first small non-coding RNA, termed microRNA, some 20 years ago. This discovery opened the field of regulatory RNAs with no or little protein-coding potential. Since then many new classes of regulatory non-coding RNAs, including endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), PIWI-associated RNAs (piRNAs), and long non-coding RNAs, have been identified and we have made amazing progress in elucidating their expression, biogenesis, mechanisms and mode of action, and function in many, if not all, biological processes. In this chapter we provide an introduction about the current knowledge of the main classes of non-coding RNAs, what is know about their biogenesis and mechanism of function.

  12. Making the Bend: DNA Tertiary Structure and Protein-DNA Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Harteis, Sabrina; Schneider, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    DNA structure functions as an overlapping code to the DNA sequence. Rapid progress in understanding the role of DNA structure in gene regulation, DNA damage recognition and genome stability has been made. The three dimensional structure of both proteins and DNA plays a crucial role for their specific interaction, and proteins can recognise the chemical signature of DNA sequence (“base readout”) as well as the intrinsic DNA structure (“shape recognition”). These recognition mechanisms do not exist in isolation but, depending on the individual interaction partners, are combined to various extents. Driving force for the interaction between protein and DNA remain the unique thermodynamics of each individual DNA-protein pair. In this review we focus on the structures and conformations adopted by DNA, both influenced by and influencing the specific interaction with the corresponding protein binding partner, as well as their underlying thermodynamics. PMID:25026169

  13. Cloning of DNA sequences localized on proximal fluorescent chromosome bands by microdissection in Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc.

    PubMed

    Hizume, M; Shibata, F; Maruyama, Y; Kondo, T

    2001-09-01

    Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, has 2n=24 chromosomes, of which most carry chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) bands at their centromere-proximal regions. It was proposed that these regions contain highly repetitive DNA. The DNA localized in the proximal fluorescent bands was isolated and characterized. In P. densiflora, centromeric and neighboring segments of the somatic chromosomes were dissected with a manual micromanipulator. The centromeric DNA was amplified from the DNA contained in dissected centromeric segments by degenerate oligonucleotide primed-polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and a cloned DNA library was constructed. Thirty-one clones carrying highly repetitive DNA were selected by colony hybridization using Cot-1 DNA from this species as a probe, and their chromosomal localization was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Clone PDCD501 was localized to the proximal CMA band of 20 chromosomes. This clone contained tandem repeats, comprising a 27 bp repeat unit, which was sufficient to provide the proximal FISH signal, with a 52.3% GC content. The repetitive sequence was named PCSR (proximal CMA band-specific repeat). Clone PDCD159 was 1700 bp in length, with a 61.7% AT content, and produced FISH signals at the proximal DAPI band of the remaining four chromosomes. Four clones hybridized strongly to the secondary constriction and gave weak signals at the centromeric region of several chromosomes. Clone PDCD537, one of the four clones, was homologous to the 26S rRNA gene. A PCR experiment using microdissected centromeric regions suggested that the centromeric region contains 18S and 26S rDNA. Another 24 clones hybridized to whole chromosome arms, with varying intensities and might represent dispersed repetitive DNA.

  14. DNA Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2002-11-01

    DNA is one candidate of promising molecules for molecular electronic devices, since it has the double helix structure with pi-electron bases for electron transport, the address at 0.4 nm intervals, and the self-assembly. Electrical conductivity and nanostructure of DNA and modified DNA molecules are investigated in order to research the application of DNA in nanoelectronic devices. It has been revealed that DNA is a wide-gap semiconductor in the absence of doping. The conductivity of DNA has been controlled by chemical doping, electric field doping, and photo-doping. It has found that Poly(dG)[middle dot]Poly(dC) has the best conductivity and can function as a conducting nanowire. The pattern of DNA network is controlled by changing the concentration of the DNA solution.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.; Bottino, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on mitochondrial DNA, pointing out that it may have once been a free-living organism. Includes a ready-to-duplicate exercise titled "Using Microchondrial DNA to Measure Evolutionary Distance." (JN)

  16. Genomic Analysis of a Marine Bacterium: Bioinformatics for Comparison, Evaluation, and Interpretation of DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Khobragade, Chandrahasya N.

    2016-01-01

    A total of five highly related strains of an unidentified marine bacterium were analyzed through their short genome sequences (AM260709–AM260713). Genome-to-Genome Distance (GGDC) showed high similarity to Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis (X67024). The generated unique Quick Response (QR) codes indicated no identity to other microbial species or gene sequences. Chaos Game Representation (CGR) showed the number of bases concentrated in the area. Guanine residues were highest in number followed by cytosine. Frequency of Chaos Game Representation (FCGR) indicated that CC and GG blocks have higher frequency in the sequence from the evaluated marine bacterium strains. Maximum GC content for the marine bacterium strains ranged 53-54%. The use of QR codes, CGR, FCGR, and GC dataset helped in identifying and interpreting short genome sequences from specific isolates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed with the bootstrap test (1000 replicates) using MEGA6 software. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was carried out using EMBL-EBI MUSCLE program. Thus, generated genomic data are of great assistance for hierarchical classification in Bacterial Systematics which combined with phenotypic features represents a basic procedure for a polyphasic approach on unambiguous bacterial isolate taxonomic classification. PMID:27882328

  17. Scaling features of noncoding DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.

    1999-01-01

    We review evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing noncoding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, base pairs thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene, and utilize this fact to build a Coding Sequence Finder Algorithm, which uses statistical ideas to locate the coding regions of an unknown DNA sequence. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work adapting to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts, and the Shannon approach to quantifying the "redundancy" of a linguistic text in terms of a measurable entropy function, and reporting that noncoding regions in eukaryotes display a larger redundancy than coding regions. Specifically, we consider the possibility that this result is solely a consequence of nucleotide concentration differences as first noted by Bonhoeffer and his collaborators. We find that cytosine-guanine (CG) concentration does have a strong "background" effect on redundancy. However, we find that for the purine-pyrimidine binary mapping rule, which is not affected by the difference in CG concentration, the Shannon redundancy for the set of analyzed sequences is larger for noncoding regions compared to coding regions.

  18. Coded source neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  19. Error coding simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-01-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  20. Coded source neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Philip; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Tobin, Ken

    2011-03-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100μm) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100μm and 10μm aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  1. Microparticles: Facile and High-Throughput Synthesis of Functional Microparticles with Quick Response Codes (Small 24/2016).

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Lisa Marie S; He, Muhan; Mailloux, Shay; George, Justin; Wang, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Microparticles carrying quick response (QR) barcodes are fabricated by J. Wang and co-workers on page 3259, using a massive coding of dissociated elements (MiCODE) technology. Each microparticle can bear a special custom-designed QR code that enables encryption or tagging with unlimited multiplexity, and the QR code can be easily read by cellphone applications. The utility of MiCODE particles in multiplexed DNA detection and microtagging for anti-counterfeiting is explored.

  2. Code query by example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  3. Seals Code Development Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

  4. SAC: Sheffield Advanced Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Mike; Fedun, Viktor; Mumford, Stuart; Gent, Frederick

    2013-06-01

    The Sheffield Advanced Code (SAC) is a fully non-linear MHD code designed for simulations of linear and non-linear wave propagation in gravitationally strongly stratified magnetized plasma. It was developed primarily for the forward modelling of helioseismological processes and for the coupling processes in the solar interior, photosphere, and corona; it is built on the well-known VAC platform that allows robust simulation of the macroscopic processes in gravitationally stratified (non-)magnetized plasmas. The code has no limitations of simulation length in time imposed by complications originating from the upper boundary, nor does it require implementation of special procedures to treat the upper boundaries. SAC inherited its modular structure from VAC, thereby allowing modification to easily add new physics.

  5. Autocatalysis, information and coding.

    PubMed

    Wills, P R

    2001-01-01

    Autocatalytic self-construction in macromolecular systems requires the existence of a reflexive relationship between structural components and the functional operations they perform to synthesise themselves. The possibility of reflexivity depends on formal, semiotic features of the catalytic structure-function relationship, that is, the embedding of catalytic functions in the space of polymeric structures. Reflexivity is a semiotic property of some genetic sequences. Such sequences may serve as the basis for the evolution of coding as a result of autocatalytic self-organisation in a population of assignment catalysts. Autocatalytic selection is a mechanism whereby matter becomes differentiated in primitive biochemical systems. In the case of coding self-organisation, it corresponds to the creation of symbolic information. Prions are present-day entities whose replication through autocatalysis reflects aspects of biological semiotics less obvious than genetic coding.

  6. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  7. Code inspection instructional validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option

  8. Polar Code Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    Unclassified 2a SECURITY CLASSiF-ICATiON AUTHORIT’Y 3 DIStRIBUTION AVAILABILITY OF REPORT N,A Approved for public release; 2o DECLASSIFICAIiON DOWNGRADING SCH DI...SUMMARY OF POLAR ACHIEVEMENTS ..... .......... 3 3 . POLAR CODE PHYSICAL MODELS ..... ............. 5 3.1 PL-ASMA Su ^"ru5 I1LS SH A...11 Structure of the Bipolar Plasma Sheath Generated by SPEAR I ... ...... 1 3 The POLAR Code Wake Model: Comparison with in Situ Observations . . 23

  9. Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor

  10. Securing mobile code.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements

  11. Dna Sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1995-04-25

    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  12. Coding for urologic office procedures.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Robert A; Painter, Mark

    2013-11-01

    This article summarizes current best practices for documenting, coding, and billing common office-based urologic procedures. Topics covered include general principles, basic and advanced urologic coding, creation of medical records that support compliant coding practices, bundled codes and unbundling, global periods, modifiers for procedure codes, when to bill for evaluation and management services during the same visit, coding for supplies, and laboratory and radiology procedures pertinent to urology practice. Detailed information is included for the most common urology office procedures, and suggested resources and references are provided. This information is of value to physicians, office managers, and their coding staff.

  13. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  14. Dress Codes. Legal Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    As illustrated by two recent decisions, the courts in the past decade have demarcated wide boundaries for school officials considering dress codes, whether in the form of selective prohibitions or required uniforms. Administrators must warn the community, provide legitimate justification and reasonable clarity, and comply with state law. (MLH)

  15. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  16. Building Codes and Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, John L.

    The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

  17. Student Dress Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    School officials see a need for regulations that prohibit disruptive and inappropriate forms of expression and attire; students see these regulations as unwanted restrictions on their freedom. This paper reviews court litigation involving constitutional limitations on school authority, dress and hair codes, state law constraints, and school…

  18. Video Coding for ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    Coding tasks, a valuable technique for teaching English as a Second Language, are presented that enable students to look at patterns and structures of marital communication as well as objectively evaluate the degree of happiness or distress in the marriage. (seven references) (JL)

  19. Electrical Circuit Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, Steven D.; Waters, Arlon J.; Shirley, David

    2001-08-09

    Massively-Parallel Electrical Circuit Simulation Code. CHILESPICE is a massively-arallel distributed-memory electrical circuit simulation tool that contains many enhanced radiation, time-based, and thermal features and models. Large scale electronic circuit simulation. Shared memory, parallel processing, enhance convergence. Sandia specific device models.

  20. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  1. Delineating relative homogeneous G+C domains in DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, W

    2001-10-03

    The concept of homogeneity of G+C content is always relative and subjective. This point is emphasized and quantified in this paper using a simple example of one sequence segmented into two subsequences. Whether the sequence is homogeneous or not can be answered by whether the two-subsequence model describes the DNA sequence better than the one-sequence model. There are at least three equivalent ways of looking at the 1-to-2 segmentation: Jensen-Shannon divergence measure, log likelihood ratio test, and model selection using Bayesian information criterion. Once a criterion is chosen, a DNA sequence can be recursively segmented into multiple domains. We use one subjective criterion called segmentation strength based on the Bayesian information criterion. Whether or not a sequence is homogeneous and how many domains it has depend on this criterion. We compare six different genome sequences (yeast S. cerevisiae chromosome III and IV, bacterium M. pneumoniae, human major histocompatibility complex sequence, longest contigs in human chromosome 21 and 22) by recursive segmentations at different strength criteria. Results by recursive segmentation confirm that yeast chromosome IV is more homogeneous than yeast chromosome III, human chromosome 21 is more homogeneous than human chromosome 22, and bacterial genomes may not be homogeneous due to short segments with distinct base compositions. The recursive segmentation also provides a quantitative criterion for identifying isochores in human sequences. Some features of our recursive segmentation, such as the possibility of delineating domain borders accurately, are superior to those of the moving-window approach commonly used in such analyses.

  2. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 by maternal plasma DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eric Z; Chiu, Rossa W K; Sun, Hao; Akolekar, Ranjit; Chan, K C Allen; Leung, Tak Y; Jiang, Peiyong; Zheng, Yama W L; Lun, Fiona M F; Chan, Lisa Y S; Jin, Yongjie; Go, Attie T J I; Lau, Elizabeth T; To, William W K; Leung, Wing C; Tang, Rebecca Y K; Au-Yeung, Sidney K C; Lam, Helena; Kung, Yu Y; Zhang, Xiuqing; van Vugt, John M G; Minekawa, Ryoko; Tang, Mary H Y; Wang, Jun; Oudejans, Cees B M; Lau, Tze K; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Lo, Y M Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing of DNA molecules in the plasma of pregnant women has been shown to allow accurate and noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal trisomy 21. However, whether the sequencing approach is as accurate for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and 18 is unclear due to the lack of data from a large sample set. We studied 392 pregnancies, among which 25 involved a trisomy 13 fetus and 37 involved a trisomy 18 fetus, by massively parallel sequencing. By using our previously reported standard z-score approach, we demonstrated that this approach could identify 36.0% and 73.0% of trisomy 13 and 18 at specificities of 92.4% and 97.2%, respectively. We aimed to improve the detection of trisomy 13 and 18 by using a non-repeat-masked reference human genome instead of a repeat-masked one to increase the number of aligned sequence reads for each sample. We then applied a bioinformatics approach to correct GC content bias in the sequencing data. With these measures, we detected all (25 out of 25) trisomy 13 fetuses at a specificity of 98.9% (261 out of 264 non-trisomy 13 cases), and 91.9% (34 out of 37) of the trisomy 18 fetuses at 98.0% specificity (247 out of 252 non-trisomy 18 cases). These data indicate that with appropriate bioinformatics analysis, noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 by maternal plasma DNA sequencing is achievable.

  3. Identification of the functional elements in the promoter region of human DNA topoisomerase IIIbeta gene.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Hoon; Park, Jee Young; Han, Sang Youp; Chung, In Kwon

    2004-09-17

    In this study, we have isolated and characterized the promoter region of the human DNA topoisomerase IIIbeta (hTOP3beta) gene. The 5' RACE assay showed a short exon 1 encoding only the 35-bp untranslated region and suggested the presence of multiple transcription initiation sites. The hTOP3beta gene promoter lacks a canonical TATA box or initiation element and is moderately high in GC content. Transient expression of a luciferase reporter gene under the control of serially deleted 5'-flanking sequence identified an activator element between -141 and -119 upstream of the transcription initiation site and a second regulatory element between -91 and -71. On the basis of scanning mutations of triple nucleotides, we demonstrated that a 5'GGAACC3' element between -117 and -112 plays a critical role in the up-regulation of the basal transcription activity. Changing the 5'GGAACC3' sequence leads to markedly reduced promoter activity. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that the 5'GGAACC3' element is required for DNA binding by the transcription factor complex. These observations lead to the conclusion that the positive regulatory region including the 5'GGAACC3' core element is essential for efficient expression of the hTOP3beta gene as well as for the binding of as yet unidentified regulatory factor(s).

  4. History of plastid DNA insertions reveals weak deletion and at mutation biases in angiosperm mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Daniel B; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2014-11-21

    Angiosperm mitochondrial genomes exhibit many unusual properties, including heterogeneous nucleotide composition and exceptionally large and variable genome sizes. Determining the role of nonadaptive mechanisms such as mutation bias in shaping the molecular evolution of these unique genomes has proven challenging because their dynamic structures generally prevent identification of homologous intergenic sequences for comparative analyses. Here, we report an analysis of angiosperm mitochondrial DNA sequences that are derived from inserted plastid DNA (mtpts). The availability of numerous completely sequenced plastid genomes allows us to infer the evolutionary history of these insertions, including the specific nucleotide substitutions and indels that have occurred because their incorporation into the mitochondrial genome. Our analysis confirmed that many mtpts have a complex history, including frequent gene conversion and multiple examples of horizontal transfer between divergent angiosperm lineages. Nevertheless, it is clear that the majority of extant mtpt sequence in angiosperms is the product of recent transfer (or gene conversion) and is subject to rapid loss/deterioration, suggesting that most mtpts are evolving relatively free from functional constraint. The evolution of mtpt sequences reveals a pattern of biased mutational input in angiosperm mitochondrial genomes, including an excess of small deletions over insertions and a skew toward nucleotide substitutions that increase AT content. However, these mutation biases are far weaker than have been observed in many other cellular genomes, providing insight into some of the notable features of angiosperm mitochondrial architecture, including the retention of large intergenic regions and the relatively neutral GC content found in these regions.

  5. Coding Theory and Projective Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberstein, Natalia

    2008-05-01

    The projective space of order n over a finite field F_q is a set of all subspaces of the vector space F_q^{n}. In this work, we consider error-correcting codes in the projective space, focusing mainly on constant dimension codes. We start with the different representations of subspaces in the projective space. These representations involve matrices in reduced row echelon form, associated binary vectors, and Ferrers diagrams. Based on these representations, we provide a new formula for the computation of the distance between any two subspaces in the projective space. We examine lifted maximum rank distance (MRD) codes, which are nearly optimal constant dimension codes. We prove that a lifted MRD code can be represented in such a way that it forms a block design known as a transversal design. The incidence matrix of the transversal design derived from a lifted MRD code can be viewed as a parity-check matrix of a linear code in the Hamming space. We find the properties of these codes which can be viewed also as LDPC codes. We present new bounds and constructions for constant dimension codes. First, we present a multilevel construction for constant dimension codes, which can be viewed as a generalization of a lifted MRD codes construction. This construction is based on a new type of rank-metric codes, called Ferrers diagram rank-metric codes. Then we derive upper bounds on the size of constant dimension codes which contain the lifted MRD code, and provide a construction for two families of codes, that attain these upper bounds. We generalize the well-known concept of a punctured code for a code in the projective space to obtain large codes which are not constant dimension. We present efficient enumerative encoding and decoding techniques for the Grassmannian. Finally we describe a search method for constant dimension lexicodes.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of cultivated radish WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Choi, Ah Young; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of radish cultivar WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.). The total length of the mtDNA sequence is 244,054 bp, with GC content of 45.3%. The radish mtDNA contains 82 protein-coding genes, 17 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. Among the protein-coding genes, 34 encode proteins with known functions. There are two 5529 bp repeats in the radish mitochondrial genome that may contribute to DNA recombination resulting in at least three different forms of mtDNA in radish.

  7. Highly species-specific centromeric repetitive DNA sequences in lizards: molecular cytogenetic characterization of a novel family of satellite DNA sequences isolated from the water monitor lizard (Varanus salvator macromaculatus, Platynota).

    PubMed

    Chaiprasertsri, Nampech; Uno, Yoshinobu; Peyachoknagul, Surin; Prakhongcheep, Ornjira; Baicharoen, Sudarath; Charernsuk, Saranon; Nishida, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi; Koga, Akihiko; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2013-01-01

    Two novel repetitive DNA sequences, VSAREP1 and VSAREP2, were isolated from the water monitor lizard (Varanus salvator macromaculatus, Platynota) and characterized using molecular cytogenetics. The respective lengths and guanine-cytosine (GC) contents of the sequences were 190 bp and 57.5% for VSAREP1 and 185 bp and 59.7% for VSAREP2, and both elements were tandemly arrayed as satellite DNA in the genome. VSAREP1 and VSAREP2 were each located at the C-positive heterochromatin in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 2q, the centromeric region of chromosome 5, and 3 pairs of microchromosomes. This suggests that genomic compartmentalization between macro- and microchromosomes might not have occurred in the centromeric repetitive sequences of V. salvator macromaculatus. These 2 sequences did only hybridize to genomic DNA of V. salvator macromaculatus, but no signal was observed even for other squamate reptiles, including Varanus exanthematicus, which is a closely related species of V. salvator macromaculatus. These results suggest that these sequences were differentiated rapidly or were specifically amplified in the V. salvator macromaculatus genome.

  8. An improved DNA marker technique for genetic characterization using RAMP-PCR with high-GC primers.

    PubMed

    Wei, C L; Cheng, J L; Khan, M A; Yang, L Q; Imani, S; Chen, H C; Fu, J J

    2016-09-16

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is a widely used molecular marker technique. As traditional RAPD has poor reproducibility and productivity, we previously developed an improved RAPD method (termed RAMP-PCR), which increased the reproducibility, number of bands, and efficiency of studies on polymorphism. To further develop the efficiency of this method, we used high-GC content primers for improved RAMP-PCR with DNA samples from Lonicera japonica. Comparison of amplification profiles obtained by standard RAPD primers with those obtained by regular PCR and RAMP-PCR, and high-GC primers with regular PCR and RAMP-PCR showed that the average number of bands and polymorphisms per primer gradually and significantly increased (from 6.4 to 15.0 and from 4.6 to 10.2, respectively). Cluster dendrograms showed similar results, indicating that this new method is consistent and reproducible. A total of 22 samples from different species, including plants, animals, and humans, were used for RAMP-PCR with high-GC primers. Multiple bands were successfully amplified from all samples, demonstrating that this method is a reliable technique with consistent results and may be of general interest in studies on different genera and species. We developed highly effective DNA markers, which can provide a more effective and potentially valuable approach than traditional RAPD for the genetic identification of various organisms, particularly of medicinal plants.

  9. DNA Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    DNA immunization was discovered in early 1990s and its use has been expanded from vaccine studies to a broader range of biomedical research, such as the generation of high quality polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as research reagents. In this unit, three common DNA immunization methods are described: needle injection, electroporation and gene gun. In addition, several common considerations related to DNA immunization are discussed. PMID:24510291

  10. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  11. Sinusoidal transform coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, Robert J.; Quatieri, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    It has been shown that an analysis/synthesis system based on a sinusoidal representation of speech leads to synthetic speech that is essentially perceptually indistinguishable from the original. Strategies for coding the amplitudes, frequencies and phases of the sine waves have been developed that have led to a multirate coder operating at rates from 2400 to 9600 bps. The encoded speech is highly intelligible at all rates with a uniformly improving quality as the data rate is increased. A real-time fixed-point implementation has been developed using two ADSP2100 DSP chips. The methods used for coding and quantizing the sine-wave parameters for operation at the various frame rates are described.

  12. WHPA Code available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Wellhead Protection Area code is now available for distribution by the International Ground Water Modeling Center in Indianapolis, Ind. The WHPA code is a modular, semianalytical, groundwater flow model developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water Protection, designed to assist state and local technical staff with the task of Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) delineation. A complete news item appeared in Eos, May 1, 1990, p. 690.The model consists of four independent, semianalytical modules that may be used to identify the areal extent of groundwater contribution to one or multiple pumping wells. One module is a general particle tracking program that may be used as a post-processor for two-dimensional, numerical models of groundwater flow. One module incorporates a Monte Carlo approach to investigate the effects of uncertain input parameters on capture zones. Multiple pumping and injection wells may be present and barrier or stream boundary conditions may be investigated.

  13. WHPA Code available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) code is now available for distribution by the International Ground Water Modeling Center in Indianapolis, Ind. The WHPA code is a modular, semi-analytical, groundwater flow model developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water Protection. It is designed to assist state and local technical staff with the task of WHPA delineation.The model consists of four independent, semi-analytical modules that may be used to identify the areal extent of groundwater contribution to one or multiple pumping wells. One module is a general particle tracking program that may be used as a post-processor for two-dimensional, numerical models of groundwater flow. One module incorporates a Monte Carlo approach to investigate the effects of uncertain input parameters on capture zones. Multiple pumping and injection wells may be present and barrier or stream boundary conditions may be investigated.

  14. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  15. HYCOM Code Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-10

    HYCOM code development Alan J. Wallcraft Naval Research Laboratory 2003 Layered Ocean Model Users’ Workshop February 10, 2003 Report Documentation...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Layered Ocean Modeling Workshop (LOM 2003), Miami, FL, Feb 2003 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...Kraus-Turner mixed-layer Æ Energy-Loan (passive) ice model Æ High frequency atmospheric forcing Æ New I/O scheme (.a and .b files) Æ Scalability via

  16. Reeds computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjork, C.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.

  17. Trajectory Code Studies, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Poukey, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The trajectory code TRAJ has been used extensively to study nonimmersed foilless electron diodes. The basic goal of the research is to design low-emittance injectors for electron linacs and propagation experiments. Systems studied during 1987 include Delphi, Recirc, and Troll. We also discuss a partly successful attempt to extend the same techniques to high currents (tens of kA). 7 refs., 30 figs.

  18. The PHARO Code.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-24

    n.cet..ary ad Identfy by block nutrb.) Visible radiation Sensors Infrared radiation Line and band transitions Isophots High altitude nuclear data...radiation (watts sr) in arbitrary wavelength intervals is determined. The results are a series of " isophot " plots for rbitrariiy placed cameras or sensors...Section II. The output of the PHARO code consists of contour plots of radiative intensity (watts/cm ster) or " isophot " plots for arbitrarily placed sensors

  19. The Phantom SPH code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Daniel; Wurster, James; Nixon, Chris

    2016-05-01

    I will present the capabilities of the Phantom SPH code for global simulations of dust and gas in protoplanetary discs. I will present our new algorithms for simulating both small and large grains in discs, as well as our progress towards simulating evolving grain populations and coupling with radiation. Finally, I will discuss our recent applications to HL Tau and the physics of dust gap opening.

  20. Status of MARS Code

    SciTech Connect

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  1. SELF-RECOGNITION OF DNA FROM LIFE PROCESSES TO DNA COMPUTATION

    PubMed Central

    NG, WEI DA; WONG, CHEE KEONG BENJAMIN

    2010-01-01

    Ever since the first appearance of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) in 1953, it has fascinated multitudes with its simplicity. With a modest syllabus of four nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine), it codes for the complexity of life around us. In this paper, we investigate how the structure of DNA codes for life processes and how we can take advantage of its minuscule size, mechanism of self-recognition and self-assembly for “bottom-up” nanotechnology. High hopes are also placed on miniaturizing present computing technology using DNA computing based on two fundamental features; massive parallelism of DNA strands and Watson–Crick complementarity. Advances in DNA-based computation and algorithmic assembly are then used to complement researches in DNA nanotechnology. PMID:20640192

  2. Orthopedics coding and funding.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Duclos, C; Thoreux, P

    2014-02-01

    The French tarification à l'activité (T2A) prospective payment system is a financial system in which a health-care institution's resources are based on performed activity. Activity is described via the PMSI medical information system (programme de médicalisation du système d'information). The PMSI classifies hospital cases by clinical and economic categories known as diagnosis-related groups (DRG), each with an associated price tag. Coding a hospital case involves giving as realistic a description as possible so as to categorize it in the right DRG and thus ensure appropriate payment. For this, it is essential to understand what determines the pricing of inpatient stay: namely, the code for the surgical procedure, the patient's principal diagnosis (reason for admission), codes for comorbidities (everything that adds to management burden), and the management of the length of inpatient stay. The PMSI is used to analyze the institution's activity and dynamism: change on previous year, relation to target, and comparison with competing institutions based on indicators such as the mean length of stay performance indicator (MLS PI). The T2A system improves overall care efficiency. Quality of care, however, is not presently taken account of in the payment made to the institution, as there are no indicators for this; work needs to be done on this topic.

  3. MELCOR computer code manuals

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  4. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  5. Suboptimum decoding of block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates a class of decomposable codes, their distance and structural properties. it is shown that this class includes several classes of well known and efficient codes as subclasses. Several methods for constructing decomposable codes or decomposing codes are presented. A two-stage soft decision decoding scheme for decomposable codes, their translates or unions of translates is devised. This two-stage soft-decision decoding is suboptimum, and provides an excellent trade-off between the error performance and decoding complexity for codes of moderate and long block length.

  6. Preliminary Assessment of Turbomachinery Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses different CFD codes developed and currently being used at Glenn Research Center to predict turbomachinery fluid flow and heat transfer behavior. This report will consider the following codes: APNASA, TURBO, GlennHT, H3D, and SWIFT. Each code will be described separately in the following section with their current modeling capabilities, level of validation, pre/post processing, and future development and validation requirements. This report addresses only previously published and validations of the codes. However, the codes have been further developed to extend the capabilities of the codes.

  7. Identification of Aedes aegypti Long Intergenic Non-coding RNAs and Their Association with Wolbachia and Dengue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Etebari, Kayvan; Asad, Sultan; Zhang, Guangmei; Asgari, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are appearing as an important class of regulatory RNAs with a variety of biological functions. The aim of this study was to identify the lincRNA profile in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and evaluate their potential role in host-pathogen interaction. The majority of previous RNA-Seq transcriptome studies in Ae. aegypti have focused on the expression pattern of annotated protein coding genes under different biological conditions. Here, we used 35 publically available RNA-Seq datasets with relatively high depth to screen the Ae. aegypti genome for lincRNA discovery. This led to the identification of 3,482 putative lincRNAs. These lincRNA genes displayed a slightly lower GC content and shorter transcript lengths compared to protein-encoding genes. Ae. aegypti lincRNAs also demonstrate low evolutionary sequence conservation even among closely related species such as Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae. We examined their expression in dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) and Wolbachia infected and non-infected adult mosquitoes and Aa20 cells. The results revealed that DENV-2 infection increased the abundance of a number of host lincRNAs, from which some suppress viral replication in mosquito cells. RNAi-mediated silencing of lincRNA_1317 led to enhancement in viral replication, which possibly indicates its potential involvement in the host anti-viral defense. A number of lincRNAs were also differentially expressed in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. The results will facilitate future studies to unravel the function of lncRNAs in insects and may prove to be beneficial in developing new ways to control vectors or inhibit replication of viruses in them. PMID:27760142

  8. Construction of new quantum MDS codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taneja, Divya; Gupta, Manish; Narula, Rajesh; Bhullar, Jaskaran

    Obtaining quantum maximum distance separable (MDS) codes from dual containing classical constacyclic codes using Hermitian construction have paved a path to undertake the challenges related to such constructions. Using the same technique, some new parameters of quantum MDS codes have been constructed here. One set of parameters obtained in this paper has achieved much larger distance than work done earlier. The remaining constructed parameters of quantum MDS codes have large minimum distance and were not explored yet.

  9. Sorting fluorescent nanocrystals with DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gerion, Daniele; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Williams, Shara C.; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2001-12-10

    Semiconductor nanocrystals with narrow and tunable fluorescence are covalently linked to oligonucleotides. These biocompounds retain the properties of both nanocrystals and DNA. Therefore, different sequences of DNA can be coded with nanocrystals and still preserve their ability to hybridize to their complements. We report the case where four different sequences of DNA are linked to four nanocrystal samples having different colors of emission in the range of 530-640 nm. When the DNA-nanocrystal conjugates are mixed together, it is possible to sort each type of nanoparticle using hybridization on a defined micrometer -size surface containing the complementary oligonucleotide. Detection of sorting requires only a single excitation source and an epifluorescence microscope. The possibility of directing fluorescent nanocrystals towards specific biological targets and detecting them, combined with their superior photo-stability compared to organic dyes, opens the way to improved biolabeling experiments, such as gene mapping on a nanometer scale or multicolor microarray analysis.

  10. Convolutional coding techniques for data protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional codes are described.

  11. Combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir; Morrison, Katherine; Roth, Zachary; Walker, Judy L

    2013-07-01

    Shannon's seminal 1948 work gave rise to two distinct areas of research: information theory and mathematical coding theory. While information theory has had a strong influence on theoretical neuroscience, ideas from mathematical coding theory have received considerably less attention. Here we take a new look at combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective, examining the error correction capabilities of familiar receptive field codes (RF codes). We find, perhaps surprisingly, that the high levels of redundancy present in these codes do not support accurate error correction, although the error-correcting performance of receptive field codes catches up to that of random comparison codes when a small tolerance to error is introduced. However, receptive field codes are good at reflecting distances between represented stimuli, while the random comparison codes are not. We suggest that a compromise in error-correcting capability may be a necessary price to pay for a neural code whose structure serves not only error correction, but must also reflect relationships between stimuli.

  12. New quantum MDS-convolutional codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengwei; Yue, Qin

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we utilize a family of Hermitian dual-containing constacyclic codes to construct classical and quantum MDS convolutional codes. Our classical and quantum convolutional codes are optimal in the sense that they attain the classical (quantum) generalized Singleton bound.

  13. A class of constacyclic BCH codes and new quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    liu, Yang; Li, Ruihu; Lv, Liangdong; Ma, Yuena

    2017-03-01

    Constacyclic BCH codes have been widely studied in the literature and have been used to construct quantum codes in latest years. However, for the class of quantum codes of length n=q^{2m}+1 over F_{q^2} with q an odd prime power, there are only the ones of distance δ ≤ 2q^2 are obtained in the literature. In this paper, by a detailed analysis of properties of q2-ary cyclotomic cosets, maximum designed distance δ _{max} of a class of Hermitian dual-containing constacyclic BCH codes with length n=q^{2m}+1 are determined, this class of constacyclic codes has some characteristic analog to that of primitive BCH codes over F_{q^2}. Then we can obtain a sequence of dual-containing constacyclic codes of designed distances 2q^2<δ ≤ δ _{max}. Consequently, new quantum codes with distance d > 2q^2 can be constructed from these dual-containing codes via Hermitian Construction. These newly obtained quantum codes have better code rate compared with those constructed from primitive BCH codes.

  14. Facile and High-Throughput Synthesis of Functional Microparticles with Quick Response Codes.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Lisa Marie S; He, Muhan; Mailloux, Shay; George, Justin; Wang, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Encoded microparticles are high demand in multiplexed assays and labeling. However, the current methods for the synthesis and coding of microparticles either lack robustness and reliability, or possess limited coding capacity. Here, a massive coding of dissociated elements (MiCODE) technology based on innovation of a chemically reactive off-stoichimetry thiol-allyl photocurable polymer and standard lithography to produce a large number of quick response (QR) code microparticles is introduced. The coding process is performed by photobleaching the QR code patterns on microparticles when fluorophores are incorporated into the prepolymer formulation. The fabricated encoded microparticles can be released from a substrate without changing their features. Excess thiol functionality on the microparticle surface allows for grafting of amine groups and further DNA probes. A multiplexed assay is demonstrated using the DNA-grafted QR code microparticles. The MiCODE technology is further characterized by showing the incorporation of BODIPY-maleimide (BDP-M) and Nile Red fluorophores for coding and the use of microcontact printing for immobilizing DNA probes on microparticle surfaces. This versatile technology leverages mature lithography facilities for fabrication and thus is amenable to scale-up in the future, with potential applications in bioassays and in labeling consumer products.

  15. DNA ligases.

    PubMed

    Tabor, S

    2001-05-01

    DNA ligases catalyze the formation of phosphodiester bonds between juxtaposed 5' phosphate and a 3'-hydroxyl terminus in duplex DNA. This activity can repair single-stranded nicks in duplex DNA and join duplex DNA restriction fragments having either blunt ends or homologous cohesive ends. Two ligases are used for nucleic acid research and their reaction conditions and applications are described in this unit: E. coli ligase and T4 ligase. These enzymes differ in two important properties. One is the source of energy: T4 ligase uses ATP, while E. coli ligase uses NAD. Another important difference is their ability to ligate blunt ends; under normal reaction conditions, only T4 DNA ligase will ligate blunt ends.

  16. Inhomogeneous DNA: Conducting exons and insulating introns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokhin, A. A.; Bagci, V. M. K.; Izrailev, F. M.; Usatenko, O. V.; Yampol'Skii, V. A.

    2009-08-01

    Parts of DNA sequences known as exons and introns play very different roles in coding and storage of genetic information. Here we show that their conducting properties are also very different. Taking into account long-range correlations among four basic nucleotides that form double-stranded DNA sequence, we calculate electron localization length for exon and intron regions. Analyzing different DNA molecules, we obtain that the exons have narrow bands of extended states, unlike the introns where all the states are well localized. The band of extended states is due to a specific form of the binary correlation function of the sequence of basic DNA nucleotides.

  17. Summary of 1990 Code Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.K.; Chan, Kwok-Chi D.

    1990-01-01

    The Conference on Codes and the Linear Accelerator Community was held in Los Alamos in January 1990, and had approximately 100 participants. This conference was the second in a series which has as its goal the exchange of information about codes and code practices among those writing and actually using these codes for the design and analysis of linear accelerators and their components. The first conference was held in San Diego in January 1988, and concentrated on beam dynamics codes and Maxwell solvers. This most recent conference concentrated on 3-D codes and techniques to handle the large amounts of data required for three-dimensional problems. In addition to descriptions of codes, their algorithms and implementations, there were a number of paper describing the use of many of the codes. Proceedings of both these conferences are available. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. A genomic island present along the bacterial chromosome of the Parachlamydiaceae UWE25, an obligate amoebal endosymbiont, encodes a potentially functional F-like conjugative DNA transfer system

    PubMed Central

    Greub, Gilbert; Collyn, François; Guy, Lionel; Roten, Claude-Alain

    2004-01-01

    Background The genome of Protochlamydia amoebophila UWE25, a Parachlamydia-related endosymbiont of free-living amoebae, was recently published, providing the opportunity to search for genomic islands (GIs). Results On the residual cumulative G+C content curve, a G+C-rich 19-kb region was observed. This sequence is part of a 100-kb chromosome region, containing 100 highly co-oriented ORFs, flanked by two 17-bp direct repeats. Two identical gly-tRNA genes in tandem are present at the proximal end of this genetic element. Several mobility genes encoding transposases and bacteriophage-related proteins are located within this chromosome region. Thus, this region largely fulfills the criteria of GIs. The G+C content analysis shows that several modules compose this GI. Surprisingly, one of them encodes all genes essential for F-like conjugative DNA transfer (traF, traG, traH, traN, traU, traW, and trbC), involved in sex pilus retraction and mating pair stabilization, strongly suggesting that, similarly to the other F-like operons, the parachlamydial tra unit is devoted to DNA transfer. A close relatedness of this tra unit to F-like tra operons involved in conjugative transfer is confirmed by phylogenetic analyses performed on concatenated genes and gene order conservation. These analyses and that of gly-tRNA distribution in 140 GIs suggest a proteobacterial origin of the parachlamydial tra unit. Conclusions A GI of the UWE25 chromosome encodes a potentially functional F-like DNA conjugative system. This is the first hint of a putative conjugative system in chlamydiae. Conjugation most probably occurs within free-living amoebae, that may contain hundreds of Parachlamydia bacteria tightly packed in vacuoles. Such a conjugative system might be involved in DNA transfer between internalized bacteria. Since this system is absent from the sequenced genomes of Chlamydiaceae, we hypothesize that it was acquired after the divergence between Parachlamydiaceae and Chlamydiaceae, when

  19. Chemical Laser Computer Code Survey,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    DOCUMENTATION: Resonator Geometry Synthesis Code Requi rement NV. L. Gamiz); Incorporate General Resonator into Ray Trace Code (W. H. Southwell... Synthesis Code Development (L. R. Stidhm) CATEGRY ATIUEOPTICS KINETICS GASOYNAM41CS None * None *iNone J.LEVEL Simrple Fabry Perot Simple SaturatedGt... Synthesis Co2de Require- ment (V L. ami l ncor~orate General Resonatorn into Ray Trace Code (W. H. Southwel) Srace Optimization Algorithms and Equations (W

  20. Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2007-01-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

  1. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  2. IRIG Serial Time Code Formats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TIMING GROUP IRIG STANDARD 200-16 IRIG SERIAL TIME CODE FORMATS DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR...ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION This page intentionally left blank. IRIG SERIAL TIME CODE ...Serial Time Code Formats, RCC 200-16, August 2016 v Table of Contents Preface

  3. Coding Major Fields of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt, L. G.; Carroll, C. D.

    The National Center for Education Statistics conducts surveys which require the coding of the respondent's major field of study. This paper presents a new system for the coding of major field of study. It operates on-line i a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) environment and allows conversational checks to verify coding directly from…

  4. Improved code-tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    Delay-locked loop tracks pseudonoise codes without introducing dc timing errors, because it is not sensitive to gain imbalance between signal processing arms. "Early" and "late" reference codes pass in combined form through both arms, and each arm acts on both codes. Circuit accomodates 1 dB weaker input signals with tracking ability equal to that of tau-dither loops.

  5. Validation of the BEPLATE code

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, G.E.; Bullock, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    The electroforming simulation code BEPLATE (Boundary Element-PLATE) has been developed and validated for specific applications at Oak Ridge. New areas of application are opening up and more validations are being performed. This paper reports the validation experience of the BEPLATE code on two types of electroforms and describes some recent applications of the code.

  6. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  7. Ptolemy Coding Style

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-05

    COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ptolemy Coding Style 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...lisp module for GNU Emacs that has appropriate indenting rules. This file works well with Emacs under both Unix and Windows. • testsuite/ptspell is a...Unix. It is much more liberal that the commonly used “GPL” or “ GNU Public License,” which encumbers the software and derivative works with the

  8. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2010-05-15

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3{sup t} times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  9. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2010-05-01

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3t times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  10. Low Density Parity Check Codes: Bandwidth Efficient Channel Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Wai; Lin, Shu; Maki, Gary; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes provide near-Shannon Capacity performance for NASA Missions. These codes have high coding rates R=0.82 and 0.875 with moderate code lengths, n=4096 and 8176. Their decoders have inherently parallel structures which allows for high-speed implementation. Two codes based on Euclidean Geometry (EG) were selected for flight ASIC implementation. These codes are cyclic and quasi-cyclic in nature and therefore have a simple encoder structure. This results in power and size benefits. These codes also have a large minimum distance as much as d,,, = 65 giving them powerful error correcting capabilities and error floors less than lo- BER. This paper will present development of the LDPC flight encoder and decoder, its applications and status.

  11. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  12. Quantum Codes From Cyclic Codes Over The Ring R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinel, Alev; Güzeltepe, Murat

    2016-10-01

    Let R 2 denotes the ring F 2 + μF 2 + υ2 + μυF 2 + wF 2 + μwF 2 + υwF 2 + μυwF2. In this study, we construct quantum codes from cyclic codes over the ring R2, for arbitrary length n, with the restrictions μ2 = 0, υ2 = 0, w 2 = 0, μυ = υμ, μw = wμ, υw = wυ and μ (υw) = (μυ) w. Also, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over R2 that contains its dual. As a final point, we obtain the parameters of quantum error-correcting codes from cyclic codes over R2 and we give an example of quantum error-correcting codes form cyclic codes over R 2.

  13. Patenting DNA.

    PubMed

    Bobrow, Martin; Thomas, Sandy

    2002-12-01

    The protection of inventions based on human DNA sequences has been achieved mainly through application of the patent system. Over the past decade, there has been continuing debate about whether this use of intellectual property rights is acceptable. Companies and universities have been active during this period in filing thousands of patent applications. Although many have argued that to claim a DNA sequence in a patent is to claim a discovery, patent law allows discoveries that are useful to be claimed as part of an invention. As the technology to isolate DNA sequences has advanced, the criterion for inventiveness, necessary for any invention to be eligible for filing, has become more difficult to justify in the case of claims to DNA sequences. Moreover, the discovery that a gene is associated with a particular disease is, it is argued, to discover a fact about the world and undeserving of the status of an invention. Careful examination of the grounds for allowing the patenting of DNA sequences as research tools suggests such rewards will rarely be justified. The patenting of DNA sequences as chemical intermediates necessary for the manufacture of therapeutic proteins is, however, reasonable given that the information within the sequence is applied to produce a tangible substance which has application as a medicine. Despite the legal, technical and political complexities of applying the flexibilities with the current law, it is argued that much could be achieved in the area of patenting DNA by raising the thresholds for patentability.

  14. SMN deficiency in severe models of spinal muscular atrophy causes widespread intron retention and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Jangi, Mohini; Fleet, Christina; Cullen, Patrick; Gupta, Shipra V; Mekhoubad, Shila; Chiao, Eric; Allaire, Norm; Bennett, C Frank; Rigo, Frank; Krainer, Adrian R; Hurt, Jessica A; Carulli, John P; Staropoli, John F

    2017-03-21

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease, is the leading monogenic cause of infant mortality. Homozygous loss of the gene survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) causes the selective degeneration of lower motor neurons and subsequent atrophy of proximal skeletal muscles. The SMN1 protein product, survival of motor neuron (SMN), is ubiquitously expressed and is a key factor in the assembly of the core splicing machinery. The molecular mechanisms by which disruption of the broad functions of SMN leads to neurodegeneration remain unclear. We used an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-based inducible mouse model of SMA to investigate the SMN-specific transcriptome changes associated with neurodegeneration. We found evidence of widespread intron retention, particularly of minor U12 introns, in the spinal cord of mice 30 d after SMA induction, which was then rescued by a therapeutic ASO. Intron retention was concomitant with a strong induction of the p53 pathway and DNA damage response, manifesting as γ-H2A.X positivity in neurons of the spinal cord and brain. Widespread intron retention and markers of the DNA damage response were also observed with SMN depletion in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons. We also found that retained introns, high in GC content, served as substrates for the formation of transcriptional R-loops. We propose that defects in intron removal in SMA promote DNA damage in part through the formation of RNA:DNA hybrid structures, leading to motor neuron death.

  15. SMN deficiency in severe models of spinal muscular atrophy causes widespread intron retention and DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Jangi, Mohini; Fleet, Christina; Cullen, Patrick; Gupta, Shipra V.; Mekhoubad, Shila; Chiao, Eric; Allaire, Norm; Bennett, C. Frank; Rigo, Frank; Krainer, Adrian R.; Hurt, Jessica A.; Carulli, John P.; Staropoli, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease, is the leading monogenic cause of infant mortality. Homozygous loss of the gene survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) causes the selective degeneration of lower motor neurons and subsequent atrophy of proximal skeletal muscles. The SMN1 protein product, survival of motor neuron (SMN), is ubiquitously expressed and is a key factor in the assembly of the core splicing machinery. The molecular mechanisms by which disruption of the broad functions of SMN leads to neurodegeneration remain unclear. We used an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-based inducible mouse model of SMA to investigate the SMN-specific transcriptome changes associated with neurodegeneration. We found evidence of widespread intron retention, particularly of minor U12 introns, in the spinal cord of mice 30 d after SMA induction, which was then rescued by a therapeutic ASO. Intron retention was concomitant with a strong induction of the p53 pathway and DNA damage response, manifesting as γ-H2A.X positivity in neurons of the spinal cord and brain. Widespread intron retention and markers of the DNA damage response were also observed with SMN depletion in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons. We also found that retained introns, high in GC content, served as substrates for the formation of transcriptional R-loops. We propose that defects in intron removal in SMA promote DNA damage in part through the formation of RNA:DNA hybrid structures, leading to motor neuron death. PMID:28270613

  16. Visualization of yeast chromosomal DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubega, Seth

    1990-01-01

    The DNA molecule is the most significant life molecule since it codes the blue print for other structural and functional molecules of all living organisms. Agarose gel electrophoresis is now being widely used to separate DNA of virus, bacteria, and lower eukaryotes. The task was undertaken of reviewing the existing methods of DNA fractionation and microscopic visualization of individual chromosonal DNA molecules by gel electrophoresis as a basis for a proposed study to investigate the feasibility of separating DNA molecules in free fluids as an alternative to gel electrophoresis. Various techniques were studied. On the molecular level, agarose gel electrophoresis is being widely used to separate chromosomal DNA according to molecular weight. Carl and Olson separate and characterized the entire karyotype of a lab strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Smith et al. and Schwartz and Koval independently reported the visualization of individual DNA molecules migrating through agarose gel matrix during electrophoresis. The techniques used by these researchers are being reviewed in the lab as a basis for the proposed studies.

  17. Measuring Diagnoses: ICD Code Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kimberly J; Cook, Karon F; Price, Matt D; Wildes, Kimberly Raiford; Hurdle, John F; Ashton, Carol M

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine potential sources of errors at each step of the described inpatient International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding process. Data Sources/Study Setting The use of disease codes from the ICD has expanded from classifying morbidity and mortality information for statistical purposes to diverse sets of applications in research, health care policy, and health care finance. By describing a brief history of ICD coding, detailing the process for assigning codes, identifying where errors can be introduced into the process, and reviewing methods for examining code accuracy, we help code users more systematically evaluate code accuracy for their particular applications. Study Design/Methods We summarize the inpatient ICD diagnostic coding process from patient admission to diagnostic code assignment. We examine potential sources of errors at each step and offer code users a tool for systematically evaluating code accuracy. Principle Findings Main error sources along the “patient trajectory” include amount and quality of information at admission, communication among patients and providers, the clinician's knowledge and experience with the illness, and the clinician's attention to detail. Main error sources along the “paper trail” include variance in the electronic and written records, coder training and experience, facility quality-control efforts, and unintentional and intentional coder errors, such as misspecification, unbundling, and upcoding. Conclusions By clearly specifying the code assignment process and heightening their awareness of potential error sources, code users can better evaluate the applicability and limitations of codes for their particular situations. ICD codes can then be used in the most appropriate ways. PMID:16178999

  18. Genetic code for sine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Alyasa Gan; Wah, Yap Bee

    2015-02-01

    The computation of the approximate values of the trigonometric sines was discovered by Bhaskara I (c. 600-c.680), a seventh century Indian mathematician and is known as the Bjaskara's I's sine approximation formula. The formula is given in his treatise titled Mahabhaskariya. In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, a Kerala mathematician astronomer constructed the table of trigonometric sines of various angles. Madhava's table gives the measure of angles in arcminutes, arcseconds and sixtieths of an arcsecond. The search for more accurate formulas led to the discovery of the power series expansion by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c.1350-c. 1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. In 1715, the Taylor series was introduced by Brook Taylor an English mathematician. If the Taylor series is centered at zero, it is called a Maclaurin series, named after the Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin. Some of the important Maclaurin series expansions include trigonometric functions. This paper introduces the genetic code of the sine of an angle without using power series expansion. The genetic code using square root approach reveals the pattern in the signs (plus, minus) and sequence of numbers in the sine of an angle. The square root approach complements the Pythagoras method, provides a better understanding of calculating an angle and will be useful for teaching the concepts of angles in trigonometry.

  19. FAST GYROSYNCHROTRON CODES

    SciTech Connect

    Fleishman, Gregory D.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.

    2010-10-01

    Radiation produced by charged particles gyrating in a magnetic field is highly significant in the astrophysics context. Persistently increasing resolution of astrophysical observations calls for corresponding three-dimensional modeling of the radiation. However, available exact equations are prohibitively slow in computing a comprehensive table of high-resolution models required for many practical applications. To remedy this situation, we develop approximate gyrosynchrotron (GS) codes capable of quickly calculating the GS emission (in non-quantum regime) from both isotropic and anisotropic electron distributions in non-relativistic, mildly relativistic, and ultrarelativistic energy domains applicable throughout a broad range of source parameters including dense or tenuous plasmas and weak or strong magnetic fields. The computation time is reduced by several orders of magnitude compared with the exact GS algorithm. The new algorithm performance can gradually be adjusted to the user's needs depending on whether precision or computation speed is to be optimized for a given model. The codes are made available for users as a supplement to this paper.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the First Hypermucoviscous Klebsiella variicola Clinical Isolate.

    PubMed

    Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus; Barrios, Humberto; Rodriguez-Medina, Nadia; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesus; Andrade, Veronica

    2015-04-09

    An antibiotic-susceptible and hypermucoviscous clinical isolate of Klebsiella variicola (K. variicola 8917) was obtained from the sputum of an adult patient. This work reports the complete draft genome sequence of K. variicola 8917 with 103 contigs and an annotation that revealed a 5,686,491-bp circular chromosome containing a total of 5,621 coding DNA sequences, 65 tRNA genes, and an average G+C content of 56.98%.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the First Hypermucoviscous Klebsiella variicola Clinical Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Sanchez, Jesus; Barrios, Humberto; Rodriguez-Medina, Nadia; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesus; Andrade, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    An antibiotic-susceptible and hypermucoviscous clinical isolate of Klebsiella variicola (K. variicola 8917) was obtained from the sputum of an adult patient. This work reports the complete draft genome sequence of K. variicola 8917 with 103 contigs and an annotation that revealed a 5,686,491-bp circular chromosome containing a total of 5,621 coding DNA sequences, 65 tRNA genes, and an average G+C content of 56.98%. PMID:25858850

  2. Determinate-state convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, O.; Hizlan, M.

    1991-01-01

    A determinate state convolutional code is formed from a conventional convolutional code by pruning away some of the possible state transitions in the decoding trellis. The type of staged power transfer used in determinate state convolutional codes proves to be an extremely efficient way of enhancing the performance of a concatenated coding system. The decoder complexity is analyzed along with free distances of these new codes and extensive simulation results is provided of their performance at the low signal to noise ratios where a real communication system would operate. Concise, practical examples are provided.

  3. Circular codes, symmetries and transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Circular codes, putative remnants of primeval comma-free codes, have gained considerable attention in the last years. In fact they represent a second kind of genetic code potentially involved in detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame in protein coding sequences. The discovering of an universal code across species suggested many theoretical and experimental questions. However, there is a key aspect that relates circular codes to symmetries and transformations that remains to a large extent unexplored. In this article we aim at addressing the issue by studying the symmetries and transformations that connect different circular codes. The main result is that the class of 216 C3 maximal self-complementary codes can be partitioned into 27 equivalence classes defined by a particular set of transformations. We show that such transformations can be put in a group theoretic framework with an intuitive geometric interpretation. More general mathematical results about symmetry transformations which are valid for any kind of circular codes are also presented. Our results pave the way to the study of the biological consequences of the mathematical structure behind circular codes and contribute to shed light on the evolutionary steps that led to the observed symmetries of present codes.

  4. Utility-aware anonymization of diagnosis codes.

    PubMed

    Loukides, G; Gkoulalas-Divanis, A

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for performing large-scale and low-cost biomedical studies has led organizations to promote the reuse of patient data. For instance, the National Institutes of Health in the US requires patient-specific data collected and analyzed in the context of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) to be deposited into a biorepository and broadly disseminated. While essential to comply with regulations, disseminating such data risks privacy breaches, because patients genomic sequences can be linked to their identities through diagnosis codes. This work proposes a novel approach that prevents this type of data linkage by modifying diagnosis codes to limit the probability of associating a patients identity to their genomic sequence. Our approach employs an effective algorithm that uses generalization and suppression of diagnosis codes to preserve privacy and takes into account the intended uses of the disseminated data to guarantee utility. We also present extensive experiments using several datasets derived from the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, as well as a large-scale case-study using the EMRs of 79K patients, which are linked to DNA contained in the Vanderbilt University biobank. Our results verify that our approach generates anonymized data that permit accurate biomedical analysis in tasks including case count studies and GWAS.

  5. Shannon Entropy of the Canonical Genetic Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemzer, Louis

    The probability that a non-synonymous point mutation in DNA will adversely affect the functionality of the resultant protein is greatly reduced if the substitution is conservative. In that case, the amino acid coded by the mutated codon has similar physico-chemical properties to the original. Many simplified alphabets, which group the 20 common amino acids into families, have been proposed. To evaluate these schema objectively, we introduce a novel, quantitative method based on the inherent redundancy in the canonical genetic code. By calculating the Shannon information entropy carried by 1- or 2-bit messages, groupings that best leverage the robustness of the code are identified. The relative importance of properties related to protein folding - like hydropathy and size - and function, including side-chain acidity, can also be estimated. In addition, this approach allows us to quantify the average information value of nucleotide codon positions, and explore the physiological basis for distinguishing between transition and transversion mutations. Supported by NSU PFRDG Grant #335347.

  6. Dancing DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    An imaging technique that uses fluorescent dyes and allows scientists to track DNA as it moves through gels or in solution is described. The importance, opportunities, and implications of this technique are discussed. (KR)

  7. Making your code citable with the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. With nearly 1,200 codes, it is the largest indexed resource for astronomy codes in existence. Established in 1999, it offers software authors a path to citation of their research codes even without publication of a paper describing the software, and offers scientists a way to find codes used in refereed publications, thus improving the transparency of the research. It also provides a method to quantify the impact of source codes in a fashion similar to the science metrics of journal articles. Citations using ASCL IDs are accepted by major astronomy journals and if formatted properly are tracked by ADS and other indexing services. The number of citations to ASCL entries increased sharply from 110 citations in January 2014 to 456 citations in September 2015. The percentage of code entries in ASCL that were cited at least once rose from 7.5% in January 2014 to 17.4% in September 2015. The ASCL's mid-2014 infrastructure upgrade added an easy entry submission form, more flexible browsing, search capabilities, and an RSS feeder for updates. A Changes/Additions form added this past fall lets authors submit links for papers that use their codes for addition to the ASCL entry even if those papers don't formally cite the codes, thus increasing the transparency of that research and capturing the value of their software to the community.

  8. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; Teuben, P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

    2012-09-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysics source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL has on average added 19 codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This paper provides the history and description of the ASCL. It lists the requirements for including codes, examines the advantages of the ASCL, and outlines some of its future plans.

  9. DNA adductomics.

    PubMed

    Balbo, Silvia; Turesky, Robert J; Villalta, Peter W

    2014-03-17

    Systems toxicology is a broad-based approach to describe many of the toxicological features that occur within a living system under stress or subjected to exogenous or endogenous exposures. The ultimate goal is to capture an overview of all exposures and the ensuing biological responses of the body. The term exposome has been employed to refer to the totality of all exposures, and systems toxicology investigates how the exposome influences health effects and consequences of exposures over a lifetime. The tools to advance systems toxicology include high-throughput transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and adductomics, which is still in its infancy. A well-established methodology for the comprehensive measurement of DNA damage resulting from every day exposures is not fully developed. During the past several decades, the (32)P-postlabeling technique has been employed to screen the damage to DNA induced by multiple classes of genotoxicants; however, more robust, specific, and quantitative methods have been sought to identify and quantify DNA adducts. Although triple quadrupole and ion trap mass spectrometry, particularly when using multistage scanning (LC-MS(n)), have shown promise in the field of DNA adductomics, it is anticipated that high-resolution and accurate-mass LC-MS(n) instrumentation will play a major role in assessing global DNA damage. Targeted adductomics should also benefit greatly from improved triple quadrupole technology. Once the analytical MS methods are fully mature, DNA adductomics along with other -omics tools will contribute greatly to the field of systems toxicology.

  10. Electromagnetic particle simulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Electromagnetic particle simulations solve the full set of Maxwell's equations. They thus include the effects of self-consistent electric and magnetic fields, magnetic induction, and electromagnetic radiation. The algorithms for an electromagnetic code which works directly with the electric and magnetic fields are described. The fields and current are separated into transverse and longitudinal components. The transverse E and B fields are integrated in time using a leapfrog scheme applied to the Fourier components. The particle pushing is performed via the relativistic Lorentz force equation for the particle momentum. As an example, simulation results are presented for the electron cyclotron maser instability which illustrate the importance of relativistic effects on the wave-particle resonance condition and on wave dispersion.

  11. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  12. Code lock with microcircuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobka, A.; May, I.

    1985-01-01

    A code lock with a microcircuit was invented which contains only a very few components. Two DD-triggers control the state of two identical transistors. When both transistors are turned on simultaneously the transistor VS1 is turned on so that the electromagnet YA1 pulls in the bolt and the door opens. This will happen only when a logic 1 appears at the inverted output of the first trigger and at the straight output of the second one. After the door is opened, a button on it resets the contactors to return both triggers to their original state. The electromagnetic is designed to produce the necessary pull force and sufficient power when under rectified 127 V line voltage, with the neutral wire of the lock circuit always connected to the - terminal of the power supply.

  13. Peripheral coding of taste

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  14. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  15. Improved lossless intra coding for next generation video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanam, Rahul; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there have been efforts by the ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG to further improve the compression performance of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard for developing a potential next generation video coding standard. The exploratory codec software of this potential standard includes new coding tools for inter and intra coding. In this paper, we present a new intra prediction mode for lossless intra coding. Our new intra mode derives a prediction filter for each input pixel using its neighboring reconstructed pixels, and applies this filter to the nearest neighboring reconstructed pixels to generate a prediction pixel. The proposed intra mode is demonstrated to improve the performance of the exploratory software for lossless intra coding, yielding a maximum and average bitrate savings of 4.4% and 2.11%, respectively.

  16. [Identification of original plants of uyghur medicinal materials fructus elaeagni using morphological characteristics and DNA barcode].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Ping; Fan, Cong-Zhao; Zhu, Jun; Li, Xiao-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Morphology and molecular identification technology were used to identify 3 original plants of Fructus Elaeagni which was commonly used in Uygur medicine. Leaves, flowers and fruits from different areas were selected randomly for morphology research. ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode was used to identify 17 samples of Fructus Elaeagni. The genetic distances were computed by kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model, and the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA5.0. The results showed that Elaeagnus angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientalis cannot be distinguished by morphological characteristics of leaves, flowers and fruits. The sequence length of ITS2 ranged from 220 to 223 bp, the average GC content was 61.9%. The haplotype numbers of E. angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientals were 4, 3, 3, respectively. The results from the NJ tree and ML tree showed that the 3 original species of Fructus Elaeagni cannot be distinguished obviously. Therefore, 3 species maybe have the same origin, and can be used as the original plant of Uygur medicineal material Fructus Elaeagni. However, further evidence of chemical components and pharmacological effect were needed.

  17. PCR amplification and sequencing of ITS1 rDNA of Culicoides arakawae.

    PubMed

    Li, G Q; Hu, Y L; Kanu, S; Zhu, X Q

    2003-02-28

    The first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA from Culicoides arakawae was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. The wDNAsis software was used to analyze the ITS1 sequences of C. arakawae and other nine species of Culicoides, which were obtained from GenBank and EMBL databases. For all species, the lengths of the ITS1 were 316-469 bp, and the G+C contents were 26.79-34.53%. Based on the lengths of the ITS1 sequences, the 10 Culicoides species could be divided into two groups. The first group consisted of C. arakawae, C. albicans, C. cubitalis, C. pulicaris and C. punctatus, and the second group comprised C. impunctatus, C. nubeculosus, C. variipennis, C. grisescens and C. imicola. The lengths for the first group were 316-347 bp and the second group were 457-469 bp. C. arakawae belonged to the first group by its ITS1 sequence length. Sequence analysis revealed that C. arakawae was genetically more similar to the first group than it was to the second group, consistent with results based on sequence length. The alignment of ITS1 (the alignment length was 500 bp including the gaps) sequences showed that there was a highly conserved region, which was between 288 and 388 bp, except for a few insertions and substitutions. These findings have important implications for the molecular identification of C. arakawae, for studying its molecular genetics and epidemiology, and for studying the molecular systematics of Culicoides.

  18. Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Kelley, T.A.

    1990-10-01

    The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of vhf signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in Fortran 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, DTOA study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of delta-times-of-arrival (DTOAs) vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

  19. Statistical and linguistic features of DNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havlin, S.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Mantegna, R. N.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing noncoding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, base pairs thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene. We resolve the problem of the "non-stationary" feature of the sequence of base pairs by applying a new algorithm called Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). We address the claim of Voss that there is no difference in the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions of DNA by systematically applying the DFA algorithm, as well as standard FFT analysis, to all eukaryotic DNA sequences (33 301 coding and 29 453 noncoding) in the entire GenBank database. We describe a simple model to account for the presence of long-range power-law correlations which is based upon a generalization of the classic Levy walk. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work showing that the noncoding sequences have certain statistical features in common with natural languages. Specifically, we adapt to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts, and the Shannon approach to quantifying the "redundancy" of a linguistic text in terms of a measurable entropy function. We suggest that noncoding regions in plants and invertebrates may display a smaller entropy and larger redundancy than coding regions, further supporting the possibility that noncoding regions of DNA may carry biological information.

  20. Functional cooperation of the dnaE and dnaN gene products in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, N; Uchida, H

    1981-01-01

    A system was designed to isolate second-site intergenic suppressors of a thermosensitive mutation of the dnaE gene of Escherichia coli. The dnaE gene codes for the alpha subunit of DNA polymerase III [McHenry, C. S. & Crow, W. (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 1748-1753]. One such suppressor, named sueA77, was finely mapped and found to be located at 82 min on the E. coli chromosome, between dnaA and recF, and within the dnaN gene [Sakakibara, Y. & Mizukami, T. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 178, 541-553]. The dnaN gene codes for the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme [Burgers, P. M. J., Kornberg, A. & Sakakibara, Y. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 5391-5395]. The sueA77 mutation was trans-dominant over its wild-type allele, and it suppressed different thermosensitive mutations of dnaE with different maximal permissive temperature. These properties were interpreted as providing genetic evidence for interaction of the dnaE and dnaN gene products in E. coli. Images PMID:6458043

  1. Functional cooperation of the dnaE and dnaN gene products in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, N; Uchida, H

    1981-09-01

    A system was designed to isolate second-site intergenic suppressors of a thermosensitive mutation of the dnaE gene of Escherichia coli. The dnaE gene codes for the alpha subunit of DNA polymerase III [McHenry, C. S. & Crow, W. (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 1748-1753]. One such suppressor, named sueA77, was finely mapped and found to be located at 82 min on the E. coli chromosome, between dnaA and recF, and within the dnaN gene [Sakakibara, Y. & Mizukami, T. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 178, 541-553]. The dnaN gene codes for the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme [Burgers, P. M. J., Kornberg, A. & Sakakibara, Y. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 5391-5395]. The sueA77 mutation was trans-dominant over its wild-type allele, and it suppressed different thermosensitive mutations of dnaE with different maximal permissive temperature. These properties were interpreted as providing genetic evidence for interaction of the dnaE and dnaN gene products in E. coli.

  2. What Is Mitochondrial DNA?

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  3. Overlapping genetic codes for overlapping frameshifted genes in Testudines, and Lepidochelys olivacea as special case.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2012-12-01

    Mitochondrial genes code for additional proteins after +2 frameshifts by reassigning stops to code for amino acids, which defines overlapping genetic codes for overlapping genes. Turtles recode stops UAR → Trp and AGR → Lys (AGR → Gly in the marine Olive Ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea). In Lepidochelys the +2 frameshifted mitochondrial Cytb gene lacks stops, open reading frames from other genes code for unknown proteins, and for regular mitochondrial proteins after frameshifts according to the overlapping genetic code. Lepidochelys' inversion between proteins coded by regular and overlapping genetic codes substantiates the existence of overlap coding. ND4 differs among Lepidochelys mitochondrial genomes: it is regular in DQ486893; in NC_011516, the open reading frame codes for another protein, the regular ND4 protein is coded by the frameshifted sequence reassigning stops as in other turtles. These systematic patterns are incompatible with Genbank/sequencing errors and DNA decay. Random mixing of synonymous codons, conserving main frame coding properties, shows optimization of natural sequences for overlap coding; Ka/Ks analyses show high positive (directional) selection on overlapping genes. Tests based on circular genetic codes confirm programmed frameshifts in ND3 and ND4l genes, and predicted frameshift sites for overlap coding in Lepidochelys. Chelonian mitochondria adapt for overlapping gene expression: cloverleaf formation by antisense tRNAs with predicted anticodons matching stops coevolves with overlap coding; antisense tRNAs with predicted expanded anticodons (frameshift suppressor tRNAs) associate with frameshift-coding in ND3 and ND4l, a potential regulation of frameshifted overlap coding. Anaeroby perhaps switched between regular and overlap coding genes in Lepidochelys.

  4. Xenomicrobiology: a roadmap for genetic code engineering.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G; Budisa, Nediljko

    2016-09-01

    Biology is an analytical and informational science that is becoming increasingly dependent on chemical synthesis. One example is the high-throughput and low-cost synthesis of DNA, which is a foundation for the research field of synthetic biology (SB). The aim of SB is to provide biotechnological solutions to health, energy and environmental issues as well as unsustainable manufacturing processes in the frame of naturally existing chemical building blocks. Xenobiology (XB) goes a step further by implementing non-natural building blocks in living cells. In this context, genetic code engineering respectively enables the re-design of genes/genomes and proteins/proteomes with non-canonical nucleic (XNAs) and amino (ncAAs) acids. Besides studying information flow and evolutionary innovation in living systems, XB allows the development of new-to-nature therapeutic proteins/peptides, new biocatalysts for potential applications in synthetic organic chemistry and biocontainment strategies for enhanced biosafety. In this perspective, we provide a brief history and evolution of the genetic code in the context of XB. We then discuss the latest efforts and challenges ahead for engineering the genetic code with focus on substitutions and additions of ncAAs as well as standard amino acid reductions. Finally, we present a roadmap for the directed evolution of artificial microbes for emancipating rare sense codons that could be used to introduce novel building blocks. The development of such xenomicroorganisms endowed with a 'genetic firewall' will also allow to study and understand the relation between code evolution and horizontal gene transfer.

  5. Multiple tag labeling method for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, R.A.; Huang, X.C.; Quesada, M.A.

    1995-07-25

    A DNA sequencing method is described which uses single lane or channel electrophoresis. Sequencing fragments are separated in the lane and detected using a laser-excited, confocal fluorescence scanner. Each set of DNA sequencing fragments is separated in the same lane and then distinguished using a binary coding scheme employing only two different fluorescent labels. Also described is a method of using radioisotope labels. 5 figs.

  6. Multiple tag labeling method for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Huang, Xiaohua C.; Quesada, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    A DNA sequencing method described which uses single lane or channel electrophoresis. Sequencing fragments are separated in said lane and detected using a laser-excited, confocal fluorescence scanner. Each set of DNA sequencing fragments is separated in the same lane and then distinguished using a binary coding scheme employing only two different fluorescent labels. Also described is a method of using radio-isotope labels.

  7. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  8. Ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole mitochondrial genome sequences of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of these processes and the effects of damage on ancient DNA templates has started to provide a more robust basis for research. Recent methodological advances have included the characterization of Pleistocene mammal populations and discoveries of DNA preserved in ancient sediments. Increasingly, ancient genetic information is providing a unique means to test assumptions used in evolutionary and population genetics studies to reconstruct the past. Initial results have revealed surprisingly complex population histories, and indicate that modern phylogeographic studies may give misleading impressions about even the recent evolutionary past. With the advent and uptake of appropriate methodologies, ancient DNA is now positioned to become a powerful tool in biological research and is also evolving new and unexpected uses, such as in the search for extinct or extant life in the deep biosphere and on other planets. PMID:15875564

  9. On multilevel block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu

    1991-01-01

    The multilevel (ML) technique for combining block coding and modulation is investigated. A general formulation is presented for ML modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate distance measures. A specific method for constructing ML block modulation codes (MLBMCs) with interdependency among component codes is proposed. Given an MLBMC C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed method gives an MLBC C-prime that has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C, and a smaller number of nearest-neighbor codewords than that of C. Finally, a technique is presented for analyzing the error performance of MLBMCs for an additive white Gaussian noise channel based on soft-decision maximum-likelihood decoding.

  10. Base-compositional biases and the bat problem. II. DNA-hybridization trees based on AT- and GC-enriched tracers.

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, J A; Pettigrew, J D

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a series of parallel DNA-hybridization experiments on a small group of bats (species of Pteropus, Rhinolophus, Noctilio and Pteronotus) and outgroups (Lemur, Cynocephalus, Didelphis), using whole-genome labels and tracers made from extracts enriched with AT and two levels of GC content. FITCH (additive phylogenetic trees) topologies were constructed from the four sets of comparisons, indexed as both delta Tmode and delta NPHs (normalized percentage of hybridization). Based on our previous work showing that the shared AT bias of pteropodids and some microchiropterans may affect the rank-ordering of taxa based on either AT- or GC-rich labels, our expectation was that the resulting trees would show differing topologies when generated from tracers made with the variously enriched DNA extracts. Whereas there was some variation among the trees, most of them grouped the bats together, and almost all paired the representative megachiropteran and rhinolophoid microchiropteran as sister-taxa in contrast to the other microchiropterans. As the pteropodid-rhinolophoid relationship is an unexpected and unlikely one, we attribute this association to an AT bias that was not obviated even by our most GC-rich labels, and suggest that such a bias may compromise the truth of some molecular trees. Accordingly, we believe the broader issue of bat monophyly remains unresolved by DNA-hybridization and probably also by gene-sequencing studies. PMID:9569431

  11. Genetic diversity in clinical isolates of the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis detected by a PCR-based random amplified polymorphic DNA assay.

    PubMed

    Yates-Siilata, K E; Sander, D M; Keath, E J

    1995-08-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus causing localized or systemic infection in areas where the organism is endemic in the central and southeastern United States. In this study, 19 independent isolates of B. dermatitidis from Little Rock, Ark., were grouped into three classes based on restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns in mitochondrial DNA with a heterologous probe from Histoplasma capsulatum. One large class of 15 isolates and two smaller classes (classes 2 and 3), each consisting of two isolates, were observed in BglII digests. Strain-specific arrays of PCR-amplified DNA products were obtained with arbitrarily selected primers (18 to 29 nucleotides long; G+C contents, 33 to 56%). In the large class 1 group, 13 isolates could be differentiated by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method with various primers. The two remaining class 1 isolates were obtained from the same patients and produced identical RAPD arrays. Dissimilar RAPD patterns were obtained from the smaller class 2 group but not from the class 3 isolates. Significant genetic diversity in clinical isolates of B. dermatitidis was observed; this may underscore a similar environmental diversification. Further application of the typing techniques may provide significant insight into the epidemiology of blastomycosis and aid in the assessment of specific virulence phenotypes.

  12. QR code for medical information uses.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ducut, Erick G

    2008-11-06

    We developed QR code online tools, simulated and tested QR code applications for medical information uses including scanning QR code labels, URLs and authentication. Our results show possible applications for QR code in medicine.

  13. Code Speed Measuring for VC++

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 688 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-14025 CODE SPEED MEASURING FOR VC++ Tom Nealis...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CODE SPEED MEASURING FOR VC++ 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ABSTRACT It’s often important to know how fast a snippet of code executes. This information allows the coder to make important decisions

  14. Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H. E.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.

  15. Bar-Code-Scribing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badinger, Michael A.; Drouant, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed hand-held tool applies indelible bar code to small parts. Possible to identify parts for management of inventory without tags or labels. Microprocessor supplies bar-code data to impact-printer-like device. Device drives replaceable scribe, which cuts bar code on surface of part. Used to mark serially controlled parts for military and aerospace equipment. Also adapts for discrete marking of bulk items used in food and pharmaceutical processing.

  16. Upgrades to NRLMOL code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basurto, Luis

    This project consists of performing upgrades to the massively parallel NRLMOL electronic structure code in order to enhance its performance by increasing its flexibility by: a) Utilizing dynamically allocated arrays, b) Executing in a parallel environment sections of the program that were previously executed in a serial mode, c) Exploring simultaneous concurrent executions of the program through the use of an already existing MPI environment; thus enabling the simulation of larger systems than it is currently capable of performing. Also developed was a graphical user interface that will allow less experienced users to start performing electronic structure calculations by aiding them in performing the necessary configuration of input files as well as providing graphical tools for the displaying and analysis of results. Additionally, a computational toolkit that can avail of large supercomputers and make use of various levels of approximation for atomic interactions was developed to search for stable atomic clusters and predict novel stable endohedral fullerenes. As an application of the developed computational toolkit, a search was conducted for stable isomers of Sc3N C80 fullerene. In this search, about 1.2 million isomers of C80 were optimized in various charged states at the PM6 level. Subsequently, using the selected optimized isomers of C80 in various charged state, about 10,000 isomers of Sc3N C80 were constructed which were optimized using semi-empirical PM6 quantum chemical method. A few selected lowest isomers of Sc3N C80 were optimized at the DFT level. The calculation confirms the lowest 3 isomers previously reported in literature but 4 new isomers are found within the lowest 10 isomers. Using the upgraded NRLMOL code, a study was done of the electronic structure of a multichromoric molecular complex containing two of each borondipyrromethane dye, Zn-tetraphenyl-porphyrin, bisphenyl anthracene and a fullerene. A systematic examination of the effect of

  17. The FLUKA Code: an Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M.V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P.R.; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /CERN /Siegen U. /Houston U. /SLAC /Frascati /NASA, Houston /ENEA, Frascati

    2005-11-09

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

  18. High Order Modulation Protograph Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

  19. Astrophysics Source Code Library Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Allen, A.; Berriman, G. B.; DuPrie, K.; Mink, J.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Schmidt, J.; Shamir, L.; Shortridge, K.; Taylor, M.; Teuben, P. J.; Wallin, J.

    2015-09-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL)1 is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research; it currently contains over 900 codes and is indexed by ADS. The ASCL has recently moved a new infrastructure into production. The new site provides a true database for the code entries and integrates the WordPress news and information pages and the discussion forum into one site. Previous capabilities are retained and permalinks to ascl.net continue to work. This improvement offers more functionality and flexibility than the previous site, is easier to maintain, and offers new possibilities for collaboration. This paper covers these recent changes to the ASCL.

  20. The FLUKA Code: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.; Scannicchio, D.; Trovati, S.; Villari, R.; Wilson, T.

    2006-01-01

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

  1. Golay and other box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    The (24,12;8) extended Golay Code can be generated as a 6 x 4 binary matrix from the (15,11;3) BCH-Hamming Code, represented as a 5 x 3 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity. The odd-parity case provides the additional 12th dimension. Furthermore, any three columns and five rows of the 6 x 4 Golay form a BCH-Hamming (15,11;3) Code. Similarly a (80,58;8) code can be generated as a 10 x 8 binary matrix from the (63,57;3) BCH-Hamming Code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix by adding a row and a column both of odd and even parity. Furthermore, any seven columns along with the top nine rows is a BCH-Hamming (53,57;3) Code. A (80,40;16) 10 x 8 matrix binary code with weight structure identical to the extended (80,40;16) Quadratic Residue Code is generated from a (63,39;7) binary cyclic code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity.

  2. Golay and other box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    The (24,12;8) extended Golay Code can be generated as a 6x4 binary matrix from the (15,11;3) BCH-Hamming Code, represented as a 5 x 3 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity. The odd-parity case provides the additional 12th dimension. Furthermore, any three columns and five rows of the 6 x 4 Golay form a BCH-Hamming (15,11;3) Code. Similarly a (80,58;8) code can be generated as a 10 x 8 binary matrix from the (63,57;3) BCH-Hamming Code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix by adding a row and a column both of odd and even parity. Furthermore, any seven columns along with the top nine rows is a BCH-Hamming (63,57;3) Code. A (80,40;16) 10 x 8 matrix binary code with weight structure identical to the extended (80,40;16) Quadratic Residue Code is generated from a (63,39;7) binary cyclic code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity.

  3. Implementation issues in source coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Chen, Yun-Chung; Hadenfeldt, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    An edge preserving image coding scheme which can be operated in both a lossy and a lossless manner was developed. The technique is an extension of the lossless encoding algorithm developed for the Mars observer spectral data. It can also be viewed as a modification of the DPCM algorithm. A packet video simulator was also developed from an existing modified packet network simulator. The coding scheme for this system is a modification of the mixture block coding (MBC) scheme described in the last report. Coding algorithms for packet video were also investigated.

  4. Extensive and biased intergenomic nonreciprocal DNA exchanges shaped a nascent polyploid genome, Gossypium (cotton).

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Wang, Xiyin; Gundlach, Heidrun; Mayer, Klaus F X; Peterson, Daniel G; Scheffler, Brian E; Chee, Peng W; Paterson, Andrew H

    2014-08-01

    Genome duplication is thought to be central to the evolution of morphological complexity, and some polyploids enjoy a variety of capabilities that transgress those of their diploid progenitors. Comparison of genomic sequences from several tetraploid (AtDt) Gossypium species and genotypes with putative diploid A- and D-genome progenitor species revealed that unidirectional DNA exchanges between homeologous chromosomes were the predominant mechanism responsible for allelic differences between the Gossypium tetraploids and their diploid progenitors. Homeologous gene conversion events (HeGCEs) gradually subsided, declining to rates similar to random mutation during radiation of the polyploid into multiple clades and species. Despite occurring in a common nucleus, preservation of HeGCE is asymmetric in the two tetraploid subgenomes. At-to-Dt conversion is far more abundant than the reciprocal, is enriched in heterochromatin, is highly correlated with GC content and transposon distribution, and may silence abundant A-genome-derived retrotransposons. Dt-to-At conversion is abundant in euchromatin and genes, frequently reversing losses of gene function. The long-standing observation that the nonspinnable-fibered D-genome contributes to the superior yield and quality of tetraploid cotton fibers may be explained by accelerated Dt to At conversion during cotton domestication and improvement, increasing dosage of alleles from the spinnable-fibered A-genome. HeGCE may provide an alternative to (rare) reciprocal DNA exchanges between chromosomes in heterochromatin, where genes have approximately five times greater abundance of Dt-to-At conversion than does adjacent intergenic DNA. Spanning exon-to-gene-sized regions, HeGCE is a natural noninvasive means of gene transfer with the precision of transformation, potentially important in genetic improvement of many crop plants.

  5. Use of ITS2 Region as the Universal DNA Barcode for Plants and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kun; Han, Jianping; Li, Ying; Pang, Xiaohui; Xu, Hongxi; Zhu, Yingjie; Xiao, Peigen; Chen, Shilin

    2010-01-01

    Background The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is regarded as one of the candidate DNA barcodes because it possesses a number of valuable characteristics, such as the availability of conserved regions for designing universal primers, the ease of its amplification, and sufficient variability to distinguish even closely related species. However, a general analysis of its ability to discriminate species in a comprehensive sample set is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, 50,790 plant and 12,221 animal ITS2 sequences downloaded from GenBank were evaluated according to sequence length, GC content, intra- and inter-specific divergence, and efficiency of identification. The results show that the inter-specific divergence of congeneric species in plants and animals was greater than its corresponding intra-specific variations. The success rates for using the ITS2 region to identify dicotyledons, monocotyledons, gymnosperms, ferns, mosses, and animals were 76.1%, 74.2%, 67.1%, 88.1%, 77.4%, and 91.7% at the species level, respectively. The ITS2 region unveiled a different ability to identify closely related species within different families and genera. The secondary structure of the ITS2 region could provide useful information for species identification and could be considered as a molecular morphological characteristic. Conclusions/Significance As one of the most popular phylogenetic markers for eukaryota, we propose that the ITS2 locus should be used as a universal DNA barcode for identifying plant species and as a complementary locus for CO1 to identify animal species. We have also developed a web application to facilitate ITS2-based cross-kingdom species identification (http://its2-plantidit.dnsalias.org). PMID:20957043

  6. The KIDTALK Behavior and Language Code: Manual and Coding Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Elizabeth M.; Ezell, Sara S.; Solomon, Ned A.; Hancock, Terry B.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    Developed as part of the Milieu Language Teaching Project at the John F. Kennedy Center at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, this KIDTALK Behavior-Language Coding Protocol and manual measures behavior occurring during adult-child interactions. The manual is divided into 5 distinct sections: (1) the adult behavior codes describe…

  7. Patched Conic Trajectory Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brooke Anderson; Wright, Henry

    2012-01-01

    PatCon code was developed to help mission designers run trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given planet. Initially developed in Fortran, the required inputs included launch date, arrival date, and other orbital parameters of the launch planet and arrival planets at the given dates. These parameters include the position of the planets, the eccentricity, semi-major axes, argument of periapsis, ascending node, and inclination of the planets. With these inputs, a patched conic approximation is used to determine the trajectory. The patched conic approximation divides the planetary mission into three parts: (1) the departure phase, in which the two relevant bodies are Earth and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a departure hyperbola with Earth at the focus; (2) the cruise phase, in which the two bodies are the Sun and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a transfer ellipse with the Sun at the focus; and (3) the arrival phase, in which the two bodies are the target planet and the spacecraft, where the trajectory is an arrival hyperbola with the planet as the focus.

  8. Bioinformatic analysis based on the complete coding region of the MSTN gene within and among different species.

    PubMed

    Song, X C; Xu, C; Yue, Z G; Wang, L; Wang, G W; Yang, F H

    2016-04-07

    Myostatin, encoded by the MSTN gene (previously GDF8), is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, which normally acts to limit skeletal muscle mass by regulating the number and growth of muscle fibers. In this study, a total of 84 myostatin gene sequences with known complete coding regions (CDS) and corresponding amino acid sequences were analyzed from 17 species, and differentiation within and among species was studied using comparative genomics and bioinformatics. Characteristics of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences were also predicted. The results indicated that a total of 569 polymorphic sites, including 53 singleton variable sites and 516 parsimony informative sites, which could be sorted into 44 haplotypes, were detected from 17 species. Observed genetic diversity was higher among species than within species, and Vulpes lagopus was more polymorphic than other species. There was clear differentiation of the myostatin gene among species and the reconstructed phylogenetic tree was consistent with the NCBI taxonomy. The myostatin gene was 375-aa long in most species, except for Mus musculus (376 aa) and Danio rerio (373 aa). The amino acid sequences of myostatin were deemed hydrophilic, and had theoretical pI values of <7.0, mostly due to the acidic polypeptide. The instability index of the myostatin protein was 40.48-51.63, indicating that the polypeptide is not stable. The G+C content of the CDS nucleotide sequence in different species was 40.60-51.69%. The predicted promoter region of the Ovis aries myostatin gene was 150-220 bp upstream of the start codon.

  9. Transverse Electronic Signature of DNA for Electronic Sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingsheng; Endres, Robert G.; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    In recent years, the proliferation of large-scale DNA sequencing projects for applications in clinical medicine and health care has driven the search for new methods that could reduce the time and cost. The commonly used Sanger sequencing method relies on the chemistry to read the bases in DNA and is far too slow and expensive for reading personal genetic codes. There were earlier attempts to sequence DNA by directly visualizing the nucleotide composition of the DNA molecules by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). However, sequencing DNA based on directly imaging DNA's atomic structure has not yet been successful. In Chap. 9, Xu, Endres, and Arakawa report a potential physical alternative by detecting unique transverse electronic signatures of DNA bases using ultrahigh vacuum STM. Supported by the principles, calculations and statistical analyses, these authors argue that it would be possible to directly sequence DNA by the STM-based technology without any modification of the DNA.

  10. Acoustic Gravity Wave Chemistry Model for the RAYTRACE Code.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    AU)-AI56 850 ACOlUSTIC GRAVITY WAVE CHEMISTRY MODEL FOR THE IAYTRACE I/~ CODE(U) MISSION RESEARCH CORP SANTA BARBIARA CA T E OLD Of MAN 84 MC-N-SlS...DNA-TN-S4-127 ONAOOI-BO-C-0022 UNLSSIFIlED F/O 20/14 NL 1-0 2-8 1111 po 312.2 1--I 11111* i •. AD-A 156 850 DNA-TR-84-127 ACOUSTIC GRAVITY WAVE...Hicih Frequency Radio Propaoation Acoustic Gravity Waves 20. ABSTRACT (Continue en reveree mide if tteceeemr and Identify by block number) This

  11. UpSETing chromatin during non-coding RNA production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The packaging of eukaryotic DNA into nucleosomal arrays permits cells to tightly regulate and fine-tune gene expression. The ordered disassembly and reassembly of these nucleosomes allows RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) conditional access to the underlying DNA sequences. Disruption of nucleosome reassembly following RNAPII passage results in spurious transcription initiation events, leading to the production of non-coding RNA (ncRNA). We review the molecular mechanisms involved in the suppression of these cryptic initiation events and discuss the role played by ncRNAs in regulating gene expression. PMID:23738864

  12. Civil Code, 11 December 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    Article 162 of this Mexican Code provides, among other things, that "Every person has the right freely, responsibly, and in an informed fashion to determine the number and spacing of his or her children." When a marriage is involved, this right is to be observed by the spouses "in agreement with each other." The civil codes of the following states contain the same provisions: 1) Baja California (Art. 159 of the Civil Code of 28 April 1972 as revised in Decree No. 167 of 31 January 1974); 2) Morelos (Art. 255 of the Civil Code of 26 September 1949 as revised in Decree No. 135 of 29 December 1981); 3) Queretaro (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 29 December 1950 as revised in the Act of 9 January 1981); 4) San Luis Potosi (Art. 147 of the Civil Code of 24 March 1946 as revised in 13 June 1978); Sinaloa (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 18 June 1940 as revised in Decree No. 28 of 14 October 1975); 5) Tamaulipas (Art. 146 of the Civil Code of 21 November 1960 as revised in Decree No. 20 of 30 April 1975); 6) Veracruz-Llave (Art. 98 of the Civil Code of 1 September 1932 as revised in the Act of 30 December 1975); and 7) Zacatecas (Art. 253 of the Civil Code of 9 February 1965 as revised in Decree No. 104 of 13 August 1975). The Civil Codes of Puebla and Tlaxcala provide for this right only in the context of marriage with the spouses in agreement. See Art. 317 of the Civil Code of Puebla of 15 April 1985 and Article 52 of the Civil Code of Tlaxcala of 31 August 1976 as revised in Decree No. 23 of 2 April 1984. The Family Code of Hidalgo requires as a formality of marriage a certification that the spouses are aware of methods of controlling fertility, responsible parenthood, and family planning. In addition, Article 22 the Civil Code of the Federal District provides that the legal capacity of natural persons is acquired at birth and lost at death; however, from the moment of conception the individual comes under the protection of the law, which is valid with respect to the

  13. Coding in pigeons: Multiple-coding versus single-code/default strategies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the coding strategies that pigeons may use in a temporal discrimination tasks, pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample procedure with three sample durations (2s, 6s and 18s) and two comparisons (red and green hues). One comparison was correct following 2-s samples and the other was correct following both 6-s and 18-s samples. Tests were then run to contrast the predictions of two hypotheses concerning the pigeons' coding strategies, the multiple-coding and the single-code/default. According to the multiple-coding hypothesis, three response rules are acquired, one for each sample. According to the single-code/default hypothesis, only two response rules are acquired, one for the 2-s sample and a "default" rule for any other duration. In retention interval tests, pigeons preferred the "default" key, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. In no-sample tests, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 2-s sample, a result predicted by multiple-coding. Finally, in generalization tests, when the sample duration equaled 3.5s, the geometric mean of 2s and 6s, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 6-s and 18-s samples, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. The pattern of results suggests the need for models that take into account multiple sources of stimulus control.

  14. Predicted functional RNAs within coding regions constrain evolutionary rates of yeast proteins.

    PubMed

    Warden, Charles D; Kim, Seong-Ho; Yi, Soojin V

    2008-02-13

    Functional RNAs (fRNAs) are being recognized as an important regulatory component in biological processes. Interestingly, recent computational studies suggest that the number and biological significance of functional RNAs within coding regions (coding fRNAs) may have been underestimated. We hypothesized that such coding fRNAs will impose additional constraint on sequence evolution because the DNA primary sequence has to simultaneously code for functional RNA secondary structures on the messenger RNA in addition to the amino acid codons for the protein sequence. To test this prediction, we first utilized computational methods to predict conserved fRNA secondary structures within multiple species alignments of Saccharomyces sensu strico genomes. We predict that as much as 5% of the genes in the yeast genome contain at least one functional RNA secondary structure within their protein-coding region. We then analyzed the impact of coding fRNAs on the evolutionary rate of protein-coding genes because a decrease in evolutionary rate implies constraint due to biological functionality. We found that our predicted coding fRNAs have a significant influence on evolutionary rates (especially at synonymous sites), independent of other functional measures. Thus, coding fRNA may play a role on sequence evolution. Given that coding regions of humans and flies contain many more predicted coding fRNAs than yeast, the impact of coding fRNAs on sequence evolution may be substantial in genomes of higher eukaryotes.

  15. DNA Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Carol; della Villa, Paula

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students reverse-translate proteins from their amino acid sequences back to their DNA sequences then assign musical notes to represent the adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine bases. Data is obtained from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on the Internet. (DDR)

  16. DNA Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Ellen S.; Bertino, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity that allow students to work through the exercise of DNA profiling and to grapple with some analytical and ethical questions involving a couple arranging with a surrogate mother to have a baby. Can be used to teach the principles of restriction enzyme digestion, gel electrophoresis, and probe hybridization. (MDH)

  17. Synthetic DNA

    PubMed Central

    O’ Driscoll, Aisling; Sleator, Roy D.

    2013-01-01

    With world wide data predicted to exceed 40 trillion gigabytes by 2020, big data storage is a very real and escalating problem. Herein, we discuss the utility of synthetic DNA as a robust and eco-friendly archival data storage solution of the future. PMID:23514938

  18. Cracking the bioelectric code

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, AiSun; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of resting potential in non-excitable cells of living tissue are now known to be instructive signals for pattern formation during embryogenesis, regeneration and cancer suppression. The development of molecular-level techniques for tracking ion flows and functionally manipulating the activity of ion channels and pumps has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which voltage gradients regulate cell behaviors and the assembly of complex large-scale structures. A recent paper demonstrated that a specific voltage range is necessary for demarcation of eye fields in the frog embryo. Remarkably, artificially setting other somatic cells to the eye-specific voltage range resulted in formation of eyes in aberrant locations, including tissues that are not in the normal anterior ectoderm lineage: eyes could be formed in the gut, on the tail, or in the lateral plate mesoderm. These data challenge the existing models of eye fate restriction and tissue competence maps, and suggest the presence of a bioelectric code—a mapping of physiological properties to anatomical outcomes. This Addendum summarizes the current state of knowledge in developmental bioelectricity, proposes three possible interpretations of the bioelectric code that functionally maps physiological states to anatomical outcomes, and highlights the biggest open questions in this field. We also suggest a speculative hypothesis at the intersection of cognitive science and developmental biology: that bioelectrical signaling among non-excitable cells coupled by gap junctions simulates neural network-like dynamics, and underlies the information processing functions required by complex pattern formation in vivo. Understanding and learning to control the information stored in physiological networks will have transformative implications for developmental biology, regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:23802040

  19. Towards the Batch Synthesis of Long DNA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    MISMATCHES In a series of papers,136 the SantaLucia NN model137 of Watson - Crick paired DNA thermodynamics was successfully extended to incorporate...generally indicate a- helix coding or structural motifs for DNA incorporation into chromatin. Trifonov, E. N., “3-,!10.5-, 200- and 400-base...double-stranded DNA , is well-described by Hearst’s “weakly bending rod” model with 3.4 Å rise/bp and 13 Å radius for the helix ; its persistence length39

  20. Breaking the Code of Silence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbig, Wolfgang W.

    2000-01-01

    Schools and communities must break the adolescent code of silence concerning threats of violence. Schools need character education stressing courage, caring, and responsibility; regular discussions of the school discipline code; formal security discussions with parents; 24-hour hotlines; and protocols for handling reports of potential violence.…