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Sample records for gcnf recruits dna

  1. The orphan nuclear receptor GCNF recruits DNA methyltransferase for Oct-3/4 silencing

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Noriko . E-mail: nrksato@rinshoken.or.jp; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Arai, Ken-ichi

    2006-06-09

    Somatic DNA methylation patterns are determined in part by the de novo methylation that occurs after early embryonic demethylation. Oct-3/4, a pluripotency gene, is unmethylated in the blastocyst, but undergoes de novo methylation and silencing during gastrulation. Here we show that the transcriptional repressor GCNF recruits DNA methyltransferase to the Oct-3/4 promoter and facilitates its methylation. Although acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (K9) and/or 14 (K14) and methylation of H3 at lysine 4 (K4) decrease during this period, as do Oct-3/4 transcript levels, H3K9 and H3K27 methylation levels remain constant, indicating that DNA methylation does not require repressive histone modifications. We found that GCNF interacts directly with Dnmt3 molecule(s) and verified that this interaction induces the methylation of the Oct-3/4 promoter. Our finding suggests a model in which differentiation-induced GCNF recruits de novo DNA methyltransferase and facilitates the silencing of a pluripotency gene.

  2. Differential Recruitment of Methyl CpG-Binding Domain Factors and DNA Methyltransferases by the Orphan Receptor Germ Cell Nuclear Factor Initiates the Repression and Silencing of Oct4

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Peili; Xu, Xueping; Le Menuet, Damien; Chung, Arthur C-K; Cooney, Austin J

    2011-01-01

    The pluripotency gene Oct4 encodes a key transcription factor that maintains self-renewal of embryonic stem cell (ESC) and is downregulated upon differentiation of ESCs and silenced in somatic cells. A combination of cis elements, transcription factors, and epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, mediates Oct4 gene expression. Here, we show that the orphan nuclear receptor germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF) initiates Oct4 repression and DNA methylation by the differential recruitment of methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) and DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) to the Oct4 promoter. When compared with wild-type ESCs and gastrulating embryos, Oct4 repression is lost and its proximal promoter is significantly hypomethylated in retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated GCNF−/− ESCs and GCNF−/− embryos. Efforts to characterize mediators of GCNF's repressive function and DNA methylation of the Oct4 promoter identified MBD3, MBD2, and de novo Dnmts as GCNF interacting factors. Upon differentiation, endogenous GCNF binds to the Oct4 proximal promoter and differentially recruits MBD3 and MBD2 as well as Dnmt3A. In differentiated GCNF−/− ESCs, recruitment of MBD3 and MBD2 as well as Dnmt3A to Oct4 promoter is lost and subsequently Oct4 repression and DNA methylation failed to occur. Hypomethylation of the Oct4 promoter is also observed in RA-differentiated MBD3−/− and Dnmt3A−/− ESCs, but not in MBD2−/− and Dnmt3B−/− ESCs. Thus, recruitment of MBD3, MBD2, and Dnmt3A by GCNF links two events: gene-specific repression and DNA methylation, which occur differentially at the Oct4 promoter. GCNF initiates the repression and epigenetic modification of Oct4 gene during ESC differentiation. Stem Cells 2011;29:1041–1051 PMID:21608077

  3. Graphitic carbon nanofiber (GCNF)/polymer materials. I. GCNF/epoxy monoliths using hexanediamine linker molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei-Hong; Li, Jiang; Xu, Luoyu R; Michel, Jason A; Sullivan, Lisa M; Lukehart, Charles M

    2004-09-01

    Processing methods have been optimized for the formation of graphitic carbon nanofiber (GCNF)/epoxy nanocomposites containing GCNFs highly dispersed throughout a thermoset epoxy matrix. GCNFs having a herringbone atomic structure are surface-derivatized with bifunctional hexanediamine linker molecules (GCNF-HDA) capable of covalent binding to an epoxy matrix during thermal curing and are cut to smaller dimension using high-power ultrasonication. GCNF-HDA nanofibers are dispersed in epoxy resin at 0.3 wt.% loading using variable levels of ultrasonication processing prior to thermal curing. Effects of sonication power on the quality of the GCNF-HDA/epoxy material obtained after curing have been determined from flexural property measurements, thermomechanical analysis and SEM/TEM imaging. GCNF-HDA/epoxy material of the highest quality is obtained using low-power sonication, although high-power sonication for short periods gives improved flexural properties without lowering the glass transition temperature. Good dispersion and polymer wetting of the GCNF component is evident on the nanoscale.

  4. Mechanism of Archaeal MCM Helicase Recruitment to DNA Replication Origins

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Rachel Y.; Abeyrathne, Priyanka D.; Bell, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cellular DNA replication origins direct the recruitment of replicative helicases via the action of initiator proteins belonging to the AAA+ superfamily of ATPases. Archaea have a simplified subset of the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery proteins and possess initiators that appear ancestral to both eukaryotic Orc1 and Cdc6. We have reconstituted origin-dependent recruitment of the homohexameric archaeal MCM in vitro with purified recombinant proteins. Using this system, we reveal that archaeal Orc1-1 fulfills both Orc1 and Cdc6 functions by binding to a replication origin and directly recruiting MCM helicase. We identify the interaction interface between these proteins and reveal how ATP binding by Orc1-1 modulates recruitment of MCM. Additionally, we provide evidence that an open-ring form of the archaeal MCM homohexamer is loaded at origins. PMID:26725007

  5. Replication factor C recruits DNA polymerase delta to sites of nucleotide excision repair but is not required for PCNA recruitment.

    PubMed

    Overmeer, René M; Gourdin, Audrey M; Giglia-Mari, Ambra; Kool, Hanneke; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Siegal, Gregg; Fousteri, Maria I; Mullenders, Leon H F; Vermeulen, Wim

    2010-10-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) operates through coordinated assembly of repair factors into pre- and postincision complexes. The postincision step of NER includes gap-filling DNA synthesis and ligation. However, the exact composition of this NER-associated DNA synthesis complex in vivo and the dynamic interactions of the factors involved are not well understood. Using immunofluorescence, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and live-cell protein dynamic studies, we show that replication factor C (RFC) is implicated in postincision NER in mammalian cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of RFC impairs upstream removal of UV lesions and abrogates the downstream recruitment of DNA polymerase delta. Unexpectedly, RFC appears dispensable for PCNA recruitment yet is required for the subsequent recruitment of DNA polymerases to PCNA, indicating that RFC is essential to stably load the polymerase clamp to start DNA repair synthesis at 3' termini. The kinetic studies are consistent with a model in which RFC exchanges dynamically at sites of repair. However, its persistent localization at stalled NER complexes suggests that RFC remains targeted to the repair complex even after loading of PCNA. We speculate that RFC associates with the downstream 5' phosphate after loading; such interaction would prevent possible signaling events initiated by the RFC-like Rad17 and may assist in unloading of PCNA.

  6. Monopolin recruits condensin to organize centromere DNA and repetitive DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Burrack, Laura S.; Applen Clancey, Shelly E.; Chacón, Jeremy M.; Gardner, Melissa K.; Berman, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of higher-order structure at centromeres is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. The monopolin complex is thought to cross-link multiple kinetochore complexes to prevent merotelic attachments that result in chromosome missegregation. This model is based on structural analysis and the requirement that monopolin execute mitotic and meiotic chromosome segregation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which has more than one kinetochore–microtubule attachment/centromere, and co-orient sister chromatids in meiosis I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recent data from S. pombe suggest an alternative possibility: that the recruitment of condensin is the primary function of monopolin. Here we test these models using the yeast Candida albicans. C. albicans cells lacking monopolin exhibit defects in chromosome segregation, increased distance between centromeres, and decreased stability of several types of repeat DNA. Of note, changing kinetochore–microtubule copy number from one to more than one kinetochore–microtubule/centromere does not alter the requirement for monopolin. Furthermore, monopolin recruits condensin to C. albicans centromeres, and overexpression of condensin suppresses chromosome segregation defects in strains lacking monopolin. We propose that the key function of monopolin is to recruit condensin in order to promote the assembly of higher-order structure at centromere and repetitive DNA. PMID:23885115

  7. Recruitment of DNA polymerase eta by FANCD2 in the early response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dechen; Dudimah, Fred Duafalia; Zhang, Jun; Pickering, Anna; Paneerselvam, Jayabal; Palrasu, Manikandan; Wang, Hong; Fei, Peiwen

    2013-03-01

    How Fanconi anemia (FA) protein D2 (FANCD2) performs DNA damage repair remains largely elusive. We report here that translesion synthesis DNA polymerase (pol) eta is a novel mediator of FANCD2 function. We found that wild type (wt) FANCD2, not K561R (mt) FANCD2, can interact with pol eta. Upon DNA damage, the interaction of pol eta with FANCD2 occurs earlier than that with PCNA, which is in concert with our finding that FANCD2 monoubiquitination peaks at an earlier time point than that of PCNA monoubiquitination. FANCD2-null FA patient cells (PD20) carrying histone H2B-fused pol eta and wtFANCD2, respectively, show a similar tendency of low Mitomycin C (MMC) sensitivity, while cells transfected with empty vector control or pol eta alone demonstrate a similar high level of MMC sensitivity. It therefore appears that FANCD2 monoubiquitination plays a similar anchor role as histone to bind DNA in regulating pol eta. Collectively, our study indicates that, in the early phase of DNA damage response, FANCD2 plays crucial roles in recruiting pol eta to the sites of DNA damage for repair.

  8. Mechanism of RecO recruitment to DNA by single-stranded DNA binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhikov, Mikhail; Koroleva, Olga; Postnov, Dmitri; Tran, Andrew; Korolev, Sergey

    2011-08-25

    RecO is a recombination mediator protein (RMP) important for homologous recombination, replication repair and DNA annealing in bacteria. In all pathways, the single-stranded (ss) DNA binding protein, SSB, plays an inhibitory role by protecting ssDNA from annealing and recombinase binding. Conversely, SSB may stimulate each reaction through direct interaction with RecO. We present a crystal structure of Escherichia coli RecO bound to the conserved SSB C-terminus (SSB-Ct). SSB-Ct binds the hydrophobic pocket of RecO in a conformation similar to that observed in the ExoI/SSB-Ct complex. Hydrophobic interactions facilitate binding of SSB-Ct to RecO and RecO/RecR complex in both low and moderate ionic strength solutions. In contrast, RecO interaction with DNA is inhibited by an elevated salt concentration. The SSB mutant lacking SSB-Ct also inhibits RecO-mediated DNA annealing activity in a salt-dependent manner. Neither RecO nor RecOR dissociates SSB from ssDNA. Therefore, in E. coli, SSB recruits RMPs to ssDNA through SSB-Ct, and RMPs are likely to alter the conformation of SSB-bound ssDNA without SSB dissociation to initiate annealing or recombination. Intriguingly, Deinococcus radiodurans RecO does not bind SSB-Ct and weakly interacts with the peptide in the presence of RecR, suggesting the diverse mechanisms of DNA repair pathways mediated by RecO in different organisms.

  9. DICER, DROSHA and DNA damage response RNAs are necessary for the secondary recruitment of DNA damage response factors.

    PubMed

    Francia, Sofia; Cabrini, Matteo; Matti, Valentina; Oldani, Amanda; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) plays a central role in preserving genome integrity. Recently, we reported that the endoribonucleases DICER and DROSHA contribute to DDR activation by generating small non-coding RNAs, termed DNA damage response RNA (DDRNA), carrying the sequence of the damaged locus. It is presently unclear whether DDRNAs act by promoting the primary recognition of DNA lesions or the secondary recruitment of DDR factors into cytologically detectable foci and consequent signal amplification. Here, we demonstrate that DICER and DROSHA are dispensable for primary recruitment of the DDR sensor NBS1 to DNA damage sites. Instead, the accumulation of the DDR mediators MDC1 and 53BP1 (also known as TP53BP1), markers of secondary recruitment, is reduced in DICER- or DROSHA-inactivated cells. In addition, NBS1 (also known as NBN) primary recruitment is resistant to RNA degradation, consistent with the notion that RNA is dispensable for primary recognition of DNA lesions. We propose that DICER, DROSHA and DDRNAs act in the response to DNA damage after primary recognition of DNA lesions and, together with γH2AX, are essential for enabling the secondary recruitment of DDR factors and fuel the amplification of DDR signaling.

  10. Independent mechanisms recruit the cohesin loader protein NIPBL to sites of DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Bot, Christopher; Pfeiffer, Annika; Giordano, Fosco; Dantuma, Nico P.; Ström, Lena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT NIPBL is required to load the cohesin complex on to DNA. While the canonical role of cohesin is to couple replicated sister chromatids together until the onset of mitosis, it also promotes tolerance to DNA damage. Here, we show that NIPBL is recruited to DNA damage throughout the cell cycle via independent mechanisms, influenced by type of damage. First, the heterochromatin protein HP1γ (also known as CBX3) recruits NIPBL to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through the corresponding HP1-binding motif within the N-terminus. By contrast, the C-terminal HEAT repeat domain is unable to recruit NIPBL to DSBs but independently targets NIPBL to laser microirradiation-induced DNA damage. Each mechanism is dependent on the RNF8 and RNF168 ubiquitylation pathway, while the recruitment of the HEAT repeat domain requires further ATM or ATR activity. Thus, NIPBL has evolved a sophisticated response to damaged DNA that is influenced by the form of damage, suggesting a highly dynamic role for NIPBL in maintaining genomic stability. PMID:28167679

  11. Independent mechanisms recruit the cohesin loader protein NIPBL to sites of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Bot, Christopher; Pfeiffer, Annika; Giordano, Fosco; Manjeera, Dharani E; Dantuma, Nico P; Ström, Lena

    2017-03-15

    NIPBL is required to load the cohesin complex on to DNA. While the canonical role of cohesin is to couple replicated sister chromatids together until the onset of mitosis, it also promotes tolerance to DNA damage. Here, we show that NIPBL is recruited to DNA damage throughout the cell cycle via independent mechanisms, influenced by type of damage. First, the heterochromatin protein HP1γ (also known as CBX3) recruits NIPBL to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through the corresponding HP1-binding motif within the N-terminus. By contrast, the C-terminal HEAT repeat domain is unable to recruit NIPBL to DSBs but independently targets NIPBL to laser microirradiation-induced DNA damage. Each mechanism is dependent on the RNF8 and RNF168 ubiquitylation pathway, while the recruitment of the HEAT repeat domain requires further ATM or ATR activity. Thus, NIPBL has evolved a sophisticated response to damaged DNA that is influenced by the form of damage, suggesting a highly dynamic role for NIPBL in maintaining genomic stability.

  12. BCL10 is recruited to sites of DNA damage to facilitate DNA double-strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ismail Hassan; Dronyk, Ashley; Hu, Xiuying; Hendzel, Michael J.; Shaw, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies have found BCL10 can localize to the nucleus and that this is linked to tumor aggression and poorer prognosis. These studies suggest that BCL10 localization plays a novel role in the nucleus that may contribute to cellular transformation and carcinogenesis. In this study, we show that BCL10 functions as part of the DNA damage response (DDR). We found that BCL10 facilitates the rapid recruitment of RPA, BRCA1 and RAD51 to sites of DNA damage. Furthermore, we also found that ATM phosphorylates BCL10 in response to DNA damage. Functionally, BCL10 promoted DNA double-strand breaks repair, enhancing cell survival after DNA damage. Taken together our results suggest a novel role for BCL10 in the repair of DNA lesions. PMID:26771713

  13. Regulating infidelity: RNA-mediated recruitment of AID to DNA during class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    DiMenna, Lauren J; Chaudhuri, Jayanta

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism by which the DNA deaminase activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is specifically recruited to repetitive switch region DNA during class switch recombination is still poorly understood. Work over the past decade has revealed a strong link between transcription and RNA polymerase-associated factors in AID recruitment, yet none of these processes satisfactorily explain how AID specificity is affected. Here, we review a recent finding wherein AID is guided to switch regions not by a protein factor but by an RNA moiety, and especially one associated with a noncoding RNA that has been long thought of as being inert. This work explains the long-standing requirement of splicing of noncoding transcripts during class switching, and has implications in both B cell-mediated immunity as well as the underlying pathological syndromes associated with the recombination reaction.

  14. The FANCD2-FANCI complex is recruited to DNA interstrand crosslinks before monoubiquitination of FANCD2.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chih-Chao; Li, Zhuolun; Lopez-Martinez, David; Nicholson, William V; Vénien-Bryan, Catherine; Cohn, Martin A

    2016-07-13

    The Fanconi anaemia (FA) pathway is important for the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICL). The FANCD2-FANCI complex is central to the pathway, and localizes to ICLs dependent on its monoubiquitination. It has remained elusive whether the complex is recruited before or after the critical monoubiquitination. Here, we report the first structural insight into the human FANCD2-FANCI complex by obtaining the cryo-EM structure. The complex contains an inner cavity, large enough to accommodate a double-stranded DNA helix, as well as a protruding Tower domain. Disease-causing mutations in the Tower domain are observed in several FA patients. Our work reveals that recruitment of the complex to a stalled replication fork serves as the trigger for the activating monoubiquitination event. Taken together, our results uncover the mechanism of how the FANCD2-FANCI complex activates the FA pathway, and explains the underlying molecular defect in FA patients with mutations in the Tower domain.

  15. Regulating infidelity: RNA-mediated recruitment of AID to DNA during class switch recombination

    PubMed Central

    DiMenna, Lauren; Chaudhuri, Jayanta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism by which the DNA deaminase AID is specifically recruited to repetitive switch region DNA during class switch recombination is still poorly understood. Work over the past decade has revealed a strong link between transcription and RNA polymerase-associated factors in AID recruitment, yet none of these processes satisfactorily explain how AID specificity is effected. Here we review a recent finding wherein AID is guided to switch regions not by a protein factor but by an RNA moiety, and especially one associated with a non-coding RNA that has been long thought of as being inert. This work explains the long-standing requirement of splicing of non-coding transcripts during class switching, and has implications in both B-cell-mediated immunity as well as the underlying pathological syndromes associated with the recombination reaction. PMID:26799454

  16. Nucleoid occlusion protein Noc recruits DNA to the bacterial cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Adams, David William; Wu, Ling Juan; Errington, Jeff

    2015-02-12

    To proliferate efficiently, cells must co-ordinate division with chromosome segregation. In Bacillus subtilis, the nucleoid occlusion protein Noc binds to specific DNA sequences (NBSs) scattered around the chromosome and helps to protect genomic integrity by coupling the initiation of division to the progression of chromosome replication and segregation. However, how it inhibits division has remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Noc associates with the cell membrane via an N-terminal amphipathic helix, which is necessary for function. Importantly, the membrane-binding affinity of this helix is weak and requires the assembly of nucleoprotein complexes, thus establishing a mechanism for DNA-dependent activation of Noc. Furthermore, division inhibition by Noc requires recruitment of NBS DNA to the cell membrane and is dependent on its ability to bind DNA and membrane simultaneously. Indeed, Noc production in a heterologous system is sufficient for recruitment of chromosomal DNA to the membrane. Our results suggest a simple model in which the formation of large membrane-associated nucleoprotein complexes physically occludes assembly of the division machinery.

  17. E1-Mediated Recruitment of a UAF1-USP Deubiquitinase Complex Facilitates Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lehoux, Michaël; Gagnon, David

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human papillomavirus (HPV) E1 helicase promotes viral DNA replication through its DNA unwinding activity and association with host factors. The E1 proteins from anogenital HPV types interact with the cellular WD repeat-containing factor UAF1 (formerly known as p80). Specific amino acid substitutions in E1 that impair this interaction inhibit maintenance of the viral episome in immortalized keratinocytes and reduce viral DNA replication by up to 70% in transient assays. In this study, we determined by affinity purification of UAF1 that it interacts with three deubiquitinating enzymes in C33A cervical carcinoma cells: USP1, a nuclear protein, and the two cytoplasmic enzymes USP12 and USP46. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that E1 assembles into a ternary complex with UAF1 and any one of these three USPs. Moreover, expression of E1 leads to a redistribution of USP12 and USP46 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies further revealed that E1 recruits these threes USPs to the viral origin in association with UAF1. The function of USP1, USP12, and USP46 in viral DNA replication was investigated by overproduction of catalytically inactive versions of these enzymes in transient assays. All three dominant negative USPs reduced HPV31 DNA replication by up to 60%, an effect that was specific, as it was not observed in assays performed with a truncated E1 lacking the UAF1-binding domain or with bovine papillomavirus 1 E1, which does not bind UAF1. These results highlight the importance of the USP1, USP12, and USP46 deubiquitinating enzymes in anogenital HPV DNA replication. IMPORTANCE Human papillomaviruses are small DNA tumor viruses that induce benign and malignant lesions of the skin and mucosa. HPV types that infect the anogenital tract are the etiological agents of cervical cancer, the majority of anal cancers, and a growing proportion of head-and-neck cancers. Replication of the HPV genome requires the viral

  18. Mutually Exclusive Binding of Telomerase RNA and DNA by Ku Alters Telomerase Recruitment Model

    PubMed Central

    Pfingsten, Jennifer S.; Goodrich, Karen J.; Taabazuing, Cornelius; Ouenzar, Faissal; Chartrand, Pascal; Cech, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Ku heterodimer contributes to telomere maintenance as a component of telomeric chromatin and as an accessory subunit of telomerase. How Ku binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and to telomerase RNA (TLC1) promotes its telomeric functions is incompletely understood. We demonstrate that deletions designed to constrict the DNA-binding ring of Ku80 disrupt non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), telomeric gene silencing and telomere length maintenance, suggesting that these functions require Ku's DNA end-binding activity. Contrary to the current model, a mutant Ku with low affinity for dsDNA also loses affinity for TLC1 both in vitro and in vivo. Competition experiments reveal that wild-type Ku binds dsDNA and TLC1 mutually exclusively. Cells expressing the mutant Ku are deficient in nuclear accumulation of TLC1, as expected from the RNA-binding defect. These findings force reconsideration of the mechanisms by which Ku assists in recruiting telomerase to natural telomeres and broken chromosome ends. PMID:22365814

  19. CBX4-mediated SUMO modification regulates BMI1 recruitment at sites of DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ismail Hassan; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Caron, Marie-Christine; McDonald, Darin; Xu, Zhizhong; Masson, Jean-Yves; Poirier, Guy G.; Hendzel, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are involved in epigenetic silencing where they function as major determinants of cell identity, stem cell pluripotency and the epigenetic gene silencing involved in cancer development. Recently numerous PcG proteins, including CBX4, have been shown to accumulate at sites of DNA damage. However, it remains unclear whether or not CBX4 or its E3 sumo ligase activity is directly involved in the DNA damage response (DDR). Here we define a novel role for CBX4 as an early DDR protein that mediates SUMO conjugation at sites of DNA lesions. DNA damage stimulates sumoylation of BMI1 by CBX4 at lysine 88, which is required for the accumulation of BMI1 at DNA damage sites. Moreover, we establish that CBX4 recruitment to the sites of laser micro-irradiation-induced DNA damage requires PARP activity but does not require H2AX, RNF8, BMI1 nor PI-3-related kinases. The importance of CBX4 in the DDR was confirmed by the depletion of CBX4, which resulted in decreased cellular resistance to ionizing radiation. Our results reveal a direct role for CBX4 in the DDR pathway. PMID:22402492

  20. Identification of Scleractinian Coral Recruits Using Fluorescent Censusing and DNA Barcoding Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Min; de Palmas, Stéphane; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Denis, Vianney; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2014-01-01

    The identification of coral recruits has been problematic due to a lack of definitive morphological characters being available for higher taxonomic resolution. In this study, we tested whether fluorescent detection of coral recruits used in combinations of different DNA-barcoding markers (cytochrome oxidase I gene [COI], open reading frame [ORF], and nuclear Pax-C intron [PaxC]) could be useful for increasing the resolution of coral spat identification in ecological studies. One hundred and fifty settlement plates were emplaced at nine sites on the fringing reefs of Kenting National Park in southern Taiwan between April 2011 and September 2012. A total of 248 living coral spats and juveniles (with basal areas ranging from 0.21 to 134.57 mm2) were detected on the plates with the aid of fluorescent light and collected for molecular analyses. Using the COI DNA barcoding technique, 90.3% (224/248) of coral spats were successfully identified into six genera, including Acropora, Isopora, Montipora, Pocillopora, Porites, and Pavona. PaxC further separated I. cuneata and I. palifera of Isopora from Acropora, and ORF successfully identified the species of Pocillopora (except P. meandrina and P. eydouxi). Moreover, other cnidarian species such as actinarians, zoanthids, and Millepora species were visually found using fluorescence and identified by COI DNA barcoding. This combination of existing approaches greatly improved the taxonomic resolution of early coral life stages, which to date has been mainly limited to the family level based on skeletal identification. Overall, this study suggests important improvements for the identification of coral recruits in ecological studies. PMID:25211345

  1. CpGB DNA activates dermal macrophages and specifically recruits inflammatory monocytes into the skin.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Allison L; Rice, Lisa; Affandi, Alsya J; DiMarzio, Michael; Rifkin, Ian R; Stifano, Giuseppina; Christmann, Romy B; Lafyatis, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) drives innate immune responses after recognition of foreign or endogenous DNA containing unmethylated CpG motifs. DNA-mediated TLR9 activation is highly implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune skin diseases, yet its contribution to the inflammation seen in these diseases remains unclear. In this study, TLR9 ligand, CpGB DNA, was administered to mice via a subcutaneous osmotic pump with treatment lasting 1 or 4 weeks. Gene expression and immunofluorescence analyses were used to determine chemokine expression and cell recruitment in the skin surrounding the pump outlet. CpGB DNA skin treatment dramatically induced a marked influx of CD11b+ F4/80+ macrophages, increasing over 4 weeks of treatment, and induction of IFNγ and TNFα expression. Chemokines, CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10, were highly induced in CpGB DNA-treated skin, although abrogation of these signalling pathways individually did not alter macrophage accumulation. Flow cytometry analysis showed that TLR9 activation in the skin increased circulating CD11b+ CD115+ Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes following 1 week of CpGB DNA treatment. Additionally, skin-resident CD11b+ cells were found to initially take up subcutaneous CpGB DNA and propagate the subsequent immune response. Using diphtheria toxin-induced monocyte depletion mouse model, gene expression analysis demonstrated that CD11b+ cells are responsible for the CpGB DNA-induced cytokine and chemokine response. Overall, these data demonstrate that chronic TLR9 activation induces a specific inflammatory response, ultimately leading to a striking and selective accumulation of macrophages in the skin.

  2. UHRF1 is a sensor for DNA interstrand crosslinks and recruits FANCD2 to initiate the Fanconi anemia pathway.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chih-Chao; Zhan, Bao; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Haas, Wilhelm; Gygi, Steven P; Cohn, Martin A

    2015-03-31

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is critical for the cellular response to toxic DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Using a biochemical purification strategy, we identified UHRF1 as a protein that specifically interacts with ICLs in vitro and in vivo. Reduction of cellular levels of UHRF1 by RNAi attenuates the FA pathway and sensitizes cells to mitomycin C. Knockdown cells display a drastic reduction in FANCD2 foci formation. Using live-cell imaging, we observe that UHRF1 is rapidly recruited to chromatin in response to DNA crosslinking agents and that this recruitment both precedes and is required for the recruitment of FANCD2 to ICLs. Based on these results, we describe a mechanism of ICL sensing and propose that UHRF1 is a critical factor that binds to ICLs. In turn, this binding is necessary for the subsequent recruitment of FANCD2, which allows the DNA repair process to initiate.

  3. Bloom syndrome complex promotes FANCM recruitment to stalled replication forks and facilitates both repair and traverse of DNA interstrand crosslinks

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Chen; Huang, Jing; Yan, Zhijiang; Li, Yongjiang; Ohzeki, Mioko; Ishiai, Masamichi; Xu, Dongyi; Takata, Minoru; Seidman, Michael; Wang, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment of FANCM, a conserved DNA translocase and key component of several DNA repair protein complexes, to replication forks stalled by DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) is a step upstream of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair and replication traverse pathways of ICLs. However, detection of the FANCM recruitment has been technically challenging so that its mechanism remains exclusive. Here, we successfully observed recruitment of FANCM at stalled forks using a newly developed protocol. We report that the FANCM recruitment depends upon its intrinsic DNA translocase activity, and its DNA-binding partner FAAP24. Moreover, it is dependent on the replication checkpoint kinase, ATR; but is independent of the FA core and FANCD2–FANCI complexes, two essential components of the FA pathway, indicating that the FANCM recruitment occurs downstream of ATR but upstream of the FA pathway. Interestingly, the recruitment of FANCM requires its direct interaction with Bloom syndrome complex composed of BLM helicase, Topoisomerase 3α, RMI1 and RMI2; as well as the helicase activity of BLM. We further show that the FANCM–BLM complex interaction is critical for replication stress-induced FANCM hyperphosphorylation, for normal activation of the FA pathway in response to ICLs, and for efficient traverse of ICLs by the replication machinery. Epistasis studies demonstrate that FANCM and BLM work in the same pathway to promote replication traverse of ICLs. We conclude that FANCM and BLM complex work together at stalled forks to promote both FA repair and replication traverse pathways of ICLs. PMID:28058110

  4. Bloom syndrome complex promotes FANCM recruitment to stalled replication forks and facilitates both repair and traverse of DNA interstrand crosslinks.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chen; Huang, Jing; Yan, Zhijiang; Li, Yongjiang; Ohzeki, Mioko; Ishiai, Masamichi; Xu, Dongyi; Takata, Minoru; Seidman, Michael; Wang, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment of FANCM, a conserved DNA translocase and key component of several DNA repair protein complexes, to replication forks stalled by DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) is a step upstream of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair and replication traverse pathways of ICLs. However, detection of the FANCM recruitment has been technically challenging so that its mechanism remains exclusive. Here, we successfully observed recruitment of FANCM at stalled forks using a newly developed protocol. We report that the FANCM recruitment depends upon its intrinsic DNA translocase activity, and its DNA-binding partner FAAP24. Moreover, it is dependent on the replication checkpoint kinase, ATR; but is independent of the FA core and FANCD2-FANCI complexes, two essential components of the FA pathway, indicating that the FANCM recruitment occurs downstream of ATR but upstream of the FA pathway. Interestingly, the recruitment of FANCM requires its direct interaction with Bloom syndrome complex composed of BLM helicase, Topoisomerase 3α, RMI1 and RMI2; as well as the helicase activity of BLM. We further show that the FANCM-BLM complex interaction is critical for replication stress-induced FANCM hyperphosphorylation, for normal activation of the FA pathway in response to ICLs, and for efficient traverse of ICLs by the replication machinery. Epistasis studies demonstrate that FANCM and BLM work in the same pathway to promote replication traverse of ICLs. We conclude that FANCM and BLM complex work together at stalled forks to promote both FA repair and replication traverse pathways of ICLs.

  5. CtBP Levels Control Intergenic Transcripts, PHO/YY1 DNA Binding, and PcG Recruitment to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arindam; Atchison, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Carboxy-terminal binding protein (CtBP) is a well-known corepressor of several DNA binding transcription factors in Drosophila as well as in mammals. CtBP is implicated in Polycomb Group (PcG) complex-mediated transcriptional repression because it can bind to some PcG proteins, and mutation of the ctbp gene in flies results in lost PcG protein recruitment to Polycomb Response Elements (PREs) and lost PcG repression. However, the mechanism of reduced PcG DNA binding in CtBP mutant backgrounds is unknown. We show here that in a Drosophila CtBP mutant background, intergenic transcripts are induced across several PRE sequences and this corresponds to reduced DNA binding by PcG proteins Pleiohomeotic (PHO) and Polycomb (Pc), and reduced trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 27, a hallmark of PcG repression. Restoration of CtBP levels by expression of a CtBP transgene results in repression of intergenic transcripts, restored PcG binding, and elevated trimethylation of H3 on lysine 27. Our results support a model in which CtBP regulates expression of intergenic transcripts that controls DNA binding by PcG proteins and subsequent histone modifications and transcriptional activity. PMID:20082324

  6. Arabidopsis DNA polymerase ϵ recruits components of Polycomb repressor complex to mediate epigenetic gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    del Olmo, Iván; López, Juan A.; Vázquez, Jesús; Raynaud, Cécile; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis ESD7 locus encodes the catalytic subunit of the DNA Pol ϵ involved in the synthesis of the DNA leading strand and is essential for embryo viability. The hypomorphic allele esd7-1 is viable but displays a number of pleiotropic phenotypic alterations including an acceleration of flowering time. Furthermore, Pol ϵ is involved in the epigenetic silencing of the floral integrator genes FT and SOC1, but the molecular nature of the transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms involved remains elusive. Here we reveal that ESD7 interacts with components of the PRC2 such as CLF, EMF2 and MSI1, and that mutations in ESD7 cause a decrease in the levels of the H3K27me3 mark present in the chromatin of FT and SOC1. We also demonstrate that a domain of the C-terminal region of ESD7 mediates the binding to the different PRC2 components and this interaction is necessary for the proper recruitment of PRC2 to FT and SOC1 chromatin. We unveil the existence of interplay between the DNA replication machinery and the PcG complexes in epigenetic transcriptional silencing. These observations provide an insight into the mechanisms ensuring that the epigenetic code at pivotal loci in developmental control is faithfully transmitted to the progeny of eukaryotic cells. PMID:26980282

  7. Transcriptionally active chromatin recruits homologous recombination at DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Aymard, François; Bugler, Beatrix; Schmidt, Christine K; Guillou, Emmanuelle; Caron, Pierre; Briois, Sébastien; Iacovoni, Jason S; Daburon, Virginie; Miller, Kyle M; Jackson, Stephen P; Legube, Gaëlle

    2014-04-01

    Although both homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining can repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), the mechanisms by which one of these pathways is chosen over the other remain unclear. Here we show that transcriptionally active chromatin is preferentially repaired by HR. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) to analyze repair of multiple DSBs induced throughout the human genome, we identify an HR-prone subset of DSBs that recruit the HR protein RAD51, undergo resection and rely on RAD51 for efficient repair. These DSBs are located in actively transcribed genes and are targeted to HR repair via the transcription elongation-associated mark trimethylated histone H3 K36. Concordantly, depletion of SETD2, the main H3 K36 trimethyltransferase, severely impedes HR at such DSBs. Our study thereby demonstrates a primary role in DSB repair of the chromatin context in which a break occurs.

  8. The Stat3/GR interaction code: predictive value of direct/indirect DNA recruitment for transcription outcome.

    PubMed

    Langlais, David; Couture, Catherine; Balsalobre, Aurélio; Drouin, Jacques

    2012-07-13

    Transcription factor recruitment to genomic sites of action is primarily due to direct protein:DNA interactions. The subsequent recruitment of coregulatory complexes leads to either transcriptional activation or repression. In contrast to this canonical scheme, some transcription factors, such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), behave as transcriptional repressors when recruited to target genes through protein tethering. We have investigated the genome-wide prevalence of tethering between GR and Stat3 and found nonreciprocal interactions, namely that GR tethering to DNA-bound Stat3 results in transcriptional repression, whereas Stat3 tethering to GR results in synergism. Further, other schemes of GR and Stat3 corecruitment to regulatory modules result in transcriptional synergism, including neighboring and composite binding sites. The results indicate extensive transcriptional interactions between Stat3 and GR; further, they provide a genome-wide assessment of transcriptional regulation by tethering and a molecular basis for integration of signals mediated by GR and Stats in health and disease.

  9. FANCI Regulates Recruitment of the FA Core Complex at Sites of DNA Damage Independently of FANCD2.

    PubMed

    Castella, Maria; Jacquemont, Celine; Thompson, Elizabeth L; Yeo, Jung Eun; Cheung, Ronald S; Huang, Jen-Wei; Sobeck, Alexandra; Hendrickson, Eric A; Taniguchi, Toshiyasu

    2015-10-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA)-BRCA pathway mediates repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks. The FA core complex, a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase, participates in the detection of DNA lesions and monoubiquitinates two downstream FA proteins, FANCD2 and FANCI (or the ID complex). However, the regulation of the FA core complex itself is poorly understood. Here we show that the FA core complex proteins are recruited to sites of DNA damage and form nuclear foci in S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. ATR kinase activity, an intact FA core complex and FANCM-FAAP24 were crucial for this recruitment. Surprisingly, FANCI, but not its partner FANCD2, was needed for efficient FA core complex foci formation. Monoubiquitination or ATR-dependent phosphorylation of FANCI were not required for the FA core complex recruitment, but FANCI deubiquitination by USP1 was. Additionally, BRCA1 was required for efficient FA core complex foci formation. These findings indicate that FANCI functions upstream of FA core complex recruitment independently of FANCD2, and alter the current view of the FA-BRCA pathway.

  10. Recruitment of the Nucleotide Excision Repair Endonuclease XPG to Sites of UV-Induced DNA Damage Depends on Functional TFIIH▿

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, Angelika; Luijsterburg, Martijn S.; Warmerdam, Daniël O.; Ibrahim, Shehu; Nigg, Alex; van Cappellen, Wiggert A.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; van Driel, Roel; Vermeulen, Wim; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.

    2006-01-01

    The structure-specific endonuclease XPG is an indispensable core protein of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) machinery. XPG cleaves the DNA strand at the 3′ side of the DNA damage. XPG binding stabilizes the NER preincision complex and is essential for the 5′ incision by the ERCC1/XPF endonuclease. We have studied the dynamic role of XPG in its different cellular functions in living cells. We have created mammalian cell lines that lack functional endogenous XPG and stably express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-tagged XPG. Life cell imaging shows that in undamaged cells XPG-eGFP is uniformly distributed throughout the cell nucleus, diffuses freely, and is not stably associated with other nuclear proteins. XPG is recruited to UV-damaged DNA with a half-life of 200 s and is bound for 4 min in NER complexes. Recruitment requires functional TFIIH, although some TFIIH mutants allow slow XPG recruitment. Remarkably, binding of XPG to damaged DNA does not require the DDB2 protein, which is thought to enhance damage recognition by NER factor XPC. Together, our data present a comprehensive view of the in vivo behavior of a protein that is involved in a complex chromatin-associated process. PMID:17000769

  11. Homologous recombinational repair factors are recruited and loaded onto the viral DNA genome in Epstein-Barr virus replication compartments.

    PubMed

    Kudoh, Ayumi; Iwahori, Satoko; Sato, Yoshitaka; Nakayama, Sanae; Isomura, Hiroki; Murata, Takayuki; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2009-07-01

    Homologous recombination is an important biological process that facilitates genome rearrangement and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The induction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic replication induces ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA damage checkpoint signaling, leading to the clustering of phosphorylated ATM and Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complexes to sites of viral genome synthesis in nuclei. Here we report that homologous recombinational repair (HRR) factors such as replication protein A (RPA), Rad51, and Rad52 as well as MRN complexes are recruited and loaded onto the newly synthesized viral genome in replication compartments. The 32-kDa subunit of RPA is extensively phosphorylated at sites in accordance with those with ATM. The hyperphosphorylation of RPA32 causes a change in RPA conformation, resulting in a switch from the catalysis of DNA replication to the participation in DNA repair. The levels of Rad51 and phosphorylated RPA were found to increase with the progression of viral productive replication, while that of Rad52 proved constant. Furthermore, biochemical fractionation revealed increases in levels of DNA-bound forms of these HRRs. Bromodeoxyuridine-labeled chromatin immunoprecipitation and PCR analyses confirmed the loading of RPA, Rad 51, Rad52, and Mre11 onto newly synthesized viral DNA, and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling analysis demonstrated DSBs in the EBV replication compartments. HRR factors might be recruited to repair DSBs on the viral genome in viral replication compartments. RNA interference knockdown of RPA32 and Rad51 prevented viral DNA synthesis remarkably, suggesting that homologous recombination and/or repair of viral DNA genome might occur, coupled with DNA replication to facilitate viral genome synthesis.

  12. RB localizes to DNA double-strand breaks and promotes DNA end resection and homologous recombination through the recruitment of BRG1.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Cruz, Renier; Manickavinayaham, Swarnalatha; Biswas, Anup K; Clary, Regina Weaks; Premkumar, Tolkappiyan; Cole, Francesca; Johnson, David G

    2016-11-15

    The retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor is recognized as a master regulator that controls entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. Its loss leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation and is a hallmark of cancer. RB works by binding to members of the E2F family of transcription factors and recruiting chromatin modifiers to the promoters of E2F target genes. Here we show that RB also localizes to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) dependent on E2F1 and ATM kinase activity and promotes DSB repair through homologous recombination (HR), and its loss results in genome instability. RB is necessary for the recruitment of the BRG1 ATPase to DSBs, which stimulates DNA end resection and HR. A knock-in mutation of the ATM phosphorylation site on E2F1 (S29A) prevents the interaction between E2F1 and TopBP1 and recruitment of RB, E2F1, and BRG1 to DSBs. This knock-in mutation also impairs DNA repair, increases genomic instability, and renders mice hypersensitive to IR. Importantly, depletion of RB in osteosarcoma and breast cancer cell lines results in sensitivity to DNA-damaging drugs, which is further exacerbated by poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. We uncovered a novel, nontranscriptional function for RB in HR, which could contribute to genome instability associated with RB loss.

  13. KSHV encoded LANA recruits Nucleosome Assembly Protein NAP1L1 for regulating viral DNA replication and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Namrata; Thakker, Suhani; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of latency is an essential for lifelong persistence and pathogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is the most abundantly expressed protein during latency and is important for viral genome replication and transcription. Replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is a major step in packaging the newly synthesized DNA into chromatin, but the mechanism of KSHV genome chromatinization post-replication is not understood. Here, we show that nucleosome assembly protein 1-like protein 1 (NAP1L1) associates with LANA. Our binding assays revealed an association of LANA with NAP1L1 in KSHV-infected cells, which binds through its amino terminal domain. Association of these proteins confirmed their localization in specific nuclear compartments of the infected cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays from NAP1L1-depleted cells showed LANA-mediated recruitment of NAP1L1 at the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Presence of NAP1L1 stimulated LANA-mediated DNA replication and persistence of a TR-containing plasmid. Depletion of NAP1L1 led to a reduced nucleosome positioning on the viral genome. Furthermore, depletion of NAP1L1 increased the transcription of viral lytic genes and overexpression decreased the promoter activities of LANA-regulated genes. These results confirmed that LANA recruitment of NAP1L1 helps in assembling nucleosome for the chromatinization of newly synthesized viral DNA. PMID:27599637

  14. CtIP Protein Dimerization Is Critical for Its Recruitment to Chromosomal DNA Double-stranded Breaks*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailong; Shao, Zhengping; Shi, Linda Z.; Hwang, Patty Yi-Hwa; Truong, Lan N.; Berns, Michael W.; Chen, David J.; Wu, Xiaohua

    2012-01-01

    CtIP (CtBP-interacting protein) associates with BRCA1 and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex and plays an essential role in homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA double-stranded break (DSB) repair. It has been described that CtIP forms dimers in mammalian cells, but the biological significance is not clear. In this study, we identified a conserved motif in the N terminus of CtIP, which is required for dimer formation. We further showed that CtIP mutants impaired in forming dimers are strongly defective in HR, end resection, and activation of the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related pathway, without notable change of CtIP interactions with BRCA1 or Nbs1. In addition to HR, CtIP dimerization is also required for microhomology-mediated end joining. Live cell imaging of enhanced GFP-tagged CtIP demonstrates that the CtIP dimerization mutant fails to be localized to DSBs, whereas placing a heterologous dimerization motif to the dimerization mutant restores CtIP recruitment to DSBs. These studies suggest that CtIP dimer formation is essential for its recruitment to DSBs on chromatin upon DNA damage. Furthermore, DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of CtIP is significantly reduced in the CtIP dimerization mutants. Therefore, in addition to the C-terminal conserved domains critical for CtIP function, the dimerization motif on the N terminus of CtIP is also conserved and essential for its function in DNA damage responses. The severe repair defects of CtIP dimerization mutants are likely due to the failure in localization to chromosomal DSBs upon DNA damage. PMID:22544744

  15. Recruitment of the cohesin loading factor NIPBL to DNA double-strand breaks depends on MDC1, RNF168 and HP1{gamma} in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Keiji; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Mitsutake, Norisato; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} NIPBL is recruited to DSBs. {yields} Localization of NIPBL to DSBs is regulated by MDC1 and RNF168. {yields} HP1{gamma} is required for NIPBL accumulation at DSBs. -- Abstract: The cohesin loading factor NIPBL is required for cohesin to associate with chromosomes and plays a role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Although the NIPBL homolog Scc2 is recruited to an enzymatically generated DSB and promotes cohesin-dependent DSB repair in yeast, the mechanism of the recruitment remains poorly understood. Here we show that the human NIPBL is recruited to the sites of DNA damage generated by micro-irradiation as well as to the sites of DSBs induced by homing endonuclease, I-PpoI. The recruitment of NIPBL was impaired by RNAi-mediated knockdown of MDC1 or RNF168, both of which also accumulate at DSBs. We also show that the recruitment of NIPBL to the sites of DNA damage is mediated by its C-terminal region containing HEAT repeats and Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) interacting motif. Furthermore, NIPBL accumulation at damaged sites was also compromised by HP1{gamma} depletion. Taken together, our study reveals that human NIPBL is a novel protein recruited to DSB sites, and the recruitment is controlled by MDC1, RNF168 and HP1{gamma}.

  16. Chromosome thripsis by DNA double strand break clusters causes enhanced cell lethality, chromosomal translocations and 53BP1-recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Schipler, Agnes; Mladenova, Veronika; Soni, Aashish; Nikolov, Vladimir; Saha, Janapriya; Mladenov, Emil; Iliakis, George

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are hallmark of cancer and of radiation-induced cell killing, reflecting joining of incongruent DNA-ends that alter the genome. Translocation-formation requires DNA end-joining mechanisms and incompletely characterized, permissive chromatin conditions. We show that chromatin destabilization by clusters of DNA double-strand-breaks (DSBs) generated by the I-SceI meganuclease at multiple, appropriately engineered genomic sites, compromises c-NHEJ and markedly increases cell killing and translocation-formation compared to single-DSBs. Translocation-formation from DSB-clusters utilizes Parp1 activity, implicating alt-EJ in their formation. Immunofluorescence experiments show that single-DSBs and DSB-clusters uniformly provoke the formation of single γ-H2AX foci, suggesting similar activation of early DNA damage response (DDR). Live-cell imaging also shows similar single-focus recruitment of the early-response protein MDC1, to single-DSBs and DSB-clusters. Notably, the late DDR protein, 53BP1 shows in live-cell imaging strikingly stronger recruitment to DSB-clusters as compared to single-DSBs. This is the first report that chromatin thripsis, in the form of engineered DSB-clusters, compromises first-line DSB-repair pathways, allowing alt-EJ to function as rescuing-backup. DSB-cluster-formation is indirectly linked to the increased biological effectiveness of high ionization-density radiations, such as the alpha-particles emitted by radon gas or the heavy-ions utilized in cancer therapy. Our observations provide the first direct mechanistic explanation for this long-known effect. PMID:27257076

  17. Single-molecule imaging of UvrA and UvrB recruitment to DNA lesions in living Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Stracy, Mathew; Jaciuk, Marcin; Uphoff, Stephan; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.; Nowotny, Marcin; Sherratt, David J.; Zawadzki, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes chemically diverse DNA lesions in all domains of life. In Escherichia coli, UvrA and UvrB initiate NER, although the mechanistic details of how this occurs in vivo remain to be established. Here, we use single-molecule fluorescence imaging to provide a comprehensive characterization of the lesion search, recognition and verification process in living cells. We show that NER initiation involves a two-step mechanism in which UvrA scans the genome and locates DNA damage independently of UvrB. Then UvrA recruits UvrB from solution to the lesion. These steps are coordinated by ATP binding and hydrolysis in the ‘proximal' and ‘distal' UvrA ATP-binding sites. We show that initial UvrB-independent damage recognition by UvrA requires ATPase activity in the distal site only. Subsequent UvrB recruitment requires ATP hydrolysis in the proximal site. Finally, UvrA dissociates from the lesion complex, allowing UvrB to orchestrate the downstream NER reactions. PMID:27562541

  18. The FANCD2–FANCI complex is recruited to DNA interstrand crosslinks before monoubiquitination of FANCD2

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chih-Chao; Li, Zhuolun; Lopez-Martinez, David; Nicholson, William V.; Vénien-Bryan, Catherine; Cohn, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    The Fanconi anaemia (FA) pathway is important for the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICL). The FANCD2–FANCI complex is central to the pathway, and localizes to ICLs dependent on its monoubiquitination. It has remained elusive whether the complex is recruited before or after the critical monoubiquitination. Here, we report the first structural insight into the human FANCD2–FANCI complex by obtaining the cryo-EM structure. The complex contains an inner cavity, large enough to accommodate a double-stranded DNA helix, as well as a protruding Tower domain. Disease-causing mutations in the Tower domain are observed in several FA patients. Our work reveals that recruitment of the complex to a stalled replication fork serves as the trigger for the activating monoubiquitination event. Taken together, our results uncover the mechanism of how the FANCD2–FANCI complex activates the FA pathway, and explains the underlying molecular defect in FA patients with mutations in the Tower domain. PMID:27405460

  19. JNK Phosphorylates SIRT6 to Stimulate DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in Response to Oxidative Stress by Recruiting PARP1 to DNA Breaks.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Michael; Simon, Matthew; Tombline, Gregory; May, Alfred; Morello, Timothy D; Hubbard, Basil P; Bredbenner, Katie; Park, Rosa; Sinclair, David A; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2016-09-06

    The accumulation of damage caused by oxidative stress has been linked to aging and to the etiology of numerous age-related diseases. The longevity gene, sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), promotes genome stability by facilitating DNA repair, especially under oxidative stress conditions. Here we uncover the mechanism by which SIRT6 is activated by oxidative stress to promote DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. We show that the stress-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphorylates SIRT6 on serine 10 in response to oxidative stress. This post-translational modification facilitates the mobilization of SIRT6 to DNA damage sites and is required for efficient recruitment of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) to DNA break sites and for efficient repair of DSBs. Our results demonstrate a post-translational mechanism regulating SIRT6, and they provide the link between oxidative stress signaling and DNA repair pathways that may be critical for hormetic response and longevity assurance.

  20. An atypical AAA+ ATPase assembly controls efficient transposition through DNA remodeling and transposase recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Berger, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposons are ubiquitous genetic elements that drive genome rearrangements, evolution, and the spread of infectious disease and drug-resistance. Many transposons, such as Mu, Tn7 and IS21, require regulatory AAA+ ATPases for function. We use x-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy to show that the ATPase subunit of IS21, IstB, assembles into a clamshell-shaped decamer that sandwiches DNA between two helical pentamers of ATP-associated AAA+ domains, sharply bending the duplex into a 180° U-turn. Biochemical studies corroborate key features of the structure, and further show that the IS21 transposase, IstA, recognizes the IstB•DNA complex and promotes its disassembly by stimulating ATP hydrolysis. Collectively, these studies reveal a distinct manner of higher-order assembly and client engagement by a AAA+ ATPase and suggest a mechanistic model where IstB binding and subsequent DNA bending primes a selected insertion site for efficient transposition. PMID:26276634

  1. Dynamic Regulation of Genes Involved in Mitochondrial DNA Replication and Transcription during Mouse Brown Fat Cell Differentiation and Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Murholm, Maria; Dixen, Karen; Qvortrup, Klaus; Hansen, Lillian H. L.; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Madsen, Lise; Barbatelli, Giorgio; Quistorff, Bjørn; Hansen, Jacob B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Brown adipocytes are specialised in dissipating energy through adaptive thermogenesis, whereas white adipocytes are specialised in energy storage. These essentially opposite functions are possible for two reasons relating to mitochondria, namely expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a remarkably higher mitochondrial abundance in brown adipocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a comprehensive characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial DNA replication, transcription and function during white and brown fat cell differentiation in vitro as well as in white and brown fat, brown adipose tissue fractions and in selected adipose tissues during cold exposure. We find a massive induction of the majority of such genes during brown adipocyte differentiation and recruitment, e.g. of the mitochondrial transcription factors A (Tfam) and B2 (Tfb2m), whereas only a subset of the same genes were induced during white adipose conversion. In addition, PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) was found to be expressed at substantially higher levels in brown compared to white pre-adipocytes and adipocytes. We demonstrate that forced expression of Tfam but not Tfb2m in brown adipocyte precursor cells promotes mitochondrial DNA replication, and that silencing of PRDM16 expression during brown fat cell differentiation blunts mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of brown fat cell markers. Conclusions/Significance Using both in vitro and in vivo model systems of white and brown fat cell differentiation, we report a detailed characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We find significant differences in differentiating white and brown adipocytes, which might explain the notable increase in mitochondrial content observed during brown adipose conversion. In addition, our data support a key role of PRDM16 in triggering brown adipocyte differentiation, including mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of UCP1

  2. Artificial Recruitment of UAF1-USP Complexes by a PHLPP1-E1 Chimeric Helicase Enhances Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, David; Lehoux, Michaël

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The E1 helicase from anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) types interacts with the cellular WD repeat-containing protein UAF1 in complex with the deubiquitinating enzyme USP1, USP12, or USP46. This interaction stimulates viral DNA replication and is required for maintenance of the viral episome in keratinocytes. E1 associates with UAF1 through a short UAF1-binding site (UBS) located within the N-terminal 40 residues of the protein. Here, we investigated if the E1 UBS could be replaced by the analogous domain from an unrelated protein, the pleckstrin homology domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1). We found that PHLPP1 and E1 interact with UAF1 in a mutually exclusive manner and mapped the minimal PHLPP1 UBS (PUBS) to a 100-amino-acid region sufficient for assembly into UAF1-USP complexes. Similarly to the E1 UBS, overexpression of PUBS in trans inhibited HPV DNA replication, albeit less efficiently. Characterization of a PHLPP1-E1 chimeric helicase revealed that PUBS could partially substitute for the E1 UBS in enhancing viral DNA replication and that the stimulatory effect of PUBS likely involves recruitment of UAF1-USP complexes, as it was abolished by mutations that weaken UAF1-binding and by overexpression of catalytically inactive USPs. Although functionally similar to the E1 UBS, PUBS is larger in size and requires both the WD repeat region and C-terminal ubiquitin-like domain of UAF1 for interaction, in contrast to E1, which does not contact the latter. Overall, this comparison of two heterologous UBSs indicates that these domains function as transferable protein interaction modules and provide further evidence that the association of E1 with UAF1-containing deubiquitinating complexes stimulates HPV DNA replication. IMPORTANCE The E1 protein from anogenital HPV types interacts with the UAF1-associated deubiquitinating enzymes USP1, USP12, and USP46 to stimulate replication of the viral genome. Little is known about the

  3. A novel immunity system for bacterial nucleic acid degrading toxins and its recruitment in various eukaryotic and DNA viral systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dapeng; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Aravind, L.

    2011-01-01

    scaffold that can be used to bind a wide range of protein partners. In eukaryotes it appears to have been recruited as an adaptor to regulate modification of proteins by ubiquitination or polyglutamylation. Similarly, another widespread immunity protein from these toxin systems, namely the suppressor of fused (SuFu) superfamily has been recruited for comparable roles in eukaryotes. In animal DNA viruses, such as herpesviruses, poxviruses, iridoviruses and adenoviruses, the ability of the SUKH domain to bind diverse targets has been deployed to counter diverse anti-viral responses by interacting with specific host proteins. PMID:21306995

  4. Source regions for recruitment of Calanus finmarchicus to Georges Bank: evidence from molecular population genetic analysis of mtDNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucklin, Ann; Kocher, Thomas D.

    Molecular population genetic analysis has provided evidence that the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, of the Labrador Current, Gulf of St Lawrence, Scotian Shelf, Gulf of Maine, and Georges Bank constitute a single, interbreeding population. The DNA sequence of a 350 base pair portion of the mitochondrial large subunit (16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was determined for a total of 72 individuals collected in 1992, and 110 individuals collected in 1993 from these regions. There was significant heterogeneity in haplotype frequencies among the samples collected in 1992, but this heterogeneity did not resolve into regional patterns. The only regional differences seen were between pooled samples of the western N. Atlantic and those of the Norwegian Sea. There were no significant differences in haplotype frequencies among the samples collected in 1993, and fewer haplotypes were observed in these samples. Intraspecific molecular variation was typical of other marine species: there were 29 haplotypes among the 182 individuals sequenced. The frequency distribution of the haplotypes was highly skewed: 128 individuals shared one haplotype and 19 individuals were unique. There were 24 variable sites among the 350 bases sequenced; estimated nucleotide diversity was 0.0042. The genetic character of C. finmarchicus populations in the western N. Atlantic was stable over time in that three of the haplotypes (including the most abundant) occurred in both 1992 and 1993. However, haplotype frequencies differed significantly between the two years. The lack of regional structure in the 1992 samples and the genetic homogeneity of samples collected in 1993 across the domain from the Labrador Current to the Gulf of St Lawrence to Georges Bank and the Gulf of Maine indicated that there is significant gene flow across this region. The persistent genetic pattern suggests that the Gulf of St Lawrence may be an important source region for recruitment of C. finmarchicus to Georges Bank

  5. Nej1 recruits the Srs2 helicase to DNA double-strand breaks and supports repair by a single-strand annealing-like mechanism.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sidney D; Vigasová, Dana; Chen, Jiang; Chovanec, Miroslav; Aström, Stefan U

    2009-07-21

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent the most severe DNA lesion a cell can suffer, as they pose the risk of inducing loss of genomic integrity and promote oncogenesis in mammals. Two pathways repair DSBs, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). With respect to mechanism and genetic requirements, characterization of these pathways has revealed a large degree of functional separation between the two. Nej1 is a cell-type specific regulator essential to NHEJ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Srs2 is a DNA helicase with multiple roles in HR. In this study, we show that Nej1 physically interacts with Srs2. Furthermore, mutational analysis of Nej1 suggests that the interaction was strengthened by Dun1-dependent phosphorylation of Nej1 serines 297/298. Srs2 was previously shown to be recruited to replication forks, where it promotes translesion DNA synthesis. We demonstrate that Srs2 was also efficiently recruited to DSBs generated by the HO endonuclease. Additionally, efficient Srs2 recruitment to this DSB was dependent on Nej1, but independent of mechanisms facilitating Srs2 recruitment to replication forks. Functionally, both Nej1 and Srs2 were required for efficient repair of DSBs with 15-bp overhangs, a repair event reminiscent of a specific type of HR called single-strand annealing (SSA). Moreover, absence of Rad51 suppressed the SSA-defect in srs2 and nej1 strains. We suggest a model in which Nej1 recruits Srs2 to DSBs to promote NHEJ/SSA-like repair by dismantling inappropriately formed Rad51 nucleoprotein filaments. This unexpected link between NHEJ and HR components may represent cross-talk between DSB repair pathways to ensure efficient repair.

  6. Nej1 recruits the Srs2 helicase to DNA double-strand breaks and supports repair by a single-strand annealing-like mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sidney D.; Vigašová, Dana; Chen, Jiang; Chovanec, Miroslav; Åström, Stefan U.

    2009-01-01

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent the most severe DNA lesion a cell can suffer, as they pose the risk of inducing loss of genomic integrity and promote oncogenesis in mammals. Two pathways repair DSBs, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). With respect to mechanism and genetic requirements, characterization of these pathways has revealed a large degree of functional separation between the two. Nej1 is a cell-type specific regulator essential to NHEJ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Srs2 is a DNA helicase with multiple roles in HR. In this study, we show that Nej1 physically interacts with Srs2. Furthermore, mutational analysis of Nej1 suggests that the interaction was strengthened by Dun1-dependent phosphorylation of Nej1 serines 297/298. Srs2 was previously shown to be recruited to replication forks, where it promotes translesion DNA synthesis. We demonstrate that Srs2 was also efficiently recruited to DSBs generated by the HO endonuclease. Additionally, efficient Srs2 recruitment to this DSB was dependent on Nej1, but independent of mechanisms facilitating Srs2 recruitment to replication forks. Functionally, both Nej1 and Srs2 were required for efficient repair of DSBs with 15-bp overhangs, a repair event reminiscent of a specific type of HR called single-strand annealing (SSA). Moreover, absence of Rad51 suppressed the SSA-defect in srs2 and nej1 strains. We suggest a model in which Nej1 recruits Srs2 to DSBs to promote NHEJ/SSA-like repair by dismantling inappropriately formed Rad51 nucleoprotein filaments. This unexpected link between NHEJ and HR components may represent cross-talk between DSB repair pathways to ensure efficient repair. PMID:19571008

  7. SWI/SNF recruitment to a DNA double-strand break by the NuA4 and Gcn5 histone acetyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gwendolyn; Peterson, Craig L

    2015-06-01

    The DNA damage response to double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for cellular viability. Recent work has shown that a host of chromatin regulators are recruited to a DSB, and that they are important for the DNA damage response. However, the functional relationships between different chromatin regulators at DSBs remain unclear. Here we describe a conserved functional interaction among the chromatin remodeling enzyme, SWI/SNF, the NuA4 and Gcn5 histone acetyltransferases, and phosphorylation of histone H2A.X (γH2AX). Specifically, we find that the NuA4 and Gcn5 enzymes are both required for the robust recruitment of SWI/SNF to a DSB, which in turn promotes the phosphorylation of H2A.X.

  8. Rad17 recruits the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex to regulate the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinhong; Goldstein, Michael; Alexander, Peter; Wakeman, Timothy P; Sun, Tao; Feng, Junjie; Lou, Zhenkun; Kastan, Michael B; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex is essential for the detection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and initiation of DNA damage signaling. Here, we show that Rad17, a replication checkpoint protein, is required for the early recruitment of the MRN complex to the DSB site that is independent of MDC1 and contributes to ATM activation. Mechanistically, Rad17 is phosphorylated by ATM at a novel Thr622 site resulting in a direct interaction of Rad17 with NBS1, facilitating recruitment of the MRN complex and ATM to the DSB, thereby enhancing ATM signaling. Repetition of these events creates a positive feedback for Rad17-dependent activation of MRN/ATM signaling which appears to be a requisite for the activation of MDC1-dependent MRN complex recruitment. A point mutation of the Thr622 residue of Rad17 leads to a significant reduction in MRN/ATM signaling and homologous recombination repair, suggesting that Thr622 phosphorylation is important for regulation of the MRN/ATM signaling by Rad17. These findings suggest that Rad17 plays a critical role in the cellular response to DNA damage via regulation of the MRN/ATM pathway. PMID:24534091

  9. Inhibition of Polo-like kinase 1 during the DNA damage response is mediated through loss of Aurora A recruitment by Bora.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, W; Aprelia, M; García-Santisteban, I; Kool, J; Xu, Y J; Medema, R H

    2016-10-10

    When cells in G2 phase are challenged with DNA damage, several key mitotic regulators such as Cdk1/Cyclin B, Aurora A and Plk1 are inhibited to prevent entry into mitosis. Here we have studied how inhibition of Plk1 is established after DNA damage. Using a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor for Plk1 activity, we show that inhibition of Plk1 after DNA damage occurs with relatively slow kinetics and is entirely dependent on loss of Plk1-T210 phosphorylation. As T210 is phosphorylated by the kinase Aurora A in conjunction with its co-factor Bora, we investigated how they are affected by DNA damage. Interestingly, we find that the interaction between Bora and Plk1 remains intact during the early phases of the DNA damage response (DDR), whereas Plk1 activity is already inhibited at this stage. Expression of an Aurora A mutant that is refractory to inhibition by the DDR failed to prevent inhibition of Plk1 and loss of T210 phosphorylation, suggesting that inhibition of Plk1 may be established by perturbing recruitment of Aurora A by Bora. Indeed, expression of a fusion in which Aurora A was directly coupled to Bora prevented DNA damage-induced inhibition of Plk1 activity, as well as inhibition of T210 phosphorylation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that DNA damage affects the function of Aurora A at multiple levels: both by direct inhibition of Aurora A activity, as well as by perturbing the interaction with its co-activator Bora. We propose that the DDR targets recruitment of Aurora A to the Plk1/Bora complex to prevent activation of Plk1 during DNA damage in G2.Oncogene advance online publication, 10 October 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.347.

  10. Recruitment of terminal protein to the ends of Streptomyces linear plasmids and chromosomes by a novel telomere-binding protein essential for linear DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Kai; Cohen, Stanley N.

    2003-01-01

    Bidirectional replication of Streptomyces linear plasmids and chromosomes from a central origin produces unpaired 3′-leading-strand overhangs at the telomeres of replication intermediates. Filling in of these overhangs leaves a terminal protein attached covalently to the 5′ DNA ends of mature replicons. We report here the essential role of a novel 80-kD DNA-binding protein (telomere-associated protein, Tap) in this process. Biochemical studies, yeast two-hybrid analysis, and immunoprecipitation/immunodepletion experiments indicate that Tap binds tightly to specific sequences in 3′ overhangs and also interacts with Tpg, bringing Tpg to telomere termini. Using DNA microarrays to analyze the chromosomes of tap mutant bacteria, we demonstrate that survivors of Tap ablation undergo telomere deletion, chromosome circularization, and amplification of subtelomeric DNA. Microarray-based chromosome mapping at single-ORF resolution revealed common endpoints for independent deletions, identified amplified chromosomal ORFs adjacent to these endpoints, and quantified the copy number of these ORFs. Sequence analysis confirmed chromosome circularization and revealed the insertion of adventitious DNA between joined chromosome ends. Our results show that Tap is required for linear DNA replication in Streptomyces and suggest that it functions to recruit and position Tpg at the telomeres of replication intermediates. They also identify hotspots for the telomeric deletions and subtelomeric DNA amplifications that accompany chromosome circularization. PMID:12651895

  11. Herpes simplex virus 1 activates cdc2 to recruit topoisomerase II alpha for post-DNA synthesis expression of late genes.

    PubMed

    Advani, Sunil J; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Roizman, Bernard

    2003-04-15

    A subset (gamma(2)) of late herpes simplex virus 1 genes depends on viral DNA synthesis for its expression. For optimal expression, a small number of these genes, exemplified by U(S)11, also requires two viral proteins, the alpha protein infected cell protein (ICP) 22 and the protein kinase U(L)13. Earlier we showed that U(L)13 and ICP22 mediate the stabilization of cdc2 and the replacement of its cellular partner, cyclin B, with the viral DNA polymerase processivity factor U(L)42. Here we report that cdc2 and its new partner, U(L)42, bind a phosphorylated form of topoisomerase II alpha. The posttranslational modification of topoisomerase II alpha and its interaction with cdc2-U(L)42 proteins depend on ICP22 in infected cells. Although topoisomerase II is required for viral DNA synthesis, ICP22 is not, indicating a second function for topoisomerase II alpha. The intricate manner in which the virus recruits topoisomerase II alpha for post-DNA synthesis expression of viral genes suggests that topoisomerase II alpha also is required for untangling concatemeric DNA progeny for optimal transcription of late genes.

  12. Cellular DNA ligase I is recruited to cytoplasmic vaccinia virus factories and masks the role of the vaccinia ligase in viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Paran, Nir; De Silva, Frank S; Senkevich, Tatiana G; Moss, Bernard

    2009-12-17

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes DNA polymerase and additional proteins that enable cytoplasmic replication. We confirmed the ability of VACV DNA ligase mutants to replicate and tested the hypothesis that cellular ligases compensate for loss of viral gene expression. RNA silencing of human DNA ligase I expression and a small molecule inhibitor of human DNA ligase I [corrected] severely reduced replication of viral DNA in cells infected with VACV ligase-deficient mutants, indicating that the cellular enzyme plays a complementary role. Replication of ligase-deficient VACV was greatly reduced and delayed in resting primary cells, correlating with initial low levels of ligase I and subsequent viral induction and localization of ligase I in virus factories. These studies indicate that DNA ligation is essential for poxvirus replication and explain the ability of ligase deletion mutants to replicate in dividing cells but exhibit decreased pathogenicity in mice. Encoding its own ligase might allow VACV to "jump-start" DNA synthesis.

  13. Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Requires Direct Access to DNA for Recruitment of CREB Binding Protein to the Viral Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Lenzmeier, Brian A.; Giebler, Holli A.; Nyborg, Jennifer K.

    1998-01-01

    Efficient human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) replication and viral gene expression are dependent upon the virally encoded oncoprotein Tax. To activate HTLV-1 transcription, Tax interacts with the cellular DNA binding protein cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and recruits the coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP), forming a nucleoprotein complex on the three viral cyclic AMP-responsive elements (CREs) in the HTLV-1 promoter. Short stretches of dG-dC-rich (GC-rich) DNA, immediately flanking each of the viral CREs, are essential for Tax recruitment of CBP in vitro and Tax transactivation in vivo. Although the importance of the viral CRE-flanking sequences is well established, several studies have failed to identify an interaction between Tax and the DNA. The mechanistic role of the viral CRE-flanking sequences has therefore remained enigmatic. In this study, we used high resolution methidiumpropyl-EDTA iron(II) footprinting to show that Tax extended the CREB footprint into the GC-rich DNA flanking sequences of the viral CRE. The Tax-CREB footprint was enhanced but not extended by the KIX domain of CBP, suggesting that the coactivator increased the stability of the nucleoprotein complex. Conversely, the footprint pattern of CREB on a cellular CRE lacking GC-rich flanking sequences did not change in the presence of Tax or Tax plus KIX. The minor-groove DNA binding drug chromomycin A3 bound to the GC-rich flanking sequences and inhibited the association of Tax and the Tax-CBP complex without affecting CREB binding. Tax specifically cross-linked to the viral CRE in the 5′-flanking sequence, and this cross-link was blocked by chromomycin A3. Together, these data support a model where Tax interacts directly with both CREB and the minor-groove viral CRE-flanking sequences to form a high-affinity binding site for the recruitment of CBP to the HTLV-1 promoter. PMID:9447968

  14. The Arabidopsis GAGA-Binding Factor BASIC PENTACYSTEINE6 Recruits the POLYCOMB-REPRESSIVE COMPLEX1 Component LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 to GAGA DNA Motifs1

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Andreas; Brand, Luise H.; Peter, Sébastien; Simoncello, Nathalie; Kilian, Joachim; Gaudin, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Polycomb-repressive complexes (PRCs) play key roles in development by repressing a large number of genes involved in various functions. Much, however, remains to be discovered about PRC-silencing mechanisms as well as their targeting to specific genomic regions. Besides other mechanisms, GAGA-binding factors in animals can guide PRC members in a sequence-specific manner to Polycomb-responsive DNA elements. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GAGA-motif binding factor protein BASIC PENTACYSTEINE6 (BPC6) interacts with LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (LHP1), a PRC1 component, and associates with VERNALIZATION2 (VRN2), a PRC2 component, in vivo. By using a modified DNA-protein interaction enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, we could show that BPC6 was required and sufficient to recruit LHP1 to GAGA motif-containing DNA probes in vitro. We also found that LHP1 interacts with VRN2 and, therefore, can function as a possible scaffold between BPC6 and VRN2. The lhp1-4 bpc4 bpc6 triple mutant displayed a pleiotropic phenotype, extreme dwarfism and early flowering, which disclosed synergistic functions of LHP1 and group II plant BPC members. Transcriptome analyses supported this synergy and suggested a possible function in the concerted repression of homeotic genes, probably through histone H3 lysine-27 trimethylation. Hence, our findings suggest striking similarities between animal and plant GAGA-binding factors in the recruitment of PRC1 and PRC2 components to Polycomb-responsive DNA element-like GAGA motifs, which must have evolved through convergent evolution. PMID:26025051

  15. Recruitment of DNA replication and damage response proteins to viral replication centers during infection with NS2 mutants of Minute Virus of Mice (MVM).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Zandra; Mihaylov, Ivailo S; Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter

    2011-02-20

    MVM NS2 is essential for viral DNA amplification, but its mechanism of action is unknown. A classification scheme for autonomous parvovirus-associated replication (APAR) center development, based on NS1 distribution, was used to characterize abnormal APAR body maturation in NS2null mutant infections, and their organization examined for defects in host protein recruitment. Since acquisition of known replication factors appeared normal, we looked for differences in invoked DNA damage responses. We observed widespread association of H2AX/MDC1 damage response foci with viral replication centers, and sequestration and complex hyperphosphorylation of RPA(32), which occurred in wildtype and mutant infections. Quantifying these responses by western transfer indicated that both wildtype and NS2 mutant MVM elicited ATM activation, while phosphorylation of ATR, already basally activated in asynchronous A9 cells, was downregulated. We conclude that MVM infection invokes multiple damage responses that influence the APAR environment, but that NS2 does not modify the recruitment of cellular proteins.

  16. The RSF1 histone-remodelling factor facilitates DNA double-strand break repair by recruiting centromeric and Fanconi Anaemia proteins.

    PubMed

    Pessina, Fabio; Lowndes, Noel F

    2014-05-01

    ATM is a central regulator of the cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here we identify a biochemical interaction between ATM and RSF1 and we characterise the role of RSF1 in this response. The ATM-RSF1 interaction is dependent upon both DSBs and ATM kinase activity. Together with SNF2H/SMARCA5, RSF1 forms the RSF chromatin-remodelling complex. Although RSF1 is specific to the RSF complex, SNF2H/SMARCA5 is a catalytic subunit of several other chromatin-remodelling complexes. Although not required for checkpoint signalling, RSF1 is required for efficient repair of DSBs via both end-joining and homology-directed repair. Specifically, the ATM-dependent recruitment to sites of DSBs of the histone fold proteins CENPS/MHF1 and CENPX/MHF2, previously identified at centromeres, is RSF1-dependent. In turn these proteins recruit and regulate the mono-ubiquitination of the Fanconi Anaemia proteins FANCD2 and FANCI. We propose that by depositing CENPS/MHF1 and CENPX/MHF2, the RSF complex either directly or indirectly contributes to the reorganisation of chromatin around DSBs that is required for efficient DNA repair.

  17. Polo-like kinase 1 mediates BRCA1 phosphorylation and recruitment at DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Chabalier-Taste, Corinne; Canitrot, Yvan; Calsou, Patrick; Larminat, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) caused during DNA replication and by exogenous stresses is critical for the maintenance of genomic integrity. There is growing evidence that the Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) that plays a number of pivotal roles in cell proliferation can directly participate in regulation of DSB repair. In this study, we show that Plk1 regulates BRCA1, a key mediator protein required to efficiently repair DSB through homologous recombination (HR). Following induction of DSB, BRCA1 concentrates in distinctive large nuclear foci at damage sites where multiple DNA repair factors accumulate. First, we found that inhibition of Plk1 shortly before DNA damage sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation and reduces DSB repair by HR. Second, we provide evidence that BRCA1 foci formation induced by DSB is reduced when Plk1 is inhibited or depleted. Third, we identified BRCA1 as a novel Plk1 substrate and determined that Ser1164 is the major phosphorylation site for Plk1 in vitro. In cells, mutation of Plk1 sites on BRCA1 significantly delays BRCA1 foci formation following DSB, recapitulating the phenotype observed upon Plk1 inhibition. Our data then assign a key function to Plk1 in BRCA1 foci formation at DSB, emphasizing Plk1 importance in the HR repair of human cells. PMID:26745677

  18. Folate deficiency facilitates recruitment of upstream binding factor to hot spots of DNA double-strand breaks of rRNA genes and promotes its transcription.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiu; Li, Caihua; Song, Xiaozhen; Wu, Lihua; Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Zhiyong; Cao, Haiyan; Yu, Kaihui; Wan, Chunlei; Li, Jianting; Yang, Feng; Huang, Zebing; Niu, Bo; Jiang, Zhengwen; Zhang, Ting

    2016-12-06

    The biogenesis of ribosomes in vivo is an essential process for cellular functions. Transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes is the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis controlled by environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the role of folate antagonist on changes of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) landscape in mouse embryonic stem cells. A significant DSB enhancement was detected in the genome of these cells and a large majority of these DSBs were found in rRNA genes. Furthermore, spontaneous DSBs in cells under folate deficiency conditions were located exclusively within the rRNA gene units, representing a H3K4me1 hallmark. Enrichment H3K4me1 at the hot spots of DSB regions enhanced the recruitment of upstream binding factor (UBF) to rRNA genes, resulting in the increment of rRNA genes transcription. Supplement of folate resulted in a restored UBF binding across DNA breakage sites of rRNA genes, and normal rRNA gene transcription. In samples from neural tube defects (NTDs) with low folate level, up-regulation of rRNA gene transcription was observed, along with aberrant UBF level. Our results present a new view by which alterations in folate levels affects DNA breakage through epigenetic control leading to the regulation of rRNA gene transcription during the early stage of development.

  19. Vestibular recruitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsemakhov, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Vestibular recruitment is defined through the analysis of several references. It is concluded that vestibular recruitment is an objective phenomenon which manifests itself during the affection of the vestibular receptor and thus serves as a diagnostic tool during affection of the vestibular system.

  20. Student Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Amy R.

    A practical process for developing or improving student recruitment programs for Catholic schools is presented in this handbook. Planning for and preparing the recruitment program is discussed in the first half of the document. The booklet reviews the process of assessing the school, its program, and its image; identifying the financial, material,…

  1. CCAAT box binding protein NF-Y facilitates in vivo recruitment of upstream DNA binding transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K L; Vilen, B J; Itoh-Lindstrom, Y; Moore, T L; Li, G; Criscitiello, M; Cogswell, P; Clarke, J B; Ting, J P

    1994-01-01

    NF-Y binds a CCAAT motif found in many eukaryotic polymerase II-dependent promoters. In the HLA-DRA promoter it has been demonstrated that stereo-specific alignment between this motif and the upstream elements X1 and X2 is required for activation. To study the underlying mechanism for this requirement, a panel of transfected cell lines that maintained integrated, wild-type and mutant promoters were analyzed by in vivo genomic footprinting. Cell lines harboring a mutated CCAAT element exhibited a loss of interactions at the CCAAT site, as expected, and no transcriptional activity. Most importantly, mutation of the CCAAT sequence nearly abolished in vivo binding at the X1 and X2 sites, while mutations of X1 and X2 had little effect on CCAAT box binding. However, X1 and X2 binding was interdependent. In vitro, X1 binding activities are known to be stabilized by NF-Y binding. Interaction between NF-Y and X box binding proteins was demonstrated by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation in the absence of DNA and co-affinity purification in the presence of DNA. Collectively, these studies indicate that occupancy of the CCAAT element represents an early event affecting other protein-DNA interactions and suggest that NF-Y stabilizes and interacts with X box factors to mediate this function. These findings may represent a common theme among promoters containing a CCAAT element. Images PMID:8076600

  2. Coilin is rapidly recruited to UVA-induced DNA lesions and γ-radiation affects localized movement of Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Bártová, Eva; Foltánková, Veronika; Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Suchánková, Jana; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Cajal bodies are important nuclear structures containing proteins that preferentially regulate RNA-related metabolism. We investigated the cell-type specific nuclear distribution of Cajal bodies and the level of coilin, a protein of Cajal bodies, in non-irradiated and irradiated human tumor cell lines and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Cajal bodies were localized in different nuclear compartments, including DAPI-poor regions, in the proximity of chromocenters, and adjacent to nucleoli. The number of Cajal bodies per nucleus was cell cycle-dependent, with higher numbers occurring during G2 phase. Human ES cells contained a high coilin level in the nucleoplasm, but coilin-positive Cajal bodies were also identified in nuclei of mouse and human ES cells. Coilin, but not SMN, recognized UVA-induced DNA lesions, which was cell cycle-independent. Treatment with γ-radiation reduced the localized movement of Cajal bodies in many cell types and GFP-coilin fluorescence recovery after photobleaching was very fast in nucleoplasm in comparison with GFP-coilin recovery in DNA lesions. By contrast, nucleolus-localized coilin displayed very slow fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, which indicates very slow rates of protein diffusion, especially in nucleoli of mouse ES cells.

  3. Cytoplasmic isoforms of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus LANA recruit and antagonize the innate immune DNA sensor cGAS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guigen; Chan, Baca; Samarina, Naira; Abere, Bizunesh; Weidner-Glunde, Magdalena; Buch, Anna; Pich, Andreas; Brinkmann, Melanie M.; Schulz, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is mainly localized and functions in the nucleus of latently infected cells, playing a pivotal role in the replication and maintenance of latent viral episomal DNA. In addition, N-terminally truncated cytoplasmic isoforms of LANA, resulting from internal translation initiation, have been reported, but their function is unknown. Using coimmunoprecipitation and MS, we found the cGMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), an innate immune DNA sensor, to be a cellular interaction partner of cytoplasmic LANA isoforms. By directly binding to cGAS, LANA, and particularly, a cytoplasmic isoform, inhibit the cGAS-STING–dependent phosphorylation of TBK1 and IRF3 and thereby antagonize the cGAS-mediated restriction of KSHV lytic replication. We hypothesize that cytoplasmic forms of LANA, whose expression increases during lytic replication, inhibit cGAS to promote the reactivation of the KSHV from latency. This observation points to a novel function of the cytoplasmic isoforms of LANA during lytic replication and extends the function of LANA from its role during latency to the lytic replication cycle. PMID:26811480

  4. Recruitment of RNA molecules by connexin RNA-binding motifs: Implication in RNA and DNA transport through microvesicles and exosomes.

    PubMed

    Varela-Eirin, Marta; Varela-Vazquez, Adrian; Rodríguez-Candela Mateos, Marina; Vila-Sanjurjo, Anton; Fonseca, Eduardo; Mascareñas, José L; Eugenio Vázquez, M; Mayan, Maria D

    2017-04-01

    Connexins (Cxs) are integral membrane proteins that form high-conductance plasma membrane channels, allowing communication from cell to cell (via gap junctions) and from cells to the extracellular environment (via hemichannels). Initially described for their role in joining excitable cells (nerve and muscle), gap junctions (GJs) are found between virtually all cells in solid tissues and are essential for functional coordination by enabling the direct transfer of small signalling molecules, metabolites, ions, and electrical signals from cell to cell. Several studies have revealed diverse channel-independent functions of Cxs, which include the control of cell growth and tumourigenicity. Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most widespread Cx in the human body. The myriad roles of Cx43 and its implication in the development of disorders such as cancer, inflammation, osteoarthritis and Alzheimer's disease have given rise to many novel questions. Several RNA- and DNA-binding motifs were predicted in the Cx43 and Cx26 sequences using different computational methods. This review provides insights into new, ground-breaking functions of Cxs, highlighting important areas for future work such as transfer of genetic information through extracellular vesicles. We discuss the implication of potential RNA- and DNA-binding domains in the Cx43 and Cx26 sequences in the cellular communication and control of signalling pathways.

  5. Recruitment of NCOR1 to VDR target genes is enhanced in prostate cancer cells and associates with altered DNA methylation patterns.

    PubMed

    Doig, Craig L; Singh, Prashant K; Dhiman, Vineet K; Thorne, James L; Battaglia, Sebastiano; Sobolewski, Michelle; Maguire, Orla; O'Neill, Laura P; Turner, Bryan M; McCabe, Christopher J; Smiraglia, Dominic J; Campbell, Moray J

    2013-02-01

    The current study investigated transcriptional distortion in prostate cancer cells using the vitamin D receptor (VDR) as a tool to examine how epigenetic events driven by corepressor binding and CpG methylation lead to aberrant gene expression. These relationships were investigated in the non-malignant RWPE-1 cells that were 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) responsive (RWPE-1) and malignant cell lines that were 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) partially responsive (RWPE-2) and resistant (PC-3). These studies revealed that selective attenuation and repression of VDR transcriptional responses in the cancer cell lines reflected their loss of antiproliferative sensitivity. This was evident in VDR target genes including VDR, CDKN1A (encodes p21( (waf1/cip1) )) and GADD45A; NCOR1 knockdown alleviated this malignant transrepression. ChIP assays in RWPE-1 and PC-3 cells revealed that transrepression of CDKN1A was associated with increased NCOR1 enrichment in response to 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment. These findings supported the concept that retained and increased NCOR1 binding, associated with loss of H3K9ac and increased H3K9me2, may act as a beacon for the initiation and recruitment of DNA methylation. Overexpressed histone methyltransferases (KMTs) were detectable in a wide panel of prostate cancer cell lines compared with RWPE-1 and suggested that generation of H3K9me2 states would be favored. Cotreatment of cells with the KMT inhibitor, chaetocin, increased 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated induction of CDKN1A expression supporting a role for this event to disrupt CDKN1A regulation. Parallel surveys in PC-3 cells of CpG methylation around the VDR binding regions on CDKN1A revealed altered basal and VDR-regulated DNA methylation patterns that overlapped with VDR-induced recruitment of NCOR1 and gene transrepression. Taken together, these findings suggest that sustained corepressor interactions with nuclear-resident transcription factors may inappropriately transform transient-repressive histone states into

  6. Two stages of XRCC1 recruitment and two classes of XRCC1 foci formed in response to low level DNA damage induced by visible light, or stress triggered by heat shock.

    PubMed

    Solarczyk, Kamil J; Kordon, Magdalena; Berniak, Krzysztof; Dobrucki, Jurek W

    2016-01-01

    Induction of local photosensitised DNA damage has been used to study recruitment of repair factors, spatial organisation and subsequent stages of the repair processes. However, the damage induced by a focused laser beam interacting with a photosensitiser may not fully reflect the types of damage and repair encountered in cells of an animal under typical conditions in vivo. We report on two characteristic stages of recruitment of XRCC1 (a protein engaged in BER and SSB repair pathways), in response to low level DNA damage induced by visible light. We demonstrate that, when just a few DNA breaks are induced in a small region of the nucleus, the recruited XRCC1 is initially distributed uniformly throughout this region, and rearranges into several small stationary foci within minutes. In contrast, when heavy damage of various types (including oxidative damage) is induced in cells pre-sensitized with a DNA-binding drug ethidium bromide, XRCC1 is also recruited but fails to rearrange from the stage of the uniform distribution to the stage of several small foci, indicating that this heavy damage interferes with the progress and completion of the repair processes. We hypothesize that that first stage may reflect recruitment of XRCC1 to poly(ADP-ribose) moieties in the region surrounding the single-strand break, while the second-binding directly to the DNA lesions. We also show that moderate damage or stress induces formation of two types of XRCC1-containing foci differing in their mobility. A large subset of DNA damage-induced XRCC1 foci is associated with a major component of PML nuclear bodies--the Sp100 protein.

  7. A Structural Investigation into Oct4 Regulation by Orphan Nuclear Receptors, Germ Cell Nuclear Factor (GCNF) and Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (LRH-1).

    PubMed

    Weikum, Emily R; Tuntland, Micheal L; Murphy, Michael N; Ortlund, Eric A

    2016-10-27

    Oct4 is a transcription factor required for maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal in stem cells. Prior to differentiation, Oct4 must be silenced to allow for the development of the three germ layers in the developing embryo. This fine-tuning is controlled by the nuclear receptors, liver receptor homolog-1 and germ cell nuclear factor. Liver receptor homolog-1 is responsible for driving the expression of Oct4 where germ cell nuclear factor represses its expression upon differentiation. Both receptors bind to a DR0 motif located within the Oct4 promoter. Here, we present the first structure of mouse germ cell nuclear factor DNA binding domain in complex with the Oct4 DR0. The overall structure revealed two molecules bound in a head-to-tail fashion on opposite sides of the DNA. Additionally, we solved the structure of the human liver receptor homolog-1 DNA binding domain bound to the same element. We explore the structural elements that govern Oct4 recognition by these two nuclear receptors.

  8. The proto-oncoprotein FBI-1 interacts with MBD3 to recruit the Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex and BCoR and to silence p21WAF/CDKN1A by DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Yu, Mi-Young; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Kyunggon; Hur, Sujin Susanne; Lee, Choong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Hur, Man-Wook

    2013-07-01

    The tumour-suppressor gene CDKN1A (encoding p21Waf/Cip1) is thought to be epigenetically repressed in cancer cells. FBI-1 (ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor repressing the alternative reading frame and p21WAF/CDKN1A genes of the p53 pathway. FBI-1 interacts directly with MBD3 (methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3) in the nucleus. We demonstrated that FBI-1 binds both non-methylated and methylated DNA and that MBD3 is recruited to the CDKN1A promoter through its interaction with FBI-1, where it enhances transcriptional repression by FBI-1. FBI-1 also interacts with the co-repressors nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR), silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptors (SMRT) and BCL-6 corepressor (BCoR) to repress transcription. MBD3 regulates a molecular interaction between the co-repressor and FBI-1. MBD3 decreases the interaction between FBI-1 and NCoR/SMRT but increases the interaction between FBI-1 and BCoR. Because MBD3 is a subunit of the Mi-2 autoantigen (Mi-2)/nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylase (NuRD)-HDAC complex, FBI-1 recruits the Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex via MBD3. BCoR interacts with the Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex, DNMTs and HP1. MBD3 and BCoR play a significant role in the recruitment of the Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex- and the NuRD complex-associated proteins, DNMTs and HP. By recruiting DNMTs and HP1, Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex appears to play key roles in epigenetic repression of CDKN1A by DNA methylation.

  9. USAR Recruiting Success Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    recruiters. Conventional multi. * variate statistical techniques have not prov ed-adequate in identifying successful recruiters, largely because of the...statistical techniques to the problem of identifying the relative importance of factors affecting recruiter success. Me t hod This study applies a...recruiters; background characteristics, suggestions about recruiter training, the value of various prospecting and selling techniques , workload, attitudes

  10. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits the recruitment of ARNT to DNA, resulting in the decrease of CYP1A1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Marumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AHR and ARNT transcriptionally regulate genes related to metabolisms such as CYP1A1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on the function of AHR/ARNT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA inhibited the recruitment of ARNT, not AHR, to the regulatory region of CYP1A1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It resulted in a reduction of constitutive expression of CYP1A1 to less than half. -- Abstract: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) are well-conserved transcription factors among species. However, there are a very limited number of reports on the physiological function of AHR, particularly on the regulation of AHR by endogenous compounds. We hence investigated the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 gene transcription as a model of AHR-regulated transcription mechanisms in HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line. Treatment with atRA significantly reduced transactivation and expression of CYP1A1 mRNA to less than half of its control value, and this inhibitory effect was mediated by RAR{alpha}. The result of chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that treatment with atRA at 1-100 nM drastically inhibited the recruitment of ARNT to DNA regions containing xenobiotic responsive elements. In conclusion, atRA at physiological concentrations could reduce AHR-mediated gene transcription via the inhibition of recruitment of ARNT to relevant DNA regions.

  11. H4 K20me0 marks post-replicative chromatin and recruits the TONSL-MMS22L DNA repair complex

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Colin M.; Alabert, Constance; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Forne, Ignasi; Reverón-Gómez, Nazaret; Foster, Benjamin M.; Mlejnkova, Lucie; Bartke, Till; Cejka, Petr; Mailand, Niels; Imhof, Axel; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Groth, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Summary After DNA replication, chromosomal processes including DNA repair and transcription take place in the context of sister chromatids. While cell cycle regulation can guide these processes globally, mechanisms to distinguish pre- and post-replicative states locally remain unknown. Here, we reveal that new histones incorporated during DNA replication provide a signature of post-replicative chromatin, read by the TONSL–MMS22L1–4 homologous recombination (HR) complex. We identify the TONSL Ankyrin Repeat Domain (ARD) as a reader of histone H4 tails unmethylated at K20 (H4K20me0), which are specific to new histones incorporated during DNA replication and mark post-replicative chromatin until G2/M. Accordingly, TONSL–MMS22L binds new histones H3–H4 both prior to and after incorporation into nucleosomes, remaining on replicated chromatin until late G2/M. H4K20me0 recognition is required for TONSL–MMS22L binding to chromatin and accumulation at challenged replication forks and DNA lesions. Consequently, TONSL ARD mutants are toxic, compromising genome stability, cell viability and resistance to replication stress. Together, this reveals a histone reader based mechanism to recognize the post-replicative state, offering a new approach and opportunity to understand DNA repair with potential for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:27338793

  12. H4K20me0 marks post-replicative chromatin and recruits the TONSL₋MMS22L DNA repair complex

    SciTech Connect

    Saredi, Giulia; Huang, Hongda; Hammond, Colin M.; Alabert, Constance; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Forne, Ignasi; Reverón-Gómez, Nazaret; Foster, Benjamin M.; Mlejnkova, Lucie; Bartke, Till; Cejka, Petr; Mailand, Niels; Imhof, Axel; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Groth, Anja

    2016-06-22

    Here, we report that after DNA replication, chromosomal processes including DNA repair and transcription take place in the context of sister chromatids. While cell cycle regulation can guide these processes globally, mechanisms to distinguish pre- and post-replicative states locally remain unknown. In this paper we reveal that new histones incorporated during DNA replication provide a signature of post-replicative chromatin, read by the human TONSL–MMS22L1, 2, 3, 4 homologous recombination complex. We identify the TONSL ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) as a reader of histone H4 tails unmethylated at K20 (H4K20me0), which are specific to new histones incorporated during DNA replication and mark post-replicative chromatin until the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Accordingly, TONSL–MMS22L binds new histones H3–H4 both before and after incorporation into nucleosomes, remaining on replicated chromatin until late G2/M. H4K20me0 recognition is required for TONSL–MMS22L binding to chromatin and accumulation at challenged replication forks and DNA lesions. Consequently, TONSL ARD mutants are toxic, compromising genome stability, cell viability and resistance to replication stress. Finally, together, these data reveal a histone-reader-based mechanism for recognizing the post-replicative state, offering a new angle to understand DNA repair with the potential for targeted cancer therapy.

  13. Activation of the DNA Damage Response Is a Conserved Function of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vpr That Is Independent of SLX4 Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There has been extraordinary progress in understanding the roles of lentiviral accessory proteins in antagonizing host antiviral defense proteins. However, the precise primary function of the accessory gene Vpr remains elusive. Here we suggest that engagement with the DNA damage response is an important function of primate lentiviral Vpr proteins because of its conserved function among diverse lentiviral lineages. In contrast, we show that, for HIV-1, HIV-2, and related Vpr isolates and orthologs, there is a lack of correlation between DNA damage response activation and interaction with the host SLX4 protein complex of structure specific endonucleases; some Vpr proteins are able to interact with SLX4, but the majority are not. Using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 method to knock out SLX4, we formally showed that HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vpr orthologs can still activate the DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest in the absence of SLX4. Together, our data suggest that activation of the DNA damage response, but not SLX4 interaction, is conserved and therefore indicative of an important function of Vpr. Our data also indicate that Vpr activates the DNA damage response through an SLX4-independent mechanism that remains uncharacterized. PMID:27624129

  14. The vital role of polymerase ζ and REV1 in mutagenic, but not correct, DNA synthesis across benzo[a]pyrene-dG and recruitment of polymerase ζ by REV1 to replication-stalled site.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Keiji; Cho, Youngjin; Yang, In-Young; Akagi, Jun-ichi; Ohashi, Eiji; Tateishi, Satoshi; de Wind, Niels; Hanaoka, Fumio; Ohmori, Haruo; Moriya, Masaaki

    2012-03-16

    The DNA synthesis across DNA lesions, termed translesion synthesis (TLS), is a complex process influenced by various factors. To investigate this process in mammalian cells, we examined TLS across a benzo[a]pyrene dihydrodiol epoxide-derived dG adduct (BPDE-dG) using a plasmid bearing a single BPDE-dG and genetically engineered mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In wild-type MEFs, TLS was extremely miscoding (>90%) with G → T transversions being predominant. Knockout of the Rev1 gene decreased both the TLS efficiency and the miscoding frequency. Knockout of the Rev3L gene, coding for the catalytic subunit of pol ζ, caused even greater decreases in these two TLS parameters; almost all residual TLS were error-free. Thus, REV1 and pol ζ are critical to mutagenic, but not accurate, TLS across BPDE-dG. The introduction of human REV1 cDNA into Rev1(-/-) MEFs restored the mutagenic TLS, but a REV1 mutant lacking the C terminus did not. Yeast and mammalian three-hybrid assays revealed that the REV7 subunit of pol ζ mediated the interaction between REV3 and the REV1 C terminus. These results support the hypothesis that REV1 recruits pol ζ through the interaction with REV7. Our results also predict the existence of a minor REV1-independent pol ζ recruitment pathway. Finally, although mutagenic TLS across BPDE-dG largely depends on RAD18, experiments using Polk(-/-) Polh(-/-) Poli(-/-) triple-gene knockout MEFs unexpectedly revealed that another polymerase(s) could insert a nucleotide opposite BPDE-dG. This indicates that a non-Y family polymerase(s) can insert a nucleotide opposite BPDE-dG, but the subsequent extension from miscoding termini depends on REV1-polζ in a RAD18-dependent manner.

  15. DNA Methyltransferase 1 and 3B Activate BAG-1 Expression via Recruitment of CTCFL/BORIS and Modulation of Promoter Histone Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lunching; Huang, Lei; Nguyen, Phuongmai; Bisht, Kheem S.; Bar-Sela, Gil; Ho, Allen S.; Bradbury, C. Matthew; Yu, Wenqiang; Cui, Hengmi; Lee, Sunmin; Trepel, Jane B.; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Gius, David

    2009-01-01

    In a previous genomic analysis, using somatic methyltransferase (DNMT) knockout cells, we showed that hypomethylation decreased the expression of as many genes as were observed to increase, suggesting a previously unknown mechanism for epigenetic regulation. To address this idea, the expression of the BAG family genes was used as a model. These genes were used because their expression was decreased in DNMT1−/−, DNMT3B−/−, and double knockout cells and increased in DNMT1-overexpressing and DNMT3B-overexpressing cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the BAG-1 promoter in DNMT1-overexpressing or DNMT3B-overexpressing cells showed a permissive dimethyl-H3-K4/dimethyl-H3-K9 chromatin status associated with DNA-binding of CTCFL/BORIS, as well as increased BAG-1 expression. In contrast, a nonpermissive dimethyl-H3-K4/dimethyl-H3-K9 chromatin status was associated with CTCF DNA-binding and decreased BAG-1 expression in the single and double DNMT knockout cells. BORIS short hairpin RNA knockdown decreased both promoter DNA-binding, as well as BAG-1 expression, and changed the dimethyl-H3-K4/dimethyl-H3-K9 ratio to that characteristic of a nonpermissive chromatin state. These results suggest that DNMT1 and DNMT3B regulate BAG-1 expression via insulator protein DNA-binding and chromatin dynamics by regulating histone dimethylation. PMID:18413740

  16. The carboxyl terminus of FANCE recruits FANCD2 to the Fanconi Anemia (FA) E3 ligase complex to promote the FA DNA repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Polito, David; Cukras, Scott; Wang, Xiaozhe; Spence, Paige; Moreau, Lisa; D'Andrea, Alan D; Kee, Younghoon

    2014-03-07

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genome instability syndrome characterized by bone marrow failure and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. In response to DNA damage, the FA pathway is activated through the cooperation of 16 FA proteins. A central player in the pathway is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex or the FA core complex, which monoubiquitinates its substrates FANCD2 and FANCI. FANCE, a subunit of the FA core complex, plays an essential role by promoting the integrity of the complex and by directly recognizing FANCD2. To delineate its role in substrate ubiquitination from the core complex assembly, we analyzed a series of mutations within FANCE. We report that a phenylalanine located at the highly conserved extreme C terminus, referred to as Phe-522, is a critical residue for mediating the monoubiquitination of the FANCD2-FANCI complex. Using the FANCE mutant that specifically disrupts the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction as a tool, we found that the interaction-deficient mutant conferred cellular sensitivity in reconstituted FANCE-deficient cells to a similar degree as FANCE null cells, suggesting the significance of the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction in promoting cisplatin resistance. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of the FANCE C terminus fragment alone in FA normal cells disrupts DNA repair, consolidating the importance of the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction in the DNA cross-link repair.

  17. ZMYND8 Co-localizes with NuRD on Target Genes and Regulates Poly(ADP-Ribose)-Dependent Recruitment of GATAD2A/NuRD to Sites of DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Cornelia G; Luijsterburg, Martijn S; Menafra, Roberta; Lindeboom, Rik G H; Jansen, Pascal W T C; Edupuganti, Raghu Ram; Baltissen, Marijke P; Wiegant, Wouter W; Voelker-Albert, Moritz C; Matarese, Filomena; Mensinga, Anneloes; Poser, Ina; Vos, Harmjan R; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; van Attikum, Haico; Vermeulen, Michiel

    2016-10-11

    NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase) is a versatile multi-protein complex with roles in transcription regulation and the DNA damage response. Here, we show that ZMYND8 bridges NuRD to a number of putative DNA-binding zinc finger proteins. The MYND domain of ZMYND8 directly interacts with PPPLΦ motifs in the NuRD subunit GATAD2A. Both GATAD2A and GATAD2B exclusively form homodimers and define mutually exclusive NuRD subcomplexes. ZMYND8 and NuRD share a large number of genome-wide binding sites, mostly active promoters and enhancers. Depletion of ZMYND8 does not affect NuRD occupancy genome-wide and only slightly affects expression of NuRD/ZMYND8 target genes. In contrast, the MYND domain in ZMYND8 facilitates the rapid, poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent recruitment of GATAD2A/NuRD to sites of DNA damage to promote repair by homologous recombination. Thus, these results show that a specific substoichiometric interaction with a NuRD subunit paralogue provides unique functionality to distinct NuRD subcomplexes.

  18. Adult Recruitment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Juliet, Ed.; And Others

    Findings of an American College Testing Program 1981 survey on college recruitment of adult students are summarized, and 12 articles on adult recruitment are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: "Adult Recruitment Practices: A Report of a National Survey" (Patricia Spratt, Juliet Kaufmann, Lee Noel); "Three Programs for Adults in Shopping…

  19. Recruitment and Training. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on recruitment and training. "College Choice: The State of Marketing and Effective Student Recruitment Strategies" (Fredrick Muyia Nafukho, Michael F. Burnett) reports on a study of the recruitment strategies used by Louisiana State University's admissions office and College of…

  20. Recruitment Guide for Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshihara, Shoko, Comp.

    This book is intended to provide U.S. university recruiters with information on higher education and student recruitment opportunities in Thailand. Section A describes recruitment strategies that are professionally and culturally appropriate to Thailand; contact information concerning related institutions is also included. A subsection called…

  1. DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Gary

    1985-01-01

    Structural form, bonding scheme, and chromatin structure of and gene-modification experiments with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are described. Indicates that DNA's double helix is variable and also flexible as it interacts with regulatory and other molecules to transfer hereditary messages. (DH)

  2. Application of High-Throughput Next-Generation Sequencing for HLA Typing on Buccal Extracted DNA: Results from over 10,000 Donor Recruitment Samples

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, David; Valenzuela, Nicole; Takemura, Ping; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Springer, Brianna; Saito, Katsuyuki; Zheng, Ying; Hague, Tim; Pasztor, Agnes; Horvath, Gyorgy; Rigo, Krisztina; Reed, Elaine F.; Zhang, Qiuheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Unambiguous HLA typing is important in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), HLA disease association studies, and solid organ transplantation. However, current molecular typing methods only interrogate the antigen recognition site (ARS) of HLA genes, resulting in many cis-trans ambiguities that require additional typing methods to resolve. Here we report high-resolution HLA typing of 10,063 National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) registry donors using long-range PCR by next generation sequencing (NGS) approach on buccal swab DNA. Methods Multiplex long-range PCR primers amplified the full-length of HLA class I genes (A, B, C) from promotor to 3’ UTR. Class II genes (DRB1, DQB1) were amplified from exon 2 through part of exon 4. PCR amplicons were pooled and sheared using Covaris fragmentation. Library preparation was performed using the Illumina TruSeq Nano kit on the Beckman FX automated platform. Each sample was tagged with a unique barcode, followed by 2×250 bp paired-end sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq. HLA typing was assigned using Omixon Twin software that combines two independent computational algorithms to ensure high confidence in allele calling. Consensus sequence and typing results were reported in Histoimmunogenetics Markup Language (HML) format. All homozygous alleles were confirmed by Luminex SSO typing and exon novelties were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Results Using this automated workflow, over 10,063 NMDP registry donors were successfully typed under high-resolution by NGS. Despite known challenges of nucleic acid degradation and low DNA concentration commonly associated with buccal-based specimens, 97.8% of samples were successfully amplified using long-range PCR. Among these, 98.2% were successfully reported by NGS, with an accuracy rate of 99.84% in an independent blind Quality Control audit performed by the NDMP. In this study, NGS-HLA typing identified 23 null alleles (0.023%), 92 rare alleles (0.091%) and 42 exon

  3. Recruitment of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 into specific intranuclear compartments depends on tyrosine phosphorylation that affects its DNA-binding and transactivation potential.

    PubMed Central

    Ktistaki, E; Ktistakis, N T; Papadogeorgaki, E; Talianidis, I

    1995-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4) is a prominent member of the family of liver-enriched transcription factors, playing a role in the expression of a large number of liver-specific genes. We report here that HNF-4 is a phosphoprotein and that phosphorylation at tyrosine residue(s) is important for its DNA-binding activity and, consequently, for its transactivation potential both in cell-free systems and in cultured cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation did not affect the transport of HNF-4 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus but had a dramatic effect on its subnuclear localization. HNF-4 was concentrated in distinct nuclear compartments, as evidenced by in situ immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. This compartmentalization disappeared when tyrosine phosphorylation was inhibited by genistein. The correlation between the intranuclear distribution of HNF-4 and its ability to activate endogenous target genes demonstrates a phosphorylation signal-dependent pathway in the regulation of transcription factor activity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7568236

  4. Evidence that the Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein, an early sensor of double-strand DNA breaks (DSB), is involved in HIV-1 post-integration repair by recruiting the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase in a process similar to, but distinct from, cellular DSB repair.

    PubMed

    Smith, Johanna A; Wang, Feng-Xiang; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Kou-Juey; Williams, Kevin Jon; Daniel, René

    2008-01-22

    Retroviral transduction involves integrase-dependent linkage of viral and host DNA that leaves an intermediate that requires post-integration repair (PIR). We and others proposed that PIR hijacks the host cell double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair pathways. Nevertheless, the geometry of retroviral DNA integration differs considerably from that of DSB repair and so the precise role of host-cell mechanisms in PIR remains unclear. In the current study, we found that the Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 protein (NBS1), an early sensor of DSBs, associates with HIV-1 DNA, recruits the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase, promotes stable retroviral transduction, mediates efficient integration of viral DNA and blocks integrase-dependent apoptosis that can arise from unrepaired viral-host DNA linkages. Moreover, we demonstrate that the ATM kinase, recruited by NBS1, is itself required for efficient retroviral transduction. Surprisingly, recruitment of the ATR kinase, which in the context of DSB requires both NBS1 and ATM, proceeds independently of these two proteins. A model is proposed emphasizing similarities and differences between PIR and DSB repair. Differences between the pathways may eventually allow strategies to block PIR while still allowing DSB repair.

  5. DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1970-01-01

    This history for molecular genetics and its explanation of DNA begins with an analysis of the Golden Jubilee essay papers, 1955. The paper ends stating that the higher nervous system is the one major frontier of biological inquiry which still offers some romance of research. (Author/VW)

  6. Recruiting Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Bobette P.; Dandridge, William L.

    To help improve private schools' recruitment of minority students, this handbook discusses where and how to begin, recruitment strategies, applicant assessment, and the need for in-school support systems for minority students. The authors stress that each school should begin by analyzing its own objectives, attitudes, and admission program.…

  7. Resources for Recruiters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Angelo, Diane; And Others

    Recruitment of participants is a long-standing practice for many programs serving children and families, although the way in which it is approached varies greatly. This volume is presented as a practical tool for practitioners to use in systematizing their recruitment efforts. Section 1, "Reaching Diverse Families," contains an interactive…

  8. Broadening the Recruiting Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central All-Volunteer Force Task Force, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the study is to broaden the enlisted recruiting market, especially for high school graduates and describe measures to complete or expedite actions initiated by ASD (M and RA) (Assistant Secretary of Defense Manpower and Reserve Affairs) and the military services and to take additional actions to enhance recruiting. (Author)

  9. USP28 Is Recruited to Sites of DNA Damage by the Tandem BRCT Domains of 53BP1 but Plays a Minor Role in Double-Strand Break Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Knobel, Philip A.; Belotserkovskaya, Rimma; Galanty, Yaron; Schmidt, Christine K.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is critical for genome stability and the suppression of a wide variety of human malignancies, including neurodevelopmental disorders, immunodeficiency, and cancer. In addition, the efficacy of many chemotherapeutic strategies is dictated by the status of the DDR. Ubiquitin-specific protease 28 (USP28) was reported to govern the stability of multiple factors that are critical for diverse aspects of the DDR. Here, we examined the effects of USP28 depletion on the DDR in cells and in vivo. We found that USP28 is recruited to double-strand breaks in a manner that requires the tandem BRCT domains of the DDR protein 53BP1. However, we observed only minor DDR defects in USP28-depleted cells, and mice lacking USP28 showed normal longevity, immunological development, and radiation responses. Our results thus indicate that USP28 is not a critical factor in double-strand break metabolism and is unlikely to be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention aimed at chemotherapy sensitization. PMID:24687851

  10. Recruitment in Radiotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeley, T. J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Faculty Board of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Royal College of Radiobiologists surveyed the factors thought to influence recruitment into the specialty. Possible factors listed in replies of 36 questionnaires are offered. (LBH)

  11. Human telomerase: biogenesis, trafficking, recruitment, and activation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jens C; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-06-01

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the extension of telomeric DNA in eukaryotes. Recent work has begun to reveal key aspects of the assembly of the human telomerase complex, its intracellular trafficking involving Cajal bodies, and its recruitment to telomeres. Once telomerase has been recruited to the telomere, it appears to undergo a separate activation step, which may include an increase in its repeat addition processivity. This review covers human telomerase biogenesis, trafficking, and activation, comparing key aspects with the analogous events in other species.

  12. Human telomerase: biogenesis, trafficking, recruitment, and activation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the extension of telomeric DNA in eukaryotes. Recent work has begun to reveal key aspects of the assembly of the human telomerase complex, its intracellular trafficking involving Cajal bodies, and its recruitment to telomeres. Once telomerase has been recruited to the telomere, it appears to undergo a separate activation step, which may include an increase in its repeat addition processivity. This review covers human telomerase biogenesis, trafficking, and activation, comparing key aspects with the analogous events in other species. PMID:26063571

  13. eHealth Recruitment Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was…

  14. Recruiting Blacks into Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Leonard; And Others

    Despite significant progress in the recruitment of black journalists, adequate representation of blacks in newsrooms remains an acute concern. The results of (1) statistical monitoring by organizations such as the Newspaper Fund, (2) searching of trade press and academic journal articles for insights into the problem, (3) an open-ended…

  15. Today's Recruitment Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Joe

    1996-01-01

    Five trends in the creation of college student recruitment publications are identified: (1) using market research and marketing principles; (2) targeting specific groups; (3) honesty about campus personality and reputation; (4) cost-effectiveness; and (5) creativity in using effective copy and design. (MSE)

  16. Recruiting New Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This special theme issue includes: "How Can We Solve the Teacher Shortage?" (Camp); "A Student's Perspective" (Swafford); "Recruitment" (Dyer, Andreasen); "Top 10 Reasons to Become an Agriculture Teacher and FFA Advisor" (Bembardt, McMaben); "Supply and Demand of Agriculture Teachers since 1965"…

  17. Recruitment. Hello, goodbye.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2008-07-10

    The UK is "moving to a policy of self-sufficiency" according to the Department of Health. The numbers of new overseas entrants into healthcare, including doctors, nurses and midwives has slumped. Several other countries, including Canada, the US and Australia, are aggressively recruiting from overseas, including from the UK. There is an increasing perception the UK does not want overseas staff.

  18. Predator nonconsumptive effects on prey recruitment weaken with recruit density.

    PubMed

    Ellrich, Julius A; Scrosati, Ricardo A; Molis, Markus

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) of predatory dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus) on intertidal barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) recruitment through field experiments on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast and the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. We studied the recruitment seasons (May-June) of 2011 and 2013. In 2011, the Gulf coast had five times more nearshore phytoplankton (food for barnacle larvae and recruits) during the recruitment season and yielded a 58% higher barnacle recruit density than the Atlantic coast at the end of the recruitment season. In 2013, phytoplankton levels and barnacle recruit density were similar on both coasts and also lower than for the Gulf coast in 2011. Using the comparative-experimental method, the manipulation of dogwhelk presence (without allowing physical contact with prey) revealed that dogwhelk cues limited barnacle recruitment under moderate recruit densities (Atlantic 2011/2013 and Gulf 2013) but had no effect under a high recruit density (Gulf 2011). Barnacle recruits attract settling larvae through chemical cues. Thus, the highest recruit density appears to have neutralized dogwhelk effects. This study suggests that the predation risk perceived by settling larvae may decrease with increasing recruit density and that prey food supply may indirectly influence predator NCEs on prey recruitment.

  19. DNA-dependent protein kinase interacts functionally with the RNA polymerase II complex recruited at the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) long terminal repeat and plays an important role in HIV gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Shilpi; Ochem, Alex; Tyagi, Mudit

    2011-07-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a nuclear protein kinase that specifically requires association with DNA for its kinase activity, plays important roles in the regulation of different DNA transactions, including transcription, replication and DNA repair, as well as in the maintenance of telomeres. Due to its large size, DNA-PK is also known to facilitate the activities of other factors by providing the docking platform at their site of action. In this study, by running several chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate the parallel distribution of DNA-PK with RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) along the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) provirus before and after activation with tumour necrosis factor alpha. The association between DNA-PK and RNAP II is also long-lasting, at least for up to 4 h (the duration analysed in this study). Knockdown of endogenous DNA-PK using specific small hairpin RNAs expressed from lentiviral vectors resulted in significant reduction in HIV gene expression and replication, demonstrating the importance of DNA-PK for HIV gene expression. Sequence analysis of the HIV-1 Tat protein revealed three potential target sites for phosphorylation by DNA-PK and, by using kinase assays, we confirmed that Tat is an effective substrate of DNA-PK. Through peptide mapping, we found that two of these three potential phosphorylation sites are recognized and phosphorylated by DNA-PK. Mutational studies on the DNA-PK target sites of Tat further demonstrated the functional significance of the Tat-DNA-PK interaction. Thus, overall our results clearly demonstrate the functional interaction between DNA-PK and RNAP II during HIV transcription.

  20. MBA Recruitment Task Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-05

    talented, recent MBA graduates from top-tier U.S. business schools . These graduates bring new ideas, energy and private sector management...sets and school performance may be different, all Fellows are expected to be recent graduates of top-tier business schools who will be performing in...the “CEO/Ambassador” to one of the target business schools where DoD is establishing a physical recruiting presence. The person’s role would be to

  1. Recruiting and Retaining Cyberwarriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-07

    challenge is further exacerbated by a new generation , commonly referred to as Millennials , now coming into the workplace. The Millennials have...these growing recruitment and retention challenges along with the many generational differences of the Millennials in an attempt to provide some...is further exacerbated by a new generation now coming into the workplace. This new generation , commonly referred to as Millennials , has different

  2. Navy Enlisted Recruiting: Alternatives for Improving Recruiter Productivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Instruction CR Chief Recruiter CRF Career Recruiting Force CS Culinary Specialist CT Command Trainer CTI Cryptologic Technician...8, Aviation Machinist Mates (AD), Aviation Structural Mechanic (AM), Culinary Specialists (CS), and Fire Controlman (FC) had the highest average

  3. Combgap contributes to recruitment of Polycomb group proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Payal; De, Sandip; Mitra, Apratim; Bezstarosti, Karel; Demmers, Jeroen A. A.; Pfeifer, Karl; Kassis, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are responsible for maintaining the silenced transcriptional state of many developmentally regulated genes. PcG proteins are organized into multiprotein complexes that are recruited to DNA via cis-acting elements known as “Polycomb response elements” (PREs). In Drosophila, PREs consist of binding sites for many different DNA-binding proteins, some known and others unknown. Identification of these DNA-binding proteins is crucial to understanding the mechanism of PcG recruitment to PREs. We report here the identification of Combgap (Cg), a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that is involved in recruitment of PcG proteins. Cg can bind directly to PREs via GTGT motifs and colocalizes with the PcG proteins Pleiohomeotic (Pho) and Polyhomeotic (Ph) at the majority of PREs in the genome. In addition, Cg colocalizes with Ph at a number of targets independent of Pho. Loss of Cg leads to decreased recruitment of Ph at only a subset of sites; some of these sites are binding sites for other Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) components, others are not. Our data suggest that Cg can recruit Ph in the absence of PRC1 and illustrate the diversity and redundancy of PcG protein recruitment mechanisms. PMID:27001825

  4. Generational Recruiting: Applying Generational Theory to Tactical Level Recruiting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-24

    theory at the tactical level of recruiting, recruiters must be mindful of the socio-economic environment and influences that shaped the peer personality......Command to apply generational theory at the ’tactical level’ of canvassing recruiters, just as MCRC applies generational theory in its expertly informed

  5. The Students-Recruiting-Students Undergraduate Engineering Recruiting Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattis, Carol; Nachtmann, Heather; Youngblood, Alisha D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Students-Recruiting-Students (SRS) program developed to recruit high school students into the Industrial Engineering Department at the University of Arkansas. Presents four phases of the program along with seven years of program results. Encourages successful development of similar recruiting programs. (KHR)

  6. Army Recruiting Resourcing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Sheridan, Illinois 60037-6090 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMO No. 070虨 I.& Mrw ung U btOfl tOf thti (CM .; 9 Of nOMToMt,0* Mt e,,tiSO w &rIK" 1 OUr...are those of the author and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army policy or position, unless so designated by other...changes in policies , regulations, or statutes that affect recruiting. Those interviewed within the DA staff (DCSPER, PA&E, and DAB personnel) believe there

  7. Preparing Alumni for Student Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Brian

    As recruitment budgets continue to tighten and with fewer colleges reporting application increases for their freshmen classes, enrollment managers must continue to explore all potential sources of recruitment talent. Alumni are often an underutilized or sometimes poorly utilized resource in recruitment efforts. Younger alumni, for example, may…

  8. Nichelle Nichols, NASA Recruiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Actress Nichelle Nichols was born in Robbins, Illinois on December 29, 1936. She played Lieutenant Uhura the Communications Officer on the U.S.S. Enterprise in the original series, Star Trek. Nichols stayed with the show and has appeared in six Star Trek movies. Her portrayal of Uhura on Star Trek marked one of the first non-stereotypical roles assigned to an African-American actress. She also provided the voice for Lt. Uhura on the Star Trek animated series in 1974-75. Before joining the crew on Star Trek, she sang and danced with Duke Ellington's band. Nichols was always interested in space travel. She flew aboard the C-141 Astronomy Observatory, which analyzed the atmospheres of Mars and Saturn on an eight hour, high altitude mission. From the late 1970's until the late 1980's, NASA employed Nichelle Nichols to recruit new astronaut candidates. Many of her new recruits were women or members of racial and ethnic minorities, including Guion Bluford (the first African-American astronaut), Sally Ride (the first female American astronaut), Judith Resnik (one of the original set of female astronauts, who perished during the launch of the Challenger on January 28, 1986), and Ronald McNair (the second African-American astronaut, and another victim of the Challenger accident). Currently Nichelle Nichols is actively involved in movies and special appearances. She is also a spokesperson for her favorite charity, 'The Kwanzaa Foundation.'

  9. eHealth recruitment challenges.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-11-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was literature-informed, it failed to enroll the desired number of girls within a reasonable time period. Therefore, the recruitment strategy was reformulated to incorporate principles of social marketing and traditional marketing techniques. The resulting plan included both targeted, highly specific strategies (e.g., selected churches), and more broad-based approaches (e.g., media exposure, mass mailings, radio advertisements). The revised plan enabled recruitment goals to be attained. Media appeared to be particularly effective at reaching the intended audience. Future research should identify the most effective recruitment strategies for reaching potential eHealth audiences.

  10. Recruit and ADVANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  11. Diversity employment and recruitment sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

  12. Recruiting Migrant Students Reference Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leon, Ed.

    This document reports on a study evaluating the practices of identification and recruitment of migrant students. Guided by a 14-state advisory council, data were collected by ethnographic research of practice in migrant recruitment and focus-group studies of migrant families. The document consists of five sections each written by a different…

  13. Nutrition Knowledge among Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-27

    Nutrition Knovledge among Navy Recruits DTIC AELEOI7E flS SEP 2 8 1987 Terry L. Conway Linda K. Hervig D Ross R. Vickers, Jr. Health Psychology Department...5 Participants ............................................................. 5 Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire...Students ............................... 6 Recruits’ Nutrition Knowledge .................................... ...... 8 Correlates of Nutrition Knowledge

  14. Three Keys to Better Recruiting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazington, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment is an expensive business: In 2010-2011, the median cost to recruit an undergraduate was $2,185 among private colleges and universities, according to Noel-Levitz, an enrollment management consultancy. In these tough fiscal times, admissions departments are under pressure to keep those costs down even as they pursue higher enrollment and…

  15. Changing Attitudes toward Teacher Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Donald

    The identification, encouragement, and recruitment of teachers is a professional responsibility that must be faced today. The field of industrial arts holds no external attractors; the job of teacher recruitment rests on the shoulders of teachers, supervisors, and teacher educators. Teachers have attitudes that fail to support any process that…

  16. Sales Training for Army Recruiter Success: Interviews with Excellent Recruiters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    merit of an expert modeling system of the skills and strategies used by excel- lent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the...7. AUTHOR(&) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Steven R. Frieman 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK U.S...Recruiting 2M AUSTIRACT (rcnttm ame r orw am nssry i Identify by block number) s-This report describes a program of research on communication strategies and

  17. Recruiting for Prior Service Market

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    perceptions, expectations and issues for re-enlistment • Develop potential marketing and advertising tactics and strategies targeted to the defined...01 JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recruiting for Prior Service Market 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Command First Handshake to First Unit of Assignment An Army of One Proud to Be e e to Serve Recruiting for Prior Service Market MAJ Eric Givens / MAJ Brian

  18. Selective recruitment of host factors by HSV-1 replication centers

    PubMed Central

    LANG, Feng-Chao; LI, Xin; VLADMIROVA, Olga; LI, Zhuo-Ran; CHEN, Gui-Jun; XIAO, Yu; LI, Li-Hong; LU, Dan-Feng; HAN, Hong-Bo; ZHOU, Ju-Min

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) enters productive infection after infecting epithelial cells, where it controls the host nucleus to make viral proteins, starts viral DNA synthesis and assembles infectious virions. In this process, replicating viral genomes are organized into replication centers to facilitate viral growth. HSV-1 is known to use host factors, including host chromatin and host transcription regulators, to transcribe its genes; however, the invading virus also encounters host defense and stress responses to inhibit viral growth. Recently, we found that HSV-1 replication centers recruit host factor CTCF but exclude βH2A.X. Thus, HSV-1 replication centers may selectively recruit cellular factors needed for viral growth, while excluding host factors that are deleterious for viral transcription or replication. Here we report that the viral replication centers selectively excluded modified histone H3, including heterochromatin mark H3K9me3, H3S10P and active chromatin mark H3K4me3, but not unmodified H3. We found a dynamic association between the viral replication centers and host RNA polymerase II. The centers also recruited components of the DNA damage response pathway, including 53BP1, BRCA1 and host antiviral protein SP100. Importantly, we found that ATM kinase was needed for the recruitment of CTCF to the viral centers. These results suggest that the HSV-1 replication centers took advantage of host signaling pathways to actively recruit or exclude host factors to benefit viral growth. PMID:26018857

  19. Selective recruitment of host factors by HSV-1 replication centers.

    PubMed

    Lang, Feng-Chao; Li, Xin; Vladmirova, Olga; Li, Zhuo-Ran; Chen, Gui-Jun; Xiao, Yu; Li, Li-Hong; Lu, Dan-Feng; Han, Hong-Bo; Zhou, Ju-Min

    2015-05-18

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) enters productive infection after infecting epithelial cells, where it controls the host nucleus to make viral proteins, starts viral DNA synthesis and assembles infectious virions. In this process, replicating viral genomes are organized into replication centers to facilitate viral growth. HSV-1 is known to use host factors, including host chromatin and host transcription regulators, to transcribe its genes; however, the invading virus also encounters host defense and stress responses to inhibit viral growth. Recently, we found that HSV-1 replication centers recruit host factor CTCF but exclude γH2A.X. Thus, HSV-1 replication centers may selectively recruit cellular factors needed for viral growth, while excluding host factors that are deleterious for viral transcription or replication. Here we report that the viral replication centers selectively excluded modified histone H3, including heterochromatin mark H3K9me3, H3S10P and active chromatin mark H3K4me3, but not unmodified H3. We found a dynamic association between the viral replication centers and host RNA polymerase II. The centers also recruited components of the DNA damage response pathway, including 53BP1, BRCA1 and host antiviral protein SP100. Importantly, we found that ATM kinase was needed for the recruitment of CTCF to the viral centers. These results suggest that the HSV-1 replication centers took advantage of host signaling pathways to actively recruit or exclude host factors to benefit viral growth.

  20. 20 CFR 655.156 - Recruitment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Requirements of a recruitment report. The employer must prepare, sign, and date a written recruitment report... job opportunity up to the date of the preparation of the recruitment report, and the disposition...

  1. Recruiting Students into Nursing: Prior Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipps, Opal S.

    1983-01-01

    Raises fundamental questions regarding student recruitment: (1) why recruit students into nursing? (2) what are the issues that determine whether a school should have a nursing program? and (3) what are students being recruited into? (JOW)

  2. Spatial synchrony in cisco recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Jared T.; Yule, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael L.; Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Ebener, Mark P.; Berglund, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the spatial scale of recruitment variability for disparate cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in the Great Lakes (n = 8) and Minnesota inland lakes (n = 4). We found that the scale of synchrony was approximately 400 km when all available data were utilized; much greater than the 50-km scale suggested for freshwater fish populations in an earlier global analysis. The presence of recruitment synchrony between Great Lakes and inland lake cisco populations supports the hypothesis that synchronicity is driven by climate and not dispersal. We also found synchrony in larval densities among three Lake Superior populations separated by 25–275 km, which further supports the hypothesis that broad-scale climatic factors are the cause of spatial synchrony. Among several candidate climate variables measured during the period of larval cisco emergence, maximum wind speeds exhibited the most similar spatial scale of synchrony to that observed for cisco. Other factors, such as average water temperatures, exhibited synchrony on broader spatial scales, which suggests they could also be contributing to recruitment synchrony. Our results provide evidence that abiotic factors can induce synchronous patterns of recruitment for populations of cisco inhabiting waters across a broad geographic range, and show that broad-scale synchrony of recruitment can occur in freshwater fish populations as well as those from marine systems.

  3. Facilitating Alzheimer disease research recruitment.

    PubMed

    Grill, Joshua D; Galvin, James E

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) research faces challenges to successful enrollment, especially to clinical trials and biomarker studies. Failure to recruit the planned number of participants in a timely manner threatens the internal validity and success of clinical research, raising concerns about external validity and generalizability of results, and possibly leading to disparities in disease treatment. Methods to improve recruitment exist, but require varying levels of staff effort and financial resources, and evidence of effectiveness is often lacking or inconsistent. In this review, we summarize some of the available methods to improve AD research recruitment, the available literature to support or refute these strategies, and some of the experiences at the authors' AD Research Centers. We discuss the use of community-based participatory research principles and participant registries as a means to enhance research enrollment and increase diversity of research samples.

  4. International Student Recruitment: Trends and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcone, Santa

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current trends in international student recruitment. Focusing specifically on recruitment of Chinese students, important aspects of China's educational system relevant to recruitment are presented. Barriers to Chinese student recruitment are then discussed. Successful, employed, international graduates validate…

  5. Recruiting Trends, 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2008-2009. This year's report is based on 945 respondents, including 57 K-12 schools. The researchers continued their focus on fast-growth small companies and expended most of their energy in retaining their sample distribution, knowing that the prevailing economic situation would reduce responses.…

  6. Ethical Issues in Recruiting Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Edward B.

    1981-01-01

    Examples of deceptive recruitment are highlighted in a review of questionable practices used to attract students both from within the United States and abroad. Major issues for action are identified as sacrificing quality for numbers, the hiring of marketing consultants, professional training of admissions directors, and federal regulation.…

  7. Recruiting Trends, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    College students who plan on entering the labor market can expect to see more job opportunities in the spring of 2007, according to information supplied by 864 companies and organizations to this year's Recruiting Trends Report. After two years of double digit growth, the expansion will slow to a modest 4% to 6%. Two opposing factors appear to be…

  8. Building a Winning Recruiting Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Sherrie Gong

    2002-01-01

    Building a winning recruiting team is essential to the well being of virtually every organization. Putting together a great mix of people to represent an organization and bring in new talent can serve an organization well when competition is fierce or demand is down. (GCP)

  9. Recruiting Trends, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Almost 900 employers responded to this year's "Recruiting Trends" survey, the largest response in the history of this project. Hiring of college graduates is expected to increase by single digits minimally, or double digits if certain geographic sectors are excluded (between 6% and 14%). This growth follows a robust 20% increase in…

  10. Recruiting Trends, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2007-2008. This year's report is based on 994 respondents, including 84 K-12 school districts. The researchers focused attention on growing companies, based on lists from Forbes and Inc. magazines, and as a result, they have more small and medium-size employers represented this year. The sample…

  11. Three Recruitment and Retention Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronx Community Coll., NY.

    This three-part report summarizes methodology and findings of three recruitment and retention studies conducted by the Bronx Community College (BCC) during 1979-1980. Part I examines a survey of enrolled students conducted to determine student attitudes toward BCC, the services that were most in demand, the reasons for attending BCC, and student…

  12. [Utility of recruitment maneuvers (pro)].

    PubMed

    Suárez Sipmann, F

    2009-04-01

    In recent years lung recruitment maneuvers (RM) have awakened an increasing interest due to their potential beneficial effects in lung protection so that they have been progressively introduced into clinical practice. Many clinical and experimental studies have described the physiological benefits obtained after lung re-expansion although these benefits are not uniform, partly because of the wide heterogeneity of the RMs applied and lack of criteria defining their goal. Therefore, to date it has been difficult to establish the role of recruitment in the ventilatory management of ARDS patients. However, the information obtained from recent studies has improved our understanding regarding the mechanisms governing lung recruitment, interpretation of its response and its side effects and this has strongly contributed to its improved practical application. Lung recruitment must be applied in a protocolized and individualized way, establishing the pressure necessary to obtain the reasonably possible maximum lung re-expansion in each patient. Post RM PEEP adjustment is an essential aspect which, if ignored, renders RM useless and possibly without indication. Taking these essential aspects into account we are getting closer to, as the author believes, finally demonstrating the benefit of RM in lung protection and ARDS patients' outcome.

  13. Recruiting and Retaining Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Janice

    2003-01-01

    Adult learners, long the stepchildren of colleges and universities, have nearly become the norm, and they spend billions of dollars each year on education. This chapter takes a customer-oriented approach to recruiting and retaining adult students in higher education. (GCP)

  14. Recruiting Trends, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2009-2010. This year's report is based on over 2,500 respondents, of which approximately 2,259 provided useable information with 1,846 including complete hiring figures used for the projections. The researchers continued their focus on fast-growth companies and expanded their efforts to ensure a…

  15. Marketer's forgotten challenge: physician recruitment.

    PubMed

    Plank, D

    1997-01-01

    As marketing department missions continue to expand, more and more people are finding themselves not just recruiting customers, but doctors. The good news: May of the tips and tricks of direct marketing can be used to reach out to in-demand physicians.

  16. Recruiting and Retaining Summer Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossen, Brian; Yerkes, Rita

    1998-01-01

    Recruiting of camp staff is challenged by economic and workplace restructuring, including business downsizing, part-time and temporary employment patterns, and generational attitude changes. Strategies for hiring and retaining staff include knowing what college-age workers want, marketing benefits, adopting new business strategies, and empowering…

  17. A recruiting failure turned success

    PubMed Central

    Hure, Alexis J; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare E

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper describes an attempt that was made to recruit child-bearing women into a nutrition-based research study and the knowledge that was gained when this approach was unsuccessful. The Assessment Before Children Develop Obesity Study was a cross-sectional survey which planned to follow-up women and children who had previously been, or were currently enrolled in the Mathematical Model of Pregnancy Study. Methods Ethics approval was sought and obtained over an eight month period. After just six weeks it was obvious that our research objectives were not achievable because of an inadequate response rate (10%). This led to a review of the recruiting methodology as well as all written materials provided to potential participants. Advice was sought from those with expertise in the design of large public health campaigns and literature was consulted to refine our recruitment strategy. Results In subsequent redevelopment, the Assessment Before Children Develop Obesity Study was merged with the Mathematical Model of Pregnancy Study to become what is now known as the Women and Their Children's Health Study. Consent rates improved from 10% and 35% in the Assessment Before Children Develop Obesity and Mathematical Model of Pregnancy studies respectively, to 61% in the Women and Their Children's Health Study (chi square test, p < 0.001). Successful recruitment for this research continues. The significant improvement in the participation rate is attributed to numerous factors including changes to the study name, recruiting method and information materials. Conclusion By sharing our experience we aim to assist other researcher in avoiding the same pitfalls and offer effective strategies for improving response rates. PMID:18366805

  18. Patient recruitment workflow with and without a patient recruitment system.

    PubMed

    Trinczek, Benjamin; Schulte, Britta; Breil, Bernhard; Dugas, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In clinical trials (CTs), the process of patient recruitment (PR) is one of the main risk factors, as almost half of all trial delays are caused by problems in PR. To our knowledge, no publication in this field describes the process of PR. Therefore, weak spots and potential benefits cannot be identified. By interviewing six domain experts and modeling the workflow in a standardized way, we describe the actors, tasks and tools within PR. We compare the current workflow with Patient Recruitment System (PRS)-supported PR. The identification of eligible participants is the most complex part, but adding a PRS simplifies it by automating repetitive tasks and taking work off the Investigators' hands. This work contributes to a common understanding of the PR process.

  19. Recruitment dynamics in adaptive social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkarayev, Maxim S.; Schwartz, Ira B.; Shaw, Leah B.

    2013-06-01

    We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean-field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime).

  20. Making medical recruitment practices fair.

    PubMed Central

    Maddock, S.

    1996-01-01

    The fact that in the past each medical student was assured of a post when qualified has led many in medicine to believe that selection for recruitment is merely a formality based on qualification and accreditation. Consequently little thought has gone into developing detailed person or post selection criteria. As a result most recruitment panel members are unclear on what basis to discriminate between equally qualified candidates and invariably plump for 'the face that fits'. This practice discriminates against women, black doctors and those white men not quite acceptable in manner, dress or attitudes. In this article, advice is offered on the development of equality strategies for public sector organisations and on the implementation of fair practices. PMID:8731704

  1. Recruiters, Advertising, and Navy Enlistments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Population’s Awareness and Advertising Previous studies on advertising have focused on measuring its effects in product markets : the consensus is that...1 June 1973. 4. Clarke, D.G., "Econometric Measurement of the Duration of Advertising Effect on Sales," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. III...RECRUITERS, ADVERTISING , AND NAVY ENLISTMENTS. CU) MAR So L GOLDBERG UNCLASSIFIED CNA-PP-275 N ROFESSIONAL PAPE 75March 1980 6,) . ..... - R

  2. Recruiting and retaining indigenous farmworker participants

    PubMed Central

    Farquhar, Stephanie; de Jesus Gonzalez, Carmen; Hall, Jennifer; Samples, Julie; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information on the specific practices used to successfully recruit and retain indigenous and Latino farmworkers in research studies. This article describes the strategies used in a community-based participatory research project with indigenous agricultural workers. Participants were recruited through consulting with indigenous relatives and friends, identifying and meeting with indigenous leaders from hometown associations in countries of origin, and asking current participants to recruit fellow farmworkers. Adjustments were initiated to the second year protocol to enhance recruitment and retention. The difference in attrition rates between years one and two was statistically significant, a difference partially attributed to modifications to recruitment and retention protocol. Findings confirmed that active recruitment techniques and word-of-mouth recruitment were more effective than passive methods. Trust among academic, organization, and community partners, and shared language and culture between those doing the recruitment and the participants, contributed to sustained farmworker participation. PMID:23733354

  3. Navy Recruitment Potential in Junior Colleges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    could be employed in recruitment advertising directed to this target market segment. ~~iZ Uncla ssifie d SECURITY CLAUIPIC~f(ATION OFf THIS PA09(Wh•l...Alexandria, Virginia, CR-ED-74-1, July 1974. Grey Advertising . Market Target Recruitmen~t Incentive Study for Enlisted Personnel (draft report, internal NRC...the recruiter or the various advertising media. Survey findings document the importance of the recruiter, and suggestpromising media and appeals which

  4. Recruiters, Advertising, and Navy Enlistments,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    product markets have concluded that advertising increases demand in current and future periods, but its effects decline over time (see reference 2). A study...Apr 1979 2. Clarke, D.G., "Econometric Measurement of the Duration of Advertising Effect on Sales," Journal of Marketing Research, Nov 1976, pp. 345...7AD-AOA6201 CENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA INST OF NAVAL--ETC F/6 5/9 I RECRUITERS, ADVERTISING , AND NAVY ENLISTMENTS. (U) IOCT 79 L

  5. Study of Navy Recruiting Simulation Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    recruiters never use NRST; further, four out five feel that NRST has no positive impact on their confidence, sales skills, productivity, or time ... management . Additionally, fewer than one in four Navy recruiters rated NRST favorably on its usability. The responses of recruiting supervisors were very

  6. Faculty Recruitment in an Era of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marilyn; Schimpf, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Faculty recruitment is a challenge for administration and departments, especially in an era of change in the academy. This article builds on information from an interactive conference panel session that focused on faculty recruitment best practices. The article addresses faculty recruitment strategies that focus on the optimization of search…

  7. Recruitment and Strategies for Small Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Edward H.

    The guide is designed to assist the small school administrator in the successful recruitment of teachers. It provides a recruitment design, which encompasses community and school assets, and a list of "ideal characteristics" of teachers who are congruent with the needs of small schools. Fifteen strategies for effective recruitment include…

  8. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 618.310 Section 618.310 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment....

  9. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recruitment. 618.310 Section 618.310 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment....

  10. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recruitment. 618.310 Section 618.310 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment....

  11. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recruitment. 618.310 Section 618.310 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment....

  12. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  13. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  14. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  15. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  16. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  17. Corporate Recruiters Survey: 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada Worthington, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Corporate Recruiters Survey Report examines the current hiring outlook for graduate business students and analyzes demand by industry and world region, salaries, job functions, and mobility in regional job placement. It also explores recruiter behavior, including recruitment practices and school and candidate selection criteria, and…

  18. 45 CFR 83.12 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... each of its training programs, make comparable efforts to recruit members of each sex in the geographic area from which such entity attracts its students. A federally supported entity shall not recruit for... on the basis of sex in selection for a training program. (b) Recruitment practices. A...

  19. Proposed Recruit Training Topic: Rape Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Janet R.

    This guide, prepared by the United States Navy Recruit Training Command, was designed to address the differential training needs of male and female recruits in the area of personal security, i.e., rape awareness/prevention. In section I, the role of the Recruit Training Command is noted, and information on the incidence of sexual assault is…

  20. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment. (a... basis of sex in the recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to...

  1. Finding the end: recruitment of telomerase to the telomere

    PubMed Central

    Nandakumar, Jayakrishnan; Cech, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres, the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, are characterized by the presence of multiple repeats of a short DNA sequence. This telomeric DNA is protected from illicit repair by telomere-associated proteins, which in mammals form the shelterin complex. Replicative polymerases are unable to synthesize DNA at the extreme ends of chromosomes, but in unicellular eukaryotes such as yeast and in mammalian germ cells and stem cells, telomere length is maintained by a ribonucleoprotein enzyme known as telomerase. Recent work has provided insights into the mechanisms of telomerase recruitment to telomeres, highlighting the contribution of telomere-associated proteins including TPP1 in humans, Ccq1 in S. pombe, and Cdc13 and Ku in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23299958

  2. Special Forces Recruiting: The Operational Need for Targeted Recruitment of First and Second Generation Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Prospecting......................................................28 2. Recruiting Trips (Temporary Duty) within the Market Areas .....29 3. Conducting...31 5. SFAS Requirements...........................................................................32 IV. RECRUITABLE MARKETS AND RECRUITERS...whether or not the market is penetrable, whether the candidates are useful to SF, whether or not such recruits are trainable, and finally, can

  3. Mediator coordinates PIC assembly with recruitment of CHD1.

    PubMed

    Lin, Justin J; Lehmann, Lynn W; Bonora, Giancarlo; Sridharan, Rupa; Vashisht, Ajay A; Tran, Nancy; Plath, Kathrin; Wohlschlegel, James A; Carey, Michael

    2011-10-15

    Murine Chd1 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 1), a chromodomain-containing chromatin remodeling protein, is necessary for embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency. Chd1 binds to nucleosomes trimethylated at histone 3 Lys 4 (H3K4me3) near the beginning of active genes but not to bivalent domains also containing H3K27me3. To address the mechanism of this specificity, we reproduced H3K4me3- and CHD1-stimulated gene activation in HeLa extracts. Multidimensional protein identification technology (MuDPIT) and immunoblot analyses of purified preinitiation complexes (PICs) revealed the recruitment of CHD1 to naive chromatin but enhancement on H3K4me3 chromatin. Studies in depleted extracts showed that the Mediator coactivator complex, which controls PIC assembly, is also necessary for CHD1 recruitment. MuDPIT analyses of CHD1-associated proteins support the recruitment data and reveal numerous components of the PIC, including Mediator. In vivo, CHD1 and Mediator are recruited to an inducible gene, and genome-wide binding of the two proteins correlates well with active gene transcription in mouse ES cells. Finally, coimmunoprecipitation of CHD1 and Mediator from cell extracts can be ablated by shRNA knockdown of a specific Mediator subunit. Our data support a model in which the Mediator coordinates PIC assembly along with the recruitment of CHD1. The combined action of the PIC and H3K4me3 provides specificity in targeting CHD1 to active genes.

  4. Dental care needs of Army recruits.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, W A; Mangelsdorff, A D; Brunner, D G

    1983-01-01

    To determine the prevalence amng current U.S. Army recruits of dental conditions requiring treatment, an assessment was done of the dental care needs of a 3 percent sample (N = 5,613) of incoming recruits at all seven U.S. Army reception stations that operate under a dental treatment planning concept. Both the treatment needs of the total sample and of each Army component--that is, Regular, Reserve, and National Guard forces--were quantified. The results indicated that the requirement for dental care among Army recruits currently being processed for training is approximately the same as it was for such recruits at the time that the Selective Service System draft was in effect, although the types of care needed have changed. Like the draft-based recruits, current Army recruits enter active-duty status with a substantial backlog of unmet dental care needs. PMID:6867262

  5. An Analysis of Female Marine Recruit Attrition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    SOUTH CAROLINA COULUMBIOIA, SOJUT II A \\ II~4AI 290 ANNAYSI . ..,". - AN ANALYSIS OF fEMALE MARINE RECRUIT ATTRITION I William H./Mobley Stuart...PERIOD COVERED An Analysis of Female Marine Recruit Attrition Technical Report S- PERFOMIWo ONG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) 2. CONTRACT ON GRANT NUMer...number) Attrition Leadership Behavioral -Intentions Age Attitudes Group Cl imate Roles Recruit Training Expectations Job Conteuit Values Race Females

  6. Generational Theory: Implications for Recruiting the Millennials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-10

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT GENERATIONAL THEORY: IMPLICATIONS FOR RECRUITING THE MILLENNIALS by Colonel James P. Drago United States Army...by ANSI Std Z39-18 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Colonel James P. Drago TITLE: Generational Theory: Implications for Recruiting the Millennials FORMAT: Strategy...and attitudes of Generation X, the Baby Boomers, and the Millennial generation , the target audience of the Army’s current recruiting efforts

  7. Understanding Millennials to Improve Recruiting Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    ABSTRACT The Millennial generation , born between 1982 and 2003, has been influenced by numerous events in their developmental years such as the 9/11...characteristics of the Millennial generation and the interrelationship with other generations in an effort to improve U.S. Army recruiting efficiencies... Millennials . Recruiting is a “people” business and the more USAREC leaders and recruiters understand generational interrelationships, influences, and

  8. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    PubMed

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3-7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  9. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    PubMed Central

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280

  10. [Utility of recruitment maneuvers (con)].

    PubMed

    Ochagavia, A; Blanch, L; Lopez-Aguilar, J

    2009-04-01

    A reduction in both total lung volume and in lung parenchyma useful for gas exchange has been observed in ARDS patients. Applying an appropriate ventilatory pattern that includes PEEP can open up collapsed areas of the lung to aeration, thus ensuring a more homogeneous distribution of air in the lung. However, the heterogeneous patterns observed in patients with ARDS vary widely in their response to ventilation with PEEP. Recruitment maneuvers (RM) have been proposed as an adjuvant treatment to mechanical ventilation to re-expand collapsed lung tissue in ARDS. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether RM are useful when patients are ventilated with high PEEP or when they have fibrosis, stiff chest wall, or hypovolemia, among other conditions. Likewise, decisions about RM must take into account not only their short- and long-term efficacy and reversibility, but also possible adverse effects derived from the high pressures reached during RM, including barotrauma, hemodynamic alterations, reduced systolic volume and aortic flow, and difficulties in venous return, as well as the possibility of bacterial translocation to the bloodstream or other organs. This article review the effects of RM as adjuvant treatment to mechanical ventilation in ARDS patients and discuss its efficacy and potential benefits as well as the different interactions that RM can have with the diverse conditions that can be associated to ARDS.

  11. Interactions between Multiple Recruitment Drivers: Post-Settlement Predation Mortality and Flow-Mediated Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Knights, Antony M.; Firth, Louise B.; Walters, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Background Dispersal is a primary driver in shaping the future distribution of species in both terrestrial and marine systems. Physical transport by advection can regulate the distance travelled and rate of propagule supply to a habitat but post-settlement processes such as predation can decouple supply from recruitment. The effect of flow-mediated recruitment and predation on the recruitment success of an intertidal species, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica was evaluated in two-replicated field experiments. Two key crab species were manipulated to test predator identity effects on oyster mortality. Findings Recruitment was ∼58% higher in high flow compared to low flow, but predation masked those differences. Predation mortality was primarily attributed to the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, whilst the mud crab Panopeus herbstii had no effect on recruit mortality. Recruit mortality from predation was high when recruit densities were high, but when recruit density was low, predation effects were not seen. Under high recruitment (supply), predation determined maximum population size and in low flow environments, recruitment success is likely determined by a combination of recruitment and resource limitation but not predation. Conclusions Four processes are demonstrated: (1) Increases in flow rate positively affect recruitment success; (2) In high flow (recruitment) environments, resource availability is less important than predation; (3) predation is an important source of recruit mortality, but is dependent upon recruit density; and (4) recruitment and/or resource limitation is likely a major driver of population structure and functioning, modifying the interaction between predators and prey. Simultaneous testing of flow-mediated recruitment and predation was required to differentiate between the role of each process in determining population size. Our results reinforce the importance of propagule pressure, predation and post-settlement mortality as

  12. DNMT3L interacts with transcription factors to target DNMT3L/DNMT3B to specific DNA sequences: role of the DNMT3L/DNMT3B/p65-NFκB complex in the (de-)methylation of TRAF1.

    PubMed

    Pacaud, Romain; Sery, Quentin; Oliver, Lisa; Vallette, François M; Tost, Jörg; Cartron, Pierre-François

    2014-09-01

    DNMT3L i.e. DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3-like protein, is devoid of cytosine methyltransferase activity, despite clear homology to DNMT3A and DNMT3B, due to the mutation of key catalytic residues. However, DNMT3L participates in de novo methylation reactions through its direct interaction with DNMT3A and DNMT3B. In the present study, we investigated if DNMT3L interacts also directly with transcription factors (TFs). Using TF arrays, we identified 73 TFs that interacted with DNMT3L, 13 of which (ASH2L, ATF1, ATF3, BLZF1, CDX2, CERM, E2F3, E2F4, GCNF, GTF2I, GTF3C5, NFkB-p65 and RXRα) interacted only with DNMT3L, but not with DNMT3A/B. By focusing on the interaction with NFkB-p65, we demonstrate that DNMT3L forms a complex with DNMT3B and NFkB-p65 and that this complex is required for the control of DNA methylation at the TRAF1 promoter in the T98G glioma cell line. In addition, our experiments describe the DNA methylation at TRAF1 as being dynamic with a demethylation phase involving TET3. Thus, our data suggests that DNMT3L can address DNMT3A/B to specific sites by directly interacting with TFs that do not directly interact with DNMT3A/B. In summary, our data provide a new avenue for the direction of site-specific de novo DNA methylation catalyzed by DNMT3A/B.

  13. University Relations: An Aid to Recruiting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehocky, George J. And Others

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that placement and recruitment practitioners should market their professions to each other to assure assertive programing and dynamic programs. The six articles address survival in the face of increased accountability, emphasizing the marketing aspect of career planning, placement, and recruitment through a planned, organized effort. (JAC)

  14. Recruitment and Retention in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris I.; Marrs, Lawrence W.

    Social isolation, extreme weather conditions, inadequate housing, and low salaries often characterizing rural areas cause problems in recruiting and retaining special education personnel. Successful interviewers for rural districts must include four components in their recruitment strategies: the use of intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivators,…

  15. Triton College Faculty Recruitment Action Plan (FRAP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    Triton College's (Illinois) Faculty Recruitment Action Plan (FRAP) provides a detailed guide to hiring new faculty, focusing on the desired characteristics of new faculty; marketing and recruitment strategies; employment incentives; the application, interviewing, and selection process; new faculty orientation; a timeline for implementation; cost…

  16. 22 CFR 146.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment...

  17. 7 CFR 15a.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.23 Section 15a.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment...

  18. 7 CFR 15a.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.23 Section 15a.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment...

  19. 7 CFR 15a.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.23 Section 15a.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment...

  20. Evaluating and Selecting Schools for Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachhuber, Thomas; Paight, Laura

    2003-01-01

    To improve their campus recruiting outcomes, some companies have developed their own methods for evaluating and selecting tools for recruitment. This article highlights the methods of Pfizer Global Research & Development, which uses a scientific approach to ensure its success on campus. (GCP)

  1. Turf Wars: School Administrators and Military Recruiting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagotte, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Although a decade has passed since passage, few have noticed that section 9528 in No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandates schools to assist military recruiting. This article focuses on administrators' responsibility to inform parents of their privacy rights and the struggle to manage recruiting in schools. I highlight two conclusions with policy…

  2. Policies That Support Effective Teacher Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Waterford, CT. Educational Policies Service.

    This School Board Policy kit, one of a series, covers the subject of Policies that Support Effective Teacher Recruitment. It requests all district boards to "incorporate into written policy form their refusal to consider race, religion, sex, or national origin as a basis for employment," and stresses the importance of teacher recruitment as a…

  3. A Community-Based Recruitment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosmo, Richard D.; Baratta, Mary Kathryne

    1979-01-01

    Analyses community-based recruitment techniques initiated by Moraine Valley Community College, Illinois, to stabilize enrollment, expand participation of the under-served, and increase the pool of college attendees. Delineates the eight goals of recruitment and the plan implemented at Moraine Valley. Discusses major activities and results. (CAM)

  4. Personnel Recruitment and Retention in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris; Marrs, Lawrence W.

    Recruitment and retention of special education teachers and related services staff have been persistent problems of rural school districts nationwide. High teacher attrition rates have serious ramifications for personnel development and program stability. Effective recruitment strategies for rural areas have four main components: (1) emphasis on…

  5. Al-Qaida: Terrorist Selection and Recruitment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    like them, not alien outsiders. 9. Surrounding potential recruits with peers who are already established recruits. 10. E. Goffman , Behavior in Public...Cultic Studies Journal 1:2 (1984): 167–177. 88 SECTION 1 Al-Qaida and Global Jihad Goffman , E., Behavior in Public Places: Notes on the Social

  6. 29 CFR 36.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited... apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission of students....

  7. 29 CFR 36.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited... apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission of students....

  8. 29 CFR 36.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited... apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission of students....

  9. 32 CFR 240.7 - Recruitment program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in participating in the DoD IASP. Graduate students and rising junior or senior undergraduates... Students. (d) Recruitment students are provided scholarships, covering the full cost of tuition and...) MISCELLANEOUS DOD INFORMATION ASSURANCE SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM (IASP) § 240.7 Recruitment program. (a) Annually,...

  10. Considering the Audience: Air Force Recruiting Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Darek L.

    2012-01-01

    Each Air Force recruiter is formally trained in public speaking and the art of salesmanship or persuasion. These recruiters communicate to thousands of high school students each year through presentations in classrooms, auditoriums and other venues as part of their assigned duties. Persuasive presentations are public speaking events specifically…

  11. 44 CFR 19.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 19.310 Section 19.310 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... shall not recruit primarily or exclusively at educational institutions, schools, or entities that...

  12. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  13. 5 CFR 330.402 - Direct recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct recruitment. 330.402 Section 330.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Positions Restricted to Preference Eligibles § 330.402 Direct...

  14. 5 CFR 330.402 - Direct recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Direct recruitment. 330.402 Section 330.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Positions Restricted to Preference Eligibles § 330.402 Direct...

  15. 20 CFR 655.48 - Recruitment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement of Attestations for... report. The employer must prepare, sign, and date a recruitment report. The recruitment report must...

  16. 22 CFR 146.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment...

  17. Early recruitment dynamics in tropical restoration.

    PubMed

    de la Peña-Domene, Marinés; Martínez-Garza, Cristina; Howe, Henry F

    2013-07-01

    Unassisted secondary succession in abandoned tropical pastures often results in species-poor forests of pioneer trees that persist for decades. We characterize recruitment rates of woody vegetation in planting treatments during the first 60 months of experimental restoration on thin, eroded soils at Los Tuxtlas, southern Mexico. We test the hypothesis that recruitment of later-successional trees is greater in fenced plots planted with native trees than in fenced controls that simulate natural succession, and further that recruitment of such species would be greater in plots planted with animal-dispersed trees than in those planted with wind-dispersed trees. Results indicated much greater recruitment of later-successional animal-dispersed trees in planted plots as compared with controls. Three censuses per year recorded 960 recruited individuals of 44 species of trees and shrubs from 20-60 months after cattle exclusion. Ninety-six percent of recruits were not of planted species. Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated that recruited communities included more species of pioneers than of later-successional trees and shrubs, with more individuals and species dispersed by animals than by wind. Recruitment of pioneers did not differ between control and planted plots. Later-successional recruits dispersed by animals accumulated > 10 times faster in planted than control plots, with apparent acceleration after planted Cecropia obtusifolia and Ficus yoponensis first produced fleshy fruits 48 months after cattle exclusion. Sparse later-successional wind-dispersed recruits did not differ by treatment. Our preliminary results over the first five years after cattle exclusion indicate that planted stands clearly accelerate succession through accumulation of later-successional trees and shrubs dispersed by animals.

  18. Polycomb recruitment at the Class II transactivator gene.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Nathaniel H; Morgan, Julie E; Greer, Susanna F

    2015-10-01

    The Class II Transactivator (CIITA) is the master regulator of Major Histocompatibility Class II (MHC II) genes. Transcription of CIITA through the IFN-γ inducible CIITA promoter IV (CIITA pIV) during activation is characterized by a decrease in trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), catalyzed by the histone methyltransferase Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2). While EZH2 is the known catalytic subunit of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) and is present at the inactive CIITA pIV, the mechanism of PRC2 recruitment to mammalian promoters remains unknown. Here we identify two DNA-binding proteins, which interact with and regulate PRC2 recruitment to CIITA pIV. We demonstrate Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and Jumonji domain containing protein 2 (JARID2) are binding partners along with EZH2 in mammalian cells. Upon IFN-γ stimulation, YY1 dissociates from CIITA pIV while JARID2 binding to CIITA pIV increases, suggesting novel roles for these proteins in regulating expression of CIITA pIV. Knockdown of YY1 and JARID2 yields decreased binding of EZH2 and H3K27me3 at CIITA pIV, suggesting important roles for YY1 and JARID2 at CIITA pIV. JARID2 knockdown also results in significantly elevated levels of CIITA mRNA upon IFN-γ stimulation. This study is the first to identify novel roles of YY1 and JARID2 in the epigenetic regulation of the CIITA pIV by recruitment of PRC2. Our observations indicate the importance of JARID2 in CIITA pIV silencing, and also provide a novel YY1-JARID2-PRC2 regulatory complex as a possible explanation of differential PRC2 recruitment at inducible versus permanently silenced genes.

  19. Increased inflammatory properties of adipose tissue macrophages recruited during diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Carey N; Deyoung, Stephanie M; Bodzin, Jennifer L; Saltiel, Alan R

    2007-01-01

    Although recent studies show that adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) participate in the inflammatory changes in obesity and contribute to insulin resistance, the properties of these cells are not well understood. We hypothesized that ATMs recruited to adipose tissue during a high-fat diet have unique inflammatory properties compared with resident tissue ATMs. Using a dye (PKH26) to pulse label ATMs in vivo, we purified macrophages recruited to white adipose tissue during a high-fat diet. Comparison of gene expression in recruited and resident ATMs using real-time RT-PCR and cDNA microarrays showed that recruited ATMs overexpress genes important in macrophage migration and phagocytosis, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). Many of these genes were not induced in ATMs from high-fat diet-fed CCR2 knockout mice, supporting the importance of CCR2 in regulating recruitment of inflammatory ATMs during obesity. Additionally, expression of Apoe was decreased, whereas genes important in lipid metabolism, such as Pparg, Adfp, Srepf1, and Apob48r, were increased in the recruited macrophages. In agreement with this, ATMs from obese mice had increased lipid content compared with those from lean mice. These studies demonstrate that recruited ATMs in obese animals represent a subclass of macrophages with unique properties.

  20. Recruiting participants for research from online communities.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Increasing numbers of people use the Internet for information and support about health and illness experiences. Likewise, researchers are increasingly turning to Internet communities as recruitment sites for research participants. Based on the use of online recruitment for a study of women living with lupus, the challenges and strategies associated with this method are discussed. How participants were obtained through posts on Web sites, the role of gatekeepers in accessing online communities, issues associated with list lurkers and posters, and challenges to authenticity when working with a sample recruited from this environment are covered, as are strategies for addressing identified problems.

  1. Recruiting physicians: avoiding the legal minefield.

    PubMed

    Copeland, W M

    1992-01-01

    This article identifies and discusses the legal problems and pitfalls associated with the implementation of a physician recruitment program. Careful structuring is necessary to strike a balance meeting the requirements of both the Internal Revenue Code and the Medicare fraud and abuse provisions. The various tax considerations that may affect physician recruitment are comprehensively analyzed. Similar analysis is made of the Medicare fraud and abuse statute. Also included is a list of items that must be taken into consideration when embarking on a physician recruitment program.

  2. Improving healthcare recruitment: the jupiter medical center experience.

    PubMed

    Uomo, Paul Dell; Schwieters, Jill

    2009-04-01

    Hospitals that want to improve their recruitment efforts should: Make recruitment a priority within the organization. Take steps to reduce high vacancy rates and turnover among first-year employees. Develop a recruitment marketing plan for key positions. Establish human resources metrics to track costs and effectiveness of recruiting efforts. Enhance the recruitment process for hiring managers and job candidates.

  3. 22 CFR 229.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.510 Recruitment. (a)...

  4. 20 CFR 655.156 - Recruitment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... job opportunity up to the date of the preparation of the recruitment report, and the disposition of... applicable, for each U.S. worker who applied for the position but was not hired, explain the lawful...

  5. College Recruiting: After the Campus Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Robert A.; Swails, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the effectiveness of off-campus recruiting in personnel selection. Suggests that after the campus interview, site visit interviews, employment-offer communication, and initial employee training are important for companies seeking new college-trained personnel. (JAC)

  6. 22 CFR 229.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.510 Recruitment. (a)...

  7. 2000 Military Recruiter Survey: Overview Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    Survey, the overview report focuses on satisfaction, job performance, and strain among active duty production recruiters. Structural equation modeling with... structural equation modeling of the 2000 survey responses (see Chapters 2 and 3) provide some indication of the relative importance of issues that...commonly known as structural equation modeling with latent variables (SEM). The analyses focus on active duty recruiters with goals/missions and one or

  8. Understanding Recruitment and Retention in Neurological Research

    PubMed Central

    Newberry, Alyssa; Sherwood, Paula; Hricik, Allison; Bradley, Sarah; Kuo, Jean; Crago, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Given, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in participants and the abrupt and traumatic way in which many neurological conditions present are two examples of the unique challenges in recruiting and retaining subjects with neurological injury for research studies. The purpose of this investigation was to identify obstacles to recruitment and retention in three ongoing research studies. These studies involve persons with neurological disorders across the continuum of care, from those newly diagnosed and with emergent presentation to those with more established, chronic neurological conditions. For the purpose of this analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of the strategies employed to improve participation rates. The first study was an NIH funded project designed to identify biomarkers of vasospasm in persons (N=496) with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who presented to the neurovascular intensive care unit (NINR, RO1 NR004339). The purpose of the second study was to examine bio-behavioral interactions in family caregivers (N=59) of persons with a primary malignant brain tumor (PMBT) recruited in the community setting. The third project involved recruiting persons (N=1019) within an outpatient neurosurgical center to participate in a research registry. To determine differential effectiveness of strategies, consent and attrition rates were calculated at serial points over time in three studies and recruitment and retention strategies were compared. Sentinel time points in participants' disease trajectories played a key role in determining whether those who were approached to participate gave consent and were retained, particularly in the studies involving persons with aneurysmal SAH (consent = 85%; retention = 89%) and persons with PMBTs and their caregivers (consent = 68%; retention = 83%). In addition, several specific recruiter and interviewer training techniques were associated with higher recruitment and retention. Targeted strategies to improve participation rates are vital

  9. Recruiting adoptive parents for children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Brown, E

    1988-01-01

    One agency describes a systematic approach to recruitment of prospective adoptive families for children with developmental disabilities. The recruitment methodology, preliminary conclusions, and implications for future recruitment of families are presented.

  10. Lung Volume Recruitment in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Srour, Nadim; LeBlanc, Carole; King, Judy; McKim, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary function abnormalities have been described in multiple sclerosis including reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC) and cough but the time course of this impairment is unknown. Peak cough flow (PCF) is an important parameter for patients with respiratory muscle weakness and a reduced PCF has a direct impact on airway clearance and may therefore increase the risk of respiratory tract infections. Lung volume recruitment is a technique that improves PCF by inflating the lungs to their maximal insufflation capacity. Objectives Our goals were to describe the rate of decline of pulmonary function and PCF in patients with multiple sclerosis and describe the use of lung volume recruitment in this population. Methods We reviewed all patients with multiple sclerosis referred to a respiratory neuromuscular rehabilitation clinic from February 1999 until December 2010. Lung volume recruitment was attempted in patients with FVC <80% predicted. Regular twice daily lung volume recruitment was prescribed if it resulted in a significant improvement in the laboratory. Results There were 79 patients included, 35 of whom were seen more than once. A baseline FVC <80% predicted was present in 82% of patients and 80% of patients had a PCF insufficient for airway clearance. There was a significant decline in FVC (122.6 mL/y, 95% CI 54.9–190.3) and PCF (192 mL/s/y, 95% 72–311) over a median follow-up time of 13.4 months. Lung volume recruitment was associated with a slower decline in FVC (p<0.0001) and PCF (p = 0.042). Conclusion Pulmonary function and cough decline significantly over time in selected patients with multiple sclerosis and lung volume recruitment is associated with a slower rate of decline in lung function and peak cough flow. Given design limitations, additional studies are needed to assess the role of lung volume recruitment in patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:23383293

  11. Recruitment variability of alewives in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Mason, D.M.; Croley, T.E.; Szalai, E.B.; Bence, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    We used a long-term series of observations on alewife Alosa pseudoharengus abundance that was based on fall bottom-trawl catches to assess the importance of various abiotic and biotic factors on alewife recruitment in Lake Michigan during 1962–2002. We first fit a basic Ricker spawner–recruit model to the lakewide biomass estimates of age-3 recruits and the corresponding spawning stock size; we then fit models for all possible combinations of the following four external variables added to the basic model: an index of salmonine predation on an alewife year-class, an index for the spring–summer water temperatures experienced by alewives during their first year in the lake, an index of the severity of the first winter experienced by alewives in the lake, and an index of lake productivity during an alewife year-class's second year in the lake. Based on an information criterion, the best model for alewife recruitment included indices of salmonine predation and spring–summer water temperatures as external variables. Our analysis corroborated the contention that a decline in alewife abundance during the 1970s and early 1980s in Lake Michigan was driven by salmonine predation. Furthermore, our findings indicated that the extraordinarily warm water temperatures during the spring and summer of 1998 probably led to a moderately high recruitment of age-3 alewives in 2001, despite abundant salmonines.

  12. Recruitment and retention of novice faculty.

    PubMed

    Hessler, Karen; Ritchie, Heidi

    2006-05-01

    As nursing faculty members younger than 35, we consider ourselves to be in the minority. Our concern about the future of nursing education has driven us to consider ways to recruit and retain new, young faculty. To stimulate discussion, 10 suggestions for schools of nursing in the recruitment and retention of new faculty are presented: provide guidance, foster socialization, encourage flexibility, conduct orientation, provide support, facilitate collaboration, allow for mistakes, coordinate teaching assignments, grow your own, and offer rewards. While this list is far from complete, we believe it is a starting point from which schools could develop individual strategies for recruitment and retention of faculty members in nursing academia. The nursing shortage continues to intensify the lack of nursing faculty members. As a result, strategies to recruit and retain young faculty members only gain importance. Generations are changing, and it is important that schools of nursing are aware that recruitment and retention strategies that may have been successful in the past, may now be obsolete.

  13. Adipose Recruitment and Activation of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Fuel Metaflammation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amrit Raj; Bhattacharya, Roopkatha; Bhattacharya, Shamik; Nargis, Titli; Rahaman, Oindrila; Duttagupta, Pritam; Raychaudhuri, Deblina; Liu, Chinky Shiu Chen; Roy, Shounak; Ghosh, Parasar; Khanna, Shashi; Chaudhuri, Tamonas; Tantia, Om; Haak, Stefan; Bandyopadhyay, Santu; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chakrabarti, Partha; Ganguly, Dipyaman

    2016-11-01

    In obese individuals, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is the seat of chronic low-grade inflammation (metaflammation), but the mechanistic link between increased adiposity and metaflammation largely remains unclear. In obese individuals, deregulation of a specific adipokine, chemerin, contributes to innate initiation of metaflammation by recruiting circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) into VAT through chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). Adipose tissue-derived high-mobility group B1 (HMGB1) protein activates Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in the adipose-recruited pDCs by transporting extracellular DNA through receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and induces production of type I interferons (IFNs). Type I IFNs in turn help in proinflammatory polarization of adipose-resident macrophages. IFN signature gene expression in VAT correlates with both adipose tissue and systemic insulin resistance (IR) in obese individuals, which is represented by ADIPO-IR and HOMA2-IR, respectively, and defines two subgroups with different susceptibility to IR. Thus, this study reveals a pathway that drives adipose tissue inflammation and consequent IR in obesity.

  14. Sales Training for Army Recruiter Success: Modeling the Sales Strategies and Skills of Excellent Recruiters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    strategies used by excellent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the protocol for modeling performance and acquiring...Behavioral and Social Sciences 3001 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22333-5600 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK ARE* 4 WORK UNIT...Modeling ’Expert knowledge,, Neurolinguistics Knowledge engineering; Recruiting Sales, &’ Sales cycle Sales skills Sales strategies 20

  15. A Strategic Systems Model for Effective Recruiting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    recruiters do a tour in recruiting, then return to their original career field. As former/then Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force, Jim Finch believes...and Implications,” 44. 100Paul Boyce and Laura DeFrancisco, “Army Awards Distance Education Contract to PricewaterhouseCoopers to Form Army University...www.ijoa. org/imta96/paper29.html>. Internet. Accessed 28 September 2002. Boyce , Paul, and DeFrancisco, Laura. “Army Awards Distance Education

  16. Computational social network modeling of terrorist recruitment.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Nina M.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Smrcka, Julianne D.; Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David; Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-10-01

    The Seldon terrorist model represents a multi-disciplinary approach to developing organization software for the study of terrorist recruitment and group formation. The need to incorporate aspects of social science added a significant contribution to the vision of the resulting Seldon toolkit. The unique addition of and abstract agent category provided a means for capturing social concepts like cliques, mosque, etc. in a manner that represents their social conceptualization and not simply as a physical or economical institution. This paper provides an overview of the Seldon terrorist model developed to study the formation of cliques, which are used as the major recruitment entity for terrorist organizations.

  17. Transcriptional Activation Domains of Human Heat Shock Factor 1 Recruit Human SWI/SNF

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, E. Kelly; Weirich, Christine S.; Guyon, Jeffrey R.; Sif, Saïd; Kingston, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel nucleosomal DNA and increase transcription of nucleosomal templates. Human heat shock factor one (hHSF1) is a tightly regulated activator that stimulates transcriptional initiation and elongation using different portions of its activation domains. Here we demonstrate that hHSF1 associates with BRG1, the ATPase subunit of human SWI/SNF (hSWI/SNF) at endogenous protein concentrations. We also show that hHSF1 activation domains recruit hSWI/SNF to a chromatin template in a purified system. Mutation of hHSF1 residues responsible for activation of transcriptional elongation has the most severe effect on recruitment of SWI/SNF and association of hHSF1 with BRG1, suggesting that recruitment of chromatin remodeling activity might play a role in stimulation of elongation. PMID:11486022

  18. HSP90 regulates DNA repair via the interaction between XRCC1 and DNA polymerase β

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qingming; Inanc, Burcu; Schamus, Sandy; Wang, Xiao-hong; Wei, Leizhen; Brown, Ashley R.; Svilar, David; Sugrue, Kelsey F.; Goellner, Eva M.; Zeng, Xuemei; Yates, Nathan A.; Lan, Li; Vens, Conchita; Sobol, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular DNA repair processes are crucial to maintain genome stability and integrity. In DNA base excision repair, a tight heterodimer complex formed by DNA polymerase β (Polβ) and XRCC1 is thought to facilitate repair by recruiting Polβ to DNA damage sites. Here we show that disruption of the complex does not impact DNA damage response or DNA repair. Instead, the heterodimer formation is required to prevent ubiquitylation and degradation of Polβ. In contrast, the stability of the XRCC1 monomer is protected from CHIP-mediated ubiquitylation by interaction with the binding partner HSP90. In response to cellular proliferation and DNA damage, proteasome and HSP90-mediated regulation of Polβ and XRCC1 alters the DNA repair complex architecture. We propose that protein stability, mediated by DNA repair protein complex formation, functions as a regulatory mechanism for DNA repair pathway choice in the context of cell cycle progression and genome surveillance. PMID:25423885

  19. 28 CFR 92.8 - Providing recruitment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.8 Providing recruitment services. The... populations to a police department. The recruitment strategies employed may include: (a) A process for recruiting applicants for employment by a police department. These processes should include working...

  20. 28 CFR 92.8 - Providing recruitment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.8 Providing recruitment services. The... populations to a police department. The recruitment strategies employed may include: (a) A process for recruiting applicants for employment by a police department. These processes should include working...

  1. 28 CFR 92.8 - Providing recruitment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.8 Providing recruitment services. The... populations to a police department. The recruitment strategies employed may include: (a) A process for recruiting applicants for employment by a police department. These processes should include working...

  2. 28 CFR 92.8 - Providing recruitment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.8 Providing recruitment services. The... populations to a police department. The recruitment strategies employed may include: (a) A process for recruiting applicants for employment by a police department. These processes should include working...

  3. 28 CFR 92.8 - Providing recruitment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.8 Providing recruitment services. The... populations to a police department. The recruitment strategies employed may include: (a) A process for recruiting applicants for employment by a police department. These processes should include working...

  4. Selection and Training of Navy Recruit Company Commanders. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Thomas F., Jr.; And Others

    This report addresses the selection, training, and utilization of Navy Recruit Company Commanders (Recruit Training Instructors). It represents one in a series of reports concerning the optimization of Navy Recruit Training to meet the needs of the post-1980 period. The report provides a comprehensive review of the Navy's Recruit Company Commander…

  5. 45 CFR 83.12 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 83.12 Section 83.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION REGULATION FOR THE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF SECTIONS 799A AND 845 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT Discrimination in Admissions...

  6. 20 CFR 655.30 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... recruitment activities or failed in any obligation of this part, the CO may require pre-filing supervised... provided below. (1) The CO will direct where the advertisements are to be placed. (2) The employer must supply a draft advertisement and job order to the CO for review and approval no fewer than 150...

  7. 14 CFR 1253.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex...) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the...

  8. 29 CFR 36.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or... not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient...

  9. 28 CFR 54.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex...) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the...

  10. 21st Century Recruiting: Automated, Digital, Electronic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways in which technology is changing staffing office practices. Discusses features of the worldwide web, some of the potential problems in establishing a web site, and the importance of carefully planning a web site. Looks at digital resume warehouses and the increased power such warehouses offers recruiters. (RJM)

  11. 10 CFR 1042.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in... hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of...

  12. 14 CFR 1253.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex...) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the...

  13. 10 CFR 1042.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and....300 through 1042.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...

  14. Recruiting and Advising Challenges in Actuarial Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Bettye Anne; Guan, Yuanying Michelle; Paris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Some challenges to increasing actuarial science program size through recruiting broadly among potential students are identified. Possible solutions depend on the structures and culture of the school. Up to three student cohorts may result from partition of potential students by the levels of academic progress before program entry: students…

  15. Recruiting and Communications Part Two: Beyond Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Arnold R.

    1981-01-01

    New methods for campus recruiting include: video presentations, selective and personal mailings, and exposure of students to a company through work programs and career-related events. Applying public relations techniques and presenting a favorable employer image are also recommended. (KMF)

  16. Recruiting Faculty: Complementary Tales from Two Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matier, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Factors influencing individuals with firm job offers to join the faculty at two research universities, urban and rural, are examined, focusing on the relative importance of tangible, intangible, and non-work-related benefits in the decision-making process. Comparisons are drawn to previous faculty recruitment studies and a complementary retention…

  17. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  18. Recruiting Minority Students with Limited Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Carolyn

    1990-01-01

    Reviews efforts to improve minority recruitment within journalism. Suggests enlisting the aid of community groups such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Urban League. Calls for support of minority journalism by encouraging minority students in high school journalism programs, promoting student…

  19. 7 CFR 15a.53 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.53 Section 15a.53 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs...

  20. 10 Ideas for Recruiting New Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Vicki; Wall, Milan

    This booklet presents ideas based on actions taken by community leaders to recruit new and emerging leaders to join in the improvement of a community. The discussion includes: (1) asking the question "who's not here?" to make sure the community organization is representative; (2) looking for skills, not names to discover leadership…

  1. 18 CFR 1317.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Recruitment. 1317.510 Section 1317.510 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  2. 18 CFR 1317.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Recruitment. 1317.310 Section 1317.310 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  3. 18 CFR 1317.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recruitment. 1317.510 Section 1317.510 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  4. 7 CFR 15a.53 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.53 Section 15a.53 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... sex so discriminated against so as to overcome the effects of such past or present discrimination....

  5. 7 CFR 15a.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.23 Section 15a.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... members of one sex, if such actions have the effect of discriminating on the basis of sex in violation...

  6. 7 CFR 15a.53 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.53 Section 15a.53 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs...

  7. 20 CFR 655.48 - Recruitment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recruitment report. 655.48 Section 655.48 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF... Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States...

  8. 7 CFR 15a.53 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.53 Section 15a.53 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs...

  9. 45 CFR 618.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.510... overcome the effects of such past or present discrimination. (b) Recruitment patterns. A recipient...

  10. 45 CFR 618.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.510... overcome the effects of such past or present discrimination. (b) Recruitment patterns. A recipient...

  11. 45 CFR 618.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.510... overcome the effects of such past or present discrimination. (b) Recruitment patterns. A recipient...

  12. 45 CFR 618.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.510... overcome the effects of such past or present discrimination. (b) Recruitment patterns. A recipient...

  13. 45 CFR 618.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.510... overcome the effects of such past or present discrimination. (b) Recruitment patterns. A recipient...

  14. Teacher Education Recruitment: A Comprehensive Marketing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didham, Cheryl K.; Kortokrax-Clark, Deborah

    Due to a declining enrollment and a predicted teacher shortage, a specific student recruitment plan was implemented at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in Ohio. This helped foster a 26 percent increase in teacher education enrollment. With the understanding that an institution must find out what its public expects and what their perceptions…

  15. Providence Sponsors Diocesan Teacher Recruiting Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dygert, William

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the issue of teacher recruitment in Providence, Rhode Island. Explains that the Catholic education staff designed a campaign that involved creating marketing materials, advertising in daily newspapers, and holding job fairs and open houses. Stresses the importance of promoting teaching at Catholic schools as both rewarding and…

  16. Recruitment Methods for a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillermo, Artemio; Murray, Steve

    1979-01-01

    Among the most effective tools of recruitment found in this survey were the college catalog, newspaper publicity, and brochures. "Word of mouth" from friends such as alumni, students, and the community, and publicity materials in newspapers, including advertising, were found to be the best sources of information about the college. (Author)

  17. Literature Review on Teacher Recruitment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clewell, Beatriz Chu; Darke, Katherine; Davis-Googe, Thenoa; Forcier, Laurie; Manes, Sarah

    This literature review is part of a multiyear evaluation of the Higher Education Act's Title II programs to recruit teachers. It is intended to help the U.S. Department of Education focus on key research questions that provide the background for the evaluation, as well as supply a reference tool for administrators and grantees of these…

  18. Does Education Reform Make Recruiting More Difficult?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    Virginia 1986ac Idaho 2006c New Mexico 1990c Washington 2007c Indiana 2000c New York 1985ac 67 Appendix A Other (state-level) data and sources We...Analysis of Eval- uation of Homeschool and ChalleNGe Program Recruits, Jan 2004 (CNA Research Memorandum D0009351.A2) [36] Janice H. Laurence. Education

  19. Violent Video Games Recruit American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, William

    2006-01-01

    An expert on the sociology of video games highlights the power of this medium to popularize violence among children. But few are aware that some of the most technologically potent products are violent war games now being produced at taxpayer expense. These are provided free as a recruiting tool by the United States military. The author contends…

  20. Corporate Recruiters Survey: 2011 General Data Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graduate Management Admission Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this report, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]), in cooperation with MBA Career Services Council and EFMD, presents the results of the 2011 Corporate Recruiters Survey, the tenth annual survey of business graduates' employers. The primary purposes of this study are to examine the job market for graduates from MBA and other…

  1. 2012 Corporate Recruiters Survey. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results from the 2012 Corporate Recruiters Survey conducted by the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]). Conducted annually since 2001, this survey examines the job outlook for recent graduate business students as well as employer needs and expectations. The objectives of this study are to obtain a picture of…

  2. 20 CFR 656.21 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... resumes or applications for the job opportunity to the CO for referral to the employer; (ii) Include an... job requirements, which can not exceed any of the requirements entered on the application form by the..., post-filing supervised recruitment may be required of the employer for the pending application...

  3. 20 CFR 656.21 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... resumes or applications for the job opportunity to the CO for referral to the employer; (ii) Include an... job requirements, which can not exceed any of the requirements entered on the application form by the..., post-filing supervised recruitment may be required of the employer for the pending application...

  4. 20 CFR 656.21 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... resumes or applications for the job opportunity to the CO for referral to the employer; (ii) Include an... job requirements, which can not exceed any of the requirements entered on the application form by the..., post-filing supervised recruitment may be required of the employer for the pending application...

  5. 20 CFR 656.21 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... resumes or applications for the job opportunity to the CO for referral to the employer; (ii) Include an... job requirements, which can not exceed any of the requirements entered on the application form by the..., post-filing supervised recruitment may be required of the employer for the pending application...

  6. 20 CFR 656.21 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... resumes or applications for the job opportunity to the CO for referral to the employer; (ii) Include an... job requirements, which can not exceed any of the requirements entered on the application form by the..., post-filing supervised recruitment may be required of the employer for the pending application...

  7. How Colleges Use Alumni to Recruit Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many college alumni wear their love for their alma maters on their sleeves, if not their sweatshirts. They are practically a walking advertisement for the college, so it often makes sense to rely on them when recruiting, a new survey of admissions officers suggests. The survey, however, also showed that admissions offices with budgets of less than…

  8. College Recruiting on a Tight Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeton, Allison

    2002-01-01

    Even during the best economic times, many companies question the value of their college relations program and its place within their human resources function. To achieve positive recruiting outcomes despite limited means, college relations professionals need to know their market, use internal resources, be creative, and make smart decisions. (GCP)

  9. 20 CFR 655.30 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... advertising for the job opportunity or opportunities in accordance with the required recruitment steps... advertisements are to be placed. (2) The employer must supply a draft advertisement and job order to the CO for... posting of the job order and no fewer than 5 calendar days after the date on which the last newspaper...

  10. Recruiting Middle School Students into Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matutina, Robin E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to illustrate the importance of initiating nursing recruitment during the middle school years. Data sources included citations from the years 1989 to 2006. The study focused on middle school students 9 to 13 years of age in Grades 6 to 8. One survey compared middle school students' perceptions of an ideal…

  11. Texas Teacher Recruitment and Retention Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This report on teacher recruitment and retention in Texas identifies and analyzes programs offered by higher education institutions, school districts, regional education service centers, and other organizations that address the teacher shortage in Texas. The study was undertaken with the understanding that teacher compensation issues are pervasive…

  12. 2010 Recruiting Benchmarks Survey. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of Colleges and Employers conducted its annual survey of employer members from June 15, 2010 to August 15, 2010, to benchmark data relevant to college recruiting. From a base of 861 employers holding organizational membership, there were 268 responses for a response rate of 31 percent. Following are some of the major…

  13. Internship: A Recruitment and Selection Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Hao; Liden, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined internship as a recruitment and selection process. On the basis of impression management theory, we hypothesized that both organizations and interns make efforts to impress the other party during the internship if they intend to hire or be hired. Using longitudinal data collected at 3 points from 122 intern-supervisor…

  14. Computational social dynamic modeling of group recruitment.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Nina M.; Lee, Marinna; Pickett, Marc; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Smrcka, Julianne D.; Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David; Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-01-01

    The Seldon software toolkit combines concepts from agent-based modeling and social science to create a computationally social dynamic model for group recruitment. The underlying recruitment model is based on a unique three-level hybrid agent-based architecture that contains simple agents (level one), abstract agents (level two), and cognitive agents (level three). This uniqueness of this architecture begins with abstract agents that permit the model to include social concepts (gang) or institutional concepts (school) into a typical software simulation environment. The future addition of cognitive agents to the recruitment model will provide a unique entity that does not exist in any agent-based modeling toolkits to date. We use social networks to provide an integrated mesh within and between the different levels. This Java based toolkit is used to analyze different social concepts based on initialization input from the user. The input alters a set of parameters used to influence the values associated with the simple agents, abstract agents, and the interactions (simple agent-simple agent or simple agent-abstract agent) between these entities. The results of phase-1 Seldon toolkit provide insight into how certain social concepts apply to different scenario development for inner city gang recruitment.

  15. Recruitment Strategies in the Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldbaum, Eleanor G.

    A two-part study was conducted to investigate the underrepresentation of blacks in the medical and nursing professions. Through a literature search it was found that due to the low number of minority applicants medical schools have created positions for minority recruiters who serve as role models, empathize with black student concerns, and help…

  16. 1978-79 Recruitment & Retention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosmo, Richard

    The Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) 1978-79 Recruitment Program seeks to increase the pool of students who wish to attend college rather than compete more aggressively for those students who have already decided to participate in higher education. A special adjunct Retention Program has been developed to enhance the entire recruitment…

  17. New Twist to Student Recruitment Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensman, Richard

    1983-01-01

    While student recruitment and the promotion of Catholic schools should always be community-wide efforts, neighborhoods traditionally producing large percentage of Catholic school students should be identified and targeted as natural school constituencies. Describes the marketing efforts of Saint Augustine and Saint Monica Schools in New York. (DMM)

  18. Implicit Assumptions in High Potentials Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posthumus, Jan; Bozer, Gil; Santora, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Professionals of human resources (HR) use different criteria in practice than they verbalize. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the implicit criteria used for the selection of high-potential employees in recruitment and development settings in the pharmaceutical industry. Design/methodology/approach: A semi-structured…

  19. 40 CFR 5.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.310 Section 5.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  20. 40 CFR 5.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.510 Section 5.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  1. 40 CFR 5.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.510 Section 5.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  2. 40 CFR 5.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.310 Section 5.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  3. 40 CFR 5.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.510 Section 5.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  4. 40 CFR 5.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.310 Section 5.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  5. Searching for Success in Teacher Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodda, Cary

    2000-01-01

    Two California districts that have successfully recruited good teachers are Elk Grove Unified School District, near Sacramento, and Hesperia Unified School District, northeast of Los Angeles. Elk Grove grows their own teacher candidates, in partnership with San Francisco State University. Hesperia conducts nationwide searches, targeting states…

  6. 49 CFR 25.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and... through 25.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission...

  7. 10 CFR 1042.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and....300 through 1042.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...

  8. 29 CFR 36.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or... not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient...

  9. 49 CFR 25.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in... hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of...

  10. 28 CFR 54.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex...) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the...

  11. 22 CFR 146.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and....300 through 146.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...

  12. 45 CFR 86.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... recipient to which this subpart applies shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...

  13. 29 CFR 36.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or... not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient...

  14. 40 CFR 5.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex...) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the...

  15. 45 CFR 86.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... recipient to which this subpart applies shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...

  16. 10 CFR 1042.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in... hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of...

  17. 10 CFR 1042.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and....300 through 1042.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...

  18. Recruiting and Mentoring Minority Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, William; Yglesias, Kenneth; Murray, John P.

    2010-01-01

    For the foreseeable future, community colleges must seriously address hiring, retaining, and facilitating upward mobility for faculty members. Moreover, they should recruit a faculty corps that is more reflective of both the students they serve and the demographics of their college service area. It is critical for community colleges to employ and…

  19. Recruiting and Retention, A Force Planning Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    military relations, military history, and military sociology must be incorporated in the curriculum. JROTC comprises a critical element of the marketing mix for...factored into the marketing mix . Using commercial telemarketing practices to generate leads from centrally produced lists of potential recruits, and

  20. Recruitment and Retention with a Spin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Rita; Hixson, Carla Braun

    2010-01-01

    Strategic planning and innovation at Bismarck State College (BSC) found common ground in the college's goal to recruit and retain employees in an environment of low unemployment and strong competition for skilled employees. BSC's strategic plan for 2007-09 included the objective "to increase retention of employees." One of the strategies…

  1. THE RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING OF AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESH, SEYMOUR

    A SURVEY OF 20 EMPLOYERS, ASSOCIATION REPRESENTATIVES, AND UNION LEADERS INDICATED THAT DIFFICULTIES IN RECRUITING CAPABLE YOUTH FOR THE AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS TRADE ARE CAUSED BY (1) A CHAOTIC STRUCTURE, INCLUDING UNCLEAR DEFINITION OF FUNCTION, VARIETY OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT, AND SIZE OF THE EMPLOYING UNITS, (2) THE COMPLEXITIES OF TRAINING AND…

  2. Identification and Recruitment: Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duron, Susan

    This chapter examines trends and issues related to the identification and recruitment of migrant children and youth for the Migrant Education Program (MEP). The MEP is federally funded and implemented by the states. Requirements and definitions of student eligibility and the functions of state MEP programs are spelled out in the Elementary and…

  3. Research Guides Mayo Clinic's Recruitment, Retention Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayar, Veena R.; Morrey, Michael A.; Schneider, Kenneth J.; Purrington, Anne W.; Wilshusen, Laurie L.; Mullen, Michael P.; Seltman, Kent D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a collaborative study between Mayo Clinic's departments of human resources and marketing to identify the factors that influence candidates' decisions to accept or decline job offers and the reasons behind staff resignations. Study aimed to increase the effectiveness of employee recruitment advertising, streamline its interviewing…

  4. The Counselor and Armed Forces Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael D.; Warren, Phyllis

    1975-01-01

    Young people considering enlistment in the armed forces often need objective assistance in the decision-making process. The authors discuss how counselors are in a unique position to help: by increasing the scope of information available, by safeguarding the rights of potential enlistees, and by working to eliminate recruitment abuses. (Author)

  5. 22 CFR 229.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission... which §§ 229.300 through 229.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...

  6. 22 CFR 146.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and....300 through 146.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...

  7. 40 CFR 5.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.510 Recruitment....

  8. Recruiting International Students to Your Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Cheryl; Maahs-Fladung, Cathy; Mallett, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine what institutional, program, and recruitment characteristics influenced international students to attend institutions in the United States. Two hundred sixteen international students at a Southern public research university responded to the survey (53% response rate) from 56 countries representing 8…

  9. Grassroots Campaign Trail Methods to Recruit for Clinical Trials: Recruitment Lessons Learned from Trail to Trial

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Megan; Merenstein, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background: Literature reviews have identified recruitment as the single most challenging obstacle in conducting pediatric trials. This paper describes a paradigm shift in recruitment design, developed from experience with grassroots campaigns through the DRINK study (Decreasing the Rates of Illness in Kids). The objective of this study was to explain a new method for recruiting in clinical trials based on lessons learned from grassroots political campaigning. Methods and findings: The study described is a randomized controlled trial of 638 3–6 year olds from the Washington, DC Area. The design involved a comparison between new recruiting approaches modeled after grassroots campaigns and traditional techniques. Traditional techniques for the purpose of this paper are defined by the use of physician referral, mass media such as radio and television advertisements, along with posters in public places like the subway. Grassroots approaches alternatively developed and utilized community contacts and employed targeted small market media community. The main outcome measures were the percentage of budget used and the number of eligible participants recruited. Conclusions: The results showed that the grassroots recruitment approach saved 30% of the budget, recruited 638 kids in 4 months and retained over 90% for the 90 day trial. New techniques need further exploration as community studies are stressed. PMID:23761994

  10. The Florida Air National Guard: A Model for Successful Recruiting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    morale of the recruiters and retainers. In an interview with the author, Master Sgt. Emilio Gelfenstein discussed his twelve years in recruiting and...Office Manager (ROM), the Recruiting Office Supervisor ( ROS ), Geographically Separated Units (GSU), commanders, and GSU Recruiting and Retention NCOs...34 Master Sergeant. Emilio Gelfenstein, Recruiting and Retaining Non- Commissioned Officer (RRNCO), is an Active Guard and Reserve NCO (AGR) with over

  11. The impact of privacy protections on recruitment in a multicenter stroke genetics study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D.T.; Worrall, B.B.; Brown, R.D.; Brott, T.G.; Kissela, B.M.; Olson, T.S.; Rich, S.S.; Meschia, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors reviewed the recruitment of stroke-affected sibling pairs using a letter-based, proband-initiated contact strategy. The authors randomly sampled 99 proband enrollment forms (Phase 1) and randomly sampled 50 sibling reply cards (Phase 2). The sibling response rate was 30.6%, for a pedigree response rate of 58%. Of the siblings who replied, 96% authorized further contact. Median time from proband enrollment to pedigree DNA banking, which required 3+ probands, was 134 days. PMID:15728301

  12. Fine-scale partitioning of genomic variation among recruits in an exploited fishery: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Puritz, Jonathan B.; Gold, John R.; Portnoy, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation and management of exploited species depends on accurate knowledge of how genetic variation is partitioned across a fishery, especially as it relates to recruitment. Using double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing, we surveyed variation in 7,382 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) young-of-the-year (YOY) sampled at six localities and in adults sampled at two localities in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Significant genetic heterogeneity was detected between the two adult samples, separated by ~600 km, and at spatial scales less than five kilometers among samples of  YOY. Genetic differences between YOY samples and between YOY samples and adult samples were not associated with geographic distance, and a genome scan revealed no evidence of loci under selection. Estimates of the effective number of breeders, allelic richness, and relatedness within YOY samples were not consistent with sweepstakes recruitment. Instead, the data demonstrate, at least within one recruitment season, that multiple pulses of recruits originate from distinct groups of spawning adults, even at small spatial scales. For exploited species with this type of recruitment pattern, protection of spawning adults over wide geographic areas may be critical for ensuring productivity and stability of the fishery by maintaining larval supply and connectivity. PMID:27782185

  13. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    PubMed Central

    Kaakko, T.; Murtomaa, H.; Milgrom, P.; Getz, T.; Ramsay, D. S.; Coldwell, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment. PMID:11495403

  14. Arthropod invasion disrupts Cycas micronesica seedling recruitment.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Terry, L Irene

    2011-11-01

    We recently described characteristics of reproductive effort for the cycad Cycas micronesica on the island of Guam. The data were serendipitously recorded just prior to the devastating invasion of the armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui. This invasion decimated the cycad population and after six years of infestation no recruitment is occurring among the survivors. We describe various underlying mechanisms that may explain how this homopteran insect has eliminated host recruitment among categories including plant-pollinator mutualism disruptions, direct damage to reproductive structures, population level responses to declining plant health, and failures of seedlings to establish. Our pre-invasion data on reproductive effort will serve as the benchmark for quantifying how this alien pest is endangering the endemic cycad.

  15. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    PubMed

    Kaakko, T; Murtomaa, H; Milgrom, P; Getz, T; Ramsay, D S; Coldwell, S E

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment.

  16. Breeding population inventories and measures of recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Blohm, R.J.; Batt, D.J.; Afton, A.D.; Anderson, M.G.; Ankney, C.D.; Johnson, D.H.; Kadlec, J.A.; Krapu, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter we review the techniques used to measure two important parameters of waterfowl populations, size of breeding population and recruitment. If waterfowl are to be managed toward goals defined in terms of population sizes such as those in the recently signed North American Waterfowl Management Plan (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [USFWS] and Canadian Wildlife Service [CWS] 1986), there must be some measure of population size for the various species. Waterfowl managers usually measure population size during the breeding season, although for some species and in some areas winter inventories may be used. Population size is a function of natality and mortality. Other chapters in this volume deal in detail with the biology of those processes. This chapter discusses procedural aspects of measurement and reviews some of the operational systems that have been used to estimate population size and recruitment, especially in North America.

  17. Evaluation of Smoking Interventions in Recruit Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-23

    about smoking IF(3,553).l.22, p > .051. Perceptions related to tobacco use. Since the education group was told to exert peer pressure to reduce...control group. It is possible that information that the Navy discourages smoking, and " peer pressure " applied to smokers, paired with limiting the...hazards of smoking, learning that the Navy discourages smoking, and being encouraged to apply peer pressure will be effective in preventing recruits

  18. Assessing a Science Graduate School Recruitment Symposium.

    PubMed

    González-Espada, Wilson; Díaz-Muñoz, Greetchen; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Flores-Otero, Jacqueline; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; López-Casillas, Marcos; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Fernández-Repollet, Emma

    2015-12-01

    Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting science, research and scientific education among Latinos, organized an educational symposium to provide college science majors the tools, opportunities and advice to pursue graduate degrees and succeed in the STEM disciplines. In this article we share our experiences and lessons learned, for others interested in developing large-scale events to recruit underrepresented minorities to STEM and in evaluating the effectiveness of these efforts.

  19. Common Myna Roosts Are Not Recruitment Centres

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Manaswini; Arvind, Chiti; Lakshman, Abhilash; Vidya, T. N. C.

    2014-01-01

    We studied communal roosting in the Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) in the light of the recruitment centre hypothesis and predation at the roost. The number and sizes of flocks departing from and arriving at focal roosts were recorded over a two year period. We also recorded the sizes and behaviour of foraging flocks. We found that flock sizes of birds departing from roosts at sunrise were larger than those at the feeding site, suggesting that there was no recruitment from the roosts. Flocks entering the roosts during sunset were larger on average than those leaving the following sunrise, suggesting no consolidation of flocks in the morning. Flocks entering the roosts at sunset were also larger on average than those that had left that sunrise, although there was no recruitment at the feeding site. There was no effect of group size on the proportion of time spent feeding. Contrary to expectation, single birds showed lower apparent vigilance than birds that foraged in pairs or groups, possibly due to scrounging tactics being used in the presence of feeding companions. Thus, the recruitment centre hypothesis did not hold in our study population of mynas. Predation at dawn and dusk were also not important to communal roosting: predators near the roosts did not result in larger flocks, and resulted in larger durations of arrival/departure contrary to expectation. Since flock sizes were smallest at the feeding site and larger in the evening than in the morning, but did not coincide with predator activity, information transfer unrelated to food (such as breeding opportunities) may possibly give rise to the evening aggregations. PMID:25122467

  20. Stochastic modelling of muscle recruitment during activity

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Saulo; Calvetti, Daniela; Somersalo, Erkki; Viceconti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Muscle forces can be selected from a space of muscle recruitment strategies that produce stable motion and variable muscle and joint forces. However, current optimization methods provide only a single muscle recruitment strategy. We modelled the spectrum of muscle recruitment strategies while walking. The equilibrium equations at the joints, muscle constraints, static optimization solutions and 15-channel electromyography (EMG) recordings for seven walking cycles were taken from earlier studies. The spectrum of muscle forces was calculated using Bayesian statistics and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, whereas EMG-driven muscle forces were calculated using EMG-driven modelling. We calculated the differences between the spectrum and EMG-driven muscle force for 1–15 input EMGs, and we identified the muscle strategy that best matched the recorded EMG pattern. The best-fit strategy, static optimization solution and EMG-driven force data were compared using correlation analysis. Possible and plausible muscle forces were defined as within physiological boundaries and within EMG boundaries. Possible muscle and joint forces were calculated by constraining the muscle forces between zero and the peak muscle force. Plausible muscle forces were constrained within six selected EMG boundaries. The spectrum to EMG-driven force difference increased from 40 to 108 N for 1–15 EMG inputs. The best-fit muscle strategy better described the EMG-driven pattern (R2 = 0.94; RMSE = 19 N) than the static optimization solution (R2 = 0.38; RMSE = 61 N). Possible forces for 27 of 34 muscles varied between zero and the peak muscle force, inducing a peak hip force of 11.3 body-weights. Plausible muscle forces closely matched the selected EMG patterns; no effect of the EMG constraint was observed on the remaining muscle force ranges. The model can be used to study alternative muscle recruitment strategies in both physiological and pathophysiological neuromotor conditions. PMID:25844155

  1. Assessing a Science Graduate School Recruitment Symposium

    PubMed Central

    González-Espada, Wilson; Díaz-Muñoz, Greetchen; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Flores-Otero, Jacqueline; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; López-Casillas, Marcos; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A.; Fernández-Repollet, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting science, research and scientific education among Latinos, organized an educational symposium to provide college science majors the tools, opportunities and advice to pursue graduate degrees and succeed in the STEM disciplines. In this article we share our experiences and lessons learned, for others interested in developing large-scale events to recruit underrepresented minorities to STEM and in evaluating the effectiveness of these efforts. PMID:26770074

  2. Heterogeneous Participant Recruitment for Comprehensive Vehicle Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yazhi; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Widely distributed mobile vehicles wherein various sensing devices and wireless communication interfaces are installed bring vehicular participatory sensing into practice. However, the heterogeneity of vehicles in terms of sensing capability and mobility, and the participants’ expectations on the incentives blackmake the collection of comprehensive sensing data a challenging task. A sensing data quality-oriented optimal heterogeneous participant recruitment strategy is proposed in this paper for vehicular participatory sensing. In the proposed strategy, the differences between the sensing data requirements and the collected sensing data are modeled. An optimization formula is established to model the optimal participant recruitment problem, and a participant utility analysis scheme is built based on the sensing and mobility features of vehicles. Besides, a greedy algorithm is then designed according to the utility of vehicles to recruit the most efficient vehicles with a limited total incentive budget. Real trace-driven simulations show that the proposed strategy can collect 85.4% of available sensing data with 34% incentive budget. PMID:26407102

  3. Changing recruitment capacity in global fish stocks.

    PubMed

    Britten, Gregory L; Dowd, Michael; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-05

    Marine fish and invertebrates are shifting their regional and global distributions in response to climate change, but it is unclear whether their productivity is being affected as well. Here we tested for time-varying trends in biological productivity parameters across 262 fish stocks of 127 species in 39 large marine ecosystems and high-seas areas (hereafter LMEs). This global meta-analysis revealed widespread changes in the relationship between spawning stock size and the production of juvenile offspring (recruitment), suggesting fundamental biological change in fish stock productivity at early life stages. Across regions, we estimate that average recruitment capacity has declined at a rate approximately equal to 3% of the historical maximum per decade. However, we observed large variability among stocks and regions; for example, highly negative trends in the North Atlantic contrast with more neutral patterns in the North Pacific. The extent of biological change in each LME was significantly related to observed changes in phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration and the intensity of historical overfishing in that ecosystem. We conclude that both environmental changes and chronic overfishing have already affected the productive capacity of many stocks at the recruitment stage of the life cycle. These results provide a baseline for ecosystem-based fisheries management and may help adjust expectations for future food production from the oceans.

  4. Changing recruitment capacity in global fish stocks

    PubMed Central

    Britten, Gregory L.; Dowd, Michael; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Marine fish and invertebrates are shifting their regional and global distributions in response to climate change, but it is unclear whether their productivity is being affected as well. Here we tested for time-varying trends in biological productivity parameters across 262 fish stocks of 127 species in 39 large marine ecosystems and high-seas areas (hereafter LMEs). This global meta-analysis revealed widespread changes in the relationship between spawning stock size and the production of juvenile offspring (recruitment), suggesting fundamental biological change in fish stock productivity at early life stages. Across regions, we estimate that average recruitment capacity has declined at a rate approximately equal to 3% of the historical maximum per decade. However, we observed large variability among stocks and regions; for example, highly negative trends in the North Atlantic contrast with more neutral patterns in the North Pacific. The extent of biological change in each LME was significantly related to observed changes in phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration and the intensity of historical overfishing in that ecosystem. We conclude that both environmental changes and chronic overfishing have already affected the productive capacity of many stocks at the recruitment stage of the life cycle. These results provide a baseline for ecosystem-based fisheries management and may help adjust expectations for future food production from the oceans. PMID:26668368

  5. Heterogeneous Participant Recruitment for Comprehensive Vehicle Sensing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yazhi; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Widely distributed mobile vehicles wherein various sensing devices and wireless communication interfaces are installed bring vehicular participatory sensing into practice. However, the heterogeneity of vehicles in terms of sensing capability and mobility, and the participants' expectations on the incentives blackmake the collection of comprehensive sensing data a challenging task. A sensing data quality-oriented optimal heterogeneous participant recruitment strategy is proposed in this paper for vehicular participatory sensing. In the proposed strategy, the differences between the sensing data requirements and the collected sensing data are modeled. An optimization formula is established to model the optimal participant recruitment problem, and a participant utility analysis scheme is built based on the sensing and mobility features of vehicles. Besides, a greedy algorithm is then designed according to the utility of vehicles to recruit the most efficient vehicles with a limited total incentive budget. Real trace-driven simulations show that the proposed strategy can collect 85.4% of available sensing data with 34% incentive budget.

  6. Occupational Medicine Model and Asthma Military Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Stuart M

    2015-11-01

    Medical evidence hints that asymptomatic recruits with a history of childhood asthma, quiescent since their 13th birthday, are still at risk for adverse changes in their clinical status following unfavorable environmental exposures during military deployment or combat. Asthmatic persons, claiming none or few symptoms, may still manifest airflow obstruction and display biomarkers of airway inflammation even when they are relatively asymptomatic and experience few if any respiratory complaints. The occupational medicine model offers a credible foundation for acknowledging the importance of personal susceptibility in the pathogenesis of military-associated asthma. It is appropriate to re-explore the current military standard for recruits with asymptomatic childhood asthma (≥12 months) not prescribed antiasthma medications. Raising the acceptance age for these recruits may be a consideration. Unfortunately, there is no effectual screening test that recognizes such susceptible soldiers at risk for future asthma attacks. Nevertheless, there is general support for evidence-based, scientifically valid medical screening that judges fitness for military service. Screening tests comprising asthma biomarkers and genetic indices may better verify vulnerable soldiers destined to suffer future asthma reactivation.

  7. Practical solutions for staff recruitment & retention.

    PubMed

    Vander Hoek, N

    2001-01-01

    There are three essential topics for radiology managers to consider in light of persistent staffing shortages: support of the profession and educational programs, perks as recruitment tools and incentives as retention tools. Some activities that can help support departments and educational programs for radiologic technologists are job shadowing, training for volunteer services, advanced placement for school applicants, sponsoring an educational program or clinical training site, creating a positive work environment and supporting outreach projects geared to local high schools. Traditional perks used in recruitment efforts have included relocation assistance, travel and lodging expenses during the interview process, loan repayment, scholarships and sign-on bonuses. Some common incentives for retaining employees are tuition reimbursement, cross training, availability of educational resources, continuing education opportunities, professional development and incremental increases in salary. There are many other tools that can be used, such as career ladders, creating an environment conducive to teamwork or a more personal atmosphere and showcasing talents of various staff members. There is much overlap among these suggestions in support of the profession and educational programs, recruitment and retention of qualified staff radiologic technologists. Radiology managers can and should be creative in developing different programs to build loyalty and commitment to a radiology department.

  8. Monitoring recruitment success and cost in a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Perri, Romina; Wollin, Stephanie; Drolet, Nicolas; Mai, Stephanie; Awad, Manal; Feine, Jocelyne

    2006-09-01

    Recruitment of older adults into research studies is challenging and, as a consequence, the recruitment period is often extended and more expensive than planned. This study monitored the effectiveness (number of subjects attracted) and cost of different recruitment strategies when recruiting edentulous elderly adults. Socio-demographic data were gathered and compared to 2001 Canadian census data. Advertisements in major Montreal newspapers attracted the most people (24.3%). However, the most economical recruitment method proved to be placement of ads in senior newspapers (dollar 73.74 per subject). The information gathered in this study will assist others in planning recruitment strategies for edentulous elderly populations.

  9. Rethinking transcription coupled DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Nudler, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an evolutionarily conserved, multistep process that can detect a wide variety of DNA lesions. Transcription coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of NER that repairs the transcribed DNA strand faster than the rest of the genome. RNA polymerase (RNAP) stalled at DNA lesions mediates the recruitment of NER enzymes to the damage site. In this review we focus on a newly identified bacterial TCR pathway in which the NER enzyme UvrD, in conjunction with NusA, plays a major role in initiating the repair process. We discuss the tradeoff between the new and conventional models of TCR, how and when each pathway operates to repair DNA damage, and the necessity of pervasive transcription in maintaining genome integrity.

  10. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES FOR AN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruiting study participants is always a challenge for researchers. It poses an even bigger challenge for researchers to recruit participants for a study involving intrusive, burdensome data collection activities. A study of preschool children's exposure to persistent organic ...

  11. The TEL patch of telomere protein TPP1 mediates telomerase recruitment and processivity

    PubMed Central

    Nandakumar, Jayakrishnan; Bell, Caitlin F.; Weidenfeld, Ina; Zaug, Arthur J.; Leinwand, Leslie A.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Human chromosome ends are capped by shelterin, a protein complex that protects the natural ends from being recognized as sites of DNA damage and also regulates the telomere-replicating enzyme, telomerase1–3. Shelterin includes the heterodimeric POT1-TPP1 protein, which binds the telomeric single-stranded DNA tail4–9. TPP1 has been implicated both in recruiting telomerase to telomeres and in stimulating telomerase processivity (the addition of multiple DNA repeats after a single primer-binding event)9–14. Determining the mechanisms of these activities has been difficult, especially because genetic perturbations also tend to affect the essential chromosome end-protection function of TPP115–17. Here we identify separation-of-function mutants of TPP1 that retain full telomere-capping function in vitro and in vivo, yet are defective in binding telomerase. The seven separation-of-function mutations map to a patch of amino acids on the surface of TPP1, the TEL patch, that both recruits telomerase to telomeres and promotes high-processivity DNA synthesis, indicating that these two activities are manifestations of the same molecular interaction. Given that the interaction between telomerase and TPP1 is required for telomerase function in vivo, the TEL patch of TPP1 provides a new target for anti-cancer drug development. PMID:23103865

  12. We Can Recruit Minorities Into The Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, S.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the dismal numbers, efforts to recruit minorities into the geosciences are improving, thanks in part to NSF's "Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences" (OEDG) initiative. At Wesleyan University, a small liberal arts college in Connecticut, we have significantly increased our recruitment of minority students. Twenty percent (four students) of the class of 2013 are African American. Most of the recruitment is done on an individual basis and working in conjunction with the "Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement" and courting minority students in introductory classes. The Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement is aware of our interest in increasing diversity and that we are able to hire minority students during the academic year and through the summer with OEDG funds. When she identifies minority students who might be interested in the geosciences, she refers them to faculty in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Department. Our faculty can provide employment, mentoring and a variety of geo-related experiences. Courting students in introductory courses can include inviting them to lunch or other activity, and attending sports, theater or dance events in which they are participating. Not all efforts result in new majors. Courses in ancillary sciences may be stumbling blocks and higher grades in less demanding courses have lured some students into other majors. Nevertheless, we now have a large enough cohort of minority students so that minority students from other majors visit their friends in our labs. A critical mass? Even a student, who chooses another major, may continue an interest in geoscience and through outreach efforts and discussions with younger family members, may provide a bridge that becomes a conduit for future students.

  13. Interspecific, Spatial and Temporal Variability of Self-Recruitment in Anemonefishes

    PubMed Central

    Madduppa, Hawis H.; Timm, Janne; Kochzius, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphic microsatellite DNA parentage analysis was used to investigate the spatio-temporal variability of self-recruitment in populations of two anemonefishes: Amphiprion ocellaris and A. perideraion. Tissue samples of A. ocellaris (n = 364) and A. perideraion (n = 105) were collected from fringing reefs around two small islands (Barrang Lompo and Samalona) in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. Specimens were genotyped based on seven microsatellite loci for A. ocellaris and five microsatellite loci for A. perideraion, and parentage assignment as well as site fidelity were calculated. Both species showed high levels of self-recruitment: 65.2% of juvenile A. ocellaris in Samalona were the progeny of parents from the same island, while on Barrang Lompo 47.4% of A. ocellaris and 46.9% of A. perideraion juveniles had parents from that island. Self-recruitment of A. ocellaris in Barrang Lompo varied from 44% to 52% between the two sampling periods. The site fidelity of A. ocellaris juveniles that returned to their reef site in Barang Lompo was up to 44%, while for A. perideraion up to 19%. In Samalona, the percentage of juveniles that returned to their natal reef site ranged from 8% to 11%. Exchange of progeny between the two study islands, located 7.5 km apart, was also detected via parentage assignments. The larger Samalona adult population of A. ocellaris was identified as the parents of 21% of Barrang Lompo juveniles, while the smaller adult population on Barrang Lompo were the parents of only 4% of Samalona juveniles. High self-recruitment and recruitment to nearby island reefs have important implications for management and conservation of anemonefishes. Small MPAs, preferably on every island/reef, should ensure that a part of the population is protected to enable replenishment by the highly localised recruitment behaviour observed in these species. PMID:24587406

  14. 20 CFR 655.71 - CO-ordered assisted recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false CO-ordered assisted recruitment. 655.71... States (H-2B Workers) Integrity Measures § 655.71 CO-ordered assisted recruitment. (a) Requirement of assisted recruitment. If, as a result of audit or otherwise, the CO determines that a violation...

  15. 20 CFR 655.71 - CO-ordered assisted recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false CO-ordered assisted recruitment. 655.71... States (H-2B Workers) Integrity Measures § 655.71 CO-ordered assisted recruitment. (a) Requirement of assisted recruitment. If, as a result of audit or otherwise, the CO determines that a violation...

  16. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  17. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  18. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  19. Recruiter-Applicant Differences in Perceptions of Extrinsic Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Kermit R., Jr.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined how accurate recruiters would be in estimating relative preferences of college seniors for important category of extrinsic rewards. Compared preferences of 602 graduating college seniors for 11 extrinsic rewards with preference estimates of 486 recruiters. Recruiters underestimated importance of medical and life insurance, pension plans,…

  20. Recruiting Strategically: Increasing Enrollment in Academic Programs of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lauri M.; Settle, Quisto; Chiarelli, Christy; Irani, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture continues to struggle to find enough qualified students to advance the industry. Thus, recruiting practice improvement is imperative. This study assessed the efficacy of message strategies, message channels, recruiting materials, and messages for recruiting students into an academic program with low enrollment. Focus groups were…

  1. Transforming Personnel Accessions: Recruiting in the E-Business World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    TRANSFORMING PERSONNEL ACCESSIONS: RECRUITING IN THE E- BUSINESS WORLD BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL ARTHUR D. GLIKIN United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...20020806 194 USAWC FELLOWSHIP RESEARCH PAPER Transforming Personnel Accessions: Recruiting in the e- Business World by Lieutenant Colonel Arthur D...AUTHOR: Lieutenant Colonel Arthur D. Glikin TITLE: Transforming Personnel Accessions: Recruiting in the e- Business World FORMAT: Fellowship Research

  2. In-Hospital Recruitment to Observational Studies of Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Ruth M.; Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Ashburn, Ann; Jenkinson, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine recruitment in three observational follow-up studies of patients with stroke, focusing on reasons for nonparticipation and the role of potential factors in explaining recruitment rates. It comprised secondary analysis of the three studies. Recruitment rates varied between the studies. Between 10 and 50%…

  3. The Role of the DNA Damage Response throughout the Papillomavirus Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Caleb C.; Hussmann, Katherine L.; McBride, Alison A.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) maintains genomic integrity through an elaborate network of signaling pathways that sense DNA damage and recruit effector factors to repair damaged DNA. DDR signaling pathways are usurped and manipulated by the replication programs of many viruses. Here, we review the papillomavirus (PV) life cycle, highlighting current knowledge of how PVs recruit and engage the DDR to facilitate productive infection. PMID:26008695

  4. Regulation of maintenance DNA methylation via histone ubiquitylation

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Atsuya; Yamaguchi, Luna; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the most stable but dynamically regulated epigenetic marks that act as determinants of cell fates during embryonic development through regulation of various forms of gene expression. DNA methylation patterns must be faithfully propagated throughout successive cell divisions in order to maintain cell-specific function. We have recently demonstrated that Uhrf1-dependent ubiquitylation of histone H3 at lysine 23 is critical for Dnmt1 recruitment to DNA replication sites, which catalyzes the conversion of hemi-methylated DNA to fully methylated DNA. In this review, we provide an overview of recent progress in understanding the mechanism underlying maintenance DNA methylation. PMID:26590302

  5. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829

  6. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research.

    PubMed

    Sugden, Nicole A; Moulson, Margaret C

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  7. Identification of human TERT elements necessary for telomerase recruitment to telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jens C; Dalby, Andrew B; Cech, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    Human chromosomes terminate in telomeres, repetitive DNA sequences bound by the shelterin complex. Shelterin protects chromosome ends, prevents recognition by the DNA damage machinery, and recruits telomerase. A patch of amino acids, termed the TEL-patch, on the OB-fold domain of the shelterin component TPP1 is essential to recruit telomerase to telomeres. In contrast, the site on telomerase that interacts with the TPP1 OB-fold is not well defined. In this study, we identify separation-of-function mutations in the TEN-domain of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) that disrupt the interaction of telomerase with TPP1 in vivo and in vitro but have very little effect on the catalytic activity of telomerase. Suppression of a TEN-domain mutation with a compensatory charge-swap mutation in the TEL-patch indicates that their association is direct. Our findings define the interaction interface required for telomerase recruitment to telomeres, an important step towards developing modulators of this interaction as therapeutics for human disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03563.001 PMID:25271372

  8. Recruitment of Phosphorylated Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 to Chromatin after UV Irradiation of Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Emmanuelle; Roche, Danièle M.J.; Marheineke, Kathrin; Verreault, Alain; Almouzni, Geneviève

    1998-01-01

    The subcellular distribution and posttranslational modification of human chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) have been investigated after UV irradiation of HeLa cells. In an asynchronous cell population only a subfraction of the two large CAF-1 subunits, p150 and p60, were found to exist in a chromatin-associated fraction. This fraction is most abundant during S phase in nonirradiated cells and is much reduced in G2 cells. After UV irradiation, the chromatin-associated form of CAF-1 dramatically increased in all cells irrespective of their position in the cell cycle. Such chromatin recruitment resembles that seen for PCNA, a DNA replication and repair factor. The chromatin-associated fraction of p60 was predominantly hypophosphorylated in nonirradiated G2 cells. UV irradiation resulted in the rapid recruitment to chromatin of phosphorylated forms of the p60 subunit. Furthermore, the amount of the p60 and p150 subunits of CAF-1 associated with chromatin was a function of the dose of UV irradiation. Consistent with these in vivo observations, we found that the amount of CAF-1 required to stimulate nucleosome assembly during the repair of UV photoproducts in vitro depended upon both the number of lesions and the phosphorylation state of CAF-1. The recruitment of CAF-1 to chromatin in response to UV irradiation of human cells described here supports a physiological role for CAF-1 in linking chromatin assembly to DNA repair. PMID:9813080

  9. CTCF regulates NELF, DSIF and P-TEFb recruitment during transcription.

    PubMed

    Laitem, Clélia; Zaborowska, Justyna; Tellier, Michael; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Cao, Qingfu; Egloff, Sylvain; Handa, Hiroshi; Murphy, Shona

    2015-01-01

    CTCF is a versatile transcription factor with well-established roles in chromatin organization and insulator function. Recent findings also implicate CTCF in the control of elongation by RNA polymerase (RNAP) II. Here we show that CTCF knockdown abrogates RNAP II pausing at the early elongation checkpoint of c-myc by affecting recruitment of DRB-sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF). CTCF knockdown also causes a termination defect on the U2 snRNA genes (U2), by affecting recruitment of negative elongation factor (NELF). In addition, CTCF is required for recruitment of positive elongation factor b (P-TEFb), which phosphorylates NELF, DSIF, and Ser2 of the RNAP II CTD to activate elongation of transcription of c-myc and recognition of the snRNA gene-specific 3' box RNA processing signal. These findings implicate CTCF in a complex network of protein:protein/protein:DNA interactions and assign a key role to CTCF in controlling RNAP II transcription through the elongation checkpoint of the protein-coding c-myc and the termination site of the non-coding U2, by regulating the recruitment and/or activity of key players in these processes.

  10. Paediatric lung recruitment: a review of the clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Jauncey-Cooke, Jacqui; East, Chris E; Bogossian, Fiona

    2015-03-01

    Lung recruitment is used as an adjunct to lung protective ventilation strategies. Lung recruitment is a brief, deliberate elevation of transpulmonary pressures beyond what is achieved during tidal ventilation levels. The aim of lung recruitment is to maximise the number of alveoli participating in gas exchange particularly in distal and dependant regions of the lung. This may improve oxygenation and end expiratory levels. Restoration of end expiratory levels and stabilisation of the alveoli may reduce the incidence of ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). Various methods of lung recruitment have been studied in adult and experimental populations. This review aims to establish the evidence for lung recruitment in the pediatric population.

  11. A Census of Nuclear Cyanobacterial Recruits in the Plant Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuesheng; Chen, Mingjie; Yang, Zhaowan; Ma, Chuang; Guo, An-Yuan; Zhou, Yanhong; Chang, Junli; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2015-01-01

    The plastids and mitochondria of the eukaryotic cell are of endosymbiotic origin. These events occurred ~2 billion years ago and produced significant changes in the genomes of the host and the endosymbiont. Previous studies demonstrated that the invasion of land affected plastids and mitochondria differently and that the paths of mitochondrial integration differed between animals and plants. Other studies examined the reasons why a set of proteins remained encoded in the organelles and were not transferred to the nuclear genome. However, our understanding of the functional relations of the transferred genes is insufficient. In this paper, we report a high-throughput phylogenetic analysis to identify genes of cyanobacterial origin for plants of different levels of complexity: Arabidopsis thaliana, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Physcomitrella patens, Populus trichocarpa, Selaginella moellendorffii, Sorghum bicolor, Oryza sativa, and Ostreococcus tauri. Thus, a census of cyanobacterial gene recruits and a study of their function are presented to better understand the functional aspects of plastid symbiogenesis. From algae to angiosperms, the GO terms demonstrated a gradual expansion over functionally related genes in the nuclear genome, beginning with genes related to thylakoids and photosynthesis, followed by genes involved in metabolism, and finally with regulation-related genes, primarily in angiosperms. The results demonstrate that DNA is supplied to the nuclear genome on a permanent basis with no regard to function, and only what is needed is kept, which thereby expands on the GO space along the related genes. PMID:25794152

  12. Disturbance opens recruitment sites for bacterial colonization in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Vuono, David C; Munakata-Marr, Junko; Spear, John R; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the role of immigration in shaping bacterial communities or the factors that may dictate success or failure of colonization by bacteria from regional species pools. To address these knowledge gaps, the influence of bacterial colonization into an ecosystem (activated sludge bioreactor) was measured through a disturbance gradient (successive decreases in the parameter solids retention time) relative to stable operational conditions. Through a DNA sequencing approach, we show that the most abundant bacteria within the immigrant community have a greater probability of colonizing the receiving ecosystem, but mostly as low abundance community members. Only during the disturbance do some of these bacterial populations significantly increase in abundance beyond background levels and in few cases become dominant community members post-disturbance. Two mechanisms facilitate the enhanced enrichment of immigrant populations during disturbance: (i) the availability of resources left unconsumed by established species and (ii) the increased availability of niche space for colonizers to establish and displace resident populations. Thus, as a disturbance decreases local diversity, recruitment sites become available to promote colonization. This work advances our understanding of microbial resource management and diversity maintenance in complex ecosystems.

  13. Adult Prey Neutralizes Predator Nonconsumptive Limitation of Prey Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Scrosati, Ricardo A.; Romoth, Katharina; Molis, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that predator chemical cues can limit prey demographic rates such as recruitment. For instance, barnacle pelagic larvae reduce settlement where predatory dogwhelk cues are detected, thereby limiting benthic recruitment. However, adult barnacles attract conspecific larvae through chemical and visual cues, aiding larvae to find suitable habitat for development. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of adult barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) can neutralize dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment. We did a field experiment in Atlantic Canada during the 2012 and 2013 barnacle recruitment seasons (May–June). We manipulated the presence of dogwhelks (without allowing them to physically contact barnacles) and adult barnacles in cages established in rocky intertidal habitats. At the end of both recruitment seasons, we measured barnacle recruit density on tiles kept inside the cages. Without adult barnacles, the nearby presence of dogwhelks limited barnacle recruitment by 51%. However, the presence of adult barnacles increased barnacle recruitment by 44% and neutralized dogwhelk nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment, as recruit density was unaffected by dogwhelk presence. For species from several invertebrate phyla, benthic adult organisms attract conspecific pelagic larvae. Thus, adult prey might commonly constitute a key factor preventing negative predator nonconsumptive effects on prey recruitment. PMID:27123994

  14. Adult Prey Neutralizes Predator Nonconsumptive Limitation of Prey Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ellrich, Julius A; Scrosati, Ricardo A; Romoth, Katharina; Molis, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that predator chemical cues can limit prey demographic rates such as recruitment. For instance, barnacle pelagic larvae reduce settlement where predatory dogwhelk cues are detected, thereby limiting benthic recruitment. However, adult barnacles attract conspecific larvae through chemical and visual cues, aiding larvae to find suitable habitat for development. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of adult barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) can neutralize dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment. We did a field experiment in Atlantic Canada during the 2012 and 2013 barnacle recruitment seasons (May-June). We manipulated the presence of dogwhelks (without allowing them to physically contact barnacles) and adult barnacles in cages established in rocky intertidal habitats. At the end of both recruitment seasons, we measured barnacle recruit density on tiles kept inside the cages. Without adult barnacles, the nearby presence of dogwhelks limited barnacle recruitment by 51%. However, the presence of adult barnacles increased barnacle recruitment by 44% and neutralized dogwhelk nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment, as recruit density was unaffected by dogwhelk presence. For species from several invertebrate phyla, benthic adult organisms attract conspecific pelagic larvae. Thus, adult prey might commonly constitute a key factor preventing negative predator nonconsumptive effects on prey recruitment.

  15. Recruitment stability in masseter motor units during isometric voluntary contractions.

    PubMed

    Scutter, S D; Türker, K S

    1998-10-01

    Recruitment of single motor units (SMUs) of the masseter muscle was studied using macro representation (MacroRep) as the indicator of motor unit size. When subjects followed a slow isometric force ramp, units were usually recruited in order of MacroRep size. However, pooling the data from repeated ramps in the same subject resulted in a weak relationship between MacroRep size and force recruitment threshold, probably due to marked variations in the relative contributions of the jaw muscles, and varying levels of cocontraction, in the development of total bite force in each ramp. The force recruitment thresholds of individual SMUs showed marked variability, but recruitment threshold stability was improved when expressed as a percentage of maximum surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity in the ipsilateral masseter. Therefore the SEMG recruitment threshold was concluded to be a more stable and accurate indicator of the SMU's position in the recruitment hierarchy in a given muscle. It was concluded that SMUs in masseter are recruited according to the size principle, and that when investigating recruitment in jaw muscles, SEMG recruitment threshold should be used in preference to force recruitment threshold.

  16. DNA Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2002-11-01

    DNA is one candidate of promising molecules for molecular electronic devices, since it has the double helix structure with pi-electron bases for electron transport, the address at 0.4 nm intervals, and the self-assembly. Electrical conductivity and nanostructure of DNA and modified DNA molecules are investigated in order to research the application of DNA in nanoelectronic devices. It has been revealed that DNA is a wide-gap semiconductor in the absence of doping. The conductivity of DNA has been controlled by chemical doping, electric field doping, and photo-doping. It has found that Poly(dG)[middle dot]Poly(dC) has the best conductivity and can function as a conducting nanowire. The pattern of DNA network is controlled by changing the concentration of the DNA solution.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.; Bottino, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on mitochondrial DNA, pointing out that it may have once been a free-living organism. Includes a ready-to-duplicate exercise titled "Using Microchondrial DNA to Measure Evolutionary Distance." (JN)

  18. Analysis of Recruit Attrition from the Navy’s Delayed Entry Program and Recruit Training Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    credential, time in DEP, gender , marital status, AFQT score, enlistment program, and Navy Recruiting District are significant factors affecting DEP...attrition probabilities. Results show that education credential, time in DEP, gender , marital status, AFQT score, enlistment program, and Navy...HISTORICAL REVIEW OF ATTRITION RESEARCH BY GENDER .32 F. OVERVIEW: TRENDS ..................................35 III. ANALYSIS OF NAVY DELAYED ENTRY PROGRAM

  19. Staff retention and recruitment: "one great department".

    PubMed

    Casady, Wanda M; Dowd, Terry A

    2002-01-01

    The projected demand for healthcare workers during the next ten years has been the impetus for many organizations to develop more creative strategies to ensure adequate staffing levels in the future. In order to keep pace with service demands, the diagnostic imaging department at Valley Lutheran Medical Center (VLMC) in Mesa, Ariz., has been growing as well. Since November of 1999, the number of core FTEs increased from 54.5 to 96. As a result, efforts to retain the current employees became just as critical as efforts to recruit staff for the new positions that were created to support the expanded services. In February 2001, an AHRA seminar was held in Phoenix, which included a day-long session called "Workforce 2001: Recruitment, Selection, Retention of Quality Employees." The presenter, Clint Maun, C.S.P., emphasized the need to provide "passionate orientation" for new employees, encouraged team-based selection of new employees, and reminded the audience that new employees decide within the first three days whether or not they will stay with an organization, regardless of how long it actually takes to leave. Maun also described to the group a model for creating team effort called "One Great Unit" (OGU), which uses a "12-Week Plan" for engaging staff. For the diagnostic imaging department at VLMC, this concept was remodeled so that, instead of focusing on one modality (unit) in the department, the focus was on the whole department. The first step to creating "One Great Department" was to establish an Oversight Committee that would help define the focus of the 12-Week Teams. Five, front-line employees were recruited who represented a cross-section of the imaging department. To assist in the implementation, the director of learning and innovation at VLMC agreed to facilitate the first two meetings. The first 12-Week Team was called together in May 2001. The operational objective addressed was "improving communication inter- and intra-departmentally." Each member

  20. Recruitment and Retention of LGBTIQ Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, William Van Dyke

    2012-01-01

    While lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or questioning (LGBTIQ) astronomers face many of the same workplace challenges as women and racial/ethnic minorities, from implicit bias to overt discrimination, other challenges are unique to this group. An obvious example is the absence at many institutions of health insurance and other benefits for the same-sex domestic partners of their employees. More subtle is the psychological toll paid by LGBTIQ astronomers who remain "in the closet," self-censoring every statement about their personal lives. Paradoxically, the culture of the physical sciences, in which sexuality, gender identity, and gender expression are considered irrelevant, can discourage their discussion, further isolating LGBTIQ researchers. Addressing these challenges is not just a matter of fairness; it is an essential tool in the recruitment and retention of the brightest researchers and in assuring their productivity. We will discuss these issues and what individuals and departments can to make their institutions more welcoming to their LGBTIQ colleagues.

  1. Ocean acidification impairs vermetid reef recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Marco; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Chan, Vera Bin San; Fine, Maoz; Alessi, Cinzia; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Chemello, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Vermetids form reefs in sub-tropical and warm-temperate waters that protect coasts from erosion, regulate sediment transport and accumulation, serve as carbon sinks and provide habitat for other species. The gastropods that form these reefs brood encapsulated larvae; they are threatened by rapid environmental changes since their ability to disperse is very limited. We used transplant experiments along a natural CO2 gradient to assess ocean acidification effects on the reef-building gastropod Dendropoma petraeum. We found that although D. petraeum were able to reproduce and brood at elevated levels of CO2, recruitment success was adversely affected. Long-term exposure to acidified conditions predicted for the year 2100 and beyond caused shell dissolution and a significant increase in shell Mg content. Unless CO2 emissions are reduced and conservation measures taken, our results suggest these reefs are in danger of extinction within this century, with significant ecological and socioeconomic ramifications for coastal systems. PMID:24577050

  2. Ocean acidification impairs vermetid reef recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milazzo, Marco; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Chan, Vera Bin San; Fine, Maoz; Alessi, Cinzia; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Chemello, Renato

    2014-02-01

    Vermetids form reefs in sub-tropical and warm-temperate waters that protect coasts from erosion, regulate sediment transport and accumulation, serve as carbon sinks and provide habitat for other species. The gastropods that form these reefs brood encapsulated larvae; they are threatened by rapid environmental changes since their ability to disperse is very limited. We used transplant experiments along a natural CO2 gradient to assess ocean acidification effects on the reef-building gastropod Dendropoma petraeum. We found that although D. petraeum were able to reproduce and brood at elevated levels of CO2, recruitment success was adversely affected. Long-term exposure to acidified conditions predicted for the year 2100 and beyond caused shell dissolution and a significant increase in shell Mg content. Unless CO2 emissions are reduced and conservation measures taken, our results suggest these reefs are in danger of extinction within this century, with significant ecological and socioeconomic ramifications for coastal systems.

  3. Assembly of Slx4 signaling complexes behind DNA replication forks.

    PubMed

    Balint, Attila; Kim, TaeHyung; Gallo, David; Cussiol, Jose Renato; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco M; Yimit, Askar; Ou, Jiongwen; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Gurevich, Alexey; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Smolka, Marcus B; Zhang, Zhaolei; Brown, Grant W

    2015-08-13

    Obstructions to replication fork progression, referred to collectively as DNA replication stress, challenge genome stability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells lacking RTT107 or SLX4 show genome instability and sensitivity to DNA replication stress and are defective in the completion of DNA replication during recovery from replication stress. We demonstrate that Slx4 is recruited to chromatin behind stressed replication forks, in a region that is spatially distinct from that occupied by the replication machinery. Slx4 complex formation is nucleated by Mec1 phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is recognized by the constitutive Slx4 binding partner Rtt107. Slx4 is essential for recruiting the Mec1 activator Dpb11 behind stressed replication forks, and Slx4 complexes are important for full activity of Mec1. We propose that Slx4 complexes promote robust checkpoint signaling by Mec1 by stably recruiting Dpb11 within a discrete domain behind the replication fork, during DNA replication stress.

  4. Ubiquitylation, neddylation and the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jessica S.; Jackson, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Failure of accurate DNA damage sensing and repair mechanisms manifests as a variety of human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, immunodeficiency, infertility and cancer. The accuracy and efficiency of DNA damage detection and repair, collectively termed the DNA damage response (DDR), requires the recruitment and subsequent post-translational modification (PTM) of a complex network of proteins. Ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) SUMO have established roles in regulating the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). A role for other UBLs, such as NEDD8, is also now emerging. This article provides an overview of the DDR, discusses our current understanding of the process and function of PTM by ubiquitin and NEDD8, and reviews the literature surrounding the role of ubiquitylation and neddylation in DNA repair processes, focusing particularly on DNA DSB repair. PMID:25833379

  5. Dna Sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1995-04-25

    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  6. PICH: a DNA translocase specially adapted for processing anaphase bridge DNA.

    PubMed

    Biebricher, Andreas; Hirano, Seiki; Enzlin, Jacqueline H; Wiechens, Nicola; Streicher, Werner W; Huttner, Diana; Wang, Lily H-C; Nigg, Erich A; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Liu, Ying; Peterman, Erwin; Wuite, Gijs J L; Hickson, Ian D

    2013-09-12

    The Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase (PICH) protein localizes to ultrafine anaphase bridges (UFBs) in mitosis alongside a complex of DNA repair proteins, including the Bloom's syndrome protein (BLM). However, very little is known about the function of PICH or how it is recruited to UFBs. Using a combination of microfluidics, fluorescence microscopy, and optical tweezers, we have defined the properties of PICH in an in vitro model of an anaphase bridge. We show that PICH binds with a remarkably high affinity to duplex DNA, resulting in ATP-dependent protein translocation and extension of the DNA. Most strikingly, the affinity of PICH for binding DNA increases with tension-induced DNA stretching, which mimics the effect of the mitotic spindle on a UFB. PICH binding also appears to diminish force-induced DNA melting. We propose a model in which PICH recognizes and stabilizes DNA under tension during anaphase, thereby facilitating the resolution of entangled sister chromatids.

  7. Interactions and Localization of Escherichia coli Error-Prone DNA Polymerase IV after DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Mallik, Sarita; Popodi, Ellen M.; Hanson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli's DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV/DinB), a member of the Y family of error-prone polymerases, is induced during the SOS response to DNA damage and is responsible for translesion bypass and adaptive (stress-induced) mutation. In this study, the localization of Pol IV after DNA damage was followed using fluorescent fusions. After exposure of E. coli to DNA-damaging agents, fluorescently tagged Pol IV localized to the nucleoid as foci. Stepwise photobleaching indicated ∼60% of the foci consisted of three Pol IV molecules, while ∼40% consisted of six Pol IV molecules. Fluorescently tagged Rep, a replication accessory DNA helicase, was recruited to the Pol IV foci after DNA damage, suggesting that the in vitro interaction between Rep and Pol IV reported previously also occurs in vivo. Fluorescently tagged RecA also formed foci after DNA damage, and Pol IV localized to them. To investigate if Pol IV localizes to double-strand breaks (DSBs), an I-SceI endonuclease-mediated DSB was introduced close to a fluorescently labeled LacO array on the chromosome. After DSB induction, Pol IV localized to the DSB site in ∼70% of SOS-induced cells. RecA also formed foci at the DSB sites, and Pol IV localized to the RecA foci. These results suggest that Pol IV interacts with RecA in vivo and is recruited to sites of DSBs to aid in the restoration of DNA replication. IMPORTANCE DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV/DinB) is an error-prone DNA polymerase capable of bypassing DNA lesions and aiding in the restart of stalled replication forks. In this work, we demonstrate in vivo localization of fluorescently tagged Pol IV to the nucleoid after DNA damage and to DNA double-strand breaks. We show colocalization of Pol IV with two proteins: Rep DNA helicase, which participates in replication, and RecA, which catalyzes recombinational repair of stalled replication forks. Time course experiments suggest that Pol IV recruits Rep and that RecA recruits Pol IV. These findings

  8. The Type IVa Pilus Machinery Is Recruited to Sites of Future Cell Division.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tyson; Buensuceso, Ryan N C; Tammam, Stephanie; Lamers, Ryan P; Harvey, Hanjeong; Howell, P Lynne; Burrows, Lori L

    2017-01-31

    Type IVa pili (T4aP) are ubiquitous microbial appendages used for adherence, twitching motility, DNA uptake, and electron transfer. Many of these functions depend on dynamic assembly and disassembly of the pilus by a megadalton-sized, cell envelope-spanning protein complex located at the poles of rod-shaped bacteria. How the T4aP assembly complex becomes integrated into the cell envelope in the absence of dedicated peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases is unknown. After ruling out the potential involvement of housekeeping PG hydrolases in the installation of the T4aP machinery in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we discovered that key components of inner (PilMNOP) and outer (PilQ) membrane subcomplexes are recruited to future sites of cell division. Midcell recruitment of a fluorescently tagged alignment subcomplex component, mCherry-PilO, depended on PilQ secretin monomers-specifically, their N-terminal PG-binding AMIN domains. PilP, which connects PilO to PilQ, was required for recruitment, while PilM, which is structurally similar to divisome component FtsA, was not. Recruitment preceded secretin oligomerization in the outer membrane, as loss of the PilQ pilotin PilF had no effect on localization. These results were confirmed in cells chemically blocked for cell division prior to outer membrane invagination. The hub protein FimV and a component of the polar organelle coordinator complex-PocA-were independently required for midcell recruitment of PilO and PilQ. Together, these data suggest an integrated, energy-efficient strategy for the targeting and preinstallation-rather than retrofitting-of the T4aP system into nascent poles, without the need for dedicated PG-remodeling enzymes.

  9. The Type IVa Pilus Machinery Is Recruited to Sites of Future Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Tyson; Buensuceso, Ryan N. C.; Tammam, Stephanie; Lamers, Ryan P.; Harvey, Hanjeong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type IVa pili (T4aP) are ubiquitous microbial appendages used for adherence, twitching motility, DNA uptake, and electron transfer. Many of these functions depend on dynamic assembly and disassembly of the pilus by a megadalton-sized, cell envelope-spanning protein complex located at the poles of rod-shaped bacteria. How the T4aP assembly complex becomes integrated into the cell envelope in the absence of dedicated peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases is unknown. After ruling out the potential involvement of housekeeping PG hydrolases in the installation of the T4aP machinery in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we discovered that key components of inner (PilMNOP) and outer (PilQ) membrane subcomplexes are recruited to future sites of cell division. Midcell recruitment of a fluorescently tagged alignment subcomplex component, mCherry-PilO, depended on PilQ secretin monomers—specifically, their N-terminal PG-binding AMIN domains. PilP, which connects PilO to PilQ, was required for recruitment, while PilM, which is structurally similar to divisome component FtsA, was not. Recruitment preceded secretin oligomerization in the outer membrane, as loss of the PilQ pilotin PilF had no effect on localization. These results were confirmed in cells chemically blocked for cell division prior to outer membrane invagination. The hub protein FimV and a component of the polar organelle coordinator complex—PocA—were independently required for midcell recruitment of PilO and PilQ. Together, these data suggest an integrated, energy-efficient strategy for the targeting and preinstallation—rather than retrofitting—of the T4aP system into nascent poles, without the need for dedicated PG-remodeling enzymes. PMID:28143978

  10. Electron microscopy visualization of DNA-protein complexes formed by Ku and DNA ligase IV.

    PubMed

    Grob, Patricia; Zhang, Teri T; Hannah, Ryan; Yang, Hui; Hefferin, Melissa L; Tomkinson, Alan E; Nogales, Eva

    2012-01-02

    The repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) is essential for cell viability and genome stability. Aberrant repair of DSBs has been linked with cancer predisposition and aging. During the repair of DSBs by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), DNA ends are brought together, processed and then joined. In eukaryotes, this repair pathway is initiated by the binding of the ring-shaped Ku heterodimer and completed by DNA ligase IV. The DNA ligase IV complex, DNA ligase IV/XRRC4 in humans and Dnl4/Lif1 in yeast, is recruited to DNA ends in vitro and in vivo by an interaction with Ku and, in yeast, Dnl4/Lif1 stabilizes the binding of yKu to in vivo DSBs. Here we have analyzed the interactions of these functionally conserved eukaryotic NHEJ factors with DNA by electron microscopy. As expected, the ring-shaped Ku complex bound stably and specifically to DNA ends at physiological salt concentrations. At a ratio of 1 Ku molecule per DNA end, the majority of DNA ends were occupied by a single Ku complex with no significant formation of linear DNA multimers or circular loops. Both Dnl4/Lif1 and DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 formed complexes with Ku-bound DNA ends, resulting in intra- and intermolecular DNA end bridging, even with non-ligatable DNA ends. Together, these studies, which provide the first visualization of the conserved complex formed by Ku and DNA ligase IV at juxtaposed DNA ends by electron microscopy, suggest that the DNA ligase IV complex mediates end-bridging by engaging two Ku-bound DNA ends.

  11. Researching mental health in minority ethnic communities: reflections on recruitment.

    PubMed

    Rugkåsa, Jorun; Canvin, Krysia

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reflect on the recruitment of research participants to two related studies of experiences of mental health problems in Black and minority ethnic communities in the United Kingdom. A total of 65 people were recruited via three main strategies: the employment of bicultural recruiters, intensive information sharing about the studies, and work through local community groups. Three main issues seemed to affect recruitment: gatekeepers' attitudes, the (non)payment of participants, and reciprocal arrangements with local community groups. The type of strategy employed resulted in recruits with differing characteristics (although our sample was too small to draw generalizable conclusions). We conclude that to ensure that research participation is accessible to all, researchers must employ flexible recruitment methods that permit adaptation to specific needs arising out of health status, level of involvement with services, culture, and socioeconomic status. Systematic research into this part of the research process is needed.

  12. Evaluating strategies and costs to recruit smokeless tobacco users.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Raymond G; Enstad, Chris; Asche, Stephen E; Thoele, Merry J; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2007-12-01

    We recruited smokeless tobacco users throughout Minnesota to participate in a trial testing telephone counseling versus a written self-help manual for cessation. This paper describes the recruitment strategies applied on a state-wide basis. We established a recruitment tracking system to monitor weekly rates of screened callers and returned consents, allowing us to adjust future recruitment efforts. Screening was completed with 783 callers, with 406 subjects enrolled. Overall 44% of initial contacts and 52% of those screened enrolled in the study. The overall average cost per consented subject was $99. Sports talk radio, small print ads, and newspaper articles based on press releases were consistently effective channels for recruitment. The overall cost was expensive but reflected the geographic diversity of recruitment and the prevalence of oral snuff use.

  13. Physician recruitment success: how to acquire top physician talent.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Judy

    2011-01-01

    This article provides step-by-step instructions on how to complete the strategic planning needed to ensure success in physician recruitment efforts, outlines how to build a successful recruitment team, and provides helpful advice to avoid common recruiting mistakes that can sabotage the recruitment efforts of even the best practices. This article discusses the role of the in-house hospital recruiter in the recruitment process, how to evaluate independent search firms, how to make use of the physicians in your group to ensure success during a site visit, and how to ensure that your new hire will be able to successfully develop a practice. The article also discusses how to find and use benchmarking data to ensure that your compensation package is competitive, and provides advice on how to help your new physician hit the ground running.

  14. Using marketing theory to inform strategies for recruitment: a recruitment optimisation model and the txt2stop experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment is a major challenge for many trials; just over half reach their targets and almost a third resort to grant extensions. The economic and societal implications of this shortcoming are significant. Yet, we have a limited understanding of the processes that increase the probability that recruitment targets will be achieved. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to bring analytical rigour to the task of improving recruitment, thereby increasing the likelihood that trials reach their recruitment targets. This paper presents a conceptual framework that can be used to improve recruitment to clinical trials. Methods Using a case-study approach, we reviewed the range of initiatives that had been undertaken to improve recruitment in the txt2stop trial using qualitative (semi-structured interviews with the principal investigator) and quantitative (recruitment) data analysis. Later, the txt2stop recruitment practices were compared to a previous model of marketing a trial and to key constructs in social marketing theory. Results Post hoc, we developed a recruitment optimisation model to serve as a conceptual framework to improve recruitment to clinical trials. A core premise of the model is that improving recruitment needs to be an iterative, learning process. The model describes three essential activities: i) recruitment phase monitoring, ii) marketing research, and iii) the evaluation of current performance. We describe the initiatives undertaken by the txt2stop trial and the results achieved, as an example of the use of the model. Conclusions Further research should explore the impact of adopting the recruitment optimisation model when applied to other trials. PMID:24886627

  15. Improving Recruiting of the 6th Recruiting Brigade Through Statistical Analysis and Efficiency Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    commentary/2013/10/16/op-ed-why-ending- volunteer-service-next-fight-military-equalityPost. 11 Ibid. 12 Kathy Roth -Douquet and Frank Schaefer, AWOL...Spreadsheet Modeling & Decision Analysis, 4th ed. ( Mason , OH: Thomson South-Western, 2004), 107. 27 U.S. Army Recruiting Command, G7/9 - Marketing, Education...2009. http://www.defense.gov/news/ newsarticle.aspx?id=53310. Ragsdale, Cliff T. Spreadsheet Modeling & Decision Analysis. 4th ed. Mason , OH

  16. The Ku subunit of telomerase binds Sir4 to recruit telomerase to lengthen telomeres in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hass, Evan P; Zappulla, David C

    2015-07-28

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in humans, the telomerase RNA subunit is bound by Ku, a ring-shaped protein heterodimer best known for its function in DNA repair. Ku binding to yeast telomerase RNA promotes telomere lengthening and telomerase recruitment to telomeres, but how this is achieved remains unknown. Using telomere-length analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that Sir4 - a previously identified Ku-binding protein that is a component of telomeric silent chromatin - is required for Ku-mediated telomere lengthening and telomerase recruitment. We also find that specifically tethering Sir4 directly to Ku-binding-defective telomerase RNA restores otherwise-shortened telomeres to wild-type length. These findings suggest that Sir4 is the telomere-bound target of Ku-mediated telomerase recruitment and provide one mechanism for how the Sir4-competing Rif1 and Rif2 proteins negatively regulate telomere length in yeast.

  17. Learning communities: the link to recruitment and retention.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Sherry; Polifroni, E Carol

    2005-01-01

    The professional learning community is a strategy to help staff development educators address recruitment and retention and organizational culture. The purpose of this article is to analyze the concept of learning communities and discuss their potential to increase the recruitment and retention of new graduate nurses and returning practitioners to the nursing profession. Incorporating learning communities into the healthcare organization will decrease the number of nurses leaving nursing, foster retention, and thus, enhance recruitment.

  18. Recruit--An Ontology Based Information Retrieval System for Clinical Trials Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Patrão, Diogo F C; Oleynik, Michel; Massicano, Felipe; Morassi Sasso, Ariane

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials are studies designed to assess whether a new intervention is better than the current alternatives. However, most of them fail to recruit participants on schedule. It is hard to use Electronic Health Record (EHR) data to find eligible patients, therefore studies rely on manual assessment, which is time consuming, inefficient and requires specialized training. In this work we describe the design and development of an information retrieval system with the objective of finding eligible patients for cancer trials. The Recruit system has been in use at A. C. Camargo Cancer Center since August/2014 and contains data from more than 500,000 patients and 9 databases. It uses ontologies to integrate data from several sources and represent medical knowledge, which helps enhance results. One can search both in structured data and inside free text reports. The preliminary quality assessments shows excellent recall rates. Recruit proved to be an useful tool for researchers and its modular design could be applied to other clinical conditions and hospitals.

  19. Substrate temperature constrains recruitment and trail following behavior in ants.

    PubMed

    van Oudenhove, Louise; Boulay, Raphaël; Lenoir, Alain; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerda, Xim

    2012-06-01

    In many ant species, foragers use pheromones to communicate the location of resources to nestmates. Mass-recruiting species deposit long-lasting anonymous chemical trails, while group-recruiting species use temporary chemical trails. We studied how high temperature influenced the foraging behavior of a mass-recruiting species (Tapinoma nigerrimum) and a group-recruiting species (Aphaenogaster senilis) through pheromone decay. First, under controlled laboratory conditions, we examined the effect of temperature on the trail pheromone of both species. A substrate, simulating soil, marked with gaster extract was heated for 10 min. at 25°, 35°, 45°, or 55 °C and offered to workers in a choice test. Heating gaster extract reduced the trail following behavior of the mass-recruiters significantly more than that of the group-recruiters. Second, analyses of the chemicals present on the substrate indicated that most T. nigerrimum gaster secretions vanished at 25 °C, and only iridodials persisted up to 55 °C. By contrast, A. senilis secretions were less volatile and resisted better to elevated temperatures to some extent. However, at 55 °C, the only chemicals that persisted were nonadecene and nonadecane. Overall, our results suggest that the foraging behavior of the group-recruiting species A. senilis is less affected by pheromone evaporation than that of the mass-recruiting species T. nigerrimum. This group-recruiting species might, thus, be particularly adapted to environments with fluctuating temperatures.

  20. DNA Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    DNA immunization was discovered in early 1990s and its use has been expanded from vaccine studies to a broader range of biomedical research, such as the generation of high quality polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as research reagents. In this unit, three common DNA immunization methods are described: needle injection, electroporation and gene gun. In addition, several common considerations related to DNA immunization are discussed. PMID:24510291

  1. Elevated Temperature and Allelopathy Impact Coral Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Ross, Cliff; Paul, Valerie J

    2016-01-01

    As climate change continues to alter seawater temperature and chemistry on a global scale, coral reefs show multiple signs of degradation. One natural process that could facilitate the recovery of reef ecosystems is coral recruitment, which can be influenced by the benthic organisms in a local habitat. We experimentally tested both a global stressor (increased seawater temperature) and a local stressor (exposure to microcolin A, a natural product from a common marine benthic cyanobacterium) to determine how these stressors impacted coral larval sublethal stress, survival and settlement. Larvae of Porites astreoides had the same survival and settlement as the controls after exposure to increased temperature alone, but elevated temperature did cause oxidative stress. When exposed to natural concentrations of microcolin A, larval survival and settlement were significantly reduced. When larvae were exposed to these two stressors sequentially there was no interactive effect; but when exposed to both stressors simultaneously, there was a synergistic reduction in larval survival and an increase in oxidative stress more than in either stressor treatment alone. Increased seawater temperatures made larvae more susceptible to a concurrent local stressor disrupting a key process of coral reef recovery and resilience. These results highlight the importance of understanding how interactive stressors of varying spatial scales can impact coral demographics.

  2. Visual stimuli recruit intrinsically generated cortical ensembles.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jae-eun Kang; Ayzenshtat, Inbal; Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yuste, Rafael

    2014-09-23

    The cortical microcircuit is built with recurrent excitatory connections, and it has long been suggested that the purpose of this design is to enable intrinsically driven reverberating activity. To understand the dynamics of neocortical intrinsic activity better, we performed two-photon calcium imaging of populations of neurons from the primary visual cortex of awake mice during visual stimulation and spontaneous activity. In both conditions, cortical activity is dominated by coactive groups of neurons, forming ensembles whose activation cannot be explained by the independent firing properties of their contributing neurons, considered in isolation. Moreover, individual neurons flexibly join multiple ensembles, vastly expanding the encoding potential of the circuit. Intriguingly, the same coactive ensembles can repeat spontaneously and in response to visual stimuli, indicating that stimulus-evoked responses arise from activating these intrinsic building blocks. Although the spatial properties of stimulus-driven and spontaneous ensembles are similar, spontaneous ensembles are active at random intervals, whereas visually evoked ensembles are time-locked to stimuli. We conclude that neuronal ensembles, built by the coactivation of flexible groups of neurons, are emergent functional units of cortical activity and propose that visual stimuli recruit intrinsically generated ensembles to represent visual attributes.

  3. Platelets in leucocyte recruitment and function.

    PubMed

    Rossaint, Jan; Zarbock, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Platelets have a longstanding recognition as an essential cellular component of the coagulation system. However, substantial research over the last decade has added another important aspect to platelet function in that they are also an integral part of the innate immune system. Complex organisms are facing a constant threat of infections by invading pathogens, and they have developed a sophisticated and elegant measure to combat this threat, namely the immune system. Leucocyte recruitment to sites of infections is an essential step at the forefront of the immune response. Platelets have been shown to be involved in several steps of this process and they are an integrated connecting element among haemostasis, host defence, and additional immunological functions (e.g. neutrophil extracellular traps formation). However, the immune system also requires a tight regulation, as an overshooting immune response carries the risk of harming the host itself. This review aims at highlighting the unique features and molecular mechanisms that allow for the interactions of platelets and leucocytes and the regulation of this process. Furthermore, this article identifies the functional relevance of these events for the immune response.

  4. Elevated Temperature and Allelopathy Impact Coral Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Ross, Cliff; Paul, Valerie J.

    2016-01-01

    As climate change continues to alter seawater temperature and chemistry on a global scale, coral reefs show multiple signs of degradation. One natural process that could facilitate the recovery of reef ecosystems is coral recruitment, which can be influenced by the benthic organisms in a local habitat. We experimentally tested both a global stressor (increased seawater temperature) and a local stressor (exposure to microcolin A, a natural product from a common marine benthic cyanobacterium) to determine how these stressors impacted coral larval sublethal stress, survival and settlement. Larvae of Porites astreoides had the same survival and settlement as the controls after exposure to increased temperature alone, but elevated temperature did cause oxidative stress. When exposed to natural concentrations of microcolin A, larval survival and settlement were significantly reduced. When larvae were exposed to these two stressors sequentially there was no interactive effect; but when exposed to both stressors simultaneously, there was a synergistic reduction in larval survival and an increase in oxidative stress more than in either stressor treatment alone. Increased seawater temperatures made larvae more susceptible to a concurrent local stressor disrupting a key process of coral reef recovery and resilience. These results highlight the importance of understanding how interactive stressors of varying spatial scales can impact coral demographics. PMID:27926916

  5. Diaphragm Motor Unit Recruitment in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Carlos B.; Seven, Yasin B.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that considerable force reserve exists for the diaphragm muscle (DIAm) to generate transdiaphragmatic pressures (Pdi) necessary to sustain ventilation. In rats, we measured Pdi and DIAm EMG activity during different ventilatory (eupnea and hypoxia (10% O2) – hypercapnia (5% CO2)) and non-ventilatory (airway occlusion and sneezing induced by intranasal capsaicin) behaviors. Compared to maximum Pdi (Pdimax - generated by bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation), the Pdi generated during eupnea (21±2%) and hypoxia-hypercapnia (28±4%) were significantly less (P<0.0001) than that generated during airway occlusion (63±4%) and sneezing (94±5%). The Pdi generated during spontaneous sighs was 62±5% of Pdimax. Relative DIAm EMG activity (root mean square [RMS] amplitude) paralleled the changes in Pdi during different ventilatory and non-ventilatory behaviors (r2=0.78; p<0.0001). These results support our hypothesis of a considerable force reserve for the DIAm to accomplish ventilatory behaviors. A model for DIAm motor unit recruitment predicted that ventilatory behaviors would require activation of only fatigue resistant units. PMID:20620243

  6. Navy recruits: fitness measuring, validation, and norming.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Damir; Males, Boris; Miletic, Djurdjica

    2006-08-01

    During the standard Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) used on Croatian Navy recruits (CNR), we found the standard APFT battery to be both excessively demanding and time-consuming. The aim of the present study was to validate alternate APFT tests (A-APFT) that would be appropriate for CNR. In the sample of 295 CNR (mean age, 23 +/- 2.6 years), we applied the standard APFT (2-minute sit-ups and push-ups, and 2-mile-run) and A-APFT (30-second sit-ups and push-ups, 1,500-meter run, and 2-minute squats). Using linear correlations and linear regression equations, we established validity of the A-APFT compared to the APFT. Thirty-second push-ups, but not 30-second sit-ups, can be considered as a valuable alternative to the same 2-minute test, while the 1500-meter run may be considered as a valid replacement of the 2-mile run. The modified standards for the A-APFT and some suggestions for the enhancement of the physical fitness training in CNR are presented.

  7. The PIN domain of EXO1 recognizes poly(ADP-ribose) in DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Shi, Jiazhong; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Bian, Chunjing; Yu, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    Following DNA double-strand breaks, poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is quickly and heavily synthesized to mediate fast and early recruitment of a number of DNA damage response factors to the sites of DNA lesions and facilitates DNA damage repair. Here, we found that EXO1, an exonuclease for DNA damage repair, is quickly recruited to the sites of DNA damage via PAR-binding. With further dissection of the functional domains of EXO1, we report that the PIN domain of EXO1 recognizes PAR both in vitro and in vivo and the interaction between the PIN domain and PAR is sufficient for the recruitment. We also found that the R93G variant of EXO1, generated by a single nucleotide polymorphism, abolishes the interaction and the early recruitment. Moreover, our study suggests that the PAR-mediated fast recruitment of EXO1 facilities early DNA end resection, the first step of homologous recombination repair. We observed that other PIN domains could also recognize DNA damage-induced PAR. Taken together, our study demonstrates a novel class of PAR-binding module that plays an important role in DNA damage response. PMID:26400172

  8. Noncatalytic, N-terminal Domains of DNA Polymerase Lambda Affect Its Cellular Localization and DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Anthony A; Taggart, David J; Suo, Zucai

    2017-04-13

    Specialized DNA polymerases, such as DNA polymerase lambda (Polλ), are important players in DNA damage tolerance and repair pathways. Knowing how DNA polymerases are regulated and recruited to sites of DNA damage is imperative to understanding these pathways. Recent work has suggested that Polλ plays a role in several distinct DNA damage tolerance and repair pathways. In this paper, we report previously unknown roles of the N-terminal domains of human Polλ for modulating its involvement in DNA damage tolerance and repair. By using Western blot analysis, fluorescence microscopy, and cell survival assays, we found that the BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) and proline/serine-rich (PSR) domains of Polλ affect its cellular localization and DNA damage responses. The nuclear localization signal (NLS) of Polλ was necessary to overcome the impediment of its nuclear localization caused by its BRCT and PSR domains. Induction of DNA damage resulted in recruitment of Polλ to chromatin, which was controlled by its BRCT and PSR domains. In addition, the presence of both domains was required for Polλ-mediated tolerance of oxidative DNA damage but not DNA methylation damage. These findings suggest that the N-terminal domains of Polλ are important for regulating its responses to DNA damage.

  9. Non-DNA-binding cofactors enhance DNA-binding specificity of a transcriptional regulatory complex

    PubMed Central

    Siggers, Trevor; Duyzend, Michael H; Reddy, Jessica; Khan, Sidra; Bulyk, Martha L

    2011-01-01

    Recruitment of cofactors to specific DNA sites is integral for specificity in gene regulation. As a model system, we examined how targeting and transcriptional control of the sulfur metabolism genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is governed by recruitment of the transcriptional co-activator Met4. We developed genome-scale approaches to measure transcription factor (TF) DNA-binding affinities and cofactor recruitment to >1300 genomic binding site sequences. We report that genes responding to the TF Cbf1 and cofactor Met28 contain a novel ‘recruitment motif' (RYAAT), adjacent to Cbf1 binding sites, which enhances the binding of a Met4–Met28–Cbf1 regulatory complex, and that abrogation of this motif significantly reduces gene induction under low-sulfur conditions. Furthermore, we show that correct recognition of this composite motif requires both non-DNA-binding cofactors Met4 and Met28. Finally, we demonstrate that the presence of an RYAAT motif next to a Cbf1 site, rather than Cbf1 binding affinity, specifies Cbf1-dependent sulfur metabolism genes. Our results highlight the need to examine TF/cofactor complexes, as novel specificity can result from cofactors that lack intrinsic DNA-binding specificity. PMID:22146299

  10. Coactivator Recruitment of AhR/ARNT1

    PubMed Central

    Endler, Alexander; Chen, Li; Shibasaki, Futoshi

    2014-01-01

    A common feature of nuclear receptors (NRs) is the transformation of external cell signals into specific transcriptions of the signal molecule. Signal molecules function as ligands for NRs and, after their uptake, activated NRs form homo- or heterodimers at promoter recognition sequences of the specific genes in the nucleus. Another common feature of NRs is their dependence on coactivators, which bridge the basic transcriptional machinery and other cofactors to the target genes, in order to initiate transcription and to unwind histone-bound DNA for exposing additional promoter recognition sites via their histone acetyltransferase (HAT) function. In this review, we focus on our recent findings related to the recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1/NCoA1) by the estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and by the arylhydrocarbon receptor/arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 1 (AhR/ARNT1) complex. We also describe the extension of our previously published findings regarding the binding between ARNT1.1 exon16 and SRC1e exon 21, via in silico analyses of androgen receptor (AR) NH2-carboxyl-terminal interactions, the results of which were verified by in vitro experiments. Based on these data, we suggest a newly derived tentative binding site of nuclear coactivator 2/glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein-1/transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (NCOA-2/ GRIP-1/TIF-2) for ARNT1.1 exon 16. Furthermore, results obtained by immunoprecipitation have revealed a second leucine-rich binding site for hARNT1.1 exon 16 in SRC1e exon 21 (LSSTDLL). Finally, we discuss the role of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as an endocrine disruptor for estrogen related transcription. PMID:24950180

  11. Role of non-coding RNA transcription around gene regulatory elements in transcription factor recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Kunihiro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eukaryotic cells produce a variety of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), many of which have been shown to play pivotal roles in biological processes such as differentiation, maintenance of pluripotency of stem cells, and cellular response to various stresses. Genome-wide analyses have revealed that many ncRNAs are transcribed around regulatory DNA elements located proximal or distal to gene promoters, but their biological functions are largely unknown. Recently, it has been demonstrated in yeast and mouse that ncRNA transcription around gene promoters and enhancers facilitates DNA binding of transcription factors to their target sites. These results suggest universal roles of promoter/enhancer-associated ncRNAs in the recruitment of transcription factors to their binding sites. PMID:27763805

  12. Viral interference with DNA repair by targeting of the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Pubali; DeJesus, Rowena; Gjoerup, Ole; Schaffhausen, Brian S

    2013-10-01

    Correct repair of damaged DNA is critical for genomic integrity. Deficiencies in DNA repair are linked with human cancer. Here we report a novel mechanism by which a virus manipulates DNA damage responses. Infection with murine polyomavirus sensitizes cells to DNA damage by UV and etoposide. Polyomavirus large T antigen (LT) alone is sufficient to sensitize cells 100 fold to UV and other kinds of DNA damage. This results in activated stress responses and apoptosis. Genetic analysis shows that LT sensitizes via the binding of its origin-binding domain (OBD) to the single-stranded DNA binding protein replication protein A (RPA). Overexpression of RPA protects cells expressing OBD from damage, and knockdown of RPA mimics the LT phenotype. LT prevents recruitment of RPA to nuclear foci after DNA damage. This leads to failure to recruit repair proteins such as Rad51 or Rad9, explaining why LT prevents repair of double strand DNA breaks by homologous recombination. A targeted intervention directed at RPA based on this viral mechanism could be useful in circumventing the resistance of cancer cells to therapy.

  13. The RNA Splicing Response to DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Chabot, Benoit

    2015-10-29

    The number of factors known to participate in the DNA damage response (DDR) has expanded considerably in recent years to include splicing and alternative splicing factors. While the binding of splicing proteins and ribonucleoprotein complexes to nascent transcripts prevents genomic instability by deterring the formation of RNA/DNA duplexes, splicing factors are also recruited to, or removed from, sites of DNA damage. The first steps of the DDR promote the post-translational modification of splicing factors to affect their localization and activity, while more downstream DDR events alter their expression. Although descriptions of molecular mechanisms remain limited, an emerging trend is that DNA damage disrupts the coupling of constitutive and alternative splicing with the transcription of genes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle control and apoptosis. A better understanding of how changes in splice site selection are integrated into the DDR may provide new avenues to combat cancer and delay aging.

  14. Nicotine recruits glutamate receptors to postsynaptic sites.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jing-Jing; Lozada, Adrian F; Gou, Chen-Yu; Xu, Jing; Chen, Yuan; Berg, Darwin K

    2015-09-01

    Cholinergic neurons project throughout the nervous system and activate nicotinic receptors to modulate synaptic function in ways that shape higher order brain function. The acute effects of nicotinic signaling on long-term synaptic plasticity have been well-characterized. Less well understood is how chronic exposure to low levels of nicotine, such as those encountered by habitual smokers, can alter neural connections to promote addiction and other lasting behavioral effects. We show here that chronic exposure of hippocampal neurons in culture to low levels of nicotine recruits AMPA and NMDA receptors to the cell surface and sequesters them at postsynaptic sites. The receptors include GluA2-containing AMPA receptors, which are responsible for most of the excitatory postsynaptic current mediated by AMPA receptors on the neurons, and include NMDA receptors containing GluN1 and GluN2B subunits. Moreover, we find that the nicotine treatment also increases expression of the presynaptic component synapsin 1 and arranges it in puncta juxtaposed to the additional AMPA and NMDA receptor puncta, suggestive of increases in synaptic contacts. Consistent with increased synaptic input, we find that the nicotine treatment leads to an increase in the excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by AMPA and NMDA receptors. Further, the increases skew the ratio of excitatory-to-inhibitory input that the cell receives, and this holds both for pyramidal neurons and inhibitory neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. The GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor redistribution at synapses is associated with a significant increase in GluN2B phosphorylation at Tyr1472, a site known to prevent GluN2B endocytosis. These results suggest that chronic exposure to low levels of nicotine not only alters functional connections but also is likely to change excitability levels across networks. Further, it may increase the propensity for synaptic plasticity, given the increase in synaptic NMDA receptors.

  15. Nicotine Recruits Glutamate Receptors to Postsynaptic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jing-jing; Lozada, Adrian F.; Gou, Chen-yu; Xu, Jing; Chen, Yuan; Berg, Darwin K.

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons project throughout the nervous system and activate nicotinic receptors to modulate synaptic function in ways that shape higher order brain function. The acute effects of nicotinic signaling on long-term synaptic plasticity have been well-characterized. Less well understood is how chronic exposure to low levels of nicotine, such as those encountered by habitual smokers, can alter neural connections to promote addiction and other lasting behavioral effects. We show here that chronic exposure of hippocampal neurons in culture to low levels of nicotine recruits AMPA and NMDA receptors to the cell surface and sequesters them at postsynaptic sites. The receptors include GluA2-containing AMPA receptors, which are responsible for most of the excitatory postsynaptic current mediated by AMPA receptors on the neurons, and include NMDA receptors containing GluN1 and GluN2B subunits. Moreover, we find that the nicotine treatment also increases expression of the presynaptic component synapsin 1 and arranges it in puncta juxtaposed to the additional AMPA and NMDA receptor puncta, suggestive of increases in synaptic contacts. Consistent with increased synaptic input, we find that the nicotine treatment leads to an increase in the excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by AMPA and NMDA receptors. Further, the increases skew the ratio of excitatory-to-inhibitory input the cell receives, and this holds both for pyramidal neurons and inhibitory neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. The GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor redistribution at synapses is associated with a significant increase in GluN2B phosphorylation at Tyr1472, a site known to prevent GluN2B endocytosis. These results suggest that chronic exposure to low levels of nicotine not only alters functional connections but also is likely to change excitability levels across networks. Further, it may increase the propensity for synaptic plasticity, given the increase in synaptic NMDA receptors. PMID:26365992

  16. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) machinery recruitment by the transcription-repair coupling factor involves unmasking of a conserved intramolecular interface

    PubMed Central

    Deaconescu, Alexandra M.; Sevostyanova, Anastasia; Artsimovitch, Irina; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    Transcription-coupled DNA repair targets DNA lesions that block progression of elongating RNA polymerases. In bacteria, the transcription-repair coupling factor (TRCF; also known as Mfd) SF2 ATPase recognizes RNA polymerase stalled at a site of DNA damage, removes the enzyme from the DNA, and recruits the Uvr(A)BC nucleotide excision repair machinery via UvrA binding. Previous studies of TRCF revealed a molecular architecture incompatible with UvrA binding, leaving its recruitment mechanism unclear. Here, we examine the UvrA recognition determinants of TRCF using X-ray crystallography of a core TRCF–UvrA complex and probe the conformational flexibility of TRCF in the absence and presence of nucleotides using small-angle X-ray scattering. We demonstrate that the C-terminal domain of TRCF is inhibitory for UvrA binding, but not RNA polymerase release, and show that nucleotide binding induces concerted multidomain motions. Our studies suggest that autoinhibition of UvrA binding in TRCF may be relieved only upon engaging the DNA damage. PMID:22331906

  17. Characterization of human translesion DNA synthesis across a UV-induced DNA lesion

    PubMed Central

    Hedglin, Mark; Pandey, Binod; Benkovic, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) during S-phase uses specialized TLS DNA polymerases to replicate a DNA lesion, allowing stringent DNA synthesis to resume beyond the offending damage. Human TLS involves the conjugation of ubiquitin to PCNA clamps encircling damaged DNA and the role of this post-translational modification is under scrutiny. A widely-accepted model purports that ubiquitinated PCNA recruits TLS polymerases such as pol η to sites of DNA damage where they may also displace a blocked replicative polymerase. We provide extensive quantitative evidence that the binding of pol η to PCNA and the ensuing TLS are both independent of PCNA ubiquitination. Rather, the unique properties of pols η and δ are attuned to promote an efficient and passive exchange of polymerases during TLS on the lagging strand. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19788.001 PMID:27770570

  18. Telomerase recruitment requires both TCAB1 and Cajal bodies independently.

    PubMed

    Stern, J Lewis; Zyner, Katherine G; Pickett, Hilda A; Cohen, Scott B; Bryan, Tracy M

    2012-07-01

    The ability of most cancer cells to grow indefinitely relies on the enzyme telomerase and its recruitment to telomeres. In human cells, recruitment depends on the Cajal body RNA chaperone TCAB1 binding to the RNA subunit of telomerase (hTR) and is also thought to rely on an N-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit, hTERT. We demonstrate that coilin, an essential structural component of Cajal bodies, is required for endogenous telomerase recruitment to telomeres but that overexpression of telomerase can compensate for Cajal body absence. In contrast, recruitment of telomerase was sensitive to levels of TCAB1, and this was not rescued by overexpression of telomerase. Thus, although Cajal bodies are important for recruitment, TCAB1 has an additional role in this process that is independent of these structures. TCAB1 itself localizes to telomeres in a telomerase-dependent but Cajal body-independent manner. We identify a point mutation in hTERT that largely abolishes recruitment yet does not affect association of telomerase with TCAB1, suggesting that this region mediates recruitment by an independent mechanism. Our results demonstrate that telomerase has multiple independent requirements for recruitment to telomeres and that the function of TCAB1 is to directly transport telomerase to telomeres.

  19. Differential Recruitment of Distinct Amygdalar Nuclei across Appetitive Associative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sindy; Powell, Daniel J.; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a…

  20. Recruiting Teachers, Principals, and Superintendents: A Job Choice Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Rose Mary; Witherspoon, Noelle

    2007-01-01

    Recruitment includes all organizational practices and decisions affecting the number and type of individuals willing to apply for and accept vacant positions (Rynes, 1991). Effective recruitment practices have the potential to improve the quality of educational experience for students, reduce the cost of personnel development, and decrease the…

  1. Recruitment and Retention of Latino Children in a Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Angelica; Richardson, Irma M.; Gesell, Sabina; Barkin, Shari L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe promising recruitment and retention strategies for transient Latino populations, assisting investigators who work with this population in their research design and implementation. Methods: Strategies in recruitment and retention from a year-long intervention in children and their families are described. Results: Of the 159…

  2. Recruiting Unmotivated Smokers into a Smoking Induction Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P.; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult…

  3. 48 CFR 31.205-34 - Recruitment costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment costs. 31.205... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-34 Recruitment costs. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this subsection, the following costs...

  4. 48 CFR 31.205-34 - Recruitment costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recruitment costs. 31.205... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-34 Recruitment costs. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this subsection, the following costs...

  5. An Analysis of the Incidence of Recruiter Irregularities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    provided data and answered our questions about the incidence of recruiter irregularities. The people are Ted Disney at the U.S. Army Recruiting...are more likely to ultimately be substantiated. The Army and the Navy, in contrast, have fairly expansive inter- nal reporting requirements that

  6. The Decision To Recruit Online: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanaki, Eleanna

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 34 of 99 United Kingdom information technology companies explored effects of cost effectiveness, response rate and quality, company image, targeting, time and effort, and overload. The effectiveness of online recruiting depends largely on its implementation and the quality of the recruitment process as a whole. (Contains 38…

  7. Coping by Copying? Higher Education Institutions' Student Recruitment Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolich, Nicoline; Brandt, Synnove; Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth; Aamodt, Per Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Growing national and international competition for students puts pressure on higher education institutions (HEIs) to develop marketing and student recruitment strategies; these are also driven by financial stress caused by performance-based funding mechanisms. In this paper we explore Norwegian HEIs' student recruitment strategies. What type of…

  8. Recruitment and Staff Development of Teachers: A Rural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthes, William A.; Carlson, Robert V.

    The paper summarizes recruitment and retention approaches designed to assist rural school administrators in securing/holding well-prepared/qualified teachers and presents findings from a 1985 study that examined teachers' perceptions of professional preparation. Outlined recruitment approaches include paying candidate's interview and moving…

  9. Army Recruiting Challenges in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-15

    on top of the normal daily challenges recruiters routinely face, it is time to revisit Army recruiting and make it more relevant in the 21st Century...prescription medication and other behavior altering drugs, such as Ritalin , makes Generation Yers the most medicated generation in history

  10. Understanding Student Recruitment in Mainland China: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, John A.; Wong, Isabella Y. S.

    2010-01-01

    While China continues to be perhaps the most important student recruitment region for many leading international universities, changes in this market, resulting in more regional mobility of students, are fast becoming apparent. This, the increasing penetration and efforts of the traditional recruiting institutions and the entry of new universities…

  11. The Recruitment Problem in Psychiatry: A Critical Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampfer, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The continuing shortfall in recruitment to Psychiatry is examined with suggestions for affirmative action. Recruitment may improve in the near future because of the high demand for psychiatrists, the incentives offered, greater competition for other specialties and a pool of international graduates willing to work in Psychiatry. There remains the…

  12. Importing Educators: Causes and Consequences of International Teacher Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report contains case studies of international recruiters who help school districts in the United States acquire work visas and hire noncitizens. Recruiters sometimes use fees charged to workers to pay for U.S. school officials' overseas trips, where they stay in luxury hotels and handpick teachers at job fairs. Not surprisingly, some school…

  13. In situ tissue regeneration: chemoattractants for endogenous stem cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Vanden Berg-Foels, Wendy S

    2014-02-01

    Tissue engineering uses cells, signaling molecules, and/or biomaterials to regenerate injured or diseased tissues. Ex vivo expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have long been a cornerstone of regeneration therapies; however, drawbacks that include altered signaling responses and reduced homing capacity have prompted investigation of regeneration based on endogenous MSC recruitment. Recent successful proof-of-concept studies have further motivated endogenous MSC recruitment-based approaches. Stem cell migration is required for morphogenesis and organogenesis during development and for tissue maintenance and injury repair in adults. A biomimetic approach to in situ tissue regeneration by endogenous MSC requires the orchestration of three main stages: MSC recruitment, MSC differentiation, and neotissue maturation. The first stage must result in recruitment of a sufficient number of MSC, capable of effecting regeneration, to the injured or diseased tissue. One of the challenges for engineering endogenous MSC recruitment is the selection of effective chemoattractant(s). The objective of this review is to synthesize and evaluate evidence of recruitment efficacy by reported chemoattractants, including growth factors, chemokines, and other more recently appreciated MSC chemoattractants. The influence of MSC tissue sources, cell culture methods, and the in vitro and in vivo environments is discussed. This growing body of knowledge will serve as a basis for the rational design of regenerative therapies based on endogenous MSC recruitment. Successful endogenous MSC recruitment is the first step of successful tissue regeneration.

  14. Assessing Cultural Change in the United States Army Recruiting Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-10

    of the uniformed control companies. This speaks well for contract recruiting, since this was accomplished despite the problems of high turnover and a...characterization may be. As COL Glenn Richey, a former USAREC battalion commander, explains, "Recruiters that are naturally extroverted tend adapt to the

  15. JTPA Recruitment Made (Much) Easier. Employment and Training Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jodie Sue

    Intended for Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) administrators and service deliverers, this publication provides those programs that are experiencing recruitment difficulties with new and innovative approaches to attracting eligible clients into their programs. It begins by listing the 10 most common recruitment marketing errors. Marketing is…

  16. The Admissions Strategist: Recruiting in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    Proven market/institutional research techniques and technological developments in computer systems that can be used by college admissions offices to enhance recruitment efforts are discussed in 13 articles. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: "Student Reactions to College Recruiting Techniques" (Arthur D. Lopatin);…

  17. A New Hire Looks at the Recruiter's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zider, Robert B.

    1971-01-01

    This article is a followup to one by M. C. Kidd, in this issue. The recruiter of technical personnel must be part psychologist, part engineer, and part accountant, keeping in mind the kind of investment each prospect represents. He must be specific, comprehensive, and more sales" oriented than the nontechnical recruiter. (Author/CJ)

  18. IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for the National Children's Study
    Danelle T Lobdell1, Suzanne Gilboa2, Pauline Mendola1 (1US EPA, NHEERL; 2UNC Chapel Hill)

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, co...

  19. The Recruiting Process: Turning a Fiasco into a Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Curtis

    1982-01-01

    Suggests an effective recruiting strategy--the nominating committee--based on the Boy Scouts of America. A nominating committee reduces recruiting fiascos, as when no one is willing to accept a position or those interested are not qualified. Offers guidelines for the committee's mode of operation. (WD)

  20. Hearts and Minds: Military Recruitment and the High School Battlefield

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, William

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, military recruitment has failed, with rare exceptions, to meet its quotas. The nations's high schools have thus become battlefields for the hearts and minds of young people as recruiters dangle gifts and promises of future benefits before teenagers in an effort to fill the ranks of an all-volunteer military. In this article, the…

  1. Librarian Recruitment Process at Home in the Wired Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbeitt, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the trend toward online recruitment for librarians and describes a survey of library employees who had posted jobs online. Topics include reasons for online job postings; where positions were advertised, including types of Web sites and print media; electronic communication and emailed resumes; and the future of online recruitment. (LRW)

  2. 20 CFR 655.154 - Additional positive recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recruitment within a multistate region of traditional or expected labor supply where the CO finds that there... to non-H-2A employers in the area. The CO will ensure that the effort, including the location(s) and... employer made to obtain foreign workers. (c) Nature of the additional positive recruitment. The CO...

  3. Recruiting Campaigns: How Advertising and Training Target the Millennial Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    RECRUITING CAMPAIGNS: HOW ADVERTISING AND TRAINING TARGET THE MILLENNIAL GENERATION A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S...cohorts: G.I., Silent, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y (referred to as Millennials throughout this paper) explains commonalities and...goals, traits, and desires of the Millennial Generation . USAREC correctly adapted its advertising campaigns and must focus recruiter training on

  4. Recruitment Practices Change, but Issues Remain the Same

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, Esther

    2012-01-01

    What the author found most surprising about Richard Haines' survey on 1974 recruitment practices was that the major issues are still relevant. His main points about recruitment, college and counselor interaction, and the need for better information still resonate as the profession consistently calls for clarity and transparency in the college…

  5. Targeted Recruitment of GLBT Students by Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cegler, Tyler D.

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment and admission practices of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) students by admission offices in higher education are examined as an emerging trend. Limited research on the targeted recruitment and hopeful admission and matriculation of the LGBT prospective student populations exists. Third-party GLBT organizations have…

  6. Recruitment/Selectors' Perceptions of Male and Female Trainee Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kniveton, Bromley H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate whether those involved with recruitment/selection (RS) react differently towards male and female trainee managers. Design/methodology/approach: Measures of the perceptions towards trainee managers were collected from 440 managers and professionals involved in recruitment/selection (RS). Findings: It…

  7. Recruitment and Retention of Faculty, "An Imperiled National Resource."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, George H.

    One of the working papers in the final report of the Arizona Board of Regents' (ABOR) Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and Competitiveness, this document discusses a survey on faculty recruitment and retention in Arizona's public universities. The importance of faculty, the projected nationwide shortage of faculty, and recruitment projections…

  8. The Student's Role in Recruiting: Methods and Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thomas M., Jr.; Fuller, C. Todd

    Students in the Southwest Baptist University's speech and debate program actively participate in recruiting and contribute to the small college's culture. While scholarship on peer recruitment is scarce, the literature suggests two foundational principles that can serve as guides: colleges and universities must be willing to develop personal…

  9. Strategies to engage clinical staff in subject recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Segre, Lisa S.; Buckwalter, Kathleen C.; Friedemann, Marie-Luise

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In many countries, meeting subject recruitment goals is challenging for researchers relying on clinical staff members (CSMs) to identify or recruit subjects. This paper describes research strategies that improved staff engagement in three different studies conducted in US clinical settings. Method The recruitment strategies described in this paper were identified during the process of consultation among three US researchers recruiting via CSMs. Strategies which successfully engaged CSMs are described. Results Our approach improved engagement with CSMs in three different US studies. Early engagement strategies included establishing trust, gathering input from CSMs, and using succinct training procedures as well as a study logo. Middle phase strategies included assigning recruitment, publishing a study newsletter, giving the CSMs compensation and appreciation for their participation, and expanding the subject pool. Completion strategies included closing with an appreciation meeting and adding merit letters to personnel files. Conclusion Recruitment of an adequate number of subjects is often challenging, even within clinical settings where subject populations are abundant. CSMs have rightly prioritised clinical care over directing subjects to research studies. It is therefore critical that researchers recruiting in such clinical settings anticipate recruitment challenges and plan to implement appropriate engagement strategies in all phases of research. PMID:21869904

  10. A University Approach to Improving STEM Teacher Recruitment and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Keith; Embry-Jenlink, Karen; Beverly, Lesa

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe successful STEM teacher recruiting and training practices developed through the Talented Teachers in Training for Texas (T4) program. They discuss implementing three distinctive recruiting experiences--a STEM Master Teacher Job Shadow, a STEM Day, and a NASA Aerospace Teachers Program--along with a multiyear scholarship and…

  11. Macomb Community College Recruitment Plan, 1987-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macomb County Community Coll., Warren, MI.

    Michigan's Macomb Community College's (MCC's) student recruitment plan outlines specific activities, timelines, and budgets to meet the institution's goals for college advancement and the instructional divisions' and service departments' goals and objectives for student recruitment. Section I offers a summary of MCC's market segmentation approach…

  12. Training New Admissions Recruiters: A Guide for Survival and Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Roger M.; Wilkinson, Christine Kajikawa

    This volume is a guide for new college admissions recruiters and their supervisors. Chapter 1 discusses office space and related policy and telephone and computer equipment use as well as other important practical information. Chapter 2 discusses the recruiter's duty to become completely informed about his/her institution in various categories.…

  13. Selection, Training, and Utilization of Navy Recruit Training Command Officers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Severe Weather Extremes of Heat and Cold Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Orientation The Heimlich Maneuver Common Recruit Injuries and Complaints...TOPIC 7. DIVISION OFFICER EMERGENCY PROCEDURES Severe Weather Extremes of Hot and Cold Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Orientation The Heimlich ... Maneuver Common Recruit Injuries/Complaints Medical Plan Fire Epidemic Incidents Which May Result in Extensive News Coverage Psychiatric Disorders Suicide

  14. Hiring and Recruitment Practices in Academic Libraries: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raschke, Gregory K.

    2003-01-01

    Academic libraries need to change their recruiting and hiring procedures to stay competitive in today's changing marketplace. To be more competitive and effective in their recruitment and hiring processes, academic libraries must foster manageable internal solutions, look to other professions for effective hiring techniques and models, and employ…

  15. Tools for Success in Recruiting and Retaining Hispanic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about strategies for success in recruiting and retaining Hispanic students. One strategy suggested by Raul Lorenzo, account director for Bauza & Associates, a Hispanic marketing agency that helps colleges and universities recruit and retain Hispanic students, is that institutions need to speak to the heart as well…

  16. Inhibition of coral recruitment by macroalgae and cyanobacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, I.B.; Walters, L.J.; Becerro, M.A.; Paul, V.J.; Ritson-Williams, R.; Beach, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    Coral recruitment is a key process in the maintenance and recovery of coral reef ecosystems. While intense competition between coral and algae is often assumed on reefs that have undergone phase shifts from coral to algal dominance, data examining the competitive interactions involved, particularly during the larval and immediate post-settlement stage, are scarce. Using a series of field and outdoor seawater table experiments, we tested the hypothesis that common species of macroalgae and cyanobacteria inhibit coral recruitment. We examined the effects of Lyngbya spp., Dictyota spp., Lobophora variegata (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley, and Chondrophycus poiteaui (J. V. Lamouroux) Nam (formerly Laurencia poiteaui) on the recruitment success of Porites astreoides larvae. All species but C. poiteaui caused either recruitment inhibition or avoidance behavior in P. astreoides larvae, while L. confervoides and D. menstrualis significantly increased mortality rates of P. astreoides recruits. We also tested the effect of some of these macrophytes on larvae of the gorgonian octocoral Briareum asbestinum. Exposure to Lyngbya majuscula reduced survival and recruitment in the octocoral larvae. Our results provide evidence that algae and cyanobacteria use tactics beyond space occupation to inhibit coral recruitment. On reefs experiencing phase shifts or temporary algal blooms, the restocking of adult coral populations may be slowed due to recruitment inhibition, thereby perpetuating reduced coral cover and limiting coral community recovery. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  17. Institutional and Managerial Factors Affecting International Student Recruitment Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Mitchell; Heaney, Joo-Gim; Cooper, Maxine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study is undertaken in which education marketing practitioners are interviewed regarding aspects of international…

  18. Structural basis for concerted recruitment and activation of IRF-3 by innate immune adaptor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baoyu; Shu, Chang; Gao, Xinsheng; Sankaran, Banumathi; Du, Fenglei; Shelton, Catherine L.; Herr, Andrew B.; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Li, Pingwei

    2016-01-01

    Type I IFNs are key cytokines mediating innate antiviral immunity. cGMP-AMP synthase, ritinoic acid-inducible protein 1 (RIG-I)–like receptors, and Toll-like receptors recognize microbial double-stranded (ds)DNA, dsRNA, and LPS to induce the expression of type I IFNs. These signaling pathways converge at the recruitment and activation of the transcription factor IRF-3 (IFN regulatory factor 3). The adaptor proteins STING (stimulator of IFN genes), MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), and TRIF (TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β) mediate the recruitment of IRF-3 through a conserved pLxIS motif. Here we show that the pLxIS motif of phosphorylated STING, MAVS, and TRIF binds to IRF-3 in a similar manner, whereas residues upstream of the motif confer specificity. The structure of the IRF-3 phosphomimetic mutant S386/396E bound to the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein reveals that the pLxIS motif also mediates IRF-3 dimerization and activation. Moreover, rotavirus NSP1 (nonstructural protein 1) employs a pLxIS motif to target IRF-3 for degradation, but phosphorylation of NSP1 is not required for its activity. These results suggest a concerted mechanism for the recruitment and activation of IRF-3 that can be subverted by viral proteins to evade innate immune responses. PMID:27302953

  19. DNA ligases.

    PubMed

    Tabor, S

    2001-05-01

    DNA ligases catalyze the formation of phosphodiester bonds between juxtaposed 5' phosphate and a 3'-hydroxyl terminus in duplex DNA. This activity can repair single-stranded nicks in duplex DNA and join duplex DNA restriction fragments having either blunt ends or homologous cohesive ends. Two ligases are used for nucleic acid research and their reaction conditions and applications are described in this unit: E. coli ligase and T4 ligase. These enzymes differ in two important properties. One is the source of energy: T4 ligase uses ATP, while E. coli ligase uses NAD. Another important difference is their ability to ligate blunt ends; under normal reaction conditions, only T4 DNA ligase will ligate blunt ends.

  20. Control approach development for variable recruitment artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Tyler E.; Chapman, Edward M.; Bryant, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This study characterizes hybrid control approaches for the variable recruitment of fluidic artificial muscles with double acting (antagonistic) actuation. Fluidic artificial muscle actuators have been explored by researchers due to their natural compliance, high force-to-weight ratio, and low cost of fabrication. Previous studies have attempted to improve system efficiency of the actuators through variable recruitment, i.e. using discrete changes in the number of active actuators. While current variable recruitment research utilizes manual valve switching, this paper details the current development of an online variable recruitment control scheme. By continuously controlling applied pressure and discretely controlling the number of active actuators, operation in the lowest possible recruitment state is ensured and working fluid consumption is minimized. Results provide insight into switching control scheme effects on working fluids, fabrication material choices, actuator modeling, and controller development decisions.

  1. Recruitment and Resilience of a Harvested Caribbean Octocoral

    PubMed Central

    Lasker, Howard R.

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance events are an important component of the ecology of coral reefs and increasingly frequent disturbances coupled with a lack of population resilience may contribute to changes in the structure of coral reef communities. The harvest of the Caribbean octocoral Antillogorgia elisabethae provides an opportunity to explore the relationship between adult abundance and recruitment and the manner in which recruitment contributes to the resilience of local populations. Recruitment of A. elisabethae was monitored in 20, 1-m2 quadrats at 8 sites along the southern edge of the Little Bahama Bank from 2004 through 2007. A. elisabethae has been harvested in The Bahamas for over fifteen years and all of the sites had been harvested three times, including a harvest during the course of the study. Abundances of adult colonies at those sites as well as a location that had not been harvested were also determined. Recruitment was highly variable, differing between sites, transects within sites, and, depending on the site, between years. Recruitment was best correlated with adult abundance averaged across the surrounding site. Regression analyses suggest abundance on smaller scales had only small effects on recruitment. The effects of the harvesting were site specific ranging from a 38 to 67% reduction in the density of mature colonies. The sites with the most abundant A. elisabethae continued to have the highest abundances after harvesting and there was no significant difference in recruitment before and after harvesting. Population size-structure at 6 of 8 sites that have been harvested multiple times exhibited an overall depletion in small colonies suggesting long term suppression of recruitment and declining populations. Severe depression of adult abundances coupled with local recruitment can create a negative feedback and lead to the decline of local populations. Populations that are dependent on self-recruitment are not resilient to large disturbance events. PMID

  2. UV-C irradiation delays mitotic progression by recruiting Mps1 to kinetochores.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojuan; Ling, Youguo; Wang, Wenjun; Zhang, Yanhong; Ma, Qingjun; Tan, Pingping; Song, Ting; Wei, Congwen; Li, Ping; Liu, Xuedong; Ma, Runlin Z; Zhong, Hui; Cao, Cheng; Xu, Quanbin

    2013-04-15

    The effect of UV irradiation on replicating cells during interphase has been studied extensively. However, how the mitotic cell responds to UV irradiation is less well defined. Herein, we found that UV-C irradiation (254 nm) increases recruitment of the spindle checkpoint proteins Mps1 and Mad2 to the kinetochore during metaphase, suggesting that the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is reactivated. In accordance with this, cells exposed to UV-C showed delayed mitotic progression, characterized by a prolonged chromosomal alignment during metaphase. UV-C irradiation also induced the DNA damage response and caused a significant accumulation of γ-H2AX on mitotic chromosomes. Unexpectedly, the mitotic delay upon UV-C irradiation is not due to the DNA damage response but to the relocation of Mps1 to the kinetochore. Further, we found that UV-C irradiation activates Aurora B kinase. Importantly, the kinase activity of Aurora B is indispensable for full recruitment of Mps1 to the kinetochore during both prometaphase and metaphase. Taking these findings together, we propose that UV irradiation delays mitotic progression by evoking the Aurora B-Mps1 signaling cascade, which exerts its role through promoting the association of Mps1 with the kinetochore in metaphase.

  3. RNA recognition motif 2 directs the recruitment of SF2/ASF to nuclear stress bodies

    PubMed Central

    Chiodi, Ilaria; Corioni, Margherita; Giordano, Manuela; Valgardsdottir, Rut; Ghigna, Claudia; Cobianchi, Fabio; Xu, Rui-Ming; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Heat shock induces the transcriptional activation of large heterochromatic regions of the human genome composed of arrays of satellite III DNA repeats. A number of RNA-processing factors, among them splicing factor SF2/ASF, associate with these transcription factors giving rise to nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). Here, we show that the recruitment of SF2/ASF to these structures is mediated by its second RNA recognition motif. Amino acid substitutions in the first α-helix of this domain, but not in the β-strand regions, abrogate the association with nSBs. The same mutations drastically affect the in vivo activity of SF2/ASF in the alternative splicing of adenoviral E1A transcripts. Sequence analysis identifies four putative high-affinity binding sites for SF2/ASF in the transcribed strand of the satellite III DNA. We have verified by gel mobility shift assays that the second RNA-binding domain of SF2/ASF binds at least one of these sites. Our analysis suggests that the recruitment of SF2/ASF to nSBs is mediated by a direct interaction with satellite III transcripts and points to the second RNA-binding domain of the protein as the major determinant of this interaction. PMID:15302913

  4. PARP1 promotes nucleotide excision repair through DDB2 stabilization and recruitment of ALC1

    PubMed Central

    Vrouwe, Mischa G.; Marteijn, Jurgen A.; Typas, Dimitris; Luijsterburg, Martijn S.; Cansoy, Medine; Hensbergen, Paul; Deelder, André; de Groot, Anton; Matsumoto, Syota; Sugasawa, Kaoru; Thoma, Nicolas; Vermeulen, Wim; Vrieling, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The WD40-repeat protein DDB2 is essential for efficient recognition and subsequent removal of ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA lesions by nucleotide excision repair (NER). However, how DDB2 promotes NER in chromatin is poorly understood. Here, we identify poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) as a novel DDB2-associated factor. We demonstrate that DDB2 facilitated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of UV-damaged chromatin through the activity of PARP1, resulting in the recruitment of the chromatin-remodeling enzyme ALC1. Depletion of ALC1 rendered cells sensitive to UV and impaired repair of UV-induced DNA lesions. Additionally, DDB2 itself was targeted by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, resulting in increased protein stability and a prolonged chromatin retention time. Our in vitro and in vivo data support a model in which poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of DDB2 suppresses DDB2 ubiquitylation and outline a molecular mechanism for PARP1-mediated regulation of NER through DDB2 stabilization and recruitment of the chromatin remodeler ALC1. PMID:23045548

  5. Improving actuation efficiency through variable recruitment hydraulic McKibben muscles: modeling, orderly recruitment control, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Meller, Michael; Chipka, Jordan; Volkov, Alexander; Bryant, Matthew; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2016-11-03

    Hydraulic control systems have become increasingly popular as the means of actuation for human-scale legged robots and assistive devices. One of the biggest limitations to these systems is their run time untethered from a power source. One way to increase endurance is by improving actuation efficiency. We investigate reducing servovalve throttling losses by using a selective recruitment artificial muscle bundle comprised of three motor units. Each motor unit is made up of a pair of hydraulic McKibben muscles connected to one servovalve. The pressure and recruitment state of the artificial muscle bundle can be adjusted to match the load in an efficient manner, much like the firing rate and total number of recruited motor units is adjusted in skeletal muscle. A volume-based effective initial braid angle is used in the model of each recruitment level. This semi-empirical model is utilized to predict the efficiency gains of the proposed variable recruitment actuation scheme versus a throttling-only approach. A real-time orderly recruitment controller with pressure-based thresholds is developed. This controller is used to experimentally validate the model-predicted efficiency gains of recruitment on a robot arm. The results show that utilizing variable recruitment allows for much higher efficiencies over a broader operating envelope.

  6. Patenting DNA.

    PubMed

    Bobrow, Martin; Thomas, Sandy

    2002-12-01

    The protection of inventions based on human DNA sequences has been achieved mainly through application of the patent system. Over the past decade, there has been continuing debate about whether this use of intellectual property rights is acceptable. Companies and universities have been active during this period in filing thousands of patent applications. Although many have argued that to claim a DNA sequence in a patent is to claim a discovery, patent law allows discoveries that are useful to be claimed as part of an invention. As the technology to isolate DNA sequences has advanced, the criterion for inventiveness, necessary for any invention to be eligible for filing, has become more difficult to justify in the case of claims to DNA sequences. Moreover, the discovery that a gene is associated with a particular disease is, it is argued, to discover a fact about the world and undeserving of the status of an invention. Careful examination of the grounds for allowing the patenting of DNA sequences as research tools suggests such rewards will rarely be justified. The patenting of DNA sequences as chemical intermediates necessary for the manufacture of therapeutic proteins is, however, reasonable given that the information within the sequence is applied to produce a tangible substance which has application as a medicine. Despite the legal, technical and political complexities of applying the flexibilities with the current law, it is argued that much could be achieved in the area of patenting DNA by raising the thresholds for patentability.

  7. Effects of hydrology on red mangrove recruits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    growth of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle (fig. 1). Red mangrove propagules (recruits) of select sizes and genotypes (i.e., genetically similar groups) were planted both in greenhouses and in the field. Seedling growth was monitored in both studies on a quarterly basis for over a year; measurements included shoot growth, seedling height, and a final harvest of plant biomass.

  8. A DNA-dependent stress response involving DNA-PK occurs in hypoxic cells and contributes to cellular adaptation to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, Fanny; Ousset, Marielle; Biard, Denis; Fallone, Frédérique; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Frit, Philippe; Salles, Bernard; Muller, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) signalling and repair. We report that DNA-PK is activated by mild hypoxia conditions (0.1-1% O₂) as shown by (1) its autophosphorylation on Ser2056, and (2) its mobilisation from a soluble nucleoplasmic compartment to a less extractable nuclear fraction. The recruitment of DNA-PK was not followed by activation and recruitment of the XRCC4-DNA-ligase-IV complex, suggesting that DSBs are not responsible for activation of DNA-PK. To unravel the mechanism of DNA-PK activation, we show that exposure of cells to trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, leads to DNA-PK autophosphorylation and relocalisation to DNA. Histone acetylation (mainly H3K14) is increased in hypoxic cells and treatment with anacardic acid, an inhibitor of histone acetyl transferase, prevented both histone modifications and DNA-PK activation in hypoxic conditions. Importantly, in using either silenced DNA-PK cells or cells exposed to a specific DNA-PK inhibitor (NU7026), we demonstrated that hypoxic DNA-PK activation positively regulates the key transcription factor HIF-1 and one subsequent target gene, GLUT1. Our results show that hypoxia initiates chromatin modification and consequently DNA-PK activation, which positively regulate cellular oxygen-sensing and oxygen-signalling pathways.

  9. Proteomics reveals dynamic assembly of repair complexes during bypass of DNA cross-links

    PubMed Central

    Räschle, Markus; Smeenk, Godelieve; Hansen, Rebecca K.; Temu, Tikira; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Hein, Marco Y.; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Long, David T.; Walter, Johannes C.; Hofmann, Kay; Storchova, Zuzana; Cox, Jürgen; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels; Mann, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) block replication fork progression by inhibiting DNA strand separation. Repair of ICLs requires sequential incisions, translesion DNA synthesis, and homologous recombination, but the full set of factors involved in these transactions remains unknown. We devised a technique called chromatin mass spectrometry (CHROMASS) to study protein recruitment dynamics during perturbed DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts. Using CHROMASS, we systematically monitored protein assembly and disassembly on ICL-containing chromatin. Among numerous prospective DNA repair factors, we identified SLF1 and SLF2, which form a complex with RAD18 and together define a pathway that suppresses genome instability by recruiting the SMC5/6 cohesion complex to DNA lesions. Our study provides a global analysis of an entire DNA repair pathway and reveals the mechanism of SMC5/6 relocalization to damaged DNA in vertebrate cells. PMID:25931565

  10. Recruiting participants to walking intervention studies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Most researchers who are conducting physical activity trials face difficulties in recruiting participants who are representative of the population or from specific population groups. Participants who are often the hardest to recruit are often those who stand to benefit most (the least active, from ethnic and other minority groups, from neighbourhoods with high levels of deprivation, or have poor health). The aim of our study was to conduct a systematic review of published literature of walking interventions, in order to identify the impact, characteristics, and differential effects of recruitment strategies among particular population groups. Methods We conducted standard searches for studies from four sources, (i) electronic literature databases and websites, (ii) grey literature from internet sources, (iii) contact with experts to identify additional "grey" and other literature, and (iv) snowballing from reference lists of retrieved articles. Included studies were randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after experimental or observational qualitative studies, examining the effects of an intervention to encourage people to walk independently or in a group setting, and detailing methods of recruitment. Results Forty seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the descriptions of recruitment in the studies was poor with little detail reported on who undertook recruitment, or how long was spent planning/preparing and implementing the recruitment phase. Recruitment was conducted at locations that either matched where the intervention was delivered, or where the potential participants were asked to attend for the screening and signing up process. We identified a lack of conceptual clarity about the recruitment process and no standard metric to evaluate the effectiveness of recruitment. Conclusion Recruitment concepts, methods, and reporting in walking intervention trials are poorly developed, adding to other limitations in the

  11. Rab3 reversibly recruits rabphilin to synaptic vesicles by a mechanism analogous to raf recruitment by ras.

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, B; Chou, J H; Li, C; Südhof, T C; Jahn, R

    1996-01-01

    GTP activates the interaction between the synaptic vesicle proteins rabphilin and rab3. This raises the question of whether rabphilin is a resident vesicle protein that recruits rab3 in a stage-dependent fashion, or if it is instead an effector protein recruited by rab3. We now show that rabphilin, like rab3, dissociates from synaptic vesicles after exocytosis in a manner requiring both Ca2+ and membrane fusion. Rabphilin interacts with GTP-rab3 via a N-terminal domain comprising a novel Zn2+(-)finger motif, and this interaction is essential for rabphilin binding to synaptic vesicles. Thus, in the same way that ras recruits raf to the plasma membrane, rab3 reversibly recruits rabphilin to synaptic vesicles in a stage-dependent manner. These results reveal an unexpected similarity between the molecular mechanisms by which small G protein function in recruiting effector proteins to membranes during membrane traffic and signal transduction. Images PMID:8617225

  12. Recruitment of SWI/SNF to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Angus; Holloway, Adele; Reeves, Raymond; Tremethick, David John

    2004-01-01

    Following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integration into the host cell's genome, the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) is packaged into a highly specific chromatin structure comprised of an array of nucleosomes positioned with respect to important DNA sequence elements that regulate the transcriptional activity of the provirus. While several host cell factors have been shown to be important for chromatin remodeling and/or basal transcription, no specific mechanism that relieves the transcriptional repression imposed by nuc-1, a positioned nucleosome that impedes the start site of transcription, has been found. Since phorbol esters cause the rapid disruption of nuc-1 and markedly stimulate HIV-1 transcription, we looked for protein factors that associate with this region of the HIV-1 promoter in a phorbol-ester-dependent manner. We report here that ATF-3, JunB, and BRG-1 (the ATPase subunit of the 2-MDa human chromatin remodeling machine SWI/SNF) are recruited to the 3' boundary of nuc-1 following phorbol myristate acetate stimulation in Jurkat T cells. Analysis of the recruitment of BRG-1 in nuclear extracts prepared from Jurkat T cells and reconstitution of an in vitro system with purified components demonstrate that ATF-3 is responsible for targeting human SWI/SNF (hSWI/SNF) to the HIV-1 promoter. Importantly, this recruitment of hSWI/SNF required HMGA1 proteins. Further support for this conclusion comes from immunoprecipitation experiments showing that BRG-1 and ATF-3 can exist together in the same complex. Although ATF-3 clearly plays a role in the specific targeting of BRG-1 to the HIV-1 promoter, the maintenance of a stable association between BRG-1 and chromatin appears to be dependent upon histone acetylation. By adding BRG-1 back into a BRG-1-deficient cell line (C33A cells), we demonstrate that trichostatin A strongly induces the 5'-LTR-driven reporter transcription in a manner that is dependent upon BRG-1 recruitment.

  13. Neutrophil recruitment to the brain in mouse and human ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Perez-de-Puig, Isabel; Miró-Mur, Francesc; Ferrer-Ferrer, Maura; Gelpi, Ellen; Pedragosa, Jordi; Justicia, Carles; Urra, Xabier; Chamorro, Angel; Planas, Anna M

    2015-02-01

    Neutrophils are rapidly recruited in response to local tissue infection or inflammation. Stroke triggers a strong inflammatory reaction but the relevance of neutrophils in the ischemic brain is not fully understood, particularly in the absence of reperfusion. We investigated brain neutrophil recruitment in two murine models of permanent ischemia induced by either cauterization of the distal portion of the middle cerebral artery (c-MCAo) or intraluminal MCA occlusion (il-MCAo), and three fatal cases of human ischemic stroke. Flow cytometry analyses revealed progressive neutrophil recruitment after c-MCAo, lesser neutrophil recruitment following il-MCAo, and absence of neutrophils after sham operation. Confocal microscopy identified neutrophils in the leptomeninges from 6 h after the occlusion, in the cortical basal lamina and cortical Virchow-Robin spaces from 15 h, and also in the cortical brain parenchyma at 24 h. Neutrophils showed signs of activation including histone-3 citrullination, chromatin decondensation, and extracellular projection of DNA and histones suggestive of extracellular trap formation. Perivascular neutrophils were identified within the entire cortical infarction following c-MCAo. After il-MCAo, neutrophils prevailed in the margins but not the center of the cortical infarct, and were intraluminal and less abundant in the striatum. The lack of collaterals to the striatum and a collapsed pial anastomotic network due to brain edema in large hemispheric infarctions could impair neutrophil trafficking in this model. Neutrophil extravasation at the leptomeninges was also detected in the human tissue. We concluded that neutrophils extravasate from the leptomeningeal vessels and can eventually reach the brain in experimental animal models and humans with prolonged arterial occlusion.

  14. Combining traits and density to model recruitment of sessile organisms.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Luis; Jenkins, Stuart R

    2013-01-01

    We propose an integrative approach that explains patterns of recruitment to adult populations in sessile organisms by considering the numbers of individuals and their body size. A recruitment model, based on a small number of parameters, was developed for sessile organisms and tested using the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides, a marine invertebrate inhabiting North Atlantic intertidal shores. Incorporating barnacle body size improved model fit beyond that based on density alone, showing that growth played an important role in how resource limitation affected survival. Our approach uncovered the following: First, changes in the shape of the recruitment curve resulted from the balance between individual growth and mortality. Second, recruitment was limited by the least plastic trait used to characterise body size, operculum area. Basal area, a trait that responded to increases in barnacle density, did not contribute significantly to explain patterns of recruitment. Third, some temporal variation is explained by changes in the amount of space occupied by shells of dead barnacles: at high cover barnacles are densely packed and these shells remain long after death. Fourth, seasonal variation and spatial variation in survival can be separated from that resulting from resource limitation; survival was predicted for two different shores and four sampling times using a single recruitment model. We conclude that applying this integrative approach to recruitment will lead to a considerable advance in understanding patterns of mortality of early stages of sessile organisms.

  15. Combining Traits and Density to Model Recruitment of Sessile Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Giménez, Luis; Jenkins, Stuart R.

    2013-01-01

    We propose an integrative approach that explains patterns of recruitment to adult populations in sessile organisms by considering the numbers of individuals and their body size. A recruitment model, based on a small number of parameters, was developed for sessile organisms and tested using the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides, a marine invertebrate inhabiting North Atlantic intertidal shores. Incorporating barnacle body size improved model fit beyond that based on density alone, showing that growth played an important role in how resource limitation affected survival. Our approach uncovered the following: First, changes in the shape of the recruitment curve resulted from the balance between individual growth and mortality. Second, recruitment was limited by the least plastic trait used to characterise body size, operculum area. Basal area, a trait that responded to increases in barnacle density, did not contribute significantly to explain patterns of recruitment. Third, some temporal variation is explained by changes in the amount of space occupied by shells of dead barnacles: at high cover barnacles are densely packed and these shells remain long after death. Fourth, seasonal variation and spatial variation in survival can be separated from that resulting from resource limitation; survival was predicted for two different shores and four sampling times using a single recruitment model. We conclude that applying this integrative approach to recruitment will lead to a considerable advance in understanding patterns of mortality of early stages of sessile organisms. PMID:23469247

  16. Dancing DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    An imaging technique that uses fluorescent dyes and allows scientists to track DNA as it moves through gels or in solution is described. The importance, opportunities, and implications of this technique are discussed. (KR)

  17. The Groucho Co-repressor Is Primarily Recruited to Local Target Sites in Active Chromatin to Attenuate Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Barbara H.

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression is regulated by the complex interaction between transcriptional activators and repressors, which function in part by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes to control accessibility of DNA to RNA polymerase. The evolutionarily conserved family of Groucho/Transducin-Like Enhancer of split (Gro/TLE) proteins act as co-repressors for numerous transcription factors. Gro/TLE proteins act in several key pathways during development (including Notch and Wnt signaling), and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human cancers. Gro/TLE proteins form oligomers and it has been proposed that their ability to exert long-range repression on target genes involves oligomerization over broad regions of chromatin. However, analysis of an endogenous gro mutation in Drosophila revealed that oligomerization of Gro is not always obligatory for repression in vivo. We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) to profile Gro recruitment in two Drosophila cell lines. We find that Gro predominantly binds at discrete peaks (<1 kilobase). We also demonstrate that blocking Gro oligomerization does not reduce peak width as would be expected if Gro oligomerization induced spreading along the chromatin from the site of recruitment. Gro recruitment is enriched in “active” chromatin containing developmentally regulated genes. However, Gro binding is associated with local regions containing hypoacetylated histones H3 and H4, which is indicative of chromatin that is not fully open for efficient transcription. We also find that peaks of Gro binding frequently overlap the transcription start sites of expressed genes that exhibit strong RNA polymerase pausing and that depletion of Gro leads to release of polymerase pausing and increased transcription at a bona fide target gene. Our results demonstrate that Gro is recruited to local sites by transcription factors to attenuate rather than silence gene expression by promoting histone deacetylation

  18. Enhancing marketing recruitment strategies: administrator tenure and nursing expenditures.

    PubMed

    Gunby, Norris White

    2005-01-01

    When recruiting nurses, long-term care facilities require an ability to identify salient organizational characteristics that are attractive to potential nursing services candidates vis-à-vis their competitors. The findings of this study suggest that information on administrative tenure can be utilized to attract applicants by appealing to criteria within their high-involvement job search activities. High-involvement applicants proactively seek recruitment content that provides essential job attributes that match their needs and skills and are more apt to be a higher quality candidate. Based upon the study's findings, managers are offered marketing strategy recommendations for tailoring recruiting messages that appeal to high-involvement job seekers.

  19. Challenges in internet study recruitment of African American cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bender, Melinda; Clark, Maresha; Guevara, Enrique; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2006-01-01

    Health care inequities continue to plague African Americans. For African American cancer patients these inequities include access to health care, availability of treatment modalities, support groups, and participation in nursing cancer research. A support group setting is better for recruitment than a clinical setting. Referrals to the researcher from individuals who personally know the African American cancer patients generated the best response rates. If the researcher has no previous connection with the potential participant, interest in the study may be generated but recruitment is minimal or absent. Ethnically sensitive recruitment of African American cancer patients is therefore essential to improving participatory responses in cancer nursing research.

  20. Analysis and Modeling of U.S. Army Recruiting Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    Analysis and Modeling of U.S. Army Recruiting Markets THESIS MARCH 2016 Joshua L. McDonald, Major, USA AFIT-ENC-MS-16-M-117 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...protection in the United States. AFIT-ENC-MS-16-M-117 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF U.S. ARMY RECRUITING MARKETS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department...MARCH 2016 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release. AFIT-ENC-MS-16-M-117 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF U.S. ARMY RECRUITING MARKETS THESIS

  1. Participation in cancer trials: recruitment of underserved populations.

    PubMed

    Paskett, Electra D; Katz, Mira L; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R; Tatum, Cathy M

    2003-10-01

    One approach to address cancer health disparities is to focus on the under-representation by minority populations in cancer trials. Recruitment strategies include: 1) characterizing the target populations, 2) involve members of the population in planning, 3) take the message to the population, 4) give something back to the community, 5) enhance credibility with a community spokesperson, 6) identify and remove barriers, 7) improve staff sensitivity, and 8) educate the population about the trial. To recruit minorities to clinical trials, we have developed the Accrual to Clinical Trials (ACT) framework for understanding and enhancing the recruitment of participants to cancer trials.

  2. DNA adductomics.

    PubMed

    Balbo, Silvia; Turesky, Robert J; Villalta, Peter W

    2014-03-17

    Systems toxicology is a broad-based approach to describe many of the toxicological features that occur within a living system under stress or subjected to exogenous or endogenous exposures. The ultimate goal is to capture an overview of all exposures and the ensuing biological responses of the body. The term exposome has been employed to refer to the totality of all exposures, and systems toxicology investigates how the exposome influences health effects and consequences of exposures over a lifetime. The tools to advance systems toxicology include high-throughput transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and adductomics, which is still in its infancy. A well-established methodology for the comprehensive measurement of DNA damage resulting from every day exposures is not fully developed. During the past several decades, the (32)P-postlabeling technique has been employed to screen the damage to DNA induced by multiple classes of genotoxicants; however, more robust, specific, and quantitative methods have been sought to identify and quantify DNA adducts. Although triple quadrupole and ion trap mass spectrometry, particularly when using multistage scanning (LC-MS(n)), have shown promise in the field of DNA adductomics, it is anticipated that high-resolution and accurate-mass LC-MS(n) instrumentation will play a major role in assessing global DNA damage. Targeted adductomics should also benefit greatly from improved triple quadrupole technology. Once the analytical MS methods are fully mature, DNA adductomics along with other -omics tools will contribute greatly to the field of systems toxicology.

  3. IRS proposes ruling on physician recruitment. How a hospital recruits physicians would affect its tax-exempt status.

    PubMed

    Griffith, G M

    1996-01-01

    On March 15, 1995, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) announced a proposed revenue ruling stating how certain physician recruitment practices could be implemented without threatening hospitals' tax-exemption. As proposed, the IRS ruling would provide flexibility for recruitment incentives rather than a list of strict physician recruitment guidelines. The proposed ruling is not legally binding until issued in final form, and there is no deadline for finalizing it. In the meantime, however, the standards outlined in the proposed ruling reflect arrangements the IRS likely would approve, which should be an incentive for tax-exempt hospitals to follow reasonable physician recruitment practices. Assuming a hospital complies with other legal requirements such as fraud and abuse laws, it must answer two key tax-exempt status questions for its recruitment or retention package: Will the incentives result in a disguised distribution of profits from the operation of the organization? Is the total incentive package reasonable under all the facts and circumstances, both in absolute total value for physician(s) recruited and in relation to services required by the hospital and the community? The proposed ruling also provides guidance on basic documentation requirements and a process for approving recruitment arrangements.

  4. Facebook targeted advertisement for research recruitment: A primer for nurse researchers.

    PubMed

    Carter-Harris, Lisa

    2016-11-01

    Recruiting participants for research studies can be challenging and costly. Innovative recruitment methods are needed. Facebook targeted advertisement offers a low-cost alternative to traditional methods that has been successfully used in research study recruitment. This primer offers nurse researchers a method utilizing social media as a recruitment tool and details Facebook targeted advertisement for research recruitment.

  5. What Is Mitochondrial DNA?

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  6. Community members as recruiters of human subjects: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Simon, Christian; Mosavel, Maghboeba

    2010-03-01

    Few studies have considered in detail the ethical issues surrounding research in which investigators ask community members to engage in research subject recruitment within their own communities. Peer-driven recruitment (PDR) and its variants are useful for accessing and including certain populations in research, but also have the potential to undermine the ethical and scientific integrity of community-based research. This paper examines the ethical implications of utilizing community members as recruiters of human subjects in the context of PDR, as well as the authors' experience with a variant of PDR in a research project in South Africa. The importance of situating PDR in a comprehensive community engagement process that is responsive to the constraints of science and local needs and interests is emphasized. The paper will have relevance to bioethicists, health researchers, and research regulators concerned about the appropriate use of peer-driven recruitment strategies in health research.

  7. Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

  8. US EPA Base Study Standard Operating Procedure for Building Recruiting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Building recruiting for the BASE study is defined by a random selection of buildings within cities of population exceeding 100,000 inhabitants and located in selected climatic regions of the United States.

  9. Successful Student Recruitment Using Direct Marketing and Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merante, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    Educational marketing--which uses marketing methods unique to education institutions, including segmentation, direct mail, and information technology--is discussed. A model for student recruitment developed by the University of Pittsburgh is described. (Author/MLW)

  10. Employment Recruitment and Advertising Survey with Analysis: Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, John; Olson, Ann V.

    1986-01-01

    Data resulting from a survey of institutional policies and practices for employee recruiting and interviewing and for job advertising are reported for public and private institutions with centralized and decentralized employment services. (MSE)

  11. Challenges of Internet Recruitment: A Case Study with Disappointing Results

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Harvey

    2005-01-01

    Background The Internet provides tremendous opportunities for innovative research, but few publications on the use of the Internet for recruiting study participants exist. This paper summarizes our experiences from 2 studies in which we attempted to recruit teenagers on the Internet for a questionnaire study to evaluate a smoking-cessation website. Objective To evaluate strategies of recruiting teenagers for the evaluation of a smoking-cessation website through the Internet. Methods In Study 1 (Defined Community Recruitment), we sent invitation emails to registered members of a youth health website, CyberIsle. A total of 3801 email addresses were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the first group, emails indicated that the first 30 respondents would receive a Can $20 electronic gift certificate for use at an online bookstore if they would go to the Smoking Zine website and respond to a short survey. For the second group, the email also indicated that respondents would receive an additional Can $10 gift certificate if they referred their friends to the study. Reminder emails were sent 10 days after the sending of the initial invitation email. In Study 2 (Open Recruitment), we posted invitation messages on Web discussion boards, Usenet forums, and one specialized recruitment website, and attempted a snowball recruiting strategy. When potential participants arrived at the study site, they were automatically randomized into either the higher incentives group (Can $15 electronic gift certificate) or lower incentive group (Can $5 gift certificate). Results In Study 1 (defined community recruitment), 2109 emails were successfully delivered. Only 5 subjects (0.24%), including 1 referred by a friend, passed the recruitment process and completed the questionnaire; a further 6 individuals visited the information page of the study but did not complete the study. In Study 2 (open recruitment), the number of users seeing the advertisement is unknown. A total of 35 users arrived

  12. 78 FR 1256 - Guam Military Base Realignment Contractor Recruitment Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Guam Military Base Realignment Contractor Recruitment Standards AGENCY... for Guam military base realignment projects funded through the National Defense Authorization Act... end of this Federal Register Notice). I. Guam Military Base Realignment Contractor...

  13. Racial athletic stereotype confirmation in college football recruiting.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Grant; Good, Jessica J; Gross, Alexi R

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested real-world racial stereotype use in the context of college athletic recruiting. Stereotype confirmation suggests that observers use stereotypes as hypotheses and interpret relevant evidence in a biased way that confirms their stereotypes. Shifting standards suggest that the evaluative standard to which we hold a target changes as a function of their group membership. We examined whether stereotype confirmation and shifting standards effects would be seen in college football coaches during recruiting. College football coaches evaluated a Black or White player on several attributes and made both zero- and non-zero-sum allocations. Results suggested that coaches used the evidence presented to develop biased subjective evaluations of the players based on race while still maintaining equivalent objective evaluations. Coaches also allocated greater overall resources to the Black recruit than the White recruit.

  14. Recruitment of Civil Engineering Students in Germany: Shortage or Overflow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothert, Heinrich

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the recruitment and demand for civil engineering students in Germany. Described is the German engineering education system and the possibility of a joint-venture building industry between the two German states. (KR)

  15. Characteristics of Midlife Women Recruited Through Internet Communities/Groups

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-ok

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics of a specific online population, midlife women recruited through Internet communities (ICs) or groups, and to provide future direction for Internet research among midlife women. Using a feminist perspective, the study focused on ethnic variations in the characteristics of the midlife women. A total of 192 midlife women were recruited through ICs. The Internet survey included questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health/illness status. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated that midlife women recruited through ICs tended to be Caucasian, young, married, and affluent. The findings also indicated significant ethnic differences in sociodemographic characteristics. The findings suggest that researchers need to consider that midlife women recruited from ICs tend to be a specific group of midlife women. PMID:18091620

  16. Fast and Flexible: Argentine Ants Recruit from Nearby Trails

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Tatiana P.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M.; Moses, Melanie E.; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources. PMID:23967129

  17. Recruiting, Training and Motivating Student Assistants in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Constantia

    1998-01-01

    Traces the history of student academic library employees and reviews the related literature on the changing role of library student assistants. Highlights include changes in libraries' organizational structures; and administrative issues concerning recruitment, interviewing, training, motivation, and employee retention. (LRW)

  18. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Tatiana P; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M; Moses, Melanie E; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  19. Predicting Coral Recruitment in Palau’s Complex Reef Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Golbuu, Yimnang; Wolanski, Eric; Idechong, Jacques Wasai; Victor, Steven; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Oldiais, Noelle Wenty; Idip, David; Richmond, Robert H.; van Woesik, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Reproduction and recruitment are key processes that replenish marine populations. Here we use the Palau archipelago, in the western Pacific Ocean, as a case study to examine scales of connectivity and to determine whether an oceanographic model, incorporating the complex reef architecture, is a useful predictor of coral recruitment. We tested the hypothesis that the reefs with the highest retention also had the highest densities of juvenile coral density from 80 field sites. Field comparisons showed a significant correlation between the densities of juvenile Acropora colonies and total larval recruitment derived from the model (i.e., calculated as the sum of the densities of larvae that self-seeded and recruited from the other reefs in the archipelago). Long-distance larval imports may be too infrequent to sustain coral populations, but are critical for recovery in times of extreme local stress. PMID:23209842

  20. Strategies for Increasing Recruitment to Randomised Controlled Trials: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Patrina H. Y.; Hamilton, Sana; Tan, Alvin; Craig, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recruitment of participants into randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is critical for successful trial conduct. Although there have been two previous systematic reviews on related topics, the results (which identified specific interventions) were inconclusive and not generalizable. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of recruitment strategies for participation in RCTs. Methods and Findings A systematic review, using the PRISMA guideline for reporting of systematic reviews, that compared methods of recruiting individual study participants into an actual or mock RCT were included. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and reference lists of relevant studies. From over 16,000 titles or abstracts reviewed, 396 papers were retrieved and 37 studies were included, in which 18,812 of at least 59,354 people approached agreed to participate in a clinical RCT. Recruitment strategies were broadly divided into four groups: novel trial designs (eight studies), recruiter differences (eight studies), incentives (two studies), and provision of trial information (19 studies). Strategies that increased people's awareness of the health problem being studied (e.g., an interactive computer program [relative risk (RR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–2.18], attendance at an education session [RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28], addition of a health questionnaire [RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.14–1.66]), or a video about the health condition (RR 1.75, 95% CI 1.11–2.74), and also monetary incentives (RR1.39, 95% CI 1.13–1.64 to RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.28–1.84) improved recruitment. Increasing patients' understanding of the trial process, recruiter differences, and various methods of randomisation and consent design did not show a difference in recruitment. Consent rates were also higher for nonblinded trial design, but differential loss to follow up between groups may jeopardise the study findings. The study's main limitation was the necessity of

  1. PARP activation regulates the RNA-binding protein NONO in the DNA damage response to DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Krietsch, Jana; Caron, Marie-Christine; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Ethier, Chantal; Vignard, Julien; Vincent, Michel; Rouleau, Michèle; Hendzel, Michael J; Poirier, Guy G; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2012-11-01

    After the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is one of the first proteins to be recruited and activated through its binding to the free DNA ends. Upon activation, PARP-1 uses NAD+ to generate large amounts of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which facilitates the recruitment of DNA repair factors. Here, we identify the RNA-binding protein NONO, a partner protein of SFPQ, as a novel PAR-binding protein. The protein motif being primarily responsible for PAR-binding is the RNA recognition motif 1 (RRM1), which is also crucial for RNA-binding, highlighting a competition between RNA and PAR as they share the same binding site. Strikingly, the in vivo recruitment of NONO to DNA damage sites completely depends on PAR, generated by activated PARP-1. Furthermore, we show that upon PAR-dependent recruitment, NONO stimulates nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and represses homologous recombination (HR) in vivo. Our results therefore place NONO after PARP activation in the context of DNA DSB repair pathway decision. Understanding the mechanism of action of proteins that act in the same pathway as PARP-1 is crucial to shed more light onto the effect of interference on PAR-mediated pathways with PARP inhibitors, which have already reached phase III clinical trials but are until date poorly understood.

  2. Recruiting Participants and Determining Eligibility | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Each Screening Center was responsible for establishing its own procedures for identifying and recruiting participants into the trial based on guidelines disseminated by the Coordinating Center and developed by NCI. Each Screening Center was also encouraged to develop and use other materials, such as introductory letters and answers to FAQs, to assist with recruitments. Once potential participants had been identified, the Screening Center collected information about them to determine their eligibility for the trial. |

  3. Army Recruiting: 1990 and Beyond With a Hispanic Vignette

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    USA Army recruiting in the future will focus on a quality force that can easily learn improved technological skills. Competition for that quality force...measured. Good training and proper leadership in a team concept can improve those not fitting the mold of "quality" recruits. The rise of the Hispanic... learn high-tech skills, demonstrate leadership and can quickly adapt to the demands of the modern battlefield. But it also saves the nation its

  4. Recruiting Strategies to Support the Armys All-Volunteer Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Recruiting Strategies to Support the Army’s All-Volunteer Force requirements to achieve enlisted market expansion. When the Army implemented ARMS at...Bruce R. Orvis, Steven Garber, Philip Hall-Partyka, Christopher E. Maerzluft, Tiffany Tsai Recruiting Strategies to Support the Army’s All...feasible (the baseline strategy ) or when an incentive-centric strategy —which favors incentives over other resources due to the faster rate of increasing

  5. Sexual Recruitment in Zostera marina: Progress toward a Predictive Model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ecophysiological stress and physical disturbance are capable of structuring meadows through a combination of direct biomass removal and recruitment limitation; however, predicting these effects at landscape scales has rarely been successful. To model environmental influence on sexual recruitment in perennial Zostera marina, we selected a sub-tidal, light-replete study site with seasonal extremes in temperature and wave energy. During an 8-year observation period, areal coverage increased from 4.8 to 42.7%. Gains were stepwise in pattern, attributable to annual recruitment of patches followed by centrifugal growth and coalescence. Recruitment varied from 13 to 4,894 patches per year. Using a multiple linear regression approach, we examined the association between patch appearance and relative wave energy, atmospheric condition and water temperature. Two models were developed, one appropriate for the dispersal of naked seeds, and another for rafted flowers. Results indicated that both modes of sexual recruitment varied as functions of wind, temperature, rainfall and wave energy, with a regime shift in wind-wave energy corresponding to periods of rapid colonization within our site. Temporal correlations between sexual recruitment and time-lagged climatic summaries highlighted floral induction, seed bank and small patch development as periods of vulnerability. Given global losses in seagrass coverage, regions of recovery and re-colonization will become increasingly important. Lacking landscape-scale process models for seagrass recruitment, temporally explicit statistical approaches presented here could be used to forecast colonization trajectories and to provide managers with real-time estimates of future meadow performance; i.e., when to expect a good year in terms of seagrass expansion. To facilitate use as forecasting tools, we did not use statistical composites or normalized variables as our predictors. This study, therefore, represents a first step toward linking

  6. The Optimal Location of Coast Guard Recruiting Offices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    scope of this study, a ’quality’ recruit will be defired in terms of two measures; mental aptitude and level of education . 10 The first aeasure, mental...important relative to ]uality is the level of education . In a recent study by the Center for Naval Analysis [Ref. 4], i. was concluded that: * Finally...mining a ’quality’ recruit, substantial research has indi- cated that mental category and level of education attainment are valid predictors cf future

  7. Recruitment of coastal fishes and oceanographic variability in central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. R.; Broitman, B. R.; Caselle, J. E.; Wendt, D. E.

    2008-09-01

    Recruitment of pelagic larval fishes to the nearshore environment is dependent on a suite of biological and physical processes operating at many spatial and temporal scales. Nearshore circulation processes associated with coastal upwelling are widely upheld as major determinants of year class strength for many rockfishes ( Sebastes spp.), but the mechanism by which these processes drive recruitment is largely unknown. We used Standard Monitoring Units for the Recruitment of Fishes (SMURFs) to monitor recruitment of two rockfish complexes ( Sebastes spp.) and cabezon ( Scorpaenichthys marmoratus) from March to September of 2004 and 2005 at 3 sites along the central California coast. We examined the relationship between recruitment of these fishes and measurements of oceanographic variability associated with upwelling dynamics, including in situ water temperature, AVHRR sea surface temperature, the Bakun upwelling index, and an index of alongshore surface water transport. We found that rockfish comprising the KCGB complex ( Sebastes atrovirens, Sebastes caurinus, Sebastes carnatus, Sebastes chrysomelas) recruit during early summer, while fishes of the BYO complex ( Sebastes melanops, Sebastes flavidus, Sebastes serranoides), as well as cabezon recruit during late summer. Our results provide limited support for an association between the arrival of juvenile pelagic rockfish and cabezon to the nearshore environment and physical processes related to upwelling and relaxation. Beyond the limitations of our bimonthly sampling scheme, the lack of a clear pattern may be related to the near absence of upwelling-relaxation cycles along this stretch of coast during these two study periods. Moreover, the settlement and recruitment of nearshore fishes may be closely tied to processes occurring earlier in the larval stage.

  8. Viet Cong Recruitment: Why and How Men Join

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-12-01

    political reliability, limits on the age and sex of recruits, the exclusion of youths supporting families, and attempts to station men near their homes...hamlets. Le Van Manh , a squad leader, was armed with a NAT-49 submachine gun and the other boys were armed with a carbine and four MAT-36 rifles. They...FACTOR IN RECRUITMENT Although the Viet Cong generally adheres to a strict code of conduct in macters of sex , it does, to the extent compatible with

  9. Challenges in recruitment and retention of clinical trial subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Rashmi Ashish; Borde, Sanghratna Umakant; Madas, Sapna Amol; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Limaye, Sneha Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Successful recruitment of patients is known to be one of the most challenging aspects in conduct of randomized controlled trials. Inadequate patient retention during conduct of trial affects conclusive results. Objective: To assess the level of challenges faced by Indian investigators in recruitment and retention of trial subjects. Methods: We developed a survey questionnaire on challenges encountered by investigators in subject recruitment and retention which was hosted on a web portal. Results: Seventy-three investigators from India participated in the survey. The frequently encountered challenges in subject recruitment were complexity of study protocol (38%), lack of awareness about clinical trials in patients (37%), and sociocultural issues related to trial participation (37%). About 63% of participants strongly agreed that creating a positive awareness about clinical trials among people through press and media, having a dedicated clinical research coordinator for trial (50.7%), and designing a recruitment strategy prior to study initiation (46.6%) would enhance recruitment. Almost 50.7% of participants agreed that interacting with medical community in vicinity of the study site and educating patients about clinical trials during routine outpatient department visits (46.6%) would enhance recruitment. Experiencing a serious adverse event, subject's fear for study procedures (47%) and side effects (44%) were thought to have a moderate effect on subject retention. Conclusion: Our survey has put forth factors related to negative publicity by media, lack of patient education about clinical trials; complex study designs are barriers to clinical trial recruitment in India. It is essential to devise innovative and effective strategies focusing on education of public and mass media about clinical research in India. PMID:27453831

  10. Acculturation, Biculturalism and Familism among Hispanic and Mainstream Navy Recruits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    socioeconomic level Mainstream recruits to be less familistic. Thus familism is a traditional Hispanic cultural attribute, unrelated to social class, while...into Navy jobs, as part of a larger study of their perceptions of the social environment. In each of the three Navy recruit stations (Florida, California...birthplace, citizenship of close relatives) and in Ideal- Social Acculturation (would like to have only Anglo co-workers and own children to attend

  11. Sexual Recruitment in Zostera marina: Progress toward a Predictive Model.

    PubMed

    Furman, Bradley T; Peterson, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    Ecophysiological stress and physical disturbance are capable of structuring meadows through a combination of direct biomass removal and recruitment limitation; however, predicting these effects at landscape scales has rarely been successful. To model environmental influence on sexual recruitment in perennial Zostera marina, we selected a sub-tidal, light-replete study site with seasonal extremes in temperature and wave energy. During an 8-year observation period, areal coverage increased from 4.8 to 42.7%. Gains were stepwise in pattern, attributable to annual recruitment of patches followed by centrifugal growth and coalescence. Recruitment varied from 13 to 4,894 patches per year. Using a multiple linear regression approach, we examined the association between patch appearance and relative wave energy, atmospheric condition and water temperature. Two models were developed, one appropriate for the dispersal of naked seeds, and another for rafted flowers. Results indicated that both modes of sexual recruitment varied as functions of wind, temperature, rainfall and wave energy, with a regime shift in wind-wave energy corresponding to periods of rapid colonization within our site. Temporal correlations between sexual recruitment and time-lagged climatic summaries highlighted floral induction, seed bank and small patch development as periods of vulnerability. Given global losses in seagrass coverage, regions of recovery and re-colonization will become increasingly important. Lacking landscape-scale process models for seagrass recruitment, temporally explicit statistical approaches presented here could be used to forecast colonization trajectories and to provide managers with real-time estimates of future meadow performance; i.e., when to expect a good year in terms of seagrass expansion. To facilitate use as forecasting tools, we did not use statistical composites or normalized variables as our predictors. This study, therefore, represents a first step toward linking

  12. E2F-7 couples DNA damage-dependent transcription with the DNA repair process.

    PubMed

    Zalmas, Lykourgos-Panagiotis; Coutts, Amanda S; Helleday, Thomas; La Thangue, Nicholas B

    2013-09-15

    The cellular response to DNA damage, mediated by the DNA repair process, is essential in maintaining the integrity and stability of the genome. E2F-7 is an atypical member of the E2F family with a role in negatively regulating transcription and cell cycle progression under DNA damage. Surprisingly, we found that E2F-7 makes a transcription-independent contribution to the DNA repair process, which involves E2F-7 locating to and binding damaged DNA. Further, E2F-7 recruits CtBP and HDAC to the damaged DNA, altering the local chromatin environment of the DNA lesion. Importantly, the E2F-7 gene is a target for somatic mutation in human cancer and tumor-derived mutant alleles encode proteins with compromised transcription and DNA repair properties. Our results establish that E2F-7 participates in 2 closely linked processes, allowing it to directly couple the expression of genes involved in the DNA damage response with the DNA repair machinery, which has relevance in human malignancy.

  13. T7 replisome directly overcomes DNA damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Pandey, Manjula; Inman, James T.; Yang, Yi; Kashlev, Mikhail; Patel, Smita S.; Wang, Michelle D.

    2015-12-01

    Cells and viruses possess several known `restart' pathways to overcome lesions during DNA replication. However, these `bypass' pathways leave a gap in replicated DNA or require recruitment of accessory proteins, resulting in significant delays to fork movement or even cell division arrest. Using single-molecule and ensemble methods, we demonstrate that the bacteriophage T7 replisome is able to directly replicate through a leading-strand cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) lesion. We show that when a replisome encounters the lesion, a substantial fraction of DNA polymerase (DNAP) and helicase stay together at the lesion, the replisome does not dissociate and the helicase does not move forward on its own. The DNAP is able to directly replicate through the lesion by working in conjunction with helicase through specific helicase-DNAP interactions. These observations suggest that the T7 replisome is fundamentally permissive of DNA lesions via pathways that do not require fork adjustment or replisome reassembly.

  14. Surviving the breakup: the DNA damage checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jacob C; Haber, James E

    2006-01-01

    In response to even a single chromosomal double-strand DNA break, cells enact the DNA damage checkpoint. This checkpoint triggers cell cycle arrest, providing time for the cell to repair damaged chromosomes before entering mitosis. This mechanism helps prevent the segregation of damaged or mutated chromosomes and thus promotes genomic stability. Recent work has elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying several critical steps in checkpoint activation, notably the recruitment of the upstream checkpoint kinases of the ATM and ATR families to different damaged DNA structures and the molecular events through which these kinases activate their effectors. Chromatin modification has emerged as one important component of checkpoint activation and maintenance. Following DNA repair, the checkpoint pathway is inactivated in a process termed recovery. A related but genetically distinct process, adaptation, controls cell cycle re-entry in the face of unrepairable damage.

  15. Emerita analoga recruit populations and correlations with sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettway, J.; Quan, H.; Juarez, F.; Vicencio, M.; Ng, N.; Careers in Science Intern Program

    2010-12-01

    The Careers in Science program at the California Academy of Sciences is a science internship for students from groups traditionally under-represented in the sciences. Starting in 2003, interns have participated in the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association's LiMPETS Sandy Beach Monitoring program, assessing populations of Emerita analoga, the Pacific mole crab. E. analoga, an inhabitant of intertidal swash zones along the coast from Alaska to Baja California, is an important species in the sandy beach intertidal food web. Weekly, during the months of June, July and August, a group of interns go to stairwell 18 of San Francisco’s Ocean Beach in Golden Gate National Recreational Area to systematically collect live E. analoga samples and data. Along a 50 meter sampling area, five transects with ten samples in the swash zone are taken and recorded. Collected E. analoga are sexed (male, female, female w/eggs, and recruit) and measured for carapace size. Newly settled E. analoga (recruit) populations have declined in recent years. However, beginning in 2009, recruit populations began to increase in number, particularly in 2010. Our group hypothesized that this increase in recruitment is correlated with increased sea surface temperature. It has been reported that some planktonic animals become more abundant in warmer waters after a major temperature shift. After examining the data, we did not find a correlation between sea surface temperature and recruit populations, leading us to further questions on the cause of this increase in E. analoga recruits.

  16. Strategies for Successful Recruitment of Pregnant Patients Into Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Cain, Loren E; Vallo, Porsha M; Redman, Leanne M

    2017-03-01

    Clinical research in the pregnant population allows for delivery of quality, evidence-based care in obstetrics. However, in recent years, the field of obstetrics has faced severe challenges in the recruitment of the pregnant population into clinical trials, a struggle also shared by several other medical disciplines. We candidly describe our failure to recruit a healthy population of overweight and obese pregnant women in their first trimester. We were then able to glean unsuccessful and successful recruitment approaches and improve our recruitment effort by autopsy of failed strategies and with guidance from a survey disseminated to improve our understanding of community feelings about participating in research while pregnant. These "lessons learned" taught us that active recruitment within this population is a necessity; that is, direct (face-to-face discussions at obstetric appointments) compared with indirect (flyers and general emails) modalities and that prenatal care provider support of the proposed research study is vital to a patient's willingness to participate. By implementation of "lessons learned," we describe how we successfully recruited a similar pregnant population 1 year later. The Clinical Trials related to our article are as follows: 1) Expecting Success: NCT01610752, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01610752; 2) MomEE: NCT01954342, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01954342; and 3) Participate While Pregnant Survey: NCT02699632, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02699632.

  17. Arrested recovery of Diadema antillarum population: Survival or recruitment limitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Barreras, Ruber; Pérez, María E.; Mercado-Molina, Alex E.; Sabat, Alberto M.

    2015-09-01

    Densities of the long-spined sea urchin Diadema antillarum remain significantly below pre mass-mortality levels at most Caribbean localities. The arrested recovery of this formerly abundant herbivore has been attributed to low supply of recruits and high post settlement mortality. There is, however, some debate as to which of these factors is determinant of the local dynamics of this echinoid. In this study, we use demographic modeling to analyze the contribution of recruitment and post settlement survival on the dynamics of D. antillarum in four localities of Puerto Rico Archipelago. Our results indicate relatively high adult survival, and low stasis but high growth transition in the small individuals. Recruitment rates were low and exhibited high spatial and temporal variability. The four populations exhibited asymptotic growth rates (λ) below 1.0, with λ varying from 0.918 to 0.964. The elasticity analysis showed that the survival of large-sized Diadema can potentially contribute most to the changes in λ for all sites. Numerical projections of the populations indicate that no site would exhibit an increase in density under current recruitment rates, but doubling recruitment would produce an increase in sea urchin density in three of the four sites. Recovery of D. antillarum populations would require the spatial and temporal co-occurrence of high recruitment and survival rates.

  18. Recruitment strategies in two Reproductive Medicine Network infertility trials

    PubMed Central

    Usadi, Rebecca S.; Diamond, Michael P.; Legro, Richard S.; Schlaff, William D.; Hansen, Karl R.; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory; Bates, G. Wright; Baker, Valerie; Seungdamrong, Aimee; Rosen, Mitchell P.; Lucidi, Scott; Thomas, Tracey; Huang, Hao; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping; Alvero, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment of individuals into clinical trials is a critical step in completing studies. Reports examining the effectiveness of different recruitment strategies, and specifically in infertile couples, are limited. Methods We investigated recruitment methods used in two NIH sponsored trials, Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PPCOS II) and Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS), and examined which strategies yielded the greatest number of participants completing the trials. Results 3683 couples were eligible for screening. 1650 participants were randomized and 1339 completed the trials. 750 women were randomized in PPCOS II; 212 of the participants who completed the trial were referred by physicians. Participants recruited from radio ads (84/750) and the internet (81/750) resulted in similar rates of trial completion in PPCOS II. 900 participants were randomized in AMIGOS. 440 participants who completed the trial were referred to the study by physicians. The next most successful method in AMIGOS was use of the internet, achieving 78 completed participants. Radio ads proved the most successful strategy in both trials for participants who earned <$50,000 annually. Radio ads were most successful in enrolling white patients in PPCOS II and black patients in AMIGOS. Seven ancillary Clinical Research Scientist Training (CREST) sites enrolled 324 of the participants who completed the trials. Conclusions Physician referral was the most successful recruitment strategy. Radio ads and the internet were the next most successful strategies, particularly for women of limited income. Ancillary clinical sites were important for overall recruitment. PMID:26386293

  19. Financial Recruitment Incentive Programs for Nursing Personnel in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Maria; Ryan, Dana

    2015-03-01

    Financial incentives are increasingly offered to recruit nursing personnel to work in underserved communities. The authors describe and compare the characteristics of federal, provincial and territorial financial recruitment incentive programs for registered nurses (RNs), nurse practitioners (NPs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), registered practical nurses or registered psychiatric nurses. The authors identified incentive programs from government, health ministry and student aid websites and by contacting program officials. Only government-funded recruitment programs providing funding beyond the normal employee wages and benefits and requiring a service commitment were included. The authors excluded programs offered by hospitals, regional or private firms, and programs that rewarded retention. All provinces and territories except QC and NB offer financial recruitment incentive programs for RNs; six provinces (BC, AB, SK, ON, QC and NL) offer programs for NPs, and NL offers a program for LPNs. Programs include student loan forgiveness, tuition forgiveness, education bursaries, signing bonuses and relocation expenses. Programs target trainees, recent graduates and new hires. Funding and service requirements vary by program, and service requirements are not always commensurate with funding levels. This snapshot of government-funded recruitment incentives provides program managers with data to compare and improve nursing workforce recruitment initiatives.

  20. Habituation and extinction of fear recruit overlapping forebrain structures.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Teri M; Richardson, Rick; McNally, Gavan P

    2016-02-01

    Establishing the neurocircuitry involved in inhibiting fear is important for understanding and treating anxiety disorders. To date, extinction procedures have been predominately used to examine the inhibition of learned fear, where fear is reduced to a conditioned stimulus (CS) by presenting it in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). However, learned fear can also be reduced by habituation procedures where the US is presented in the absence of the CS. Here we used expression of the activity marker c-Fos in rats to compare the recruitment of several forebrain structures following fear habituation and extinction. Following fear conditioning where a tone CS was paired with a loud noise US, fear was then reduced the following day by either presentation of the CS or US alone (i.e. CS extinction or US habituation, respectively). This extinction and habituation training recruited several common structures, including infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala, midline thalamus and medial hypothalamus (orexin neurons). Moreover, this overlap was shared when examining the neural correlates of the expression of habituation and extinction, with common recruitment of infralimbic cortex and midline thalamus. However, there were also important differences. Specifically, acquisition of habituation was associated with greater recruitment of prelimbic cortex whereas expression of habituation was associated with greater recruitment of paraventricular thalamus. There was also less recruitment of central amygdala for habituation compared to extinction in the retention phase. These findings indicate that largely overlapping neurocircuitries underlie habituation and fear extinction and imply common mechanisms for reducing fear across different inhibitory treatments.