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Sample records for ge intermediate layer

  1. Carrier confinement in Ge/Si quantum dots grown with an intermediate ultrathin oxide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuryliuk, V.; Korotchenkov, O.; Cantarero, A.

    2012-02-01

    We present computational results for strain effects on charge carrier confinement in GexSi1-x quantum dots (QDs) grown on an oxidized Si surface. The strain and free carrier probability density distributions are obtained using the continuum elasticity theory and the effective-mass approximation implemented by a finite-element modeling scheme. Using realistic parameters and conditions for hemisphere and pyramid QDs, it is pointed out that an uncapped hemisphere dot deposited on the Si surface with an intermediate ultrathin oxide layer offers advantageous electron-hole separation distances with respect to a square-based pyramid grown directly on Si. The enhanced separation is associated with a larger electron localization depth in the Si substrate for uncapped hemisphere dots. Thus, for dot diameters smaller than 15-20 nm and surface density of the dots (nQD) ranging from about 1010 to 1012 cm-2, the localization depth may be enhanced from about 8 nm for a pyramid to 38 nm for a hemisphere dot. We find that the effect in a hemisphere dot is very sensitive to the dot density and size, whereas the localization depth is not significantly affected by the variation of the Ge fraction x in GexSi1-x and the aspect ratio of the dot. We also calculate the effect of the fixed oxide charge (Qox) with densities ranging from 10-9 to 10-7 C/cm2 for 10-Ωcm p-type Si wafers on the carrier confinement. Although the confinement potential can be strongly perturbed by the charge at nQD less than ≈4×1011 cm-2, it is not very sensitive to the value of Qox at higher nQD. Since, to our knowledge, there are no data on carrier confinement for Ge QDs deposited on oxidized Si surfaces, these results might be applicable to functional devices utilizing separated electrons and holes such as photovoltaic devices, spin transistors, and quantum computing components. The use of hemisphere QDs placed on oxidized Si rather than pyramid dots grown on bare Si may help to confine charge carriers deeper

  2. Bubble evolution mechanism and stress-induced crystallization in low-temperature silicon wafer bonding based on a thin intermediate amorphous Ge layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Shaoying; Lin, Shaoming; Ye, Yujie; Mao, Danfeng; Huang, Wei; Xu, Jianfang; Li, Cheng; Chen, Songyan

    2017-10-01

    The dependence of the morphology and crystallinity of an amorphous Ge (a-Ge) interlayer between two Si wafers on the annealing temperature is identified to understand the bubble evolution mechanism. The effect of a-Ge layer thickness on the bubble density and size at different annealing temperatures is also clearly clarified. It suggests that the bubble density is significantly affected by the crystallinity and thickness of the a-Ge layer. With the increase of the crystallinity and thickness of the a-Ge layer, the bubble density decreases. It is important that a near-bubble-free Ge interface, which is also an oxide-free interface, is achieved when the bonded Si wafers (a-Ge layer thickness  ⩾  20 nm) are annealed at 400 °C. Furthermore, the crystallization temperature of the a-Ge between the bonded Si wafers is lower than that on a Si substrate alone and the Ge grains firstly form at the Ge/Ge bonded interface, rather than the Ge/Si interface. We believe that the stress-induced crystallization of a-Ge film and the intermixing of Ge atoms at the Ge/Ge interface can be responsible for this feature.

  3. Recent Results on Growth of (211)B CdTe on (211)Si with Intermediate Ge and ZnTe Buffer Layers by Metalorganic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintri, Shashidhar; Rao, Sunil; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal; Trivedi, Sudhir; Bhat, Ishwara

    2012-10-01

    We report on the investigation of epitaxial cadmium telluride grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on (211)Si, with particular emphasis on studying the effect of changing the reactor parameters and thermal annealing conditions on the epilayer quality. The CdTe films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The best CdTe films were observed when the Te/Cd precursor partial pressure ratio was close to 3.1. It was also observed that, though annealing improved the crystal quality, a slight increase in surface roughness was observed. Similar attempts were made to improve the growth conditions of ZnTe intermediate buffer layer, which showed similar trends with changes in precursor flows.

  4. Single layer of Ge quantum dots in HfO2 for floating gate memory capacitors.

    PubMed

    Lepadatu, A M; Palade, C; Slav, A; Maraloiu, A V; Lazanu, S; Stoica, T; Logofatu, C; Teodorescu, V S; Ciurea, M L

    2017-04-28

    High performance trilayer memory capacitors with a floating gate of a single layer of Ge quantum dots (QDs) in HfO2 were fabricated using magnetron sputtering followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The layer sequence of the capacitors is gate HfO 2/floating gate of single layer of Ge QDs in HfO 2/tunnel HfO 2/p-Si wafers. Both Ge and HfO2 are nanostructured by RTA at moderate temperatures of 600-700 °C. By nanostructuring at 600 °C, the formation of a single layer of well separated Ge QDs with diameters of 2-3 nm at a density of 4-5 × 10(15) m(-2) is achieved in the floating gate (intermediate layer). The Ge QDs inside the intermediate layer are arranged in a single layer and are separated from each other by HfO2 nanocrystals (NCs) about 8 nm in diameter with a tetragonal/orthorhombic structure. The Ge QDs in the single layer are located at the crossing of the HfO2 NCs boundaries. In the intermediate layer, besides Ge QDs, a part of the Ge atoms is segregated by RTA at the HfO2 NCs boundaries, while another part of the Ge atoms is present inside the HfO2 lattice stabilizing the tetragonal/orthorhombic structure. The fabricated capacitors show a memory window of 3.8 ± 0.5 V and a capacitance-time characteristic with 14% capacitance decay in the first 3000-4000 s followed by a very slow capacitance decrease extrapolated to 50% after 10 years. This high performance is mainly due to the floating gate of a single layer of well separated Ge QDs in HfO2, distanced from the Si substrate by the tunnel oxide layer with a precise thickness.

  5. Single layer of Ge quantum dots in HfO2 for floating gate memory capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepadatu, A. M.; Palade, C.; Slav, A.; Maraloiu, A. V.; Lazanu, S.; Stoica, T.; Logofatu, C.; Teodorescu, V. S.; Ciurea, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    High performance trilayer memory capacitors with a floating gate of a single layer of Ge quantum dots (QDs) in HfO2 were fabricated using magnetron sputtering followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The layer sequence of the capacitors is gate HfO 2/floating gate of single layer of Ge QDs in HfO 2/tunnel HfO 2/p-Si wafers. Both Ge and HfO2 are nanostructured by RTA at moderate temperatures of 600-700 °C. By nanostructuring at 600 °C, the formation of a single layer of well separated Ge QDs with diameters of 2-3 nm at a density of 4-5 × 1015 m-2 is achieved in the floating gate (intermediate layer). The Ge QDs inside the intermediate layer are arranged in a single layer and are separated from each other by HfO2 nanocrystals (NCs) about 8 nm in diameter with a tetragonal/orthorhombic structure. The Ge QDs in the single layer are located at the crossing of the HfO2 NCs boundaries. In the intermediate layer, besides Ge QDs, a part of the Ge atoms is segregated by RTA at the HfO2 NCs boundaries, while another part of the Ge atoms is present inside the HfO2 lattice stabilizing the tetragonal/orthorhombic structure. The fabricated capacitors show a memory window of 3.8 ± 0.5 V and a capacitance-time characteristic with 14% capacitance decay in the first 3000-4000 s followed by a very slow capacitance decrease extrapolated to 50% after 10 years. This high performance is mainly due to the floating gate of a single layer of well separated Ge QDs in HfO2, distanced from the Si substrate by the tunnel oxide layer with a precise thickness.

  6. Ge/graded-SiGe multiplication layers for low-voltage and low-noise Ge avalanche photodiodes on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyasaka, Yuji; Hiraki, Tatsurou; Okazaki, Kota; Takeda, Kotaro; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Yamada, Koji; Wada, Kazumi; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    A new structure is examined for low-voltage and low-noise Ge-based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) on Si, where a Ge/graded-SiGe heterostructure is used as the multiplication layer of a separate-absorption-carrier-multiplication structure. The Ge/SiGe heterojunction multiplication layer is theoretically shown to be useful for preferentially enhancing impact ionization for photogenerated holes injected from the Ge optical-absorption layer via the graded SiGe, reflecting the valence band discontinuity at the Ge/SiGe interface. This property is effective not only for the reduction of operation voltage/electric field strength in Ge-based APDs but also for the reduction of excess noise resulting from the ratio of the ionization coefficients between electrons and holes being far from unity. Such Ge/graded-SiGe heterostructures are successfully fabricated by ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition. Preliminary pin diodes having a Ge/graded-SiGe multiplication layer act reasonably as photodetectors, showing a multiplication gain larger than those for diodes without the Ge/SiGe heterojunction.

  7. High Mobility Transport Layer Structures for Rhombohedral Si/Ge/SiGe Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Kim, Hyun-Jung (Inventor); Lee, Kunik (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An electronic device includes a trigonal crystal substrate defining a (0001) C-plane. The substrate may comprise Sapphire or other suitable material. A plurality of rhombohedrally aligned SiGe (111)-oriented crystals are disposed on the (0001) C-plane of the crystal substrate. A first region of material is disposed on the rhombohedrally aligned SiGe layer. The first region comprises an intrinsic or doped Si, Ge, or SiGe layer. The first region can be layered between two secondary regions comprising n+doped SiGe or n+doped Ge, whereby the first region collects electrons from the two secondary regions.

  8. Characterization of High Ge Content SiGe Heterostructures and Graded Alloy Layers Using Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyd, A. R.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Croke, E. T.

    1995-01-01

    Si(x)Ge(1-x)heterostructures on Si substrates have been widely studied due to the maturity of Si technology. However, work on Si(x)Ge)1-x) heterostructures on Ge substrates has not received much attention. A Si(x)Ge(1-x) layer on a Si substrate is under compressive strain while Si(x)Ge(1-x) on Ge is under tensile strain; thus the critical points will behave differently. In order to accurately characterize high Ge content Si(x)Ge(1-x) layers the energy shift algorithm used to calculate alloy compositions, has been modified. These results have been used along with variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) measurements to characterize Si(x)Ge(1-x)/Ge superlattices grown on Ge substrates. The results agree closely with high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements made on the same samples. The modified energy shift algorithm also allows the VASE analysis to be upgraded in order to characterize linearly graded layers. In this work VASE has been used to characterize graded Si(x)Ge(1-x) layers in terms of the total thickness, and the start and end alloy composition. Results are presented for a 1 micrometer Si(x)Ge(1-x) layer linearly graded in the range 0.5 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1.0.

  9. Interface properties of thin oxide layers grown on strained SiGe layers at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, M.; Ray, S. K.; Ghosh, T. B.; Sreemany, M.; Maiti, C. K.

    1996-03-01

    The chemical state and the electrical properties of the interfaces of thin oxide films grown on strained 0268-1242/11/3/014/img8 layers using plasma and thermal oxidation have been studied in detail. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies show no Ge pile-up at the oxide/substrate interface. In the case of plasma oxidation, Ge at the oxide surface is found to be in a fully oxidized state, while the formation of an intermediate oxidized state is observed in the case of low-temperature thermal oxidation. High-frequency (1 MHz) capacitance - voltage (C - V) and conductance - voltage (G - V) measurements have indicated the growth of good quality gate oxides. The fixed oxide charge and interface state densities are comparable to those of low-temperature-grown metal - oxide - semiconductor capacitors on Si with aluminium gates.

  10. Energy band alignment of atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} oxide film on epitaxial (100)Ge, (110)Ge, and (111)Ge layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hudait, Mantu K.; Zhu Yan

    2013-03-21

    Crystallographically oriented epitaxial Ge layers were grown on (100), (110), and (111)A GaAs substrates by in situ growth process using two separate molecular beam epitaxy chambers. The band alignment properties of atomic layer hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) film deposited on crystallographically oriented epitaxial Ge were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Valence band offset, {Delta}E{sub v} values of HfO{sub 2} relative to (100)Ge, (110)Ge, and (111)Ge orientations were 2.8 eV, 2.28 eV, and 2.5 eV, respectively. Using XPS data, variation in valence band offset, {Delta}E{sub V}(100)Ge>{Delta}E{sub V}(111)Ge>{Delta}E{sub V}(110)Ge, was obtained related to Ge orientation. Also, the conduction band offset, {Delta}E{sub c} relation, {Delta}E{sub c}(110)Ge>{Delta}E{sub c}(111)Ge>{Delta}E{sub c}(100)Ge related to Ge orientations was obtained using the measured bandgap of HfO{sub 2} on each orientation and with the Ge bandgap of 0.67 eV. These band offset parameters for carrier confinement would offer an important guidance to design Ge-based p- and n-channel metal-oxide field-effect transistor for low-power application.

  11. Photoluminescence of phosphorus atomic layer doped Ge grown on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Nien, Li-Wei; Capellini, Giovanni; Virgilio, Michele; Costina, Ioan; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Seifert, Winfried; Srinivasan, Ashwyn; Loo, Roger; Scappucci, Giordano; Sabbagh, Diego; Hesse, Anne; Murota, Junichi; Schroeder, Thomas; Tillack, Bernd

    2017-10-01

    Improvement of the photoluminescence (PL) of Phosphorus (P) doped Ge by P atomic layer doping (ALD) is investigated. Fifty P delta layers of 8 × 1013 cm‑2 separated by 4 nm Ge spacer are selectively deposited at 300 °C on a 700 nm thick P-doped Ge buffer layer of 1.4 × 1019 cm‑3 on SiO2 structured Si (100) substrate. A high P concentration region of 1.6 × 1020 cm‑3 with abrupt P delta profiles is formed by the P-ALD process. Compared to the P-doped Ge buffer layer, a reduced PL intensity is observed, which might be caused by a higher density of point defects in the P delta doped Ge layer. The peak position is shifted by ∼0.1 eV towards lower energy, indicating an increased active carrier concentration in the P-delta doped Ge layer. By introducing annealing at 400 °C to 500 °C after each Ge spacer deposition, P desorption and diffusion is observed resulting in relatively uniform P profiles of ∼2 × 1019 cm‑3. Increased PL intensity and red shift of the PL peak are observed due to improved crystallinity and higher active P concentration.

  12. Stacked Ge nanocrystals with ultrathin SiO₂ separation layers.

    PubMed

    Zschintzsch, Manuel; von Borany, Johannes; Jeutter, Nicole M; Mücklich, Arndt

    2011-11-18

    The aim of this work is the tailored growth of Ge nanocrystals (NCs) in (GeO(x)/SiO(2)) multilayers (ML) for photovoltaic applications. For this purpose the fabrication of regularly stacked Ge NCs separated by ultrathin SiO(2) layers is essential to enable charge carrier transport by direct tunnelling. In this paper we report on the fabrication of (GeO(x)/SiO(2))(50) multilayer stacks via reactive dc magnetron sputtering and Ge NCs formation after subsequent annealing. It is shown that magnetron sputtering allows us to deposit very regular ML stacks with a total thickness of about 300 nm, characterized by ultrathin (down to 1 nm) and very smooth (roughness ∼ 0.6 nm) SiO(2) separation layers. A main challenge is to keep these properties for a thermal budget necessary to form Ge NCs. For this reason, the temperature dependence of phase separation. Ge crystallization and ML morphology was investigated by Rutherford backscattering, x-ray scattering, Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of size confined Ge NCs of about 5 nm after annealing of only 550 °C is confirmed. This low thermal budget ensures the suppression of GeO emanation and multilayer stability. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to determine the optical Ge NC bandgap to (1.65 ± 0.5) eV.

  13. Ion beam synthesis of SiGe alloy layers

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Seongil

    1994-05-01

    Procedures required for minimizing structural defects generated during ion beam synthesis of SiGe alloy layers were studied. Synthesis of 200 mm SiGe alloy layers by implantation of 120-keV Ge ions into <100> oriented Si wafers yielded various Ge peak concentrations after the following doses, 2 x 1016cm-2, 3 x 1016cm-2 (mid), and 5 x 1016cm-2 (high). Following implantation, solid phase epitaxial (SPE) annealing in ambient N2 at 800C for 1 hr. resulted in only slight redistribution of the Ge. Two kinds of extended defects were observed in alloy layers over 3 x l016cm-2cm dose at room temperature (RT): end-of-range (EOR) dislocation loops and strain-induced stacking faults. Density of EOR dislocation loops was much lower in alloys produced by 77K implantation than by RT implantation. Decreasing the dose to obtain 5 at% peak Ge concentration prevents strain relaxation, while those SPE layers with more than 7 at% Ge peak show high densities of misfit- induced stacking faults. Sequential implantation of C following high dose Ge implantation (12 at% Ge peak concentration in layer) brought about a remarkable decrease in density of misfit-induced stacking faults. For peak implanted C > 0.55 at%, stacking fault generation in the epitaxial layer was suppressed, owing to strain compensation by C atoms in the SiGe lattice. A SiGe alloy layer with 0.9 at% C peak concentration under a 12 at% Ge peak exhibited the best microstructure. Results indicate that optimum Ge/C ratio for strain compensation is between 11 and 22. The interface between amorphous and regrown phases (a/c interface) had a dramatic morphology change during its migration to the surface. Initial <100> planar interface decomposes into a <111> faceted interface, changing the growth kinetics; this is associated with strain relaxation by stacking fault formation on (111) planes in the a/c interface.

  14. Characterization of SiGe/Ge heterostructures and graded layers using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croke, E. T.; Wang, K. L.; Heyd, A. R.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Lee, C. H.

    1996-01-01

    Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) has been used to characterize Si(x)Ge(1-x)/Ge superlattices (SLs) grown on Ge substrates and thick Si(x)Ge(1-x)/Ge heterostructures grown on Si substrates. Our VASE analysis yielded the thicknesses and alloy compositions of all layers within the optical penetration depth of the surface. In addition, strain effects were observed in the VASE results for layers under both compressive and tensile strain. Results for the SL structures were found to be in close agreement with high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements made on the same samples. The VASE analysis has been upgraded to characterize linearly graded Si(x)Ge(1-x) buffer layers. The algorithm has been used to determine the total thickness of the buffer layer along with the start and end alloy composition by breaking the total thickness into many (typically more than 20) equal layers. Our ellipsometric results for 1 (mu)m buffer layers graded in the ranges 0.7 less than or = x less than or = 1.0, and 0.5 less than or = x less than or = 1.0 are presented, and compare favorably with the nominal values.

  15. Germanium segregation in CVD grown SiGe layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikau, Andrei; Gaiduk, Peter

    2010-02-01

    A 2D layer of spherical, crystalline Ge nanodots embedded in a SiO2 layer was formed by low pressure chemical vapour deposition combined with furnace oxidation and rapid thermal annealing. The samples were characterized structurally by using transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford back scattering spectrometry, as well as electrically by measuring C-V and I-V characteristics. It was found that formation of a high density Ge dots took place due to oxidation induced Ge segregation. The dots were situated in the SiO2 at the average distance 5-6 nm from the substrate. Strong evidence of charge storage effect in the crystalline Ge-nanodot layer was demonstrated by the hysteresis behavior of the high-frequency C-V curves.

  16. Oxygen-hydrogen sulfide intermediate layer of the Black Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Timoshchuk, V.I.; Risik, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    Spatial and vertical boundaries were studied for the oxygen-hydrogen sulfide intermediate layer in the Black Sea. The wind has a great influence on the thermohaline structure of the Danube coastal waters. It causes strong out-and-influx processes and up-welling of hydrogen sulfide waters of the intermediate layer in the north-western part of the Black Sea, which is supposed to be one of the reasons for the ecological equilibrium disturbance in this region.

  17. Strain and stability of ultrathin Ge layers in Si/Ge/Si axial heterojunction nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Frances M.; Stach, Eric A.; Wen, Cheng -Yen; Reuter, Mark C.; Su, Dong

    2015-02-05

    The abrupt heterointerfaces in the Si/Ge materials system presents useful possibilities for electronic device engineering because the band structure can be affected by strain induced by the lattice mismatch. In planar layers, heterointerfaces with abrupt composition changes are difficult to realize without introducing misfit dislocations. However, in catalytically grown nanowires, abrupt heterointerfaces can be fabricated by appropriate choice of the catalyst. Here we grow nanowires containing Si/Ge and Si/Ge/Si structures respectively with sub-1nm thick Ge "quantum wells" and we measure the interfacial strain fields using geometric phase analysis. Narrow Ge layers show radial strains of several percent, with a corresponding dilation in the axial direction. Si/Ge interfaces show lattice rotation and curvature of the lattice planes. We conclude that high strains can be achieved, compared to what is possible in planar layers. In addition, we study the stability of these heterostructures under heating and electron beam irradiation. The strain and composition gradients are supposed to the cause of the instability for interdiffusion.

  18. Strain and stability of ultrathin Ge layers in Si/Ge/Si axial heterojunction nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Ross, Frances M.; Stach, Eric A.; Wen, Cheng -Yen; ...

    2015-02-05

    The abrupt heterointerfaces in the Si/Ge materials system presents useful possibilities for electronic device engineering because the band structure can be affected by strain induced by the lattice mismatch. In planar layers, heterointerfaces with abrupt composition changes are difficult to realize without introducing misfit dislocations. However, in catalytically grown nanowires, abrupt heterointerfaces can be fabricated by appropriate choice of the catalyst. Here we grow nanowires containing Si/Ge and Si/Ge/Si structures respectively with sub-1nm thick Ge "quantum wells" and we measure the interfacial strain fields using geometric phase analysis. Narrow Ge layers show radial strains of several percent, with a correspondingmore » dilation in the axial direction. Si/Ge interfaces show lattice rotation and curvature of the lattice planes. We conclude that high strains can be achieved, compared to what is possible in planar layers. In addition, we study the stability of these heterostructures under heating and electron beam irradiation. The strain and composition gradients are supposed to the cause of the instability for interdiffusion.« less

  19. Modeling the formation of intermediate layers at Arecibo latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterman, G. B.; Heelis, R. A.; Bailey, G. J.

    1994-06-01

    By using a modified version of the ionospheric model described by Bailey and Sellek (1990), we model the formation of intermediate ionization layers due to meridional neutral winds in the valley region between the E and F regions. The calculations are performed on a single field line with L = 1.4, in order to compare the results with observations of intermediate layers from the incoherent scatter radar at Arecibo. The winds are given a sinusoidal variation in altitude, and the effects of the wind amplitude and wavelength on layer formation are examined. Nighttime ionization rates are artificially specified to correspond with observed rates in the region. Our results show that tidal like meridional wind profiles act to deplete the apparent background ionospheric number density as well as enhance the number density in the intermediate layer. Thus the layer appears as an enhancement above a background that is much smaller than the background that would be present in the absence of a wind. In this way, layers with relatively high molecular ion concentrations can exist. Intermediate layers are seen to form at nulls in the neutral wind altitude profile, but in the altitude region above roughly 160 km this null need not coincide with a zero in the field-aligned ion velocity.

  20. Analysis of Intermediate Level Maintenance Following F404-GE-400 Engine Component Life Reductions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    used simulation modeling of the F404 engine repair process at AIMD Lemoore to investigate the impact of these reductions. The simulation model outcomes...greater use of simulation modeling in future planning and analysis of significant logistics support changes. Component life limit reductions, Simulation modeling , F404-GE-400, Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Department (AIMD).

  1. Atomically flat Ge buffer layers and alternating shutter growth of CaGe2 for large area germanane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinsong; Katoch, Jyoti; Ahmed, Adam; Pinchuk, Igor; Williams, Robert; McComb, David; Kawakami, Roland

    Germanane (GeH), which is converted from CaGe2 by soaking in HCl acid, has recently attracted interest because of its novel properties, such as large band gap (1.56eV), spin orbit coupling and predictions of high mobility (18000 cm2/Vs). Previously CaGe2 was successfully grown on Ge(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. But there were cracks between µm-sized islands, which is not desirable for scientific study and application, and limits the material quality. By growing atomically flat Ge buffer layers and using alternating shutter MBE growth, we are able to grow crack-free, large area films of CaGe2 films. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns of Ge buffer layer and CaGe2 indicates high quality two dimensional surfaces, which is further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing atomically flat and uniform Ge buffer layer and CaGe2. The appearance of Laue oscillation in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Kiessig fringes in X-ray reflectivity (XRR) proves the uniformity of CaGe2 film and the smoothness of the interface. The high quality of CaGe2 film makes it promising to explore novel properties of GeH. Funded by NSF MRSEC DMR-1420451.

  2. On atomic structure of Ge huts growing on the Ge/Si(001) wetting layer

    SciTech Connect

    Arapkina, Larisa V.; Yuryev, Vladimir A.

    2013-09-14

    Structural models of growing Ge hut clusters—pyramids and wedges—are proposed on the basis of data of recent STM investigations of nucleation and growth of Ge huts on the Si(001) surface in the process of molecular beam epitaxy. It is shown that extension of a hut base along <110> directions goes non-uniformly during the cluster growth regardless of its shape. Growing pyramids, starting from the second monolayer, pass through cyclic formation of slightly asymmetrical and symmetrical clusters, with symmetrical ones appearing after addition of every fourth monolayer. We suppose that pyramids of symmetrical configurations composed by 2, 6, 10, etc., monolayers over the wetting layer are more stable than asymmetrical ones. This might explain less stability of pyramids in comparison with wedges in dense arrays forming at low temperatures of Ge deposition. Possible nucleation processes of pyramids and wedges on wetting layer patches from identical embryos composed by 8 dimers through formation of 1 monolayer high 16-dimer nuclei different only in their symmetry is discussed. Schematics of these processes are presented. It is concluded from precise STM measurements that top layers of wetting layer patches are relaxed when huts nucleate on them.

  3. Atomic layer-by-layer oxidation of Ge (100) and (111) surfaces by plasma post oxidation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rui; Huang, Po-Chin; Lin, Ju-Chin; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2013-02-25

    The ultrathin GeO{sub x}/Ge interfaces formed on Ge (100) and (111) surfaces by applying plasma post oxidation to thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge structures are characterized in detail using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the XPS signals assigned to Ge 1+ and the 2+ states in the GeO{sub x} layers by post plasma oxidation have oscillating behaviors on Ge (100) surfaces in a period of {approx}0.3 nm with an increase in the GeO{sub x} thickness. Additionally, the oscillations of the signals assigned to Ge 1+ and 2+ states show opposite phase to each other. The similar oscillation behaviors are also confirmed on Ge (111) surfaces for Ge 1+ and 3+ states in a period of {approx}0.5 nm. These phenomena can be strongly regarded as an evidence of the atomic layer-by-layer oxidation of GeO{sub x}/Ge interfaces on Ge (100) and (111) surfaces.

  4. Ge profile from the growth of SiGe buried layers by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbey, D. J.; Ancona, M. G.

    1992-11-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were obtained and interpreted by a kinetic simulation to determine the germanium concentration profile of thin Si/SiGe heterostructures grown at 500 °C using elemental source molecular beam epitaxy. The primary finding is that there are significant segregation effects in these commonly grown structures which affect both the ``leading'' and ``trailing'' interfaces. Upon opening of the germanium shutter, the surface monolayer must be built up to a germanium composition of greater than 96% before the composition of the deposited alloy layer is equal to the flux composition for a Ge ratio of 0.3. This buildup causes the germanium depletion at the leading interface. Upon termination of the germanium flux, the incorporation of the germanium rich monolayer into the growing silicon cap layer causes a corresponding degradation of the trailing interface.

  5. Photoconductivity of ultra-thin Ge(GeSn) layers grown in Si by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Talochkin, A. B.; Chistokhin, I. B.; Mashanov, V. I.

    2016-04-07

    Photoconductivity (PC) spectra of Si/Ge(GeSn)/Si structures with the ultra-thin (1.0–2.3 nm) Ge and GeSn alloy layers grown by the low-temperature (T = 100 °C) molecular beam epitaxy are studied. Photoresponse in the range of 1.2–0.4 eV related to light absorption in the buried Ge(GeSn) layer is observed. It is shown that in case of lateral PC, a simple diffusion model can be used to determine the absorption coefficient of this layer α ∼ 10{sup 5 }cm{sup −1}. This value is 100 times larger than that of a single Ge quantum dot layer and is reached significantly above the band gap of most bulk semiconductors. The observed absorption is caused by optical transitions between electron and hole states localized at the interfaces. The anomalous high value of α can be explained by the unusual state of Ge(GeSn) layer with high concentration of dangling bonds, the optical properties of which have been predicted theoretically by Knief and von Niessen (Phys. Rev. B 59, 12940 (1999)).

  6. Interface Engineering for Atomic Layer Deposited Alumina Gate Dielectric on SiGe Substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Guo, Yuzheng; Hassan, Vinayak Vishwanath; Tang, Kechao; Foad, Majeed A; Woicik, Joseph C; Pianetta, Piero; Robertson, John; McIntyre, Paul C

    2016-07-27

    Optimization of the interface between high-k dielectrics and SiGe substrates is a challenging topic due to the complexity arising from the coexistence of Si and Ge interfacial oxides. Defective high-k/SiGe interfaces limit future applications of SiGe as a channel material for electronic devices. In this paper, we identify the surface layer structure of as-received SiGe and Al2O3/SiGe structures based on soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As-received SiGe substrates have native SiOx/GeOx surface layers, where the GeOx-rich layer is beneath a SiOx-rich surface. Silicon oxide regrows on the SiGe surface during Al2O3 atomic layer deposition, and both SiOx and GeOx regrow during forming gas anneal in the presence of a Pt gate metal. The resulting mixed SiOx-GeOx interface layer causes large interface trap densities (Dit) due to distorted Ge-O bonds across the interface. In contrast, we observe that oxygen-scavenging Al top gates decompose the underlying SiOx/GeOx, in a selective fashion, leaving an ultrathin SiOx interfacial layer that exhibits dramatically reduced Dit.

  7. Silicon solar cell using optimized intermediate reflector layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Ahmed E.; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2016-03-01

    Thin film silicon based photovoltaic cells have the advantages of using low cost nontoxic abundant constituents and low thermal manufacturing budget. However, better long-term efficiencies need to be achieved overcoming its inherent bad electrical properties of amorphous and/or microcrystalline Silicon. For the goal of achieving best results, multijunction cells of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon thin layers are industrially and lab utilized in addition to using one or more light management techniques such as textured layers, periodic and plasmonic back reflectors, flattened reflective substrates and intermediate reflector layer (IRL) between multijunction cells. The latter, IRL, which is the focus of this paper, serves as spectrally selective layer between different cells of the multijunction silicon thin film solar cell. IRL, reflects to the top cell short wavelength while permitting and scattering longer ones to achieve the best possible short circuit current. In this study, a new optimized periodic design of Intermediate reflector layer in micromorph (two multijunction cells of Microcrystalline and Amorphous Silicon) thin film solar cells is proposed. The optically simulated short circuit current reaches record values for same thickness designs when using all-ZnO design and even better results is anticipated if Lacquer material is used in combination with ZnO. The design methodology used in the paper can be easily applied to different types of IRL materials and also extended to triple and the relatively newly proposed quadruple thin films solar cells.

  8. Barrier enhancement of Ge MSM IR photodetector with Ge layer optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asar, Tarık; Özçelik, Süleyman

    2015-12-01

    Germanium thin films were deposited on n-type Silicon substrates with three different sputter power by using DC magnetron sputtering system at room temperature. The structural and morphological properties of the samples have been obtained by means of X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy measurements. Then, Germanium metal-semiconductor-metal infrared photodetectors were fabricated on these structures. The carrier recombination lifetime and the diffusion length of the devices were also calculated by using the carrier density and mobility data was obtained from the room temperature Hall Effect measurements. The dark current-voltage measurements of devices were achieved at room temperature. The electrical parameters such as ideality factor, Schottky barrier height, saturation current and series resistance were extracted from dark current-voltage characteristics. Finally, it has been shown that the barrier enhancement of Ge MSM IR photodetector can be achieved by Ge layer optimization.

  9. Zintl layer formation during perovskite atomic layer deposition on Ge (001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shen; Lin, Edward L.; Hamze, Ali K.; Posadas, Agham; Wu, HsinWei; Smith, David J.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2017-02-01

    Using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and density functional theory, we analyzed the surface core level shifts and surface structure during the initial growth of ABO3 perovskites on Ge (001) by atomic layer deposition, where A = Ba, Sr and B = Ti, Hf, Zr. We find that the initial dosing of the barium- or strontium-bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl) precursors on a clean Ge surface produces a surface phase that has the same chemical and structural properties as the 0.5-monolayer Ba Zintl layer formed when depositing Ba by molecular beam epitaxy. Similar binding energy shifts are found for Ba, Sr, and Ge when using either chemical or elemental metal sources. The observed germanium surface core level shifts are consistent with the flattening of the initially tilted Ge surface dimers using both molecular and atomic metal sources. Similar binding energy shifts and changes in dimer tilting with alkaline earth metal adsorption are found with density functional theory calculations. High angle angular dark field scanning transmission microscopy images of BaTiO3, SrZrO3, SrHfO3, and SrHf0.55Ti0.45O3 reveal the location of the Ba (or Sr) atomic columns between the Ge dimers. The results imply that the organic ligands dissociate from the precursor after precursor adsorption on the Ge surface, producing the same Zintl template critical for perovskite growth on Group IV semiconductors during molecular beam epitaxy.

  10. Zintl layer formation during perovskite atomic layer deposition on Ge (001).

    PubMed

    Hu, Shen; Lin, Edward L; Hamze, Ali K; Posadas, Agham; Wu, HsinWei; Smith, David J; Demkov, Alexander A; Ekerdt, John G

    2017-02-07

    Using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and density functional theory, we analyzed the surface core level shifts and surface structure during the initial growth of ABO3 perovskites on Ge (001) by atomic layer deposition, where A = Ba, Sr and B = Ti, Hf, Zr. We find that the initial dosing of the barium- or strontium-bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl) precursors on a clean Ge surface produces a surface phase that has the same chemical and structural properties as the 0.5-monolayer Ba Zintl layer formed when depositing Ba by molecular beam epitaxy. Similar binding energy shifts are found for Ba, Sr, and Ge when using either chemical or elemental metal sources. The observed germanium surface core level shifts are consistent with the flattening of the initially tilted Ge surface dimers using both molecular and atomic metal sources. Similar binding energy shifts and changes in dimer tilting with alkaline earth metal adsorption are found with density functional theory calculations. High angle angular dark field scanning transmission microscopy images of BaTiO3, SrZrO3, SrHfO3, and SrHf0.55Ti0.45O3 reveal the location of the Ba (or Sr) atomic columns between the Ge dimers. The results imply that the organic ligands dissociate from the precursor after precursor adsorption on the Ge surface, producing the same Zintl template critical for perovskite growth on Group IV semiconductors during molecular beam epitaxy.

  11. Investigations of segregation phenomena in highly strained Mn-doped Ge wetting layers and Ge quantum dots embedded in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Prestat, E. Porret, C.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Tainoff, D.; Boukhari, M.; Bayle-Guillemaud, P.; Jamet, M.; Barski, A.

    2014-03-10

    In this Letter, we investigate manganese diffusion and the formation of Mn precipitates in highly strained, few monolayer thick, Mn-doped Ge wetting layers and nanometric size Ge quantum dot heterostructures embedded in silicon. We show that in this Ge(Mn)/Si system manganese always precipitates and that the size and the position of Mn clusters (precipitates) depend on the growth temperature. At high growth temperature, manganese strongly diffuses from germanium to silicon, whereas decreasing the growth temperature reduces the manganese diffusion. In the germanium quantum dots layers, Mn precipitates are detected, not only in partially relaxed quantum dots but also in fully strained germanium wetting layers between the dots.

  12. Growth and characterization of epitaxial layers of Ge on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Fathy, D.; White, C.W.; Holland, O.W.

    1987-03-01

    Thin single crystalline layers of Ge with atomically sharp boundaries have been formed epitaxially on (100) Si substrates. This was done by /sup 74/Ge ion implantation into Si followed by steam oxidation. Using both Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we have found that a Ge layer forms as a result of Ge segregated at the moving SiO/sub 2/ interface during steam oxidation. For a SiO/sub 2/ layer that has swept through the implanted region, essentially all of the Ge is snow-ploughed and no Ge is lost to the oxide layer. The Ge layers and its two bounding interfaces, i.e., Ge/SiO/sub 2/ and Ge/Si, have been characterized as a function of the implantation dose and energy. The thickness of the Ge layer formed is dependent on the implantation dose. Thicknesses from a fraction of a monolayer to greater than 50 monolayers of Ge can be formed on Si by this mechanism. Initially the Ge layer forms a coherent interface with the underlying Si with no misfit dislocations, and misfit dislocations only appear as the thickness of the film is increased.

  13. Investigation of Diffusion Barrier Layers for Bi-Doped Mg2(Si,Ge) Thermoelectric Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahoveanu, Codrin; Laversenne, Laetitia; de Vaulx, Cédric; Bès, Alexandre; Azzouz, Kamel; Lacoste, Ana

    2016-11-01

    The performance of thermoelectric (TE) modules is governed not only by the thermoelectric materials whose properties are capitalized, but also on the quality of the electrical contacts which are ubiquitous in the design of the device. To ensure the necessary stability of the interfaces between the TE materials and the electrodes, diffusion barriers are generally used. In this study, attempts are presented in finding diffusion barriers that would be suitable for Mg2(Si,Ge) TE materials. These involved the deposition by microwave plasma-assisted co-sputtering of intermediate gradient layers starting from Mg and Si, ending up with a Ni layer, or the deposition of metallic layers (Ti, Cr, W and Ta). The effectiveness of the deposited layers as diffusion barriers is assessed after the legs were subjected to a brazing process, with the results favoring the use of gradient layers with a thick Ni layer and metallic layers based on Ta and Cr, despite some adherence issues for the latter.

  14. Characterization of Ultrathin Ta-oxide Films Formed on Ge(100) by ALD and Layer-by-Layer Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishima, K.; Murakami, H.; Ohta, A.; Sahari, S. K.; Fujioka, T.; Higashi, S.; Miyazaki, S.

    2013-03-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and Layer-by-Layer deposition of Ta-oxide films on Ge(100) with using tris (tert-butoxy) (tert-butylimido) tantalum have been studied systematically. From the analysis of the chemical bonding features of the interface between TaOx and Ge(100) using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ge atom diffusion into the Ta oxide layer and resultant TaGexOy formation during deposition at temperatures higher than 200°C were confirmed. Also, we have demonstrated that nanometer-thick deposition of Tantalum oxide as an interfacial layer effectively suppresses the formation of GeOx in the HfO2 ALD on Ge. By the combination of TaOx pre-deposition on Ge(100) and subsequent ALD of HfO2, a capacitance equivalent thickness (CET) of 1.35 nm and relative dielectric constant of 23 were achieved.

  15. Formation of alternating interfacial layers in Au-12Ge/Ni joints

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-kang; Tsai, Ming-yueh; Tsai, Ping-chun; Hsu, Bo-hsun

    2014-01-01

    Au-Ge alloys are promising materials for high-power and high-frequency packaging, and Ni is frequently used as diffusion barriers. This study investigates interfacial reactions in Au-12Ge/Ni joints at 300°C and 400°C. For the reactions at 300°C, typical interfacial morphology was observed and the diffusion path was (Au) + (Ge)/NiGe/Ni5Ge3/Ni. However, an interesting phenomenon – the formation of (Au,Ni,Ge)/NiGe alternating layers – was observed for the reactions at 400°C. The diffusion path across the interface was liquid/(Au,Ni,Ge)/NiGe/···/(Au,Ni,Ge)/NiGe/Ni2Ge/Ni. The periodic thermodynamic instability at the NiGe/Ni2Ge interface caused the subsequent nucleation of new (Au,Ni,Ge)/NiGe pairs. The thermodynamic foundation and mechanism of formation of the alternating layers are elaborated in this paper. PMID:24690992

  16. Activity in deep intermediate layer collicular neurons during interrupted saccades.

    PubMed

    Keller, E L; Gandhi, N J; Vijay Sekaran, S

    2000-01-01

    The activity of neurons located in the deep intermediate and adjacent deep layers (hereafter called just deep intermediate layer neurons) of the superior colliculus (SC) in monkeys was recorded during saccades interrupted by electrical stimulation of the brainstem omnipause neuron (OPN) region. The goal of the experiment was to determine if these neurons maintained their discharge during the saccadic interruption, and thus, could potentially provide a memory trace for the intended movement which ends accurately on target in spite of the perturbation. The collicular neurons recorded in the present study were located in the rostral three-fifths of the colliculus. Most of these cells tended to show considerable presaccadic activity during a delayed saccade paradigm, and, therefore, probably overlap with the population of SC cells called buildup neurons or prelude bursters in previous studies. The effect of electrical stimulation in the OPN region (which interrupted ongoing saccades) on the discharge of these neurons was measured by computing the percentage reduction in a cell's activity compared to that present during non-interrupted saccades. During saccade interruption about 70% of deep intermediate layer neurons experienced a major reduction (30% or greater) in their activity, but discharge recovered quickly after the termination of the stimulation as the eyes resumed their movement to finish the saccade on the target. Therefore, the pattern of activity recorded in most of the deep intermediate layer neurons during interrupted saccades qualitatively resembled that previously reported for the saccade-related burst neurons which tend to be located more dorsally in the intermediate layer. In contrast, some of our cells (30%) showed little or no perturbation in their activity caused by the saccade interrupting stimulation. Because all the more dorsally located burst neurons and the majority of our deep intermediate layer neurons show a total or major suppression in

  17. Tandem photovoltaic cells with a composite intermediate layer

    SciTech Connect

    Travkin, V. V. Pakhomov, G. L.; Luk’anov, A. Yu.; Stuzhin, P. A.

    2015-11-15

    We have fabricated and tested tandem photovoltaic cells containing series-connected subcells of the “oxide–organic semiconductor–metal” type. The organic semiconductors were two phthalocyanine dyes (SubPc and PcVO); Al or Ag:Mg were used as capping metallic electrodes. A semitransparent composite metal–oxide layer formed by molybdenum oxide MoO{sub x} deposited over an ultrathin Al layer is used to join the subcells. Additionally, a MoO{sub x} layer deposited onto glass/ITO substrates serves as an anode buffer in the front subcell, and LiF deposited onto the dye layers serves as a cathode buffer in the front or rear subcells. Upon optimization of the thickness and composition of the intermediate layer, the open circuit voltage U{sub oc} amounts to 1.6 V reflecting total summation of the contributions from the each of the subcells at a wide spectral coating from 300–1000 nm. The fill factor in the tandem cell is not worse than in individually made single cells with the same scheme or in disconnected subcells.

  18. Intermediate coating layer for high temperature rubbing seals for rotary regenerators

    SciTech Connect

    Schienle, J.L.; Strangman, T.E.

    1995-03-14

    A metallic regenerator seal is provided having multi-layer coating comprising a NiCrAlY bond layer, a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) intermediate layer, and a ceramic high temperature solid lubricant surface layer comprising zinc oxide, calcium fluoride, and tin oxide. Because of the YSZ intermediate layer, the coating is thermodynamically stable and resists swelling at high temperatures. 2 figs.

  19. Intermediate coating layer for high temperature rubbing seals for rotary regenerators

    DOEpatents

    Schienle, James L.; Strangman, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A metallic regenerator seal is provided having multi-layer coating comprising a NiCrAlY bond layer, a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) intermediate layer, and a ceramic high temperature solid lubricant surface layer comprising zinc oxide, calcium fluoride, and tin oxide. Because of the YSZ intermediate layer, the coating is thermodynamically stable and resists swelling at high temperatures.

  20. Surface-segregated Si and Ge ultrathin films formed by Ag-induced layer exchange process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Masashi; Ohta, Akio; Araidai, Masaaki; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a new method of growing Si or Ge ultrathin films on a Ag(111) surface by using a Ag-induced layer exchange (ALEX) process toward the creation of 2D honeycomb sheets of Si and Ge, known as silicene and germanene, respectively. In the present paper, we clarify ALEX features, specifically the surface segregation of Si (or Ge) atoms from the underlying substrate, focusing on the annealing temperature and time. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrate that surface-segregated Si (or Ge) exists on the Ag surfaces after the epitaxial growth of the Ag layer on Si(111) [or Ge(111)] substrates; the amount of segregated Si (or Ge) can be controlled by a subsequent annealing. Also, we find that the segregation of an ultrathin Si or Ge layer proceeds at an interface between Ag and the AlO x capping layer.

  1. Optimization of ISBD embedded SiGe layers to prevent delamination process for MOSFET applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasyluk, Joanna; Ge, Yang; Wurster, Kai; Lenski, Markus; Reichel, Carsten

    2015-08-01

    An interaction between in situ boron doped SiGe layers deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and NH3 plasma treatments was studied in this work. It is shown that NH3 plasma strips introduce H atoms into SiGe layer which further leads to unwanted blistering and exfoliation of the SiGe layer. The SiGe layers with varied boron profiles were examined in this work in order to understand influence of B doping on H accumulation. It is shown that B peak at SiGe/Si interface can be modulated by the temperature and pressure changes between the layers' deposition. It was found that less H atoms diffuse into ISBD SiGe layer with higher B peak at Si cap/main SiGe layer. The SiGe layer with removed B peak at buffer/main SiGe layer interface and increased B peak at Si cap was proven to be delamination free and robust for HN3 plasma strips.

  2. Multinuclear layer-by-layer growth on Ge(1 1 1) by LPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Takahiro; Matsuda, Keiji; Naritsuka, Shigeya

    2005-02-01

    Aiming at the fabrication of step-free Ge(1 1 1) surfaces of device size, liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) growth was carried out on Ge(1 1 1) mesa structures. Reducing supersaturation by controlling the growth temperature, nearly atomically flat faces were formed on several mesas following LPE growth at less than 480 °C. Taking into account the density of edge, screw and mixed dislocations, these flat faces appear to have formed on the top surface of screw and mixed dislocation-free mesas. Observation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed the presence of a number of triangular hollows with monolayer step depth on the flat faces, indicating "multinuclear layer-by-layer growth". In addition, the number of triangular hollows was found to be exponentially dependent on the reciprocal of growth temperature. Taking into account the step velocity, the mechanism of two-dimensional nucleation on an atomically flat surface is discussed.

  3. Surface Morphology Transformation Under High-Temperature Annealing of Ge Layers Deposited on Si(100).

    PubMed

    Shklyaev, A A; Latyshev, A V

    2016-12-01

    We study the surface morphology and chemical composition of SiGe layers after their formation under high-temperature annealing at 800-1100 °C of 30-150 nm Ge layers deposited on Si(100) at 400-500 °C. It is found that the annealing leads to the appearance of the SiGe layers of two types, i.e., porous and continuous. The continuous layers have a smoothened surface morphology and a high concentration of threading dislocations. The porous and continuous layers can coexist. Their formation conditions and the ratio between their areas on the surface depend on the thickness of deposited Ge layers, as well as on the temperature and the annealing time. The data obtained suggest that the porous SiGe layers are formed due to melting of the strained Ge layers and their solidification in the conditions of SiGe dewetting on Si. The porous and dislocation-rich SiGe layers may have properties interesting for applications.

  4. Segregation of Sb in Ge epitaxial layers and its usage for the selective doping of Ge-based structures

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, A. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Novikov, A. V. Yurasov, D. V.

    2015-11-15

    The segregation of Sb in Ge epitaxial layers grown by the method of molecular beam epitaxy on Ge (001) substrates is investigated. For a growth temperature range of 180–325°C, the temperature dependence is determined for the segregation ratio of Sb in Ge, which shows a sharp increase (by more than three orders of magnitude) with increasing temperature. The strong dependence of the segregation properties of Sb on the growth temperature makes it possible to adapt a method based on the controlled use of segregation developed previously for the doping of Si structures for the selective doping of Ge structures with a donor impurity. Using this method selectively doped Ge:Sb structures, in which the bulk impurity concentration varies by an order of magnitude at distances of 3–5 nm, are obtained.

  5. Modeled optical properties of SiGe and Si layers compared to spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriso, C.; Triozon, F.; Delerue, C.; Schneider, L.; Abbate, F.; Nolot, E.; Rideau, D.; Niquet, Y.-M.; Mugny, G.; Tavernier, C.

    2017-03-01

    The optical response of strained SiGe alloys, as well as thin Si layers, is analyzed using a sp3d5s∗ tight-binding model within the independent particle approximation. The theoretical results are compared to measurements obtained on samples with various Ge content and layer thicknesses. The dielectric function is extracted from spectroscopic ellipsometry allowing a separation of its real and imaginary parts. Theory and simulation show similar trends for the variation of the dielectric function of SiGe with varying Ge content. Variations are also well reproduced for thin Si layers with varying thickness and are attributed to quantum confinement.

  6. Improved interfacial and electrical properties of Ge MOS devices with ZrON/GeON dual passivation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenyu, Yuan; Jingping, Xu; Lu, Liu; Yong, Huang; Zhixiang, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The interfacial and electrical characteristics of Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with a dual passivation layer of ZrON/GeON formed by NH3- or N2-plasma treatment are investigated. The experimental results show that the NH3-plasma treated sample exhibits significantly improved interfacial and electrical properties as compared to the samples with N2-plasma treatment and no treatment: a lower interface-state density at the midgap (1.64 × 1011 cm-2 · eV-1) and gate leakage current (9.32 × 10-5 A/cm2 at Vfb + 1 V), a small capacitance equivalent thickness (1.11 nm) and a high k value (32). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to analyze the involved mechanisms. It is indicated that more GeON and less GeOx (x < 2) are formed on the Ge surface during NH3-plasma treatment than the N2-plasma treatment, resulting in a high-quality high-k/Ge interface, because H atoms and NH radicals in NH3-plasma can enhance volatilization of the unstable low-k GeOx, creating high-quality GeON passivation layer. Moreover, more nitrogen incorporation in ZrON/GeON induced by NH3-plasma treatment can build a stronger N barrier and thus more effectively inhibit in-diffusion of O and Ti from high-k gate dielectric and out-diffusion of Ge. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 6127411261176100, 61404055).

  7. Growth and structural properties of step-graded, high Sn content GeSn layers on Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, J.; Hartmann, J. M.; Gassenq, A.; Rouviere, J. L.; Robin, E.; Delaye, V.; Cooper, D.; Mollard, N.; Reboud, V.; Calvo, V.

    2017-09-01

    Two approaches have been compared for the low temperature epitaxy of thick, partially relaxed GeSn layers on top of Ge strain relaxed buffers. The benefit of using step-graded instead of constant composition layers when targeting really high Sn contents (16%, here) was conclusively demonstrated. Digermane (Ge2H6) and tin-tetrachloride (SnCl4) were used as Ge and Sn precursors, respectively. The growth pressure (100 Torr) and the F(Ge2H6)/F(SnCl4) mass-flow ratio being constant, it was through a temperature lowering that the Sn concentration in the graded structure was increased. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to gain access to the Sn concentration, the strain state, the surface morphology and thicknesses of the heterostructures. Using a step-graded approach allowed us to gradually relax the strain in the GeSn layers. It helped us obtain high crystalline quality and avoid Sn segregation/precipitation for high Sn contents.

  8. Effect of GeO2 deposition temperature in atomic layer deposition on electrical properties of Ge gate stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanematsu, Masayuki; Shibayama, Shigehisa; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Wakana; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effect of GeO2 deposition temperature (T depo) on electronic properties of Al/Al2O3/GeO2/Ge MOS capacitors. Capacitance-voltage characteristics show frequency dispersions under depletion and strong inversion conditions, which can be attributed from the interface states at the atomic layer deposition (ALD)-GeO2/Ge interface and from the defect states in the quasi-neutral region in the Ge substrate, respectively. We found that the interface state density (D it) shows similar values and energy distributions as T depo decreases to 200 from 300 °C, while a higher D it is observed at a T depo of 150 °C. Also, from the temperature dependence of conductance, the frequency dispersion under the strong inversion condition can be related to the minority carrier diffusion to the quasi-neutral region of the Ge substrate. The frequency dependence of conductance reveals that the undesirable increment of the bulk defect density can be suppressed by decreasing T depo. In this study, the bulk defect density in a MOS capacitor prepared at a T depo of 200 °C decreases one tenth compared with that at a T depo of 300 °C. The ALD of GeO2 at a low temperature of around 200 °C is effective for both obtaining a low D it and preventing the undesirable introduction of bulk defect density.

  9. Layer-controlled band alignment, work function and optical properties of few-layer GeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiufeng; Zhou, Wenhan; Liu, Xuhai; Gu, Yu; Zhang, Shengli

    2017-08-01

    The electronic properties, such as the layer-dependent behavior of the band structure, band gap, work function alignment and dielectric properties of the few-layer GeSe are systematically investigated via gradient-corrected density functional theory computations, inspired by the experimentally observation of two-dimension materials such as graphene, phosphorene, MoS2 and BN. The results indicate that the few-layer GeSe presents a robust direct band gap, which decreases with increasing the thickness from bilayer (1.15 eV) to six-layer (1.00 eV) around the X point. Furthermore, the work function increases rapidly from monolayer (4.44 eV) to trilayer (4.95 eV). The robust direct band gap characteristics and the layer-dependent band gap suggest that the few-layer GeSe is a promising material for efficient solar energy harvesting applications. The layer dependence of the GeSe work function offers a practical route to tune the Schottky barrier in GeSe based electronic devices. Our results provide new insights on utilizing the layer-controlled band gap of the atomic layers of GeSe.

  10. Influence of absorber layer dopants on performance of Ge/Si single photon avalanche diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilgrim, Neil J.; Ikonic, Zoran; Kelsall, Robert W.

    2013-04-01

    Monte Carlo electronic transport simulations are applied to investigate the influence of the Ge absorber layer on the performance of Ge/Si single photon avalanche diodes. Ge dopant type and concentration control the internal electric field gradients, which directly influence the probabilistic distribution of times from the point of charge photo-generation to that of transmission over the Ge/Si heterojunction. The electric field adjacent to the heterointerface is found to be the dominant factor in achieving rapid transmission, leading to a preference for p-type dopants in the Ge absorber. The contribution to jitter from the Ge layer is estimated and appears relatively independent of bias, though scales near-linearly with layer height.

  11. Direct assessment of relaxation and defect propagation in different as-grown and in situ post-growth annealed thin Ge/Si and step-graded Si 1- xGe x/Si buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, M. Y. A.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.; Patel, C. J.; Hernandez, C.; Campidelli, Y.; Bensahel, D.; Kyutt, R. N.

    2001-11-01

    The strain-sensitive X-ray two-dimensional reciprocal space mapping diffractrometry (2D-RSM) is employed to investigate the relaxation parameters and defect propagation in various thin relaxed buffer layers (RBLs) having a pure Ge top. In addition, we also studied the effect of in situ post-growth thermal treatments at an early growth stage of RBLs with low and intermediate Ge fraction. Both direct Ge epitaxy and multi-layer step-graded epitaxy have been adopted to grow these RBLs using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at elevated partial pressure (around 10 Torr), which implies a much higher growth rate than RBLs grown using ultra-high vacuum CVD technique. Fully relaxed Ge top layers were obtained for both the direct Ge epitaxy, as well as for the step-graded technique. The results, when comparing these two techniques, favor the direct Ge epitaxy. However, the results of in situ post-growth annealing of the step-graded RBLs indicate a large reduction in the threading dislocations present in the grading regions without a change of relaxation degree or Ge% incorporation in that region.

  12. Growth of uniform CaGe2 films by alternating layer molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinsong; Katoch, Jyoti; Ahmed, Adam S.; Pinchuk, Igor V.; Young, Justin R.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelz, Jonathan; Kawakami, Roland K.

    2017-02-01

    Layered Zintl phase van der Waals (vdW) materials are of interest due to their strong spin-orbit coupling and potential for high mobility. Here, we report the successful growth of large area CaGe2 films, as a model of layered Zintl phase materials, on atomically flat Ge(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using an alternating layer growth (ALG) protocol. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns of the Ge buffer layer and CaGe2 indicate high quality two dimensional surfaces, which is further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing atomically flat and uniform CaGe2 films. The appearance of Laue oscillations in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Kiessig fringes in the X-ray reflectivity (XRR), which are absent in co-deposited CaGe2, confirms the uniformity of the CaGe2 film and the smoothness of the interface. These results demonstrate a novel method of deposition of CaGe2 that could be also applied to other layered Zintl phase vdW materials. Also, the high quality of the CaGe2 film is promising for the exploration of novel properties of germanane.

  13. The nature of intermediate-range order in Ge-As-S glasses : results from reverse Monte Carlo modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Soyer-Uzun, S.; Benmore, C. J.; Siewenie, J. E.; Sen, S.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ.of California at Davis; LANL

    2010-01-01

    The experimental neutron and x-ray diffraction data for stoichiometric and S-deficient Ge{sub x}As{sub x}S{sub 100-2x} glasses with x = 18.2, 25.0, and 33.3 at.% have been modeled simultaneously using the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) technique. Nearest-neighbor coordination environments, as obtained in previous x-ray absorption spectroscopy and diffraction experiments, have been employed as short-range order constraints in these simulations. The large scale three-dimensional structural models thus obtained from RMC simulation are used to investigate the nature and compositional evolution of intermediate-range structural order in these ternary glasses. The intermediate-range structural order is controlled by (1) a corner-shared three-dimensional network of AsS{sub 3} pyramids and GeS{sub 4} tetrahedra in the stoichiometric Ge{sub 18.2}As{sub 18.2}S{sub 63.6} glass, (2) a heterogeneous structure that consists of homopolar bonded As-rich regions coexisting with a GeS{sub 2} network in the S-deficient Ge{sub 25}As{sub 25}S{sub 50} glass, and (3) a homogeneous structure resulting from the disruption of the topological continuity of the GeS{sub 2} network and As-rich clusters regions due to the formation of Ge-As bonds in the most S-deficient Ge{sub 33.3}As{sub 33.3}S{sub 33.3} glass. This scenario of the compositional evolution of intermediate-range structural order is consistent with and provides an atomistic explanation of the corresponding evolution in the position, width and intensity of the first sharp diffraction peak and the magnitude of small angle scattering in these glasses.

  14. GeO{sub x} interfacial layer scavenging remotely induced by metal electrode in metal/HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}/Ge capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Taehoon; Jung, Yong Chan; Seong, Sejong; Ahn, Jinho; Lee, Sung Bo; Park, In-Sung

    2016-07-11

    The metal gate electrodes of Ni, W, and Pt have been investigated for their scavenging effect: a reduction of the GeO{sub x} interfacial layer (IL) between HfO{sub 2} dielectric and Ge substrate in metal/HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}/Ge capacitors. All the capacitors were fabricated using the same process except for the material used in the metal electrodes. Capacitance-voltage measurements, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy were conducted to confirm the scavenging of GeO{sub x} IL. Interestingly, these metals are observed to remotely scavenge the interfacial layer, reducing its thickness in the order of Ni, W, and then Pt. The capacitance equivalent thickness of these capacitors with Ni, W, and Pt electrodes are evaluated to be 2.7 nm, 3.0 nm, and 3.5 nm, and each final remnant physical thickness of GeO{sub x} IL layer is 1.1 nm 1.4 nm, and 1.9 nm, respectively. It is suggested that the scavenging effect induced by the metal electrodes is related to the concentration of oxygen vacancies generated by oxidation reaction at the metal/HfO{sub 2} interface.

  15. High quality Ge epilayer on Si (1 0 0) with an ultrathin Si1-x Ge x /Si buffer layer by RPCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Da; Guo, Qinglei; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Anli; Wang, Bei; Li, Ya; Wang, Gang

    2017-07-01

    The authors report a method to grow high quality strain-relaxed Ge epilayer on a combination of low temperature Ge seed layer and Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition system without any subsequent annealing treatment. Prior to the growth of high quality Ge epilayer, an ultrathin Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer with the thickness of 50 nm and a 460 nm Ge seed layer were deposited successively at low temperature. Then an 840 nm Ge epilayer was grown at high deposition rate with the surface root-mean-square roughness of 0.707 nm and threading dislocation density of 2.5  ×  106 cm-2, respectively. Detailed investigations of the influence of ultrathin low-temperature Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer on the quality of Ge epilayer were performed, which indicates that the crystalline quality of Ge epilayer can be significantly improved by enhancing the Ge concentration of Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer.

  16. Silicon interstitial injection during dry oxidation of SiGe /Si layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolitani, E.; Di Marino, M.; De Salvador, D.; Carnera, A.; Spadafora, M.; Mirabella, S.; Terrasi, A.; Scalese, S.

    2005-02-01

    The injection of Si self-interstitial atoms during dry oxidation at 815°C of very shallow SiGe layers grown on Si (001) by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) has been investigated. We first quantified the oxidation enhanced diffusion (OED) of two boron deltas buried into the Si underlying the oxidized SiGe layers. Then, by simulating the interstitial diffusion in the MBE material with a code developed on purpose, we estimated the interstitial supersaturation (S) at the SiGe /Si interface. We found that S (a) is lower than that observed in pure Si, (b) is Ge-concentration dependent, and (c) has a very fast transient behavior. After such a short transient, the OED is completely suppressed, and the suppression lasts for long annealing times even after the complete oxidation of the SiGe layer. The above results have been related to the mechanism of oxidation of SiGe in which the Ge piles up at the SiO2/SiGe interface by producing a thin and defect-free layer with a very high concentration of Ge.

  17. Effect of tensile-strained Si layer on photoluminescence of Ge(Si) self-assembled islands grown on relaxed SiGe/Si(001) buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaleev, M. V. Novikov, A. V.; Yablonskii, A. N.; Kuznetsov, O. A.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Krasil'nik, Z. F.

    2007-02-15

    The results of studying the photoluminescence of the structures with Ge(Si) self-assembled islands embedded into tensile-strained Si layer are reported. The structures were grown on smooth relaxed Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}/Si(001) (x = 0.2-0.3) buffer layers. The photoluminescence peak found in the photoluminescence spectra of the studied structures is related to the indirect (in real space) optical transition between the holes localized in the Ge(Si) islands and electrons localized in the tensile-strained Si layers under and above an island. It is shown that one can efficiently control the position of the photoluminescence peak for a specified type of structure by varying the thickness of the strained Si layers. It is found that, at 77 K, the intensity of the photoluminescence signal from the heterostructures with Ge(Si) self-assembled islands contained between the tensile-strained Si layers exceeds by an order of magnitude the intensity of the photoluminescence signal from the GeSi structures with islands formed on the Si(001) substrates.

  18. Photoluminescence line width of self-assembled Ge(Si) islands arranged between strained Si layers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaleev, M. V. Novikov, A. V.; Baydakova, N. A.; Yablonskiy, A. N.; Kuznetsov, O. A.; Lobanov, D. N.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2011-02-15

    The effect of variations in the strained Si layer thicknesses, measurement temperature, and optical excitation power on the width of the photoluminescence line produced by self-assembled Ge(Si) nanoislands, which are grown on relaxed SiGe/Si(001) buffer layers and arranged between strained Si layers, is studied. It is shown that the width of the photoluminescence line related to the Ge(Si) islands can be decreased or increased by varying the thickness of strained Si layers lying above and under the islands. A decrease in the width of the photoluminescence line of the Ge(Si) islands to widths comparable with the width of the photoluminescence line of quantum dot (QD) structures based on direct-gap InAs/GaAs semiconductors is attained with consideration of diffusive smearing of the strained Si layer lying above the islands.

  19. Impact of the wetting layer thickness on the emission wavelength of direct band gap GeSn/Ge quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilahi, Bouraoui; Al-Saigh, Reem; Salem, Bassem

    2017-07-01

    The effects of the wetting layer thickness (t WL) on the electronic properties of direct band gap type-I strained dome shaped Ge(1-x)Sn x quantum dot (QD) embedded in Ge matrix is numerically studied. The emission wavelength and the energy difference between S and P electron levels have been evaluated as a function of t WL for different QD size and composition with constant height to diameter ratio. The emission wavelength is found to be red shifted by increasing the wetting layer thickness, with smaller size QD being more sensitive to the variation of t WL. Furthermore, the minimum Sn composition required to fit the directness criteria is found to reduce by increasing the wetting layer thickness.

  20. Simulation of the effects of defects in low temperature Ge buffer layer on dark current of Si-based Ge photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaohui; Huang, Zhiwei; Lin, Guangyang; Li, Cheng; Chen, Songyan; Huang, Wei; Li, Jun; Wang, Jianyuan

    2017-04-01

    The influence of defects in low temperature Ge layer on electrical characteristics of p-Ge/i-Ge/n-Si and n-Ge/i-Ge/p-Ge photodiodes (PDs) was studied. Due to a two-step growth method, there are high defect densities in low-temperature buffer Ge layer. It is shown that the defects in low-temperature Ge layer change the band diagrams and the distribution of electric field, leading to the increase of the total dark current for p-Ge/i-Ge/n-Si PDs, whereas these defects have no influence on the dark current for n-Ge/i-Ge/p-Ge PDs. As a complement, a three-dimensional simulation of the total current under illumination was also performed. Project supported by the Key Project of Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61534005), the National Science Foundation of China (No. 61474081), the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2013CB632103), the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province (No. 2015D020), and the Science and Technology Project of Xiamen City (No. 3502Z20154091).

  1. Investigation of the phase relations in the U-Al-Ge ternary system: Influence of the Al/Ge substitution on the properties of the intermediate phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, C.; El Sayah, Z.; Chajewski, G.; Berche, A.; Dorcet, V.; Pikul, A. P.; Pasturel, M.; Joanny, L.; Stepnik, B.; Tougait, O.

    2016-11-01

    The phase relations within the U-Al-Ge ternary system were studied for two isothermal sections, at 673 K for the whole Gibbs triangle and at 1173 K for the concentration range 25-100 at% U. The identification of the phases, their composition ranges and stability were determined by x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. The tie-lines and the solubility domains were determined for the U-Ge and U-Al binaries, the UAl3-UGe3 solid-solution and for the unique ternary intermediate phase U3Al2-xGe3+x. The experimental isopleth section of the pseudo-binary UAl3-UGe3 reveals an isomorphous solid solution based on the Cu3Au-type below the solidus. The U3Al2-xGe3+x solid solution extends for -0.1≤x≤1.35 and -0.2≤x≤1.5 at 673 K and 1173 K respectively. It crystallizes in the I-centered tetragonal symmetry. The reciprocal lattice of several compositions of the U3Al2-xGe3+x solid solution was examined by electron diffraction at room temperature, revealing the presence of a c-glide plane. Their crystal structure was refined by single crystal x-ray diffraction suggesting an isomorphous solid solution best described with the non-centrosymmetric space group I4cm in the paramagnetic domain. The magnetic measurements confirm the ferromagnetic ordering of the solid solution U3Al2-xGe3+x with an increase of Tc with the Al content. The thermal variation of the specific heat bear out the magnetic transitions with some delocalized character of the uranium 5f electrons.

  2. Atomic structure of the two intermediate phase glasses SiSe4 and GeSe4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massobrio, Carlo; Celino, Massimo; Salmon, Philip S.; Martin, Richard A.; Micoulaut, Matthieu; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    The microscopic origin of the intermediate phase in two prototypical covalently bonded AxB1-x network glass forming systems, where A=Ge or Si, B=Se , and 0≤x≤1 , was investigated by combining neutron diffraction with first-principles molecular-dynamics methods. Specifically, the structure of glassy GeSe4 and SiSe4 was examined, and the calculated total structure factor and total pair-correlation function for both materials are in good agreement with experiment. The structure of both glasses differs markedly from a simple model comprising undefective AB4 corner-sharing tetrahedra in which all A atoms are linked by B2 dimers. Instead, edge-sharing tetrahedra occur and the twofold coordinated Se atoms form three distinct structural motifs, namely, Se-Se2 , Se-SeGe (or Se-SeSi), and Se-Ge2 (or Se-Si2 ). This identifies several of the conformations that are responsible for the structural variability in GexSe1-x and SixSe1-x glasses, a quantity that is linked to the finite width of the intermediate phase window.

  3. Interfacial-layers-free Ga2O3(Gd2O3)/Ge MOS Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. H.; Lin, T. D.; Lee, K. Y.; Huang, M. L.; Tung, L. T.; Hong, M.; Kwo, J.

    2008-03-01

    High κ dielectric Ga2O3(Gd2O3) films were deposited directly on Ge by Molecular-Beam-Epitaxy without the employment of GeON interfacial layer. Excellent electrical properties, such as a high κ value of 14.5, a low leakage current density of only 3x10-9 A/cm^2 at Vfb+1V, and well-behaved CV characteristics, were demonstrated, even being subjected to a 500^oC annealing in N2 ambient for 5 min. An abrupt Ga2O3(Gd2O3)/Ge interface without any interfacial layer was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as well as in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Detailed XPS studies indicate that the oxide/Ge interface consists of mainly Ge-O-Gd bonding, distinctly different from that of native oxide. Furthermore, the 500^oC annealing did not change the chemical bonding, implying a great thermodynamic stability of the hetero-structure. The outstanding electrical and thermodynamic properties qualified Ga2O3(Gd2O3) as a promising dielectric for Ge and proved the GeON interfacial layer to be unnecessary.

  4. The role of Ag buffer layer in Fe islands growth on Ge (111) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Tsu-Yi Wu, Jia-Yuan; Jhou, Ming-Kuan; Hsu, Hung-Chan

    2015-05-07

    Sub-monolayer iron atoms were deposited at room temperature on Ge (111)-c(2 × 8) substrates with and without Ag buffer layers. The behavior of Fe islands growth was investigated by using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) after different annealing temperatures. STM images show that iron atoms will cause defects and holes on substrates at room temperature. As the annealing temperature rises, iron atoms pull out germanium to form various kinds of alloyed islands. However, the silver layer can protect the Ag/Ge(111)-(√3×√3) reconstruction from forming defects. The phase diagram shows that ring, dot, and triangular defects were only found on Ge (111)-c(2 × 8) substrates. The kinds of islands found in Fe/Ge system are similar to Fe/Ag/Ge system. It indicates that Ge atoms were pulled out to form islands at high annealing temperatures whether there was a Ag layer or not. But a few differences in big pyramidal or strip islands show that the silver layer affects the development of islands by changing the surface symmetry and diffusion coefficient. The structure characters of various islands are also discussed.

  5. Effects of boron dopants of Si (001) substrates on formation of Ge layers by sputter epitaxy method

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Takahiro; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Hirose, Nobumitsu; Kasamatsu, Akifumi; Mimura, Takashi; Matsui, Toshiaki

    2013-10-21

    The formation of Ge layers on boron-doped Si (001) substrates by our sputter epitaxy method has been investigated. The surface morphology of Ge layers grown on Si substrates depends on the substrate resistance, and flat Ge layers are obtained on Si substrates with 0.015 Ω cm resistivity. Highly boron-doped Si substrates cause a transition in the dislocation structure from complex dislocations with 60° dislocation glide planes to 90° pure-edge dislocations, resulting in the formation of flat Ge layers. Furthermore, we have found that the surface morphology of the Ge layers improves with increasing Ge layer thickness. Ge atoms migrating on the deposited Ge layers tend to position themselves at the reactive sites, where the reactivity is related to the number of bonding contacts between the Ge atom and the surface. This modifies the surface morphology, resulting in a flatter surface. Boron dopants together with the sputter epitaxy method effectively suppress the growth of Ge islands and result in the formation of flat Ge layers.

  6. Enhancement of carrier mobility in thin Ge layer by Sn co-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prucnal, S.; Liu, F.; Berencén, Y.; Vines, L.; Bischoff, L.; Grenzer, J.; Andric, S.; Tiagulskyi, S.; Pyszniak, K.; Turek, M.; Drozdziel, A.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.; Skorupa, W.

    2016-10-01

    We present the development, optimization and fabrication of high carrier mobility materials based on GeOI wafers co-doped with Sn and P. The Ge thin films were fabricated using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition followed by ion implantation and explosive solid phase epitaxy, which is induced by millisecond flash lamp annealing. The influence of the recrystallization mechanism and co-doping of Sn on the carrier distribution and carrier mobility both in n-type and p-type GeOI wafers is discussed in detail. This finding significantly contributes to the state-of-the-art of high carrier mobility-GeOI wafers since the results are comparable with GeOI commercial wafers fabricated by epitaxial layer transfer or SmartCut technology.

  7. Bidimensional intercalation of Ge between SiC(0001) and a heteroepitaxial graphite top layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kubler, L.; Dentel, D.; Bischoff, J.-L.; Derivaz, M.; Aiet-Mansour, K.; Diani, M.

    2005-09-15

    High temperature annealing of 4H- or 6H-SiC(0001) crystals is well known to desorb Si from the surface and to generate a C-rich (6{radical}3x6{radical}3)R30 deg. (6{radical}3) reconstruction explained as a graphite monolayer in heteroepitaxial registry with the substrate. Ge deposition at room temperature and in the monolayer range on this graphitized reconstruction results in Ge islands. Using a number of surface techniques, we follow subsequent Ge morphology evolutions as a function of isochronal post-annealing treatments at increasing temperatures. In a particular temperature window Ge reacts with the substrate by diffusion under the graphite planes and wets the Si-terminated SiC surface. In spite of this bidimensional insertion of a Ge layer, the epitaxial relationship between the SiC substrate and the graphite is maintained as shown by very clear graphite-(1x1) LEED or RHEED patterns. They denote extended and well-ordered graphite planes at the surface of a graphite/Ge/SiC heterostructure. XPS analyses reveal a complete passivation of the intercalated Ge layer against oxidation by the overlying graphite sheets. Moreover, drastic spectroscopic changes on the bulk-SiC Si 2p and C 1s core levels are observed, depending on whether graphite(6{radical}3)/SiC or graphite(1x1)/Ge/SiC terminations are analyzed. In the latter case, the observed core level splitting of the bulk components is interpreted by a significant upward band bending ({approx}1.2 eV) of the n-doped SiC, making this second interface to act as a Schottky barrier. Above 1300 deg. C, a delayed Ge desorption takes place that allows the graphite sheets to re-form in their initial 6{radical}3 form, i.e., without Ge and with flatter bands.

  8. Electrochemistry of layered GaSe and GeS: applications to ORR, OER and HER.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu Min; Chua, Chun Kiang; Sedmidubský, David; Sofer, Zdene Combining Breve K; Pumera, Martin

    2016-01-21

    Though many studies examined the properties of the class of IIIA-VIA and IVA-VIA layered materials, few have delved into the electrochemical aspect of such materials. In light of the burgeoning interest in layered structures towards various electrocatalytic applications, we endeavored to study the inherent electrochemical properties of representative layered materials of this class, GaSe and GeS, and their impact towards electrochemical sensing of redox probes as well as catalysis of oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution and hydrogen evolution reactions. In contrast to the typical sandwich structure of MoS2 layered materials, GeS is isoelectronic to black phosphorus with the same structure; GaSe is a layered material consisting of GaSe sheets bonded in the sequence Se-Ga-Ga-Se. We characterized GaSe and GeS by employing scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy complemented by electronic structure calculations. It was found that the encompassing surface oxide layers on GaSe and GeS greatly influenced their electrochemical properties, especially their electrocatalytic capabilities towards hydrogen evolution reaction. These findings provide fresh insight into the electrochemical properties of these IIIA-VIA and IVA-VIA layered structures which enables development for future applications.

  9. Pulsed laser annealing of highly doped Ge:Sb layers deposited on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalov, R. I.; Bayazitov, R. M.; Faizrakhmanov, I. A.; Lyadov, N. M.; Shustov, V. A.; Ivlev, G. D.

    2016-10-01

    Germanium (Ge) is a promising material for micro- and optoelectronics to produce high speed field-effect transistors, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and lasers. For such applications tensile-strained and/or highly n-doped Ge layers are needed. The authors have performed the formation of such layers by ion-beam sputtering of composite Sb/Ge target, deposition of thin amorphous Ge:Sb films (~200 nm thick) on different substrates (c-Si, c-Al2O3, α-SiO2) followed by pulsed laser annealing (PLA) for their crystallization and Sb dopant activation. Structural, electrical and optical characterization of Ge:Sb films was carried out using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry methods and by measuring sheet resistance, carrier concentration and photoluminescence. The obtained polycrystalline n-Ge:Sb layers (N Sb ~ 1 at.%) are characterized by increased values of tensile strain (up to 1%) and homogenious Sb dopant distribution within layer thickness. The electrical measurements at 300 K revealed the low sheet resistance (up to 40 Ω/□) and extremely high electron concentration (up to 5.5  ×  1020 cm-3) in Ge:Sb/SiO2 samples that indicated full electrical activation of Sb dopant on SiO2 substrate. The increased values of tensile strain and electron concentration of Ge:Sb films on α-SiO2 are explained by low values of thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficients of quartz substrate.

  10. SiGe layer thickness effect on the structural and optical properties of well-organized SiGe/SiO2 multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, E. M. F.; Toudert, J.; Rolo, A. G.; Parisini, A.; Leitão, J. P.; Correia, M. R.; Franco, N.; Alves, E.; Chahboun, A.; Martín-Sánchez, J.; Serna, R.; Gomes, M. J. M.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we report on the production of regular (SiGe/SiO2)20 multilayer structures by conventional RF-magnetron sputtering, at 350 °C. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, raman spectroscopy, and x-ray reflectometry measurements revealed that annealing at a temperature of 1000 °C leads to the formation of SiGe nanocrystals between SiO2 thin layers with good multilayer stability. Reducing the nominal SiGe layer thickness (t SiGe) from 3.5-2 nm results in a transition from continuous SiGe crystalline layer (t SiGe ˜ 3.5 nm) to layers consisting of isolated nanocrystals (t SiGe ˜ 2 nm). Namely, in the latter case, the presence of SiGe nanocrystals ˜3-8 nm in size, is observed. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to determine the evolution of the onset in the effective optical absorption, as well as the dielectric function, in SiGe multilayers as a function of the SiGe thickness. A clear blue-shift in the optical absorption is observed for t SiGe ˜ 2 nm multilayer, as a consequence of the presence of isolated nanocrystals. Furthermore, the observed near infrared values of n = 2.8 and k = 1.5 are lower than those of bulk SiGe compounds, suggesting the presence of electronic confinement effects in the nanocrystals. The low temperature (70 K) photoluminescence measurements performed on annealed SiGe/SiO2 nanostructures show an emission band located between 0.7-0.9 eV associated with the development of interface states between the formed nanocrystals and surrounding amorphous matrix.

  11. SiGe layer thickness effect on the structural and optical properties of well-organized SiGe/SiO2 multilayers.

    PubMed

    Vieira, E M F; Toudert, J; Rolo, A G; Parisini, A; Leitão, J P; Correia, M R; Franco, N; Alves, E; Chahboun, A; Martín-Sánchez, J; Serna, R; Gomes, M J M

    2017-08-25

    In this work, we report on the production of regular (SiGe/SiO2)20 multilayer structures by conventional RF-magnetron sputtering, at 350 °C. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, raman spectroscopy, and x-ray reflectometry measurements revealed that annealing at a temperature of 1000 °C leads to the formation of SiGe nanocrystals between SiO2 thin layers with good multilayer stability. Reducing the nominal SiGe layer thickness (t SiGe) from 3.5-2 nm results in a transition from continuous SiGe crystalline layer (t SiGe ∼ 3.5 nm) to layers consisting of isolated nanocrystals (t SiGe ∼ 2 nm). Namely, in the latter case, the presence of SiGe nanocrystals ∼3-8 nm in size, is observed. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to determine the evolution of the onset in the effective optical absorption, as well as the dielectric function, in SiGe multilayers as a function of the SiGe thickness. A clear blue-shift in the optical absorption is observed for t SiGe ∼ 2 nm multilayer, as a consequence of the presence of isolated nanocrystals. Furthermore, the observed near infrared values of n = 2.8 and k = 1.5 are lower than those of bulk SiGe compounds, suggesting the presence of electronic confinement effects in the nanocrystals. The low temperature (70 K) photoluminescence measurements performed on annealed SiGe/SiO2 nanostructures show an emission band located between 0.7-0.9 eV associated with the development of interface states between the formed nanocrystals and surrounding amorphous matrix.

  12. Growth of homogeneous single-layer graphene on Ni-Ge binary substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Da; Lu, Zitong; Guo, Qinglei; Ye, Lin; Wei, Xing; Ding, Guqiao; Zhang, Miao; Di, Zengfeng; Liu, Su

    2014-02-01

    In contrast to the commonly used chemical vapor deposition growth that leads to multilayer graphene formation by carbon segregation from the Ni bulk, we designed a Ni-Ge binary system to directly grow graphene film on Ni-Ge binary substrate, via chemical vapor deposition with methane and hydrogen gas as precursors. Our system fully overcomes the fundamental limitations of Ni and yields homogenous single layer graphene over large areas. The chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene on Ni-Ge binary substrate shows that self limiting monolayer graphene growth can be obtained on these substrate.

  13. Structural Mapping of Functional Ge Layers Grown on Graded SiGe Buffers for sub-10 nm CMOS Applications Using Advanced X-ray Nanodiffraction.

    PubMed

    Richard, Marie-Ingrid; Zoellner, Marvin H; Chahine, Gilbert A; Zaumseil, Peter; Capellini, Giovanni; Häberlen, Maik; Storck, Peter; Schülli, Tobias U; Schroeder, Thomas

    2015-12-09

    We report a detailed advanced materials characterization study on 40 nm thick strained germanium (Ge) layers integrated on 300 mm Si(001) wafers via strain-relaxed silicon-germanium (SiGe) buffer layers. Fast-scanning X-ray microscopy is used to directly image structural inhomogeneities, lattice tilt, thickness, and strain of a functional Ge layer down to the sub-micrometer scale with a real space step size of 750 μm. The structural study shows that the metastable Ge layer, pseudomorphically grown on Si(0.3)Ge(0.7), exhibits an average compressive biaxial strain of -1.27%. By applying a scan area of 100 × 100 μm(2), we observe microfluctuations of strain, lattice tilt, and thickness of ca. ±0.03%, ±0.05°, and ±0.8 nm, respectively. This study confirms the high materials homogeneity of the compressively strained Ge layer realized by the step-graded SiGe buffer approach on 300 mm Si wafers. This presents thus a promising materials science approach for advanced sub-10 nm complementary metal oxide-semiconductor applications based on strain-engineered Ge transistors to outperform current Si channel technologies.

  14. Interplay between relaxation and Sn segregation during thermal annealing of GeSn strained layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comrie, C. M.; Mtshali, C. B.; Sechogela, P. T.; Santos, N. M.; van Stiphout, K.; Loo, R.; Vandervorst, W.; Vantomme, A.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of thermal annealing on epitaxial GeSn (6.5% Sn) strained layers grown on Ge-buffered Si(100) wafers has been investigated using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction to unambiguously determine the Sn substitutional content as well as the elastic strain in the layers. Vacuum annealing at temperatures below 400 °C for 20 min has no noticeable effect on the strain in the epitaxial layers. Once the temperature was raised above 400 °C, however, relaxation of the layer sets in and the GeSn layer has essentially completely relaxed following a 20 min anneal at 650 °C. Using Rutherford backscattering and channelling spectrometry to provide compositional information as a function of depth enables one to monitor the effect of the thermal anneal on the Sn distribution throughout the layer, and also to directly extract their substitutional fraction (i.e., their solubility in the lattice). The results obtained show that when the relaxation initially sets in both the Ge and the Sn remain firmly bound in substitutional lattice sites and it is only around 600 °C, and after substantial relaxation has taken place, that Sn is finally expelled from lattice sites and diffuses to the surface of the sample.

  15. Enhancing crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency with SixGe1-x layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Adnan; Cheow, S. L.; Azhari, A. W.; Sopian, K.; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell represents a cost effective, environment-friendly, and proven renewable energy resource. Industrially manufacturing of c-Si solar has now matured in terms of efficiency and cost. Continuing cost-effective efficiency enhancement requires transition towards thinner wafers in near term and thin-films in the long term. Successful implementation of either of these alternatives must address intrinsic optical absorption limitation of Si. Bandgap engineering through integration with SixGe1-x layers offers an attractive, inexpensive option. With the help of PC1D software, role of SixGe1-x layers in conventional c-Si solar cells has been intensively investigated in both wafer and thin film configurations by varying Ge concentration, thickness, and placement. In wafer configuration, increase in Ge concentration leads to enhanced absorption through bandgap broadening with an efficiency enhancement of 8% for Ge concentrations of less than 20%. At higher Ge concentrations, despite enhanced optical absorption, efficiency is reduced due to substantial lowering of open-circuit voltage. In 5-25-μm thickness, thin-film solar cell configurations, efficiency gain in excess of 30% is achievable. Therefore, SixGe1-x based thin-film solar cells with an order of magnitude reduction in costly Si material are ideally-suited both in terms of high efficiency and cost. Recent research has demonstrated significant improvement in epitaxially grown SixGe1-x layers on nanostructured Si substrates, thereby enhancing potential of this approach for next generation of c-Si based photovoltaics.

  16. Diffractive intermediate layer enables broadband light trapping for high efficiency ultrathin c-Si tandem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guijun; Ho, Jacob Y. L.; Li, He; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2014-06-01

    Light management through the intermediate reflector in the tandem cell configuration is of great practical importance for achieving high stable efficiency and also low cost production. So far, however, the intermediate reflectors employed currently are mainly focused on the light absorption enhancement of the top cell. Here, we present a diffractive intermediate layer that allows for light trapping over a broadband wavelength for the ultrathin c-Si tandem solar cell. Compared with the standard intermediate reflector, this nanoscale architectural intermediate layer results in a 35% and 21% remarkable enhancement of the light absorption in the top (400-800 nm) and bottom (800-1100 nm) cells simultaneously, and ultrathin c-Si tandem cells with impressive conversion efficiency of 13.3% are made on the glass substrate.

  17. Dilute Group III-V nitride intermediate band solar cells with contact blocking layers

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw [Kensington, CA; Yu, Kin Man [Lafayette, CA

    2012-07-31

    An intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) is provided including a p-n junction based on dilute III-V nitride materials and a pair of contact blocking layers positioned on opposite surfaces of the p-n junction for electrically isolating the intermediate band of the p-n junction by blocking the charge transport in the intermediate band without affecting the electron and hole collection efficiency of the p-n junction, thereby increasing open circuit voltage (V.sub.OC) of the IBSC and increasing the photocurrent by utilizing the intermediate band to absorb photons with energy below the band gap of the absorber layers of the IBSC. Hence, the overall power conversion efficiency of a IBSC will be much higher than an conventional single junction solar cell. The p-n junction absorber layers of the IBSC may further have compositionally graded nitrogen concentrations to provide an electric field for more efficient charge collection.

  18. Dilute group III-V nitride intermediate band solar cells with contact blocking layers

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man

    2015-02-24

    An intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) is provided including a p-n junction based on dilute III-V nitride materials and a pair of contact blocking layers positioned on opposite surfaces of the p-n junction for electrically isolating the intermediate band of the p-n junction by blocking the charge transport in the intermediate band without affecting the electron and hole collection efficiency of the p-n junction, thereby increasing open circuit voltage (V.sub.OC) of the IBSC and increasing the photocurrent by utilizing the intermediate band to absorb photons with energy below the band gap of the absorber layers of the IBSC. Hence, the overall power conversion efficiency of a IBSC will be much higher than an conventional single junction solar cell. The p-n junction absorber layers of the IBSC may further have compositionally graded nitrogen concentrations to provide an electric field for more efficient charge collection.

  19. Investigation of Interface between Ge Electrodes and Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Electric Double Layer Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysinghe, R. M.; Oguchi, H.; Kuwano, H.

    2016-11-01

    This study discusses novel way of use of ionic liquids to develop Ge-based electrodes for electric double layer capacitors (EDLC). We found that ionic liquids change their electrochemical properties depending on the amount of the absorbed water. Wet ionic liquids work as solvents to dissolve Ge and make porous structures, whereas dry ones work as electrolytes of the EDLCs. The former property was used to increase surface area of the electrodes which is desired to increase the capacity of EDLCs. This method showed another advantage in contrast to the dry ionic liquids; wet ones could fill the complex Ge pores in parallel to porous structure formation. Finally, after porous formation, we dried the ionic liquid at 100 °C and prepared the EDLCs composed of Ge porous electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance measurements indicated that the obtained devices can work as EDLCs.

  20. Highly conductive Ge-doped GaN epitaxial layers prepared by pulsed sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Kohei; Arakawa, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Highly conductive Ge-doped GaN epitaxial layers were grown by low-temperature pulsed sputtering, and their fundamental structural and electrical properties were investigated. The room-temperature (RT) electron concentration was increased to 5.1 × 1020 cm‑3 by the Ge doping, and the atomically flat stepped and terraced surface and the crystalline quality of the layers were maintained. Consequently, the RT resistivity was reduced to 0.20 mΩ·cm, which is comparable to that for typical transparent conductive oxides such as indium tin oxide. The contact resistance of Ge-doped GaN with a Ti/Al/Ti/Au metal stack prepared without annealing was as low as 0.087 Ω·mm. Furthermore, the selective formation of a Ge-doped region using an SiO2 mask was demonstrated. The results clearly indicate the strong potential of pulsed sputtering Ge-doped GaN growth for forming low-parasitic-resistance contact layers of various electrical and optical devices.

  1. Discussion of "Formation of an Intermediate Layer Between Grains in Nickel-Based Superalloy Turbine Blades"*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2017-10-01

    Kim and Withey discuss the formation of an `intermediate layer', formed between grains, which they observe in some Ni-base superalloys. This author proposes that the layer is the result of the presence of a bifilm, a double film probably of oxide or nitride, which appears to be capable of providing a coherent explanation of all the interesting observations reported by the authors.

  2. Relationship between structural changes, hydrogen content and annealing in stacks of ultrathin Si/Ge amorphous layers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogenated multilayers (MLs) of a-Si/a-Ge have been analysed to establish the reasons of H release during annealing that has been seen to bring about structural modifications even up to well-detectable surface degradation. Analyses carried out on single layers of a-Si and a-Ge show that H is released from its bond to the host lattice atom and that it escapes from the layer much more efficiently in a-Ge than in a-Si because of the smaller binding energy of the H-Ge bond and probably of a greater weakness of the Ge lattice. This should support the previous hypothesis that the structural degradation of a-Si/a-Ge MLs primary starts with the formation of H bubbles in the Ge layers. PMID:21711697

  3. Relationship between structural changes, hydrogen content and annealing in stacks of ultrathin Si/Ge amorphous layers.

    PubMed

    Frigeri, Cesare; Serényi, Miklós; Khánh, Nguyen Quoc; Csik, Attila; Riesz, Ferenc; Erdélyi, Zoltán; Nasi, Lucia; Beke, Dezső László; Boyen, Hans-Gerd

    2011-03-01

    Hydrogenated multilayers (MLs) of a-Si/a-Ge have been analysed to establish the reasons of H release during annealing that has been seen to bring about structural modifications even up to well-detectable surface degradation. Analyses carried out on single layers of a-Si and a-Ge show that H is released from its bond to the host lattice atom and that it escapes from the layer much more efficiently in a-Ge than in a-Si because of the smaller binding energy of the H-Ge bond and probably of a greater weakness of the Ge lattice. This should support the previous hypothesis that the structural degradation of a-Si/a-Ge MLs primary starts with the formation of H bubbles in the Ge layers.

  4. Columnar structured FePt films epitaxially grown on large lattice mismatched intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, K. F.; Deng, J. Y.; Peng, Y. G.; Ju, G.; Chow, G. M.; Chen, J. S.

    2016-09-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of the FePt films grown on large mismatched ZrN (15.7%) intermediate layer were investigated. With using ZrN intermediate layer, FePt 10 nm films exhibited (001) texture except for some weaker FePt (110) texture. Good epitaxial relationships of FePt (001) <100>//ZrN (001) <100>//TiN (001) <100> among FePt and ZrN/TiN were revealed from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. As compared with TiN intermediate layer, although FePt-SiO2-C films grown on ZrN/TiN intermediate layer showed isotropic magnetic properties, the large interfacial energy and lattice mismatch between FePt and ZrN would lead to form columnar structural FePt films with smaller grain size and improved isolation. By doping ZrN into the TiN layer, solid solution of ZrTiN was formed and the lattice constant is increased comparing with TiN and decreased comparing with ZrN. Moreover, FePt-SiO2-C films grown on TiN 2 nm-20 vol.% ZrN/TiN 3 nm intermediate layer showed an improved perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Simultaneously, columnar structure with smaller grain size retained.

  5. Columnar structured FePt films epitaxially grown on large lattice mismatched intermediate layer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, K. F.; Deng, J. Y.; Peng, Y. G.; Ju, G.; Chow, G. M.; Chen, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of the FePt films grown on large mismatched ZrN (15.7%) intermediate layer were investigated. With using ZrN intermediate layer, FePt 10 nm films exhibited (001) texture except for some weaker FePt (110) texture. Good epitaxial relationships of FePt (001) <100>//ZrN (001) <100>//TiN (001) <100> among FePt and ZrN/TiN were revealed from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. As compared with TiN intermediate layer, although FePt-SiO2-C films grown on ZrN/TiN intermediate layer showed isotropic magnetic properties, the large interfacial energy and lattice mismatch between FePt and ZrN would lead to form columnar structural FePt films with smaller grain size and improved isolation. By doping ZrN into the TiN layer, solid solution of ZrTiN was formed and the lattice constant is increased comparing with TiN and decreased comparing with ZrN. Moreover, FePt-SiO2-C films grown on TiN 2 nm-20 vol.% ZrN/TiN 3 nm intermediate layer showed an improved perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Simultaneously, columnar structure with smaller grain size retained. PMID:27686046

  6. Columnar structured FePt films epitaxially grown on large lattice mismatched intermediate layer.

    PubMed

    Dong, K F; Deng, J Y; Peng, Y G; Ju, G; Chow, G M; Chen, J S

    2016-09-30

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of the FePt films grown on large mismatched ZrN (15.7%) intermediate layer were investigated. With using ZrN intermediate layer, FePt 10 nm films exhibited (001) texture except for some weaker FePt (110) texture. Good epitaxial relationships of FePt (001) <100>//ZrN (001) <100>//TiN (001) <100> among FePt and ZrN/TiN were revealed from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. As compared with TiN intermediate layer, although FePt-SiO2-C films grown on ZrN/TiN intermediate layer showed isotropic magnetic properties, the large interfacial energy and lattice mismatch between FePt and ZrN would lead to form columnar structural FePt films with smaller grain size and improved isolation. By doping ZrN into the TiN layer, solid solution of ZrTiN was formed and the lattice constant is increased comparing with TiN and decreased comparing with ZrN. Moreover, FePt-SiO2-C films grown on TiN 2 nm-20 vol.% ZrN/TiN 3 nm intermediate layer showed an improved perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Simultaneously, columnar structure with smaller grain size retained.

  7. Electrically detected magnetic resonance study of the Ge dangling bonds at the Ge(1 1 1)/GeO2 interface after capping with Al2O3 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paleari, S.; Molle, A.; Accetta, F.; Lamperti, A.; Cianci, E.; Fanciulli, M.

    2014-02-01

    The electrical activity of Ge dangling bonds is investigated at the interface between GeO2-passivated Ge(1 1 1) substrate and Al2O3 grown by atomic layer deposition, by means of electrically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy (EDMR). The Al2O3/GeO2/Ge stacked structure is promising as a mobility booster for the post-Si future electronic devices. EDMR proved to be useful in characterizing interface defects, even at the very low concentrations of state-of-the-art devices (<1010 cm-2). In particular, it is shown that capping the GeO2-passivated Ge(1 1 1) with Al2O3 has no impact on the microstructure of the Ge dangling bond.

  8. Anomalously elastic intermediate phase in randomly layered superfluids, superconductors, and planar magnets.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Priyanka; Goldbart, Paul M; Narayanan, Rajesh; Toner, John; Vojta, Thomas

    2010-08-20

    We show that layered quenched randomness in planar magnets leads to an unusual intermediate phase between the conventional ferromagnetic low-temperature and paramagnetic high-temperature phases. In this intermediate phase, which is part of the Griffiths region, the spin-wave stiffness perpendicular to the random layers displays anomalous scaling behavior, with a continuously variable anomalous exponent, while the magnetization and the stiffness parallel to the layers both remain finite. Analogous results hold for superfluids and superconductors. We study the two phase transitions into the anomalous elastic phase, and we discuss the universality of these results, and implications of finite sample size as well as possible experiments.

  9. GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, H. H.; Li, H.; Mashanov, V.; Yang, Y. J.; Cheng, H. H.; Chang, G. E.; Soref, R. A.; Sun, G.

    2013-12-01

    We report an investigation of GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with an active GeSn layer that is almost fully strained. The results show that (a) the response of the Ge/GeSn/Ge heterojunction photodiodes is stronger than that of the reference Ge-based photodiodes at photon energies above the 0.8 eV direct bandgap of bulk Ge (<1.55 μm), and (b) the optical response extends to lower energy regions (1.55-1.80 μm wavelengths) as characterized by the strained GeSn bandgap. A cusp-like spectral characteristic is observed for samples with high Sn contents, which is attributed to the significant strain-induced energy splitting of heavy and light hole bands. This work represents a step forward in developing GeSn-based infrared photodetectors.

  10. GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, H. H.; Li, H.; Mashanov, V.; Yang, Y. J.; Cheng, H. H.; Chang, G. E.; Soref, R. A.; Sun, G.

    2013-12-02

    We report an investigation of GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with an active GeSn layer that is almost fully strained. The results show that (a) the response of the Ge/GeSn/Ge heterojunction photodiodes is stronger than that of the reference Ge-based photodiodes at photon energies above the 0.8 eV direct bandgap of bulk Ge (<1.55 μm), and (b) the optical response extends to lower energy regions (1.55–1.80 μm wavelengths) as characterized by the strained GeSn bandgap. A cusp-like spectral characteristic is observed for samples with high Sn contents, which is attributed to the significant strain-induced energy splitting of heavy and light hole bands. This work represents a step forward in developing GeSn-based infrared photodetectors.

  11. Ellipsometric study of Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieg, R. M.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Croke, E. T.; Harrell, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    An ellipsometric study of two Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer super lattices grown by MBE at low temperature (500 C) is presented, and results are compared with x ray diffraction (XRD) estimates. Excellent agreement is obtained between target values, XRD, and ellipsometry when one of two available Si(x)Ge(1-x) databases is used. It is shown that ellipsometry can be used to nondestructively determine the number of superlattice periods, layer thicknesses, Si(x)Ge(1-x) composition, and oxide thickness without resorting to additional sources of information. It was also noted that we do not observe any strain effect on the E(sub 1) critical point.

  12. Ellipsometric study of Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieg, R. M.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Croke, E. T.; Harrell, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    We present an ellipsometric study of two Si(0.5)Ge(0.5)/Si strained-layer superlattices grown by MBE at low temperature (500 C), and compare our results with X-ray diffraction (XRD) estimates. Excellent agreement is obtained between target values, XRD, and ellipsometry when one of two available Si(x)Ge(1-x) databases is used. We show that ellipsometry can be used to nondestructively determine the number of superlattice periods, layer thicknesses, Si(x)Ge(1-x) composition, and oxide thickness without resorting to additional sources of information. We also note that we do not observe any strain effect on the E1 critical point.

  13. Amorphization threshold in Si-implanted strained SiGe alloy layers

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, T.W.; Love, D.; Endisch, E.; Goldberg, R.D.; Mitchell, I.V.; Haynes, T.E.; Baribeau, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    The authors have examined the damage produced by Si-ion implantation into strained Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x} epilayers. Damage accumulation in the implanted layers was monitored in situ by time-resolved reflectivity and measured by ion channeling techniques to determine the amorphization threshold in strained Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x} (x = 0.16 and 0.29) over the temperature range 30--110 C. The results are compared with previously reported measurements on unstrained Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x}, and with the simple model used to describe those results. They report here data which lend support to this model and which indicate that pre-existing strain does not enhance damage accumulation in the alloy layer.

  14. Raman spectral shift versus strain and composition in GeSn layers with 6%-15% Sn content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassenq, A.; Milord, L.; Aubin, J.; Pauc, N.; Guilloy, K.; Rothman, J.; Rouchon, D.; Chelnokov, A.; Hartmann, J. M.; Reboud, V.; Calvo, V.

    2017-03-01

    GeSn alloys are the subject of intense research activities as these group IV semiconductors present direct bandgap behaviors for high Sn contents. Today, the control of strain becomes an important challenge to improve GeSn devices. Strain micro-measurements are usually performed by Raman spectroscopy. However, different relationships linking the Raman spectral shifts to the built-in strain can be found in the literature. They were deduced from studies on low Sn content GeSn layers (i.e., xSn < 8%) or on GeSiSn layers. In this work, we have calibrated the GeSn Raman relationship for really high Sn content GeSn binaries (6 < xSn < 15%). We have used fully strained GeSn layers and fully relaxed GeSn under-etched microstructures to clearly differentiate the contributions of strain and chemical composition on the Ge-Ge Raman spectral shift. We have shown that the GeSn Raman-strain coefficient for high Sn contents is higher compared with that for pure Ge.

  15. Sn-based waveguide p-i-n photodetector with strained GeSn/Ge multiple-quantum-well active layer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hui; Chang, Guo-En; Li, Hui; Cheng, H H

    2017-05-01

    We report on Sn-based p-i-n waveguide photodetectors (WGPD) with a pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge multiple-quantum-well (MQW) active layer on a Ge-buffered Si substrate. A reduced dark-current density of 59  mA/cm2 was obtained at a reverse bias of 1 V due to the suppressed strain relaxation in the GeSn/Ge active layer. Responsivity experiments revealed an extended photodetection range covering the O, E, S, C, and L telecommunication bands completely due to the bandgap reduction resulting from Sn-alloying. Band structure analysis of the pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge quantum well structures indicated that, despite the stronger quantum confinement, the absorption edge can be shifted to longer wavelengths by increasing the Sn content, thereby enabling efficient photodetection in the infrared region. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using GeSn/Ge MQW planar photodetectors as building blocks of electronic-photonic integrated circuits for telecommunication and optical interconnection applications.

  16. Optical properties of GeS{sub 2} layers photodoped with silver

    SciTech Connect

    Indutnyi, I.Z.; Stetsun, A.I.; Zimenko, V.I.; Kravets, V.G.

    1993-12-01

    The optical properties of GeS{sub 2} thin films photodoped with Ag are studied. Information is obtained on the features of the interaction of Ag with the chalcogenide matrix, on the local structure of the amorphous layer, and on its electronic structure. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Low cost wavelength filter of SiGe photodetector with a-Si:H capped layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. D.; Chang, W. T.; Chen, Y. H.; Hseih, K. H.; Chen, P. S.; Liu, J. C.

    2006-10-01

    The strained Si 0.8Ge 0.2 film has been prepared onto Si substrate by using an ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition system. A low cost wavelength filter of photodetector has been demonstrated for the first time. This filter was simply carried out by just inserting a 60 nm thick a-Si:H capped layer onto Si 0.8Ge 0.2 thin film. The room-temperature photoluminescence shows that the sample with Si 0.8Ge 0.2 layer has a tendency to shift wavelength into longer regime than that of Si substrate. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) was 185 nm for Si 0.8Ge 0.2 photodetector without a-Si:H capped. By inserting a 60 nm thick a-Si:H capped layer, the FWHM was narrowed into 97 nm. This demonstrates that the a-Si:H capped layer has an ability acted as wavelength filter in our study.

  18. Waveguide-integrated vertical pin photodiodes of Ge fabricated on p+ and n+ Si-on-insulator layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kazuki; Hiraki, Tatsurou; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Vertical pin structures of Ge photodiodes (PDs) integrated with Si optical waveguides are fabricated by depositing Ge epitaxial layers on Si-on-insulator (SOI) layers, and the performances of n+-Ge/i-Ge/p+-SOI PDs are compared with those of p+-Ge/i-Ge/n+-SOI PDs. Both types of PDs show responsivities as high as 1.0 A/W at 1.55 µm, while the dark leakage current is different, which is consistent with previous reports on free-space PDs formed on bulk Si wafers. The dark current of the p+-Ge/i-Ge/n+-SOI PDs is higher by more than one order of magnitude. Taking into account the activation energies for dark current as well as the dependence on PD area, the dark current of the n+-Ge/i-Ge/p+-SOI PDs is dominated by the thermal generation of carriers via mid-gap defect levels in Ge, while for the p+-Ge/i-Ge/n+-SOI PDs, the dark current is ascribed to not only thermal generation but also other mechanisms such as locally formed conduction paths.

  19. Control of Ge1‑x‑y Si x Sn y layer lattice constant for energy band alignment in Ge1‑x Sn x /Ge1‑x‑y Si x Sn y heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Kurosawa, Masashi; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2017-10-01

    The energy band alignment of Ge1‑x Sn x /Ge1‑x‑y Si x Sn y heterostructures was investigated, and control of the valence band offset at the Ge1‑x Sn x /Ge1‑x‑y Si x Sn y heterointerface was achieved by controlling the Si and Sn contents in the Ge1‑x‑y Si x Sn y layer. The valence band offset in the Ge0.902Sn0.098/Ge0.41Si0.50Sn0.09 heterostructure was evaluated to be as high as 330 meV, and its conduction band offset was estimated to be 150 meV by considering the energy bandgap calculated from the theoretical prediction. In addition, the formation of the strain-relaxed Ge1‑x‑y Si x Sn y layer was examined and the crystalline structure was characterized. The epitaxial growth of a strain-relaxed Ge0.64Si0.21Sn0.15 layer with the degree of strain relaxation of 55% was examined using a virtual Ge substrate. Moreover, enhancement of the strain relaxation was demonstrated by post-deposition annealing, where a degree of strain relaxation of 70% was achieved after annealing at 400 °C. These results indicate the possibility for enhancing the indirect-direct crossover with a strained and high-Sn-content Ge1‑x Sn x layer on a strain-relaxed Ge1‑x‑y Si x Sn y layer, realizing preferable carrier confinement by type-I energy band alignment with high conduction and valence band offsets.

  20. The Largest Metalloid Group 14 Cluster, Ge18[Si(SiMe3)3]6 : An Intermediate on the Way to Elemental Germanium.

    PubMed

    Kysliak, Oleksandr; Schrenk, Claudio; Schnepf, Andreas

    2016-02-24

    The oxidation of [Ge9(Hyp)3](-) (Hyp=Si(SiMe3 )3) with an Fe(II) salt leads to Ge18 (Hyp)6 (1), the largest Group 14 metalloid cluster that has been structurally characterized to date. The arrangement of the 18 germanium atoms in 1 shows similarities to that found in the solid-state structure Ge(cF136). Furthermore, 1 can be described as a macropolyhedral cluster of two Ge9 units. Quantum-chemical calculations further hint at a strained arrangement so that 1 can be considered as a first trapped intermediate on the way from Ge9 units to elemental germanium with the clathrate-II structure (Ge(cF136)). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Local atomic arrangements and lattice distortions in layered Ge-Sb-Te crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotnyk, Andriy; Ross, Ulrich; Bernütz, Sabine; Thelander, Erik; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    Insights into the local atomic arrangements of layered Ge-Sb-Te compounds are of particular importance from a fundamental point of view and for data storage applications. In this view, a detailed knowledge of the atomic structure in such alloys is central to understanding the functional properties both in the more commonly utilized amorphous–crystalline transition and in recently proposed interfacial phase change memory based on the transition between two crystalline structures. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy allows direct imaging of local arrangement in the crystalline lattice with atomic resolution. However, due to the non-trivial influence of thermal diffuse scattering on the high-angle scattering signal, a detailed examination of the image contrast requires comparison with theoretical image simulations. This work reveals the local atomic structure of trigonal Ge-Sb-Te thin films by using a combination of direct imaging of the atomic columns and theoretical image simulation approaches. The results show that the thin films are prone to the formation of stacking disorder with individual building blocks of the Ge2Sb2Te5, Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge3Sb2Te6 crystal structures intercalated within randomly oriented grains. The comparison with image simulations based on various theoretical models reveals intermixed cation layers with pronounced local lattice distortions, exceeding those reported in literature.

  2. Local atomic arrangements and lattice distortions in layered Ge-Sb-Te crystal structures

    PubMed Central

    Lotnyk, Andriy; Ross, Ulrich; Bernütz, Sabine; Thelander, Erik; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Insights into the local atomic arrangements of layered Ge-Sb-Te compounds are of particular importance from a fundamental point of view and for data storage applications. In this view, a detailed knowledge of the atomic structure in such alloys is central to understanding the functional properties both in the more commonly utilized amorphous–crystalline transition and in recently proposed interfacial phase change memory based on the transition between two crystalline structures. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy allows direct imaging of local arrangement in the crystalline lattice with atomic resolution. However, due to the non-trivial influence of thermal diffuse scattering on the high-angle scattering signal, a detailed examination of the image contrast requires comparison with theoretical image simulations. This work reveals the local atomic structure of trigonal Ge-Sb-Te thin films by using a combination of direct imaging of the atomic columns and theoretical image simulation approaches. The results show that the thin films are prone to the formation of stacking disorder with individual building blocks of the Ge2Sb2Te5, Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge3Sb2Te6 crystal structures intercalated within randomly oriented grains. The comparison with image simulations based on various theoretical models reveals intermixed cation layers with pronounced local lattice distortions, exceeding those reported in literature. PMID:27220411

  3. Microstructure Effect of Intermediate Coat Layer on Corrosion Behavior of HVAF-Sprayed Bi-Layer Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghimeresht, Esmaeil; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Nylén, Per

    2017-01-01

    The inherent pores and carbides of Cr3C2-NiCr coatings significantly reduce the corrosion resistance, the former by providing preferential paths for ion diffusion and the latter by forming cathodic sites in galvanic couples (between NiCr and Cr3C2). Adding a dense intermediate layer (intermediate coat layer) between the Cr3C2-NiCr coating (top coat) and substrate increases the corrosion protection of the coating if the layer acts as cathode in connection to the top coat. In the present work, NiCr, NiAl, and NiCoCrAlY layers were deposited by high-velocity air-fuel process as intermediate coat layers for the Cr3C2-NiCr top coat. Effects of coating microstructure on corrosion behavior of single- and bi-layer coatings were studied by open-circuit potential and polarization tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl at room temperature. A zero resistance ammeter technique was used to study the galvanic corrosion of the coupled top and intermediate coat layers. Methods such as SEM and XRD were employed to characterize the as-sprayed and corroded coatings and to investigate the corrosion mechanisms. The results showed that the NiCoCrAlY coating not only presented a more positive corrosion potential ( Ecorr) than the Cr3C2-NiCr coating, but also provided a better passive layer than the single-phase NiCr and NiAl coatings.

  4. Intermediate range chemical ordering in amorphous and liquid water, Si, and Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Benmore, C.J.; Hart, R.T.; Mei, Q.; Price, D.L.; Yarger, J.; Tulk, C.A.; Klug, D.D.

    2005-10-01

    Neutron and x-ray diffraction data for low, high, and very high density amorphous ice and liquid water, silicon, and germanium have been compared in terms of the first sharp diffraction peak in the structure factor and at the radial distribution function level. The low and high density forms of H{sub 2}O, Si, and Ge are shown to have very similar structures if the contributions from the hydrogen correlations in water are neglected. The very high density amorphous ice form is shown to be structurally analogous to recently reported high pressure liquid forms of Si and Ge, although there are slight differences in the way interstitial atoms or molecules are pushed into the first coordination shell.

  5. Impact of thickness on the structural properties of high tin content GeSn layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, J.; Hartmann, J. M.; Gassenq, A.; Milord, L.; Pauc, N.; Reboud, V.; Calvo, V.

    2017-09-01

    We have grown various thicknesses of GeSn layers in a 200 mm industrial Reduced Pressure - Chemical Vapor Deposition cluster tool using digermane (Ge2H6) and tin tetrachloride (SnCl4). The growth pressure (100 Torr) and the F(Ge2H6)/F(SnCl4) mass-flow ratio were kept constant, and incorporation of tin in the range of 10-15% was achieved with a reduction in temperature: 325 °C for 10% to 301 °C for 15% of Sn. The layers were grown on 2.5 μm thick Ge Strain Relaxed Buffers, themselves on Si(0 0 1) substrates. We used X-ray Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy to measure the Sn concentration, the strain state, the surface roughness and thickness as a function of growth duration. A dramatic degradation of the film was seen when the Sn concentration and layer thickness were too high resulting in rough/milky surfaces and significant Sn segregation.

  6. Optical anisotropies of Si grown on step-graded SiGe(110) layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; Lastras-Martínez, L. F.; Arimoto, K.; Castro-García, R.; Villalobos-Aguilar, O.; Lastras-Martínez, A.; Nakagawa, K.; Sawano, K.; Shiraki, Y.; Usami, N.; Nakajima, K.

    2010-03-01

    Macroreflectance and microreflectance difference spectroscopies have been used to measure the strain induced optical anisotropies of semiconductor structures comprised of strained Si(110) thin films deposited on top of step-graded SiGe virtual substrates. The stress relaxation mechanism mainly occurs by the introduction of microtwin formation, whose fluctuation depends strongly on growth conditions. Correlations of such optical diagnostics with x-ray diffraction measurements and atomic force microscopy images, allow for the in situ study of the strain within both the top Si layer and the SiGe underneath with an spatial resolution of at least 5 μm.

  7. Atomic Layering, Intermixing and Switching Mechanism in Ge-Sb-Te based Chalcogenide Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoming; Robertson, John

    2016-11-01

    GeSbTe-based chalcogenide superlattice (CSLs) phase-change memories consist of GeSbTe layer blocks separated by van der Waals bonding gaps. Recent high resolution electron microscopy found two types of disorder in CSLs, a chemical disorder within individual layers, and SbTe bilayer stacking faults connecting one block to an adjacent block which allows individual block heights to vary. The disorder requires a generalization of the previous switching models developed for CSL systems. Density functional calculations are used to describe the stability of various types of intra-layer disorder, how the block heights can vary by means of SbTe-based stacking faults and using a vacancy-mediated kink motion, and also to understand the nature of the switching process in more chemically disordered CSLs.

  8. Atomic Layering, Intermixing and Switching Mechanism in Ge-Sb-Te based Chalcogenide Superlattices

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoming; Robertson, John

    2016-01-01

    GeSbTe-based chalcogenide superlattice (CSLs) phase-change memories consist of GeSbTe layer blocks separated by van der Waals bonding gaps. Recent high resolution electron microscopy found two types of disorder in CSLs, a chemical disorder within individual layers, and SbTe bilayer stacking faults connecting one block to an adjacent block which allows individual block heights to vary. The disorder requires a generalization of the previous switching models developed for CSL systems. Density functional calculations are used to describe the stability of various types of intra-layer disorder, how the block heights can vary by means of SbTe-based stacking faults and using a vacancy-mediated kink motion, and also to understand the nature of the switching process in more chemically disordered CSLs. PMID:27853289

  9. Growth of Ge nanofilms using electrochemical atomic layer deposition, with a "bait and switch" surface-limited reaction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xuehai; Zhang, Qinghui; Lay, Marcus D; Stickney, John L

    2011-06-01

    Ge nanofilms were deposited from aqueous solutions using the electrochemical analog of atomic layer deposition (ALD). Direct electrodeposition of Ge from an aqueous solution is self-limited to a few monolayers, depending on the pH. This report describes an E-ALD process for the growth of Ge films from aqueous solutions. The E-ALD cycle involved inducing a Ge atomic layer to deposit on a Te atomic layer formed on Ge, via underpotential deposition (UPD). The Te atomic layer was then reductively stripped from the deposit, leaving the Ge and completing the cycle. The Te atomic layer was bait for Ge deposition, after which the Te was switched out, reduced to a soluble telluride, leaving the Ge (one "bait and switch" cycle). Deposit thickness was a linear function of the number of cycles. Raman spectra indicated formation of an amorphous Ge film, consistent with the absence of a XRD pattern. Films were more stable and homogeneous when formed on Cu substrates, than on Au, due to a larger hydrogen overpotential, and the corresponding lower tendency to form bubbles.

  10. Ge and GeOx films as sacrificial layer for MEMS technology based on piezoelectric AlN: etching and planarization processes (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangrador, J.; Olivares, J.; Iborra, E.; Vergara, L.; Clement, M.; Sanz-Hervas, A.

    2005-07-01

    In this article we present a study of deposition and etching techniques of germanium (Ge) and amorphous oxygen germanium (GeOx) films, with the aim of using them as sacrificial layer in the fabrication of AlN-based MEMS by surface micromachining processes. The Ge and GeOx layers were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering in Ar and Ar/O2 atmospheres. By controlling the process parameters we were able to set the final composition of the GeOx films, which was assessed by FTIR measurements. We have studied the etch rates of GeOx films with x ranging from 0 to 1 in H2O2 and H2O2/acid solutions. Depending on the etching temperature and the oxygen content in the layers, etch rates ranging from 0.2 to 2 μm/min were obtained. Nearly stoichiometric germanium oxide (GeO2) was etched in pure H2O at very high rate (>1 μm/min at room temperature). We have also developed a chemomechanical polishing (CMP) process for the planarization of Ge and GeOx. The influence of the slurries containing diverse powders (CeO2, Al2O3) and chemical agents (NH4OH, HCl), the different pads, and the various process parameters on the removal rate and the final sample topography has been studied. Finally, we have analysed the compatibility of the materials involved in the process flow with the processes of planarization and removal of the sacrificial layers.

  11. Unconventional Superconductivity in the Layered Iron Germanide YFe(2)Ge(2).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiasheng; Semeniuk, Konstantin; Feng, Zhuo; Reiss, Pascal; Brown, Philip; Zou, Yang; Logg, Peter W; Lampronti, Giulio I; Grosche, F Malte

    2016-03-25

    The iron-based intermetallic YFe_{2}Ge_{2} stands out among transition metal compounds for its high Sommerfeld coefficient of the order of 100  mJ/(mol K^{2}), which signals strong electronic correlations. A new generation of high quality samples of YFe_{2}Ge_{2} show superconducting transition anomalies below 1.8 K in thermodynamic, magnetic, and transport measurements, establishing that superconductivity is intrinsic in this layered iron compound outside the known superconducting iron pnictide or chalcogenide families. The Fermi surface geometry of YFe_{2}Ge_{2} resembles that of KFe_{2}As_{2} in the high pressure collapsed tetragonal phase, in which superconductivity at temperatures as high as 10 K has recently been reported, suggesting an underlying connection between the two systems.

  12. Uniaxial strain relaxation in He{sup +} ion implanted (110) oriented SiGe layers

    SciTech Connect

    Minamisawa, R. A.; Buca, D.; Trinkaus, H.; Hollaender, B.; Mantl, S.; Destefanis, V.; Hartmann, J. M.

    2009-07-20

    Uniaxially strained (011)Si is attractive for high performance p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor devices due to the predicted high hole mobilities. Here, we demonstrate the realization of purely uniaxially relaxed (011) SiGe virtual substrates by He{sup +} ion implantation and thermal annealing. Perfect uniaxial relaxation is evidenced by precise ion channeling angular yield scan measurements and plan view transmission electron microscopy as predicted theoretically on the basis of the layer symmetry dependent dislocation dynamics. Strikingly, misfit dislocations propagate exclusively along the [011] direction in the (011) oriented crystal and, in contrast to (100)Si, no crosshatch is formed. We describe dislocation formation and propagation inducing strain relaxation of (011)SiGe and enlighten the differences to (100) oriented SiGe on Si.

  13. Simulation of hole-mobility in doped relaxed and strained Ge layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watling, Jeremy R.; Riddet, Craig; Chan, Morgan Kah H.; Asenov, Asen

    2010-11-01

    As silicon based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are reaching the limits of their performance with scaling, alternative channel materials are being considered to maintain performance in future complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology generations. Thus there is renewed interest in employing Ge as a channel material in p-MOSFETs, due to the significant improvement in hole mobility as compared to Si. Here we employ full-band Monte Carlo to study hole transport properties in Ge. We present mobility and velocity-field characteristics for different transport directions in p-doped relaxed and strained Ge layers. The simulations are based on a method for over-coming the potentially large dynamic range of scattering rates, which results from the long-range nature of the unscreened Coulombic interaction. Our model for ionized impurity scattering includes the affects of dynamic Lindhard screening, coupled with phase-shift, and multi-ion corrections along with plasmon scattering. We show that all these effects play a role in determining the hole carrier transport in doped Ge layers and cannot be neglected.

  14. ⁶⁸Ge content quality control of ⁶⁸Ge/⁶⁸Ga-generator eluates and ⁶⁸Ga radiopharmaceuticals--a protocol for determining the ⁶⁸Ge content using thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Eppard, Elisabeth; Loktionova, Natalia S; Rösch, Frank

    2014-09-01

    (68)Ge breakthrough from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga-generator appears to be one of the most critical parameters for the routine clinical application of this generator and (68)Ga-radiopharmaceuticals. We report a TLC-based (thin-layer chromatography) protocol which allows the (68)Ge breakthrough of a generator to be determined within 1 h post-initial elution. The protocol can also be adapted to allow the (68)Ge content of a (68)Ga-radiopharmaceutical preparation to be determined prior to in vivo application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantum size effects in the low temperature layer-by-layer growth of Pb on Ge(0 0 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floreano, L.; Cvetko, D.; Bruno, F.; Bavdek, G.; Cossaro, A.; Gotter, R.; Verdini, A.; Morgante, A.

    2003-08-01

    The electronic properties of thin metallic films deviate from the corresponding bulk ones when the film thickness is comparable with the wavelength of the electrons at the Fermi level. This phenomenon, referred to as quantum size effect (QSE), is also expected to affect the film morphology and structure leading to the “electronic growth” of metals on semiconductors. Such effect may be observed when metals are grown on substrates held at low temperature and are manifested through the occurrence of “magical” thickness islands or critical thickness for layer-by-layer growth. In particular, layer-by-layer growth of Pb(1 1 1) films has been reported for deposition on Ge(0 0 1) below ∼130 K. An extremely flat morphology is preserved throughout deposition from four up to a dozen of monolayers. These flat films are shown to be metastable and to reorganize into large clusters uncovering the first Pb layer pseudomorphic to the underlying Ge(0 0 1) substrate already at room temperature. Indications of QSE induced structural variations of the growing films have been reported for Pb growth on both Si(1 1 1) and Ge(0 0 1). In the latter case, the apparent height of the Pb(1 1 1) monatomic step was shown to change in an oscillatory fashion by He atom scattering (HAS) during layer-by-layer growth at low temperature. The extent of the structural QSE has been obtained by a comparison of the HAS data with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and reflectivity experiments. Whereas step height variations as large as 20% have been measured by HAS reflectivity, the displacement of the atomic planes from their bulk position, as measured by XRD, has been found to mainly affect the topmost Pb layer, but with a lower extent, i.e. the QSE observed by HAS are mainly due to a perpendicular displacement of the topmost layer charge density. The effect of the variable surface relaxation on the surface vibration has been studied from the acoustic dispersion of the low energy phonons, as measured by

  16. Production of three-dimensional quantum dot lattice of Ge/Si core-shell quantum dots and Si/Ge layers in an alumina glass matrix.

    PubMed

    Buljan, M; Radić, N; Sancho-Paramon, J; Janicki, V; Grenzer, J; Bogdanović-Radović, I; Siketić, Z; Ivanda, M; Utrobičić, A; Hübner, R; Weidauer, R; Valeš, V; Endres, J; Car, T; Jerčinović, M; Roško, J; Bernstorff, S; Holy, V

    2015-02-13

    We report on the formation of Ge/Si quantum dots with core/shell structure that are arranged in a three-dimensional body centered tetragonal quantum dot lattice in an amorphous alumina matrix. The material is prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition of Al2O3/Ge/Si multilayer. The inversion of Ge and Si in the deposition sequence results in the formation of thin Si/Ge layers instead of the dots. Both materials show an atomically sharp interface between the Ge and Si parts of the dots and layers. They have an amorphous internal structure that can be crystallized by an annealing treatment. The light absorption properties of these complex materials are significantly different compared to films that form quantum dot lattices of the pure Ge, Si or a solid solution of GeSi. They show a strong narrow absorption peak that characterizes a type II confinement in accordance with theoretical predictions. The prepared materials are promising for application in quantum dot solar cells.

  17. Production of three-dimensional quantum dot lattice of Ge/Si core-shell quantum dots and Si/Ge layers in an alumina glass matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buljan, M.; Radić, N.; Sancho-Paramon, J.; Janicki, V.; Grenzer, J.; Bogdanović-Radović, I.; Siketić, Z.; Ivanda, M.; Utrobičić, A.; Hübner, R.; Weidauer, R.; Valeš, V.; Endres, J.; Car, T.; Jerčinović, M.; Roško, J.; Bernstorff, S.; Holy, V.

    2015-02-01

    We report on the formation of Ge/Si quantum dots with core/shell structure that are arranged in a three-dimensional body centered tetragonal quantum dot lattice in an amorphous alumina matrix. The material is prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition of Al2O3/Ge/Si multilayer. The inversion of Ge and Si in the deposition sequence results in the formation of thin Si/Ge layers instead of the dots. Both materials show an atomically sharp interface between the Ge and Si parts of the dots and layers. They have an amorphous internal structure that can be crystallized by an annealing treatment. The light absorption properties of these complex materials are significantly different compared to films that form quantum dot lattices of the pure Ge, Si or a solid solution of GeSi. They show a strong narrow absorption peak that characterizes a type II confinement in accordance with theoretical predictions. The prepared materials are promising for application in quantum dot solar cells.

  18. High-pressure melt growth and transport properties of SiP, SiAs, GeP, and GeAs 2D layered semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreteau, C.; Michon, B.; Besnard, C.; Giannini, E.

    2016-06-01

    Silicon and Germanium monopnictides SiP, SiAs, GeP and GeAs form a family of 2D layered semiconductors. We have succeeded in growing bulk single crystals of these compounds by melt-growth under high pressure (0.5-1 GPa) in a cubic anvil hot press. Large (mm-size), shiny, micaceous crystals of GeP, GeAs and SiAs were obtained, and could be exfoliated into 2D flakes. Small and brittle crystals of SiP were yielded by this method. High-pressure sintered polycrystalline SiP and GeAs have also been successfully used as a precursor in the Chemical Vapor Transport growth of these crystals in the presence of I2 as a transport agent. All compounds are found to crystallize in the expected layered structure and do not undergo any structural transition at low temperature, as shown by Raman spectroscopy down to T=5 K. All materials exhibit a semiconducting behavior. The electrical resistivity of GeP, GeAs and SiAs is found to depend on temperature following a 2D-Variable Range Hopping conduction mechanism. The availability of bulk crystals of these compounds opens new perspectives in the field of 2D semiconducting materials for device applications.

  19. Dislocation density and strain-relaxation in Ge1-xSnx layers grown on Ge/Si (0 0 1) by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiangte, Krista R.; Rathore, Jaswant S.; Sharma, Vaibhav; Bhunia, Swagata; Das, Sudipta; Fandan, Rajveer S.; Pokharia, Ravinder S.; Laha, Apurba; Mahapatra, Suddhasatta

    2017-07-01

    The density and origin of dislocations in a variety of molecular-beam-epitaxy-(MBE)-grown Ge1-xSnx/Ge/Si (0 0 1) heterostructures, with Sn-content varying from 0.4 to 5.2%, have been investigated systematically by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). In particular, using the approach due to Kaganer et al. (V.M. Kaganer et al., Phys. Rev. B 72, 045423 (2005)) for the first time to the Ge1-xSnx alloy, it is demonstrated that reliable estimates of both edge and screw dislocation densities can be obtained from HRXRD data. Based on the correlations of strain relaxation and dislocation densities of the alloy epilayers and the underlying Ge buffer layers, we observe that dislocations threading from the latter predominantly contribute to the strain relaxation of the former. Thus, Ge1-xSnx epilayers of sub-critical thicknesses can be made to relax significantly by growing them on partially-relaxed, relatively-thin Ge buffer layers. This may be promising for the realization of Ge1-xSnx epilayers with direct electronic band gap.

  20. Formation of an Intermediate Layer Between Grains in Nickel-Based Superalloy Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, KeeHyun; Withey, Paul

    2017-03-01

    The boundary region formed on the surface of nickel-based single-crystal turbine blades was investigated by high-resolution microscopy observation. There was a distinguishable intermediate layer with the size of about 2 to 5 μm between the matrix and surface defect grains such as stray grains, multiple grains, freckle grains, and even low-angle grain boundaries which were formed during the solidification of turbine blades. The intermediate layer was composed of many elongated γ' as well as γ phases. In addition, only one side of the intermediate layer was coherent to the matrix grain or defect grain due to good orientation match. At the coherent interface, the γ' (as well as γ) phase started to extend from the parent grain and coincidently, rhenium-rich particles were detected. Furthermore, the particles existed within both elongated gamma prime and gamma phases, and even at their boundary. Based on experimental observations, the formation mechanism of this intermediate layer was discussed.

  1. Formation of an Intermediate Layer Between Grains in Nickel-Based Superalloy Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, KeeHyun; Withey, Paul

    2017-06-01

    The boundary region formed on the surface of nickel-based single-crystal turbine blades was investigated by high-resolution microscopy observation. There was a distinguishable intermediate layer with the size of about 2 to 5 μm between the matrix and surface defect grains such as stray grains, multiple grains, freckle grains, and even low-angle grain boundaries which were formed during the solidification of turbine blades. The intermediate layer was composed of many elongated γ' as well as γ phases. In addition, only one side of the intermediate layer was coherent to the matrix grain or defect grain due to good orientation match. At the coherent interface, the γ' (as well as γ) phase started to extend from the parent grain and coincidently, rhenium-rich particles were detected. Furthermore, the particles existed within both elongated gamma prime and gamma phases, and even at their boundary. Based on experimental observations, the formation mechanism of this intermediate layer was discussed.

  2. Si(111) strained layers on Ge(111): Evidence for c (2 ×4 ) domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhachuk, R.; Coutinho, J.; Dolbak, A.; Cherepanov, V.; Voigtländer, B.

    2017-08-01

    The tensile-strained Si (111 ) layers grown on top of Ge (111 ) substrates are studied by combining scanning tunneling microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, and first-principles calculations. It is shown that the layers exhibit c (2 ×4 ) domains, which are separated by domain walls along <1 ¯10 > directions. A model structure for the c (2 ×4 ) domains is proposed, which shows low formation energy and good agreement with the experimental data. The results of our calculations suggest that Ge atoms are likely to replace Si atoms with dangling bonds on the surface (rest-atoms and adatoms), thus significantly lowering the surface energy and inducing the formation of domain walls. The experiments and calculations demonstrate that when surface strain changes from compressive to tensile, the (111) reconstruction converts from dimer-adatom-stacking fault-based to adatom-based structures.

  3. Spectroscopic ellipsometric characterization of Si/Si(1-x)Ge(x) strained-layer superlattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, H.; Woollam, J. A.; Wang, P. J.; Tejwani, M. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was employed to characterize Si/Si(1-x)Ge(x) strained-layer superlattices. An algorithm was developed, using the available optical constants measured at a number of fixed x values of Ge composition, to compute the dielectric function spectrum of Si(1-x)Ge(x) at an arbitrary x value in the spectral range 17 to 5.6 eV. The ellipsometrically determined superlattice thicknesses and alloy compositional fractions were in excellent agreement with results from high-resolution x ray diffraction studies. The silicon surfaces of the superlattices were subjected to a 9:1 HF cleaning prior to the SE measurements. The HF solution removed silicon oxides on the semiconductor surface, and terminated the Si surface with hydrogen-silicon bonds, which were monitored over a period of several weeks, after the HF cleaning, by SE measurements. An equivalent dielectric layer model was established to describe the hydrogen-terminated Si surface layer. The passivated Si surface remained unchanged for greater than 2 h, and very little surface oxidation took place even over 3 to 4 days.

  4. Electrical isolation of dislocations in Ge layers on Si(001) substrates through CMOS-compatible suspended structures

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vishal Ajit; Myronov, Maksym; Wongwanitwatana, Chalermwat; Bawden, Lewis; Prest, Martin J; Richardson-Bullock, James S; Rhead, Stephen; Parker, Evan H C; Whall, Terrance E; Leadley, David R

    2012-01-01

    Suspended crystalline Ge semiconductor structures are created on a Si(001) substrate by a combination of epitaxial growth and simple patterning from the front surface using anisotropic underetching. Geometric definition of the surface Ge layer gives access to a range of crystalline planes that have different etch resistance. The structures are aligned to avoid etch-resistive planes in making the suspended regions and to take advantage of these planes to retain the underlying Si to support the structures. The technique is demonstrated by forming suspended microwires, spiderwebs and van der Pauw cross structures. We finally report on the low-temperature electrical isolation of the undoped Ge layers. This novel isolation method increases the Ge resistivity to 280 Ω cm at 10 K, over two orders of magnitude above that of a bulk Ge on Si(001) layer, by removing material containing the underlying misfit dislocation network that otherwise provides the main source of electrical conduction. PMID:27877523

  5. Electrical isolation of dislocations in Ge layers on Si(001) substrates through CMOS-compatible suspended structures.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vishal Ajit; Myronov, Maksym; Wongwanitwatana, Chalermwat; Bawden, Lewis; Prest, Martin J; Richardson-Bullock, James S; Rhead, Stephen; Parker, Evan H C; Whall, Terrance E; Leadley, David R

    2012-10-01

    Suspended crystalline Ge semiconductor structures are created on a Si(001) substrate by a combination of epitaxial growth and simple patterning from the front surface using anisotropic underetching. Geometric definition of the surface Ge layer gives access to a range of crystalline planes that have different etch resistance. The structures are aligned to avoid etch-resistive planes in making the suspended regions and to take advantage of these planes to retain the underlying Si to support the structures. The technique is demonstrated by forming suspended microwires, spiderwebs and van der Pauw cross structures. We finally report on the low-temperature electrical isolation of the undoped Ge layers. This novel isolation method increases the Ge resistivity to 280 Ω cm at 10 K, over two orders of magnitude above that of a bulk Ge on Si(001) layer, by removing material containing the underlying misfit dislocation network that otherwise provides the main source of electrical conduction.

  6. Formation, crystalline structure, and optical properties of Ge1-x-ySnxCy ternary alloy layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaha, Takashi; Terasawa, Kengo; Oda, Hiroki; Kurosawa, Masashi; Takeuchi, Wakana; Taoka, Noriyuki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2015-04-01

    We have investigated the crystalline and optical properties of epitaxial layers of the ternary alloy Ge1-x-ySnxCy grown on a Si substrate. We achieved the formation of epitaxial Ge1-x-ySnxCy layers with a C content as high as 2% even with a high C incorporation efficiency. X-ray photoemission spectra and Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements revealed that C atoms preferentially bond with Sn atoms in the Ge matrix, which is considered to enhance C introduction into substitutional sites in Ge with local strain compensation. We also demonstrated the control of the energy bandgaps of epitaxial Ge1-x-ySnxCy layers by controlling Sn and C contents.

  7. Electrical isolation of dislocations in Ge layers on Si(001) substrates through CMOS-compatible suspended structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajit Shah, Vishal; Myronov, Maksym; Wongwanitwatana, Chalermwat; Bawden, Lewis; Prest, Martin J.; Richardson-Bullock, James S.; Rhead, Stephen; Parker, Evan H. C.; Whall, Terrance E.; Leadley, David R.

    2012-10-01

    Suspended crystalline Ge semiconductor structures are created on a Si(001) substrate by a combination of epitaxial growth and simple patterning from the front surface using anisotropic underetching. Geometric definition of the surface Ge layer gives access to a range of crystalline planes that have different etch resistance. The structures are aligned to avoid etch-resistive planes in making the suspended regions and to take advantage of these planes to retain the underlying Si to support the structures. The technique is demonstrated by forming suspended microwires, spiderwebs and van der Pauw cross structures. We finally report on the low-temperature electrical isolation of the undoped Ge layers. This novel isolation method increases the Ge resistivity to 280 Ω cm at 10 K, over two orders of magnitude above that of a bulk Ge on Si(001) layer, by removing material containing the underlying misfit dislocation network that otherwise provides the main source of electrical conduction.

  8. Characteristic length scale of the intermediate structure in zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer flow.

    PubMed

    Barenblatt, G I; Chorin, A J; Prostokishin, V M

    2000-04-11

    In a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth flat plate with zero pressure gradient, the intermediate structure between the viscous sublayer and the free stream consists of two layers: one adjacent to the viscous sublayer and one adjacent to the free stream. When the level of turbulence in the free stream is low, the boundary between the two layers is sharp, and both have a self-similar structure described by Reynolds-number-dependent scaling (power) laws. This structure introduces two length scales: one-the wall-region thickness-determined by the sharp boundary between the two intermediate layers and the second determined by the condition that the velocity distribution in the first intermediate layer be the one common to all wall-bounded flows and in particular coincide with the scaling law previously determined for pipe flows. Using recent experimental data, we determine both these length scales and show that they are close. Our results disagree with the classical model of the "wake region."

  9. Simulation of MLI concerning the influence of an additional heat load on intermediate layers

    SciTech Connect

    Funke, Thomas; Golle, Steffen; Haberstroh, Christoph

    2014-01-29

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) is commonly used in most cryogenic devices such as LHe cryostats or storage vessels. Numerical and experimental studies of such insulation systems are known from literature. The temperature distribution of intermediate layers has been investigated as well. Experiments using temperature sensors, for example thermocouples, to determine the temperature of intermediate layers had been described. Naturally such wiring causes additional heat load on the respective layer and influences the equilibrium temperature. A mathematical model of heat transfer through MLI has been developed to investigate the temperature distribution across the MLI layers. The model comprises a combination of radiation, residual gas conduction and conductive heat flux. An analysis for variable cold and warm boundary temperatures and various residual gases and pressures is carried out. In addition to the model an experimental test rig will be built for the verification of the model. The paper presents the influence of an additional heat load on an intermediate layer on the temperature distribution and on the overall thermal performance of MLI.

  10. Structural and electrical studies of ultrathin layers with Si0.7Ge0.3 nanocrystals confined in a SiGe/SiO2 superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, E. M. F.; Martín-Sánchez, J.; Rolo, A. G.; Parisini, A.; Buljan, M.; Capan, I.; Alves, E.; Barradas, N. P.; Conde, O.; Bernstorff, S.; Chahboun, A.; Levichev, S.; Gomes, M. J. M.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, SiGe/SiO2 multi-layer (ML) films with layer thickness in the range of a few nanometers were successfully fabricated by conventional RF-magnetron sputtering at 350 °C. The influence of the annealing treatment on SiGe nanocrystals (NCs) formation and crystalline properties were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. At the annealing temperature of 800 °C, where well defined SiGe NCs were observed, a thorough structural investigation of the whole ML structure has been undertaken by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. Our results show that the onset of local modifications to the ML composition takes place at this temperature for annealing times of the order of a few tens of minutes with the formation of defective regions in the upper portion of the ML structure. Only the very first layers over the Si substrate appear immune to this problem. This finding has been exploited for the fabrication of a defect free metal-oxide-semiconductor structure with a well-defined single layer of SiGe NCs. A memory effect attributed to the presence of the SiGe NCs has been demonstrated by high frequency capacitance-voltage measurements.

  11. Organization of the intermediate gray layer of the superior colliculus. I. Intrinsic vertical connections.

    PubMed

    Helms, Matthew C; Ozen, Gülden; Hall, William C

    2004-04-01

    A pathway from the superficial visual layers to the intermediate premotor layers of the superior colliculus has been proposed to mediate visually guided orienting movements. In these experiments, we combined photostimulation using "caged" glutamate with in vitro whole cell patch-clamp recording to demonstrate this pathway in the rat. Photostimulation in the superficial gray and optic layers (SGS and SO, respectively) evoked synaptic responses in intermediate gray layer (SGI) cells. The responses comprised individual excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) or EPSC clusters. Blockade of these EPSCs by TTX confirmed that they were synaptically mediated. Stimulation within a column (approximately 500 microm diam) extending superficially from the recorded cell evoked the largest and most reliable responses, but off-axis stimuli were effective as well. The EPSCs could be evoked by stimuli 1,000 microm off-axis from the postsynaptic neuron. The dimensions of this wider region (approximately 2 mm diam) corresponded to those of the dendrites of superficial layer wide-field neurons. SGI neurons differed in their input from SGS and SO; neurons in the middle of the intermediate layer (SGIb) were less likely to respond to visual layer photostimulation than were those in sublayers just above and below them. However, focal stimulation within SGIa did evoke responses within SGIb, indicating that SGIb neurons may receive input from the visual layers indirectly. These results demonstrate a columnar pathway that may mediate visually guided orienting movements, but the results also reveal spatial attributes of the pathway which imply that it also plays a more complex role in visuomotor integration.

  12. Intermediate high index layer for laser mode tuning in organic semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Stroisch, M; Woggon, T; Teiwes-Morin, C; Klinkhammer, S; Forberich, K; Gombert, A; Gerken, M; Lemmer, U

    2010-03-15

    We modified the optical properties of organic semiconductor distributed feedback lasers by introducing a high refractive index layer consisting of tantalum pentoxide between the substrate and the active material layer. A thin film of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium doped with the laser dye 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylamino-styryl)-4H-pyran was used as the active layer. By varying the intermediate layer thickness we could change the effective refractive index of the guided laser mode and thus the laser wavelength. With this technique we were able to tune the laser emission range between 613 nm and 667 nm. For high index layer thicknesses higher than 40 nm the laser operated on the TE(1)-mode rather than the fundamental TE(0)-mode.

  13. Layered YSZ/SCSZ/YSZ Electrolytes for Intermediate Temperature SOFC Part I: Design and Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Orlovskaya, Nina; Klimov, Mikhail; Huang, Xinyu; Cullen, David A; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    (Sc2O3)0.1(CeO2)0.01(ZrO2)0.89 (SCSZ) ceramic electrolyte has superior ionic conductivity in the intermediate temperature range (700 800 C), but it does not exhibit good phase and chemical stability in comparison with 8 mol% Y2O3 ZrO2 (YSZ). To maintain high ionic conductivity and improve the stability in the whole electrolyte, layered structures with YSZ outer layers and SCSZ inner layers were designed. Because of a mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion and Young's moduli of SCSZ and YSZ phases, upon cooling of the electrolytes after sintering, thermal residual stresses will arise, leading to a possible strengthening of the layered composite and, therefore, an increase in the reliability of the electrolyte. Laminated electrolytes with three, four, and six layers design were manufactured using tape-casting, lamination, and sintering techniques. After sintering, while the thickness of YSZ outer layers remained constant at 30 m, the thickness of the SCSZ inner layer varied from 30 m for a Y SC Y three-layered electrolyte, 60 m for a Y 2SC Y four-layered electrolyte, and 120 m for a Y 4SC Y six-layered electrolyte. The microstructure, crystal structure, impurities present, and the density of the sintered electrolytes were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and water immersion techniques.

  14. Low-frequency conductance fluctuations in Si:P and Ge:P δ-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamim, Saquib; Mahapatra, Suddhasatta; Scappucci, Giordano; Klesse, W. M.; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Ghosh, Arindam

    Delta doped Si:P and Ge:P devices offer a formidable platform for application towards quantum computation. The fabrication of single donor devices by STM-lithography takes us forward to address the solid state quantum bits. The atomic scale control however makes the devices extremely sensitive to fluctuations and disorder which affect their long term stability. Hence, a study of low frequency 1/f noise for these devices is desirable. We measure 1/f noise in Si:P and Ge:P δ-layers of varying doping density. Fluctuations in conductivity arise due to fluctuations in mobility and the Hooge parameter scales inversely with mobility as 1 /μ3 for all devices. For highly doped Ge:P δ-layer, the noise magnitude in a perpendicular magnetic field (B⊥) reduces by factors of two at the phase breaking breaking field and the Zeeman field indicating universal conductance fluctuations (UCF). The phase breaking length lϕUCF extracted by fitting the B⊥ dependence of noise to the crossover function matches well with lϕWL extracted from weak localization (WL) fits to magnetoconductivity indicating that both UCF and WL are governed by same scattering rates. Present Address: QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands.

  15. Formation of Nanopits in Si Capping Layers on SiGe Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In-situ annealing at a high temperature of 640°C was performed for a low temperature grown Si capping layer, which was grown at 300°C on SiGe self-assembled quantum dots with a thickness of 50 nm. Square nanopits, with a depth of about 8 nm and boundaries along 〈110〉, are formed in the Si capping layer after annealing. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy observation shows that each nanopit is located right over one dot with one to one correspondence. The detailed migration of Si atoms for the nanopit formation is revealed by in-situ annealing at a low temperature of 540°C. The final well-defined profiles of the nanopits indicate that both strain energy and surface energy play roles during the nanopit formation, and the nanopits are stable at 640°C. A subsequent growth of Ge on the nanopit-patterned surface results in the formation of SiGe quantum dot molecules around the nanopits. PMID:27502681

  16. Modeling Metallic Ion Transport During the Lifetime of an Intermediate Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, R. L.; Earle, G. D.

    2001-05-01

    Intermediate layers are one of several phenomena that occur at midlatitudes in the nighttime E region. These ionization layers which typically form on the bottomside of the F region, are frequently observed by the Arecibo Incoherent Scatter Facility. Although their occurrence is relatively common, they exhibit diverse structure. Their altitude of formation, vertical thickness, and motion show significant nightly variations. Layer structure is influenced by a number of factors including composition, electric fields, and fluctuations in the neutral wind field. A numerical simulation has been employed to investigate the effects of composition on layer development. Specifically, the simulation, named LEAD (Layer Evolution And Dynamics), explores the transport of metallic ions during the formation and subsequent motion of a layer due to a time varying meridional wind field. We discuss the relative molecular/metallic ratio inside the layer during its evolution, the time scales for metallic ion dominance within the layer, and the motion of metallic ions in the adjacent altitude regions. We present animated results from LEAD which allow detailed inspection of ion composition variations throughout the process of layer evolution and descent.

  17. Acquiring Peak Samples from Phytoplankton Thin Layers and Intermediate Nepheloid Layers by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Adaptive Triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; McEwen, R.; Ryan, J. P.; Bellingham, J. G.; Harvey, J.; Vrijenhoek, R.

    2010-12-01

    Phytoplankton thin layers (PTLs) affect many fundamental aspects of coastal ocean ecology including primary productivity, development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and the survival and growth of zooplankton and fish larvae. Intermediate nepheloid layers (INLs) that contain suspended particulate matter transported from the bottom boundary layer of continental shelves and slopes also affect biogeochemistry and ecology of ocean margins. To better understand the impacts of these types of layers, we have developed an adaptive sampling method for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to detect a layer (adjusting detection parameters in situ), acquire water samples from peaks in the layer, and acquire control samples outside the layer. We have used the method in a number of field experiments with the AUV Dorado, which is equipped with ten water samplers (called "gulpers"). In real time, the algorithm tracks background levels of fluorescence and optical backscatter and the peaks' baseline to ensure that detection is tuned to the ambient conditions. The algorithm cross-checks fluorescence and backscatter signals to differentiate PTLs from INLs. To capture peak water samples with minimal delay, the algorithm exploits the AUV's sawtooth (i.e., yo-yo) trajectory: the vehicle crosses the detected layer twice in one yo-yo cycle. At the first crossing, it detects the layer's peak and saves its signal height. Sampling is triggered at the second crossing when the signal reaches the saved peak height plus meeting additional timing and depth conditions. The algorithm is also capable of triggering gulpers to acquire control samples outside the layer for comparison with ambient water. The sequence of peak and control samples can be set based on need. In recent AUV Dorado missions, the algorithm triggered the gulpers to acquire peak and control samples from INLs and PTLs in Monterey Bay. Zooplankton analysis of some peak samples showed very high concentrations of mussel and barnacle

  18. Low-temperature growth of fully epitaxial CoFe/Ge/Fe3Si layers on Si for vertical-type semiconductor spintronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.; Kawano, M.; Ikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Yamada, S.; Hamaya, K.

    2017-09-01

    We develop a low-temperature growth technique of epitaxial Ge layers on a body-centered-cubic ferromagnetic metal (bcc-FM), Fe3Si, by combining solid phase epitaxy (SPE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The insertion of an SPE-grown Ge layer enables two-dimensional epitaxial growth of Ge layers by MBE even at a growth temperature of ∼175 {}\\circ C. Thanks to the relatively flat surface of the Ge epilayers, we can obtain an epitaxial CoFe (bcc-FM) layer on top of the Ge layers, leading to the all-epitaxial CoFe/Ge/Fe3Si trilayer with a reasonable magnetization reversal process. We believe that the all-epitaxial CoFe/Ge/Fe3Si trilayer has great potential to be utilized as novel vertical-type Ge-channel spintronic devices.

  19. A study on intermediate buffer layer of coated Fiber Bragg Grating cryogenic temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, R.; Araujo, F.; Araujo, J.; Neumann, H.; Ramalingam, R.

    2015-12-01

    The sensor characteristics of a coated Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) thermal sensor for cryogenic temperatures depends mainly on the coating materials. The sensitivity of the coated FBG can be improved by enhancing the effective thermal strain transfer between the different layers and the bare FBG. The dual coated FBG's has a primary layer and the secondary layer. The primary coating acts as an intermediate buffer between the secondary coating and the bare FBG. The outer secondary coating is normally made of metals with high thermal expansion coefficient. In this work, a detailed study is carried out on chromium and titanium intermediate buffer layers with various coating thicknesses and combinations. To improve the sensitivity, the secondary coating layer was tested with Indium, Lead and Tin. The sensors were then calibrated in a cryogenic temperature calibration facility at Institute of Technical Physics (ITEP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The sensors were subjected to several thermal cycles between 4.2 and 80 K to study the sensor performance and its thermal characteristics. The sensor exhibits a Bragg wavelength shift of 13pm at 20K. The commercially available detection equipment with a resolution of 1pm can result in a temperature resolution of 0.076 K at 20K.

  20. Elemental boron-doped p(+)-SiGe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy for infrared detector applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. L.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detectors have been fabricated utilizing molecular beam epitaxy of p(+)-SiGe layers on p(-)-Si substrates. Elemental boron from a high-temperature effusion cell was used as the dopant source during MBE growth, and high doping concentrations have been achieved. Strong infrared absorption, mainly by free-carrier absorption, was observed for the degenerately doped SiGe layers. The use of elemental boron as the dopant source allows a low MBE growth temperature, resulting in improved crystalline quality and smooth surface morphology of the Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layers. Nearly ideal thermionic emission dark current characteristics have been obtained. Photoresponse of the HIP detectors in the long-wavelength infrared regime has been demonstrated.

  1. Elemental boron-doped p(+)-SiGe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy for infrared detector applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detectors have been fabricated utilizing molecular beam epitaxy of p(+)-SiGe layers on p(-)-Si substrates. Elemental boron from a high-temperature effusion cell was used as the dopant source during MBE growth, and high doping concentrations have been achieved. Strong infrared absorption, mainly by free-carrier absorption, was observed for the degenerately doped SiGe layers. The use of elemental boron as the dopant source allows a low MBE growth temperature, resulting in improved crystalline quality and smooth surface morphology of the Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layers. Nearly ideal thermionic emission dark current characteristics have been obtained. Photoresponse of the HIP detectors in the long-wavelength infrared regime has been demonstrated.

  2. Evidence for self-organized formation of logarithmic spirals during explosive crystallization of amorphous Ge:Mn layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürger, Danilo; Baunack, Stefan; Thomas, Jürgen; Oswald, Steffen; Wendrock, Horst; Rebohle, Lars; Schumann, Thomas; Skorupa, Wolfgang; Blaschke, Daniel; Gemming, Thomas; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2017-05-01

    Logarithmic spirals are found on different length scales in nature, e.g., in nautilus shells, cyclones, and galaxies. The underlying formation laws can be related to different growth mechanisms, pressure gradients, and density waves. Here, we report on the self-organized formation of symmetric logarithmic crystallization spirals in a solid material on the micrometer length scale, namely, in an amorphous Ge:Mn layer on a Ge substrate. After exposure to a single light pulse of a flashlamp array, the Ge:Mn layer is crystallized and reveals a partially rippled surface and logarithmic microspirals. Finally, we present a model describing the formation of the crystallization spirals by directional explosive crystallization of the amorphous Ge:Mn layer, which is triggered by the flashlamp light pulse.

  3. The impact of donors on recombination mechanisms in heavily doped Ge/Si layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barget, Michael R.; Virgilio, Michele; Capellini, Giovanni; Yamamoto, Yuji; Schroeder, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Heavy n-type doping has been proposed as a route to achieve positive optical gain in germanium layers since it is supposed to enhance the Γc carrier density. Nevertheless, the impact of donor impurities on the excess carrier lifetime in heavy doped epitaxial Ge/Si layers has not yet been addressed in the literature. To elucidate this point, we investigate the optical properties of heavily doped Ge layers selectively grown on silicon by means of photoluminescence (PL) experiments and theoretical modelling. A self-consistent multi-valley effective mass numerical model for simulation of PL spectra has been implemented, taking into account the influence of dopants on the non-radiative recombination dynamics. Upon comparing measurements and modelling, we find a linear increase in the defect-related Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination rate as a function of the donor density. The non-radiative lifetime decreases from ˜30 ns in intrinsic Ge/Si samples to ˜0.1 ns for a doping density in the 1019 cm-3 range. As a consequence, we find that SRH is the dominant non-radiative recombination process up to a donor density of ˜5 × 1019 cm-3. Despite this reduced lifetime, we observe an overall positive impact of doping on the radiative recombination rate for donor densities up to an "optimal" value of ˜3 × 1019 cm-3, with a ×7 intensity enhancement compared to the intrinsic case. A further increase in the donor concentration brings about a worsening of the optical emission.

  4. Vertical thermo-haline structure of the Baltic Sea cold intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Natalya

    2016-04-01

    Main characteristic features of vertical thermo-haline structure of the cold intermediate layer (CIL) of the Baltic Sea are identified on the base of data of vertical CTD soundings in the Baltic Proper in 2004-2013. Permanently existing components (i.e., the components which are observed during the entire period of the presence of the CIL in the vertical thermo-haline structure of the sea) are: (i) quasi-homosaline sublayer, with water salinity typical for that in the upper mixed layer in winter period, and water temperature irregularly changing with depth; (ii) the underlying sublayer with increasing salinity and low temperature (the gradient sublayer); and (iii) the core of CIL (the minimum temperature), which is located close to the interface between these sublayers. It is argued that the homosaline sublayer is formed by local mechanisms - vertical wind-wave and convective mixing and advection from nearby shelves and neighbouring regions. Advection is supported by (i) long-lasting winds and (ii) horizontal convection due to differential warming / cooling of shallower regions. The gradient sublayer is formed by waters with T,S - parameters typical for that of the upper mixed layer of south-western sea basins (Barnholm and Arcons basins) at the beginning of spring warming-up period (March). It is suggested that the up-estuary propagation of these waters (with salinity about 7.5-8.5 psu) above the pycnocline is driven by the estuarine salinity gradient. This branch of circulation of intermediate waters is overlooked in classical estuarine circulation model of the Baltic Sea, however it is important for sea-scale transport of upper-layer contaminants, microplastics, organic matter etc. towards intermediate and deep sea layers. The investigations are supported by Russian Science Foundation via grant number 15-17-10020.

  5. Fast magnetization precession for perpendicularly magnetized MnAlGe epitaxial films with atomic layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, S.; Sakuma, A.; Kubota, T.; Kondo, Y.; Sugihara, A.; Miyazaki, T.

    2013-09-01

    Epitaxial growth and magnetization precessional dynamics for tetragonal MnAlGe films are investigated. The films are grown on MgO (100) with c axis parallel to the film normal and well-ordered layered structures. The film exhibits rectangular hysteresis loop with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant of 4.7 Merg/cm3 and saturation magnetization of 250 emu/cm3. Magnetization precession with precession frequency of ˜100 GHz is observed by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect. Further, the Gilbert damping constant is found to be less than ˜0.05, which is much larger than that obtained using the first principles calculations.

  6. Inversion layer on the Ge(001) surface from the four-probe conductance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtaszek, Mateusz; Lis, Jakub Zuzak, Rafal; Such, Bartosz; Szymonski, Marek

    2014-07-28

    We report four-probe conductance measurements with sub-micron resolution on atomically clean Ge(001) surfaces. A qualitative difference between n-type and p-type crystals is observed. The scaling behavior of the resistance on n-type samples indicates two-dimensional current flow, while for the p-type crystal a three-dimensional description is appropriate. We interpret this in terms of the formation of an inversion layer at the surface. This result points to the surface states, i.e., dangling bonds, as the driving force behind band bending in germanium. It also explains the intrinsic character of band bending in germanium.

  7. Highly Reversible and Superior Li-Storage Characteristics of Layered GeS2 and Its Amorphous Composites.

    PubMed

    Sung, Geon-Kyu; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Park, Cheol-Min

    2016-11-02

    A layered GeS2 material was assessed as an electrode material in the fabrication of superior rechargeable Li-ion batteries. The electrochemical Li insertion/extraction behavior of the GeS2 electrode was investigated from extended X-ray absorption measurements as well as by cyclic voltammetry and differential capacity plots to better understand its Li insertion/extraction behavior. Using the Li insertion/extraction reaction mechanism of the GeS2 electrode, an interesting amorphous GeS2-based composite was developed and tested for use as a high-performance electrode. Interestingly, the amorphous GeS2-based composite electrode exhibited highly reversible discharging and charging reactions, which were attributed to a conversion/recombination reaction. The amorphous GeS2-based composite electrode exhibited highly reversible and outstanding electrochemical performances, a highly reversible capacity (first charge capacity: 1298 mAh g(-1)) with a high first Coulombic efficiency (83.3%), rapid rate capability (ca. 800 mAh g(-1) at a high current rate of 700 mA g(-1)), and long capacity retention over 180 cycles with high capacity (1100 mAh g(-1)) thanks to its interesting electrochemical reaction mechanism. Overall, this layered GeS2 and its amorphous GeS2/C composite are novel alternative anode materials for the potential mass production of rechargeable Li-ion batteries with excellent performance.

  8. Influence of intermediate aminodextran layers on the signal response of surface acoustic wave biosensors.

    PubMed

    Länge, Kerstin; Rapp, Michael

    2008-06-15

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on horizontally polarized surface shear waves enable direct and label-free detection of proteins in real time. Binding reactions on the sensor surface are detected by determining changes in surface wave velocity caused mainly by mass adsorption or change of viscoelasticity in the sensing layer. Intermediate hydrogel layers have been proven to be useful to immobilize capture molecules or ligands corresponding to the analyte. However, the SAW signal response strongly depends on the morphology of the hydrogel due to different relative changes of its acoustomechanical parameters such as viscoelasticity and density. In this work five aminodextrans (AMD) and one diamino polyethylene glycol (DA-PEG) were used as intermediate hydrogel layers. Sensors with immobilized streptavidin and samples containing biotinylated bovine serum albumin were used to exemplify affinity assays based on immobilized capture molecules for protein detection. The effects of the three-dimensional AMDs and the two-dimensional (2D) DA-PEG on the SAW signal response were investigated. The signal height decreased with increasing molar mass and increasing amount of immobilized AMD. Consequently, thin hydrogel layers are ideal to obtain optimum signal responses in this type of assay, whereas it is not necessarily a 2D hydrogel that gives the best results.

  9. A novel intermediate layer for Au/CdZnTe/FTO photoconductive structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuelu; Wang, Linjun; Xu, Run; Huang, Jian; Tao, Jun; Meng, Hua; Zhang, Jijun; Min, Jiahua

    2016-12-01

    In this work, graphene is tried to use to improve the performance of polycrystalline CdZnTe high-energy radiation and photon detectors. A graphene intermediate layer is prepared by spin-coating process on the surface of polycrystalline CdZnTe film, which forms a photoconductive Au/graphene/CdZnTe/FTO structure. XRD, Raman, photoelectric response and other characterisation methods are adopted to investigate the effect of graphene layer on the electrical characteristics and UV photo-response performance of CdZnTe photoconductive structure. It is demonstrated that graphene layer can significantly improve the contact property of Au/CdZnTe structure, and obviously enhance its UV photo-response and the UV sensitivity increased with one order of magnitude.

  10. Investigation of silicon/glass anodic bonding with PECVD silicon carbide as the intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, W.; Meng, B.; Su, W.; Zhang, H. X.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the study of the conventional silicon/glass anodic bonding with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (PE-SiC) as the intermediate layer, in order to evaluate the feasibilities of applying PE-SiC as the device's passivation layer prior to the packaging bonding and construction layer based on the bond-and-transfer technique. It is found that the mechanism of this bonding is similar to the traditional anodic bonding. As the PE-SiC thickened, the bond strength declined; meanwhile, the leak rate remained at the same level with the silicon/glass bonding. Further experiments revealed that the bonding increased the interlayer's tensile stress by 70.7 MPa and diminished the stress gradient by 24.6 MPa µm-1.

  11. Improved conductivity of indium-tin-oxide film through the introduction of intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, S. W.; Yam, F. K.; Beh, K. P.; Tneh, S. S.; Hassan, Z.

    2016-09-01

    A thin intermediate layer (Ag, AuSn, In, Ni, Sn, SiO2) was individually deposited on glass substrates prior to the deposition of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering employing ITO target (composition ratio of In2O3:SnO2 = 9:1). The structural, optical and electrical properties were investigated to compare the ITO thin film with and without an intermediate layer. The preferential orientation of all ITO films was along (222) plane. Although all thin films were polycrystalline, the presence of intermediate layer promoted the overall crystallinity. The sheet resistance and resistivity of the ITO film were reduced from ∼68 Ω/□ to ∼29-45 Ω/□, and 16.2 × 10-4 Ω cm up to 7.58 × 10-4 Ω cm, respectively, by inserting a thin metal layer underneath the ITO film, and it is dependent on the degree of crystallization. The optical transmittance in the visible region varies from 40 to 88% for different samples. Based on the evaluation from Tauc plot, the optical band gap falls in the range of 4.02-4.12 eV. Physical film thickness was compared with that evaluated by optical measurement in the visible range and the physical thickness was found to be smaller. Similarly, the carrier concentration/scattering time from Hall effect measurement were also compared with that from optical measurement in the infrared region. Haacke's figure of merit (FOM) was employed to assess the quality of the ITO films, and the highest FOM is credited to ITO/In up to ∼8 × 10-3 Ω-1 in the visible light region.

  12. Surface ventilation of the Black Sea's cold intermediate layer in the middle of the western gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, M. C.; Yakushev, E.

    2005-02-01

    Understanding the origin of the shallow temperature minimum, known as the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL), in the Black Sea has long been hampered by the scarcity of winter observations. During March 2003, we observed a cold-air outbreak over the center of the Black Sea's Western Gyre. Freezing winds drove convection that cooled the surface mixed layer to 6.1°C and deepened it to 40 m, directly ventilating the upper 80% of the CIL, whose lower boundary was at 49 m. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen were 350 μM in the mixed layer and decreased rapidly to 70 μM at the base of the CIL, 9 m below the mixed layer. A few meters deeper, at the top of the Sub-Oxic Layer (SOL), both oxygen and hydrogen sulfide became undetectable (<5 μM and <1 μM, respectively). Microstructure profiles revealed intermittent turbulence in the oxycline below the mixed layer. Average rates of turbulent dissipation were 10-9-10-8 W kg-1. The accompanying mixing produced diapycnal diffusivities, Kρ, that were only (1-4) × 10-6 m2 s-1. Consequently, turbulent fluxes were too weak to renew significantly either the lower 20% of the CIL or the SOL, whose top was 4 m below the bottom of the CIL and hence well-removed from direct surface replenishment.

  13. Conformational change of the hexagonally packed intermediate layer of Deinococcus radiodurans monitored by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, D J; Baumeister, W; Engel, A

    1996-01-01

    Both surfaces of the hexagonally packed intermediate (HPI) layer of Deinococcus radiodurans were imaged in buffer solution by atomic force microscopy. When adsorbed to freshly cleaved mica, the hydrophilic outer surface of the HPI layer was attached to the substrate and the hydrophobic inner surface was exposed to the stylus. The height of a single HPI layer was 7.0 nm, while overlapping edges of adjacent single layers adsorbed to mica had a height of 14.7 nm. However, double-layered stacks with inner surfaces facing each other exhibited a height of 17.4 nm. These stacks exposed the outer surface to the stylus. The different heights of overlapping layers and stacks are attributed to differences in the interaction between inner and outer surfaces. At high resolution, the inner surface revealed a protruding core with a central pore connected by six emanating arms. The pores exhibited two conformations, one with and the other without a central plug. Individual pores were observed to switch from one state to the other. PMID:8655475

  14. UV and visible Raman scattering of ultraheavily Ti implanted Si layers for intermediate band formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, D.; Olea, J.; del Prado, A.; García-Hemme, E.; Mártil, I.; González-Díaz, G.; Ibáñez, J.; Cuscó, R.; Artús, L.

    2011-11-01

    We assess the degree of crystallinity by means of UV and visible Raman scattering measurements of Ti implanted Si layers with very high doses (1015-5 × 1016 cm-2) subsequently annealed by nanosecond pulsed laser melting (PLM). We obtain ultraheavily impurified Si layers with Ti concentrations six orders of magnitude above the solid solubility limit in a layer several tens of nanometers thick. The PLM annealing processes are needed to recover the crystal quality and to keep the high Ti concentration required to form an intermediate band (IB). The UV Raman analysis permits us to evaluate the lattice crystallinity of the different implanted doses probing only the implanted region and points out Ti interstitial location in the host lattice in agreement with theoretical predictions for IB formation. By contrast, visible Raman spectra are only sensitive to the presence of a fully amorphized implanted layer as in the rest of the crystalline layers the probing depth far exceeds the implanted layer thickness and the signal is dominated by the undamaged Si.

  15. Effects of the lateral ordering of self-assembled SiGe nanoislands grown on strained Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Strelchuk, V. V.; Nikolenko, A. S. Lytvyn, P. M.; Kladko, V. P.; Gudymenko, A. I.; Valakh, M. Ya.; Krasilnik, Z. F.; Lobanov, D. N.; Novikov, A. V.

    2012-05-15

    Atomic-force microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and high resolution X-ray diffraction are applied to study the spatial ordering in single layers of SiGe nanoislands grown on a strained Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} buffer sublayer. It is shown that, apart from stimulating the spatial ordering of nanoislands, the introduction of a Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} sublayer leads to an enhanced role for interdiffusion processes. An unusually high increase in the volume of nanoislands in the process of the epitaxy is related to the anomalously strong diffusion from the buffer sublayer into the islands that is induced by nonuniform fields of elastic strains. The anisotropy of the islands shape and spatial ordering is discussed in terms of the anisotropy of the diffusion processes in spatially nonuniform fields of elastic strains.

  16. Evidence for Kinetic Limitations as a Controlling Factor of Ge Pyramid Formation: a Study of Structural Features of Ge/Si(001) Wetting Layer Formed by Ge Deposition at Room Temperature Followed by Annealing at 600 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storozhevykh, Mikhail S.; Arapkina, Larisa V.; Yuryev, Vladimir A.

    2015-07-01

    The article presents an experimental study of an issue of whether the formation of arrays of Ge quantum dots on the Si(001) surface is an equilibrium process or it is kinetically controlled. We deposited Ge on Si(001) at the room temperature and explored crystallization of the disordered Ge film as a result of annealing at 600 °C. The experiment has demonstrated that the Ge/Si(001) film formed in the conditions of an isolated system consists of the standard patched wetting layer and large droplike clusters of Ge rather than of huts or domes which appear when a film is grown in a flux of Ge atoms arriving on its surface. We conclude that the growth of the pyramids appearing at temperatures greater than 600 °C is controlled by kinetics rather than thermodynamic equilibrium whereas the wetting layer is an equilibrium structure. PACS: Primary 68.37.Ef; 68.55.Ac; 68.65.Hb; 81.07.Ta; 81.16.Dn

  17. FePtC magnetic recording media with (200) textured MoC intermediate layer

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jai-Lin Tseng, Yun-Ting; Li, Chia-Ru; Fu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-05-07

    The FePt films with thickness of 4–10 nm were deposited on MoC/CrRu/glass at 425 °C by using magnetron sputtering. The Mo{sub 40}C{sub 60} target was used to form the MoC and C two phases after deposition. The MoC intermediate layer was epitaxially grown on the (200) textured CrRu seed layer at 425 °C and the MoC (200) diffraction peak was not clearly indexed below 10 nm but observed at 25 nm. Finally, the FePt film was prepared on (200) textured MoC at 425 °C and shown the strong (001) texture. Perpendicular anisotropy of 1.7 × 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} and out-of-plane coercivity of 7.5 kOe has been demonstrated in 10 nm thick FePt film. From microstructure, the FePt grains were distributed in- or between-islands like structure and further separated by excess carbon from MoC intermediate layer. Thinner FePt film was more separated by excess carbon and shown higher coercivity.

  18. Low-temperature (330 °C) crystallization and dopant activation of Ge thin films via AgSb-induced layer exchange: Operation of an n-channel polycrystalline Ge thin-film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Mutunga Joseph, Benedict; Fukai, Misato; Kamiko, Masao; Kyuno, Kentaro

    2017-09-01

    Ge thin films have been prepared by layer-exchange metal-induced crystallization using AgSb alloy as a catalyst. Not only the crystallization of Ge, but also the incorporation of Sb atoms into the crystalline Ge layer and their activation have been realized during the process at a temperature as low as 330 °C. Thin-film transistors have been fabricated using the Ge thin films as channel layers and the operation of an n-channel transistor with an on/off ratio of over 300 has been demonstrated.

  19. Analysis of Intermediates of Steroid Transformations in Resting Cells by Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC).

    PubMed

    Guevara, Govinda; Perera, Julián; Navarro-Llorens, Juana-María

    2017-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a useful and convenient method for the analysis of steroids due to: its simple sample preparation, low time-consuming process, high sensitivity, low equipment investment and capacity to work on many samples simultaneously. Here we describe a TLC easy protocol very useful to analyze steroid molecules derived from a biotransformation carried out in wild-type and mutant resting cells of Rhodococcus ruber strain Chol-4. Following this protocol, we were able to detect the presence or the absence of some well-known intermediates of cholesterol catabolism in Rhodococcus, namely AD, ADD, and 9OHAD.

  20. Electrical decoupling effect on intermediate band Ti-implanted silicon layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, D.; Olea, J.; del Prado, A.; García-Hemme, E.; García-Hernansanz, R.; Mártil, I.; González-Díaz, G.

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the electrical transport properties of ultraheavily Ti-implanted silicon layers subsequently pulsed laser melted (PLM). After PLM, the samples exhibit anomalous electrical behaviour in sheet resistance and Hall mobility measurements, which is associated with the formation of an intermediate band (IB) in the implanted layer. An analytical model that assumes IB formation and a current limitation effect between the implanted layer and the substrate was developed to analyse this anomalous behaviour. This model also describes the behaviour of the function V/ΔV and the electrical function F that can be extracted from the electrical measurements in the bilayer. After chemical etching of the implanted layer, the anomalous electrical behaviour observed in sheet resistance and Hall mobility measurements vanishes, recovering the unimplanted Si behaviour, in agreement with the analytical model. The behaviour of V/ΔV and the electrical function F can also be successfully described in terms of the analytical model in the bilayer structure with the implanted layer entirely stripped.

  1. Endoneurial-CD34 positive cells define an intermediate layer in human digital Pacinian corpuscles.

    PubMed

    García-Piqueras, J; García-Suárez, O; Rodríguez-González, M C; Cobo, J L; Cabo, R; Vega, J A; Feito, J

    2017-02-02

    The endoneurial and/or perineurial origin of the outer core; i.e. the concentric and continuous lamellae located outside the complex formed by the axon and the Schwann-related cells, in human Pacinian corpuscles is still debated. Here we used immunohistochemistry coupled with a battery of antibodies to investigate the expression of perineurial (Glucose transporter 1 and epithelial membrane antigen) or endoneurial (CD34 antigen) markers in human digital Pacinian corpuscles. CD34 immunoreactivity was restricted to one layer immediately outside the inner core, whereas the proper outer core displayed antigens typical of the perineurial cells. These results demonstrate an intermediate endoneurial layer that divides the Pacinian corpuscles into two distinct compartments: the avascular inner neural compartment (formed by the axon and the Schwann-related cells that form the inner core), and the outer non-neural compartment (formed by the outer core). The functional relevance of these findings, if any, remains to be clarified.

  2. Investigation of the properties of BiFeO3/intermediate-layer structures fabricated by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamzin, A. S.; Kamzina, L. S.; Chang, H. W.; Yu, Y. C.; Tu, S. Y.

    2015-09-01

    The properties of BiFeO3/intermediate layer/substrate structures fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at low temperatures (450°C) and by deposition on substrates and intermediate layers between the substrate and the BiFeO3 film have been investigated. In the structures, glass substrates or commercial Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(001) substrates have been used, and intermediate layers have been prepared from L10 FePt or Pt films. Intermediate layers of Pt and L10 FePt have the (111) and (001) textures, respectively, induced by rapid thermal annealing. It has been revealed that the deposition on the commercial substrates leads to the formation of BiFeO3 isotropic films that have a large surface roughness and consist of grains ˜200 nm in size with the BiFeO3 perovskite structure. In the case of the deposition of a BiFeO3 film on a Pt(111) intermediate layer, the BiFeO3 phase is suppressed. The deposition on an intermediate layer of the L10 FePt film with the (001) texture results in the formation of a single-phase BiFeO3 film with the (001) texture and the perovskite structure, which (as compared to the BiFeO3 films grown on the commercial substrate) has a less pronounced roughness, smaller grain sizes, and significantly better ferroelectric properties.

  3. Effect of various intermediate ceramic layers on the interfacial stability of zirconia core and veneering ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Yeo, In-Sung; Yi, Yang-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of intermediate ceramics on the adhesion between the zirconia core and veneer ceramics. The polished surfaces of fully sintered Y-TZP blocks received three different treatments: (1) connector (C), (2) liner (L) or (3) wash layer (W). All the treated zirconia blocks were veneered with either (a) fluorapatite glass-ceramic (E) or (b) feldspathic porcelain (V) and divided into four groups (CE, CV, LE and WV). For the control group, the testing surfaces of metal blocks were veneered with feldspathic porcelain (VM). A half of the samples in each group (n = 21) were exposed to thermocycling, while the other half of the specimens were stored at room temperature under dry conditions. All specimens were subjected to the shear test and the failed surfaces were microscopically examined. The elemental distribution at the zirconia core/veneer interface was analyzed. The specimens in Groups CE and CV exhibited significantly greater mean bond strength values than those in Groups LE and WV, respectively (p < 0.05). However, the mean bond strengths significantly decreased in the connector groups (CE and CV) after thermal cycling (p < 0.05). The elemental analysis suggested diffusion of ceramic substances into the zirconia surface. A glass-ceramic based connector is significantly more favorable to core/veneer adhesion than the other intermediate ceramics evaluated in the study. However, thermal cycling affected the bond strength at the core/veneer interface differently according to the intermediate ceramics.

  4. Effect of the thickness of flowable composite as intermediate layer to reduce microleakage on gingival wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natasha, V.; Suprastiwi, E.

    2017-08-01

    Microleakage of composite restoration in proximal composite restoration often occurs on the gingival wall. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of flowable composite as an intermediate layer to reduce microleakage on the gingival wall. Thirty whole,extracted, upper premolars were divided into three groups. Within box-like cavities, the first group was restored with packable composite only. Group 2 was restored with flowable composite of a1mm thickness and then was restored with incrementally packable composite. Group 3 was restored similarly to group 2, however with a flowable composite thickness of 2mm. After thermocycling, the penetration of 1% methylene blue was investigated along the gingival wall. There were significant differences between group 1 and groups 2 and 3. No significant differences were found between groups 2 and 3. Flowable composite, as an intermediate layer, reduces microleakage of the gingival wall of proximal composite restorations. Nonetheless, the thickness of the flowable composite has no influence on the amount of microleakage observed.

  5. Mapping of Seismic Layer 2A at Intermediate-Spreading Crust Exposed Near Blanco Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christeson, G. L.; McIntosh, K. D.; Karson, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    We present results from a seismic survey over intermediate-spreading crust adjacent to the Blanco Transform using a source array optimized to image the layer 2A boundary. The program acquired ten MCS profiles parallel to and four MCS profiles perpendicular to the transform scarp edge covering a region approximately 10 km (ridge- parallel) x 40 km (ridge-perpendicular). The average two-way travel time to the layer 2A event in our dataset is 0.36 s, which is similar to values measured elsewhere along the Juan de Fuca Ridge and East Pacific Rise. An independent method to estimate two-way travel time to the layer 2A/2B boundary is to model layer 2B refractions recorded on the 6-km streamer; this method gives similar two-way travel time values. The average layer 2A interval velocity calculated from analyses on selected CDP supergathers is 2700 m/s; converting from two-way travel time using this interval velocity results in an average layer 2A thickness of 490 m. Our seismic study was conducted adjacent to a region where the lithologic boundary between the dikes and overlying extrusive section has been mapped by submersible dives over a lateral distance of tens of kilometers. A comparison of the lithologic and seismic boundaries indicates that the mapped depth to the top of the sheeted dikes (average depth 1150 m) is well below the imaged layer 2A/2B boundary. We argue (Christeson et al., Nature, 2007) that the primary control on the depth of the layer 2A/2B boundary is crack closure enhanced by hydrothermal alteration and sealing, and not the structural boundary between lavas and dikes. Mapping reveals regions in the ridge-parallel direction where the layer 2A thickness is consistently thin or thick; these regions do not correlate strongly with seafloor bathymetry. These patterns suggest a temporal nature to the processes controlling the layer 2A/2B boundary.

  6. Mapping of Seismic Layer 2A at Intermediate-Spreading Crust Exposed Near Blanco Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christeson, G. L.; McIntosh, K. D.; Karson, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    We present results from a seismic survey over intermediate-spreading crust adjacent to the Blanco Transform using a source array optimized to image the layer 2A boundary. The program acquired ten MCS profiles parallel to and four MCS profiles perpendicular to the transform scarp edge covering a region approximately 10 km (ridge- parallel) x 40 km (ridge-perpendicular). The average two-way travel time to the layer 2A event in our dataset is 0.36 s, which is similar to values measured elsewhere along the Juan de Fuca Ridge and East Pacific Rise. An independent method to estimate two-way travel time to the layer 2A/2B boundary is to model layer 2B refractions recorded on the 6-km streamer; this method gives similar two-way travel time values. The average layer 2A interval velocity calculated from analyses on selected CDP supergathers is 2700 m/s; converting from two-way travel time using this interval velocity results in an average layer 2A thickness of 490 m. Our seismic study was conducted adjacent to a region where the lithologic boundary between the dikes and overlying extrusive section has been mapped by submersible dives over a lateral distance of tens of kilometers. A comparison of the lithologic and seismic boundaries indicates that the mapped depth to the top of the sheeted dikes (average depth 1150 m) is well below the imaged layer 2A/2B boundary. We argue (Christeson et al., Nature, 2007) that the primary control on the depth of the layer 2A/2B boundary is crack closure enhanced by hydrothermal alteration and sealing, and not the structural boundary between lavas and dikes. Mapping reveals regions in the ridge-parallel direction where the layer 2A thickness is consistently thin or thick; these regions do not correlate strongly with seafloor bathymetry. These patterns suggest a temporal nature to the processes controlling the layer 2A/2B boundary.

  7. Group-IV (Si, Ge, and Sn)-doped AgAlTe2 for intermediate band solar cell from first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dan; Jiang, Jing-Wen; Guo, Jin; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Chen, Rongzhen; Persson, Clas

    2017-06-01

    Earlier studies of chalcopyrites as the absorber for intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs) mainly focused on Cu-based compounds, whose intermediate band is usually empty due to its intrinsic p-type conductivity. This is not beneficial to the two sub-bandgap absorptions. In this paper, we demonstrate that the intermediate bands in group IV (Si, Ge, and Sn) doped AgAlTe2 are delocalized and mainly contributed by the anti-bonding state of group-IV elements s state and Te-p state. Overall, we suggest that Sn-doped AgAlTe2 should be a promising absorber candidate for IBSCs based on the theoretical efficiency and defect stability.

  8. The convection of large and intermediate scale fluctuations in a turbulent mixing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, O. R. H.; de Kat, R.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2013-12-01

    The convection velocity of large and intermediate scale velocity fluctuations in a nominally two-dimensional planar mixing layer, and its dependence upon the length scale, is explored by carrying out particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments. A "global" convection velocity, containing the convection of all the length scales present in the flow, is produced by examining the autocorrelation functions between velocity fluctuations in successive PIV records across the mixing layer. This "global" convection velocity is found to be similar to the mean flow, although fluctuations on the low speed side of the mixing layer on average convect at speeds greater than the mean and fluctuations on the high speed side of the mixing layer are observed to convect at speeds less than the mean. Scale specific convection velocity profiles are then produced by examining the phase difference between the spectral content specific to one wavenumber in streamwise velocity fluctuation traces in successive PIV records, offset by time τ. Probability density functions (pdfs) are produced of this phase difference, which is subsequently converted into a convection displacement, and these show that the convection of single length scale fluctuations exhibits a significant variance, particularly so for larger scale fluctuations and in the high speed side of the mixing layer. Convection velocity profiles are produced from these pdfs using both the mean convection distance and the modal convection distance. It is observed that the convection velocity is relatively insensitive to the length scale of the fluctuations considered, particularly when the mean convection distance is used. A slight sensitivity to length scale is, however, observed for convection velocities based on the modal convection distance. This dependence is primarily observed in the high speed side of the mixing layer, in which smaller length-scale fluctuations convect more quickly than larger length-scale fluctuations. It is also

  9. Choroid, Haller's, and Sattler's Layer Thickness in Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration With and Without Fellow Neovascular Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeelpour, Marieh; Ansari-Shahrezaei, Siamak; Glittenberg, Carl; Nemetz, Susanne; Kraus, Martin F.; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Binder, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze choroidal, Sattler's, and Haller's layer thickness maps in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients having eyes with bilateral large drusen and pigment changes (intermediate AMD), in patients having intermediate AMD eyes with neovascular fellow eyes (nAMD), and in healthy subjects using three-dimensional (3D) 1060-nm optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods. Automatically generated choroidal thickness (ChT), retinal thickness, and Sattler's and Haller's layer thickness maps were statistically analyzed in 67 subjects consisting of intermediate AMD (n = 21), intermediate AMD (n = 22) with fellow nAMD eyes (n = 22), and healthy eyes (n = 24) with no age and axial eye length difference between groups of eyes (P > 0.05, ANOVA). Eyes were imaged by a prototype high-speed (60,000 A-scans/s) spectral-domain 3D 1060-nm OCT over a 36° × 36° field of view. Results. The mean ± SD (μm) subfoveal ChT for healthy subjects and for bilateral intermediate AMD, unilateral intermediate AMD, and their nAMD fellow eyes was 259 ± 95 and 222 ± 98, 149 ± 60, and 171 ± 78, respectively. Choroidal thickness maps demonstrated significant submacular thinning in unilateral intermediate AMD in comparison to healthy and bilateral intermediate AMD eyes (P < 0.001, ANOVA, post hoc P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Sattler's and Haller's layers were thinnest in intermediate AMDs that presented with nAMD fellow eyes (Kruskal-Wallis test P < 0.01). For the choroid and its sublayers, there was no difference between the intermediate AMD eyes and their fellow nAMD eyes (paired testing, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The 3D 1060-nm OCT choroidal imaging visualized significant changes in choroidal, Sattler's, and Haller's layer thickness in relation to the progression of AMD. This may be important for understanding the choroidopathy in the pathophysiology of AMD. PMID:25052997

  10. Heterojunction photodiodes fabricated from Ge/Si (1 0 0) layers grown by low-energy plasma-enhanced CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isella, G.; Osmond, J.; Kummer, M.; Kaufmann, R.; von Känel, H.

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated a series of p-i-n Ge/Si heterojunction photodetectors with different thicknesses of the nominally intrinsic Ge layer. Epitaxial Ge was deposited on Si(1 0 0) using low-energy plasma-enhanced CVD (LEPECVD) followed by cyclic annealing. The residual tensile strain induced by the annealing procedure lowers the direct energy gap EΓ by ΔEΓ = 20 meV, increasing the responsivity at the Ge absorption edge. Responsivities of 350 mA W-1 at 1.30 µm and 470 mA W-1 at 1.55 µm were obtained for a 3 µm thick photodiode under 3V reverse bias.

  11. Ballistic-Electron-Emission-Microscopy of Strained Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x) Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, L. D.; Milliken, A. M.; Manion, S. J.; Kaiser, W. J.; Fathauer, R. W.; Pike, W. T.

    1994-01-01

    Ballistic-electron-emission microscopy (BEEM) has been used to investigate the effects of strain on Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x) alloys. Lifting of the degeneracy of the conduction-band minimum of Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x), due to lattice deformation has been directly measured by application of BEEM spectroscopy to Ag/Si structures. Experimental values for this conduction-band splitting agree well with calculations. In addition, an unexpected heterogeneity in the strain of the Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x) layer is introduced by deposition of Au. This effect, not observed with Ag, is attributed to species interdiffusion and has important implications for metal-semiconductor devices based oil pseudomorphic Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x)/Si material systems.

  12. Ballistic-Electron-Emission-Microscopy of Strained Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x) Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, L. D.; Milliken, A. M.; Manion, S. J.; Kaiser, W. J.; Fathauer, R. W.; Pike, W. T.

    1994-01-01

    Ballistic-electron-emission microscopy (BEEM) has been used to investigate the effects of strain on Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x) alloys. Lifting of the degeneracy of the conduction-band minimum of Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x), due to lattice deformation has been directly measured by application of BEEM spectroscopy to Ag/Si structures. Experimental values for this conduction-band splitting agree well with calculations. In addition, an unexpected heterogeneity in the strain of the Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x) layer is introduced by deposition of Au. This effect, not observed with Ag, is attributed to species interdiffusion and has important implications for metal-semiconductor devices based oil pseudomorphic Si(sub 1-x)Ge(sub x)/Si material systems.

  13. Fabrication of high quality, thin Ge-on-insulator layers by direct wafer-bonding for nanostructured thermoelectric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerappan, Manimuthu; Mukannan, Arivanandhan; Salleh, Faiz; Shimura, Yosuke; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro; Ikeda, Hiroya

    2017-03-01

    A simple means of fabricating thin Ge-on-insulator (GOI) layers with a strong bond at the Ge/SiO2 interface through direct wafer-bonding is described. In this work, high quality Ge/SiO2 bonding was achieved under ambient air and at room temperature as a result of the extremely hydrophilic bonding surfaces obtained by chemical treatment prior to direct bonding. Based on the results of this work, the first-ever bonding mechanism between ammonium hydroxide treated Ge and SiO2/Si wafer surfaces is proposed. In addition, strain generated during post-annealing as a consequence of the significant thermal-expansion mismatch between Ge and SiO2 was gradually relieved by applying a multistep-cooling process. Structural characteristics of the thin GOI layer were analyzed by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that direct wafer-bonding followed by polishing could produce a GOI layer as thin as 156 nm, with sub-nm surface roughness.

  14. Formation and circulation of the cold intermediate layer in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. C.; Saucier, F. J.; Straub, D.

    2006-06-01

    The local heat content and formation rate of the cold intermediate layer (CIL) in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence are examined using a combination of new in situ wintertime observations and a three-dimensional numerical model. The field observations consist of five moorings located throughout the gulf over the period of November 2002 to June 2003. The observations demonstrate a substantially deeper surface mixed layer in the central and northeast gulf than in regions downstream of the buoyant surface outflow from the Saint Lawrence Estuary. The mixed-layer depth in the estuary remains shallow (<60 m) throughout winter, with the arrival of a layer of near-freezing waters between 40 and 100 m depth in April. An eddy-permitting ice-ocean model with realistic forcing is used to hindcast the period of observation. The model simulates well the seasonal evolution of mixed-layer depth and CIL heat content. Although the greatest heat losses occur in the northeast, the most significant change in CIL heat content over winter occurs in the Anticosti Trough. The observed renewal of CIL in the estuary in spring is captured by the model. The simulation highlights the role of the northwest gulf, and in particular, the separation of the Gaspé Current, in controlling the exchange of CIL between the estuary and the gulf. In order to isolate the effects of inflow through the Strait of Belle Isle on the CIL heat content, we examine a sensitivity experiment in which the strait is closed. This simulation shows that the inflow has a less important effect on the CIL than was suggested by previous studies.

  15. Threading dislocations in GaAs epitaxial layers on various thickness Ge buffers on 300 mm Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogumilowicz, Y.; Hartmann, J. M.; Rochat, N.; Salaun, A.; Martin, M.; Bassani, F.; Baron, T.; David, S.; Bao, X.-Y.; Sanchez, E.

    2016-11-01

    We have grown GaAs epitaxial layers on Ge buffers, themselves on Si (001) substrates, using an Applied Materials 300 mm metal organic chemical vapor deposition tool. We varied the Ge buffer thickness between 0.36 and 1.38 μm and studied the properties of a 0.27 μm thick GaAs layer on top. We found that increasing the Ge buffer thickness yielded smoother GaAs films with an rms surface roughness as low as 0.5 nm obtained on a 5×5 μm2 area. The bow of the substrate increased following a linear law with the epitaxial stack thickness up to 240 μm for a 1.65 μm stack. We have also characterized the threading dislocations present in the GaAs layers using X-ray diffraction and cathodoluminescence. Increasing the Ge buffer thickness resulted in lower threading dislocation densities, enabling us to obtain anti-phase boundary - free GaAs films with a threading dislocation density as low as 3×107 cm-2. In addition, atomic force microscopy surface topology measurements showed the presence of pits in the GaAs layers whose density agreed well with other threading dislocation density assessments. It thus seems that threading dislocations can in certain cases induce some growth rate variations, making them visible in as-grown GaAs films. Using thicker Ge buffers results in smoother films with less threading dislocations, with the side effect of increasing the bow on the wafer. If bow is not an issue, this is a practical approach to improve the GaAs (on Ge buffer) on silicon quality.

  16. The structure and photoconductivity of SiGe/Si epitaxial layers modified by single-pulse laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivlev, G. D.; Kazuchits, N. M.; Prakopyeu, S. L.; Rusetsky, M. S.; Gaiduk, P. I.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of nanosecond pulses of ruby laser radiation on the structural state and morphology of the epitaxial layers of a SiO0.5Ge0.5 solid solution on silicon with the initiation of a crystal-melt phase transition has been studied by electron microscopy. Data on the photoelectric parameters of the laser-modified layers having a cellular structure owing to the segregation of germanium during the solidification of the binary melt have been derived.

  17. Reduced-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Isolated Ge Crystals and Suspended Layers on Micrometric Si Pillars.

    PubMed

    Skibitzki, Oliver; Capellini, Giovanni; Yamamoto, Yuji; Zaumseil, Peter; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Schroeder, Thomas; Ballabio, Andrea; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Salvalaglio, Marco; Miglio, Leo; Montalenti, Francesco

    2016-10-05

    In this work, we demonstrate the growth of Ge crystals and suspended continuous layers on Si(001) substrates deeply patterned in high aspect-ratio pillars. The material deposition was carried out in a commercial reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor, thus extending the "vertical-heteroepitaxy" technique developed by using the peculiar low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor, to widely available epitaxial tools. The growth process was thoroughly analyzed, from the formation of small initial seeds to the final coalescence into a continuous suspended layer, by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The preoxidation of the Si pillar sidewalls and the addition of hydrochloric gas in the reactants proved to be key to achieve highly selective Ge growth on the pillars top only, which, in turn, is needed to promote the formation of a continuous Ge layer. Thanks to continuum growth models, we were able to single out the different roles played by thermodynamics and kinetics in the deposition dynamics. We believe that our findings will open the way to the low-cost realization of tens of micrometers thick heteroepitaxial layer (e.g., Ge, SiC, and GaAs) on Si having high crystal quality.

  18. Strain distribution in Si capping layers on SiGe islands: influence of cap thickness and footprint in reciprocal space.

    PubMed

    Hrauda, N; Zhang, J J; Süess, M J; Wintersberger, E; Holý, V; Stangl, J; Deiter, C; Seeck, O H; Bauer, G

    2012-11-23

    We present investigations on the strain properties of silicon capping layers on top of regular SiGe island arrays, in dependence on the Si-layer thickness. Such island arrays are used as stressors for the active channel in field-effect transistors where the desired tensile strain in the Si channel is a crucial parameter for the performance of the device. The thickness of the Si cap was varied from 0 to 30 nm. The results of high resolution x-ray diffraction experiments served as input to perform detailed strain calculations via finite element method models. Thus, detailed information on the Ge distribution within the buried islands and the strain interaction between the SiGe island and Si cap was obtained. It was found that the tensile strain within the Si capping layer strongly depends on its thickness, even if the Ge concentration of the buried dot remains unchanged, with tensile strains degrading if thicker Si layers are used.

  19. Intermediate valence to heavy fermion through a quantum phase transition in Yb3(Rh1-xTx)4Ge13 (T = Co, Ir) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Binod; Morosan, Emilia

    Single crystals of Yb3(Rh1-x Tx)4Ge13 (T = Co, Ir) have been grown using the self-flux method. Powder X-ray diffraction data on these compounds are consistent with the cubic structure with space group Pm 3 n . Intermediate valence behavior is observed in Yb3(Rh1-x Tx)4Ge13 upon T = Co doping, while T = Ir doping drives the system into a heavy fermion state. Antiferromagnetic order is observed in the Ir-doped samples Yb3(Rh1-x Tx)4Ge13 for 0.5 < x <= 1 with TN = 0.96 K for Yb3Ir4Ge13. With decreasing x, the magnetic order is suppressed towards a quantum critical point around xc = 0.5, accompanied by non-Fermi liquid behavior evidenced by logarithmic divergence of the specific heat and linear temperature dependence of the resistivity. The Fermi liquid behavior is recovered with the application of large magnetic fields. Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation EPiQS initiative through Grant GBMF4417 and Welch Foundation.

  20. A Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) strained-layer etch stop for the generation of thin layer undoped silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbey, D.; Hughes, H.; Kub, F.; Twigg, M.; Palkuti, L.

    1990-01-01

    A system is described which makes it possible to fabricate a defect-free thin-film silicon-on-insulator substrate using a Si-Ge strained layer as an etch stop. In this process, a 60-nm-thick strained-layer Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) alloy is grown on a silicon substrate, followed by a silicon cap (which is the region where devices will be built). The etch rate through undoped silicon was measured to be 17-20 nm/min, while the etch rate through the Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layer was 1 nm/min. After annealing the wafer at 850 C for 30 min, the etch rate through the strained layer increased to 1.7 nm/min, and the strained layer was still perfectly functional as an etch stop. A TEM examination of the annealed wafer showed that the strain in the alloy was only partially relieved and that the generated misfit dislocations were confined to the strained layer.

  1. Intermediate type excitons in Schottky barriers of A3B6 layer semiconductors and UV photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekperov, O. Z.; Guseinov, N. M.; Nadjafov, A. I.

    2006-09-01

    Photoelectric and photovoltaic spectra of Schottky barrier (SB) structures of InSe, GaSe and GaS layered semiconductors (LS) are investigated at quantum energies from the band edge excitons of corresponding materials up to 6.5eV. Spectral dependences of photoconductivity (PC) of photo resistors and barrier structures are strongly different at the quantum energies corresponding to the intermediate type excitons (ITE) observed in these semiconductors. It was suggested that high UV photoconductivity of A3B6 LS is due to existence of high mobility light carriers in the depth of the band structure. It is shown that SB of semitransparent Au-InSe is high sensitive photo detector in UV region of spectra.

  2. Adjustment of residual stress and intermediate layer to BDD/porous Ti composite membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Cheng-lu; Li, Xiao-wei; Chang, Ming

    2013-05-01

    Diamond films are deposited on porous Ti substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. For adjusting the residual stress of substrate and the titanium carbide (TiC) intermediate layer, the substrates are under annealing process firstly, then are put into alkaline solution with electricity oxidation, and finally composite membranes are obtained by HFCVD, which are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), metalloscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results show that the composite membranes deposited on unannealed substrates are cracked obviously in both sides and broken off easily. After annealing process, the membranes are no longer cracked easily, because the tensile stress distributed in substrates is significantly relieved. After passivation process, TiC generated between diamond film and substrate is less than that without passivation process.

  3. Ultrathin highly uniform Ni(Al) germanosilicide layer with modulated B8 type Ni{sub 5}(SiGe){sub 3} phase formed on strained Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} layers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Linjie; Xu, Dawei; Jin, Lei; Knoll, Lars; Wirths, Stephan; Nichau, Alexander; Buca, Dan; Mussler, Gregor; Holländer, Bernhard; Zhao, Qing-Tai Mantl, Siegfried; Feng Di, Zeng; Zhang, Miao

    2013-12-02

    We present a method to form ultrathin highly uniform Ni(Al) germanosilicide layers on compressively strained Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} substrates and their structural characteristics. The uniform Ni(Al) germanosilicide film is formed with Ni/Al alloy at an optimized temperature of 400 °C with an optimized Al atomic content of 20 at. %. We find only two kinds of grains in the layer. Both grains show orthogonal relationship with modified B8 type phase. The growth plane is identified to be (10-10)-type plane. After germanosilicidation the strain in the rest Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} layer is conserved, which provides a great advantage for device application.

  4. Properties of PZT thick film made on LTCC substrates with dielectric intermediate layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DÄ browski, Arkadiusz; Golonka, Leszek

    2016-11-01

    Results of experiments on application of various interlayers between LTCC (Low Temperature Cofired Ceramics) substrate and thick-film PZT (Lead Zirconate - Titanate) are described in this work. Thick-film intermediate layers were based on several dielectric materials: TiN, Al2O3, SiC, TiO2, SiC, YSZ, BN. Seven screen printable pastes were prepared on the base of powders of mentioned materials with addition of glass and organic vehicle. The substrates were made of 951 (DuPont), CeramTapeGC (CeramTec) and HL2000 (Heraeus) LTCC tapes. Sandwich type transducers, consisting of barrier layer, gold bottom electrode, PZT layer and silver top electrode were prepared and characterized. Basic piezoelectric parameters - permittivity, effective charge constant (d33(eff)) and remanent polarization were determined. The best properties were obtained for substrates made of 951. In general, interlayers based on TiO2, SiC and Al2O3 improved permittivity and charge constant comparing to bare substrates. For example, for 951 substrate the PZT layer exhibited d33(eff) equal to 160, 215, 250 and 230 pC/N for bare substrate, TiO2 interlayer, SiC interlayer and Al2O3 interlayer, respectively. In case of CeramTape GC substrates determined permittivity was equal to 215, 245, 235 and 275 for bare substrate, TiO2 interlayer, SiC interlayer and Al2O3 interlayer, respectively. In case of TiN and BN materials the parameters were considerably deteriorated.

  5. Enhanced Sensitivity of Anti-Symmetrically Structured Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors with Zinc Oxide Intermediate Layers

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yi-Chen; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chiu, Nan-Fu

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel design wherein high-refractive-index zinc oxide (ZnO) intermediary layers are used in anti-symmetrically structured surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices to enhance signal quality and improve the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the SPR reflectivity curve. The surface plasmon (SP) modes of the ZnO intermediary layer were excited by irradiating both sides of the Au film, thus inducing a high electric field at the Au/ZnO interface. We demonstrated that an improvement in the ZnO (002) crystal orientation led to a decrease in the FWHM of the SPR reflectivity curves. We optimized the design of ZnO thin films using different parameters and performed analytical comparisons of the ZnO with conventional chromium (Cr) and indium tin oxide (ITO) intermediary layers. The present study is based on application of the Fresnel equation, which provides an explanation and verification for the observed narrow SPR reflectivity curve and optical transmittance spectra exhibited by (ZnO/Au), (Cr/Au), and (ITO/Au) devices. On exposure to ethanol, the anti-symmetrically structured showed a huge electric field at the Au/ZnO interface and a 2-fold decrease in the FWHM value and a 1.3-fold larger shift in angle interrogation and a 4.5-fold high-sensitivity shift in intensity interrogation. The anti-symmetrically structured of ZnO intermediate layers exhibited a wider linearity range and much higher sensitivity. It also exhibited a good linear relationship between the incident angle and ethanol concentration in the tested range. Thus, we demonstrated a novel and simple method for fabricating high-sensitivity, high-resolution SPR biosensors that provide high accuracy and precision over relevant ranges of analyte measurement. PMID:24361929

  6. Effect of high-pressure H{sub 2}O treatment on elimination of interfacial GeO{sub X} layer between ZrO{sub 2} and Ge stack

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chen-Shuo; Liu, Po-Tsun

    2011-08-22

    This investigation demonstrates the effect of high-pressure H{sub 2}O treatment on the elimination of the interfacial germanium suboxide (GeO{sub X}) layer between ZrO{sub 2} and Ge. The formation of GeO{sub X} interlayer increases the gate-leakage current and worsen the controllability of the gate during deposition or thermal cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that high-pressure H{sub 2}O treatment eliminates the interfacial GeO{sub X} layer. The physical mechanism involves the oxidation of non-oxidized Zr with H{sub 2}O and the reduction of GeO{sub X} by H{sub 2}. Treatment with H{sub 2}O reduces the gate-leakage current of a ZrO{sub 2}/Ge capacitor by a factor of 1000.

  7. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon based p-i-n structures with Si and Ge nanocrystals in i-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodin, V. A.; Krivyakin, G. K.; Shklyaev, A. A.; Kochubei, S. A.; Kamaev, G. N.; Dvurechendkii, A. V.; Purkrt, A.; Remes, Z.; Fajgar, R.; Stuchliková, T. H.; Stuchlik, J.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon nanocrystals and germanium nanolayers and nanocrystals were created into i-layers of p-i-n structures based on thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon films. The nanocrystals were formed using pulsed laser annealing with an excimer XeCl laser generating pulses with the wavelength of 308 nm and the duration of 15 ns. The laser fluence was varied from 100 (that is below the melting threshold) to 250 mJ/cm2 (above the threshold). The laser treatment allowed the formation of the nanoscrystals with the average size from 2 to 5 nm, depending on the laser-annealing parameters. The size of nanocrystals (in Si and Ge layers) and their Si-Ge composition (in GeSi alloy structures) was estimated through Raman spectra analysis. The structural parameters of Si, Ge and GeSi nanocrystals were also studied using electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Current-voltage measurements showed that the p-i-n structures exhibit diode characteristics. The diodes with Si nanocrystals produced the electroluminescence peak in the infrared range (0.9-1.0 eV), which spectral position was dependent on the laser annealing conditions. It was suggested that radiative transitions are related to the nanocrystal/amorphous silicon matrix interface states. The proposed approach can be used for producing of solar cells or light-emitting diodes on non-refractory substrates.

  8. A study of the nonlinear refractive index in amorphous Ge-As-S layers and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshikh, D. A.; Tsypkin, A. N.; Mel'nik, M. V.; Czingel, Kristian; Kokenyesi, Sandor

    2016-11-01

    Nonlinear refractive indices of simple and composite chalcogenide glasses with gold nanoparticles are measured by the Z-scan method using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser with a central wavelength of 800 nm and a pulse duration of 40 fs. It is shown that introduction of nanoparticles into thin layers of amorphous GeS2, As30Ge20S50, and As3Ge35S62 leads to a decrease in the total nonlinear refractive index due to additional absorption of femtosecond laser radiation without efficient excitation of localized plasmons outside the resonance region. For example, the nonlinear refractive index decreases with addition of gold nanoparticles from 16.1 × 10-12 to 13.0 × 10-12 cm2/W for GeS2, from 3.9 × 10-12 to 3.2 × 10-12 cm2/W for As30Ge20S50, and from 5.8 × 10-12 to 4.7 × 10-12 cm2/W for As3Ge35S62.

  9. Growth of Thin Epitaxial CaxSr1-xF2/SrF2 Layers with Low Leakage Current on Ge Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Keita; Tsutsui, Kazuo

    2013-10-01

    Resonant tunneling structures composed of epitaxial fluoride layers with a large conduction band discontinuity grown on Si or Ge substrates are attractive for the monolithic integration of quantum devices with CMOS. We found that the leakage current of Ca0.42Sr0.58F2 (lattice-matched with Ge) layers on Ge substrates was unusually large, which has not been observed on Si substrates. From an investigation of the dependence of the alloy composition of the fluoride layers on the leakage, the introduction of a SrF2 buffer layer, i.e., a Ca0.42Sr0.58F2/SrF2/Ge structure, was proposed as a technique for the growth of an electron-tunneling barrier layer on Ge with low leakage current.

  10. Metal-HfO{sub 2}-Ge capacitor: Its enhanced charge trapping properties with S-treated substrate and atomic-layer-deposited HfO{sub 2} layer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, In-Sung; Jung, Yong Chan; Seong, Sejong; Ahn, Jinho; Lee, Sung Bo

    2015-01-15

    The charge trapping properties of metal-HfO{sub 2}-Ge capacitor as a nonvolatile memory have been investigated with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S-treated Ge substrate and atomic-layer-deposited HfO{sub 2} layer. The interfacial layer generated by (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S-treated Ge substrate reveals a trace of -S- bonding, very sharp interface edges, and smooth surface morphology. The Ru-HfO{sub 2}-Ge capacitor with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S-treated Ge substrate shows an enhanced interface state with little frequency dispersion, a lower leakage current, and very reliable properties with the enhanced endurance and retention than Ru-HfO{sub 2}-Ge capacitor with cyclic-cleaned Ge substrate.

  11. Growth and characterization of GaN thin films on Si(111) substrates using SiC intermediate layer

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K.Y.; Lee, K.J.; Park, C.I.; Kim, K.C.; Choi, S.C.; Lee, W.H.; Suh, E.K.; Yang, G.M.; Nahm, K.S.

    2000-07-01

    GaN films have been grown atop Si-terminated 3C-SiC intermediate layer on Si(111) substrates using low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). The SiC intermediate layer was grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using tetramethylsilane (TMS) as the single source precursor. The Si terminated SiC surface was obtained by immediately flow of SiH{sub 4} gas after growth of SiC film. LP-MOCVD growth of GaN on 3C-SiC/Si(111) was carried out with trimethylgallium (TMG) and NH{sub 3}. Single crystalline hexagonal GaN layers can be grown on Si terminated SiC intermediate layer using an AlN or GaN buffer layer. Compared with GaN layers grown using a GaN buffer layer, the crystal qualities of GaN films with AlN buffer layers are extremely improved. The GaN films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of double crystal x-ray diffraction (DCXD) rocking curve for GaN (0002) on 3C-SiC/Si(111) was 890 arcsec. PL near band edge emission peak position and FWHM at room temperature are 3.38 eV and 79.35 meV, respectively.

  12. Sediment resuspension and the generation of intermediate nepheloid layers by shoaling internal bores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunaga, Eiji; Arthur, Robert S.; Fringer, Oliver B.; Yamazaki, Hidekatsu

    2017-06-01

    Numerical simulations of sediment resuspension due to shoaling internal bores are performed with a nonhydrostatic model, SUNTANS. Results show strong sediment resuspension induced by internal bores and a turbidity layer intruding offshore in the interior of the water column, known as an intermediate nepheloid layer (INL). Sediment resuspension processes and INLs reproduced in the model are in good agreement with observational data from Otuschi Bay, Japan. The formation of INLs by shoaling internal waves is explained as follows: (1) strong receding currents due to a previous run-up bore cause sediment resuspension along the slope, (2) the interaction of the receding currents and a subsequent run-up bore induce horizontal flow convergence and strong upward currents, (3) the upward currents lift the suspended sediments into the interior of the water column, (4) the run-up bore intrudes below the suspended sediments and forms an INL within the pycnocline. Sediment resuspension processes are also investigated for various internal Iribarren number conditions. The internal Iribarren number represents the ratio of the topographic slope to the internal wave steepness. In low internal Iribarren number conditions, strong currents near the bottom result in sediment resuspension and INL formation. In high internal Iribarren number conditions, sediment resuspension is weak, and INLs do not form.

  13. Polydopamine as an intermediate layer for silver and hydroxyapatite immobilisation on metallic biomaterials surface.

    PubMed

    Saidin, Syafiqah; Chevallier, Pascale; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Hermawan, Hendra; Mantovani, Diego

    2013-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coated implant is more susceptible to bacterial infection as the micro-structure surface which is beneficial for osseointegration, could also become a reservoir for bacterial colonisation. The aim of this study was to introduce the antibacterial effect of silver (Ag) to the biomineralised HA by utilising a polydopamine film as an intermediate layer for Ag and HA immobilisation. Sufficient catechol groups in polydopamine were required to bind chemically stainless steel 316 L, Ag and HA elements. Different amounts of Ag nanoparticles were metallised on the polydopamine grafted stainless steel by varying the immersion time in silver nitrate solution from 12 to 24 h. Another polydopamine layer was then formed on the metallised film, followed by surface biomineralisation in 1.5 Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution for 3 days. Several characterisation techniques including X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Contact Angle showed that Ag nanoparticles and HA agglomerations were successfully immobilised on the polydopamine film through an element reduction process. The Ag metallisation at 24 h has killed the viable bacteria with 97.88% of bactericidal ratio. The Ag was ionised up to 7 days which is crucial to prevent bacterial infection during the first stage of implant restoration. The aged functionalised films were considered stable due to less alteration of its chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability properties. The ability of the functionalised film to coat complex and micro scale metal make it suitable for dental and orthopaedic implants application. © 2013.

  14. Ultrathin ALD-Al2O3 layers for Ge(001) gate stacks: Local composition evolution and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Shankar; Sun, Yun; Pianetta, Piero; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2011-11-01

    Correlations among physical and electrical properties of atomic layer deposited (ALD)-Al2O3 on H2O-prepulsed Ge(100) have been investigated to evaluate Al2O3 as an ultrathin interface passivation layer for higher-k/Al2O3/Ge gate stacks. In situ XPS in the ALD environment provides insights into the local composition evolution during the initial stages of ALD, evidencing (a) an incubation regime that may limit the minimum achievable capacitance equivalent thickness (CET) of these gate stacks, and (b) residual hydroxyl incorporation in the film consistent with the observed dielectric constant ˜7.2. Thickness scaling of the CET is consistent with a nearly abrupt interface as measured by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SRPES). SRPES studies also reveal that forming gas anneal provides passivation through monolayer-level formation of stoichiometric GeO2, suggesting a complex chemical interaction involving residual -OH groups in the as-grown ALD-Al2O3. Valence and conduction band offsets of prepulsed ALD-Al2O3 with respect to Ge are calculated to be 3.3 ± 0.1 and 2.6 ± 0.3 eV, indicating that these layers offer an effective barrier to hole and electron injection.

  15. Strain and Electrical Characterization of Boron-Doped SiGeC Layers Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hållstedt, J.; Parent, A.; Zhang, S.-L.; Östling, M.; Radamson, H. H.

    2004-01-01

    Incorporation, induced strain and electrical properties of boron and carbon in Si1 x yGexCy epitaxial layers (x = 0.23 and 0.28 with y = 0 and 0.005) grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) have been studied. The boron concentration in the epitaxial layers was in the range of 3 × 1018 1 × 1021cm 3. The growth rate enhanced weakly by increasing boron partial pressure up to 0.002 mtorr corresponding to 2 × 1019cm 3 where a significant increase in deposition rate was observed. In SiGeC layers, the active boron concentration was obtained from the strain compensation amount. It was also found that the boron atoms have a tendency to locate at substitutional sites more preferentially compared to carbon. The incorporation of boron in SiGeC layers was clearly improved in the range 2 × 1019 3 × 1020cm 3. These investigations also enabled an estimation of the Hall scattering factor of the SiGeC layers. A comparison between our results with the previous theoretical calculations showed a good agreement. This created the possibility to evaluate the drift mobility in our samples.

  16. Stability and electronic properties of SiGe-based 2D layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamdagni, Pooja; Kumar, Ashok; Thakur, Anil; Pandey, Ravindra; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties of the in-plane hybrids consisting of siligene (SiGe), and its derivatives in both mono and bilayer forms are investigated within density functional theory. Among several pristine and hydrogenated configurations, the so-called chair conformation is energetically favorable for monolayers. On the other hand, the bilayer siligane (HSiGeH) prefers AB-stacked chair conformation and bilayer siligone (HSiGe) prefers AA-stacked buckled conformation. In SiGe, the Dirac-cone character is predicted to be retained. HSiGe is a magnetic semiconductor with a band gap of ˜0.6 eV. The electronic properties show tunability under mechanical strain and transverse electric field; (i) the energy gap opens up in the SiGe bilayer, (ii) a direct-to-indirect gap transition is predicted by the applied strain in the HSiGeH bilayer, and (iii) a semiconductor-to-metal transition is predicted for HSiGe and HSiGeH bilayers under the application of strain and electric field, thus suggesting SiGe and its derivatives to be a potential candidate for electronic devices at nanoscale.

  17. As- or P-Doped Si Layers Grown by RPCVD for Emitter Application in SiGeC HBTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvar, Erdal; Haralson, Erik; Hållstedt, Julius; Radamson, Henry H.; Östling, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    A new module for the emitter formation in a bipolar transistor is presented. Arsenic- or phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon layer for the emitter formation is deposited in a reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor using silane as the silicon source gas. Characteristics such as the carrier concentration, conductivity, surface morphology, and thermal stability of the polycrystalline-silicon layer as well as the influence this layer has on a SiGeC transistor structure during the drive-in step area studied. The active carrier concentration of the as-grown sample is strongly dependent on the deposition temperature, especially arsenic doped layers which exhibit more than one order of magnitude difference. However, the carrier concentration for the As- or P-doped layer were comparable to that of a standard in-situ doped poly-crystalline layer after a dopant activation at 925°C for 10s.

  18. Initial stage growth of GexSi1−x layers and Ge quantum dot formation on GexSi1−x surface by MBE

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Critical thicknesses of two-dimensional to three-dimensional growth in GexSi1−x layers were measured as a function of composition for different growth temperatures. In addition to the (2 × 1) superstructure for a Ge film grown on Si(100), the GexSi1−x layers are characterized by the formation of (2 × n) reconstruction. We measured n for all layers of Ge/GexSi1−x/Ge heterosystem using our software with respect to the video recording of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) pattern during growth. The n reaches a minimum value of about 8 for clear Ge layer, whereas for GexSi1−x films, n is increased from 8 to 14. The presence of a thin strained film of the GexSi1−x caused not only the changes in critical thicknesses of the transitions, but also affected the properties of the germanium nanocluster array for the top Ge layer. Based on the RHEED data, the hut-like island form, which has not been previously observed by us between the hut and dome islands, has been detected. Data on the growth of Ge/GexSi1−x/Ge heterostructures with the uniform array of islands in the second layer of the Ge film have been received. PMID:23043796

  19. The influence of a Si cap on self-organized SiGe islands and the underlying wetting layer

    SciTech Connect

    Brehm, M.; Grydlik, M.; Groiss, H.; Hackl, F.; Schaeffler, F.; Fromherz, T.; Bauer, G.

    2011-06-15

    For the prototypical SiGe/Si(001) Stranski-Krastanow (SK) growth system, the influence of intermixing caused by the deposition of a Si cap layer at temperatures T{sub cap} between 300 deg. C and 700 deg. C is studied both for the SiGe wetting layer (WL) and the SiGe islands. Systematic growth experiments were carried out with an ultrahigh resolution of down to 0.005 monolayers (ML) of deposited Ge. The properties of the samples were investigated via photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy. We studied in detail the influence of T{sub cap} in the three main coverage regions of SiGe SK growth, which are (i) the WL build-up regime, (ii) the island nucleation regime, where most of the Ge is supplied via material transfer from the WL, and (iii) the saturation regime, where the WL thickness remains initially stable. At T{sub cap} = 300 deg. C, we found that both the WL and the island are essentially preserved in composition and shape, whereas at 500 deg. C the WL becomes heavily alloyed during capping, and at 700 deg. C the islands also become alloyed. At T{sub cap} = 500 deg. C we found enhanced WL intermixing in the presence of dome-shaped islands, whereas at T{sub cap} 700 deg. C the WL properties become dominated by the dissolution of pyramid-shaped islands upon capping. At Ge coverages above {approx_equal}6 ML, we found an unexpected thickening of the WL, almost independently of T{sub cap}. This finding suggests that the density and the volume of the dome-shaped islands have an upper limit, beyond which excess Ge from the external source again becomes incorporated into the WL. Finally, we compared PL spectra with AFM-based evaluations of the integral island volumes in order to determine in a straightforward manner the average composition of the SiGe islands.

  20. Tuneable Magnetic Phase Transitions in Layered CeMn2Ge2-xSix Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Md Din, M. F.; Wang, J. L.; Cheng, Z. X.; Dou, S. X.; Kennedy, S. J.; Avdeev, M.; Campbell, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of seven CeMn2Ge2-xSix compounds with x = 0.0–2.0 have been investigated in detail. Substitution of Ge with Si leads to a monotonic decrease of both a and c along with concomitant contraction of the unit cell volume and significant modifications of the magnetic states - a crossover from ferromagnetism at room temperature for Ge-rich compounds to antiferromagnetism for Si-rich compounds. The magnetic phase diagram has been constructed over the full range of CeMn2Ge2-xSix compositions and co-existence of ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism has been observed in CeMn2Ge1.2Si0.8, CeMn2Ge1.0Si1.0 and CeMn2Ge0.8Si1.2 with novel insight provided by high resolution neutron and X-ray synchrotron radiation studies. CeMn2Ge2-xSix compounds (x = 0, 0.4 and 0.8) exhibit moderate isothermal magnetic entropy accompanied with a second-order phase transition around room temperature. Analysis of critical behaviour in the vicinity of TCinter for CeMn2Ge2 compound indicates behaviour consistent with three-dimensional Heisenberg model predictions. PMID:26090940

  1. Phase-change properties of GeSbTe thin films deposited by plasma-enchanced atomic layer depositon.

    PubMed

    Song, Sannian; Yao, Dongning; Song, Zhitang; Gao, Lina; Zhang, Zhonghua; Li, Le; Shen, Lanlan; Wu, Liangcai; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Yan; Feng, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    Phase-change access memory (PCM) appears to be the strongest candidate for next-generation high-density nonvolatile memory. The fabrication of ultrahigh-density PCM depends heavily on the thin-film growth technique for the phase-changing chalcogenide material. In this study, Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and GeSb8Te thin films were deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) method using Ge [(CH3)2 N]4, Sb [(CH3)2 N]3, Te(C4H9)2 as precursors and plasma-activated H2 gas as reducing agent of the metallorganic precursors. Compared with GST-based device, GeSb8Te-based device exhibits a faster switching speed and reduced reset voltage, which is attributed to the growth-dominated crystallization mechanism of the Sb-rich GeSb8Te films. These results show that ALD is an attractive method for preparation of phase-change materials.

  2. Characteristics of the Baltic Sea Cold Intermediate Layer on the base of field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Olga; Chubarenko, Natalia; Chubarenko, Irina

    2010-05-01

    Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) is observed in the Baltic Sea deep areas (depth more than ~60 m) from March to September/October and is easily identifiable at depths 30-60 m by its low temperature (~2-4 C). The main objectives of the work were (i) to develop a criterion of allocation of the CIL in general thermo-haline structure, (ii) to define the CIL using this criterion on the basis of real field data for 2004-2006 years and (iii) to analyze a range of its characteristics (temperature, salinity, density, thickness, location, stability at interfaces, etc.) after those winters (of different severity). Even though cold intermediate layers are often found in inland seas with strong pycno/halocline (the Black Sea, the Marmara Sea, the Mediterranean), quite different criteria of their allocation are used. For the Baltic, there isn't commonly used criterion. It has been found most convenient to use the following one: the CIL in the Baltic Sea is to be defined as a layer between maximum negative and maximum positive temperature gradient within vertical water column. With this definition, allocation of the CIL on vertical temperature/salinity/density profiles was performed using field data obtained in 2005-2006 during cruises of r/v "Professor Stockman" (P.P.Shirshov Istitute of Oceanology RAS; data courtesy Dr.V.Paka, Dr.D.Dorohov) in the Baltic Sea coastal zone and of r/v "Gauss" (Baltic Sea Research Institute at Warnemuende; data courtesy Dr.R.Feistel) in the Baltic Proper. Analysis of mean annual data, published on CD with the book "State and Evolution of the Baltic Sea 1952-2005" (data of IOW), has demonstrated that from about 80 quadrates (1' x 1') of the Baltic Sea area, in 43 quadrates water temperature within the CIL is lower than the lowest water surface temperature. This shows that the CIL contains waters advected horizontally. In order to find spatial correlations, T-S analysis was applied, demonstrating that the CIL waters might drift from south-western rather

  3. Choroid, Haller's, and Sattler's layer thickness in intermediate age-related macular degeneration with and without fellow neovascular eyes.

    PubMed

    Esmaeelpour, Marieh; Ansari-Shahrezaei, Siamak; Glittenberg, Carl; Nemetz, Susanne; Kraus, Martin F; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G; Drexler, Wolfgang; Binder, Susanne

    2014-07-22

    To analyze choroidal, Sattler's, and Haller's layer thickness maps in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients having eyes with bilateral large drusen and pigment changes (intermediate AMD), in patients having intermediate AMD eyes with neovascular fellow eyes (nAMD), and in healthy subjects using three-dimensional (3D) 1060-nm optical coherence tomography (OCT). Automatically generated choroidal thickness (ChT), retinal thickness, and Sattler's and Haller's layer thickness maps were statistically analyzed in 67 subjects consisting of intermediate AMD (n = 21), intermediate AMD (n = 22) with fellow nAMD eyes (n = 22), and healthy eyes (n = 24) with no age and axial eye length difference between groups of eyes (P > 0.05, ANOVA). Eyes were imaged by a prototype high-speed (60,000 A-scans/s) spectral-domain 3D 1060-nm OCT over a 36° × 36° field of view. The mean ± SD (μm) subfoveal ChT for healthy subjects and for bilateral intermediate AMD, unilateral intermediate AMD, and their nAMD fellow eyes was 259 ± 95 and 222 ± 98, 149 ± 60, and 171 ± 78, respectively. Choroidal thickness maps demonstrated significant submacular thinning in unilateral intermediate AMD in comparison to healthy and bilateral intermediate AMD eyes (P < 0.001, ANOVA, post hoc P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Sattler's and Haller's layers were thinnest in intermediate AMDs that presented with nAMD fellow eyes (Kruskal-Wallis test P < 0.01). For the choroid and its sublayers, there was no difference between the intermediate AMD eyes and their fellow nAMD eyes (paired testing, P < 0.05). The 3D 1060-nm OCT choroidal imaging visualized significant changes in choroidal, Sattler's, and Haller's layer thickness in relation to the progression of AMD. This may be important for understanding the choroidopathy in the pathophysiology of AMD. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  4. Interface induce growth of intermediate layer for bandgap engineering insights into photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Wang, Lianhui; Li, Xing'Ao; Huang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A model of interface induction for interlayer growing is proposed for bandgap engineering insights into photocatalysis. In the interface of CdS/ZnS core/shell nanorods, a lamellar solid solution intermediate with uniform thickness and high crystallinity was formed under interface induction process. Merged the novel charge carrier transfer layer, the photocurrent of the core/shell/shell nanorod (css-NR) array was significantly improved to 14.0 mA cm-2 at 0.0 V vs. SCE, nearly 8 times higher than that of the perfect CdS counterpart and incident photon to electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) values above 50% under AM 1.5G irradiation. In addition, this array photoelectrode showed excellent photocatalytic stability over 6000 s. These results suggest that the CdS/Zn1-xCdxS/ZnS css-NR array photoelectrode provides a scalable charge carrier transfer channel, as well as durability, and therefore is promising to be a large-area nanostructured CdS-based photoanodes in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting system.

  5. Growth of monolithic full-color GaN-based LED with intermediate carrier blocking layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghoroury, Hussein S.; Yeh, Milton; Chen, J. C.; Li, X.; Chuang, Chih-Li

    2016-07-01

    Specially designed intermediate carrier blocking layers (ICBLs) in multi-active regions of III-nitride LEDs were shown to be effective in controlling the carrier injection distribution across the active regions. In principle, the majority of carriers, both holes and electrons, can be guided into targeted quantum wells and recombine to generate light of specific wavelengths at controlled current-densities. Accordingly we proposed and demonstrated a novel monolithic InGaN-based LED to achieve three primary colors of light from one device at selected current densities. This LED structure, which has three different sets of quantum wells separated with ICBLs for three primary red-green-blue (RGB) colors, was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Results show that this LED can emit light ranging from 460 to 650 nm to cover the entire visible spectrum. The emission wavelength starts at 650 nm and then decreases to 460 nm or lower as the injection current increases. In addition to three primary colors, many other colors can be obtained by color mixing techniques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of monolithic full-color LED grown by a simple growth technique without using re-growth process.

  6. Growth of monolithic full-color GaN-based LED with intermediate carrier blocking layers

    SciTech Connect

    El-Ghoroury, Hussein S.; Yeh, Milton; Chen, J. C. Li, X.; Chuang, Chih-Li

    2016-07-15

    Specially designed intermediate carrier blocking layers (ICBLs) in multi-active regions of III-nitride LEDs were shown to be effective in controlling the carrier injection distribution across the active regions. In principle, the majority of carriers, both holes and electrons, can be guided into targeted quantum wells and recombine to generate light of specific wavelengths at controlled current-densities. Accordingly we proposed and demonstrated a novel monolithic InGaN-based LED to achieve three primary colors of light from one device at selected current densities. This LED structure, which has three different sets of quantum wells separated with ICBLs for three primary red-green-blue (RGB) colors, was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Results show that this LED can emit light ranging from 460 to 650 nm to cover the entire visible spectrum. The emission wavelength starts at 650 nm and then decreases to 460 nm or lower as the injection current increases. In addition to three primary colors, many other colors can be obtained by color mixing techniques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of monolithic full-color LED grown by a simple growth technique without using re-growth process.

  7. Interface induce growth of intermediate layer for bandgap engineering insights into photoelectrochemical water splitting

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Wang, Lianhui; Li, Xing’ao; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A model of interface induction for interlayer growing is proposed for bandgap engineering insights into photocatalysis. In the interface of CdS/ZnS core/shell nanorods, a lamellar solid solution intermediate with uniform thickness and high crystallinity was formed under interface induction process. Merged the novel charge carrier transfer layer, the photocurrent of the core/shell/shell nanorod (css-NR) array was significantly improved to 14.0 mA cm−2 at 0.0 V vs. SCE, nearly 8 times higher than that of the perfect CdS counterpart and incident photon to electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) values above 50% under AM 1.5G irradiation. In addition, this array photoelectrode showed excellent photocatalytic stability over 6000 s. These results suggest that the CdS/Zn1−xCdxS/ZnS css-NR array photoelectrode provides a scalable charge carrier transfer channel, as well as durability, and therefore is promising to be a large-area nanostructured CdS-based photoanodes in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting system. PMID:27250648

  8. Observing the subsurface thermal signature of the Black Sea cold intermediate layer with Argo profiling floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpinar, Anil; Fach, Bettina A.; Oguz, Temel

    2017-06-01

    Cold intermediate layers (CILs) constitute a key indicator of the subsurface thermal signature in many marginal and subarctic seas. Towards better understanding the impacts of natural and anthropogenic climate variability in the Black Sea, the present study elucidates processes leading to the observed changes of CIL characteristics at mesoscale and monthly-to-interannual scales by analyzing weekly temperature-salinity profiles provided by Argo floats for 2002-2015. The continuous time series data allowed to elucidate different types of CIL formation episodes. For the first time, it was possible to trace their subsequent evolution depending on the number and intensity of successive, but often intermittent, autumn-winter cooling events in addition to the ambient flow and stratification characteristics within the cyclonic interior and anticyclonic coastal eddies/gyres. The spatial distribution of CIL formation in the cold years 2003, 2006 and 2012 covered much of the Black Sea, even coastal anticyclonic eddies as a new feature which has not been documented before. The data also recorded modification of CIL during the rest of the year in terms of its thickness, position, temperature and salinity ranges in response to advective transport by the circulation system, interior turbulent mixing, and quasi-lateral intrusions associated with mesoscale features.

  9. Vertical structure and seasonal evolution of the cold intermediate layer in the Baltic Proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, N. B.

    2017-08-01

    Vertical T,S structure of waters of the cold intermediate layer (CIL) is examined on the base of high-resolution CTD profiles obtained in the Baltic Sea Proper in spring and early-summer periods. Basic elements of the structure of the CIL are identified and possible mechanisms responsible for their formation are suggested. Seasonal evolution of the CIL structure is considered. Its four stages are discussed: formation in early spring; late-spring adjustment; slow summer-time modification; and fall/winter-time washing-out/preconditioning to the next cycle. The mechanisms of mixing and stirring which could be responsible for the observed features of the CIL structure are discussed. It is proposed to consider the Baltic CIL not as a phenomenon which appears during the warm season only, but as a manifestation of a permanently current process of basin-scale water exchange. Further targeted investigations are urged disclosing the role of this exchange in general thermo-haline circulation of the Baltic Sea.

  10. Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3-1.55-μm photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, J. M.; Abbadie, A.; Papon, A. M.; Holliger, P.; Rolland, G.; Billon, T.; Fédéli, J. M.; Rouvière, M.; Vivien, L.; Laval, S.

    2004-05-01

    Ge-based photodetectors operating in the low loss windows (1.3-1.6 μm) of silica fibers are highly desirable for the development of optical interconnections on silicon-on-insulator substrates. We have therefore investigated the structural and optical properties of Ge thick films grown directly onto Si(001) substrates using a production-compatible reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition system. We have first of all evidenced a Ge growth regime which is akin to a supply-limited one in the 400-750 °C temperature range (Ea=6.9 kcal mol-1). The thick Ge layers grown using a low-temperature/high-temperature approach are in a definite tensile-strain configuration, with a threading dislocation density for as-grown layers of the order of 9×108 cm-2 (annealed: <2×108 cm-2). The surface of those Ge thick layers is rather smooth, especially when considering the large lattice mismatch between Ge and Si. The root-mean-square roughness is indeed of the order of 0.6 nm (2 nm) only for as-grown (annealed) layers. A chemical mechanical polishing step followed by some Ge re-epitaxy can help in bringing the surface roughness of annealed layers down, however (0.5 nm). The Ge layers produced are of high optical quality. An absorption coefficient alpha equal to 4300 cm-1 (3400 cm-1) has indeed been found at room temperature and for a 1.55-μm wavelength for as-grown (annealed) layers. A 20-meV band-gap shrinkage with respect to bulk Ge (0.78 eV⇔0.80 eV) is observed as well in those tensile-strained Ge epilayers.

  11. Spatial Updating in Monkey Superior Colliculus in the Absence of the Forebrain Commissures: Dissociation Between Superficial and Intermediate Layers

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Catherine A.; Hall, Nathan J.

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that the forebrain commissures are the primary pathway for remapping from one hemifield to the other. Nonetheless, remapping in lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP) across hemifield is still present in split brain monkeys. This finding indicates that a subcortical structure must contribute to remapping. The primary goal of the current study was to characterize remapping activity in the superior colliculus in intact and split brain monkeys. We recorded neurons in both the superficial and intermediate layers of the SC. We found that across-hemifield remapping was reduced in magnitude and delayed compared with within-hemifield remapping in the intermediate layers of the SC in split brain monkeys. These results mirror our previous findings in area LIP. In contrast, we found no difference in the magnitude or latency for within- compared with across-hemifield remapping in the superficial layers. At the behavioral level, we compared the performance of the monkeys on two conditions of a double-step task. When the second target remained within a single hemifield, performance remained accurate. When the second target had to be updated across hemifields, the split brain monkeys' performance was impaired. Remapping activity in the intermediate layers was correlated with the accuracy and latency of the second saccade during the across-hemifield trials. Remapping in the superficial layers was correlated with latency of the second saccade during the within- and across-hemifield trials. The differences between the layers suggest that different circuits underlie remapping in the superficial and intermediate layers of the superior colliculus. PMID:20610793

  12. Effect of growth temperature on photoluminescence of self-assembled Ge(Si) islands confined between strained Si layers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaleev, M. V. Novikov, A. V.; Yablonskii, A. N.; Kuznetsov, O. A.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Lobanov, D. N.; Krasil'nik, Z. F.

    2007-11-15

    The effect of growth temperature on photoluminescence is studied for structures with Ge(Si) islands grown on relaxed SiGe/Si(001) buffer layers and confined between strained Si layers. It is shown that, with decreasing growth temperature in the range from 700 to 630 deg. C, the photoluminescence peak associated with the islands shifts to lower energies, which is due to the increase in Ge content in the islands and to suppression of degradation of the strained Si layers. The experimentally observed shift of the photoluminescence peak to higher energies with decreasing temperature from 630 to 600 deg. C is attributed to the change in the type of the islands from domelike to hutlike in this temperature range. This change is accompanied by an abrupt decrease in the average height of the islands. The larger width of the photoluminescence peak produced by the hut islands in comparison with the width of the peak produced by the domelike islands is interpreted as a result of a wider size dispersion of the hutlike islands.

  13. Low temperature formation of higher-k cubic phase HfO{sub 2} by atomic layer deposition on GeO{sub x}/Ge structures fabricated by in-situ thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.; Huang, P.-C.; Taoka, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Takenaka, M.; Takagi, S.

    2016-02-01

    We have demonstrated a low temperature formation (300 °C) of higher-k HfO{sub 2} using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on an in-situ thermal oxidation GeO{sub x} interfacial layer. It is found that the cubic phase is dominant in the HfO{sub 2} film with an epitaxial-like growth behavior. The maximum permittivity of 42 is obtained for an ALD HfO{sub 2} film on a 1-nm-thick GeO{sub x} form by the in-situ thermal oxidation. It is suggested from physical analyses that the crystallization of cubic phase HfO{sub 2} can be induced by the formation of six-fold crystalline GeO{sub x} structures in the underlying GeO{sub x} interfacial layer.

  14. Three dimensional finite element modeling and characterization of intermediate states in single active layer phase change memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinar, I.; Aslan, O. B.; Gokce, A.; Dincer, O.; Karakas, V.; Stipe, B.; Katine, J. A.; Aktas, G.; Ozatay, O.

    2015-06-01

    The high contrast in the electrical resistivity between amorphous and crystalline states of a phase change material can potentially enable multiple memory levels for efficient use of a data storage medium. We report on our investigation of the role of the current injection site geometry (circular and square) in stabilizing such intermediate states within a nanoscale single-phase change material system (Ge2Sb2Te5). We have developed a three dimensional multiphysics model, which includes phase change kinetics, electrical, thermal, thermoelectric, and percolation effects, all as a function of temperature, using an iterative approach with coupled differential equations. Our model suggests that the physical origin of the formation of stable intermediate states in square top contact devices is mainly due to anisotropic heating during the application of a programming current pulse. Furthermore, the threshold current requirement and the width of the programming window are determined by crystallite nucleation and growth rates such that a higher crystallization rate leads to a narrower range of current pulses for switching to intermediate resistance level(s). The experimentally determined resistance maps, those that are indicative of the crystallinity, show good agreement with the simulated phase change behavior confirming the existence of stable intermediate states. Our model successfully predicts the required programming conditions for such mixed-phase levels, which can be used to optimize memory cells for future ultra-high density data storage applications.

  15. Measurement and simulation of boron diffusion in strained Si 1- xGe x epitaxial layers with a linearly graded germanium profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, K.; Schoenmaker, W.

    2001-11-01

    The diffusion of boron in compressively strained Si 1- xGe x epitaxial layers with graded Ge profiles grown by rapid pressure chemical vapor deposition during furnace and rapid thermal annealing has been studied. Comparison of the Si 1- xGe x samples to Si samples after furnace annealing (FA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) revealed a retarded B diffusion inside the strained Si 1- xGe x layer. FA after RTA has only a marginal effect on B diffusion. The extracted B diffusivity from the present studies is very well comparable with available experimental and simulation results. A simple empirical expression for B diffusion is presented and incorporated into a diffusion model for dopants in heterostructures. Good agreement between the measured and simulated diffusivity is observed. It is argued that B diffusion in strained Si 1- xGe x layers requires the inclusion of both trapping effect and strain in the formulation of the diffusion mechanism.

  16. Surface passivation of p-type Ge substrate with high-quality GeNx layer formed by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yukio; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takuro; Otani, Yohei; Ono, Toshiro

    2011-09-01

    We have investigated the effects of the formation temperature and postmetallization annealing (PMA) on the interface properties of GeNx/p-Ge fabricated by the plasma nitridation of Ge substrates using an electron-cyclotron-resonance-generated nitrogen plasma. The nitridation temperature is found to be a critical parameter in improving the finally obtained GeNx/Ge interface properties. The GeNx/Ge formed at room temperature and treated by PMA at 400 °C exhibits the best interface properties with an interface trap density of 1 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1. The GeNx/Ge interface is unpinned and the Fermi level at the Ge surface can move from the valence band edge to the conduction band edge.

  17. GeP and (Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x})(P{sub 1−y}Ge{sub y}) (x≈0.12, y≈0.05): Synthesis, structure, and properties of two-dimensional layered tetrel phosphides

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kathleen; Synnestvedt, Sarah; Bellard, Maverick; Kovnir, Kirill

    2015-04-15

    GeP and Sn-doped GeP were synthesized from elements in bismuth and tin flux, respectively. The layered crystal structures of these compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both phosphides crystallize in a GaTe structure type in the monoclinic space group C2/m (No. 12) with GeP: a=15.1948(7) Å, b=3.6337(2) Å, c=9.1941(4) Å, β=101.239(2)°; Ge{sub 0.93(3)}P{sub 0.95(1)}Sn{sub 0.12(3)}: a=15.284(9) Å, b=3.622(2) Å, c=9.207(5) Å, β=101.79(1)°. The crystal structure of GeP consists of 2-dimensional GeP layers held together by weak electron lone pair interactions between the phosphorus atoms that confine the layer. Each layer is built of Ge–Ge dumbbells surrounded by a distorted antiprism of phosphorus atoms. Sn-doped GeP has a similar structural motif, but with a significant degree of disorder emphasized by the splitting of all atomic positions. Resistivity measurements together with quantum-chemical calculations reveal semiconducting behavior for the investigated phosphides. - Graphical abstract: Layered phosphides GeP and Sn-doped GeP were synthesized from elements in bismuth and tin flux, respectively. The crystal structure of GeP consists of 2-dimensional GeP layers held together by weak electron lone pair interactions between the phosphorus atoms that confine the layer. Sn-doped GeP has a similar structural motif with a significant degree of disorder emphasized by the splitting of all atomic positions. Resistivity measurements together with quantum-chemical calculations reveal semiconducting behavior for the investigated phosphides. - Highlights: • GeP crystallizes in a layered crystal structure. • Doping of Sn into GeP causes large structural distortions. • GeP is narrow bandgap semiconductor. • Sn-doped GeP exhibits an order of magnitude higher resistivity due to disorder.

  18. Selective removal of a Si0.7Ge0.3 layer from Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krist, A. H.; Godbey, D. J.; Green, N. P.

    1991-04-01

    The selective removal of epitaxial Si0.7Ge0.3 from {100} silicon using an aqueous based etch is reported. An etch consisting of HNO3:H2O:HF(0.5%), 40:20:5 at 22 °C, removes Si0.7Ge0.3 at a rate of 207 Å/min, and removes {100} Si at a rate of 16 Å/min. This corresponds to a selectivity of 1321 where the selectivity is defined as the ratio of the Si0.7Ge0.3 to {100} Si etch rates. This etch leaves the surface smooth and free from pitting or trenching as observed by optical microscopy. The results obtained are consistent with a germanium enhanced oxidation mechanism of the Si0.7Ge0.3 alloy during semiconductor removal.

  19. Differential Gene Expression of the Intermediate and Outer Interzone Layers of Developing Articular Cartilage in Murine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    IJpma, Arne; Cleary, Mairead; Heijsman, Daphne; Narcisi, Roberto; van der Spek, Peter J.; Kremer, Andreas; van Weeren, René; Brama, Pieter; van Osch, Gerjo J.V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Nascent embryonic joints, interzones, contain a distinct cohort of progenitor cells responsible for the formation of the majority of articular tissues. However, to date the interzone has largely been studied using in situ analysis for candidate genes in the context of the embryo rather than using an unbiased genome-wide expression analysis on isolated interzone cells, leaving significant controversy regarding the exact role of the intermediate and outer interzone layers in joint formation. Therefore, in this study, using laser capture microdissection (three biological replicates), we selectively harvested the intermediate and outer interzones of mouse embryos at gestational age 15.5 days, just prior to cavitation, when the differences between the layers should be most profound. Microarray analysis (Agilent Whole Mouse Genome Oligo Microarrays) was performed and the differential gene expression between the intermediate interzone cells and outer interzone cells was examined by performing a two-sided paired Student's t-test and pathway analysis. One hundred ninety-seven genes were differentially expressed (≥2-fold) between the intermediate interzone and the outer interzone with a P-value≤0.01. Of these, 91 genes showed higher expression levels in the intermediate interzone and 106 were expressed higher in the outer interzone. Pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes suggests an important role for inflammatory processes in the interzone layers, especially in the intermediate interzone, and hence in joint and articular cartilage development. The high representation of genes relevant to chondrocyte hypertrophy and endochondral ossification in the outer interzone suggests that it undergoes endochondral ossification. PMID:24738827

  20. Three-dimensional nanostructures on Ge/Si(100) wetting layers: Hillocks and pre-quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Ramalingam, Gopalakrishnan; Floro, Jerrold A.; Reinke, Petra

    2016-05-28

    The annealing of sub-critical Ge wetting layers (WL < 3.5 ML) initiates the formation of 3D nanostructures, whose shape and orientation is determined by the WL thickness and thus directly related to the strain energy. The emergence of these nanostructures, hillocks and pre-quantum dots, is studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. A wetting layer deposited at 350 °C is initially rough on the nanometer length-scale and undergoes a progressive transformation and smoothening during annealing at T < 460 °C when vacancy lines and the 2xn reconstruction are observed. The metastable Ge WL then collapses to form 3D nanostructures whose morphology is controlled by the WL thickness: first, the hillocks, with a wedding cake-type structure where the step edges run parallel to the 〈110〉 direction, are formed from thin wetting layers, while {105}-faceted structures, called pre-quantum dots (p-QDs), are formed from thicker layers. The wetting layer thickness and thus the misfit strain energy controls the type of structure. The crossover thickness between the hillock and p-QDs regime is between 1.6 and 2.1 ML. The hillocks have larger lateral dimensions and volumes than p-QDs, and the p-QDs are exceptionally small quantum dots with a lower limit of 10 nm in width. Our work opens a new pathway to the control of nanostructure morphology and size in the elastically strained Ge/Si system.

  1. Role of boundary layer diffusion in vapor deposition growth of chalcogenide nanosheets: the case of GeS.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Huang, Liang; Snigdha, Gayatri Pongur; Yu, Yifei; Cao, Linyou

    2012-10-23

    We report a synthesis of single-crystalline two-dimensional GeS nanosheets using vapor deposition processes and show that the growth behavior of the nanosheet is substantially different from those of other nanomaterials and thin films grown by vapor depositions. The nanosheet growth is subject to strong influences of the diffusion of source materials through the boundary layer of gas flows. This boundary layer diffusion is found to be the rate-determining step of the growth under typical experimental conditions, evidenced by a substantial dependence of the nanosheet's size on diffusion fluxes. We also find that high-quality GeS nanosheets can grow only in the diffusion-limited regime, as the crystalline quality substantially deteriorates when the rate-determining step is changed away from the boundary layer diffusion. We establish a simple model to analyze the diffusion dynamics in experiments. Our analysis uncovers an intuitive correlation of diffusion flux with the partial pressure of source materials, the flow rate of carrier gas, and the total pressure in the synthetic setup. The observed significant role of boundary layer diffusions in the growth is unique for nanosheets. It may be correlated with the high growth rate of GeS nanosheets, ~3-5 μm/min, which is 1 order of magnitude higher than other nanomaterials (such as nanowires) and thin films. This fundamental understanding of the effect of boundary layer diffusions may generally apply to other chalcogenide nanosheets that can grow rapidly. It can provide useful guidance for the development of general paradigms to control the synthesis of nanosheets.

  2. Behavior and mixing of a cold intermediate layer near a sloping boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyr, Frédéric; Bourgault, Daniel; Galbraith, Peter S.

    2015-03-01

    As in many other subarctic basins, a cold intermediate layer (CIL) is found during ice-free months in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (LSLE), Canada. This study examines the behavior of the CIL above the sloping bottom using a high-resolution mooring deployed on the northern side of the estuary. Observations show successive swashes/backwashes of the CIL on the slope at a semi-diurnal frequency. It is shown that these upslope and downslope motions are likely caused by internal tides generated at the nearby channel head sill. Quantification of mixing from 322 turbulence casts reveals that in the bottom 10 m of the water column, the time-average dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy is 𝜖 10 m = 1.6×10-7Wkg-1, an order of magnitude greater than found in the interior of the basin, far from boundaries. Near-bottom dissipation during the flood phase of the M2 tide cycle (upslope flow) is about four times greater than during the ebb phase (downslope flow). Bottom shear stress, shear instabilities, and internal wave scattering are considered as potential boundary mixing mechanisms near the seabed. In the interior of the water column, far from the bottom, increasing dissipation rates are observed with both increasing stratification and shear, which suggests some control of the dissipation by the internal wave field. However, poor fits with a parametrization for large-scale wave-wave interactions suggests that the mixing is partly driven by more complex non-linear and/or smaller scale waves.

  3. Cartilage intermediate layer protein expression in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Koji; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Masuda, Ikuko; Ohjimi, Yuko; Honda, Itsuo; Iyama, Ken-ichi; Shono, Eisuke; Naito, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2002-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease (CPPDCD) in the meniscus, synovium, labrum, tendon, ligament, and soft tissue, we studied the expression of cartilage intermediate layer protein (CILP). Histological sections and clinical data from 33 patients who fulfilled the criteria of Ryan and McCarty for CPPD were reviewed. Formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue sections of 33 patients with CPPDCD were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and alizarin red S. Immunostaining was performed using affinity purified polyclonal antibody to synthetic peptide corresponding to the N-terminal sequence of the 61 kDa domain of porcine CILP. The age of patients ranged from 49 to 89 years (median 73). The knee was the commonest site. Radiologically, almost all lesions exhibited fine, radiopaque, linear deposits in the meniscus, articular cartilage, and synovium or joint capsule. Histopathologically, all cases showed deposits of birefringent monoclinic or triclinic crystals, which were visualized by polarized light microscopy with a red analyzer filter. In alizarin red S staining, more numerous crystals were observed than in H&E staining. Crystal deposition was usually associated with adjacent variable amounts of hypertrophic and/or metaplastic chondrocytes in each type of tissue. Variable intensity of CILP immunostaining was found in deposits of each lesion. Hypertrophic/metaplastic chondrocytes in and around CPPD deposits were also positive for CILP. Small cartilaginous islands remote from the CPPD deposits exhibited a weak positivity for CILP. In addition, weakly positive chondrocytes were noted in a transitional zone between cartilaginous islands with and without the deposits. In addition to cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, immunostaining for CILP was observed in the pericellular fibrous matrix. Hypertrophic or metaplastic chondrocytes characteristic of CPPDCD may be directly involved in the formation of CPPD crystals. Our

  4. Facile Synthesis of Layer Structured GeP3/C with Stable Chemical Bonding for Enhanced Lithium-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wen; Zhao, Haihua; Wu, Ying; Zeng, Hong; Tao, Tao; Chen, Chao; Kuang, Chunjiang; Zhou, Shaoxiong; Huang, Yunhui

    2017-02-27

    Recently, metal phosphides have been investigated as potential anode materials because of higher specific capacity compared with those of carbonaceous materials. However, the rapid capacity fade upon cycling leads to poor durability and short cycle life, which cannot meet the need of lithium-ion batteries with high energy density. Herein, we report a layer-structured GeP3/C nanocomposite anode material with high performance prepared by a facial and large-scale ball milling method via in-situ mechanical reaction. The P-O-C bonds are formed in the composite, leading to close contact between GeP3 and carbon. As a result, the GeP3/C anode displays excellent lithium storage performance with a high reversible capacity up to 1109 mA h g(-1) after 130 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1). Even at high current densities of 2 and 5 A g(-1), the reversible capacities are still as high as 590 and 425 mA h g(-1), respectively. This suggests that the GeP3/C composite is promising to achieve high-energy lithium-ion batteries and the mechanical milling is an efficient method to fabricate such composite electrode materials especially for large-scale application.

  5. Facile Synthesis of Layer Structured GeP3/C with Stable Chemical Bonding for Enhanced Lithium-Ion Storage

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wen; Zhao, Haihua; Wu, Ying; Zeng, Hong; Tao, Tao; Chen, Chao; Kuang, Chunjiang; Zhou, Shaoxiong; Huang, Yunhui

    2017-01-01

    Recently, metal phosphides have been investigated as potential anode materials because of higher specific capacity compared with those of carbonaceous materials. However, the rapid capacity fade upon cycling leads to poor durability and short cycle life, which cannot meet the need of lithium-ion batteries with high energy density. Herein, we report a layer-structured GeP3/C nanocomposite anode material with high performance prepared by a facial and large-scale ball milling method via in-situ mechanical reaction. The P-O-C bonds are formed in the composite, leading to close contact between GeP3 and carbon. As a result, the GeP3/C anode displays excellent lithium storage performance with a high reversible capacity up to 1109 mA h g−1 after 130 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g−1. Even at high current densities of 2 and 5 A g−1, the reversible capacities are still as high as 590 and 425 mA h g−1, respectively. This suggests that the GeP3/C composite is promising to achieve high-energy lithium-ion batteries and the mechanical milling is an efficient method to fabricate such composite electrode materials especially for large-scale application. PMID:28240247

  6. Interfacial and Electrical Properties of Ge MOS Capacitor by ZrLaON Passivation Layer and Fluorine Incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Xu, Jing-Ping; Liu, Lu; Cheng, Zhi-Xiang; Lai, Pui-To; Tang, Wing-Man

    2017-09-01

    Ge Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitor with HfTiON/ZrLaON stacked gate dielectric and fluorine-plasma treatment is fabricated, and its interfacial and electrical properties are compared with its counterparts without the ZrLaON passivation layer or the fluorine-plasma treatment. Experimental results show that the sample exhibits excellent performances: low interface-state density (3.7×1011 cm‑2eV‑1), small flatband voltage (0.21 V), good capacitance-voltage behavior, small frequency dispersion and low gate leakage current (4.41×10‑5 A/cm2 at Vg = Vfb + 1V). These should be attributed to the suppressed growth of unstable Ge oxides on the Ge surface during gate-dielectric annealing by the ZrLaON interlayer and fluorine incorporation, thus greatly reducing the defective states at/near the ZrLaON/Ge interface and improving the electrical properties of the device.

  7. Facile Synthesis of Layer Structured GeP3/C with Stable Chemical Bonding for Enhanced Lithium-Ion Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wen; Zhao, Haihua; Wu, Ying; Zeng, Hong; Tao, Tao; Chen, Chao; Kuang, Chunjiang; Zhou, Shaoxiong; Huang, Yunhui

    2017-02-01

    Recently, metal phosphides have been investigated as potential anode materials because of higher specific capacity compared with those of carbonaceous materials. However, the rapid capacity fade upon cycling leads to poor durability and short cycle life, which cannot meet the need of lithium-ion batteries with high energy density. Herein, we report a layer-structured GeP3/C nanocomposite anode material with high performance prepared by a facial and large-scale ball milling method via in-situ mechanical reaction. The P-O-C bonds are formed in the composite, leading to close contact between GeP3 and carbon. As a result, the GeP3/C anode displays excellent lithium storage performance with a high reversible capacity up to 1109 mA h g-1 after 130 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1. Even at high current densities of 2 and 5 A g-1, the reversible capacities are still as high as 590 and 425 mA h g-1, respectively. This suggests that the GeP3/C composite is promising to achieve high-energy lithium-ion batteries and the mechanical milling is an efficient method to fabricate such composite electrode materials especially for large-scale application.

  8. Impact of growth and annealing conditions on the parameters of Ge/Si(001) relaxed layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Yurasov, D. V.; Bobrov, A. I.; Daniltsev, V. M.; Novikov, A. V.; Pavlov, D. A.; Skorokhodov, E. V.; Shaleev, M. V.; Yunin, P. A.

    2015-11-15

    Influence of the Ge layer thickness and annealing conditions on the parameters of relaxed Ge/Si(001) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy via two-stage growth is investigated. The dependences of the threading dislocation density and surface roughness on the Ge layer thickness, annealing temperature and time, and the presence of a hydrogen atmosphere are obtained. As a result of optimization of the growth and annealing conditions, relaxed Ge/Si(001) layers which are thinner than 1 μm with a low threading dislocation density on the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup –2} and a root mean square roughness of less than 1 nm are obtained.

  9. Ge/SiGe for silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Yasuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared Ge photonic devices on a Si platform are presented toward low-cost, low-energy and high-capacity optical communications. Using Ge epitaxial layers selectively grown by chemical vapor deposition on Si-on-insulator layers, Ge photodiodes (PDs) of vertical pin structures are integrated with Si optical waveguides. The integrated Ge PDs show high responsivities as large as 0.8 A/W at 1.55 μm with the 3-dB cutoff frequency more than 10 GHz. SiGe/Ge heterostructures have potential applications to higher-performance devices. One application is to low-noise and low-voltage avalanche photodiodes (APDs), where a SiGe layer is inserted at the interface between the optical absorption layer of Ge and the carrier-multiplication layer of Si or Ge. The band discontinuity at the interface enhances the impact ionization for photo-generated carriers injected via SiGe. Fabricated APDs show an enhanced multiplication gain. The other application of SiGe is to a stressor to control the direct bandgap of Ge. As a proof of concept, a tensile-strained Si0.2Ge0.8 overlayer is shown to induce a compressive stress in the underlying Ge mesa stripe, leading to a blue shift in the absorption edge of Ge.

  10. Impact of using high-density polyethylene geomembrane layer as landfill intermediate cover on landfill gas extraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zezhi; Gong, Huijuan; Zhang, Mengqun; Wu, Weili; Liu, Yu; Feng, Jin

    2011-05-01

    Clay is widely used as a traditional cover material for landfills. As clay becomes increasingly costly and scarce, and it also reduces the storage capacity of landfills, alternative materials with low hydraulic conductivity are employed. In developing countries such as China, landfill gas (LFG) is usually extracted for utilization during filling stage, therefore, the intermediate covering system is an important part in a landfill. In this study, a field test of LFG extraction was implemented under the condition of using high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane layer as the only intermediate cover on the landfill. Results showed that after welding the HDPE geomembranes together to form a whole airtight layer upon a larger area of landfill, the gas flow in the general pipe increased 25% comparing with the design that the HDPE geomembranes were not welded together, which means that the gas extraction ability improved. However as the heat isolation capacity of the HDPE geomembrane layer is low, the gas generation ability of a shallow landfill is likely to be weakened in cold weather. Although using HDPE geomembrane layer as intermediate cover is acceptable in practice, the management and maintenance of it needs to be investigated in order to guarantee its effective operation for a long term. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Low temperature thermal ALD of a SiNx interfacial diffusion barrier and interface passivation layer on SixGe1- x(001) and SixGe1- x(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Mary; Sardashti, Kasra; Wolf, Steven; Chagarov, Evgueni; Clemons, Max; Kent, Tyler; Park, Jun Hong; Tang, Kechao; McIntyre, Paul C.; Yoshida, Naomi; Dong, Lin; Holmes, Russell; Alvarez, Daniel; Kummel, Andrew C.

    2017-02-01

    Atomic layer deposition of a silicon rich SiNx layer on Si0.7Ge0.3(001), Si0.5Ge0.5(001), and Si0.5Ge0.5(110) surfaces has been achieved by sequential pulsing of Si2Cl6 and N2H4 precursors at a substrate temperature of 285 °C. XPS spectra show a higher binding energy shoulder peak on Si 2p indicative of SiOxNyClz bonding while Ge 2p and Ge 3d peaks show only a small amount of higher binding energy components consistent with only interfacial bonds, indicating the growth of SiOxNy on the SiGe surface with negligible subsurface reactions. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements confirm that the SiNx interfacial layer forms an electrically passive surface on p-type Si0.70Ge0.30(001), Si0.50Ge0.50(110), and Si0.50Ge0.50(001) substrates as the surface Fermi level is unpinned and the electronic structure is free of states in the band gap. DFT calculations show that a Si rich a-SiO0.4N0,4 interlayer can produce lower interfacial defect density than stoichiometric a-SiO0.8N0.8, substoichiometric a-Si3N2, or stoichiometric a-Si3N4 interlayers by minimizing strain and bond breaking in the SiGe by the interlayer. Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors devices were fabricated on p-type Si0.7Ge0.3(001) and Si0.5Ge0.5(001) substrates with and without the insertion of an ALD SiOxNy interfacial layer, and the SiOxNy layer resulted in a decrease in interface state density near midgap with a comparable Cmax value.

  12. Low temperature thermal ALD of a SiNx interfacial diffusion barrier and interface passivation layer on SixGe1- x(001) and SixGe1- x(110).

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Mary; Sardashti, Kasra; Wolf, Steven; Chagarov, Evgueni; Clemons, Max; Kent, Tyler; Park, Jun Hong; Tang, Kechao; McIntyre, Paul C; Yoshida, Naomi; Dong, Lin; Holmes, Russell; Alvarez, Daniel; Kummel, Andrew C

    2017-02-07

    Atomic layer deposition of a silicon rich SiNx layer on Si0.7Ge0.3(001), Si0.5Ge0.5(001), and Si0.5Ge0.5(110) surfaces has been achieved by sequential pulsing of Si2Cl6 and N2H4 precursors at a substrate temperature of 285 °C. XPS spectra show a higher binding energy shoulder peak on Si 2p indicative of SiOxNyClz bonding while Ge 2p and Ge 3d peaks show only a small amount of higher binding energy components consistent with only interfacial bonds, indicating the growth of SiOxNy on the SiGe surface with negligible subsurface reactions. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements confirm that the SiNx interfacial layer forms an electrically passive surface on p-type Si0.70Ge0.30(001), Si0.50Ge0.50(110), and Si0.50Ge0.50(001) substrates as the surface Fermi level is unpinned and the electronic structure is free of states in the band gap. DFT calculations show that a Si rich a-SiO0.4N0,4 interlayer can produce lower interfacial defect density than stoichiometric a-SiO0.8N0.8, substoichiometric a-Si3N2, or stoichiometric a-Si3N4 interlayers by minimizing strain and bond breaking in the SiGe by the interlayer. Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors devices were fabricated on p-type Si0.7Ge0.3(001) and Si0.5Ge0.5(001) substrates with and without the insertion of an ALD SiOxNy interfacial layer, and the SiOxNy layer resulted in a decrease in interface state density near midgap with a comparable Cmax value.

  13. Neutral pion cross section and spin asymmetries at intermediate pseudorapidity in polarized proton collisions at √s =200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Banerjee, A.; Barber, B.; Barnovska, Z.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Betancourt, M. J.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bridgeman, A.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Dion, A.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Fersch, R. G.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Grosnick, D.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hajkova, O.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; He, W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jena, C.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lima, L. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Mustafa, M. K.; Naglis, M.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Nord, P. M.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Oliveira, R. A. N.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Pochron, W.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Powell, C. B.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schaub, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; deSouza, U. G.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, W.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The differential cross section and spin asymmetries for neutral pions produced within the intermediate pseudorapidity range 0.8<η<2.0 in polarized proton-proton collisions at √s =200 GeV are presented. Neutral pions were detected using the end cap electromagnetic calorimeter in the STAR detector at RHIC. The cross section was measured over a transverse momentum range of 5GeV /c and is found to agree with a next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculation. The longitudinal double-spin asymmetry ALL is measured in the same pseudorapidity range and spans a range of Bjorken-x down to x ≈0.01. The measured ALL is consistent with model predictions for varying degrees of gluon polarization. The parity-violating asymmetry AL is also measured and found to be consistent with zero. The transverse single-spin asymmetry AN is measured over a previously unexplored kinematic range in Feynman-x and pT. Such measurements may aid our understanding of the onset and kinematic dependence of the large asymmetries observed at more forward pseudorapidity (η ≈3) and their underlying mechanisms. The AN results presented are consistent with a twist-3 model prediction of a small asymmetry over the present kinematic range.

  14. Interface magnetism of Co{sub 2}FeGe Heusler alloy layers and magnetoresistance of Co{sub 2}FeGe/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M. A. Maezaki, D.; Ishii, T.; Okubo, A.; Mibu, K.; Hiramatsu, R.; Ono, T.

    2014-10-28

    The interface magnetism between Co{sub 2}FeGe Heusler alloy layers and MgO layers was investigated using {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Interface-sensitive samples, where the {sup 57}Fe isotope was used only for the interfacial atomic layer of the Co{sub 2}FeGe layer on the MgO layer, were prepared using atomically controlled alternate deposition. The {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra of the interface-sensitive samples at room temperature were found similar to those of the bulk-sensitive Co{sub 2}FeGe films in which the {sup 57}Fe isotope was distributed throughout the films. On the other hand, the tunnel magnetoresistance effect of magnetic tunnel junctions with Co{sub 2}FeGe layers as the ferromagnetic electrodes showed strong reduction at room temperature. These results indicate that the strong temperature dependence of the tunneling magnetoresistance of magnetic tunnel junctions using Heusler alloy electrodes cannot be attributed simply to the reduction of the magnetization at the interfaces between the Heusler alloy and insulator layers.

  15. Stretchable Characteristics of Thin Au Film on Polydimethylsiloxane Substrate with Parylene Intermediate Layer for Stretchable Electronic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Donghyun; Shin, Soo Jin; Oh, Tae Sung

    2017-08-01

    Thin Au films with thickness of 150 nm could be reversibly stretched up to 30% elongation on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate with 150-nm-thick Parylene C deposited as intermediate layer instead of a Cr adhesion layer. Prestretching of the Parylene-deposited PDMS was effective to suppress the resistance increase of Au films during their tensile elongation. While the resistance change rate ΔR/R 0 of the Au film at 30% elongation was 11 without prestretching of the Parylene-deposited PDMS, it was substantially suppressed to 0.4 with 30% prestretching of the Parylene-deposited PDMS.

  16. Study of the intermediate layer at the n{sup +}-CdS/p-CdTe interface

    SciTech Connect

    Muzafarova, S. A. Aitbaev, B. U.; Mirsagatov, Sh. A.; Durshimbetov, K.; Zhanabergenov, Zh.

    2008-12-15

    The effect of production conditions and subsequent stimulation by ultrasonic irradiation on the formation of a solid solution at the n-CdS/p-CdTe interface in solar cells has been investigated. The phase composition of the solid-solution transient layer was investigated by a nondestructive photoelectric method (measurement of the spectral distribution of photosensitivity in the gate and photodiode modes). It is shown that the phase composition and thickness of the intermediate CdTe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} layer depend strongly on the heterostructure formation conditions.

  17. Bonding mechanism of a yttrium iron garnet film on Si without the use of an intermediate layer

    SciTech Connect

    Pantzas, Konstantinos; Patriarche, Gilles; Talneau, Anne; Youssef, Jamal Ben

    2014-10-06

    Direct bonding of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) on silicon without the use of an intermediate bonding layer is demonstrated and characterized using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. During the bonding experiment, the garnet is reduced in the presence of oxide-free silicon. As a result, a 5 nm thick SiO{sub 2}/amorphous-YIG bilayer is formed and welds the garnet to silicon.

  18. Charge fluctuations and concentration fluctuations at intermediate-range distances in the disordered network-forming materials Si O2 , Si Se2 , and Ge Se2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massobrio, Carlo; Celino, Massimo; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2004-11-01

    We calculate the concentration-concentration partial structure factor SCC(k) and the charge-charge structure factor Szz(k) of liquid SiO2 , amorphous SiSe2 and liquid GeSe2 using first-principles molecular dynamics. These systems are characterized by the occurrence of intermediate range order, as evidenced by a first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) at low k values in the total neutron structure factor. We show that a FSDP in the concentration-concentration partial structure factor SCC(k) is generally associated with a small departure from chemical order. This feature tends to vanish either when sufficiently high levels of structural disorder set in, or, oppositely, when the chemical order is essentially perfect. For none of these networks, a FSDP is observed in the charge-charge structure factor Szz(k) , i.e., fluctuations of charge do not occur over intermediate range distances. The constraint of charge neutrality is at the very origin of the appearance of fluctuations of concentration. These are observed when the atoms occur in configurations with different coordinations.

  19. New class of Si-based superlattices - Alternating layers of crystalline Si and porous amorphous Si(1-x)Ge(x) alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Pike, W. T.; Ksendzov, A.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    Superlattices consisting of alternating layers of crystalline Si and porous amorphous Si(1-x)Ge(x) have been fabricated. This is accomplished by first growing a Si/Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) superlattice by molecular beam epitaxy, followed by Ar-ion milling to form mesa structures, and finally by immersion in HF:HNO3:H2O. This solution creates a porous structure similar to that created by anodic etching, and a high selectivity is observed for the conversion of the alloy layers relative to the Si layers. The degree of selectivity is found to depend on alloy-layer thickness and strain. Superlattices have been fabricated from 1-micron wide mesas with Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layers fully converted to 5-nm thick porous amorphous material.

  20. New class of Si-based superlattices - Alternating layers of crystalline Si and porous amorphous Si(1-x)Ge(x) alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Pike, W. T.; Ksendzov, A.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    Superlattices consisting of alternating layers of crystalline Si and porous amorphous Si(1-x)Ge(x) have been fabricated. This is accomplished by first growing a Si/Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) superlattice by molecular beam epitaxy, followed by Ar-ion milling to form mesa structures, and finally by immersion in HF:HNO3:H2O. This solution creates a porous structure similar to that created by anodic etching, and a high selectivity is observed for the conversion of the alloy layers relative to the Si layers. The degree of selectivity is found to depend on alloy-layer thickness and strain. Superlattices have been fabricated from 1-micron wide mesas with Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layers fully converted to 5-nm thick porous amorphous material.

  1. Hydrogen-surfactant-mediated epitaxy of Ge1- x Sn x layer and its effects on crystalline quality and photoluminescence property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuka, Osamu; Fujinami, Shunsuke; Asano, Takanori; Koyama, Takeshi; Kurosawa, Masashi; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Kishida, Hideo; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2017-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen-surfactant-mediated molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of Ge1- x Sn x layer on Ge(001) substrate on crystalline quality and photoluminescence (PL) property has been investigated. The effect of irradiation of atomic hydrogen (H) generated by dissociating molecular hydrogen (H2) were examined during the MBE growth. H irradiation significantly improves the surface morphology with the enhancement of the two-dimensional growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer. Enhanced diffuse scattering is observed in the X-ray diffraction profile, indicating a high density of point defects. In the PL spectrum of the H2-irradiated Ge1- x Sn x layer, two components are observed, suggesting the radiative recombination with both indirect and direct transitions, while one component related to the direct transition is observable in the H-irradiated sample. The postdeposition annealing in nitrogen ambient at as low as 220 °C decreases the PL intensity of the H-irradiated Ge1- x Sn x layer, although the intensity is recovered after annealing at 300 °C, suggesting the annihilation of point defects in the Ge1- x Sn x layer.

  2. Observations of low and intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacs above 100 GeV with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errando, M.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the ~ 50 blazars detected to date at TeV energies (E > 0.1 TeV) are high-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs). Only a handful episodic detections of low- and intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (LBL/IBLs, with synchrotron peak frequencies in the infrared and optical regime) have been reported by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes, typically during high-flux states. The VERITAS array located in southern Arizona has observed five known TeV LBL/IBLs since 2009: 3C 66A, WComae, PKS 1424+240, S5 0716+714 and BL Lacertae, with exposures of 5-10 hours/year, which so far resulted in the detection of a bright, sub-hour timescale gamma-ray flare of BL Lacertae in June 2011. We also report the detection and characterization of two new IBLs: VER J0521+211 and B2 1215+30.

  3. Structural and electrical studies of ultrathin layers with Si{sub 0.7}Ge{sub 0.3} nanocrystals confined in a SiGe/SiO{sub 2} superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, E. M. F.; Martin-Sanchez, J.; Rolo, A. G.; Levichev, S.; Gomes, M. J. M.; Parisini, A.; Buljan, M.; Capan, I.; Alves, E.; Barradas, N. P.; Conde, O.; Bernstorff, S.; Chahboun, A.

    2012-05-15

    In this work, SiGe/SiO{sub 2} multi-layer (ML) films with layer thickness in the range of a few nanometers were successfully fabricated by conventional RF-magnetron sputtering at 350 deg. C. The influence of the annealing treatment on SiGe nanocrystals (NCs) formation and crystalline properties were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. At the annealing temperature of 800 deg. C, where well defined SiGe NCs were observed, a thorough structural investigation of the whole ML structure has been undertaken by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. Our results show that the onset of local modifications to the ML composition takes place at this temperature for annealing times of the order of a few tens of minutes with the formation of defective regions in the upper portion of the ML structure. Only the very first layers over the Si substrate appear immune to this problem. This finding has been exploited for the fabrication of a defect free metal-oxide-semiconductor structure with a well-defined single layer of SiGe NCs. A memory effect attributed to the presence of the SiGe NCs has been demonstrated by high frequency capacitance-voltage measurements.

  4. Influence of intermediate layers on the surface condition of laser crystallized silicon thin films and solar cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höger, Ingmar; Himmerlich, Marcel; Gawlik, Annett; Brückner, Uwe; Krischok, Stefan; Andrä, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The intermediate layer (IL) between glass substrate and silicon plays a significant role in the optimization of multicrystalline liquid phase crystallized silicon thin film solar cells on glass. This study deals with the influence of the IL on the surface condition and the required chemical surface treatment of the crystallized silicon (mc-Si), which is of particular interest for a-Si:H heterojunction thin film solar cells. Two types of IL were investigated: sputtered silicon nitride (SiN) and a layer stack consisting of silicon nitride and silicon oxide (SiN/SiO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed the formation of silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) or silicon oxide (SiO2) layers at the surface of the mc-Si after liquid phase crystallization on SiN or SiN/SiO, respectively. We propose that SiOxNy formation is governed by dissolving nitrogen from the SiN layer in the silicon melt, which segregates at the crystallization front during crystallization. This process is successfully hindered, when additional SiO layers are introduced into the IL. In order to achieve solar cell open circuit voltages above 500 mV, a removal of the formed SiOxNy top layer is required using sophisticated cleaning of the crystallized silicon prior to a-Si:H deposition. However, solar cells crystallized on SiN/SiO yield high open circuit voltage even when a simple wet chemical surface treatment is applied. The implementation of SiN/SiO intermediate layers facilitates the production of mesa type solar cells with open circuit voltages above 600 mV and a power conversion efficiency of 10%.

  5. Influence of intermediate layers on the surface condition of laser crystallized silicon thin films and solar cell performance

    SciTech Connect

    Höger, Ingmar Gawlik, Annett; Brückner, Uwe; Andrä, Gudrun; Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan

    2016-01-28

    The intermediate layer (IL) between glass substrate and silicon plays a significant role in the optimization of multicrystalline liquid phase crystallized silicon thin film solar cells on glass. This study deals with the influence of the IL on the surface condition and the required chemical surface treatment of the crystallized silicon (mc-Si), which is of particular interest for a-Si:H heterojunction thin film solar cells. Two types of IL were investigated: sputtered silicon nitride (SiN) and a layer stack consisting of silicon nitride and silicon oxide (SiN/SiO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed the formation of silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) or silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layers at the surface of the mc-Si after liquid phase crystallization on SiN or SiN/SiO, respectively. We propose that SiO{sub x}N{sub y} formation is governed by dissolving nitrogen from the SiN layer in the silicon melt, which segregates at the crystallization front during crystallization. This process is successfully hindered, when additional SiO layers are introduced into the IL. In order to achieve solar cell open circuit voltages above 500 mV, a removal of the formed SiO{sub x}N{sub y} top layer is required using sophisticated cleaning of the crystallized silicon prior to a-Si:H deposition. However, solar cells crystallized on SiN/SiO yield high open circuit voltage even when a simple wet chemical surface treatment is applied. The implementation of SiN/SiO intermediate layers facilitates the production of mesa type solar cells with open circuit voltages above 600 mV and a power conversion efficiency of 10%.

  6. Electro-optical switching at 1550 nm using a two-state GeSe phase-change layer.

    PubMed

    Soref, Richard; Hendrickson, Joshua; Liang, Haibo; Majumdar, Arka; Mu, Jianwei; Li, Xun; Huang, Wei-Ping

    2015-01-26

    New designs for electro-optical free-space and waveguided 2 x 2 switches are presented and analyzed at the 1.55 μm telecoms wavelength. The proposed devices employ a ~10 nm film of GeSe that is electrically actuated to transition the layer forth-and-back from the amorphous to the crystal phase, yielding a switch with two self-sustaining states. This phase change material was selected for its very low absorption loss at the operation wavelength, along with its electro-refraction Δn ~0.6. All switches are cascadeable into N x M devices. The free-space prism-shaped structures use III-V prism material to match the GeSe crystal index. The Si/GeSe/Si "active waveguides" are quite suitable for directional-coupler switches as well as Mach-Zehnder devices-all of which have an active length 16x less than that in the free-carrier art.

  7. Antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice in the layered compounds Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Pr, Sm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanglin; Liu, Jinyu; Hu, Jin; Adams, Daniel; Spinu, Leonard; Mao, Zhiqiang

    Intermetallic compounds containing rare-earth/actinide elements with 4f/5f electrons have formed a special family of strongly correlated materials, i.e. heavy fermion systems. We have recently found a new layered rare earth intermetallic system showing moderate heavy fermion behavior: Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Sm, Pr). The Re =Ce and Sm members were previously synthesized, while their electronic properties have not been reported. We have recently grown single crystals of Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Sm, Pr) and characterized their electronic and magnetic properties. We find all these materials are antiferromagnetic, with TN = 2.5 K, 5 K, 3.4 K respectively for Re =Ce, Pr and Sm. Moreover, they also exhibit large values of electronic specific coefficient: γ ~ 101 mJ mol-Ce-1 K-2 for Re =Ce, 368 mJ mol-Pr-1 K-2 for Re =Pr, and 196.4 mJ mol-Sm-1 K-2 for Re =Sm, indicating enhanced Kondo effect and the presence of AFM Kondo lattice. Our findings suggest that Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Pr, Sm) could be interesting candidate materials for exploring novel exotic properties of correlated electrons through external parameter tuning such as chemical substitution and pressure.

  8. Identified Light and Strange Hadron Spectra at √{sNN} = 14.5 GeV and Systematic Study of Baryon/Meson Effect at Intermediate Transverse Momentum with STAR at RHIC BES I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, James D.

    2016-12-01

    With the recently measured Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 14.5 GeV, STAR completed its first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at RHIC. The main motivation of the BES program is the study of the QCD phase diagram and the search for a conjectured critical point. Amongst the various collision energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV, that have been previously presented by STAR, collisions at 14.5 GeV will provide data set in the relatively large chemical potential gap between the 11.5 and 19.6 GeV center-of-mass energies. In this contribution, we report new STAR measurements of Au+Au at √{sNN} = 14.5 GeV that include identified light particle RCP and spectra, as well as measurements of the strange hadrons (Ks0, Λ , Ξ , Ω, and ϕ). The spectra from both light and strange particles cover a significant range of the intermediate transverse momentum (2 GeV /c) in all beam energies. This provides a unique set of data for a systematic study of the baryon-to-meson ratio at intermediate pT from BES Phase I. We will discuss its physics implications and whether hadronic interactions at late stage dominate the collision dynamics.

  9. Controlled drive-in and precipitation of hydrogen during plasma hydrogenation of silicon using a thin compressively strained SiGe layer

    SciTech Connect

    Okba, F.; Cherkashin, N.; Claverie, A.; Rossi, F.; Merabet, A.

    2010-07-19

    We have quantitatively studied by transmission electron microscopy the growth kinetics of platelets formed during the continuous hydrogenation of a Si substrate/SiGe/Si heterostructure. We have evidenced and explained the massive transfer of hydrogen from a population of platelets initially generated in the upper Si layer by plasma hydrogenation towards a population of larger platelets located in the SiGe layer. We demonstrate that this type of process can be used not only to precisely localize the micro-cracks, then the fracture line at a given depth but also to 'clean' the top layer from pre-existing defects.

  10. Photoluminescence Study of Si1-xGex/Si and Si/Ge Strained Layer Superlattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-13

    10 5. Superlattice Energy Bands as a Function of Well Width .... 12 6. Superlattice Minizones and Minibands ..................... 13 7. Bandgap vs...Vapor Deposition El = binding energy of bound exciton E, =conduction band minimum Eex = free exciton binding energy E9 = energy gap, bandgap EL...between the F and X 06 C Ot IC points (approximately G, FRACTION (Xý 0.8 times the distance Figure 3: Bulk Si 1 _xGe, bandgap vs. alloy concentration

  11. Nanoindentation analysis of the pop-in events on SiGe single layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Derming

    2013-12-01

    The growth of metastable silicon germanium (Si0.8Ge0.2) thin film on Si(1 0 0) by ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition has been subjected to residual indentation studies. A nanoindentation system has been applied to analyze SiGe film after different annealing treatments. A number of phenomena have been found for the heteroepitaxial growth of SiGe film at the critical thickness of 350 nm, including single discontinuity (the so-called "pop-in" event) as well as the elastic/plastic contact translation. Atomic force microscopy is employed to investigate the surface impression. Pop-in events in the load-indentation depth curves of 400 and 500 °C and no nano-cracks in the vicinity regions are found. The values of H ranging from 13.13±0.9, 21.66±1.3, 18.52±1.1, 14.47±0.7 GPa and the values of E ranging from 221.8±5.3, 230.7±6.4, 223.5±4.6, 156.7±3.8 GPa, are obtained. The elastic/plastic contact translation of the SiGe film occurs at different annealing conditions, with hf/hmax values in the range of 0.501, 0.392, 0.424, and 0.535 for samples are treated at RT, 400, 500, and 600 °C, respectively. The mechanism responsible for the pop-in event in such crystal structure is due to the interaction of the indenter tip with the pre-existing threading dislocations, since the release of the indentation load is bound to be reflected in the directly compressed volume.

  12. High-Rate Charging Induced Intermediate Phases and Structural Changes of Layer-Structured Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Yue, Ji-Li; Hu, Enyuan; ...

    2016-08-08

    Using fast time-resolved in situ X-ray diffraction, charge-rate dependent phase transition processes of layer structured cathode material LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 for lithium-ion batteries are studied. During first charge, intermediate phases emerge at high rates of 10C, 30C, and 60C, but not at low rates of 0.1C and 1C. These intermediate phases can be continuously observed during relaxation after the charging current is switched off. After half-way charging at high rate, sample studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy shows Li-rich and Li-poor phases' coexistence with tetrahedral occupation of Li in Li-poor phase. Also, the high rate induced overpotential is thought to be themore » driving force for the formation of this intermediate Li-poor phase. The in situ quick X-ray absorption results show that the oxidation of Ni accelerates with increasing charging rate and the Ni4+ state can be reached at the end of charge with 30C rate. Finally, these results give new insights in the understanding of the layered cathodes during high-rate charging.« less

  13. High-Rate Charging Induced Intermediate Phases and Structural Changes of Layer-Structured Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Yue, Ji-Li; Hu, Enyuan; Li, Hong; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Bak, Seong-Min; Yu, Xiqian; Liu, Jue; Bai, Jianming; Dooryhee, Eric; Fu, Zheng-Wen; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2016-08-08

    Using fast time-resolved in situ X-ray diffraction, charge-rate dependent phase transition processes of layer structured cathode material LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 for lithium-ion batteries are studied. During first charge, intermediate phases emerge at high rates of 10C, 30C, and 60C, but not at low rates of 0.1C and 1C. These intermediate phases can be continuously observed during relaxation after the charging current is switched off. After half-way charging at high rate, sample studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy shows Li-rich and Li-poor phases' coexistence with tetrahedral occupation of Li in Li-poor phase. Also, the high rate induced overpotential is thought to be the driving force for the formation of this intermediate Li-poor phase. The in situ quick X-ray absorption results show that the oxidation of Ni accelerates with increasing charging rate and the Ni4+ state can be reached at the end of charge with 30C rate. Finally, these results give new insights in the understanding of the layered cathodes during high-rate charging.

  14. High-Rate Charging Induced Intermediate Phases and Structural Changes of Layer-Structured Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Yue, Ji-Li; Hu, Enyuan; Li, Hong; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Bak, Seong-Min; Yu, Xiqian; Liu, Jue; Bai, Jianming; Dooryhee, Eric; Fu, Zheng-Wen; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2016-08-08

    Using fast time-resolved in situ X-ray diffraction, charge-rate dependent phase transition processes of layer structured cathode material LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 for lithium-ion batteries are studied. During first charge, intermediate phases emerge at high rates of 10C, 30C, and 60C, but not at low rates of 0.1C and 1C. These intermediate phases can be continuously observed during relaxation after the charging current is switched off. After half-way charging at high rate, sample studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy shows Li-rich and Li-poor phases' coexistence with tetrahedral occupation of Li in Li-poor phase. Also, the high rate induced overpotential is thought to be the driving force for the formation of this intermediate Li-poor phase. The in situ quick X-ray absorption results show that the oxidation of Ni accelerates with increasing charging rate and the Ni4+ state can be reached at the end of charge with 30C rate. Finally, these results give new insights in the understanding of the layered cathodes during high-rate charging.

  15. Intermediate valence in single crystals of (Lu{sub 1−x}Y b{sub x}){sub 3}Rh{sub 4}Ge{sub 13} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Binod K.; Morosan, E.

    2015-04-01

    Single crystals of (Lu{sub 1−x}Y b{sub x}){sub 3}Rh{sub 4}Ge{sub 13} were characterized by magnetization, specific heat, and electrical resistivity measurements. Doping Yb into the non-magnetic Lu{sub 3}Rh{sub 4}Ge{sub 13} compound tunes this cubic system’s properties from a superconductor with disordered metal normal state (x < 0.05) to a Kondo for 0.05 ≤ x ≤0.2 and intermediate valence at the highest Yb concentrations. The evidence for intermediate Yb valence comes from a broad maximum in the magnetic susceptibility and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the resistivity displays a local maximum at finite temperatures at intermediate compositions x, followed by apparent metallic behavior closest to the Yb end compound in the series.

  16. Intermediate layer, microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum alloy/stainless steel butt joint using laser-MIG hybrid welding-brazing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zongtao; Wan, Zhandong; Li, Yuanxing; Xue, Junyu; Hui, Chen

    2017-07-01

    Butt joining of AA6061 aluminum (Al) alloy and 304 stainless steel of 2-mm thickness was conducted using laser-MIG hybrid welding-brazing method with ER4043 filler metal. To promote the mechanical properties of the welding-brazing joints, two kinds of intermediate layers (Al-Si-Mg alloy and Ag-based alloy) are used to adjust the microstructures of the joints. The brazing interface and the tensile strength of the joints were characterized. The results showed that the brazing interface between Al alloy and stainless steel consisted of double layers of Fe2Al5 (near stainless steel) and Fe4Al13 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with a total thickness of 3.7 μm, when using Al-Si-Mg alloy as the intermediate layer. The brazing interface of the joints using Ag-based alloy as intermediate layer also consists of double IMC layers, but the first layer near stainless steel was FeAl2 and the total thickness of these two IMC layers decreased to 3.1 μm. The tensile strength of the joints using Al-Si-Mg alloy as the intermediate layer was promoted to 149 MPa, which was 63 MPa higher than that of the joints using Al-Si-Mg alloy as the intermediate layer. The fractures occurred in the brazing interface between Al alloy and stainless steel.

  17. Intermediate Progenitor Cohorts Differentially Generate Cortical Layers and Require Tbr2 for Timely Acquisition of Neuronal Subtype Identity.

    PubMed

    Mihalas, Anca B; Elsen, Gina E; Bedogni, Francesco; Daza, Ray A M; Ramos-Laguna, Kevyn A; Arnold, Sebastian J; Hevner, Robert F

    2016-06-28

    Intermediate progenitors (IPs) amplify the production of pyramidal neurons, but their role in selective genesis of cortical layers or neuronal subtypes remains unclear. Using genetic lineage tracing in mice, we find that IPs destined to produce upper cortical layers first appear early in corticogenesis, by embryonic day 11.5. During later corticogenesis, IP laminar fates are progressively limited to upper layers. We examined the role of Tbr2, an IP-specific transcription factor, in laminar fate regulation using Tbr2 conditional mutant mice. Upon Tbr2 inactivation, fewer neurons were produced by immediate differentiation and laminar fates were shifted upward. Genesis of subventricular mitoses was, however, not reduced in the context of a Tbr2-null cortex. Instead, neuronal and laminar differentiation were disrupted and delayed. Our findings indicate that upper-layer genesis depends on IPs from many stages of corticogenesis and that Tbr2 regulates the tempo of laminar fate implementation for all cortical layers. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi-layer plastic scintillation detector for intermediate- and high-energy neutrons with n- γ discrimination capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Terashima, S.; Ong, H. J.; Chan, P. Y.; Tanihata, I.; Iwamoto, C.; Tran, D. T.; Tamii, A.; Aoi, N.; Fujioka, H.; Gey, G.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakaue, A.; Sun, B. H.; Tang, T. L.; Wang, T. F.; Watanabe, Y. N.; Zhang, G. X.

    2017-09-01

    A new type of neutron detector, named Stack Structure Solid organic Scintillator (S4), consisting of multi-layer plastic scintillators with capability to suppress low-energy γ rays under high-counting rate has been constructed and tested. To achieve n- γ discrimination, we exploit the difference in the ranges of the secondary charged particles produced by the interactions of neutrons and γ rays in the scintillator material. The thickness of a plastic scintillator layer was determined based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations using the Geant4 toolkit. With layer thicknesses of 5 mm, we have achieved a good separation between neutrons and γ rays at 5 MeVee threshold setting. We have also determined the detection efficiencies using monoenergetic neutrons at two energies produced by the d + d → n+3He reaction. The results agree well with the Geant4 simulations implementing the Li e ̀ge Intranuclear Cascade hadronic model (INCL++) and the high-precision model of low-energy neutron interactions (NeutronHP).

  19. Hybrid ZnO/phthalocyanine photovoltaic device with highly resistive ZnO intermediate layer.

    PubMed

    Izaki, Masanobu; Chizaki, Ryo; Saito, Takamasa; Murata, Kazufumi; Sasano, Junji; Shinagawa, Tsutomu

    2013-10-09

    We report a hybrid photovoltaic device composed of a 3.3 eV bandgap zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductor and metal-free phthalocyanine layers and the effects of the insertion of the highly resistive ZnO buffer layer on the electrical characteristics of the rectification feature and photovoltaic performance. The hybrid photovoltaic devices have been constructed by electrodeposition of the 300 nm thick ZnO layer in a simple zinc nitrate aqueous solution followed by vacuum evaporation of 50-400 nm thick-phthalocyanine layers. The ZnO layers with the resistivity of 1.8 × 10(3) and 1 × 10(8) Ω cm were prepared by adjusting the cathodic current density and were installed into the hybrid photovoltaic devices as the n-type and buffer layer, respectively. The phthalocyanine layers with the characteristic monoclinic lattice showed a characteristic optical absorption feature regardless of the thickness, but the preferred orientation changed depending on the thickness. The ZnO buffer-free hybrid 50 nm thick phthalocyanine/n-ZnO photovoltaic device showed a rectification feature but possessed a poor photovoltaic performance with a conversion efficiency of 7.5 × 10(-7) %, open circuit voltage of 0.041 V, and short circuit current density of 8.0 × 10(-5) mA cm(-2). The insertion of the ZnO buffer layer between the n-ZnO and phthalocyanine layers induced improvements in both the rectification feature and photovoltaic performance. The excellent rectification feature with a rectification ratio of 3188 and ideally factor of 1.29 was obtained for the hybrid 200 nm thick phthalocyanine/ZnO buffer/n-ZnO photovoltaic device, and the hybrid photovoltaic device possessed an improved photovoltaic performance with the conversion efficiency of 0.0016%, open circuit voltage of 0.31 V, and short circuit current density of 0.015 mA cm(-2).

  20. Untangling spatial and temporal trends in the variability of the Black Sea Cold Intermediate Layer and mixed Layer Depth using the DIVA detrending procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capet, A.; Troupin, C.; Carstensen, J.; Grégoire, M.; Beckers, J.-M.

    2014-03-01

    Current spatial interpolation products may be biased by uneven distribution of measurements in time. This manuscript presents a detrending method that recognizes and eliminates this bias. The method estimates temporal trend components in addition to the spatial structure and has been implemented within the Data Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) analysis tool. The assets of this new detrending method are illustrated by producing monthly and annual climatologies of two vertical properties of the Black Sea while recognizing their seasonal and interannual variabilities : the mixed layer depth and the cold content of its cold intermediate layer (CIL). The temporal trends, given as by-products of the method, are used to analyze the seasonal and interannual variability of these variables over the past decades (1955-2011). In particular, the CIL interannual variability is related to the cumulated winter air temperature anomalies, explaining 88 % of its variation.

  1. Thermal properties of a pyroelectric-ceramic infrared detector with metallic intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moon H.; Bae, Seong H.; Bhalla, Amar S.

    1998-06-01

    Infrared thermal detectors were prepared with pyroelectric PSN-PT-PZ (1/47/52) ceramics, where a signal electrode had a structure Au/metallic buffer/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramic. The effect of a metallic buffer layer on the voltage responsivity was investigated with a response to a step signal, made by a dynamic pyroelectric measurement. A pyroelectric ceramic wafer was prepared by a mixed-oxide technique. The Au layer (thickness 50 nm) and the metallic buffers (thickness 0 to 20 nm) of Cr, NiCr (80:20), and Ti were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. In order to improve the light absorptivity, Au black was coated on the Au signal electrode by thermal evaporation. A detector without a buffer layer showed a noisy and fluctuating output signal. Among the three kinds of buffer materials, NiCr (80:20) and Ti adhered well with ceramics and showed good electrical and thermal contact, whereas Cr resulted in bad contacts. Considering the output voltage and thermal properties, the optimum thickness of the buffer layer was about 15 to 20 nm, and sensors with a Ti buffer 15 to 20 nm in thickness showed good detectivity. Thus, the stability and reliability of the infrared thermal sensors could be improved by using an appropriate buffer layer.

  2. Effect of nonstoichiometry on the electrophysical properties of the layered compounds Ge{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and GeBi{sub 2}Te{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Shelimova, L.E.; Karpinskii, O.G.; Avilov, E.S.; Kretova, M.A.; Lubman, C.U.

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of deviation from stoichiometry on the electrophysical properties (electrical and thermal conductivity, thermoelectric power, and carrier concentration) of the ternary layered semiconducting compounds Ge{sub 3{plus_minus}{delta}1}Bi{sub 2+{delta}2}Te{sub 6+{delta}3} and Ge{sub 1{plus_minus}{delta}3}, which are promising for use in thermoelectric converters.The electrophysical properties were measured at 300 K. The Ge{sub 1-{delta}1}Bi{sub 2+{delta}3} alloys were studied by powder X-ray diffraction analysis on a DRON UM-1 diffractometer (CoK{sub {alpha}} radiation). It was found that Ge{sub 3{plus_minus}{delta}1} Bi{sub 2+{delta}2}Te{sub 6{plus_minus}{delta}3} is a nonstoichiometric phase with p-type conductivity throughout the {delta}{sub 1}, {delta}{sub 2}, and {delta}{sub 3} ranges examined. Our results suggest that cation vacancies are likely to be the dominant nonstoichiometric defects responsible for the high concentration of holes. The conductivity of Ge{sub 1{plus_minus}{delta}1}Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 4} changes from the p-type in the Ge-deficient alloys to the n-type in the Gerich alloys.

  3. Effects of patterning induced stress relaxation in strained SOI/SiGe layers and substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, P.; Hecker, M.; Renn, F.; Rölke, M.; Kolanek, K.; Rinderknecht, J.; Eng, L. M.

    2011-06-01

    Local stress fields in strained silicon structures important for CMOS technology are essentially related to size effects and properties of involved materials. In the present investigation, Raman spectroscopy was utilized to analyze the stress distribution within strained silicon (sSi) and silicon-germanium (SiGe) island structures. As a result of the structuring of initially unpatterned strained films, a size-dependent relaxation of the intrinsic film stresses was obtained in agreement with model calculations. This changed stress state in the features also results in the appearance of opposing stresses in the substrate underneath the islands. Even for strained island structures on top of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, corresponding stresses in the silicon substrate underneath the oxide were detected. Within structures, the stress relaxation is more pronounced for islands on SOI substrates as compared to those on bulk silicon substrates.

  4. Electrical characterization of low temperature deposited TiO 2 films on strained-SiGe layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalapati, G. K.; Chatterjee, S.; Samanta, S. K.; Maiti, C. K.

    2003-04-01

    Thin films of titanium dioxide have been deposited on strained Si 0.82Ge 0.18 epitaxial layers using titanium tetrakis-isopropoxide [TTIP, Ti(O-i-C 3H 7) 4] and oxygen by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Dielectric constant, equivalent oxide thickness (EOT), interface state density ( Dit), fixed oxide charge density ( Qf/ q) and flat-band voltage ( VFB) of as-deposited films were found to be 13.2, 40.6 Å, 6×10 11 eV -1 cm -2, 3.1×10 11 cm -2 and -1.4 V, respectively. The capacitance-voltage ( C- V), current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics and charge trapping behavior of the films under constant current stressing exhibit an excellent interface quality and high dielectric reliability making the films suitable for microelectronic applications.

  5. Magnetic anisotropy of crystalline Fe films grown on (001) GaAs substrates using Ge buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bac, Seul-Ki; Lee, Hakjoon; Lee, Sangyeop; Choi, Seonghoon; Yoo, Taehee; Lee, Sanghoon; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J. K.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic anisotropy of Fe films grown on (001) GaAs substrates using Ge buffer layers were investigated by planar Hall effect measurements. In addition to phenomena arising from dominant cubic symmetry of the Fe specimen, the study of angular dependence of magnetization reversal revealed breaking of this symmetry in the form of systematic asymmetric shifts of magnetic hysteresis loops around the <110 > crystallographic directions. We ascribe such symmetry breaking to an admixture of uniaxial anisotropy associated with the [100] direction in the Fe film. To determine the parameters associated with this uniaxial anisotropy, we quantitatively analyze the asymmetric shifts of the hysteresis loop centers from the <110 > directions. Even though the value of these parameters turns out to be relatively small compared to that of the cubic anisotropy (by about two orders of magnitude), they survive up to room temperature.

  6. The effect of La2O3-incorporation in HfO2 dielectrics on Ge substrate by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Il-kwon; Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Jae-seung; Lee, Chang-Wan; Lansalot-Matras, Clement; Noh, Wontae; Park, Jusang; Noori, Atif; Thompson, David; Chu, Schubert; Maeng, W. J.; Kim, Hyungjun

    2013-12-01

    We compared the electrical properties of HfO2, HfO2/La2O3, and La-doped HfO2 gate insulators deposited on Ge substrate using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. TDMAH [tetrakis(dimethylamino)hafnium] and La(iprCp)3 [tris(isopropyl-cyclopentadienyl) lanthanum] were employed as Hf and La precursors, respectively. Chemical compositions and binding structures were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrical properties were evaluated by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. We found that incorporation of La2O3 near Ge can enhance the electrical properties of Ge MOS capacitors. The best electrical properties of 50 mV of hysteresis and mid ∼1012 cm-2 eV-1 range interface states were found for the 400 °C-annealed HfO2/La2O3 bilayer sample. These values are significantly better than those of ALD HfO2 gate insulators on Ge. We attribute this to the formation of LaGeOx layers on the Ge surface, which reduces Gesbnd O bonding.

  7. Boron diffusion layer formation using Ge cryogenic implantation with low-temperature microwave annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakoshi, Atsushi; Harada, Tsubasa; Miyano, Kiyotaka; Harakawa, Hideaki; Aoyama, Tomonori; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Kohyama, Yusuke

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that a low-sheet-resistance p-type diffusion layer with a small diffusion depth can be fabricated efficiently by cryogenic boron and germanium implantation combined with low-temperature (400 °C) microwave annealing. Compared with the conventional annealing at 1000 °C, a much smaller diffusion depth is obtained at the same sheet resistance. The low sheet resistance at 400 °C is due to microwave absorption in the surface amorphous layer, which is formed by cryogenic germanium implantation. However, the pn junction leakage was worse than that in conventional annealing, because crystal defects remain near the amorphous/crystal interface after microwave annealing. It is found that the pn junction leakage is improved greatly by cryogenic germanium implantation. These results show that a suitable combination of cryogenic implantation and microwave annealing is very promising for p-type diffusion layer technology.

  8. Fabrication of quantum dots in undoped Si/Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2} heterostructures using a single metal-gate layer

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, T. M. Gamble, J. K.; Muller, R. P.; Nielsen, E.; Bethke, D.; Ten Eyck, G. A.; Pluym, T.; Wendt, J. R.; Dominguez, J.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.; Wanke, M. C.

    2016-08-29

    Enhancement-mode Si/SiGe electron quantum dots have been pursued extensively by many groups for their potential in quantum computing. Most of the reported dot designs utilize multiple metal-gate layers and use Si/SiGe heterostructures with Ge concentration close to 30%. Here, we report the fabrication and low-temperature characterization of quantum dots in the Si/Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2} heterostructures using only one metal-gate layer. We find that the threshold voltage of a channel narrower than 1 μm increases as the width decreases. The higher threshold can be attributed to the combination of quantum confinement and disorder. We also find that the lower Ge ratio used here leads to a narrower operational gate bias range. The higher threshold combined with the limited gate bias range constrains the device design of lithographic quantum dots. We incorporate such considerations in our device design and demonstrate a quantum dot that can be tuned from a single dot to a double dot. The device uses only a single metal-gate layer, greatly simplifying device design and fabrication.

  9. Fabrication of quantum dots in undoped Si/Si0.8Ge0.2 heterostructures using a single metal-gate layer

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, T. M.; Gamble, J. K.; Muller, R. P.; ...

    2016-08-01

    Enhancement-mode Si/SiGe electron quantum dots have been pursued extensively by many groups for their potential in quantum computing. Most of the reported dot designs utilize multiple metal-gate layers and use Si/SiGe heterostructures with Ge concentration close to 30%. Here, we report the fabrication and low-temperature characterization of quantum dots in the Si/Si0.8Ge0.2 heterostructures using only one metal-gate layer. We find that the threshold voltage of a channel narrower than 1 μm increases as the width decreases. The higher threshold can be attributed to the combination of quantum confinement and disorder. We also find that the lower Ge ratio used heremore » leads to a narrower operational gate bias range. The higher threshold combined with the limited gate bias range constrains the device design of lithographic quantum dots. We incorporate such considerations in our device design and demonstrate a quantum dot that can be tuned from a single dot to a double dot. Furthermore, the device uses only a single metal-gate layer, greatly simplifying device design and fabrication.« less

  10. A high-sensitivity fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor with a three-layer structure composed of Canada balsam doped with GeO2.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Zhong, Lianchao; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Luo, Binbin; Li, Yishan

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-sensitivity polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor with a three-layer structure that includes bottom, inter-, and surface layers in the sensing region. The bottom layer and inter-layer are POFs composed of standard cladding and the core of the plastic optical fiber, and the surface layer is made of dilute Canada balsam in xylene doped with GeO2. We examine the morphology of the doped GeO2, the refractive index and composition of the surface layer and the surface luminous properties of the sensing region. We investigate the effects of the content and morphology of the GeO2 particles on the sensitivity of the FOEW sensors by using glucose solutions. In addition, we examine the response of sensors incubated with staphylococcal protein A plus mouse IgG isotype to goat anti-mouse IgG solutions. Results indicate very good sensitivity of the three-layer FOEW sensor, which showed a 3.91-fold improvement in the detection of the target antibody relative to a conventional sensor with a core-cladding structure, and the novel sensor showed a lower limit of detection of 0.2ng/l and a response time around 320s. The application of this high-sensitivity FOEW sensor can be extended to biodefense, disease diagnosis, biomedical and biochemical analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth of undulating Si0.5Ge0.5 layers for photodetectors at λ=1.55 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafontaine, H.; Rowell, N. L.; Janz, S.; Xu, D.-X.

    1999-08-01

    Si0.5Ge0.5/Si multiquantum-well structures are grown using a production-compatible ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition system. The structures are designed in order to obtain dislocation-free undulating strained layers used as the absorbing layers in photodetector structures. The Si/SiGe/Si stack on a silicon-on-insulator wafer is used as the waveguiding layer. Transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence are used to characterize the undulating layers. A photoluminescence emission corresponding to the band edge "no phonon" transition is measured at a wavelength beyond 1.55 μm. Preliminary data from metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors fabricated with this material show a responsivity of approximately 0.1 A/W at the telecommunication wavelength of λ=1.55 μm.

  12. Intermediate honeycomb ordering to trigger oxygen redox chemistry in layered battery electrode

    PubMed Central

    Mortemard de Boisse, Benoit; Liu, Guandong; Ma, Jiangtao; Nishimura, Shin-ichi; Chung, Sai-Cheong; Kiuchi, Hisao; Harada, Yoshihisa; Kikkawa, Jun; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Okubo, Masashi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are attractive energy storage media owing to the abundance of sodium, but the low capacities of available cathode materials make them impractical. Sodium-excess metal oxides Na2MO3 (M: transition metal) are appealing cathode materials that may realize large capacities through additional oxygen redox reaction. However, the general strategies for enhancing the capacity of Na2MO3 are poorly established. Here using two polymorphs of Na2RuO3, we demonstrate the critical role of honeycomb-type cation ordering in Na2MO3. Ordered Na2RuO3 with honeycomb-ordered [Na1/3Ru2/3]O2 slabs delivers a capacity of 180 mAh g−1 (1.3-electron reaction), whereas disordered Na2RuO3 only delivers 135 mAh g−1 (1.0-electron reaction). We clarify that the large extra capacity of ordered Na2RuO3 is enabled by a spontaneously ordered intermediate Na1RuO3 phase with ilmenite O1 structure, which induces frontier orbital reorganization to trigger the oxygen redox reaction, unveiling a general requisite for the stable oxygen redox reaction in high-capacity Na2MO3 cathodes. PMID:27088834

  13. Intermediate honeycomb ordering to trigger oxygen redox chemistry in layered battery electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortemard de Boisse, Benoit; Liu, Guandong; Ma, Jiangtao; Nishimura, Shin-Ichi; Chung, Sai-Cheong; Kiuchi, Hisao; Harada, Yoshihisa; Kikkawa, Jun; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Okubo, Masashi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-04-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are attractive energy storage media owing to the abundance of sodium, but the low capacities of available cathode materials make them impractical. Sodium-excess metal oxides Na2MO3 (M: transition metal) are appealing cathode materials that may realize large capacities through additional oxygen redox reaction. However, the general strategies for enhancing the capacity of Na2MO3 are poorly established. Here using two polymorphs of Na2RuO3, we demonstrate the critical role of honeycomb-type cation ordering in Na2MO3. Ordered Na2RuO3 with honeycomb-ordered [Na1/3Ru2/3]O2 slabs delivers a capacity of 180 mAh g-1 (1.3-electron reaction), whereas disordered Na2RuO3 only delivers 135 mAh g-1 (1.0-electron reaction). We clarify that the large extra capacity of ordered Na2RuO3 is enabled by a spontaneously ordered intermediate Na1RuO3 phase with ilmenite O1 structure, which induces frontier orbital reorganization to trigger the oxygen redox reaction, unveiling a general requisite for the stable oxygen redox reaction in high-capacity Na2MO3 cathodes.

  14. Effect of SiO2 layer intermediation on direct carbothermal synthesis of SiC nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yeon; Riu, Doh-Hyung; An, Ju-Hyun; Chun, Dongil; Kim, Youngseok

    2013-09-01

    Beta-SiC was synthesized by direct carbothermal reaction using silicon and SiO2-layer-coated carbon powders. It is usually difficult to control the rate of the direct carbothermal reaction of silicon because the reaction rapidly progresses. Therefore coarse powders are obtained although it has the advantage of low synthesis temperature. To evade the above difficulty we tried to insert SiO2 layers between carbon and silicon powders, and the effect of SiO2 layer intermediation on the SiC synthesis was examined. SiO2 was coated on carbon black powders by using a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) solution. The mixture of silicon and SiO2-coated carbon powders was reacted at 1200-1500 degrees C for 1 h in an Ar gas atmosphere. The morphologies of SiO2-coated carbon and synthesized SiC powders were observed. Thermal and phase evolution during the synthesis of SiC powders were analyzed. We obtained beta-SiC powders with a particle size of around 100 nm at the synthesis temperature of more than 1400 degrees C, which is a considerably lower reaction temperature than that of a usual carbothermal reaction.

  15. An intermediate nepheloid layer associated with high microbial metabolic rates and denitrification in the northwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, S. W. A.; Kumar, M. D.; Narvekar, P. V.; de Sousa, S. N.; George, M. D.; D'Silva, C.

    1993-01-01

    Extensive optical, physical, chemical, and biochemical measurements made simultaneously in the northwest Indian Ocean reveal the occurrence of an intermediate nepheloid layer (INL) invariably associated with the secondary nitrite maximum. Maxima in particulate protein and the activity of the respiratory electron transport system (ETS) are also found within the INL. Since the INL persists long distances from the continental margin with an offshore intensification, it may not be related to the transport of material resuspended along the continental margin. An apparent correlation of the INL with the previously reported subsurface maximum in bacterial abundance suggests that a local increase in the abundance of bacteria may be responsible for the increased turbidity. Positive correlations of the beam attenuation anomaly with nitrite and nitrate deficit suggest that most of these bacteria may be denitrifiers. The organic carbon demand within the denitrifying layer, computed from the observed ETS activity, appears to be severalfold higher than the sinking carbon fluxes to the denitrifying layer, requiring additional modes of supply of the biodegradable organic matter. It is proposed that a bacterial maximum could be maintained with efficient utilization of the dissolved organic matter within the denitrifying waters.

  16. Growing 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial layers on α-SiC substrate by vapour-liquid-solid mechanism from the Al-Ge-Si ternary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzzi, Jean; Ferro, Gabriel; Cauwet, François; Souliere, Véronique; Carole, Davy

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we present and compare the results obtained from different Si-based melts (Ge-Si, Al-Si and Al-Ge-Si) for growing SiC layers on α-SiC substrate by vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. It was found that, depending on melt composition, the deposit could be either a complete 3C or α-SiC layer or even a mixture of these polytypes. The binary Al-Si melt leads systematically to a highly p-type homoepitaxial α-SiC deposit while Ge-Si melt gives a non-intentional n-type doped layers of either 3C or 6H polytypes depending on growth conditions. However, highly p-type doped 3C heteroepitaxial deposit can be obtained if a small amount of Al is added to the Ge-Si binary liquid phase. This means that the VLS mechanism is very flexible and allows growing either n- or p-type SiC layers of 3C or 6H polytypes.

  17. Defect states in strain-relaxed Si0.7Ge0.3 layers grown at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, P. M.; Tilly, L.; D'Emic, C. P.; Chu, J. O.; Cardone, F.; LeGoues, F. K.; Meyerson, B. S.

    1997-07-01

    Two shallow hole traps dominate the deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) data for strain-relaxed Si0.7Ge0.3 layers grown on Si(100) by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition at temperatures ⩽560 °C. The trap energy levels are at Ev+0.06 and Ev+0.14 eV and trap concentrations are ⩽5×1014 cm-3 in relaxed layers having threading dislocation densities of 2-4×107 cm-2. A logarithmic dependence of the filling rate indicates that these traps are associated with extended defects and this is confirmed by their absence in a sample having no dislocations. The annealing temperature of the DLTS peaks is consistent with the interpretation of these traps as states of defect complexes at dislocations, rather than intrinsic dislocation states or isolated defect complexes. The trap concentrations are proportional to the oxygen concentration in the film, suggesting that oxygen may be a constituent of the defect complex.

  18. Electromagnetic fluctuations in the intermediate frequency range originating from a plasma boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enloe, C. L.; Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C.; Ganguli, G.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate the transition in the waves generated by the electron-ion hybrid instability from a predominantly electrostatic to a predominantly electromagnetic character in a magnetized cylindrical laboratory plasma, in which we have induced sheared electron flow, transverse to the axial magnetic field and localized to a narrow azimuthal region. The transition occurs when the density of the plasma is increased, so that the electron skin depth is reduced to the same order as the wavelength of the waves. In the electromagnetic mode, we observe prominent bursts in the wave activity exhibiting substantial (up to 30%) frequency chirp, randomly occurring at a rate that is highly sensitive to the electric field structure in the boundary layer.

  19. Increasing carbon inventory of the intermediate layers of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, Ylva; Ulfsbo, Adam; van Heuven, Steven; Kattner, Gerhard; Anderson, Leif G.

    2014-04-01

    Concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), nutrients, and oxygen in subsurface waters of the central Arctic Ocean have been investigated for conceivable time trends over the last two decades. Data from six cruises (1991-2011) that cover the Nansen, Amundsen, and Makarov Basins were included in this analysis. In waters deeper than 2000 m, no statistically significant trend could be observed for DIC, TA, phosphate, or nitrate, but a small rate of increase in apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) was noticeable. For the individual stations, differences in concentration of each property were computed between the mean concentrations in the Arctic Atlantic Water (AAW) or the upper Polar Deep Water (uPDW), i.e., between about 150 and 1400 m depth, and in the deep water (assumed invariable over time). In these shallower water layers, we observe significant above-zero time trends for DIC, in the range of 0.6-0.9 μmol kg-1 yr-1 (for AAW) and 0.4-0.6 µmol kg-1 yr-1 (for uPDW). No time trend in nutrients could be observed, indicating no change in the rate of organic matter mineralization within this depth range. Consequently, the buildup of DIC is attributed to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic carbon in the waters flowing into these depth layers of the Arctic Ocean. The resulting rate of increase of the column inventory of anthropogenic CO2 is estimated to be between 0.6 and 0.9 mol C m-2 yr-1, with distinct differences between basins.

  20. Silica-decorated polypropylene microfiltration membranes with a mussel-inspired intermediate layer for oil-in-water emulsion separation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao-Cheng; Pi, Jun-Ke; Liao, Kun-Jian; Huang, He; Wu, Qing-Yun; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2014-08-13

    Silica-decorated polypropylene microfiltration membranes were fabricated via a facile biomimetic silicification process on the polydopamine/polyethylenimine-modified surfaces. The membranes exhibit superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity derived from the inherent hydrophilicity and the well-defined micronanocomposite structures of the silica-decorated surfaces. They can be applied in varieties of oil-in-water emulsions separation with high permeate flux (above 1200 L/m(2)h under 0.04 MPa) and oil rejection (above 99%). The membranes also have relatively high oil breakthrough pressure reaching 0.16 MPa due to the microporous structure, showing great potential for practical applications. Furthermore, such mussel-inspired intermediate layer provides us a convenient and powerful tool to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid membranes for advanced applications.

  1. Three-Dimensional Multiscale Modeling of Stable Intermediate State Formation Mechanism in a Single Active Layer- Phase Change Memory Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, Onur; Cinar, Ibrahim; Karakas, Vedat; Aslan, Ozgur Burak; Gokce, Aisha; Stipe, Barry; Katine, Jordan A.; Aktas, Gulen; Ozatay, Ozhan

    2014-03-01

    Phase change memory (PCM) appears as a potential memory technology with its superior scalability which could be enhanced by a boost in storage density via multiple-bit per cell functionality. Given the large contrast between set and reset states of a PCM cell it is yet unclear whether it is possible to create intermediate logic states reproducibly and controllably in a device with a single active phase change layer. Here we report the results of a 3D finite element model that pinpoints the direct effect of current distribution and the indirect effect of device top contact fabrication induced defects through modification of phase change kinetics (crystallite nucleation and growth rates) on stabilization of intermediate states. A comprehensive picture of the electrical, thermal and phase change dynamics is obtained using a multiphysics approach. Our study shows that homogeneous and heterogeneous phase transition can be induced in the active region such that nonuniform temperature distribution and modification of switching dynamics with various contact shapes and sizes play a major role in the stabilization of a mixed phase state. This work has been supported by the European Commission FP7 Marie Curie IRG grant: PCM-256281 and TUBITAK grant: 113F385.

  2. V x In (2–x) S 3 Intermediate Band Absorbers Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    McCarthy, Robert F.; Weimer, Matthew S.; Haasch, Richard T.; ...

    2016-03-21

    Substitutional alloys of several thin film semiconductors have been proposed as intermediate band (IB) materials for use in next-generation photovoltaics, which aim to utilize a larger fraction of the solar spectrum without sacrificing significant photovoltage. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach to IB material growth, namely atomic layer deposition (ALD), to enable unique control over substitutional-dopant location and density. Two new ALD processes for vanadium sulfide incorporation are introduced, one of which incorporates a vanadium (III) amidinate previously untested for ALD. We synthesize the first thin film VxIn(2-x)S3 intermediate band semiconductors, using this process, and further demonstrate that the V:Inmore » ratio, and therefore intraband gap density of states, can be finely tuned according to the ALD dosing schedule. Deposition on a crystalline In2S3 underlayer promotes the growth of a tetragonal β-In2S3-like phase VxIn(2-x)S3, which exhibits a distinct sub-band gap absorption peak with onset near 1.1 eV in agreement with computational predictions. But, the VxIn(2-x)S3 films lack the lower energy transition predicted for a partially filled IB, and photoelectrochemical devices reveal a photocurrent response only from illumination with energy sufficient to span the parent band-gap.« less

  3. Layered Seed-Growth of AgGe Football-like Microspheres via Precursor-Free Picosecond Laser Synthesis in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongshi; Gökce, Bilal; Notthoff, Christian; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid particles are of great significance in terms of their adjustable optical, electronic, magnetic, thermal and mechanical properties. As a novel technique, laser ablation in liquids (LAL) is famous for its precursor-free, “clean” synthesis of hybrid particles with various materials. Till now, almost all the LAL-generated particles originate from the nucleation-growth mechanism. Seed-growth of particles similar to chemical methods seems difficult to be achieved by LAL. Here, we not only present novel patch-joint football-like AgGe microspheres with a diameter in the range of 1 ~ 7 μm achievable by laser ablation in distilled water but also find direct evidences of their layered seed growth mechanism. Many critical factors contribute to the formation of AgGe microspheres: fast laser-generated plasma process provide an excellent condition for generating large amount of Ge and Ag ions/atoms, their initial nucleation and galvanic replacement reaction, while cavitation bubble confinement plays an important role for the increase of AgGe nuclei and subsequent layered growth in water after bubble collapse. Driven by work function difference, Ge acts as nucleation agent for silver during alloy formation. This new seed-growth mechanism for LAL technique opens new opportunities to develop a large variety of novel hybrid materials with controllable properties.

  4. Layered Seed-Growth of AgGe Football-like Microspheres via Precursor-Free Picosecond Laser Synthesis in Water

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongshi; Gökce, Bilal; Notthoff, Christian; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid particles are of great significance in terms of their adjustable optical, electronic, magnetic, thermal and mechanical properties. As a novel technique, laser ablation in liquids (LAL) is famous for its precursor-free, “clean” synthesis of hybrid particles with various materials. Till now, almost all the LAL-generated particles originate from the nucleation-growth mechanism. Seed-growth of particles similar to chemical methods seems difficult to be achieved by LAL. Here, we not only present novel patch-joint football-like AgGe microspheres with a diameter in the range of 1 ~ 7 μm achievable by laser ablation in distilled water but also find direct evidences of their layered seed growth mechanism. Many critical factors contribute to the formation of AgGe microspheres: fast laser-generated plasma process provide an excellent condition for generating large amount of Ge and Ag ions/atoms, their initial nucleation and galvanic replacement reaction, while cavitation bubble confinement plays an important role for the increase of AgGe nuclei and subsequent layered growth in water after bubble collapse. Driven by work function difference, Ge acts as nucleation agent for silver during alloy formation. This new seed-growth mechanism for LAL technique opens new opportunities to develop a large variety of novel hybrid materials with controllable properties. PMID:26334136

  5. Growth of light-emitting SiGe heterostructures on strained silicon-on-insulator substrates with a thin oxide layer

    SciTech Connect

    Baidakova, N. A.; Bobrov, A. I.; Drozdov, M. N.; Novikov, A. V.; Pavlov, D. A.; Shaleev, M. V.; Yunin, P. A.; Yurasov, D. V.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2015-08-15

    The possibility of using substrates based on “strained silicon on insulator” structures with a thin (25 nm) buried oxide layer for the growth of light-emitting SiGe structures is studied. It is shown that, in contrast to “strained silicon on insulator” substrates with a thick (hundreds of nanometers) oxide layer, the temperature stability of substrates with a thin oxide is much lower. Methods for the chemical and thermal cleaning of the surface of such substrates, which make it possible to both retain the elastic stresses in the thin Si layer on the oxide and provide cleaning of the surface from contaminating impurities, are perfecte. It is demonstrated that it is possible to use the method of molecular-beam epitaxy to grow light-emitting SiGe structures of high crystalline quality on such substrates.

  6. Magnetic anisotropy induced by crystal distortion in Ge{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te/PbTe//KCl (001) ferromagnetic semiconductor layers

    SciTech Connect

    Knoff, W. Łusakowski, A.; Domagała, J. Z.; Minikayev, R.; Taliashvili, B.; Łusakowska, E.; Pieniążek, A.; Szczerbakow, A.; Story, T.

    2015-09-21

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) study of magnetic anisotropy is presented for thin layers of IV-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor Ge{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te with x = 0.14 grown by molecular beam epitaxy on KCl (001) substrate with a thin PbTe buffer. Analysis of the angular dependence of the FMR resonant field reveals that an easy magnetization axis is located near to the normal to the layer plane and is controlled by two crystal distortions present in these rhombohedral Ge{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te layers: the ferroelectric distortion with the relative shift of cation and anion sub-lattices along the [111] crystal direction and the biaxial in-plane, compressive strain due to thermal mismatch.

  7. High-resolution x-ray diffraction investigation of relaxation and dislocations in SiGe layers grown on (001), (011), and (111) Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhylik, A.; Benediktovich, A.; Ulyanenkov, A.; Guerault, H.; Myronov, M.; Dobbie, A.; Leadley, D. R.; Ulyanenkova, T.

    2011-06-15

    This work presents a detailed characterization, using high-resolution x-ray diffraction, of multilayered Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} heterostructures grown on (001), (011), and (111) Si substrates by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. Reciprocal space mapping has been used to determine both the strain and Ge concentration depth profiles within each layer of the heterostructures after initially determining the crystallographic tilt of all the layers. Both symmetric and asymmetric reciprocal space maps were measured on each sample, and the evaluation was performed simultaneously for the whole data set. The ratio of misfit to threading dislocation densities has been estimated for each individual layer based on an analysis of diffuse x-ray scattering from the defects.

  8. Phonon-resolved photoluminescence at λ=1.55 μm from undulating Si0.5Ge0.5 epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafontaine, H.; Rowell, N. L.; Janz, S.

    1998-05-01

    Si0.5Ge0.5/Si multiquantum well structures are grown using a production-compatible ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition system. The structures are designed in order to obtain dislocation-free undulating strained layers. A photoluminescence emission corresponding to the direct "no phonon" transition is measured at energies systematically smaller than calculated for planar layers, implying that any increase in band gap due to elastic relaxation of the lattice strain at the undulation crests is compensated for by a confinement energy decrease together with a Ge accumulation at the undulation crests. The photoluminescence "no phonon" emission peaks at a wavelength that increases with nominal well thickness up to 1.55 μm. This opens the possibility of using dislocation-free silicon-germanium undulating layers as an absorber for photodetector applications at the telecommunication wavelengths of λ=1.3-1.55 μm.

  9. Enhancement of recombination process using silver and graphene quantum dot embedded intermediate layer for efficient organic tandem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Nhu Thuy; Tien, Huynh Ngoc; Jang, Se-Joeng; Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Park, Yun Chang; Cho, Shinuk; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    High performance of organic tandem solar cell is largely dependent on transparent and conductive intermediate layer (IML). The current work reports the design and fabrication of an IML using a simple solution process. The efficiency of a homo-tandem device with poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester as an active layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly(ethylenimine) as an IML was initially found to be 3.40%. Further enhancement of the cell efficiency was achieved using silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) of different sizes and graphene quantum dot embedded IML. A maximum efficiency of 4.03% was achieved using 7 nm Ag-NPs that contribute to a better recombination process. Also, the performance of the tandem cell was solely based on the electrical improvements indicated by the current - voltage measurements, external quantum efficiency and impedance analysis. The use of Ag-NPs in the IML has been shown to lengthen the life time of electron-hole pairs in the device. This study thus paves way to develop such efficient IMLs for more efficient tandem solar cells. PMID:27453530

  10. Enhancement of recombination process using silver and graphene quantum dot embedded intermediate layer for efficient organic tandem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Nhu Thuy; Tien, Huynh Ngoc; Jang, Se-Joeng; Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Park, Yun Chang; Cho, Shinuk; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-07-01

    High performance of organic tandem solar cell is largely dependent on transparent and conductive intermediate layer (IML). The current work reports the design and fabrication of an IML using a simple solution process. The efficiency of a homo-tandem device with poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester as an active layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly(ethylenimine) as an IML was initially found to be 3.40%. Further enhancement of the cell efficiency was achieved using silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) of different sizes and graphene quantum dot embedded IML. A maximum efficiency of 4.03% was achieved using 7 nm Ag-NPs that contribute to a better recombination process. Also, the performance of the tandem cell was solely based on the electrical improvements indicated by the current - voltage measurements, external quantum efficiency and impedance analysis. The use of Ag-NPs in the IML has been shown to lengthen the life time of electron-hole pairs in the device. This study thus paves way to develop such efficient IMLs for more efficient tandem solar cells.

  11. Microstructure and magnetic properties of FePt film with combined MoC/(Mg-X)O (X=Cu, Ni, Co) intermediate layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jai-Lin; Tzeng, Jie-Lin; Hu, Keng-Chun; Li, Hsu-Kang; Pan, Zu-Yu; Chang, Yuan-Shuo; Liao, Chang-Chun

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic properties and microstructure of FePt films grown on MoC layer and MoC/(Mg-X)O (X=Cu, Ni, Co) combined intermediate layers were studied. The (Mg-X)O (X=Cu, Ni, Co) layer with thickness of 5 nm was deposited on CrRu seed layer at 395 °C. The CrRu (200) texture was enhanced which may due to well grains growth in specific orientation and small lattice mismatch with (Mg-X)O (X=Cu, Ni, Co). Finally, the FePt/MoC layers were deposited on (Mg-X)O layer at 425 °C. Using MoC/MgCuO combined intermediate layers, the rocking width of FePt (001) and CrRu (200) diffraction peak were changed from 7.1° to 6.1°, and 5.7° to 3.8°, respectively. For MoC/MgCoO dual intermediate layers, the rocking width of FePt (001) and CrRu (200) diffraction peak were 6.7° and 4.1°. The FePt/MoC/MgCoO film illustrates perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with out-of plane coercivity of 9.3 kOe which is higher than FePt film deposited on MoC layer (8.5 kOe) and the in-plane loops is linear. From microstructure, the FePt grains were more separated on MoC/(Mg-X)O (X=Cu, Ni, Co) combined intermediate layers.

  12. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Ekerdt, John G.; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-12-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}. However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO{sub 3}), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable.

  13. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2015-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al2O3 and HfO2. However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO3), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable.

  14. Coarse, Intermediate and High Resolution Numerical Simulations of the Transition of a Tropical Wave Critical Layer to a Tropical Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, M. T.; Dunkerton, T. J.; Wang, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work has hypothesized that tropical cyclones in the deep Atlantic and eastern Pacific basins develop from within the cyclonic Kelvin cat's eye of a tropical easterly wave critical layer located equatorward of the easterly jet axis. The cyclonic critical layer is thought to be important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i) a region of cyclonic vorticity and weak deformation by the resolved flow, (ii) containment of moisture entrained by the developing flow and/or lofted by deep convection therein, (iii) confinement of mesoscale vortex aggregation, (iv) a predominantly convective type of heating profile, and (v) maintenance or enhancement of the parent wave until the developing proto-vortex becomes a self-sustaining entity and emerges from the wave as a tropical depression. This genesis sequence and the overarching framework for describing how such hybrid wave-vortex structures become tropical depressions/storms is likened to the development of a marsupial infant in its mother's pouch, and for this reason has been dubbed the "marsupial paradigm". Here we conduct the first multi-scale test of the marsupial paradigm in an idealized setting by revisiting the Kurihara and Tuleya problem examining the transformation of an easterly wave-like disturbance into a tropical storm vortex using the WRF model. An analysis of the evolving winds, equivalent potential temperature, and relative vertical vorticity is presented from coarse (28 km), intermediate (9 km) and high resolution (3.1 km) simulations. The results are found to support key elements of the marsupial paradigm by demonstrating the existence of rotationally dominant region with minimal strain/shear deformation near the center of the critical layer pouch that contains strong cyclonic vorticity and high saturation fraction. This localized region within the pouch serves as the "attractor" for an upscale "bottom up" development process while the wave pouch and proto-vortex move together.

  15. Enhanced heteroepitaxial growth of CoCrPt-SiO{sub 2} perpendicular magnetic recording media on optimized Ru intermediate layers

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Kumar; Piramanayagam, S. N.

    2008-01-15

    The crystallographic growth, interfacial roughness, and magnetic properties of CoCrPt-SiO{sub 2} perpendicular magnetic recording media prepared on various types of Ru intermediate growth layers were systematically investigated based on high angle and omega offset x-ray diffraction scans, rocking curve scans, synchrotron radiation based grazing incidence reflectivity scans, and magneto-optical Kerr hysteresis loops. For samples that make use of one Ru growth layer, voltage bias applied on the Ru layer was seen to have two observable effects: (1) the dispersion in the Ru(00{center_dot}2) perpendicular texture increased, but that of the Co(00{center_dot}2) remained unchanged, leading to identical layered growth and (2) the in-plane a-lattice parameter of the Ru decreased leading to enhanced heteroepitaxy with the Co. There was no significant change in the Ru-Co interfacial roughness with changing the bias on the Ru layer. The bias effect can be used to optimize the design of the Ru intermediate layers. A scheme that makes use of two Ru growth layers consisting of a bottom Ru layer prepared under zero bias, which is inserted below a second Ru layer prepared under biased conditions, is shown to lead to significant benefits such as improved texture without affecting the magnetic properties. This is due to the different functional roles ascribed to each of the Ru growth layers.

  16. Investigation of the GeO2-1,6-diaminohexane-water-pyridine-HF phase diagram leading to the discovery of two novel layered germanates with extra-large rings.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bing; Inge, Andrew K; Bonneau, Charlotte; Sun, Junliang; Christensen, Kirsten E; Yuan, Zhong-Yong; Zou, Xiaodong

    2011-01-03

    The systematic exploration of the phase diagram of the GeO(2)-1,6-diaminohexane-water-pyridine-HF system has allowed the identification of specific roles of the HF, H(2)O contents, and HF/H(2)O ratio in the formation of Ge(7)X(19) (Ge(7)), Ge(9)X(25-26) (Ge(9)), and Ge(10)X(28) (Ge(10)) clusters (X = O, OH, F). This work has led to the discovery of two novel structures with extra-large 18-membered rings accommodating 1,6-diaminohexane (DAH): SU-63, |1.5H(2)DAH|[Ge(7)O(14)X(3)]·2H(2)O, a layered germanate constructed from Ge(7) clusters with the Kagomé topology, and SU-64, |11H(2)DAH|[Ge(9)O(18)X(4)][Ge(7)O(14)X(3)](6)·16H(2)O, a germanate built of two-dimensional slabs containing both Ge(7) and Ge(9) clusters (X = OH or F). We also put SU-64 in context with previously reported cluster germanate compounds with related topologies by means of a simple crystal deconstruction study.

  17. Atomic layer deposition of crystalline SrHfO{sub 3} directly on Ge (001) for high-k dielectric applications

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Ekerdt, John G.; Hu, Chengqing; Jiang, Aiting; Yu, Edward T.; Lu, Sirong; Smith, David J.; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-02-07

    The current work explores the crystalline perovskite oxide, strontium hafnate, as a potential high-k gate dielectric for Ge-based transistors. SrHfO{sub 3} (SHO) is grown directly on Ge by atomic layer deposition and becomes crystalline with epitaxial registry after post-deposition vacuum annealing at ∼700 °C for 5 min. The 2 × 1 reconstructed, clean Ge (001) surface is a necessary template to achieve crystalline films upon annealing. The SHO films exhibit excellent crystallinity, as shown by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The SHO films have favorable electronic properties for consideration as a high-k gate dielectric on Ge, with satisfactory band offsets (>2 eV), low leakage current (<10{sup −5} A/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of 1 MV/cm) at an equivalent oxide thickness of 1 nm, and a reasonable dielectric constant (k ∼ 18). The interface trap density (D{sub it}) is estimated to be as low as ∼2 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2 }eV{sup −1} under the current growth and anneal conditions. Some interfacial reaction is observed between SHO and Ge at temperatures above ∼650 °C, which may contribute to increased D{sub it} value. This study confirms the potential for crystalline oxides grown directly on Ge by atomic layer deposition for advanced electronic applications.

  18. Improved interfacial and electrical properties of Ge MOS capacitor with ZrON/TaON multilayer composite gate dielectric by using fluorinated Si passivation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Xu, Jing-Ping; Liu, Lu; Cheng, Zhi-Xiang; Lai, Pui-To; Tang, Wing-Man

    2017-07-01

    A Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor with a composite gate dielectric composed of a ZrON/TaON multilayer and a Si passivation layer treated with fluorine plasma is fabricated. Its interfacial and electrical properties are compared with those of its counterparts without the Si passivation layer or the fluorine-plasma treatment. Experimental results show that the device with the fluorinated Si passivation layer exhibits excellent interfacial and electrical performances: low interface-state density (2.0 × 1011 cm2 eV-1 at midgap), small flatband voltage (0.17 V), low gate leakage current (2.04 × 10-6 A/cm2 at Vg = Vfb + 1 V), and high equivalent dielectric constant (22.6). The involved mechanism lies in the fact that the TaSiON interlayer formed by mixing of TaON and Si passivation layers can effectively suppress the growth of unstable Ge oxides to reduce the defective states at/near the TaSiON/Ge interface. Moreover, the fluorine-plasma treatment can passivate the oxygen vacancies and conduce to the blocking of elemental inter-diffusions, thus largely improving the interfacial quality to achieve excellent electrical properties for the device.

  19. Surface passivation and interface properties of bulk GaAs and epitaxial-GaAs/Ge using atomic layer deposited TiAlO alloy dielectric.

    PubMed

    Dalapati, G K; Chia, C K; Tan, C C; Tan, H R; Chiam, S Y; Dong, J R; Das, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Mahata, C; Maiti, C K; Chi, D Z

    2013-02-01

    High quality surface passivation on bulk-GaAs substrates and epitaxial-GaAs/Ge (epi-GaAs) layers were achieved by using atomic layer deposited (ALD) titanium aluminum oxide (TiAlO) alloy dielectric. The TiAlO alloy dielectric suppresses the formation of defective native oxide on GaAs layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows interfacial arsenic oxide (As(x)O(y)) and elemental arsenic (As) were completely removed from the GaAs surface. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX) analysis and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that TiAlO dielectric is an effective barrier layer for reducing the out-diffusion of elemental atoms, enhancing the electrical properties of bulk-GaAs based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. Moreover, ALD TiAlO alloy dielectric on epi-GaAs with AlGaAs buffer layer realized smooth interface between epi-GaAs layers and TiAlO dielectric, yielding a high quality surface passivation on epi-GaAs layers, much sought-after for high-speed transistor applications on a silicon platform. Presence of a thin AlGaAs buffer layer between epi-GaAs and Ge substrates improved interface quality and gate dielectric quality through the reduction of interfacial layer formation (Ga(x)O(y)) and suppression of elemental out-diffusion (Ga and As). The AlGaAs buffer layer and TiAlO dielectric play a key role to suppress the roughening, interfacial layer formation, and impurity diffusion into the dielectric, which in turn largely enhances the electrical property of the epi-GaAs MOS devices.

  20. Improved interfacial and electrical properties of HfLaON gate dielectric Ge MOS capacitor by NbON/Si dual passivation layer and fluorine incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Xu, Jing-Ping; Liu, Lu; Lai, Pui-To; Tang, Wing-Man

    2016-11-01

    Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor with HfLaON/(NbON/Si) stacked gate dielectric and fluorine-plasma treatment is fabricated, and its interfacial and electrical properties are compared with its counterparts without the Si passivation layer or the fluorine-plasma treatment. The experimental results show that the HfLaON/(NbON/Si) Ge MOS device treated by fluorine plasma exhibits excellent performance: low interface-state density (4.3 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1), small flatband voltage (0.22 V), good capacitance-voltage behavior, small frequency dispersion and low gate leakage current (4.18 × 10-5 A/cm2 at Vg = Vfb + 1 V). These should be attributed to the suppressed growth of unstable Ge oxides on the Ge surface during gate-dielectric annealing by the NbON/Si dual interlayer and fluorine incorporation, thus reducing the defective states at/near the NbSiON/Ge interface and improving the electrical properties of the device.

  1. Efficiency enhancement using a Zn1- x Ge x -O thin film as an n-type window layer in Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Nishi, Yuki; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2016-05-01

    Efficiency enhancement was achieved in Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells fabricated with a zinc-germanium-oxide (Zn1- x Ge x -O) thin film as the n-type window layer and a p-type Na-doped Cu2O (Cu2O:Na) sheet prepared by thermally oxidizing Cu sheets. The Ge content (x) dependence of the obtained photovoltaic properties of the heterojunction solar cells is mainly explained by the conduction band discontinuity that results from the electron affinity difference between Zn1- x Ge x -O and Cu2O:Na. The optimal value of x in Zn1- x Ge x -O thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition was observed to be 0.62. An efficiency of 8.1% was obtained in a MgF2/Al-doped ZnO/Zn0.38Ge0.62-O/Cu2O:Na heterojunction solar cell.

  2. Generation of conducting polymer-based heterojunctions, diodes, and capacitors using an intermediate-layer lithography method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinchuan; Chakraborty, Anirban; Parthasarathi, Ganga; Luo, Cheng

    2007-04-01

    In this work, conducting polymer-based heterojunctions, diodes and capacitors have been generated using an intermediate-layer lithography (ILL) approach which has been recently developed in our group. Polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and aluminum were used as component materials in these devices. Compared with Si-based devices, conducting polymerbased devices have distinctive advantages of low weight and good flexibility, and may potentially replace the corresponding Si-based devices. A challenge is how to fabricate the conducting polymer-based microsystems. Most conducting polymers are sensitive to the environment, and their electrical properties tend to deteriorate over time due to overoxidation (air), moisture, high temperature and chemical alteration. The current fabrication techniques (e.g. lift-off, dry and wet etching processes) used in lithographic approaches involve ultra-violet, electron-beam, x-ray, gases (e.g., oxygen and nitrogen), DI water, and/or chemical solution (e.g. photoresist and acetone), making them improper to pattern conducting polymers. Since the ILL method does not involve aggressive chemistry in generation of patterns, it has been employed in this work to fabricate conducting polymer-based microdevices, particularly diodes and capacitors. In fabrication of the devices, multiple layers of polymers (e.g., PPy and PEDOT) and metals (e.g., Al) are coated on a PMMA sheet followed by the patterning with the insertion of Si molds. The detailed fabrication procedure and testing results are given in this paper.

  3. Photoluminescence of dome and hut shaped Ge(Si) self-assembled islands embedded in a tensile-strained Si layer

    SciTech Connect

    Shaleev, M. V.; Novikov, A. V.; Yablonskiy, A. N.; Drozdov, Y. N.; Lobanov, D. N.; Krasilnik, Z. F.; Kuznetsov, O. A.

    2007-07-09

    The effect of the growth temperature (T{sub g}) on photoluminescence of Ge(Si) self-assembled islands embedded between tensile-strained Si layers was studied. The observed redshift of the photoluminescence peak of the dome islands with a decrease of T{sub g} from 700 to 630 deg. C is associated with an increase of Ge content in the islands and with the suppression of smearing of the strained Si layers. The blueshift of the photoluminescence peak with a decrease of T{sub g} from 630 to 600 deg. C is associated with a change of the type of islands on surface, which is accompanied by a decrease in islands' height.

  4. Optical properties of Ge nanostructures embedded into porous alumina matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltiukov, A.; Valeev, R.; Zakirova, R.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of structural properties and the morphology of Ge@PAA nanocomposites synthesized by thermal deposition of Ge on porous anodic alumina matrices with different porosity on the band gap value and PL properties is investigated. PL in the range of 330-520 nm may be due to F and F2 luminescent centers in the surface of nanopores of PAA matrices. The density of electronic states in this interface depends on the temperature of matrices during deposition and on the surface morphology. The role of radiative recombination centers is played by the broken bonds in a thin intermediate Ge x -Al y -O z layer in the Ge/oxide matrix interface. No obvious effect of the crystalline structure of germanium nanoparticles on the PL maximum position is observed, but the spatial localization of electron-hole pairs of small-sized Ge crystallites of which nanoparticles consist leads to an increase in the optical band gap.

  5. Questing and the application for silicon based ternary compound within ultra-thin layer of SIS intermediate region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shumin; Gao, Ming; Wan, Yazhou; Du, Huiwei; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhongquan

    2016-12-01

    A silicon based ternary compound was supposed to be solid synthesized with In, Si and O elements by magnetron sputtering of indium tin oxide target (ITO) onto crystal silicon substrate at 250 °C. To make clear the configuration of the intermediate region, a potential method to obtain the chemical bonding of Si with other existing elements was exploited by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) instrument combined with other assisted techniques. The phase composition and solid structure of the interfacial region between ITO and Si substrate were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution cross sectional transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). A photovoltaic device with structure of Al/Ag/ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al was assembled by depositing ITO films onto the p-Si substrate by using magnetron sputtering. The new matter has been assumed to be a buffer layer for semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) photovoltaic device and plays critical role for the promotion of optoelectronic conversion performance from the view point of device physics.

  6. Development of CVD-W coatings on CuCrZr and graphite substrates with a PVD intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiupeng; Lian, Youyun; Lv, Yanwei; Liu, Junyong; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xiang; Yan, Binyou; Chen, Zhigang; Zhuang, Zhigang; Zhao, Ximeng; Qi, Yang

    2014-12-01

    In order to apply tungsten (W) coatings by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for repairing or updating the plasma facing components (PFCs) of the first wall and divertor in existing or future tokomaks, where CuCrZr or graphite is the substrate material, an intermediate layer by physical vapor deposition (PVD) has been used to accommodate the interface stress due to the mismatch of thermal expansion or act as a diffusion barrier between the CVD-W coating and the substrate. The prepared CuCrZr/PVD-Cu/CVD-W sample with active cooling has passed thermal fatigue tests by electron beam with an absorbed power of 2.2 MW/m2, 50 s on/50 s off, for 100 cycles. Another graphite/PVD-Si/CVD-W sample without active cooling underwent thermal fatigue testing with an absorbed power density of 4.62 MW/m2, 5 s on/25 s off, for 200 cycles, and no catastrophic failure was found.

  7. Synthesis of high-purity, layered structured K2Ta4O11 intermediate phase nanocrystals for photocatalytic water splitting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Sun, Feng; Kim, Jin Hyun; Kim, Ju Hun; Yang, JunHe; Wang, XianYing; Lee, Jae Sung

    2016-10-07

    High-purity K2Ta4O11 (kalitantite) intermediate phase with a layered structure, as a new family member of alkali-metal tantalate semiconductors, was successfully prepared via a simple and cost-effective flux growth technique using potassium chloride (KCl) at a low temperature of 800 °C for only 4 h. The as-synthesized K2Ta4O11 was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, STEM/EDS, and UV-Vis DRS, etc. It was found that the K2Ta4O11 single nanocrystals were non-stoichiometric in the size range of 100-500 nm, and the indirect band gap of K2Ta4O11 was correctly determined to be 4.15 eV. The K2Ta4O11 not only exhibited a high and stable photocatalytic H2 generation rate of ∼45.3 μmol h(-1) g(-1) in an aqueous methanolic solution with the photodeposition of Pt as co-catalysts, but also possessed the photocatalytic ability for simultaneous evolution of H2 and O2 in a stoichiometric ratio, with loading of NiO particles as cocatalysts. Thus, it can be mainly attributed to the benefits of KCl flux lowing the reaction temperature, and increasing the surface area and crystallinity of K2Ta4O11, that the charge efficiency and enhancement of the photoreactivity for water splitting are improved.

  8. High-Performanced Cathode with a Two-Layered R-P Structure for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Huan, Daoming; Wang, Zhiquan; Wang, Zhenbin; Peng, Ranran; Xia, Changrong; Lu, Yalin

    2016-02-01

    Driven by the mounting concerns on global warming and energy crisis, intermediate temperature solid-oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) have attracted special attention for their high fuel efficiency, low toxic gas emission, and great fuel flexibility. A key obstacle to the practical operation of IT-SOFCs is their sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics. In this work, we applied a new two-layered Ruddlesden-Popper (R-P) oxide, Sr3Fe2O7-δ (SFO), as the material for oxygen ion conducting IT-SOFCs. Density functional theory calculation suggested that SFO has extremely low oxygen ion formation energy and considerable energy barrier for O(2-) diffusion. Unfortunately, the stable SrO surface of SFO was demonstrated to be inert to O2 adsorption and dissociation reaction, and thus restricts its catalytic activity toward ORR. Based on this observation, Co partially substituted SFO (SFCO) was then synthesized and applied to improve its surface vacancy concentration to accelerate the oxygen adsorptive reduction reaction rate. Electrochemical performance results suggested that the cell using the SFCO single phase cathode has a peak power density of 685 mW cm(-2) at 650 °C, about 15% higher than those when using LSCF cathode. Operating at 200 mA cm(-2), the new cell using SFCO is quite stable within the 100-h' test.

  9. Interface Development in Cu-Based Structures Transient Liquid Phase (TLP) Bonded with Thin Al Foil Intermediate Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ke; Meng, Wen Jin; Eastman, J. A.

    2014-05-20

    Proper bonding and assembly techniques are essential for fabrication of functional metal-based microdevices. Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding is a promising technique for making enclosed metallic microchannel devices. In this paper, we report results of TLP bonding of Cu-based structures at temperatures between 550ºC and 610ºC with thin elemental Al foils as intermediate boding layers. In-situ X-ray diffraction was utilized to examine the structure of Cu/Al interface in real time, resulting in a proposed sequence of structural evolution of the Cu/Al/Cu TLP bonding interface region. Three different types of bonding interface structures, the “γ1 structure”, the “eutectoid structure” (“E structure”), and the “E/γ1/E structure”, were observed through electron microscopy, and related to the proposed sequence of interfacial structural evolution. Tensile fracture tests were conducted on TLP bonded Cu/Al/Cu coupon assemblies. Hardness of the various phases within the bonding interface region was probed with instrumented nanoindentation. Results of mechanical testing were correlated to the structure of the bonding interface region. The present results provide an understanding of the structural evolution within the Cu/Al/Cu TLP bonding interface region, and offer guidance to future bonding of Cubased microsystems.

  10. Nanogranular TiN-ZrO2 intermediate layer induced improvement of isolation and grain size of FePt thin films

    PubMed Central

    Dong, K. F.; Li, H. H.; Peng, Y. G.; Ju, G.; Chow, G. M.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of TiN-ZrO2 intermediate layer on the microstructures and magnetic properties of FePt films were investigated. The TiN-ZrO2 intermediate layer was granular consisting of grains of solid solution of Ti(Zr)ON segregated by amorphous ZrO2. By doping ZrO2 into TiN intermediate layer, the FePt grains became better isolated from each other and the FePt grain size was reduced. For 20 vol. % ZrO2 doping into TiN, the grain size decreased dramatically from 11. 2 nm to 6. 4 nm, and good perpendicular anisotropy was achieved simultaneously. For the FePt 4nm-SiO2 35 vol. % -C 20 vol. % films grown on top of the TiN-ZrO2 20 vol. % intermediate layer, well isolated FePt (001) granular films with coercivity higher than 18. 1 kOe and an average size as small as 6. 4 nm were achieved. PMID:25001593

  11. Coarse, intermediate and high resolution numerical simulations of the transition of a tropical wave critical layer to a tropical storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.; Dunkerton, T. J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent work has hypothesized that tropical cyclones in the deep Atlantic and eastern Pacific basins develop from within the cyclonic Kelvin cat's eye of a tropical easterly wave critical layer located equatorward of the easterly jet axis. The cyclonic critical layer is thought to be important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i) a region of cyclonic vorticity and weak deformation by the resolved flow, (ii) containment of moisture entrained by the developing flow and/or lofted by deep convection therein, (iii) confinement of mesoscale vortex aggregation, (iv) a predominantly convective type of heating profile, and (v) maintenance or enhancement of the parent wave until the developing proto-vortex becomes a self-sustaining entity and emerges from the wave as a tropical depression. This genesis sequence and the overarching framework for describing how such hybrid wave-vortex structures become tropical depressions/storms is likened to the development of a marsupial infant in its mother's pouch, and for this reason has been dubbed the "marsupial paradigm". Here we conduct the first multi-scale test of the marsupial paradigm in an idealized setting by revisiting the Kurihara and Tuleya problem examining the transformation of an easterly wave-like disturbance into a tropical storm vortex using the WRF model. An analysis of the evolving winds, equivalent potential temperature, and relative vertical vorticity is presented from coarse (28 km), intermediate (9 km) and high resolution (3.1 km) simulations. The results are found to support key elements of the marsupial paradigm by demonstrating the existence of a rotationally dominant region with minimal strain/shear deformation near the center of the critical layer pouch that contains strong cyclonic vorticity and high saturation fraction. This localized region within the pouch serves as the "attractor" for an upscale "bottom up" development process while the wave pouch and proto-vortex move together

  12. Effective passivation and high-performance metal-oxide-semiconductor devices using ultra-high-vacuum deposited high- κ dielectrics on Ge without interfacial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, L. K.; Chu, R. L.; Lin, T. D.; Lee, W. C.; Lin, C. A.; Huang, M. L.; Lee, Y. J.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.

    2010-09-01

    Without using any interfacial passivation layers, high- κ dielectric Y 2O 3, HfO 2, and Ga 2O 3(Gd 2O 3) [GGO], by electron beam evaporation in ultra-high-vacuum (UHV), have been directly deposited on Ge substrate. Comprehensive investigations have been carried out to study the oxide/Ge interfaces chemically, structurally, and electronically: hetero-structures of all the studied oxides on Ge are highly thermally stable with annealing to 500 °C, and their interfaces remain atomically sharp. The electrical analyses have been conducted on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices, i.e. MOS capacitors (MOSCAPs) and MOS field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs). Dielectrics constants of the Y 2O 3, HfO 2, and GGO have been extracted to be ˜17, 20, and 13-15, respectively, indicating no interfacial layer formation with 500 °C annealing. A low interfacial density of states ( Dits), as low as 3 × 10 11 cm -2 eV -1, has been achieved for GGO/Ge near mid-gap along with a high Fermi-level movement efficiency as high as 80%. The GGO/Ge pMOSFETs with TiN as the metal gate have yielded very high-performances, in terms of 496 μA/μm, 178 μS/μm, and 389 cm 2/V s in saturation drain current density, maximum transconductance, and effective hole mobility, respectively. The gate width and gate length of the MOSFET are 10 μm and 1 μm.

  13. Theory of hole mobility in strained Ge and III-V p-channel inversion layers with high-κ insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Fischetti, M. V.; Sorée, B.; O'Regan, T.

    2010-12-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the low-field hole mobility in strained Ge and III-V (GaAs, GaSb, InSb, and In1-xGaxAs) p-channel inversion layers with both SiO2 and high-κ insulators. The valence (sub)band structure of Ge and III-V channels, relaxed and under biaxial strain (tensile and compressive) is calculated using an efficient self-consistent method based on the six-band k ṡp perturbation theory. The hole mobility is then computed using the Kubo-Greenwood formalism accounting for nonpolar hole-phonon scattering (acoustic and optical), surface roughness scattering, polar phonon scattering (III-Vs only), alloy scattering (alloys only) and remote phonon scattering, accounting for multisubband dielectric screening. As expected, we find that Ge and III-V semiconductors exhibit a mobility significantly larger than the "universal" Si mobility. This is true for MOS systems with either SiO2 or high-κ insulators, although the latter ones are found to degrade the hole mobility compared to SiO2 due to scattering with interfacial optical phonons. In addition, III-Vs are more sensitive to the interfacial optical phonons than Ge due to the existence of the substrate polar phonons. Strain—especially biaxial tensile stress for Ge and biaxial compressive stress for III-Vs (except for GaAs)—is found to have a significant beneficial effect with both SiO2 and HfO2. Among strained p-channels, InSb exhibits the largest mobility enhancement. In0.7Ga0.3As also exhibits an increased hole mobility compared to Si, although the enhancement is not as large. Finally, our theoretical results are favorably compared with available experimental data for a relaxed Ge p-channel with a HfO2 insulator.

  14. Two-temperature synthesis of non-linear optical compound CdGeAs2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chongqiang; Verozubova, G. A.; Mironov, Yuri P.; Lei, Zuotao; Song, Liangcheng; Ma, Tianhui; Okunev, A. O.; Yang, Chunhui

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we report on a new approach to synthesize large-scale nonlinear optical chalcopyrite compound CdGeAs2 (cadmium germanium arsenide), in which the arsenic (As) precursor and the mixture of the cadmium (Cd) and the germanium (Ge) were separated in two distinct temperature-defined zones of a furnace. Through probing the intermediate product prepared at pre-set temperature points of hot-zone area, it was revealed that the ternary compound CdGeAs2 was formed through chemical reactions among Cd3As2, CdAs2, GeAs, GeAs2 and Ge. A new intermediate crystalline compound, with determined crystal parameter c=0.9139 nm and unknown a parameter, was identified when the temperature of the mixture of Cd and Ge was set to 680 °C, which, however, disappeared when the temperature was set to 770 °C, yielding pure CdGeAs2 product. Most likely, the identified new intermediate compound has layered graphite-like structure. Moreover, we show that the described two-temperature synthesis method allows us to produce near 250 g CdGeAs2 product during one run in a horizontal furnace and 500 g in a tilted horizontal furnace with rotated reactor.

  15. Biaxiality and temperature dependence of 3- and 4-layer intermediate smectic-phase structures as revealed by resonant X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, N. W.; Jaradat, S.; Hirst, L. S.; Thurlow, M. S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, S. T.; Liu, Z. Q.; Huang, C. C.; Bai, J.; Pindak, R.; Gleeson, H. F.

    2005-12-01

    High-resolution resonant X-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on free-standing films of two selenium-containing antiferroelectric liquid-crystal mixtures. Optical studies had indicated that both mixtures exhibit exceptionally wide intermediate phases, over a total range of > 9 K. Through the structural information obtained from the resonant scattering data, we confirm that the intermediate phases of these mixtures show both 3-layer and 4-layer structural periodicities. Moreover, due to the stability of these phases, we report for the first time the temperature dependence of both the helicoidal pitch and distortion angle in the 3-layer phases deduced using the resonant X-ray technique. Analysis using an extension of the theory set out by Levelut and Pansu (Levelut A-M. and Pansu B., Phys. Rev. E, 60 (1999) 6803) shows that over the temperature ranges measured, the pitch changes linearly as a function of temperature whilst the distortion angle remains constant.

  16. Ternary arsenides ATt{sub 3}As{sub 3} (A=K, Rb; Tt=Ge, Sn) with layered structures

    SciTech Connect

    Khatun, Mansura; Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Mar, Arthur

    2016-06-15

    The four ternary arsenides ATt{sub 3}As{sub 3} (A=K, Rb; Tt=Ge, Sn) were obtained by reaction of the elements at 600–650 °C. They adopt an orthorhombic structure (space group Pnma, Z=4, with cell parameters ranging from a=9.9931(11) Å, b=3.7664(4) Å, c=18.607(2) Å for KGe{sub 3}As{sub 3} to a=10.3211(11) Å, b=4.0917(4) Å, c=19.570(2) Å for RbSn{sub 3}As{sub 3}) containing corrugated [Tt{sub 3}As{sub 3}] layers built from Tt-centred trigonal pyramids and tetrahedra forming five-membered rings decorated with As handles. They can be considered to be Zintl phases with Tt atoms in +4, +3, and +1 oxidation states. Band structure calculations predict that these compounds are semiconductors with narrow band gaps (0.71 eV in KGe{sub 3}As{sub 3}, 0.50 eV in KSn{sub 3}As{sub 3}). - Graphical abstract: Ternary arsenides ATt{sub 3}As{sub 3} (A=K, Rb; Tt=Ge, Sn) contain corrugated layers with Tt atoms in three different oxidation states and are narrow band gap semiconductors. Display Omitted - Highlights: • ATt{sub 3}As{sub 3} (A=K, Rb; Tt=Ge, Sn) contains Tt atoms in three oxidation states. • The structure differs from NaGe{sub 3}P{sub 3} in terms of layer stacking arrangement. • The compounds are predicted to be narrow band gap semiconductors.

  17. Y(0.76)Ho(0.24)FeGe(2)O(7): a new member of thortveitite-like layered compounds.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Ivonne; Chavira, Elizabeth; Orozco, Eligio; Bucio, Lauro

    2009-06-06

    Y(0.76)Ho(0.24)FeGe(2)O(7) (yttrium holmium iron digermanate) was synthesized by solid-state reaction at 1573 K. This thortveitite-like compound presents a crystallographic group-subgroup isotranslational (klassengleiche) relation with some other pyrogermanates, such as FeInGe(2)O(7), In(1.08)Gd(0.92)Ge(2)O(7) and InYGe(2)O(7), which are configurationally isotypic with the Sc(2)Si(2)O(7) thortveitite structure first reported by Zachariasen [(1930 ▶). Z. Kristallogr.73, 1-6]. Holmium cations share with yttrium the 4f Wyckoff position at the center of a seven-coordinated pentagonal bipyramid, while Fe atoms also occupy one site with Wyckoff position 4f at the center of the octahedron. All these sites have the point symmetry C(1). Two types of Ge(2)O(7) diorthogroups with point symmetry C(1h) are present in the structure, each one of them defining a layer type which alternates with the other. These diorthogroups have their tetrahedral groups in an eclipsed conformation.

  18. Y0.76Ho0.24FeGe2O7: a new member of thortveitite-like layered compounds

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Ivonne; Chavira, Elizabeth; Orozco, Eligio; Bucio, Lauro

    2009-01-01

    Y0.76Ho0.24FeGe2O7 (yttrium holmium iron digermanate) was synthesized by solid-state reaction at 1573 K. This thortveitite-like compound presents a crystallographic group–subgroup isotranslational (klassengleiche) relation with some other pyrogermanates, such as FeInGe2O7, In1.08Gd0.92Ge2O7 and InYGe2O7, which are configurationally isotypic with the Sc2Si2O7 thortveitite structure first reported by Zachariasen [(1930 ▶). Z. Kristallogr. 73, 1–6]. Holmium cations share with yttrium the 4f Wyckoff position at the center of a seven-coordinated pentagonal bipyramid, while Fe atoms also occupy one site with Wyckoff position 4f at the center of the octahedron. All these sites have the point symmetry C 1. Two types of Ge2O7 diorthogroups with point symmetry C 1h are present in the structure, each one of them defining a layer type which alternates with the other. These diorthogroups have their tetrahedral groups in an eclipsed conformation. PMID:21582644

  19. Effect of process temperature on structure and magnetic properties of perpendicularly magnetized D022-Mn3Ge thin films on a Cr buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Atsushi; Suzuki, Kazuya; Miyazaki, Terunobu; Mizukami, Shigemi

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the effect of post-annealing on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant (Ku) and surface roughness (Ra) of Mn3Ge thin films grown at comparatively low temperatures (room temperature, 150, 200, and 250 °C) on Cr buffer layers. The films grown at ≥200 °C exhibit a D022-ordered crystal structure in an as-deposited state. The post-annealing process demonstrates differences in trends between the 200-°C-grown film and the 250-°C-grown film. The 200-°C-grown film displays significant degradation of Ku and an increase in Ra upon annealing at >300 °C because of its poor thermal durability, while the 250-°C-grown film is still intact even at 500 °C. The 250-°C-grown film post-annealed at 300 °C displays relatively high Ku while Ra remains low. It may be possible to grow D022-Mn3Ge with higher Ku and low Ra using a buffer-layer material with a lattice-matched crystal structure with D022-Mn3Ge and higher thermal durability than Cr.

  20. Overturning circulation that ventilates the intermediate layer of the Sea of Okhotsk and the North Pacific: The role of salinity advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Junji; Mitsudera, Humio; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Sasajima, Yuichiro; Hasumi, Hiroyasu; Wakatsuchi, Masaaki

    2015-03-01

    Dense Shelf Water (DSW) formation in the northwestern continental shelf of the Sea of Okhotsk is the beginning of the lower limb of the overturning circulation that ventilates the intermediate layer of the North Pacific Ocean. The upper limb consisting of surface currents in the Okhotsk Sea and the subarctic gyre has not been clarified. Using a high-resolution North Pacific Ocean model with a curvilinear grid as fine as 3 km × 3 km in the Sea of Okhotsk, we succeeded in representing the three-dimensional structure of the overturning circulation including the narrow boundary currents and flows through straits that constitute the upper limb, as well as the lower limb consisting of DSW formation and ventilation. In particular, pathways and time scales from the Bering Sea to the intermediate layer via the ventilation in the Sea of Okhotsk were examined in detail using tracer experiments. Further, we found that the overturning circulation that connects the surface and intermediate layer is sensitive to wind stress. In the case of strong winds, the coastal current under polynyas where DSW forms is intensified, and consequently diapycnal transport from the surface layer to the intermediate layer increases. Strong winds also induce a positive sea surface salinity anomaly in the subarctic region, causing a significant decrease in the density stratification and increase in the DSW salinity (i.e., density). These processes act together to produce intense overturning circulation and deep ventilation, which may subduct even to the bottom of the Sea of Okhotsk if the wind is strong.

  1. Single Junction InGaP/GaAs Solar Cells Grown on Si Substrates using SiGe Buffer Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringel, S. A.; Carlin, J. A.; Andre, C. L.; Hudait, M. K.; Gonzalez, M.; Wilt, D. M.; Clark, E. B.; Jenkins, P.; Scheiman, D.; Allerman, A.

    2002-01-01

    Single junction InGaP/GaAs solar cells displaying high efficiency and record high open circuit voltage values have been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on Ge/graded SiGe/Si substrates. Open circuit voltages as high as 980 mV under AM0 conditions have been verified to result from a single GaAs junction, with no evidence of Ge-related sub-cell photoresponse. Current AM0 efficiencies of close to 16% have been measured for a large number of small area cells, whose performance is limited by non-fundamental current losses due to significant surface reflection resulting from greater than 10% front surface metal coverage and wafer handling during the growth sequence for these prototype cells. It is shown that at the material quality currently achieved for GaAs grown on Ge/SiGe/Si substrates, namely a 10 nanosecond minority carrier lifetime that results from complete elimination of anti-phase domains and maintaining a threading dislocation density of approximately 8 x 10(exp 5) per square centimeter, 19-20% AM0 single junction GaAs cells are imminent. Experiments show that the high performance is not degraded for larger area cells, with identical open circuit voltages and higher short circuit current (due to reduced front metal coverage) values being demonstrated, indicating that large area scaling is possible in the near term. Comparison to a simple model indicates that the voltage output of these GaAs on Si cells follows ideal behavior expected for lattice mismatched devices, demonstrating that unaccounted for defects and issues that have plagued other methods to epitaxially integrate III-V cells with Si are resolved using SiGe buffers and proper GaAs nucleation methods. These early results already show the enormous and realistic potential of the virtual SiGe substrate approach for generating high efficiency, lightweight and strong III-V solar cells.

  2. Structural properties of relaxed thin film germanium layers grown by low temperature RF-PECVD epitaxy on Si and Ge (100) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Cariou, R.; Ruggeri, R.; Tan, X.; Nassar, J.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Mannino, Giovanni

    2014-07-15

    We report on unusual low temperature (175 °C) heteroepitaxial growth of germanium thin films using a standard radio-frequency plasma process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal a perfect crystalline quality of epitaxial germanium layers on (100) c-Ge wafers. In addition direct germanium crystal growth is achieved on (100) c-Si, despite 4.2% lattice mismatch. Defects rising from Ge/Si interface are mostly located within the first tens of nanometers, and threading dislocation density (TDD) values as low as 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} are obtained. Misfit stress is released fast: residual strain of −0.4% is calculated from Moiré pattern analysis. Moreover we demonstrate a striking feature of low temperature plasma epitaxy, namely the fact that crystalline quality improves with thickness without epitaxy breakdown, as shown by TEM and depth profiling of surface TDD.

  3. Reduction and desorption of native oxides on GaAs and Ge during atomic layer deposition of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hang Dong; Feng, Tian; Yu, Lei; Mastrogiovanni, Daniel; Wan, Alan; Gustafsson, Torgny; Garfunkel, Eric

    2010-03-01

    The reduction of native oxides and control of interfacial defects is of central importance if materials such as GaAs and Ge are to be used for post-Si CMOS. We and others have earlier observed that under certain conditions such oxides are removed during atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth. We find, using medium energy ion scattering spectroscopy (MEIS) and XPS, that after just a single ALD half cycle (exposure to a trimethylaluminum (TMA) precursor) ˜65% of the native oxide is removed and a 5 å oxygen-rich aluminum oxide is formed. The source for the oxygen in the aluminum oxide is therefore the native oxide. For Ge substrates, one single TMA pulse removes a substantial amount of the native oxides and a 3å Al2O3 film is grown. The native oxides are also completely removed after > 450 C preheating of the substrate. The mechanisms for these processes will be discussed.

  4. Enhancement in device performance of hepta-layer coupled InGaAs quantum dot infrared detector by AuGe surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Sushil Kumar; Tyagi, Lavi; Ghadi, Hemant; Rawool, Harshal; Chakrabarti, Subhananda

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we have studied the effect of AuGe alloy nanoparticles deposition on properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown heptalayer coupled InGaAs 5.25 mono-layer quantum-dots (QDs) samples. AuGe 12 nm film was deposited using electron beam evaporator on these samples which were later annealed at 300 °C to create AuGe nanoparticles. SEM measurement confirms formation of AuGe nanoparticles which support surface Plasmon modes. The PL spectra at 20K confirms maximum enhancement of 53% in intensity of peak at ̴̴ 1123 nm for 300 °C annealed sample in comparison to as-grown (without nanoparticle) sample. Single pixel detectors were fabricated from asgrown and 300°C annealed nanoparticle sample using two level lithography and wet etching process. We have observed two-order and one-order augmentation in responsivity and detectivity from device having nanoparticles compared to the as-grown respectively at 80K. Peak detectivity of 4.2×107cm.Hz 1/2/W at 80K was observed for device having nanoparticles. Around 30% increment in spectral response having peak around 5μm at -1V bias for device having AuGe nanoparticles compared to the as-grown device was observed. The observed enhancement is due to increase light trapping or light scattering into the device by nanoparticles. Demonstration of this plasmonic-based detector will move forward the development of high-performance infrared QDs detectors.

  5. Key role of the wetting layer in revealing the hidden path of Ge/Si(001) Stranski-Krastanow growth onset

    SciTech Connect

    Brehm, Moritz; Grydlik, Martyna; Lichtenberger, Herbert; Hrauda, Nina; Fromherz, Thomas; Schaeffler, Friedrich; Bauer, Guenther; Montalenti, Francesco; Vastola, Guglielmo; Miglio, Leo; Beck, Matthew J.

    2009-11-15

    The commonly accepted Stranski-Krastanow model, according to which island formation occurs on top of a wetting layer (WL) of a certain thickness, predicts for the morphological evolution an increasing island aspect ratio with volume. We report on an apparent violation of this thermodynamic understanding of island growth with deposition. In order to investigate the actual onset of three-dimensional islanding and the critical WL thickness in the Ge/Si(001) system, a key issue is controlling the Ge deposition with extremely high resolution [0.025 monolayer (ML)]. Atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence measurements on samples covering the deposition range 1.75-6.1 ML, taken along a Ge deposition gradient on 4 in. Si substrates and at different growth temperatures (T{sub g}), surprisingly reveal that for T{sub g}>675 deg. C steeper multifaceted domes apparently nucleate prior to shallow (105)-faceted pyramids, in a narrow commonly overlooked deposition range. The puzzling experimental findings are explained by a quantitative modeling of the total energy with deposition. We accurately matched ab initio calculations of layer and surface energies to finite-element method simulations of the elastic energy in islands, in order to compare the thermodynamic stability of different island shapes with respect to an increasing WL thickness. Close agreement between modeling and experiments is found, pointing out that the sizeable progressive lowering of the surface energy in the first few MLs of the WL reverts the common understanding of the SK growth onset. Strong similarities between islanding in SiGe and III/V systems are highlighted.

  6. Germanium surface passivation and atomic layer deposition of high-k dielectrics—a tutorial review on Ge-based MOS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qi; Deng, Shaoren; Schaekers, Marc; Lin, Dennis; Caymax, Matty; Delabie, Annelies; Qu, Xin-Ping; Jiang, Yu-Long; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    Due to its high intrinsic mobility, germanium (Ge) is a promising candidate as a channel material (offering a mobility gain of approximately ×2 for electrons and ×4 for holes when compared to conventional Si channels). However, many issues still need to be addressed before Ge can be implemented in high-performance field-effect-transistor (FET) devices. One of the key issues is to provide a high-quality interfacial layer, which does not lead to substantial drive current degradation in both low equivalent oxide thickness and short channel regime. In recent years, a wide range of materials and processes have been investigated to obtain proper interfacial properties, including different methods for Ge surface passivation, various high-k dielectrics and metal gate materials and deposition methods, and different post-deposition annealing treatments. It is observed that each process step can significantly affect the overall metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-FET device performance. In this review, we describe and compare combinations of the most commonly used Ge surface passivation methods (e.g. epi-Si passivation, surface oxidation and/or nitridation, and S-passivation) with various high-k dielectrics. In particular, plasma-based processes for surface passivation in combination with plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition for high-k depositions are shown to result in high-quality MOS structures. To further improve properties, the gate stack can be annealed after deposition. The effects of annealing temperature and ambient on the electrical properties of the MOS structure are also discussed.

  7. Atomic imaging and modeling of passivation, functionalization, and atomic layer deposition nucleation of the SiGe(001) surface via H2O2(g) and trimethylaluminum dosing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman-Osborn, Tobin; Chagarov, Evgueni A.; Park, Sang Wook; Sahu, Bhagawan; Siddiqui, Shariq; Kummel, Andrew C.

    2014-12-01

    Passivation, functionalization, and atomic layer deposition (ALD) via H2O2(g) and trimethylaluminum (TMA) dosing were studied on the clean Si0.6Ge0.4(001) surface at the atomic level using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Chemical analysis of the surface was performed with in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) while density functional theory (DFT) was employed to model the bonding of H2O2(g) chemisorbates to the substrate. A room temperature saturation dose of H2O2(g) covers the surface with a monolayer of sbnd OH and sbnd O chemisorbates. XPS and DFT demonstrate that the room temperature H2O2/SiGe surface is composed of only Gesbnd OH and Gesbnd O bonds while annealing induces an atomic layer exchange bringing Si to the surface to bond with sbnd OH or sbnd O while pushing Ge subsurface. The resulting Sisbnd OH and Sisbnd O surface is optimal because it can be used to nucleate high-k ALD and Si dangling bonds are readily passivated by forming gas. After H2O2(g) functionalization, TMA dosing, and a subsequent 230 °C anneal, ordering along the dimer row direction is observed on the surface. STS verifies that the TMA/H2O2/SiGe surface has an unpinned Fermi level with no states in the band gap demonstrating the ability to serve as an ideal template for further high-k deposition.

  8. Electronic properties of δ-doped Si:P and Ge:P layers in the high-density limit using a Thomas-Fermi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. S.; Cole, J. H.; Russo, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    We present a scalable method for calculating the electronic properties of a δ-doped phosphorus layer in silicon and germanium. Our calculations are based on an sp3d5s* tight-binding model and the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac approximation. The energy shift in the lowest conduction band states of the Ge band structure is characterized and a comparison is made to a δ-doped P layer in Si. The results for the δ-doped Si:P layer themselves compare well to the predictions of more "resource intensive" computational models. The Thomas-Fermi method presented herein scales easily to large system sizes. Efficient scaling is important for the calculation of quantum transport properties in δ-doped semiconductors that are currently of experimental interest.

  9. High-performance ultraviolet detection and visible-blind photodetector based on Cu{sub 2}O/ZnO nanorods with poly-(N-vinylcarbazole) intermediate layer

    SciTech Connect

    Perng, Dung-Ching

    2015-12-14

    This study reports a high-performance hybrid ultraviolet (UV) photodetector with visible-blind sensitivity fabricated by inserting a poly-(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) intermediate layer between low-cost processed Cu{sub 2}O film and ZnO nanorods (NRs). The PVK layer acts as an electron-blocking/hole-transporting layer between the n-ZnO and p-Cu{sub 2}O films. The Cu{sub 2}O/PVK/ZnO NR photodetector exhibited a responsivity of 13.28 A/W at 360 nm, a high detectivity of 1.03 × 10{sup 13} Jones at a low bias of −0.1 V under a low UV light intensity of 24.9 μW/cm{sup 2}. The photo-to-dark current ratios of the photodetector with and without the PVK intermediate layer at a bias of −0.5 V are 1.34 × 10{sup 2} and 3.99, respectively. The UV-to-visible rejection ratios (R{sub 360 nm}/R{sub 450 nm}) are 350 and 1.735, respectively. Several features are demonstrated: (a) UV photo-generated holes at the ZnO NRs can effectively be transported through the PVK layer to the p-Cu{sub 2}O layer; (b) the insertion of a PVK buffer layer significantly minimizes the reverse-bias leakage current, which leads to a larger amplification of the photocurrent; and (c) the PVK buffer layer greatly improves the UV-to-visible responsivity ratio, allowing the device to achieve high UV detection sensitivity at a low bias voltage using a very low light intensity.

  10. High-performance ultraviolet detection and visible-blind photodetector based on Cu2O/ZnO nanorods with poly-(N-vinylcarbazole) intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perng, Dung-Ching; Lin, Hsueh-Pin; Hong, Min-Hao

    2015-12-01

    This study reports a high-performance hybrid ultraviolet (UV) photodetector with visible-blind sensitivity fabricated by inserting a poly-(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) intermediate layer between low-cost processed Cu2O film and ZnO nanorods (NRs). The PVK layer acts as an electron-blocking/hole-transporting layer between the n-ZnO and p-Cu2O films. The Cu2O/PVK/ZnO NR photodetector exhibited a responsivity of 13.28 A/W at 360 nm, a high detectivity of 1.03 × 1013 Jones at a low bias of -0.1 V under a low UV light intensity of 24.9 μW/cm2. The photo-to-dark current ratios of the photodetector with and without the PVK intermediate layer at a bias of -0.5 V are 1.34 × 102 and 3.99, respectively. The UV-to-visible rejection ratios (R360 nm/R450 nm) are 350 and 1.735, respectively. Several features are demonstrated: (a) UV photo-generated holes at the ZnO NRs can effectively be transported through the PVK layer to the p-Cu2O layer; (b) the insertion of a PVK buffer layer significantly minimizes the reverse-bias leakage current, which leads to a larger amplification of the photocurrent; and (c) the PVK buffer layer greatly improves the UV-to-visible responsivity ratio, allowing the device to achieve high UV detection sensitivity at a low bias voltage using a very low light intensity.

  11. Rapid imaging of misfit dislocations in SiGe/Si in cross-section and through oxide layers using electron channeling contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Kunal; Wacaser, Brent A.; Bedell, Stephen W.; Sadana, Devendra K.

    2017-06-01

    Electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) is emerging as a technique for rapid and high-resolution characterization of individual crystalline defects in a scanning electron microscope. However, the application of ECCI to semiconductor materials has been limited to bare samples in plan-view geometry. In this paper, two modalities of this technique are demonstrated with relevance to semiconductor manufacturing and failure analysis: (1) The use of ECCI to reveal misfit dislocation defects along a cleaved cross-section of a SiGe compositionally graded buffer grown on Si and (2) plan-view imaging of misfit dislocations in metamorphic SiGe/Si layers covered by amorphous oxide layers, where the partial loss of contrast due to the oxide layers is quantified and the effect of the beam accelerating voltage is studied. These results demonstrate the power of ECCI in inspecting crystallographic defects non-destructively over large areas, which is highly desirable for substrate quality control in manufacturing of products based on crystalline materials.

  12. Improving the electrical properties of lanthanum silicate films on ge metal oxide semiconductor capacitors by adopting interfacial barrier and capping layers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yu Jin; Lim, Hajin; Lee, Suhyeong; Suh, Sungin; Kim, Joon Rae; Jung, Hyung-Suk; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Seong Gyeong; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Kim, HyeongJoon

    2014-05-28

    The electrical properties of La-silicate films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Ge substrates with different film configurations, such as various Si concentrations, Al2O3 interfacial passivation layers, and SiO2 capping layers, were examined. La-silicate thin films were deposited using alternating injections of the La[N{Si(CH3)3}2]3 precursor with O3 as the La and O precursors, respectively, at a substrate temperature of 310 °C. The Si concentration in the La-silicate films was further controlled by adding ALD cycles of SiO2. For comparison, La2O3 films were also grown using [La((i)PrCp)3] and O3 as the La precursor and oxygen source, respectively, at the identical substrate temperature. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis decreased with an increasing Si concentration in the La-silicate films, although the films showed a slight increase in the capacitance equivalent oxide thickness. The adoption of Al2O3 at the interface as a passivation layer resulted in lower C-V hysteresis and a low leakage current density. The C-V hysteresis voltages of the La-silicate films with Al2O3 passivation and SiO2 capping layers was significantly decreased to ∼0.1 V, whereas the single layer La-silicate film showed a hysteresis voltage as large as ∼1.0 V.

  13. Elemental distribution and thermoelectric properties of layered tellurides 39R-M(0.067)Sb(0.667)Te(0.266) (M=Ge, Sn).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Matthias N; Fahrnbauer, Felix; Rosenthal, Tobias; Döblinger, Markus; Stiewe, Christian; Oeckler, Oliver

    2012-01-23

    The isostructural phases 39R-Ge(0.067)Sb(0.667)Te(0.266) (R3m, a=4.2649(1), c=75.061(2) Å) and 39R-Sn(0.067)Sb(0.667)Te(0.266) (R3m, a=4.2959(1), c=75.392(2) Å) were prepared by quenching stoichiometric melts of the pure elements and subsequent annealing at moderate temperatures. Their structures are comparable to "superlattices" synthesized by layer-by-layer deposition onto a substrate. These structures show no stacking disorder by electron microscopy. The structure of the metastable layered phases are similar to that of 39R-Sb(10)Te(3) (equivalent to Sb(0.769)Te(0.231)), which contains four A7 gray-arsenic-type layers of antimony alternating with Sb(2)Te(3) slabs. Joint refinements on single-crystal diffraction data using synchrotron radiation at several K edges were performed to enhance the scattering contrast. These refinements show that the elemental distributions at some atom positions are disordered whereas otherwise the structures are long-range ordered. The variation of the elemental concentration correlates with the variation in interatomic distance. Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) on 39R-Ge(0.067)Sb(0.667)Te(0.266) confirms the presence of concentration gradients. The carrier-type of the isostructural metal (A7-type lamellae)-semiconductor heterostructures (Ge/Sn-doped Sb(2)Te(3) slabs) varies from n-type (Ge(0.067)Sb(0.667)Te(0.266)) to p-type (Sn(0.067)Sb(0.667)Te(0.266)). Although the absolute values of the Seebeck coefficient reached about 50-70 μV/K and the electrical conductivity is relatively high, the two isotypic phases exhibit a maximal thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 0.06 at 400 °C as their thermal conductivity (κ≈8-9.5 W/mK at 400 °C) lies interestingly in between that of antimony and pure Sb(2)Te(3).

  14. Tip-force induced surface deformation in the layered commensurate tellurides NbA xTe 2 (A = Si, Ge) during atomic force microscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengel, H.; Cantow, H.-J.; Magonov, S. N.; Monconduit, L.; Evain, M.; Whangbo, M.-H.

    1994-12-01

    The Te-atom surfaces of commensurate layered tellurides NbA xTe 2 ( A = Si, x = {1}/{2}; A = Ge, x = {1}/{3}, {2}/{5}, {3}/{7}) were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) at different applied forces. Although the bulk crystal structures show a negligible height corrugation in the surface Te-atom sheets, the AFM images exhibit dark linear patterns that become strongly pronounced at high applied forces (several hundreds nN). This feature comes about because the tip-sample force interactions induce a surface corrugation according to the local hardness variation of the surface.

  15. Structure of graphite-like BC2 layer in Sc2B1.1C3.2: An intermediate between BC and BC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Wataru; Tanaka, Takaho

    2017-10-01

    The ternary borocarbide Sc2B1.1C3.2 is known to have a layered structure in which graphite-like BC2 layers and NaCl-like Sc2C layers are alternately stacked. Due to the complexity of the structure, X-ray analysis is unable to determine the precise structure of the BC2 layer, namely, how the boron atoms are arranged in the layer. Furthermore, the stacking manner of the two layers remains unclear. In this study, we have investigated the entire structure of Sc2B1.1C3.2 through first-principles calculations. The calculations reveal that the material is the most stable when B atoms are arranged to form √{ 3 } × √{ 3 } -R30° superlattices in the graphite-like layer. The interlayer bonding is mostly van der Waals-like, and the total energy is almost independent of the stacking method. The BC2 layer with the √{ 3 } × √{ 3 } -R30° structure can be regarded as an intermediate between similar graphite-like materials, BC and BC3. The electronic density of states of Sc2B1.1C3.2 exhibits metallic features, and electrons are transferred from Sc to B and C atoms, which compensates the lack of electrons in the BC2 layer. The origin of the undulation in the BC2 layer is not the inner electronic structure but the interaction between the BC2 and Sc2C layers. The weak localization found in the in-plane resistivity in experiments is explained by the domain boundaries of the √{ 3 } × √{ 3 } -R30° structure rather than the randomness of the arrangement of B atoms.

  16. HfO2 gate dielectric on Ge (1 1 1) with ultrathin nitride interfacial layer formed by rapid thermal NH3 treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Khushabu S.; Patil, Vilas S.; Khairnar, Anil G.; Mahajan, Ashok M.

    2016-02-01

    Interfacial properties of the ALD deposited HfO2 over the surface nitrided germanium substrate have been studied. The formation of GeON (∼1.7 nm) was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron spectroscopy (HRTEM) over the germanium surface. The effect of post deposition annealing temperature was investigated to study the interfacial and electrical properties of hafnium oxide/germanium oxynitride gate stacks. The high-k MOS devices with ultrathin GeON layer shows the good electrical characteristics including higher k value ∼18, smaller equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) around 1.5 nm and smaller hysteresis value less than 170 mV. The Qeff and Dit values are somewhat greater due to the (1 1 1) orientation of the germanium and may be due to the presence of nitrogen at the interface. The Fowler-Northeim (FN) tunneling of Ge MOS devices has been studied. The barrier height ΦB extracted from the plot is ∼1 eV.

  17. Interfacial, Electrical, and Band Alignment Characteristics of HfO2/Ge Stacks with In Situ-Formed SiO2 Interlayer by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yan-Qiang; Wu, Bing; Wu, Di; Li, Ai-Dong

    2017-05-01

    In situ-formed SiO2 was introduced into HfO2 gate dielectrics on Ge substrate as interlayer by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The interfacial, electrical, and band alignment characteristics of the HfO2/SiO2 high-k gate dielectric stacks on Ge have been well investigated. It has been demonstrated that Si-O-Ge interlayer is formed on Ge surface during the in situ PEALD SiO2 deposition process. This interlayer shows fantastic thermal stability during annealing without obvious Hf-silicates formation. In addition, it can also suppress the GeO2 degradation. The electrical measurements show that capacitance equivalent thickness of 1.53 nm and a leakage current density of 2.1 × 10-3 A/cm2 at gate bias of Vfb + 1 V was obtained for the annealed sample. The conduction (valence) band offsets at the HfO2/SiO2/Ge interface with and without PDA are found to be 2.24 (2.69) and 2.48 (2.45) eV, respectively. These results indicate that in situ PEALD SiO2 may be a promising interfacial control layer for the realization of high-quality Ge-based transistor devices. Moreover, it can be demonstrated that PEALD is a much more powerful technology for ultrathin interfacial control layer deposition than MOCVD.

  18. Low-temperature formation of the FePt phase in the presence of an intermediate Au layer in Pt /Au /Fe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladymyrskyi, I. A.; Gafarov, A. E.; Burmak, A. P.; Sidorenko, S. I.; Katona, G. L.; Safanova, N. Y.; Ganss, F.; Beddies, G.; Albrecht, M.; Makogon, Yu N.; Beke, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Pt /Fe and Pt /Au /Fe layered films were deposited at room temperature by dc magnetron sputtering on Al2O3(0 0 0 1) single crystalline substrates and heat treated in vacuum at 330 °C with different durations (up to 62 h). It is shown by secondary neutral mass spectrometry depth profiling and x-ray diffraction that the introduction of an additional Au layer between Pt /Fe layers leads to enhanced intermixing and formation of the partially chemically ordered L10 FePt phase. The underlying diffusion processes can be explained by the grain boundary diffusion induced reaction layer formation mechanism. During the solid state reaction between Pt and Fe, the Au layer moves towards the substrate interface replacing the Fe layer. This was explained by the much faster diffusion of Fe, as compared to Pt, along the grain boundaries in Au. Enhancement of the process and formation of the ordered FePt phase in the presence of the Au intermediate layer were interpreted by the effect of stress accumulation during the grain boundary reactions: the disordered FePt phase formed initially at different Au and Pt grain boundaries can experience appropriate compressive stress along the {1 0 0} directions, which can initiate the formation of the chemically ordered L10 FePt phase.

  19. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 on H-Passivated GeSi: Initial Surface Reaction Pathways with H/GeSi(100)-2 × 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu; Sun, Qing-Qing; Dong, Lin; Liu, Han; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, Wei

    2009-05-01

    The reaction mechanisms of Al(CH3)3 (TMA) adsorption on H-passivated GeSi(100)-2 × 1 surface are investigated with density functional theory. The Si-Ge and Ge-Ge one-dimer cluster models are employed to represent the GeSi(100)-2 × 1 surface with different Ge compositions. For a Si-Ge dimer of a H-passivated SiGe surface, TMA adsorption on both Si-H* and Ge-H* sites is considered. The activation barrier of TMA with the Si-H* site (1.2eV) is higher than that of TMA with the Ge-H* site (0.91 eV), which indicates that the reaction proceeds more slowly on the Si-H* site than on the Ge-H* site. In addition, adsorption of TMA is more energetically favorable on the Ge-Ge dimer than on the Si-Ge dimer of H-passivated SiGe.

  20. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chung-Yi; Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Chih-Chiang; Liu, C. W.; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Chung, Hua; Chang, Chorng-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells are grown on a 300 mm Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition. The direct bandgap emission from strained GeSn is observed in the photoluminescence spectra and is enhanced by Al2O3/SiO2 passivation due to the field effect. The electroluminescence of the direct bandgap emission of strained GeSn is also observed from the Ni/Al2O3/GeSn metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes. Electroluminescence is a good indicator of GeSn material quality, since defects in GeSn layers degrade the electroluminescence intensity significantly. At the accumulation bias, the holes in the Ni gate electrode tunnel to the strained n-type GeSn layer through the ultrathin Al2O3 and recombine radiatively with electrons. The emission wavelength of photoluminescence and electroluminescence can be tuned by the Sn content.

  1. A design of intermediate band solar cell for photon ratchet with multi-layer MoS2 nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuo-Fan; Wu, Yuh-Renn

    2017-05-01

    We presented an idea to increase the efficiency of the MoS2 solar cells with the special E-k relation of the intermediate band in MoS2 nanoribbon structures. From the calculations of armchair nanoribbon structures by the tight binding method, we found that the continuous surface states forming at the middle bandgap has the lowest energy states at X-valley. This dispersion relation will allow phonons to rapidly scatter electrons to the lower X valley of the intermediate band in pico-second scale. Simulations show that this will prevent electrons to be directly recombined with the holes in the Γ valley. After modelling the transition rates of photon absorption and emission with the solar spectrum, it shows a significant improvement of the short circuit current compared to the bulk MoS2 structures without intermediate bands.

  2. Nature of an intermediate non-Fermi liquid state in Ge-substituted YbRh2Si2: Fermionized skyrmions, Lifshitz transition, skyrmion liquid, and Gruneisen ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Seok

    2012-10-01

    We propose a skyrmion liquid state for the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) phase in Ge-substituted YbRh2Si2, where skyrmions form their Fermi surface, argued to result from the strongly coupled nature between skyrmions and itinerant electrons. The fermionized skyrmion theory identifies the antiferromagnetic (AF) transition with the Lifshitz transition, where the quantum critical point (QCP) is characterized by the dynamical critical exponent z=2. Nonlocal interactions between skyrmions allow a critical line above the AF QCP, which originates from the Kondo-coupling effect with itinerant electrons. This critical line is described by the skyrmion liquid state, which results in Landau damping for spin fluctuations, thus characterized by z=3. As a result, the Gruneisen ratio is predicted to change from ˜T-1 at the AF QCP to ˜T-2/3 in the NFL phase.

  3. Pattern dependency in selective epitaxy of B-doped SiGe layers for advanced metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hâllstedt, J.; Kolahdouz, M.; Ghandi, R.; Radamson, H. H.; Wise, R.

    2008-03-01

    This study presents investigations about the physical mechanisms, origin, and methods to control the pattern dependency in selective epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex (x=0.14-0.32) layers. It is shown with a comprehensive experimental study that the local Si coverage of individual chips on patterned wafers is the main parameter for the layer profile in the epitaxial growth. This was explained by the gas depletion of the growth species in the low velocity boundary layer over the wafer. The gas depletion radius around each oxide opening was in the centimeter range which is related to the boundary layer thickness. The results from these experiments were applied to grow Si0.75Ge0.25 layers with B concentration of 4×1020cm-3 selectively for elevated source and drains in fully depleted ultrathin body silicon on insulator p metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (p-MOSFET) devices. The epitaxy control was maintained over a wide range of device sizes by optimized process parameters in combination with a wafer pattern design consisting of dummy features causing a uniform gas depletion over the chips on the wafer.

  4. Role of the superior colliculus in analyses of space: superficial and intermediate layer contributions to visual orienting, auditory orienting, and visuospatial discriminations during unilateral and bilateral deactivations.

    PubMed

    Lomber, S G; Payne, B R; Cornwell, P

    2001-12-03

    The superior colliculus (SC) has been implicated in spatial analyses of the environment, although few behavioral studies have explicitly tested this role. To test its imputed role in spatial analyses, we used a battery of four spatial tasks combined with unilateral and bilateral cooling deactivation of the upper and intermediate layers of the superior colliculus. We tested the abilities of cats to orient to three different stimuli: (1) moving visual, (2) stationary visual, (3) stationary white-noise aural. Furthermore, we tested the ability of the cats to discriminate the relative spatial position of a landmark. Unilateral cooling deactivation of the superficial layers of the SC induced a profound neglect of both moving and stationary visual stimuli presented in, and landmark objects located within, the contralateral hemifield. However, responses to auditory stimuli were unimpaired. Unilateral cooling deactivation of both the superficial and intermediate layers induced a profound contralateral neglect of the auditory stimulus. Additional and equivalent deactivation of the opposite SC largely restored orienting to either moving visual or auditory stimuli, and restored landmark position reporting to normal levels. However, during bilateral SC deactivation, orienting to the static visual stimulus was abolished throughout the entire visual field. Overall, unilateral SC deactivation results show that the upper and intermediate layers of the SC contribute in different ways to guiding behavioral responses to visual and auditory stimuli cues. Finally, bilateral superior colliculus deactivations reveal that other structures are sufficient to support spatial analyses and guide visual behaviors in the absence of neural operations in the superior colliculus, but only under certain circumstances.

  5. Integration of ferroelectric BaTiO3 with Ge: The role of a SrTiO3 buffer layer investigated using aberration-corrected STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, HsinWei; Lu, Sirong; Aoki, Toshihiro; Ponath, Patrick; Ekerdt, John G.; Demkov, Alexander A.; McCartney, Martha R.; Smith, David J.

    2017-06-01

    The integration of semiconductors with ferroelectrics having a controlled polarization direction is an ongoing and challenging topic of research. In this work, BaTiO3 (BTO)/SrTiO3 (STO) heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy either directly with STO substrates or by using 2-nm-thick STO buffer layers on Ge(001) substrates. Sharp, chemically abrupt interfaces and c-axis-oriented BTO films for both types of heterostructures were observed using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and elemental mapping. Anti-phase boundaries as well as ⟨100⟩ misfit dislocations were present in the BTO/STO samples, with the offsets of the dislocation cores varying by distances between 1 and 5 nm away from the BTO/STO interface. Conversely, misfit dislocations were not observed in the BTO/STO/Ge structure although vertical anti-phase boundaries were still common. Overall, the results emphasize the benefits of identifying a suitable buffer layer to ensure the growth of a high quality material having the desired out-of-plane ferroelectric polarization.

  6. Pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} on amorphous dielectric layers towards monolithic 3D photonic integration

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haofeng; Brouillet, Jeremy; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng

    2014-11-17

    We demonstrate pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} crystallized on amorphous layers at <450 °C towards 3D Si photonic integration. We developed two approaches to seed the lateral single crystal growth: (1) utilize the Gibbs-Thomson eutectic temperature depression at the tip of an amorphous GeSn nanotaper for selective nucleation; (2) laser-induced nucleation at one end of a GeSn strip. Either way, the crystallized Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} is dominated by a single grain >18 μm long that forms optoelectronically benign twin boundaries with others grains. These pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} patterns are suitable for monolithic 3D integration of active photonic devices on Si.

  7. Influence of high-temperature AlN intermediate layer on the optical properties of MOCVD grown AlGaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Deng; Qiu, Zhi Ren; Liu, Yao; Talwar, Devki N.; Wan, Lingyu; Zhang, Xiong; Mei, Ting; Ferguson, Ian T.; Feng, Zhe Chuan

    2017-02-01

    By combining spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and optical transmission (OT) characterization methods we have systematically investigated the influence of AlN intermediate layer and AlN transition layer on the optical properties of AlGaN epilayers grown on sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. Most dielectric functions of III-nitrides obtained by different research groups show significant band-tail absorption—which is not anticipated for such a direct band gap material. The dielectric functions are studied for a series of AlGaN/AlN/Al2O3 structures, with a four-layer model taking into account both high temperature grown AlN layer and low temperature grown AlN layer. The results obtained by fitting the optical parameters to experimental data show that the band-tail absorption should originate from the transition layer. AlGaN film without high temperature AlN epilayer exhibited a redshift of band gap around 0.24 eV.

  8. Intermediate-Temperature Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells with a Gadolinium-Doped Ceria Anodic Functional Layer Deposited via Radio-Frequency Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Tanveer, Waqas Hassan; Ji, Sanghoon; Yu, Wonjong; Cho, Gu Young; Lee, Yoon Ho; Cha, Suk Won

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the effects of the insertion of a gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) anodic functional layer (AFL) on the electrochemical performance of intermediate-temperature solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Fully stabilized yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was used as an oxygen-ion-conducting and support material. Nickel-Samaria-doped ceriathin film was used as an anode material, while screen-printed lanthanum strontium magnetite served as a cathode material. In order to enhance the interfacial reaction on the anode side, a GDC-AFL with a thickness of about 140 nm, deposited via radio-frequency sputtering, was inserted into the anode-electrolyte interface. SOFCs with and without a GDC-AFL were electrochemically characterized. In an intermediate temperature range of about 700 - 800 degrees C, the application of the GDC-AFL led to an increase in the peak power density of approximately 16%.

  9. Role of Ge and Si substrates in higher-k tetragonal phase formation and interfacial properties in cyclical atomic layer deposition-anneal Hf1-xZrxO2/Al2O3 thin film stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sonal; Tapily, Kandabara; Consiglio, Steven; Clark, Robert D.; Wajda, Cory S.; Leusink, Gert J.; Woll, Arthur R.; Diebold, Alain C.

    2016-09-01

    Using a five-step atomic layer deposition (ALD)-anneal (DADA) process, with 20 ALD cycles of metalorganic precursors followed by 40 s of rapid thermal annealing at 1073 K, we have developed highly crystalline Hf1-xZrxO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) thin films (<7 nm) on ˜1 nm ALD Al2O3 passivated Ge and Si substrates for applications in higher-k dielectric metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors below 10 nm technology node. By applying synchrotron grazing incidence x-ray d-spacing maps, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and angle-resolved XPS, we have identified a monoclinic to tetragonal phase transition with increasing ZrO2 content, elucidated the role of the Ge vs Si substrates in complete tetragonal phase formation (CTPF), and determined the interfacial characteristics of these technologically relevant films. The ZrO2 concentration required for CTPF is lower on Ge than on Si substrates (x ˜ 0.5 vs. x ˜ 0.86), which we attribute as arising from the growth of an ultra-thin layer of metal germanates between the Hf1-xZrxO2 and Al2O3/Ge, possibly during the first deposition and annealing cycle. Due to Ge-induced tetragonal phase stabilization, the interfacial metal germanates could act as a template for the subsequent preferential growth of the tetragonal Hf1-xZrxO2 phase following bottom-up crystallization during the DADA ALD process. We surmise that the interfacial metal germanate layer also function as a diffusion barrier limiting excessive Ge uptake into the dielectric film. An ALD Al2O3 passivation layer of thickness ≥1.5 nm is required to minimize Ge diffusion for developing highly conformal and textured HfO2 based higher-k dielectrics on Ge substrates using the DADA ALD process.

  10. Surface conductivity of Si(100) and Ge(100) surfaces determined from four-point transport measurements using an analytical N -layer conductance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, Sven; Soltner, Helmut; Korte, Stefan; Cherepanov, Vasily; Voigtländer, Bert

    2017-02-01

    An analytical N -layer model for charge transport close to a surface is derived from the solution of Poisson's equation and used to describe distance-dependent electrical four-point measurements on the microscale. As the N -layer model comprises a surface channel, multiple intermediate layers, and a semi-infinite bulk, it can be applied to semiconductors in combination with a calculation of the near-surface band bending to model very precisely the measured four-point resistance on the surface of a specific sample and to extract a value for the surface conductivity. For describing four-point measurements on sample geometries with mixed 2D-3D conduction channels, often a very simple parallel-circuit model has so far been used in the literature, but the application of this model is limited, as there are already significant deviations, when it is compared to the lowest possible case of the N -layer model, i.e., the three-layer model. Furthermore, the N -layer model is applied to published distance-dependent four-point resistance measurements obtained with a multitip scanning tunneling microscope (STM) on germanium(100) and silicon(100) with different bulk doping concentrations resulting in the determination of values for the surface conductivities of these materials.

  11. Identification of the Chemical Bonding Prompting Adhesion of a-C:H Thin Films on Ferrous Alloy Intermediated by a SiCx:H Buffer Layer.

    PubMed

    Cemin, F; Bim, L T; Leidens, L M; Morales, M; Baumvol, I J R; Alvarez, F; Figueroa, C A

    2015-07-29

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) and several related materials (DLCs) may have ultralow friction coefficients that can be used for saving-energy applications. However, poor chemical bonding of a-C/DLC films on metallic alloys is expected, due to the stability of carbon-carbon bonds. Silicon-based intermediate layers are employed to enhance the adherence of a-C:H films on ferrous alloys, although the role of such buffer layers is not yet fully understood in chemical terms. The chemical bonding of a-C:H thin films on ferrous alloy intermediated by a nanometric SiCx:H buffer layer was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The chemical profile was inspected by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), and the chemical structure was evaluated by Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The nature of adhesion is discussed by analyzing the chemical bonding at the interfaces of the a-C:H/SiCx:H/ferrous alloy sandwich structure. The adhesion phenomenon is ascribed to specifically chemical bonding character at the buffer layer. Whereas carbon-carbon (C-C) and carbon-silicon (C-Si) bonds are formed at the outermost interface, the innermost interface is constituted mainly by silicon-iron (Si-Fe) bonds. The oxygen presence degrades the adhesion up to totally delaminate the a-C:H thin films. The SiCx:H deposition temperature determines the type of chemical bonding and the amount of oxygen contained in the buffer layer.

  12. Flowable materials as an intermediate layer could improve the marginal and internal adaptation of composite restorations in Class-V-cavities.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingshan; Jepsen, Sören; Albers, Hans-Karl; Eberhard, Jörg

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal and internal adaptation of restorative systems in combination with flowable materials as an intermediate layer in Class-V-cavities. Thirty Class-V-cavities with occlusal margins in enamel and gingival margins in dentin/cementum were prepared and randomly assigned to five groups. The following five restorative systems were used: compomer, composite E, flowable compomer/composite E, composite RF and flowable composite/composite RF. The flowable materials were added between the restorative composites and the cervical margins of the cavities. Marginal and internal adaptation were quantitatively evaluated before and after thermal (2,500 times between 5 and 55 degrees C) and mechanical load cycling (25,000 times 100 N) using standard SEM procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-Test. The morphology of the internal restorative interfaces was also evaluated. The present study revealed that the best marginal adaptation in dentin was attained with the compomer restoration (95.8% perfect margin). The marginal adaptation of composite restorative systems was improved by the use of a flowable compomer (45.5% vs. 68.2% perfect margin in dentin) or a flowable composite (46.7% vs. 80.7% perfect margin in dentin, p<0.05) as an intermediate layer. No differences were observed between the used materials for the parameter internal adaptation. In Class-V-cavities compomers showed the best marginal adaptation and the marginal adaptation of composite fillings could be improved by the use of flowable materials as an intermediate layer.

  13. Thickness dependent effects of an intermediate molecular blocking layer on the optoelectronic characteristics of organic bilayer photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steindamm, A.; Brendel, M.; Topczak, A. K.; Pflaum, J.

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we address the microscopic effects related to the implementation of a bathophenanthroline (BPhen) exciton blocking layer (EBL) sandwiched between Ag cathode and molecular diindenoperylene (DIP)/C60 bilayer of a photovoltaic cell. Complementary studies of current density, external quantum efficiency, and photoluminescence quenching for EBL thicknesses up to 50 nm indicate that Ag atoms are able to penetrate through the whole 35 nm thick C60 film into the polycrystalline DIP layer underneath, thereby enhancing exciton quenching if no blocking layer is applied. In contrast, an optimal trade-off between exciton blocking, suppression of metal penetration, and electron transport is achieved for a 5 nm thick BPhen layer yielding an improvement of power conversion efficiency by more than a factor of 2.

  14. Yttrium passivation of defects in GeO2 and GeO2/Ge interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongfei; Robertson, John

    2017-01-01

    Alloying amorphous GeO2 with Y2O3 has been found experimentally to improve its chemical stability and electrical reliability as a gate dielectric in Ge-based field effect transistors. The mechanism is explained here based on density functional calculations. The GeO2 reliability problem is correlated with oxygen deficiency defects, which generate gap states near the band-edges of the underlying Ge. These can be passivated through Y doping. This shifts the defect gap state out of the gap up into the GeO2 conduction band, thus effectively passivating gap states in the GeO2 layer.

  15. Electronic structure and magnetism in the layered triangular lattice compound CeAuAl4Ge2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Aryal, N.; Huang, K.; Chen, K.-W.; Lai, Y.; Graf, D.; Besara, T.; Siegrist, T.; Manousakis, E.; Baumbach, R. E.

    2017-09-01

    Results are reported for the f -electron intermetallic CeAuAl4Ge2 , where the atomic arrangement of the cerium ions creates the conditions for possible geometric frustration. The magnetic susceptibility follows a Curie-Weiss temperature dependence at elevated temperatures, revealing that the cerium ions are trivalent. At lower temperatures the crystal electric field splits the Hund's rule multiplet, resulting in a weak low-temperature magnetic exchange interaction and ordering near TM≈1.4 K . This occurs within a metallic Kondo lattice, where electrical resistivity and heat capacity measurements show that the Kondo-driven electronic correlations are negligible. Quantum oscillations are detected in ac-magnetic susceptibility measurements and uncover small charge carrier effective masses. Electronic structure calculations reveal that inclusion of an on-f -site Coulomb repulsion (Hubbard) U results in antiferromagnetic order and causes the f -electron bands to move away from the Fermi level, resulting in electronic behavior that is dominated by the s ,p , and d bands, which are all characterized by light electron masses. Thus, CeAuAl4Ge2 may provide a starting point for investigating geometric magnetic frustration in a cerium lattice without strong Kondo hybridization, where calculations provide useful guidance.

  16. Theoretical study of the effects of InAs/GaAs quantum dot layer's position in i-region on current-voltage characteristic in intermediate band solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yong-Xian; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Ji, Hai-Ming; Xu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Tao

    2012-08-01

    We theoretically investigated the current-voltage characteristic of InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) intermediate band solar cells by changing the QD layer's position in i-region. The open circuit voltage, short current density, fill factor, and conversion efficiency all vary with the position of QD layer. If the light generation coefficients through intermediate band (IB) are small, the IB mainly plays the role of a recombination energy level. If the light generation coefficients are improved, in order to ensure the highest QD layer performance, QD layer should be placed in an appropriate range.

  17. Superconductivity and crystal and electronic structures in hydrogenated and disordered Nb3Ge and Nb3Sn layers with A15 structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, C.; Saemann-Ischenko, G.

    1985-08-01

    Superconducting and transport properties of Nb3Ge and Nb3Sn layers have been varied over a wide range by hydrogenation, ion irradiation, and annealing. After hydrogenation, both compounds remain in the A15 structure and no effects of hydride precipitations at low temperatures could be observed. At high ion-irradiation doses Nb3Ge becomes amorphous, but Nb3Sn remains in the A15 structure, although Tc behaves similarly. The long-range order parameter SA and the mean displacement amplitude 1/2 were determined for Nb3Sn with x-ray diffraction. Distinct differences between the irradiation- and annealing-induced correlations of Tc versus Sa, Tc versus , and Tc versus lattice parameter were observed. This indicates the influence of topological short-range order. The correlations of Tc versus residual resistivity and Tc versus the temperature derivative of the upper critical field at Tc are distinctly different for hydrogenated and irradiated Nb3Sn and Nb3Ge, but the derived correlations of Tc versus the coefficient of the electronic specific heat are very similar. The results are interpreted by a dominant influence of the Γ12 band on high Tc. The measurements of the Hall constant RH indicate a filling of steep electronic bands as a result of hydrogenation. Irradiation has a similar influence as thermal-induced disorder on RH. A maximum in the temperature dependence of RH indicates a martensitic transformation of Nb3Sn at 50-55 K, which is unchanged in slightly hydrogenated samples with higher Tc but vanishes in irradiated samples.

  18. Towards III-V solar cells on Si: Improvement in the crystalline quality of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates through low porosity porous silicon buffer layer and annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, Gabriele; Baricordi, Stefano; Bernardoni, Paolo; Fin, Samuele; Guidi, Vincenzo; Vincenzi, Donato

    2014-09-26

    A comparison between the crystalline quality of Ge grown on bulk Si and on a low porosity porous Si (pSi) buffer layer using low energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is reported. Omega/2Theta coupled scans around the Ge and Si (004) diffraction peaks show a reduction of the Ge full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of 22.4% in presence of the pSi buffer layer, indicating it is effective in improving the epilayer crystalline quality. At the same time atomic force microscopy analysis shows an increase in root means square roughness for Ge grown on pSi from 38.5 nm to 48.0 nm, as a consequence of the larger surface roughness of pSi compared to bulk Si. The effect of 20 minutes vacuum annealing at 580°C is also investigated. The annealing leads to a FWHM reduction of 23% for Ge grown on Si and of 36.5% for Ge on pSi, resulting in a FWHM of 101 arcsec in the latter case. At the same time, the RMS roughness is reduced of 8.8% and of 46.5% for Ge grown on bulk Si and on pSi, respectively. The biggest improvement in the crystalline quality of Ge grown on pSi with respect to Ge grown on bulk Si observed after annealing is a consequence of the simultaneous reorganization of the Ge epilayer and the buffer layer driven by energy minimization. A low porosity buffer layer can thus be used for the growth of low defect density Ge on Si virtual substrates for the successive integration of III-V multijunction solar cells on Si. The suggested approach is simple and fast –thus allowing for high throughput-, moreover is cost effective and fully compatible with subsequent wafer processing. Finally it does not introduce new chemicals in the solar cell fabrication process and can be scaled to large area silicon wafers.

  19. Variability of GeV gamma-ray emission in QSO B0218+357 due to microlensing on intermediate size structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitarek, J.; Bednarek, W.

    2016-06-01

    Strong gravitational lensing leads to an occurrence of multiple images, with different magnifications, of a lensed source. Those magnifications can in turn be modified by microlensing on smaller mass scales within the lens. Recently, measurements of the changes in the magnification ratio of the individual images have been proposed as a powerful tool for estimation of the size and velocity of the emission region in the lensed source. The changes of the magnification ratios in blazars PKS1830-211 and QSO B0218+357, if interpreted as caused by a microlensing on individual stars, put strong constraints on those two variables. These constraints are difficult to accommodate with the current models of gamma-ray emission in blazars. In this paper we study if similar changes in the magnification ratio can be caused by microlensing on intermediate size structures in the lensing galaxy. We investigate in details three classes of possible lenses: globular clusters (GCs), open clusters (OCs) and giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We apply this scenario to the case of QSO B0218+357. Our numerical simulations show that changes in magnifications with similar time-scales can be obtained for relativistically moving emission regions with sizes up to 0.01 pc in the case of microlensing on the cores of GCs or clumps in GMCs. From the density of such structures in spiral galaxies we estimate however that lensing in GMCs would be more common.

  20. High efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film solar cells without intermediate buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, K.; Wiesner, H.; Asher, S.; Niles, D.; Bhattacharya, R.N.; Keane, J.; Contreras, M.A.; Noufi, R.

    1998-09-01

    The nature of the interface between CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) and the chemical bath deposited CdS layer has been investigated. The authors show that heat-treating the absorbers in Cd- or Zn-containing solutions in the presence of ammonium hydroxide sets up an interfacial reaction with the possibility of an ion exchange occurring between Cd and Cu. The characteristics of devices made in this manner suggest that the reaction generates a thin, n-doped region in the absorber. The authors suggest that this aspect might be more important than the CdS layer in the formation of the junction. It is quite possible that the CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} device is a buried, shallow junction with a CdS window layer, rather than a heterojunction between CdS and CIGS. The authors use these ideas to develop methods for fabricating diodes without CdS or Cd.

  1. Enhanced thermal stability of Ti/TiO2/n-Ge contacts through plasma nitridation of TiO2 interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Dipankar; Biswas, Jayeeta; Ghosh, Sayantan; Wood, Bingxi; Lodha, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates a solution to the problem of increase in Schottky barrier height ( ϕ B ) with thermal annealing (thermal instability) in unpinned (low ϕ B ) Ti/Ti O 2 /n-Ge metal-interfacial layer (IL)-semiconductor (MIS) contacts through plasma nitridation of the Ti O 2 layer. Unlike TiO2, unpinned ( ϕ B = 0.09 eV) Ti O x N y contacts are thermally stable for anneals up to 30 min at 400 °C. The thermal stability improves with increasing nitrogen concentration ([N], 2.5-9.5%) and is independent of thickness (2-5 nm) for [N] = 9.5%. Additionally, the plasma nitridation process is shown to increase the oxygen vacancy concentration (n-type doping) and reduce the ϕ B dependence on Ti O x N y thickness in unannealed Ti O x N y contacts. Enhanced thermal stability is attributed to the incorporated nitrogen acting as a diffusion barrier that prevents contact pinning through reduction of the TiO2 layer by contact metal during the anneal, as well as preserves the amorphous nature of the IL along with its fixed charge and interfacial dipoles that contribute to ϕ B reduction.

  2. In situ synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence and scattering measurements during atomic layer deposition: Initial growth of HfO2 on Si and Ge substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devloo-Casier, K.; Dendooven, J.; Ludwig, K. F.; Lekens, G.; D'Haen, J.; Detavernier, C.

    2011-06-01

    The initial growth of HfO2 was studied by means of synchrotron based in situ x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS). HfO2 was deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and H2O on both oxidized and H-terminated Si and Ge surfaces. XRF quantifies the amount of deposited material during each ALD cycle and shows an inhibition period on H-terminated substrates. No inhibition period is observed on oxidized substrates. The evolution of film roughness was monitored using GISAXS. A correlation is found between the inhibition period and the onset of surface roughness.

  3. Exchange of interlayer terephthalate anions from a Mg Al layered double hydroxide: formation of intermediate interstratified phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneyoshi, Masami; Jones, William

    1998-10-01

    The exchange of interlayer terephthalate (TA) anions from a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) by carbonate, sulfate, chloride and nitrate anions is reported. It is shown that TA is readily exchanged by CO 32- and SO 42- but only partly by Cl - and NO 3-. We demonstrate that during the exchange process interstratified phases are observed. Such interstratification has previously been reported only for directly synthesised materials. The origin of the interstratification is believed to be associated with two preferred orientations of TA anions within the layers, i.e. vertical or horizontal to the clay sheets. Two models for the possible exchange mechanism which is operating in these systems are proposed.

  4. Fabrication of quantum dots in undoped Si/Si0.8Ge0.2 heterostructures using a single metal-gate layer

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, T. M.; Gamble, J. K.; Muller, R. P.; Nielsen, E.; Bethke, D.; Ten Eyck, G. A.; Pluym, T.; Wendt, J. R.; Dominguez, J.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.; Wanke, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    Enhancement-mode Si/SiGe electron quantum dots have been pursued extensively by many groups for their potential in quantum computing. Most of the reported dot designs utilize multiple metal-gate layers and use Si/SiGe heterostructures with Ge concentration close to 30%. Here, we report the fabrication and low-temperature characterization of quantum dots in the Si/Si0.8Ge0.2 heterostructures using only one metal-gate layer. We find that the threshold voltage of a channel narrower than 1 μm increases as the width decreases. The higher threshold can be attributed to the combination of quantum confinement and disorder. We also find that the lower Ge ratio used here leads to a narrower operational gate bias range. The higher threshold combined with the limited gate bias range constrains the device design of lithographic quantum dots. We incorporate such considerations in our device design and demonstrate a quantum dot that can be tuned from a single dot to a double dot. Furthermore, the device uses only a single metal-gate layer, greatly simplifying device design and fabrication.

  5. Characterization of epitaxial GaAs MOS capacitors using atomic layer-deposited TiO2/Al2O3 gate stack: study of Ge auto-doping and p-type Zn doping

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Electrical and physical properties of a metal-oxide-semiconductor [MOS] structure using atomic layer-deposited high-k dielectrics (TiO2/Al2O3) and epitaxial GaAs [epi-GaAs] grown on Ge(100) substrates have been investigated. The epi-GaAs, either undoped or Zn-doped, was grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method at 620°C to 650°C. The diffusion of Ge atoms into epi-GaAs resulted in auto-doping, and therefore, an n-MOS behavior was observed for undoped and Zn-doped epi-GaAs with the doping concentration up to approximately 1017 cm-3. This is attributed to the diffusion of a significant amount of Ge atoms from the Ge substrate as confirmed by the simulation using SILVACO software and also from the secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses. The Zn-doped epi-GaAs with a doping concentration of approximately 1018 cm-3 converts the epi-GaAs layer into p-type since the Zn doping is relatively higher than the out-diffused Ge concentration. The capacitance-voltage characteristics show similar frequency dispersion and leakage current for n-type and p-type epi-GaAs layers with very low hysteresis voltage (approximately 10 mV). PACS: 81.15.Gh. PMID:22297193

  6. Fabrication of quantum dots in undoped Si/Si0.8Ge0.2 heterostructures using a single metal-gate layer

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, T. M.; Gamble, J. K.; Muller, R. P.; Nielsen, E.; Bethke, D.; Ten Eyck, G. A.; Pluym, T.; Wendt, J. R.; Dominguez, J.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.; Wanke, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    Enhancement-mode Si/SiGe electron quantum dots have been pursued extensively by many groups for their potential in quantum computing. Most of the reported dot designs utilize multiple metal-gate layers and use Si/SiGe heterostructures with Ge concentration close to 30%. Here, we report the fabrication and low-temperature characterization of quantum dots in the Si/Si0.8Ge0.2 heterostructures using only one metal-gate layer. We find that the threshold voltage of a channel narrower than 1 μm increases as the width decreases. The higher threshold can be attributed to the combination of quantum confinement and disorder. We also find that the lower Ge ratio used here leads to a narrower operational gate bias range. The higher threshold combined with the limited gate bias range constrains the device design of lithographic quantum dots. We incorporate such considerations in our device design and demonstrate a quantum dot that can be tuned from a single dot to a double dot. Furthermore, the device uses only a single metal-gate layer, greatly simplifying device design and fabrication.

  7. Characterization of epitaxial GaAs MOS capacitors using atomic layer-deposited TiO2/Al2O3 gate stack: study of Ge auto-doping and p-type Zn doping.

    PubMed

    Dalapati, Goutam Kumar; Shun Wong, Terence Kin; Li, Yang; Chia, Ching Kean; Das, Anindita; Mahata, Chandreswar; Gao, Han; Chattopadhyay, Sanatan; Kumar, Manippady Krishna; Seng, Hwee Leng; Maiti, Chinmay Kumar; Chi, Dong Zhi

    2012-02-02

    Electrical and physical properties of a metal-oxide-semiconductor [MOS] structure using atomic layer-deposited high-k dielectrics (TiO2/Al2O3) and epitaxial GaAs [epi-GaAs] grown on Ge(100) substrates have been investigated. The epi-GaAs, either undoped or Zn-doped, was grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method at 620°C to 650°C. The diffusion of Ge atoms into epi-GaAs resulted in auto-doping, and therefore, an n-MOS behavior was observed for undoped and Zn-doped epi-GaAs with the doping concentration up to approximately 1017 cm-3. This is attributed to the diffusion of a significant amount of Ge atoms from the Ge substrate as confirmed by the simulation using SILVACO software and also from the secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses. The Zn-doped epi-GaAs with a doping concentration of approximately 1018 cm-3 converts the epi-GaAs layer into p-type since the Zn doping is relatively higher than the out-diffused Ge concentration. The capacitance-voltage characteristics show similar frequency dispersion and leakage current for n-type and p-type epi-GaAs layers with very low hysteresis voltage (approximately 10 mV).PACS: 81.15.Gh.

  8. Pulse-height defect due to electron interaction in dead layers of Ge/Li/ gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, R. N.; Strauss, M. G.

    1969-01-01

    Study shows the pulse-height degradation of gamma ray spectra in germanium/lithium detectors to be due to electron interaction in the dead layers that exist in all semiconductor detectors. A pulse shape discrimination technique identifies and eliminates these defective pulses.

  9. Cobalt based layered perovskites as cathode material for intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelosato, Renato; Cordaro, Giulio; Stucchi, Davide; Cristiani, Cinzia; Dotelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, the cathode is the most studied component in Intermediate Temperature-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT-SOFCs). Decreasing SOFCs operating temperature implies slow oxygen reduction kinetics and large polarization losses. Double perovskites with general formula REBaCo2O5+δ are promising mixed ionic-electronic conductors, offering a remarkable enhancement of the oxygen diffusivity and surface exchange respect to disordered perovskites. In this review, more than 250 compositions investigated in the literature were analyzed. The evaluation was performed in terms of electrical conductivity, Area Specific Resistance (ASR), chemical compatibility with electrolytes and Thermal Expansion Coefficient (TEC). The most promising materials have been identified as those bearing the mid-sized rare earths (Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd). Doping strategies have been analyzed: Sr doping on A site promotes higher electrical conductivity, but worsen ASR and TECs; B-site doping (Fe, Ni, Mn) helps lowering TECs, but is detrimental for the electrochemical properties. A promising boost of the electrochemical activity is obtained by simply introducing a slight Ba under-stoichiometry. Still, the high sensitivity of the electrochemical properties against slight changes in the stoichiometry hamper a conclusive comparison of all the investigated compounds. Opportunities for an improvement of double perovskite cathodes performance is tentatively foreseen in combining together the diverse effective doping strategies.

  10. Enhancing the Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell efficiency by back contact modification: Inserting a thin TiB2 intermediate layer at Cu2ZnSnS4/Mo interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangyang; Sun, Kaiwen; Li, Wei; Yan, Chang; Cui, Hongtao; Jiang, Liangxing; Hao, Xiaojing; Green, Martin A.

    2014-02-01

    In this work, TiB2 thin films have been employed as intermediate layer between absorber and back contact in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells for interface optimization. It is found that the TiB2 intermediate layer can significantly inhibit the formation of MoS2 layer at absorber/back contact interface region, greatly reduces the series resistance and thereby increases the device efficiency by short current density (Jsc) and fill factor boost. However, introducing TiB2 degrades the crystal quality of absorber, which is detrimental to device performance especially Voc. The careful control of the thickness of TiB2 intermediate layer is required to ensure both MoS2 with minimal thickness and CZTS absorber with large grain microstructure according to the absorber growth process.

  11. Vertical distribution and diel migration of macrozooplankton in the St. Lawrence marine system (Canada) in relation with the cold intermediate layer thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Michel; Galbraith, Peter S.; Descroix, Aurélie

    2009-01-01

    Vertical distribution of various species and stages of macrozooplankton (euphausiacea, chaetognatha, cnidaria, mysidacea, amphipoda) were determined for different times of the day and related to the physical environment. Stratified sampling with the BIONESS was carried out during seven cruises in spring and fall 1998, 2000, and 2001, and fall 1999, in two different habitats in the St. Lawrence marine system: the lower St. Lawrence Estuary and the NW Gulf of St. Lawrence. Our results indicate that the various macrozooplankton species were distributed throughout the whole water column including the surface layer, the cold intermediate layer (CIL), and the deep layer at different times of day and night in both areas during all periods. Moreover, three types of migrational patterns were observed within this zooplanktonic community: (1) nocturnal ascent by the whole population, (2) segregation into two groups; one which performed nocturnal accent and another which remained in the deep, and (3) no detectable migration. We also observed that the diel vertical migration (DVM) amplitude in most of the macrozooplankton species varied as a function of physical factors, in particular the spatio-temporal variations of the CIL thermal properties, including the upper and the lower limits of the CIL and the depth of the CIL core temperature. Finally, the different DVM patterns coupled with estuarine circulation patterns and bottom topography could place animals in different flow regimes by night and by day and contribute to their retention (aggregation) and/or dispersion in different areas, time of the day, and seasons.

  12. Performance enhancement of a plasmonic structure comprising of indium oxide-zirconium dioxide-silver-zinc oxide intermediate layers working in visible and infrared wavelength region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmachari, Kaushik; Ray, Mina

    2016-07-01

    Modeling of a fused silica (SiO2) glass prism-based plasmonic structure comprising of indium oxide (In2O3)-zirconium dioxide (ZrO2)-silver (Ag)-zinc oxide (ZnO) intermediate layers showing enhancement in sensitivity and figure-of-merit (FOM) in visible and infrared regime has been reported in this paper. Performance of the proposed plasmonic structure has been demonstrated in terms of sensitivity, half width (HW), detection accuracy (DA), and FOM parameters in visible (632.8 nm) and infrared (1200 nm) wavelength of light. High sensitivity of fused silica glass material, In2O3, ZnO films along with high DA and high FOM of Ag and inclusion of ZrO2 as an oxidation protective layer in between In2O3 and Ag have been the most exciting and advantageous features of our proposed structure. Simulated sensitivity values of our proposed structure were found to be 73.8 deg/RIU at 632.8 nm wavelength and it was found enhanced to 109.6 deg/RIU at 1200 nm wavelength and simulated FOM values were also found enhanced from 23.3544 RIU-1 at 632.8 nm to 62.6285 RIU-1 at 1200 nm wavelength for change in sensing layer refractive indices from 1.30 RIU to 1.35 RIU.

  13. Effect of 3C-SiC intermediate layer in GaN—based light emitting diodes grown on Si(111) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Youhua; Wang, Meiyu; Li, Yi; Tan, Shuxin; Deng, Honghai; Guo, Xinglong; Yin, Haihong; Egawa, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on Si(111) substrate with and without 3C-SiC intermediate layer (IL). Structural property has been characterized by means of atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope measurements. It has been revealed that a significant improvement in crystalline quality of GaN and superlattice epitaxial layers can be achieved by using 3C-SiC as IL. Regarding of electrical and optical characteristics, it is clearly observed that the LEDs with its IL have a smaller leakage current and higher light output power comparing with the LEDs without IL. The better performance of LEDs using 3C-SiC IL can be contributed to both of the improvements in epitaxial layers quality and light extraction efficiency. As a consequence, in terms of optical property, a double enhancement of the light output power and external quantum efficiency has been realized.

  14. Reduced GeO2 Nanoparticles: Electronic Structure of a Nominal GeOx Complex and Its Stability under H2 Annealing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Yang, Linju; McLeod, John A; Liu, Lijia

    2015-12-04

    A nominal GeOx (x ≤ 2) compound contains mixtures of Ge, Ge suboxides, and GeO2, but the detailed composition and crystallinity could vary from material to material. In this study, we synthesize GeOx nanoparticles by chemical reduction of GeO2, and comparatively investigate the freshly prepared sample and the sample exposed to ambient conditions. Although both compounds are nominally GeOx, they exhibit different X-ray diffraction patterns. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) is utilized to analyse the detailed structure of GeOx. We find that the two initial GeOx compounds have entirely different compositions: the fresh GeOx contains large amorphous Ge clusters connected by GeOx, while after air exposure; the Ge clusters are replaced by a GeO2-GeOx composite. In addition, the two GeOx products undergo different structural rearrangement under H2 annealing, producing different intermediate phases before ultimately turning into metallic Ge. In the fresh GeOx, the amorphous Ge remains stable, with the GeOx being gradually reduced to Ge, leading to a final structure of crystalline Ge grains connected by GeOx. The air-exposed GeOx on the other hand, undergoes a GeO2→GeOx→Ge transition, in which H2 induces the creation of oxygen vacancies at intermediate stage. A complete removal of oxides occurs at high temperature.

  15. Reduced GeO2 Nanoparticles: Electronic Structure of a Nominal GeOx Complex and Its Stability under H2 Annealing

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jia; Yang, Linju; McLeod, John A.; Liu, Lijia

    2015-01-01

    A nominal GeOx (x ≤ 2) compound contains mixtures of Ge, Ge suboxides, and GeO2, but the detailed composition and crystallinity could vary from material to material. In this study, we synthesize GeOx nanoparticles by chemical reduction of GeO2, and comparatively investigate the freshly prepared sample and the sample exposed to ambient conditions. Although both compounds are nominally GeOx, they exhibit different X-ray diffraction patterns. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) is utilized to analyse the detailed structure of GeOx. We find that the two initial GeOx compounds have entirely different compositions: the fresh GeOx contains large amorphous Ge clusters connected by GeOx, while after air exposure; the Ge clusters are replaced by a GeO2-GeOx composite. In addition, the two GeOx products undergo different structural rearrangement under H2 annealing, producing different intermediate phases before ultimately turning into metallic Ge. In the fresh GeOx, the amorphous Ge remains stable, with the GeOx being gradually reduced to Ge, leading to a final structure of crystalline Ge grains connected by GeOx. The air-exposed GeOx on the other hand, undergoes a GeO2→GeOx→Ge transition, in which H2 induces the creation of oxygen vacancies at intermediate stage. A complete removal of oxides occurs at high temperature. PMID:26634908

  16. Reduced GeO2 Nanoparticles: Electronic Structure of a Nominal GeOx Complex and Its Stability under H2 Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jia; Yang, Linju; McLeod, John A.; Liu, Lijia

    2015-12-01

    A nominal GeOx (x ≤ 2) compound contains mixtures of Ge, Ge suboxides, and GeO2, but the detailed composition and crystallinity could vary from material to material. In this study, we synthesize GeOx nanoparticles by chemical reduction of GeO2, and comparatively investigate the freshly prepared sample and the sample exposed to ambient conditions. Although both compounds are nominally GeOx, they exhibit different X-ray diffraction patterns. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) is utilized to analyse the detailed structure of GeOx. We find that the two initial GeOx compounds have entirely different compositions: the fresh GeOx contains large amorphous Ge clusters connected by GeOx, while after air exposure; the Ge clusters are replaced by a GeO2-GeOx composite. In addition, the two GeOx products undergo different structural rearrangement under H2 annealing, producing different intermediate phases before ultimately turning into metallic Ge. In the fresh GeOx, the amorphous Ge remains stable, with the GeOx being gradually reduced to Ge, leading to a final structure of crystalline Ge grains connected by GeOx. The air-exposed GeOx on the other hand, undergoes a GeO2→GeOx→Ge transition, in which H2 induces the creation of oxygen vacancies at intermediate stage. A complete removal of oxides occurs at high temperature.

  17. Effects of small specimen tilt and probe convergence angle on ADF-STEM image contrast of Si(0.8)Ge(0.2) epitaxial strained layers on (100) Si.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Robertson, M D; Kawasaki, M; Baribeau, J M

    2012-03-01

    The effects of specimen tilt and probe convergence angle on annular dark field (ADF) image contrast of Si(0.8)Ge(0.2) heteroepitaxial strained layers on (100) Si were investigated in a 200 kV scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) for a TEM specimen thickness of 195 nm. With 0.5 degrees of specimen tilt away from the exact <011> zone-axis orientation, the signal-to-noise level of atomic columns was significantly reduced for both Si(0.8)Ge(0.2) and Si in high resolution ADF-STEM lattice images. When the specimen was tilted 0.5 degrees around the <011> axis, or the STEM probe convergence semiangle was reduced from 14.3 to 3.6 mrad, the ADF-STEM image intensity profiles across the Si(0.8)Ge(0.2) and Si layers changed significantly as compared to those obtained at the exact <011> zone axis orientation, and no longer reflected the composition changes occurring across the layer structure. Multislice image simulation results revealed that the misfit strain between the Si(0.8)Ge(0.2) and Si layers, and strain relaxation near the surface of the TEM specimen, were responsible for the observed changes in image intensity. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ge2Sb2Te5 layer used as solid electrolyte in conductive-bridge memory devices fabricated on flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleruyelle, D.; Putero, M.; Ouled-Khachroum, T.; Bocquet, M.; Coulet, M.-V.; Boddaert, X.; Calmes, C.; Muller, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that the well-know chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) in its amorphous state may be advantageously used as solid electrolyte material to fabricate Conductive-Bridge Random Access Memory (CBRAM) devices. GST layer was sputtered on preliminary inkjet-printed silver lines acting as active electrode on either silicon or plastic substrates. Whatever the substrate, the resistance switching is unambiguously attested at a nanoscale by means of conductive-atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) using a Pt-Ir coated tip on the GST surface acting as a passive electrode. The resistance change is correlated to the appearance or disappearance of concomitant hillocks and current spots at the surface of the GST layer. This feature is attributed to the formation/dissolution of a silver-rich protrusion beneath the AFM tip during set/reset operation. Beside, this paper constitutes a step toward the elaboration of crossbar memory arrays on flexible substrates since CBRAM operations were demonstrated on W/GST/Ag crossbar memory cells obtained from an heterogeneous fabrication process combining physical deposition and inkjet-printing.

  19. New insight into magneto-structural phase transitions in layered TbMn2Ge2-based compounds

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chunsheng; Li, Guoxing; Wang, Jianli; Hutchison, W. D.; Ren, Q. Y.; Deng, Zhenyan; Ma, Guohong; Dou, Shixue; Campbell, S. J.; Cheng, Zhenxiang

    2017-01-01

    The Tb1−xYxMn2Ge2 series (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2) compounds are found to exhibit two magnetic phase transitions with decreasing temperature: from the paramagnetic state to the antiferromagnetic interlayer state at TNinter and from an antiferromagnetic interlayer structure to a collinear ferrimagnetic interlayer structure at TCinter. Compared with the slight change of TNinter (409 K, 410 K and 417 K for x = 0, 0.1 and 0.2 respectively), the replacement of Y for Tb leads to a significant decrease in TCinter from 97.5 K for x = 0 to 74.6 K for x = 0.2. The variation in TCinter can be ascribed to the combination of two effects: (1) chemical pressure and (2) magnetic dilution effect by Y substitution for Tb. Besides, a strong anisotropic magnet-volume effect has been detected around TCinter in all compounds with Δa/a = 0.125%, 0.124% and 0.130% for x = 0, 0.1 and 0.2, respectively while no obvious effect is detected along the c-axis. The maximum magnetic entropy change were found to be −ΔSmax = 9.1 J kg−1 K−1, 11.9 J kg−1 K−1 and 6.3 J kg−1 K−1 with a field change from 0 T to 5 T for x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 respectively. PMID:28374763

  20. Intermediate and high resolution numerical simulations of the transition of a tropical wave critical layer to a tropical storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.; Dunkerton, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Recent work has hypothesized that tropical cyclones in the deep Atlantic and eastern Pacific basins develop from the cyclonic Kelvin cat's eye of a tropical easterly wave critical layer located equatorward of the easterly jet axis that typifies the trade wind belt. The cyclonic critical layer is thought to be important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i) a region of cyclonic vorticity and weak deformation by the resolved flow, (ii) containment of moisture entrained by the developing flow and/or lofted by deep convection therein, (iii) confinement of mesoscale vortex aggregation, (iv) a predominantly convective type of heating profile, and (v) maintenance or enhancement of the parent wave until the developing proto-vortex becomes a self-sustaining entity and emerges from the wave as a tropical depression. This genesis sequence and the overarching framework for describing how such hybrid wave-vortex structures become tropical depressions/storms is likened to the development of a marsupial infant in its mother's pouch, and for this reason has been dubbed the "marsupial paradigm". Here we conduct the first multi-scale test of the marsupial paradigm in an idealized setting by revisiting the problem of the transformation of an easterly wave-like disturbance into a tropical storm vortex using the WRF model. An analysis of the evolving winds, equivalent potential temperature, and relative vertical vorticity is presented from coarse (28 km) and high resolution (3.1 km) simulations. The results are found to support key elements of the marsupial paradigm by demonstrating the existence of a vorticity dominant region with minimal strain/shear deformation within the critical layer pouch that contains strong cyclonic vorticity and high saturation fraction. This localized region within the pouch serves as the "attractor" for an upscale "bottom up" development process while the wave pouch and proto-vortex move together. Implications of these findings are

  1. Nanostructured LnBaCo2O6-𝜹 (Ln = Sm, Gd) with layered structure for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía Gómez, Augusto E.; Lamas, Diego G.; Leyva, Ana Gabriela; Sacanell, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we present the combination of two characteristics that are beneficial for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodic performance in one material. We developed and evaluated for the first time nanostructured layered perovskites of formulae LnBaCo2O6-d with Ln = Sm and Gd (SBCO and GBCO, respectively) as SOFC cathodes, finding promising electrochemical properties in the intermediate temperature range. We obtained those nanostructures by using porous templates to confine the chemical reagents in regions of 200-800 nm. The performance of nanostructured SBCO and GBCO cathodes was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique under different operating conditions using Gd2O3-doped CeO2 as electrolyte. We found that SBCO cathodes displayed lower area-specific resistance than GBCO ones, because bulk diffusion of oxide ions is enhanced in the former. We also found that cathodes synthesized using smaller template pores exhibited better performance.

  2. P/N InP solar cells on Ge wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtczuk, Steven; Vernon, Stanley; Burke, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) P-on-N one-sun solar cells were epitaxially grown using a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process on germanium (Ge) wafers. The motivation for this work is to replace expensive InP wafers, which are fragile and must be thick and therefore heavy, with less expensive Ge wafers, which are stronger, allowing use of thinner, lighter weight wafers. An intermediate InxGs1-xP grading layer starting as In(0.49)Ga(0.51) at the GaAs-coated Ge wafer surface and ending as InP at the top of the grading layer (backside of the InP cell) was used to attempt to bend some of the threading dislocations generated by lattice-mismatch between the Ge wafer and InP cell so they would be harmlessly confined in this grading layer. The best InP/Ge cell was independently measured by NASA-Lewis with a one-sun 25 C AMO efficiently measured by NASA-Lewis with a one-circuit photocurrent 22.6 mA/sq cm. We believe this is the first published report of an InP cell grown on a Ge wafer. Why get excited over a 9 percent InP/Ge cell? If we look at the cell weight and efficiency, a 9 percent InP cell on an 8 mil Ge wafer has about the same cell power density, 118 W/kg (BOL), as the best InP cell ever made, a 19 percent InP cell on an 18 mil InP wafer, because of the lighter Ge wafer weight. As cell panel materials become lighter, the cell weight becomes more important, and the advantage of lightweight cells to the panel power density becomes more important. In addition, although InP/Ge cells have a low beginning-of-life (BOL) efficiency due to dislocation defects, the InP/Ge cells are very radiation hard (end-of-life power similar to beginning-of-life). We have irradiated an InP/Ge cell with alpha particles to an equivalent fluence of 1.6 x 10(exp 16) 1 MeV electrons/sq cm and the efficiency is still 83 percent of its BOL value. At this fluence level, the power output of these InP/Ge cells matches the GaAs/Ge cell data tabulated in the JPL handbook. Data are presented

  3. A new family of two-dimensional zeolites prepared from the intermediate layered precursor IPC-3P obtained during the synthesis of TUN zeolite.

    PubMed

    Kubů, Martin; Roth, Wieslaw J; Greer, Heather F; Zhou, Wuzong; Morris, Russell E; Přech, Jan; Čejka, Jiří

    2013-10-04

    The crystallization of zeolite TUN with 1,4-bis(N-methylpyrrolidinium)butane as template proceeds through an intermediate, designated IPC-3P, following the Ostwald rule of successive transformations. This apparently layered transient product has been thoroughly investigated and found to consist of MWW monolayers stacked without alignment in register, that is, disordered compared with MCM-22P. The structure was confirmed based on X-ray diffraction and high-resolution (HR)TEM analysis. The layered zeolite precursor IPC-3P can be swollen and pillared affording a combined micro- and mesoporous material with enhanced Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area (685 m(2) g(-1) ) and greater accessibility of Brønsted acid sites for bulky molecules. This mesoporous material was probed with 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine (DTBP). IPC-3P and its modification create a new layered zeolite sub-family belonging to the MWW family. FTIR data indicate that (Al)MWW materials MCM-22 and IPC-3 with Si/Al ratios greater than 20 exhibit a lower relative ratio of Brønsted to Lewis acid sites than MCM-22 (with Si/Al ratios of around 13), that is, less than 2 versus more than 3, respectively. This is maintained even upon pillaring and warrants further exploration of materials like IPC-3P with a higher Al content. The unique XRD features of IPC-3P indicating misaligned stacking of layers and distinct from MCM-22P, are also seen in other MWW materials such as EMM-10P, hexamethonium-templated (HM)-MCM-22, ITQ-30, and UZM-8 suggesting the need for more detailed study of their identity and properties.

  4. La{sub 4}(Si{sub 5.2}Ge{sub 2.8}O{sub 18})(TeO{sub 3}){sub 4} and La{sub 2}(Si{sub 6}O{sub 13})(TeO{sub 3}){sub 2}: Intergrowth of the lanthanum(III) tellurite layer with the XO{sub 4} (X=Si/Ge) tetrahedral layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Fang; Jiang Hailong; Mao Jianggao

    2008-02-15

    Two novel lanthanum(III) silicate tellurites, namely, La{sub 4}(Si{sub 5.2}Ge{sub 2.8}O{sub 18})(TeO{sub 3}){sub 4} and La{sub 2}(Si{sub 6}O{sub 13})(TeO{sub 3}){sub 2}, have been synthesized by the solid state reactions and their structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of La{sub 4}(Si{sub 5.2}Ge{sub 2.8}O{sub 18})(TeO{sub 3}){sub 4} features a three-dimensional (3D) network composed of the [(Ge{sub 2.82}Si{sub 5.18})O{sub 18}]{sup 4-} tetrahedral layers and the [La{sub 4}(TeO{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup 4+} layers that alternate along the b-axis. The germanate-silicate layer consists of corner-sharing XO{sub 4} (X=Si/Ge) tetrahedra, forming four- and six-member rings. The structure of La{sub 2}(Si{sub 6}O{sub 13})(TeO{sub 3}){sub 2} is a 3D network composed of the [Si{sub 6}O{sub 13}]{sup 2-} double layers and the [La{sub 2}(TeO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 2+} layers that alternate along the a-axis. The [Si{sub 6}O{sub 13}]{sup 2-} double layer is built by corner-sharing silicate tetrahedra, forming four-, five- and eight-member rings. The TeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anions in both compounds are only involved in the coordination with La{sup 3+} ions to form a lanthanum(III) tellurite layer. La{sub 4}(Si{sub 5.2}Ge{sub 2.8}O{sub 18})(TeO{sub 3}){sub 4} is a wide band-gap semiconductor. - Graphical abstract: The first lanthanum(III) silicate/germanate tellurites, namely, La{sub 4}[(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 8-x})O{sub 18}](TeO{sub 3}){sub 4} (x=5.18) and La{sub 2}(Si{sub 6}O{sub 13})(TeO{sub 3}){sub 2}, have been synthesized and structurally determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds feature complicated 3D network structures composed of the silicate/germanate tetrahedral layers alternating with the [LaTeO{sub 3}] layers.

  5. Morphological effects of single-layer graphene oxide in the formation of covalently bonded polypyrrole composites using intermediate diisocyanate chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, Raymond L. D.; Korobeinyk, Alina; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.; Fukuda, Takahiro; Maekawa, Toru

    2011-10-01

    Single-layer graphene oxide (SLGO) possesses carboxylic and hydroxyl groups suitable for reactions with aliphatic or aromatic diisocyanate molecules. TEM analysis reveals that aliphatic diisocyanate molecules caused SLGO to scroll into star-like formations, whereas aromatic diisocyanate molecules retained SGLO in a flat-sheet morphology. TGA confirms the stabilisation of the formed urea and urethane groups on SLGO, but the onset of sheet pyrolysis occurs at a lower temperature due to isocyanate reactions with anhydride and epoxide groups embedded in the sheet. Pendant isocyanate groups act as bridging units to facilitate the attachment of pyrrole molecules, which are then used as anchor sites for the covalent polymerisation of pyrrole to polypyrrole (PPy). The use of FeCl3 as the polymerisation catalyst generated both covalent and free PPy, but also iron hydroxide nanoparticles were observed decorating the SLGO surface. When using ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and dodecylbenzenesulfonate as a dopant, free PPy could be removed under treatment with solvents to leave a purely covalent system. Discrete regions of SLGO were observed decorated with nanoparticles of PPy along the edge or across the surface of individual sheets. It was found that the flexibility of the SLGO sheet and the type of diisocyanate used directly affected the electrical resistance of the final composite.

  6. The effects of rapid recrystallization and ion implanted carbon on the solid phase epitaxial regrowth of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} alloy layers on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Antonell, M.J.; Jones, K.S.; Haynes, T.E.

    1995-07-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been combined with time-resolved reflectivity and ion channeling to study the effects of regrowth temperature and carbon introduction by ion implantation on the solid phase epitaxial regrowth (SPER) of strained 2000{Angstrom}, Si{sub 0.88}Ge{sub 0.12}/Si alloy films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Relative to the undoped layers, carbon incorporation in the MBE grown SiGe layers prior to regrowth at moderate temperatures (500--700C) has three main effects on SPER: these include a reduction in SPER rate, a delay in the onset of strain-relieving defect formation, and a sharpening of the amorphouse-crystalline (a/c) interface, i.e., promotion of a two-dimensional (planar) growth front. Recrystallization of amorphized SiGe layers at higher temperatures (1100C) substantially modifies the defect structure in samples both with and without carbon. At these elevated temperatures treading dislocations extend completely to the Si/SiGe interface. Stacking faults are eliminated in the high temperature regrowth, and the treading dislocation density is slightly higher with carbon implantation.

  7. Growth and physical properties of amorphous and single crystal ZnGeAs 2 layers deposited on (100)GaAs by sputter deposition in excess Zn and As 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. I.; Greene, J. E.

    1984-09-01

    Amorphous and single crystal ZnGeAs 2 layers, typically 1 μm thick, have been grown by RF sputtering from a single-phase polycrystalline ZnGeAs 2 wafer target. The amorphous layers were deposited at room temperature on Corning 7059 glass while the single crystals were grown on (100)GaAs at temperatures between 450 and 520°C using an overpressure of Zn and As 4 supplied by evaporation from effusion cells. X-ray diffraction analyses of amorphous films sealed with ZrO 2 cap layers and annealed at 400°C for ⩾ 4 h showed well-defined polycrystalline chalcopyrite-structure ZnGeAs 2 peaks with no strong preferred orientation. The enthalpy for the amorphous to crystalline phase transition was determined from differential scanning calorimetry to be 126 meV / atom. The single crystal films exhibited the highest mobility yet reported for ZnGeAs 2, 51 cm 2 /V ṡ s at room temperature, with a corresponding net hole concentration of 9 × 10 18 cm -3, very close to that of the target. The optical bandgap was determined to be 1.1±0.05 eV at room temperature.

  8. Evidence of the Ge nonreactivity during the initial stage of SiGe oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dkhissi, A.; Upadhyay, A. K.; Hemeryck, A.; Estève, A.; Landa, G.; Pochet, P.; Rouhani, M. Djafari

    2009-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations are used to identify preferential sites for oxygen adsorption on SiGe. It is shown that Ge atoms hinder O incorporation in their vicinity. Additionally, the silanone structure, known to be the key intermediate prior to silicon dioxide formation, is shown to be not favorable when close to a Ge site on the surface.

  9. Bacterial processes in the intermediate and deep layers of the Ionian Sea in winter 1999: Vertical profiles and their relationship to the different water masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, R.; Monticelli, L. S.; Seritti, A.; Santinelli, C.; Azzaro, M.; Boldrin, A.; La Ferla, R.; Ribera D'Alcalã, M.

    2003-09-01

    Dissolved and particulate organic carbon, bacterial biomass, microbial enzymatic activities (EEA: leucine aminopeptidase, β-glucosidase, and alkaline phosphatase), bacterial production, respiration rates, and bacterial growth efficiency were determined in 10 stations of the Ionian Sea (winter 1998-1999) with the aim of characterizing the recycling of biogenic carbon and phosphorus in the different water masses, previously identified on the basis of their hydrographical properties. All microbial activities decreased markedly with depth, with a sharp increase in the benthic boundary layer, where potential remineralization rates of phosphorus up to 1.03 μg P·dm-3d-1 and bacterial carbon production of 0.078 μg C·dm-3 d-1 were recorded. Those rates were close to the surface ones; the bacterial growth efficiency was also around 20%, similar to the surface value, sustaining the microbial food chain at the bottom. The daily hydrolysis of the organic carbon pool estimated by EEA varied from 0.67% (Ionian Surface Water) to 0.02% (Deep Water). Alkaline phosphatase activity was generally low in the intermediate and deep layers, in relation to the higher inorganic P content. The last facts support the hypothesis that deep waters of Ionian Sea, and in general of the entire Mediterranean basin, because of their young age, carry a larger amount of labile dissolved organic carbon, which reduces the need for a high recycling activity by bacterial community. As a matter of fact, a relatively higher activity per cell in carbon production rates was found in the deep layer where a large volume of the very recently formed Cretan Sea Outflow Water was present.

  10. Fabrication of multilayered Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO xGeN y films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Green, Martin A.; Conibeer, Gavin; Cho, Eun-Chel; Huang, Yidan; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan; Flynn, Chris

    2008-09-01

    Multilayered Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO xGeN y films have been fabricated on Si substrate by a (Ge + SiO 2)/SiO xGeN y superlattice approach, using a rf magnetron sputtering technique with a Ge + SiO 2 composite target and subsequent thermal annealing in N 2 ambient at 750 °C for 30 min. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement indicated the formation of Ge nanocrystals with an average size estimated to be 5.4 nm. Raman scattering spectra showed a peak of the Ge-Ge vibrational mode downward shifted to 299.4 cm -1, which was caused by quantum confinement of phonons in the Ge nanocrystals. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that Ge nanocrystals were confined in (Ge + SiO 2) layers. This superlattice approach significantly improved both the size uniformity of Ge nanocrystals and their uniformity of spacing on the 'Z' growth direction.

  11. Si/Ge intermixing during Ge Stranski–Krastanov growth

    PubMed Central

    Hoummada, Khalid; Ronda, Antoine; Mangelinck, Dominique; Berbezier, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Summary The Stranski–Krastanov growth of Ge islands on Si(001) has been widely studied. The morphology changes of Ge islands during growth, from nucleation to hut/island formation and growth, followed by hut-to-dome island transformation and dislocation nucleation of domes, have been well described, even at the atomic scale, using techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Although it is known that these islands do not consist of pure Ge (due to Si/Ge intermixing), the composition of the Ge islands is not precisely known. In the present work, atom probe tomography was used to study the composition of buried dome islands at the atomic scale, in the three-dimensional space. The core of the island was shown to contain about 55 atom % Ge, while the Ge composition surrounding this core decreases rapidly in all directions in the islands to reach a Ge concentration of about 15 atom %. The Ge distribution in the islands follows a cylindrical symmetry and Ge segregation is observed only in the {113} facets of the islands. The Ge composition of the wetting layer is not homogeneous, varying from 5 to 30 atom %. PMID:25551065

  12. V x In (2–x) S 3 Intermediate Band Absorbers Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Robert F.; Weimer, Matthew S.; Haasch, Richard T.; Schaller, Richard D.; Hock, Adam S.; Martinson, Alex B. F.

    2016-03-21

    Substitutional alloys of several thin film semiconductors have been proposed as intermediate band (IB) materials for use in next-generation photovoltaics, which aim to utilize a larger fraction of the solar spectrum without sacrificing significant photovoltage. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach to IB material growth, namely atomic layer deposition (ALD), to enable unique control over substitutional-dopant location and density. Two new ALD processes for vanadium sulfide incorporation are introduced, one of which incorporates a vanadium (III) amidinate previously untested for ALD. We synthesize the first thin film VxIn(2-x)S3 intermediate band semiconductors, using this process, and further demonstrate that the V:In ratio, and therefore intraband gap density of states, can be finely tuned according to the ALD dosing schedule. Deposition on a crystalline In2S3 underlayer promotes the growth of a tetragonal β-In2S3-like phase VxIn(2-x)S3, which exhibits a distinct sub-band gap absorption peak with onset near 1.1 eV in agreement with computational predictions. But, the VxIn(2-x)S3 films lack the lower energy transition predicted for a partially filled IB, and photoelectrochemical devices reveal a photocurrent response only from illumination with energy sufficient to span the parent band-gap.

  13. Influence of phosphine on Ge/Si(001) island growth by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamins, T. I.; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G.; Ohlberg, D. A. A.; Williams, R. Stanley

    2003-09-01

    When Ge is deposited epitaxially on Si, the strain energy from the lattice mismatch causes the Ge to form distinctive, three-dimensional islands. The shape of the islands is determined by the energies of the surface facets, facet edges, and interfaces. When phosphorus is added during chemical vapor deposition of Ge, the surface energies change, modifying the island shapes and sizes. Three different island shapes are found for doped layers, as for undoped layers; however, each doped island type is smaller than the corresponding undoped island type. The intermediate-size doped islands are of the same family as the undoped multifaceted "dome" structures, but are considerably smaller; they also have a narrow size distribution. The largest doped islands are related to the defective "superdomes" found for undoped islands, but are bounded by a smaller number of facets, creating pyramidal-shaped structures with their edges aligned along <110> directions. The distribution of Ge among the different island types depends on the phosphine partial pressure. Phosphorus appears to act as a mild surfactant, suppressing small islands at high PH3 partial pressures. Within the assumptions made, the segregation enthalpy is estimated to be -0.4 eV. Phosphine decreases the Ge deposition rate because of competitive adsorption; however, the steady-state surface coverage (as indicated by the Ge deposition rate) is not reached for thin layers.

  14. Understanding of interface structures and reaction mechanisms induced by Ge or GeO diffusion in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge structure

    SciTech Connect

    Shibayama, Shigehisa; Kato, Kimihiko; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Wakana; Taoka, Noriyuki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2013-08-19

    The reaction mechanisms at Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge interfaces with thermal oxidation through the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer have been investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that an Al{sub 6}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 13} layer is formed near the interface, and a GeO{sub 2} layer is formed on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface, suggesting Ge or GeO diffusion from the Ge surface. It is also clarified that the Al{sub 6}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 13} layer is formed by the different mechanism with a small activation energy of 0.2 eV, compared with the GeO{sub 2} formation limited by oxygen diffusion. Formation of Al-O-Ge bonds due to the AlGeO formation could lead appropriate interface structures with high interface qualities.

  15. Novel Solution Process for Fabricating Ultra-Thin-Film Absorber Layers in Fe2SiS4 and Fe2GeS4 Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Orefuwa, Samuel A.; Lai, Cheng-Yu; Dobson, Kevin D.; Ni, Chaoying; Radu, Daniela R.

    2014-05-12

    Fe2SiS4 and Fe2GeS4 crystalline materials posses direct bandgaps of ~1.55 and ~1.4 eV respectively and an absorption coefficient larger than 10^5 cm–1; their theoretical potential as solar photovoltaic absorbers has been demonstrated. However, no solar devices that employ either Fe2SiS4 or Fe2GeS4 have been reported to date. In the presented work, nanoprecursors to Fe2SiS4 and Fe2GeS4 have been fabricated and employed to build ultra-thin-film layers via spray coating and rod coating methods. Temperature-dependent X-Ray diffraction analyses of nanoprecursors coatings show an unprecedented low temperature for forming crystalline Fe2SiS4 and Fe2GeS4. Fabricating of ultra-thin-film photovoltaic devices utilizing Fe2SiS4 and Fe2GeS4 as solar absorber material is presented.

  16. Ion-Assisted Laser Deposition of Intermediate Layers for Yttrium BARIUM(2) COPPER(3) OXYGEN(7-DELTA) Thin Film Growth on Polycrystalline and Amorphous Substrates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reade, Ronald Paul

    The growth of YB_2Cu _3O_{7-delta} (YBCO) high-temperature superconductor thin films has largely been limited to deposition on single-crystal substrates to date. In order to expand the range of potential applications, growth on polycrystalline and amorphous substrates is desirable. In particular, the deposition of YBCO thin films with high critical current densities on polycrystalline metal alloys would allow the manufacture of superconducting tapes. However, it is shown that it is not possible to grow YBCO thin films directly on this type of substrate due to chemical and structural incompatibility. This work investigates the use of a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) intermediate layer to address this problem. An ion-assisted pulsed-laser deposition process is developed to provide control of orientation during the growth of the YSZ layers. The important properties of YBCO and YSZ are summarized and the status of research on thin film growth of these materials is reviewed. An overview of the pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) technique is presented. The use of ion -assisted deposition techniques to control thin film properties is discussed. Using an ion-assisted PLD process, the growth of (001) YSZ layers with controlled alignment of the in -plane crystal axes is achieved on polycrystalline metal and other polycrystalline and amorphous substrates. Studies of the important process parameters are presented. These layers are demonstrated to be appropriate for the subsequent deposition of c-axis YBCO thin films with alignment of the in-plane axes. A critical temperature of 92K and critical current densities (at 77K) of 6times 10^5 and 5times 10^4 A/cm ^2 without and with a 0.4T magnetic field, have been achieved. These critical current densities are higher than those demonstrated for competing technologies. The applicability of the developed technology is discussed. The control of film orientation using the ion-assisted PLD process is compared to the existing theory and

  17. Intermediate treatments

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest. These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents.

  18. Application of x-ray nano-particulate markers for the visualization of intermediate layers and interfaces using scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessudnova, Nadezda O.; Bilenko, David I.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.

    2012-03-01

    In this study the methodology of biological sample preparation for dental research using SEM/EDX has been elaborated. (1)The original cutting equipment supplied with 3D user-controlled sample fixation and an adjustable cooling system has been designed and evaluated. (2) A new approach to the root dentine drying procedure has been developed to preserve structure peculiarities of root dentine. (3) A novel adhesive system with embedded X-Ray nanoparticulate markers has been designed. (4)The technique allowing for visualization of bonding resins, interfaces and intermediate layers between tooth hard tissues and restorative materials of endodontically treated teeth using the X-ray nano-particulate markers has been developed and approved. These methods and approaches were used to compare the objective depth of penetration of adhesive systems of different generations in root dentine. It has been shown that the depth of penetration in dentine is less for adhesive systems of generation VI in comparison with bonding resins of generation V, which is in agreement with theoretical evidence. The depth of penetration depends on the correlation between the direction of dentinal tubules, bonding resin delivery and gravity.

  19. Application of x-ray nano-particulate markers for the visualization of intermediate layers and interfaces using scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessudnova, Nadezda O.; Bilenko, David I.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.

    2011-10-01

    In this study the methodology of biological sample preparation for dental research using SEM/EDX has been elaborated. (1)The original cutting equipment supplied with 3D user-controlled sample fixation and an adjustable cooling system has been designed and evaluated. (2) A new approach to the root dentine drying procedure has been developed to preserve structure peculiarities of root dentine. (3) A novel adhesive system with embedded X-Ray nanoparticulate markers has been designed. (4)The technique allowing for visualization of bonding resins, interfaces and intermediate layers between tooth hard tissues and restorative materials of endodontically treated teeth using the X-ray nano-particulate markers has been developed and approved. These methods and approaches were used to compare the objective depth of penetration of adhesive systems of different generations in root dentine. It has been shown that the depth of penetration in dentine is less for adhesive systems of generation VI in comparison with bonding resins of generation V, which is in agreement with theoretical evidence. The depth of penetration depends on the correlation between the direction of dentinal tubules, bonding resin delivery and gravity.

  20. Ge/GeSn heterostructures grown on Si (100) by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Sadofyev, Yu. G. Martovitsky, V. P.; Bazalevsky, M. A.; Klekovkin, A. V.; Averyanov, D. V.; Vasil’evskii, I. S.

    2015-01-15

    The growth of GeSn layers by molecular-beam epitaxy on Si (100) wafers coated with a germanium buffer layer is investigated. The properties of the fabricated structures are controlled by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, atomic-force microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Rutherford backscattering, and Raman scattering. It is shown that GeSn layers with thicknesses up to 0.5 μm and Sn molar fractions up to 0.073 manifest no sign of plastic relaxation upon epitaxy. The lattice constant of the GeSn layers within the growth plane is precisely the same as that of Ge. The effect of rapid thermal annealing on the conversion of metastable elastically strained GeSn layers into a plastically relaxed state is examined. Ge/GeSn quantum wells with Sn molar fraction up to 0.11 are obtained.

  1. Growth and characterization of highly tensile strained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} formed on relaxed In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}P buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; D'Costa, Vijay Richard; Dong, Yuan; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia; Loke, Wan Khai; Yoon, Soon Fatt; Yin, Tingting; Shen, Zexiang; Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng; Tok, Eng Soon

    2016-03-28

    Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} films with high tensile strain were grown on strain-relaxed In{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}P virtual substrates using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The in-plane tensile strain in the Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} film was varied by changing the In mole fraction in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}P buffer layer. The tensile strained Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} films were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. An in-plane tensile strain of up to 1% in the Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} was measured, which is much higher than that achieved using other buffer systems. Controlled thermal anneal experiment demonstrated that the strain was not relaxed for temperatures up to 500 °C. The band alignment of the tensile strained Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} on In{sub 0.77}Ga{sub 0.23}P was obtained by high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06}/In{sub 0.77}Ga{sub 0.23}P interface was found to be of the type I band alignment, with a valence band offset of 0.31 ± 0.12 eV and a conduction band offset of 0.74 ± 0.12 eV.

  2. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chung-Yi; Chang, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shih-Hsien; Liu, C. W.; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Chung, Hua; Chang, Chorng-Ping

    2016-08-29

    Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells are grown on a 300 mm Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition. The direct bandgap emission from strained GeSn is observed in the photoluminescence spectra and is enhanced by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} passivation due to the field effect. The electroluminescence of the direct bandgap emission of strained GeSn is also observed from the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GeSn metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes. Electroluminescence is a good indicator of GeSn material quality, since defects in GeSn layers degrade the electroluminescence intensity significantly. At the accumulation bias, the holes in the Ni gate electrode tunnel to the strained n-type GeSn layer through the ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and recombine radiatively with electrons. The emission wavelength of photoluminescence and electroluminescence can be tuned by the Sn content.

  3. Layering

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-01

    At the bottom of this image from NASA Mars Odyssey is the cliff-face that is the sidewall of Ophir Chasma. Layering is easily visible in the upper cliff wall, with the thickness of the surface clearly visible.

  4. Effect of Ge autodoping during III-V MOVPE growth on Ge substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrutia, Laura; Barrigón, Enrique; García, Iván; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio; Algora, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    During the MOVPE growth of III-V layers on Ge substrates, Ge atoms can be evaporated or etched from the back of the wafer and reach the growth surface, becoming incorporated into the epilayers. This is the so-called Ge autodoping effect, which we have studied through a set of growth experiments of GaInP and Ga(In)As layers lattice matched to Ge substrates, which have been characterized by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy. The role of V/III ratio and growth rate on Ge autodoping has been studied and a MOVPE reactor pre-conditioning prior to the epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductor layers that mitigates this Ge autodoping has been identified. In addition, the use of 2-in. versus 4-in. Ge substrates has been compared and the use of a Si3N4 backside coating for the Ge substrates has been evaluated.

  5. Direct gap Ge1-ySny alloys: Fabrication and design of mid-IR photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senaratne, C. L.; Wallace, P. M.; Gallagher, J. D.; Sims, P. E.; Kouvetakis, J.; Menéndez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Chemical vapor deposition methods were developed, using stoichiometric reactions of specialty Ge3H8 and SnD4 hydrides, to fabricate Ge1-ySny photodiodes with very high Sn concentrations in the 12%-16% range. A unique aspect of this approach is the compatible reactivity of the compounds at ultra-low temperatures, allowing efficient control and systematic tuning of the alloy composition beyond the direct gap threshold. This crucial property allows the formation of thick supersaturated layers with device-quality material properties. Diodes with composition up to 14% Sn were initially produced on Ge-buffered Si(100) featuring previously optimized n-Ge/i-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz type structures with a single defected interface. The devices exhibited sizable electroluminescence and good rectifying behavior as evidenced by the low dark currents in the I-V measurements. The formation of working diodes with higher Sn content up to 16% Sn was implemented by using more advanced n-Ge1-xSnx/i-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz architectures incorporating Ge1-xSnx intermediate layers (x ˜ 12% Sn) that served to mitigate the lattice mismatch with the Ge platform. This yielded fully coherent diode interfaces devoid of strain relaxation defects. The electrical measurements in this case revealed a sharp increase in reverse-bias dark currents by almost two orders of magnitude, in spite of the comparable crystallinity of the active layers. This observation is attributed to the enhancement of band-to-band tunneling when all the diode layers consist of direct gap materials and thus has implications for the design of light emitting diodes and lasers operating at desirable mid-IR wavelengths. Possible ways to engineer these diode characteristics and improve carrier confinement involve the incorporation of new barrier materials, in particular, ternary Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys. The possibility of achieving type-I structures using binary and ternary alloy combinations is discussed in detail, taking into account

  6. The performance of La0.6Sr1.4MnO4 layered perovskite electrode material for intermediate temperature symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Chen, Gang; Wu, Kai; Cheng, Yonghong

    2014-12-01

    A layered perovskite electrode material, La0.6Sr1.4MnO4+δ (LSMO4), has been studied for intermediate temperature symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SSOFCs) on La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) electrolyte. The chemical compatibility tests indicate that no reaction occurred between LSMO4 oxide and LSGM electrolyte at temperature up to 1000 °C both in air and 5% H2. The lower conductivity in 5% H2 and higher conduction activation energy than those in air would be caused by poorer overlap of both σ and π bonds. DFT + U calculations also show that oxygen vacancies which formed in reducing atmosphere may block the 3D hopping path for electrons or holes through Mn-O-Mn chains. For LSMO4 electrode, SEM results indicate that the electrode formed good contact with the electrolyte after being sintered at 900 °C for 2 h. At 800 °C, the polarization resistance of the LSMO4 cathode is about 0.87 Ω cm2 in air, while the polarization resistance of the LSMO4 anode is about 2.07 Ω cm2 in 5% H2. LSMO4 exhibits better electrochemical activity for oxygen reduction than that for hydrogen oxidation. A cell with LSGM electrolyte, LSMO4-LSGM mixture as anode and cathode simultaneously displays a maximum power density of 59 mW cm-2 at 800 °C.

  7. Fabrication of multilayered Ge nanocrystals by magnetron sputtering and annealing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Green, Martin A; Conibeer, Gavin; Cho, Eun-Chel; Huang, Yidan; Pere-Wurfl, Ivan; Flynn, Chris

    2008-11-12

    Multilayered Ge nanocrystals embedded in Si and Ge oxide films have been fabricated on Si substrate by a (SiO(2)+Ge)/(SiO(2)+GeO(2)) superlattice approach, using an rf magnetron sputtering technique with a Ge+SiO(2) composite target and subsequent thermal annealing in N(2) ambient at 750 °C for 5 min. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated the formation of Ge nanocrystals with an average size estimated to be 9.8 nm. Raman scattering spectra showed a peak of the Ge-Ge vibrational mode shifted downwards to 298.8 cm(-1), which was caused by quantum confinement of phonons in the Ge nanocrystals. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) analysis demonstrated that the Ge chemical state is mainly Ge(0) in the (SiO(2)+Ge) layer and Ge(4+) in the (SiO(2)+GeO(2)) layer in the superlattice structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that Ge nanocrystals were confined in (SiO(2)+Ge) layers, and had good crystallinity. This superlattice approach significantly improved both the size uniformity of Ge nanocrystals and their uniformity of spacing on the 'Z' growth direction compared with the conventional Ge-ncs fabrication method using a single and thick SiO(2) matrix film.

  8. Development of wider bandgap n-type a-SiOx:H and μc-SiOx:H as both doped and intermediate reflecting layer for a-Si:H/ a-Si1-xGex:H tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Wei; Chen, Pei-Ling; Tsai, Chuang-Chuang

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we developed a-SiOx:H(n) and μc-SiOx:H(n) films as n-type layer, intermediate reflecting layer (IRL), and back-reflecting layer (BRL) to improve the light management in silicon thin-film solar cells. In the development of SiOx:H films, by properly adjusting the oxygen content of the films, the optical bandgap of μc-SiOx:H(n) can be increased while maintaining sufficient conductivity. Similar effect was found for a-SiOx:H(n). In a-Si:H single-junction cells, employing a-SiOx:H(n) as the replacement for a-Si:H(n) resulted in a relative efficiency enhancement of 11.4% due to the reduced parasitic absorption loss. We have also found that μc-SiOx:H(n) can replace back ITO layer as BRL, leading to a relative efficiency gain of 7.6%. For a-Si:H/ a-Si1- x Ge x:H tandem cell, employing μc-SiOx:H(n) as IRL increased the current density of top cell. In addition, employing a-SiOx:H(n) as a replacement of a-Si:H(n) in the top cell increased the current density of bottom cell due to the reduction of absorption loss. Combining all the improvements, the a-Si:H/ a-Si1-xGex:H tandem cell with efficiency of 9.2%, V OC = 1.58 V, J SC = 8.43 mA/cm2, and FF = 68.4% was obtained. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Thermodynamic modeling of the Ge-La binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Miao; Li, Chang-rong; Du, Zhen-min; Guo, Cui-ping; Niu, Chun-ju

    2012-08-01

    The Ge-La binary system was critically assessed by means of the calculation of phase diagram (CALPHAD) technique. The associate model was used for the liquid phase containing the constituent species Ge, La, Ge3La5, and Ge1.7La. The terminal solid solution diamond-(Ge) with a small solubility of La was described using the substitutional model, in which the excess Gibbs energy was formulated with the Redlich-Kister equation. The compounds with homogeneity ranges, α(Ge1.7La), β(Ge1.7La), and (GeLa), were modeled using two sublattices as α(Ge,La)1.7La, β(Ge,La)1.7La, and (Ge,La)(Ge,La), respectively. The intermediate phases with no solubility ranges, Ge4La5, Ge3La4, Ge3La5, and GeLa3, were treated as stoichiometric compounds. The three allotropic modifications of La, dhcp-La, fcc-La, and bcc-La, were kept as pure element phases since no solubility of Ge in La was reported. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters of the Ge-La binary system was obtained. The calculation results agree well with the available experimental data from literatures.

  10. Kinetics of stabilised Criegee intermediates derived from alkene ozonolysis: reactions with SO2, H2O and decomposition under boundary layer conditions.

    PubMed

    Newland, Mike J; Rickard, Andrew R; Alam, Mohammed S; Vereecken, Luc; Muñoz, Amalia; Ródenas, Milagros; Bloss, William J

    2015-02-14

    The removal of SO2 in the presence of alkene-ozone systems has been studied for ethene, cis-but-2-ene, trans-but-2-ene and 2,3-dimethyl-but-2-ene, as a function of humidity, under atmospheric boundary layer conditions. The SO2 removal displays a clear dependence on relative humidity for all four alkene-ozone systems confirming a significant reaction for stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCI) with H2O. The observed SO2 removal kinetics are consistent with relative rate constants, k(SCI + H2O)/k(SCI + SO2), of 3.3 (±1.1) × 10(-5) for CH2OO, 26 (±10) × 10(-5) for CH3CHOO derived from cis-but-2-ene, 33 (±10) × 10(-5) for CH3CHOO derived from trans-but-2-ene, and 8.7 (±2.5) × 10(-5) for (CH3)2COO derived from 2,3-dimethyl-but-2-ene. The relative rate constants for k(SCI decomposition)/k(SCI + SO2) are -2.3 (±3.5) × 10(11) cm(-3) for CH2OO, 13 (±43) × 10(11) cm(-3) for CH3CHOO derived from cis-but-2-ene, -14 (±31) × 10(11) cm(-3) for CH3CHOO derived from trans-but-2-ene and 63 (±14) × 10(11) cm(-3) for (CH3)2COO. Uncertainties are ±2σ and represent combined systematic and precision components. These values are derived following the approximation that a single SCI is present for each system; a more comprehensive interpretation, explicitly considering the differing reactivity for syn- and anti-SCI conformers, is also presented. This yields values of 3.5 (±3.1) × 10(-4) for k(SCI + H2O)/k(SCI + SO2) of anti-CH3CHOO and 1.2 (±1.1) × 10(13) for k(SCI decomposition)/k(SCI + SO2) of syn-CH3CHOO. The reaction of the water dimer with CH2OO is also considered, with a derived value for k(CH2OO + (H2O)2)/k(CH2OO + SO2) of 1.4 (±1.8) × 10(-2). The observed SO2 removal rate constants, which technically represent upper limits, are consistent with decomposition being a significant, structure dependent, sink in the atmosphere for syn-SCI.

  11. Up-regulated expression of cartilage intermediate-layer protein and ANK in articular hyaline cartilage from patients with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Jun; Ryan, Lawrence M; Masuda, Ikuko

    2002-12-01

    Excess accumulation of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (ePPi) in aged human cartilage is crucial in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal formation in cartilage matrix. Two sources of ePPi are ePPi-generating ectoenzymes (NTPPPH) and extracellular transport of intracellular PPi by ANK. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of NTPPPH and ANK in ePPi elaboration, by investigating expression of NTPPPH enzymes (cartilage intermediate-layer protein [CILP] and plasma cell membrane glycoprotein 1 [PC-1]) and ANK in human chondrocytes from osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage containing CPPD crystals and without crystals. Chondrocytes were harvested from knee cartilage at the time of arthroplasty (OA with CPPD crystals [CPPD], n = 8; OA without crystals [OA], n = 10). Normal adult human chondrocytes (n = 1) were used as a control. Chondrocytes were cultured with transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), which stimulates ePPi elaboration, and/or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which inhibits ePPi elaboration. NTPPPH and ePPi were measured in the media at 48 hours. Media CILP, PC-1, and ANK were determined by dot-immunoblot analysis. Chondrocyte messenger RNA (mRNA) was extracted for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to study expression of mRNA for CILP, PC-1, and ANK. NTPPPH and ANK mRNA and protein were also studied in fresh frozen cartilage. Basal ePPi elaboration and NTPPPH activity in conditioned media from CPPD chondrocytes were elevated compared with normal chondrocytes, and tended to be higher compared with OA chondrocytes. Basal expression of mRNA for CILP (chondrocytes) and ANK (cartilage) was higher in both CPPD chondrocytes and CPPD cartilage extract than in OA or normal samples. PC-1 mRNA was less abundant in CPPD chondrocytes and cartilage extract than in OA chondrocytes and extract, although the difference was not significant. CILP, PC-1, and ANK protein levels were similar in CPPD, OA, and normal chondrocytes

  12. A numerical study of the relationship between atmospheric forcing, cold intermediate layer generation and primary production in the Black Sea over interannual time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannaby, Heather

    2015-04-01

    The Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) is a characteristic feature of the Black Sea formed during winter when cool surface waters penetrate to the depth of the upper halocline. The CIL typically persists throughout the year and is defined at its upper and lower boundaries by the 8 °C isotherm. CIL formation is concentrated in the central regions of the Black Sea basin and on the NW shelf, although the relative contribution of these two sources is still debated. Previous studies have suggested that CIL formation on the NW shelf may play an important role in the subduction of nutrient rich shelf waters into the upper pycnocline, thus removing nutrients from the euphotic zone and impacting rates of primary production. A 20 year hydrodynamic model (Princeton Ocean Model) simulation extending from 1990-2009 and forced by the DMI atmospheric reanalysis is used to investigate (i) interactions between atmospheric forcing and regional CIL formation and (ii) rates of CIL formation and the subduction of NW shelf waters to depths below the euphotic zone. Model skill in simulating CIL characteristics is demonstrated. Results suggest that the ratio of CIL waters formed in the central regions of the Black Sea basin and on the NW shelf varies considerably from one year to another due to sub-domain scale atmospheric variability. Exceptionally warm years when CIL formation is considerably reduced are associated with anomalously high concentrations of fresh riverine water residing in the euphotic zone, and hence a higher percentage of riverine nutrients are available to fuel primary production. Years when anomalously large volumes of CIL water are formed on the NW shelf are not necessarily cold years when considering the domain as a whole. During these years an anomalously high volume of riverine water is subducted into the CIL where it remains trapped throughout the following spring and summer. This study provides a physics based explanation for the occurrence of higher phytoplankton

  13. Dopage p par BI3 de couches Ge/Ge ET Ge/GaAs; caractérisationélectrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Étienne, D.; Achargui, N.; Bougnot, G.

    1986-01-01

    B doped Ge layers were obtained by chemical vapor transport using a disproportionation reaction 2GeI2=Ge+GeI4. They were p-type and their electric parameters: resistivity ϱ, Hall mobility μH and carrier concentration p were studied as a function of substrate temperature, partial pressure of BI3 and hydrogen flow rate on BI3 source. The incorporation of B into monocrystalline layers is studied thermodynamically.

  14. Enhancement of magnetoresistance by inserting thin NiAl layers at the interfaces in Co{sub 2}FeGa{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5}/Ag/Co{sub 2}FeGa{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5} current-perpendicular-to-plane pseudo spin valves

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J. W.; Sakuraba, Y. Sasaki, T. T.; Hono, K.; Miura, Y.

    2016-03-07

    We have investigated the effects of insertion of a thin NiAl layer (≤0.63 nm) into a Co{sub 2}FeGa{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5} (CFGG)/Ag interface on the magnetoresistive properties in CFGG/Ag/CFGG current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) pseudo spin valves (PSVs). First-principles calculations of ballistic transmittance clarified that the interfacial band matching at the (001)-oriented NiAl/CFGG interface is better than that at the (001)-Ag/CFGG interface. The insertion of 0.21-nm-thick NiAl layers at the Co{sub 2}FeGa{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5}/Ag interfaces effectively improved the magnetoresistance (MR) output; the observed average and the highest MR ratio (ΔRA) are 62% (25 mΩ μm{sup 2}) and 77% (31 mΩ μm{sup 2}) at room temperature, respectively, which are much higher than those without NiAl insertion. Microstructural analysis using scanning transmission electron microscopy confirmed the existence of thin NiAl layers at the Ag interfaces with only modest interdiffusion even after annealing at 550 °C. The improvement of the interfacial spin-dependent scattering by very thin NiAl insertion can be a predominant reason for the enhancement of the MR output.

  15. Enhancement of thermal stability and water resistance in yttrium-doped GeO{sub 2}/Ge gate stack

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Cimang Hyun Lee, Choong; Zhang, Wenfeng; Nishimura, Tomonori; Nagashio, Kosuke; Toriumi, Akira

    2014-03-03

    We have systematically investigated the material and electrical properties of yttrium-doped GeO{sub 2} (Y-GeO{sub 2}) on Germanium (Ge). A significant improvement of both thermal stability and water resistance were demonstrated by Y-GeO{sub 2}/Ge stack, compared to that of pure GeO{sub 2}/Ge stack. The excellent electrical properties of Y-GeO{sub 2}/Ge stacks with low D{sub it} were presented as well as enhancement of dielectric constant in Y-GeO{sub 2} layer, which is beneficial for further equivalent oxide thickness scaling of Ge gate stack. The improvement of thermal stability and water resistance are discussed both in terms of the Gibbs free energy lowering and network modification of Y-GeO{sub 2}.

  16. Germanium-tin interdiffusion in strained Ge/GeSn multiple-quantum-well structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Dong, Yuan; Zhou, Qian; Tok, Eng Soon; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2016-06-01

    The thermal stability and germanium-tin (Ge-Sn) interdiffusion properties were studied in epitaxial Ge/GeSn multiple-quantum-well (MQW) structure. No obvious interdiffusion was observed for annealing temperatures of 300 °C or below, while observable interdiffusion occurred for annealing temperatures of 380 °C and above. High-resolution x-ray diffraction was used to obtain the interdiffusion coefficient by analyzing the decrease rate of Ge/GeSn periodic satellite peaks. The interdiffusion coefficient is much higher, and the activation enthalpy of 1.21 eV is substantially lower in Ge/GeSn MQW structure than that previously reported in silicon-germanium (Si-Ge) systems. When the annealing temperature is increased to above 500 °C, Ge-Sn interdiffusion becomes severe. Some small pits appear on the surface, which should be related to Sn out-diffusion to the Ge cap layer, followed by Sn desorption from the top surface. This work provides insights into the Ge-Sn interdiffusion and Sn segregation behaviors in Ge/GeSn MQW structure, and the thermal budget that may be used for fabrication of devices comprising Ge/GeSn heterostructures.

  17. Ohmic contact formation of metal/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge junctions with an anomalous modulation of Schottky barrier height

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hanhui; Wang, Peng; Qi, Dongfeng; Li, Xin; Han, Xiang; Wang, Chen; Chen, Songyan Li, Cheng; Huang, Wei

    2014-11-10

    The modulation of Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge inserting an amorphous Ge layer has been demonstrated. It is interested that the Schottky barrier height of Al/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge junctions is oscillated with increase of the a-Ge thickness from 0 to 10 nm, and when the thickness reaches above 10 nm, the Al/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge shows ohmic characteristics. Electron hopping through localized states of a-Ge layer, the alleviation of metal induced gap states, as well as the termination of dangling bonds at the amorphous-Ge/n-Ge interface are proposed to explain the anomalous modulation of Schottky barrier height.

  18. PrBa0.5Sr0.5Co2O5+δ layered perovskite cathode for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Hanping; Xue, Xingjian

    2010-02-06

    Layered perovskite oxides have ordered A-cations localizing oxygen vacancies, and may potentially improve oxygen ion diffusivity and surface exchange coefficient. The A-site-ordered layered perovskite PrBa0.5Sr0.5Co2O5+δ (PBSC) was evaluated as new cathode material for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). The material was characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a symmetrical cell system (PBSC/Ce0.9Sm0.1O1.9 (SDC)/PBSC), exhibiting excellent performance in the intermediate temperature range of 500–700 °C. An area-specific-resistance (ASR) of 0.23 Ω cm2 was achieved at 650 °C for cathode polarization. The low activation energy (Ea) 124 kJ mol-1 is comparable to that of La0.8Sr0.2CoO3-δ. A laboratory-scaled SDC-based tri-layer cell of Ni-SDC/SDC/PBSC was tested in intermediate temperature conditions of 550 to 700 °C. A maximum power density of 1045 mW cm-2 was achieved at 700 °C. The interfacial polarization resistance is as low as 0.285, 0.145, 0.09 and 0.05 Ω cm2 at 550, 600, 650 and 700 °C, respectively. Layered perovskite PBSC shows promising performance as cathode material for IT-SOFCs.

  19. NiO gate GaN-based enhancement-mode hetrojunction field-effect transistor with extremely low on-resistance using metal organic chemical vapor deposition regrown Ge-doped layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Asamira; Choe, Songbeak; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Daisuke

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present a normally-off GaN-based transistor with an extremely low on-resistance (R on) fabricated by using a Ge-doped n++-GaN layer for ohmic contacts. We developed a novel GaN regrowth technique using Ge as a dopant, which achieved an extremely high doping concentration of 1 × 1020 cm-3, and thereby the lowest specific contact resistance of 1.5 × 10-6 Ω·cm2. The NiO gate fabricated using an atomic layer deposition technique reduced the spacing between the source and drain electrodes. The fabricated device showed the record-breaking R on of 0.95 Ω·mm with the maximum drain current and transconductance of 1.1 A/mm and 490 mS/mm, respectively. Note that the obtained threshold voltage was 0.55 V. This extremely low R on characteristic indicates the great potential of NiO-gate GaN-based heterojunction field-effect transistors.

  20. Distribution of Ge in O + implanted silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twigg, M. E.; Zvanut, M. E.; Stahlbush, R.; Godbey, D. J.; Jenkins, W. C.

    1992-12-01

    We have studied 50 nm Si0.8Ge0.2 buried layers and 800 nm Si0.9Ge0.1 layers, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, which were implanted with 200 keV oxygen O+ ions to a dose of 1.8×1018/cm2. This implantation procedure is similar to that used in the formation of SIMOX (separation by implantation of oxygen), although it was not followed by the usual high temperature anneal. Because the initial implantation profile extends as far as 600 nm below the Si surface, the 50 nm Si0.8Ge0.2 layers were embedded in Si at depths of 600, 500, 400, and 300 nm from the Si surface. The effects of Ge incorporation could then be studied as a function of distance from the surface and position within the implantation profile. Using a scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, we examined cross-sectional specimens for the distribution of the Ge in and around the implanted oxide layer. We found that the Ge tended to be excluded from the oxide in all the samples with the 50 nm buried layer. For the case where the oxide was implanted into the midst of an 800 nm layer, the Ge remained in the oxide.

  1. Screening of remote charge scattering sites from the oxide/silicon interface of strained Si two-dimensional electron gases by an intermediate tunable shielding electron layer

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chiao-Ti Li, Jiun-Yun; Chou, Kevin S.; Sturm, James C.

    2014-06-16

    We report the strong screening of the remote charge scattering sites from the oxide/semiconductor interface of buried enhancement-mode undoped Si two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), by introducing a tunable shielding electron layer between the 2DEG and the scattering sites. When a high density of electrons in the buried silicon quantum well exists, the tunneling of electrons from the buried layer to the surface quantum well can lead to the formation of a nearly immobile surface electron layer. The screening of the remote charges at the interface by this newly formed surface electron layer results in an increase in the mobility of the buried 2DEG. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the minimum mobile electron density of the 2DEG occurs as well. Together, these effects can reduce the increased detrimental effect of interface charges as the setback distance for the 2DEG to the surface is reduced for improved lateral confinement by top gates.

  2. Centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of charged hadron production at intermediate p{sub T} in Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai, Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bezverkhny, B.I.; Bharadwaj, S.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; de Moura, M.M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dubey, A.K.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Foley, K.J.; Fomenko, K.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gans, J.; Ganti, M.S.; Gaudichet, L.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Grachov, O.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Gupta, A.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kumar, A.; Kunz, C.L.; Kutuev, R.Kh.; Kuznetsov, A.A.; Lamont, M.A.C.; et al.

    2004-04-15

    We present STAR measurements of charged hadron production as a function of centrality in Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130 GeV. The measurements cover a phase space region of 0.2 < p{sub T} < 6.0 GeV/c in transverse momentum and -1 < {eta} < 1 in pseudorapidity. Inclusive transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons in the pseudorapidity region 0.5 < |{eta}| < 1 are reported and compared to our previously published results for |{eta}| < 0.5. No significant difference is seen for inclusive p{sub T} distributions of charged hadrons in these two pseudorapidity bins. We measured dN/d{eta} distributions and truncated mean p{sub T} in a region of p{sub T} > p{sub T}{sup cut}, and studied the results in the framework of participant and binary scaling. No clear evidence is observed for participant scaling of charged hadron yield in the measured p{sub T} region. The relative importance of hard scattering process is investigated through binary scaling fraction of particle production.

  3. Centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of charged hadron production at intermediate p{sub t} in Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai, Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bezverkhny, B.I.; Bharadwaj, S.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; de Moura, M.M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dubey, A.K.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Foley, K.J.; Fomenko, K.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gans, J.; Ganti, M.S.; Gaudichet, L.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Grachov, O.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Gupta, A.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kumar, A.; Kunz, C.L.; Kutuev, R.Kh.; Kuznetsov, A.A.; Lamont, M.A.C.; et al.

    2004-04-15

    We present STAR measurements of charged hadron production as a function of centrality in Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130 GeV. The measurements cover a phase space region of 0.2 < p{sub T} < 6.0 GeV/c in transverse momentum and 11 < {eta} < 1 in pseudorapidity. Inclusive transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons in the pseudorapidity region 0.5 < |{eta}| < 1 are reported and compared to our previously published results for |{eta}| < 0.5. No significant difference is seen for inclusive p{sub T} distributions of charged hadrons in these two pseudorapidity bins. We measured dN/d{eta} distributions and truncated mean p{sub T} in a region of p{sub T} > P{sub T}{sup cut}, and studied the results in the framework of participant and binary scaling. No clear evidence is observed for participant scaling of charged hadron yield in the measured pT region. The relative importance of hard scattering process is investigated through binary scaling fraction of particle production.

  4. Indium gallium zinc oxide layer used to decrease optical reflection loss at intermediate adhesive region for fabricating mechanical stacked multijunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameshima, Toshiyuki; Nimura, Takeshi; Sugawara, Takashi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Yoshidomi, Shinya; Kimura, Shunsuke; Hasumi, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Reduction of optical reflection loss is discussed in three mechanical stacked samples: top crystalline silicon and bottom crystalline germanium substrates, top crystalline GaAs and bottom crystalline silicon substrates, and top crystalline GaP and bottom crystalline silicon substrates using an epoxy-type adhesive with a reflective index of 1.47. Transparent conductive Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) layers with a refractive index of 1.85 were used as antireflection layers. IGZO layers were formed on the bottom surface of the top substrate and the top surface of the bottom substrate of the three stacked samples with thicknesses of 188, 130, and 102 nm. The insertion of IGZO layers decreased the optical reflectivity of the stacked samples. The IGZO layers provided high effective optical absorbency of bottom substrates of 0.925, 0.943, and 0.931, respectively, for light wavelength regions for light in which the top substrates were transparent and the bottom substrates were opaque.

  5. Heterogeneous integration of SiGe/Ge and III-V for Si photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Mitsuru; Kim, Younghyun; Han, Jaehoon; Kang, Jian; Ikku, Yuki; Cheng, Yongpeng; Park, Jinkwon; Takagi, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    The heterogeneous integration of SiGe/Ge and III-V semiconductors gives us an opportunity to enhance functionalities of Si photonics platform through their superior material properties which lack in Si. In this paper we discuss what SiGe/Ge and III-V can bring to Si photonics. We have predicted that the light effective hole mass in strained SiGe results in the enhanced the free-carrier effects such as the plasma dispersion effect and free-carrier absorption. We observed significantly larger free-carrier absorption in the SiGe optical modulator than in the control Si device. By fabricating asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) SiGe optical modulators, the enhancement of the plasma dispersion effect in strained SiGe has been successfully demonstrated. Mid-infrared integrated photonics based on Ge waveguides on Si have also been investigated. Since Ge is transparent to the entire mid-infrared range, Ge photonic integrated circuits on the Ge-on-Insulator (GeOI) wafer are quite attractive. We have successfully fabricated the GeOI wafer with 2-μm-thick buried oxide (BOX) layer by wafer bonding. The passive waveguide components based on Ge strip waveguides have been demonstrated on the GeOI. We have also demonstrated carrier-injection Ge variable optical attenuators. We have proposed and investigate the III-V CMOS photonics platform by using the III-V on Insulator (IIIV- OI) on a Si wafer. The strong optical confinement in the III-V-OI enables us to achieve high-performance photonic devices. We have successfully demonstrated InGaAsP MZI optical switch with the low on-state crosstalk on the III-V-OI. Ultra-low dark current waveguide InGaAs PDs integrated with an InP grating coupler are also achieved.

  6. Investigation of GaInAs strain reducing layer combined with InAs quantum dots embedded in Ga(In)As subcell of triple junction GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge solar cell.

    PubMed

    Li, Senlin; Bi, Jingfeng; Li, Mingyang; Yang, Meijia; Song, Minghui; Liu, Guanzhou; Xiong, Weiping; Li, Yang; Fang, Yanyan; Chen, Changqing; Lin, Guijiang; Chen, Wenjun; Wu, Chaoyu; Wang, Duxiang

    2015-01-01

    The InAs/GaAs quantum dots structure embedded in GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple junction solar cell with and without Ga0.90In0.10As strain reducing layer was investigated. Conversion efficiency of 33.91% at 1,000 suns AM 1.5D with Ga0.90In0.10As strain reducing layer was demonstrated. A 1.19% improvement of the conversion efficiency was obtained via inserting the Ga0.90In0.10As strain reducing layer. The main contribution of this improvement was from the increase of the short-circuit current, which is caused by the reduction of the Shockley-Read-Hall recombination centers. Consequently, there was a decrease in open circuit voltage due to the lower thermal activation energy of confined carriers in Ga0.9In0.1As than GaAs and a reduction in the effective band gap of quantum dots.

  7. The effect of the interlayer element on the exfoliation of layered Mo2AC (A = Al, Si, P, Ga, Ge, As or In) MAX phases into two-dimensional Mo2C nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaei, Mohammad; Arai, Masao; Sasaki, Taizo; Estili, Mehdi; Sakka, Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    The experimental exfoliation of layered, ternary transition-metal carbide and nitride compounds, known as MAX phases, into two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets, is a great development in the synthesis of novel low-dimensional inorganic systems. Among the MAX phases, Mo-containing ones might be considered as the source for obtaining Mo2C nanosheets with potentially unique properties, if they could be exfoliated. Here, by using a set of first-principles calculations, we discuss the effect of the interlayer ‘A’ element on the exfoliation of Mo2AC (A = Al, Si, P, Ga, Ge, As or In) MAX phases into the 2D Mo2C nanosheets. Based on the calculated exfoliation energies and the elastic constants, we propose that Mo2InC with the lowest exfoliation energy and the highest elastic constant anisotropy between C11 and C33 might be a suitable compound for exfoliation into 2D Mo2C nanosheets.

  8. Fundamental studies on the intermediate layer of a bipolar membrane V. Effect of silver halide and its dope in gelatin on water dissociation at the interface of a bipolar membrane.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yan-Hong; Fu, Rong-Qiang; Fu, Yan-Xun; Xu, Tong-Wen

    2006-06-01

    The effect of silver ions on the water dissociation of bipolar membranes was first investigated in this paper. To do this, the bipolar membranes were prepared by immersing the anion exchange layers in an AgNO3 solution and then coating a solution of sulfonated polyphenylene oxide (SPPO) on the anion exchange layers. XPS and AES observations indicated that silver at the intermediate layer was in the form of AgCl. The experimental results proved that AgCl has an excellent catalytic function for water dissociation in terms of I-V curves, and the quantity of AgCl played an important role in the behavior of a bipolar membrane. The bipolar membranes with gelatin and the gelatin doped with silver as a catalytic layer were also prepared in the same way, and their I-V behavior and the water dissociation pilot tests were also investigated. The experimental results showed that in the case of gelatin alone, the voltage drop increased slightly at high gelatin concentrations, due mainly to the steric effect and electrostatic interaction, but decreased at low gelatin concentrations due to the hydrophilicity. However, when gelatin was doped with AgCl, the bipolar membranes have an appreciable improvement in both stability and catalytic function, in comparison with those prepared from silver or gelatin.

  9. Data requirements for intermediate energy nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, S.

    1990-01-01

    Several applications that include spallation neutron sources, space radiation effects, biomedical isotope production, accelerator shielding and radiation therapy make use of intermediate energy nuclear data extending to several GeV. The overlapping data needs of these applications are discussed in terms of what projectiles, targets and reactions are of interest. Included is a discussion of what is generally known about these data and what is needed to facilitate their use in intermediate energy applications. 40 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. GeSi photonics for telecommunication applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisakul, Papichaya; Vakarin, Vladyslav; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Frigerio, Jacopo; Wada, Kazumi; Isella, Giovanni; Vivien, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    We experimentally and theoretically investigate GeSi-based photonics for future on-chip optical interconnect on bulk Silicon substrates with dense wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system. We experimentally show that Ge-rich Si1-xGex can be used as both a passive low loss waveguide and a substrate to facilitate low-temperature epitaxial growth of Ge-based active devices working at low optical loss wavelength of Ge-rich Si1-xGex waveguides. We also theoretically discussed the possibilities to realize a compact passive component based on Ge-rich Si1-xGex material system on bulk Si wafer. From simulation the system based on Ge-rich Si1-xGex waveguide and the Si1-yGey (y < x) lower cladding layer is good enough to ensure compactness of important on-chip photonic components including passive waveguide and GeSi-based array waveguide grating (AWG). The small refractive index contrast between Ge-rich Si1-xGex waveguide and the Si1-yGey lower cladding layer potentially avoid the polarization dependent loss and detrimental fabrication tolerance of WDM system. Our studies show that GeSi-based photonics could uniquely provide both passive and active functionalities for dense WDM system.

  11. High Quality GaAs Growth by MBE on Si Using GeSi Buffers and Prospects for Space Photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, J. A.; Ringel, S. A.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Bulsara, M.

    2005-01-01

    III-V solar cells on Si substrates are of interest for space photovoltaics since this would combine high performance space cells with a strong, lightweight and inexpensive substrate. However, the primary obstacles blocking III-V/Si cells from achieving high performance to date have been fundamental materials incompatabilities, namely the 4% lattice mismatch between GaAs and Si, and the large mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient. In this paper, we report on the molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth and properties of GaAs layers and single junction GaAs cells on Si wafers which utilize compositionally graded GeSi Intermediate buffers grown by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD) to mitigate the large lattice mismatch between GaAs and Si. Ga As cell structures were found to incorporate a threading dislocation density of 0.9-1.5 x 10 (exp 6) per square centimeter, identical to the underlying relaxed Ge cap of the graded buffer, via a combination of transmission electron microscopy, electron beam induced current, and etch pit density measurements. AlGaAs/GaAs double heterostructures wre grown on the GeSi/Si substrates for time-resolved photoluminescence measurements, which revealed a bulk GaAs minority carrier lifetime in excess of 10 ns, the highest lifetime ever reported for GaAs on Si. A series of growth were performed to ass3ss the impact of a GaAs buffer to a thickness of only 0.1 micrometer. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy studies revealed that there is negligible cross diffusion of Ga, As and Ge at he III-V/Ge interface, identical to our earlier findings for GaAs grown on Ge wafers using MBE. This indicates that there is no need for a buffer to "bury" regions of high autodopjing,a nd that either pn or np configuration cells are easily accomodated by these substrates. Preliminary diodes and single junction Al Ga As heteroface cells were grown and fabricated on the Ge/GeSi/Si substrates for the first time. Diodes fabricated on GaAs, Ge and Ge/Ge

  12. GeSn/SiGeSn photonic devices for mid-infrared applications: experiments and calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Genquan; Zhang, Qingfang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Chunfu; Hao, Yue

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a fully strained GeSn photodetector with Sn atom percent of 8% is fabricated on Ge buffer on Si(001) substrate. The wavelength λ of light signals with obvious optical response for Ge0.92Sn0.08 photodetector is extended to 2 μm. The impacts of compressive strain introduced during the epitaxial growth of GeSn on Ge/Si are studied by simulation. Besides, the tensile strain engineering of GeSn photonic devices is also investigated. Lattice-matched GeSn/SiGeSn double heterostructure light emitting diodes (LEDs) with Si3N4 tensile liner stressor are designed to promote the further mid-infrared applications of GeSn photonic devices. With the releasing of the residual stress in Si3N4 liner, a large biaxial tensile strain is induced in GeSn active layer. Under biaxial tensile strain, the spontaneous emission rate rsp and internal quantum efficiency ηIQE for GeSn/SiGeSn LED are significantly improved.

  13. Electronic and Thermoelectric Properties of Layered Sn- and Pb-Doped Ge2Sb2Te5 Alloys Using First Principle Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Janpreet; Singh, Gurinder; Kaura, Aman; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    A computational study on stable hexagonal phase of undoped, and Sn- and Pb-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) phase change materials has been carried out. The electronic structure, lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of doped GST have been extensively investigated using ab initio methods with virtual crystal approximation. The hexagonal symmetry of the GST is maintained with the addition of Sn and Pb dopants. The lattice parameters and atomic volume of the Sn-doped GST structure is larger than that of the undoped GST. Electronic band structure calculations show that there is an increase in band gap with the increase in the concentration of Sn (≤4.4 at.%). However, with the addition of a very small amount of Pb, there is a continuous decrease in lattice parameters and band gap values. The calculated energy band structure is then used in combination with the Boltzmann transport equation to calculate the thermoelectric parameters of GST and Sn- and Pb-doped materials. Seebeck coefficient ( S), electronic thermal conductivity ( κ e) and the thermoelectric figure-of-merit ( ZT) have been calculated with the help of BoltzTraP code. It was found that the thermoelectric properties of GST are enhanced with the addition of Sn.

  14. A SiGe/Si multiple quantum well avalanche photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Po-Hsing; Chang, Shu-Tong; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lin, Hongchin

    2010-10-01

    The present work investigates the performance of APDs with a SiGe/Si multi-quantum well (MQW) structure, which was fabricated using ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD). Absorption of radiation and avalanche multiplication occur in both SiGe/Si MQW and the i-SiGe layer. Intense photoluminescence (PL) from strained, epitaxial SiGe alloys grown using UHV/CVD was reported with multiple SiGe/Si MQW and i-SiGe layer. It was found that the avalanche multiplication occurred at about 7 V, when exceeding 7 V, the responsiveness and quantum efficiency rapidly increased. An APD consisting of an epitaxial SiGe/Si MQW as the active absorption layer with intense response in the 800-1500 nm wavelength range is also demonstrated.

  15. Epi-cleaning of Ge/GeSn heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Di Gaspare, L.; Sabbagh, D.; De Seta, M.; Sodo, A.; Wirths, S.; Buca, D.; Zaumseil, P.; Schroeder, T.; Capellini, G.

    2015-01-28

    We demonstrate a very-low temperature cleaning technique based on atomic hydrogen irradiation for highly (1%) tensile strained Ge epilayers grown on metastable, partially strain relaxed GeSn buffer layers. Atomic hydrogen is obtained by catalytic cracking of hydrogen gas on a hot tungsten filament in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, reflection high energy electron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and micro-Raman showed that an O- and C-free Ge surface was achieved, while maintaining the same roughness and strain condition of the as-deposited sample and without any Sn segregation, at a process temperature in the 100–300 °C range.

  16. GeSn pin diodes: from pure Ge to direct-gap materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, James; Senaratne, Charutha; Xu, Chi; Aoki, Toshihiro; Kouvetakis, John; Menendez, Jose

    2015-03-01

    Complete n - i - p Ge1-ySny diode structures (y =0-0.09) were fabricated on Si substrates with Sn concentrations covering the entire range between pure Ge and direct-gap materials. The structures typically consist of a thick (>1 μm) n + + Ge buffer layer grown by Gas Source Molecular Epitaxy using Ge4H10 and either P(SiH3)3 or P(GeH3)3 , followed by a GeSn intrinsic layer (~ 500 nm), grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using Ge3H8 and SnD4, and a GeSn p-type top layer (~ 200 nm) grown by CVD using Ge3H8,SnD4andB2H6. Temperature-dependence of the I - V characteristics of these diodes as well as the forward-bias dependence of their electroluminescence (EL) signal were investigated, making it possible for the first time to extract the compositional dependence of parameters such as band gaps, activation energies, and dark currents. The EL spectra are dominated by direct-gap emission, which shifts from 1590 nm to 2300 nm, in agreement with photoluminescence results. DOD AFOSR FA9550-12-1-0208 and DOD AFOSR FA9550-13-1-0022.

  17. Status of GaAs/Ge solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iles, P. A.; Ho, F.; Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1991-01-01

    With experience at increasing production levels, GaAs/Ge cells are proving their effectiveness for some demanding missions. The experience in producing inactive-Ge structures should benefit parallel work on forming monolithic cascade cells using AlGaAs or GaAs top cell layers grown on Ge or other bottom cell materials. The adjustments needed to ensure that the GaAs/Ge interface is inactive are more likely to preserve the properties of a separately optimized bottom cell.

  18. Spectral response of steady-state photoluminescence from GaAs1-xPx layers grown on a SiGe/Si system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Pollard, Michael E.; Klaus Juhl, Mattias; Conrad, Brianna; Soeriyadi, Anastasia; Li, Dun; Lochtefeld, Anthony; Gerger, Andrew; Bagnall, Darren M.; Barnett, Allen; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan

    2017-09-01

    Measuring the spectral response of photoluminescence (SRPL) in solar cells has recently attracted attention as it can be used as a contactless relative measure of external quantum efficiency (EQE) prior to full device fabrication. However, this technique requires that the monitored PL spectrum originates mainly from a region in the solar cell with uniformly distributed majority carriers. For a stack of thin films with a similar material composition, the slightly different emission spectrum from each layer may lead to the superposition of several luminescence peaks. This letter presents the measurement of the SRPL from GaAsP tandem solar cells and outlines a method for separating the individual layer contributions. Good agreement between measured SRPL and EQE at short wavelengths has been achieved, and the deviations at longer wavelengths have been analyzed. This study also reveals unexpected bandgap narrowing resulting from a variable material composition within the active region.

  19. Pulsed laser deposited GeTe-rich GeTe-Sb2Te3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouška, M.; Pechev, S.; Simon, Q.; Boidin, R.; Nazabal, V.; Gutwirth, J.; Baudet, E.; Němec, P.

    2016-05-01

    Pulsed laser deposition technique was used for the fabrication of Ge-Te rich GeTe-Sb2Te3 (Ge6Sb2Te9, Ge8Sb2Te11, Ge10Sb2Te13, and Ge12Sb2Te15) amorphous thin films. To evaluate the influence of GeTe content in the deposited films on physico-chemical properties of the GST materials, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction and reflectometry, atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, optical reflectivity, and sheet resistance temperature dependences as well as variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize as-deposited (amorphous) and annealed (crystalline) layers. Upon crystallization, optical functions and electrical resistance of the films change drastically, leading to large optical and electrical contrast between amorphous and crystalline phases. Large changes of optical/electrical properties are accompanied by the variations of thickness, density, and roughness of the films due to crystallization. Reflectivity contrast as high as ~0.21 at 405 nm was calculated for Ge8Sb2Te11, Ge10Sb2Te13, and Ge12Sb2Te15 layers.

  20. Pulsed laser deposited GeTe-rich GeTe-Sb2Te3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Bouška, M; Pechev, S; Simon, Q; Boidin, R; Nazabal, V; Gutwirth, J; Baudet, E; Němec, P

    2016-05-20

    Pulsed laser deposition technique was used for the fabrication of Ge-Te rich GeTe-Sb2Te3 (Ge6Sb2Te9, Ge8Sb2Te11, Ge10Sb2Te13, and Ge12Sb2Te15) amorphous thin films. To evaluate the influence of GeTe content in the deposited films on physico-chemical properties of the GST materials, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction and reflectometry, atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, optical reflectivity, and sheet resistance temperature dependences as well as variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize as-deposited (amorphous) and annealed (crystalline) layers. Upon crystallization, optical functions and electrical resistance of the films change drastically, leading to large optical and electrical contrast between amorphous and crystalline phases. Large changes of optical/electrical properties are accompanied by the variations of thickness, density, and roughness of the films due to crystallization. Reflectivity contrast as high as ~0.21 at 405 nm was calculated for Ge8Sb2Te11, Ge10Sb2Te13, and Ge12Sb2Te15 layers.

  1. Pulsed laser deposited GeTe-rich GeTe-Sb2Te3 thin films

    PubMed Central

    Bouška, M.; Pechev, S.; Simon, Q.; Boidin, R.; Nazabal, V.; Gutwirth, J.; Baudet, E.; Němec, P.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition technique was used for the fabrication of Ge-Te rich GeTe-Sb2Te3 (Ge6Sb2Te9, Ge8Sb2Te11, Ge10Sb2Te13, and Ge12Sb2Te15) amorphous thin films. To evaluate the influence of GeTe content in the deposited films on physico-chemical properties of the GST materials, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction and reflectometry, atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, optical reflectivity, and sheet resistance temperature dependences as well as variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize as-deposited (amorphous) and annealed (crystalline) layers. Upon crystallization, optical functions and electrical resistance of the films change drastically, leading to large optical and electrical contrast between amorphous and crystalline phases. Large changes of optical/electrical properties are accompanied by the variations of thickness, density, and roughness of the films due to crystallization. Reflectivity contrast as high as ~0.21 at 405 nm was calculated for Ge8Sb2Te11, Ge10Sb2Te13, and Ge12Sb2Te15 layers. PMID:27199107

  2. Reduction of critical current density for out-of-plane mode oscillation in a mag-flip spin torque oscillator using highly spin-polarized Co2Fe(Ga0.5Ge0.5) spin injection layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosu, S.; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Sakuraba, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Abert, C.; Suess, D.; Schrefl, T.; Hono, K.

    2016-02-01

    We study spin torque oscillators comprised of a perpendicular spin injection layer (SIL) and a planar field generating layer to reveal the influence of the spin polarization of SIL material on the critical current density, JC, to induce microwave oscillation. Two systems with different SIL are compared: one with a highly spin-polarized Heusler alloy, Co2Fe(Ga0.5Ge0.5) (CFGG), and the other a prototypical Fe2Co alloy. Cross sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy observations show the B2-ordered structure in a 3-nm-thick CFGG SIL, a prerequisite for obtaining half-metallic transport properties. Current induced microwave oscillations are found at frequencies of ˜15 GHz for both systems. However, the current needed to cause the oscillations is ˜50% smaller for films with the CFGG SIL compared to those of the Fe2Co SIL. These results are in accordance with micromagnetic simulations that include spin accumulation at the SIL.

  3. Comparative investigation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells using different Te-doped InGaP layers in tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Chang Zoo; Kim, Youngjo; Jun, Dong Hwan; Kang, Ho Kwan; Kim, Hogyoung

    2016-03-01

    Heavily tellurium (Te)-doped InGaP layers in tunnel junctions (TJs) grown by using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) were investigated to improve the device performance of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells. Three different doping techniques were employed to grow the Te-doped InGaP layers in the TJ; Te doping, Te and Si co-doping and Te pre-doping. Compared to other samples, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) profiles in the InGaP top cell were found to be higher for the sample with Te pre-doping. Under a concentrated light condition, higher fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency were also observed for the sample with Te pre-doping. These indicate that the crystalline qualities of the upper TJ, composed of a p-GaAs/n-InGaP TJ, and the InGaP top cell were improved by using the Te pre-doping method.

  4. Performance improvement for epitaxially grown SiGe on Si solar cell using a compositionally graded SiGe base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dun; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Li; Conrad, Brianna; Soeriyadi, Anastasia; Lochtefeld, Anthony; Gerger, Andrew; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan; Barnett, Allen

    2016-12-01

    Silicon germanium (SiGe) is a material with high mobility and relatively low bandgap making it an attractive candidate for the bottom subcell in a III-V tandem solar cell grown on silicon (Si) substrate. This paper reports on the performance improvement of an epitaxially grown SiGe on Si solar cell by growing a higher Ge composition SiGe layer in the base. The purpose of growing a higher Ge composition SiGe layer in the base is to improve the light absorption. The first iteration of this structure was an Si0.18Ge0.82 solar cell fabricated with a 1 μm thick Si0.12Ge0.88 layer in the base. This solar cell had a lower efficiency compared with the reference solar cell without the Si0.12Ge0.88 layer. One of the main reasons for the lower efficiency is believed to be the high threading dislocation density (TDD) caused by the abrupt change of lattice constant between Si0.18Ge0.82 and Si0.12Ge0.88 in the base. In order to reduce the TDD, the second iteration of the structure was fabricated with a compositionally graded SiGe base. With the new structure, an SiGe on Si solar cell with an efficiency of 3.1%, when filtered by a GaAs0.79P0.21 top cell, was fabricated. The Ge composition in the base of this solar cell gradually increased from 82% to 85% and then decreased again to 82%. The developed SiGe solar cell with graded base provides more flexibility for a highly efficient GaAsP/SiGe dual junction solar cell grown on an Si substrate.

  5. Intermediate-Scale Experimental and Numerical Study of Multiphase CO2 Attenuation in Layered Shallow Aquifers During Leakage from Geologic Sequestration Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plampin, M. R.; Pawar, R.; Porter, M. L.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    In order to effectively predict and mitigate the potential risks from leakage of stored CO2, we must first understand the physicochemical processes that CO2 undergoes during migration through shallow aquifers, including dissolved phase advection and dispersion as well as gas phase exsolution, multiphase flow, and dissolution. Since field sites are inherently large-scale, heterogeneous, 3-D systems, large-scale experimental data is important to validate numerical models and to make confident predictions regarding CO2 migration. A large, highly instrumented, two-dimensional tank was built and packed with porous media to represent a portion of a layered shallow aquifer. Flow of water across the tank was established by applying a small difference in head between the two ends. A separate stream of water was then saturated with dissolved CO2 and injected into the bottom of the tank near the upstream end. Various saturation sensors measured the spatiotemporal pattern of gas phase evolution in the tank, while an external sensor and an Ion Chromatograph were used to monitor the dissolved CO2 concentrations at various locations in the system. The top of the tank was baffled into four sealed compartments, each of which was connected to a gas flow meter to monitor the spatiotemporal pattern of gas phase CO2 release to the atmosphere. Numerical simulations were also performed to better understand the fundamental physics that drove the observed CO2 evolution processes, and to help validate a widely used code using the experimental data. The simulations were performed with the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer (FEHM) software that was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model domain, porous media properties, and initial conditions were set up to match those of the experiment, and the boundary conditions were adjusted to investigate the mass transfer between the dissolved and gaseous phases of CO2 that developed within the system. Results from both the experiments

  6. Epitaxial Technologies for SiGeSn High Performance Optoelectronic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    includes i) Growth of mid-IR GeSn/SiGeSn materials using Ultra-high- vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition , ii) In-depth characterizations of GeSn materials...for SiGeSn varies from 2% to 5%. The reciprocal space map shows that the as-grown GeSn layers are relaxed. The TEM image shows that the misfit...dislocations are localized at the interface between Si and epitaxy layer . Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) from GeSn and SiGeSn samples have

  7. Study of low-defect and strain-relaxed GeSn growth via reduced pressure CVD in H2 and N2 carrier gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margetis, J.; Mosleh, A.; Al-Kabi, S.; Ghetmiri, S. A.; Du, W.; Dou, W.; Benamara, M.; Li, B.; Mortazavi, M.; Naseem, H. A.; Yu, S.-Q.; Tolle, J.

    2017-04-01

    High quality, thick (up to 1.1 μm), strain relaxed GeSn alloys were grown on Ge-buffered Si (1 0 0) in an ASM Epsilon® chemical vapor deposition system using SnCl4 and low-cost commercial GeH4 precursors. The significance of surface chemistry in regards to growth rate and Sn-incorporation is discussed by comparing growth kinetics data in H2 and N2 carrier gas. The role of carrier gas is also explored in the suppression of Sn surface segregation and evolution of layer composition and strain profiles via secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the spontaneous compositional splitting and formation of a thin intermediate layer in which dislocations are pinned. This intermediate layer enables the growth of a thick, strain relaxed, and defect-free epitaxial layer on its top. Last, we present photoluminescence results which indicate that both N2 and H2 growth methods produce optoelectronic device quality material.

  8. Fundamental studies on the intermediate layer of a bipolar membrane. Part II. Effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on water dissociation at the interface of a bipolar membrane.

    PubMed

    Fu, Rong Qiang; Xu, Tong Wen; Yang, Wei Hua; Pan, Zhong Xiao

    2004-10-15

    This paper investigates the behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA) during water dissociation on a bipolar membrane (BPM). BSA-modified BPM is prepared by immersing polyethylene anion exchange membrane in different concentration solutions of BSA, then casting the solution of sulfonated poly(phenylene oxide) (SPPO) in dimethyl formamide. The modification of BSA was evidenced by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The junction thickness was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the typical I-V curves for bipolar membranes were heavily affected by the BSA modifications: the more the adsorbed amount of BSA, the larger the potential drop across a bipolar membrane. The new phenomena is underlined by the intrinsic properties of BSA molecules: steric effects give rise to an increase in the thickness of the depletion layer, amphoteric properties weaken the electric field of the junction, and hydrophobicity makes the junction less wet. All of these cause negative effects on water dissociation on a bipolar membrane.

  9. New approach to the growth of low dislocation relaxed SiGe material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A. R.; Iyer, S. S.; LeGoues, F. K.

    1994-04-01

    In this growth process a new strain relief mechanism operates, whereby the SiGe epitaxial layer relaxes without the generation of threading dislocations within the SiGe layer. This is achieved by depositing SiGe on an ultrathin silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate with a superficial silicon thickness less than the SiGe layer thickness. Initially, the thin Si layer is put under tension due to an equalization of the strain between the Si and SiGe layers. Thereafter, the strain created in the thin Si layer relaxes by plastic deformation. Since the dislocations are formed and glide in the thin Si layer, no threading dislocation is ever introduced in to the upper SiGe material, which appeared dislocation free to the limit of the cross sectional transmission electron microscopy analysis. We thus have a method for producing very low dislocation, relaxes SiGe films with the additional benefit of an SOI substrate.

  10. Interfacial processes in the Pd/a-Ge:H system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelman, F.; Cytermann, C.; Brener, R.; Eizenberg, M.; Weil, R.; Beyer, W.

    1993-06-01

    The kinetics of phase transformation has been studied in a two-layer structure of Pd/a-Ge:H after vacuum annealing at temperatures from 180 to 500°C. The a-Ge:H was deposited at 250°C on both c-Si and cleaved NaCl substrates in an RF glow discharge from a GeH 4/H 2 mixture. It was found that, similarly to the Pd/c-Ge and the Pd/a-Ge (e-gun deposited) systems, in the case of 0.15-0.2 μm Pd/0.6-1.0 μm a-Ge:H interfacial germanides formed first through the production of Pd 2Ge (plus a small amount of PdGe), and then PdGe was produced. The growth of both compounds was found to be diffusion-controlled. The nonreacted a-Ge:H layer beneath the germanide overlayer crystallized at 400-500°C. A reverse sequence of germanides formation was revealed in the case of 50 nm Pd/30 nm a-Ge:H, studied by in situ heat treatment in the TEM utilizing non-supported samples. The first germanide detected was PdGe and then, as a result of PdGe and Ge reaction or the PdGe decomposition, Pd 2Ge formed. The temperature dependence of the incubation time before the first ˜ 10 nm PdGe grains formed, followed an Arrhenius curve with an activation energy of 1.45 eV.

  11. Solid state synthesis of Mn5Ge3 in Ge/Ag/Mn trilayers: Structural and magnetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myagkov, V. G.; Bykova, L. E.; Matsynin, A. A.; Volochaev, M. N.; Zhigalov, V. S.; Tambasov, I. A.; Mikhlin, Yu L.; Velikanov, D. A.; Bondarenko, G. N.

    2017-02-01

    The thin-film solid-state reaction between elemental Ge and Mn across chemically inert Ag layers with thicknesses of (0, 0.3, 1 and 2.2 μm) in Ge/Ag/Mn trilayers was studied for the first time. The initial samples were annealed at temperatures between 50 and 500 °C at 50 °C intervals for 1 h. The initiation temperature of the reaction for Ge/Mn (without a Ag barrier layer) was 120 °C and increased slightly up to 250 °C when the Ag barrier layer thickness increased up to 2.2 μm. In spite of the Ag layer, only the ferromagnetic Mn5Ge3 compound and the Nowotny phase were observed in the initial stage of the reaction after annealing at 500 °C. The cross-sectional studies show that during Mn5Ge3 formation the Ge is the sole diffusing species. The magnetic and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show an almost complete transfer of Ge atoms from the Ge film, via a 2.2 μm Ag barrier layer, into the Mn layer. We attribute the driving force of the long-range transfer to the long-range chemical interactions between reacting Mn and Ge atoms.

  12. Ion-assisted laser deposition of intermediate layers for YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin film growth on polycrystalline and amorphous substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Reade, Ronald P.

    1993-11-01

    The growth of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) high-temperature superconductor thin films has largely been limited to deposition on single-crystal substrates to date. In order to expand the range of potential applications, growth on polycrystalline and amorphous substrates is desirable. In particular, the deposition of YBCO thin films with high critical current densities on polycrystalline metal alloys would allow the manufacture of superconducting tapes. However, it is shown that it is not possible to grow YBCO thin films directly on this type of substrate due to chemical and structural incompatibility. This work investigates the use of a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) intermediate layer to address this problem. An ion-assisted pulsed-laser deposition process is developed to provide control of orientation during the growth of the YSZ layers. The important properties of YBCO and YSZ are summarized and the status of research on thin film growth of these materials is reviewed. An overview of the pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) technique is presented. The use of ion-assisted deposition techniques to control thin film properties is discussed.

  13. Role of pH Changes on Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Release and on the Fibrin Architecture of Platelet-rich Fibrin When Layered with Biodentine, Glass Ionomer Cement, and Intermediate Restorative Material.

    PubMed

    Mullaguri, Harish; Suresh, Nandini; Surendran, Smitha; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Chitra, Selvarajan

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of pH that is due to setting reaction of Biodentine, glass ionomer cement (GIC), and intermediate restorative material (IRM) on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) release and on the fibrin architecture of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). PRF was obtained from 8 volunteers and layered over the freshly prepared GIC, IRM, and Biodentine mixtures. TGF-β1 release was estimated by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and fibrin structure of PRF was analyzed by using scanning electron microscope at 1 and 5 hours. Biodentine, GIC, and IRM increased the TGF-β1 release in comparison with that of control group (PRF alone) at both 1 and 5 hours. Biodentine released significantly more TGF-β1 than GIC and IRM at 1 hour. At 5 hours both GIC and Biodentine released significantly more TGF-β1 than IRM. The fibrin architecture of the Biodentine group was similar to that of control group at both 1 and 5 hours. In GIC and IRM groups the fibrillar structure of fibrin was collapsed, ill-defined, and cloudy with very thick fibers and irregularly reduced porosities. Biodentine induces larger amount of TGF-β1 release and also maintains the integrity of fibrin structure when compared with GIC and IRM when layered over PRF. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. RE2MAl6Si4 (RE = Gd, Tb, Dy; M = Au, Pt): layered quaternary intermetallics featuring CaAl2Si2-type and YNiAl4Ge2-type slabs grown from aluminum flux.

    PubMed

    Latturner, Susan E; Bilc, Daniel; Mahanti, S D; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2003-12-01

    Six new intermetallic aluminum silicides--Gd(2)PtAl(6)Si(4), Gd(2)AuAl(6)Si(4), Tb(2)PtAl(6)Si(4), Tb(2)AuAl(6)Si(4), Dy(2)PtAl(6)Si(4), and Dy(2)AuAl(6)Si(4)--have been obtained from reactions carried out in aluminum flux. The structure of these compounds was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. They form in space group Rthremacr;m with cell constants of a = 4.1623(3) A and c = 51.048(5) A for the Gd(2)PtAl(6)Si(4) compound. The crystal structure is comprised of hexagonal nets of rare earth atoms alternating with two kinds of layers that have been observed in other multinary aluminide intermetallic compounds (CaAl(2)Si(2) and YNiAl(4)Ge(2)). All six RE(2)MAl(6)Si(4) compounds show antiferromagnetic transitions at low temperatures (T(N) < 20 K); magnetization studies of the Dy compounds show metamagnetic behavior with reorientation of spins at 6000 G. Band structure calculations indicate that the AlSi puckered hexagonal sheets in this structure are electronically distinct from the other surrounding structural motifs.

  15. The effect of the interlayer element on the exfoliation of layered Mo2AC (A = Al, Si, P, Ga, Ge, As or In) MAX phases into two-dimensional Mo2C nanosheets

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Mohammad; Arai, Masao; Sasaki, Taizo; Estili, Mehdi; Sakka, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    The experimental exfoliation of layered, ternary transition-metal carbide and nitride compounds, known as MAX phases, into two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets, is a great development in the synthesis of novel low-dimensional inorganic systems. Among the MAX phases, Mo-containing ones might be considered as the source for obtaining Mo2C nanosheets with potentially unique properties, if they could be exfoliated. Here, by using a set of first-principles calculations, we discuss the effect of the interlayer ‘A’ element on the exfoliation of Mo2AC (A = Al, Si, P, Ga, Ge, As or In) MAX phases into the 2D Mo2C nanosheets. Based on the calculated exfoliation energies and the elastic constants, we propose that Mo2InC with the lowest exfoliation energy and the highest elastic constant anisotropy between C11 and C33 might be a suitable compound for exfoliation into 2D Mo2C nanosheets. PMID:27877635

  16. Crystal orientation dependence of current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance of pseudo spin-valves with epitaxial Co{sub 2}Fe(Ge{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}) Heusler alloy layers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiamin; Hono, K.; Li, Songtian; Furubayashi, T. Takahashi, Y. K.

    2014-06-21

    The magnetoresistive (MR) properties of Co{sub 2}Fe(Ge{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}) (CFGG) Heusler alloy-based current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance pseudo-spin-valves (PSVs) are investigated. The PSV films are epitaxially grown on a sapphire (112{sup ¯}0) substrate with an Ag or Cu spacer layer, and their magnetoresistive properties are compared with those of PSV grown on MgO(001) substrates. For substrates with an Ag spacer, the PSV with the (001)[110]{sub CFGG}//(001)[010]{sub Ag} interface grown on MgO(001) exhibits a higher MR output compared with the (110)[001]{sub CFGG}//(111)[11{sup ¯}0]{sub Ag} interface grown on sapphire (112{sup ¯}0). In contrast, a higher MR output is obtained using a Cu spacer with the (110)[001]{sub CFGG}//(111)[11{sup ¯}0]{sub Cu} interface. These results demonstrate that the MR outputs depend upon the crystal orientation at the interface, and that interfaces with a small misfit tend to exhibit a larger MR output. This indicates the influence of crystal orientation as well as lattice mismatch upon the interfacial spin scattering asymmetry.

  17. Similarity of Stranski-Krastanow growth of Ge/Si and SiGe/Si (001)

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, D. J.; Qiu, Y.; Walther, T.; Dobbie, A.; Myronov, M.

    2014-01-07

    This study investigates the onset of islanding (Stranski-Krastanow transition) in strained pure germanium (Ge) and dilute silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloy layers grown by chemical vapour deposition on Si(001) substrates. Integration of compositional profiles is compared to a novel method for quantification of X-ray maps acquired in cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy, together with simulations of surface segregation of Ge. We show that Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} alloys for germanium concentrations x ≤ 0.27 grow two-dimensionally and stay flat up to considerable layer thicknesses, while layers with concentrations in the range 0.28 < x ≤ 1 form islands after deposition of ∼3.0/x monolayers (=quarter unit cells in the diamond lattice, ML). The uncertainty in the amount of deposited material for pure Ge is ±(0.2–0.3) ML. Modelling shows that of the amount of germanium deposited, 0.7 ML segregate towards the free surface so that only ∼2.3/x ML are directly incorporated in the layer within a few nanometres, in good agreement with our measurements. For pure Ge (x = 1), this thickness is smaller than most values quoted in the literature, which we attribute to the high sensitivity of our method to fractional monolayer changes in the effective chemical width of such thin layers.

  18. Electrical circuit model of ITO/AZO/Ge photodetector.

    PubMed

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Joondong

    2017-10-01

    In this data article, ITO/AZO/Ge photodetector was investigated for electrical circuit model. Due to the double (ITO and AZO) transparent metal-oxide films (DOI:10.1016/j.mssp.2016.03.007) (Yun et al., 2016) [1], the Ge heterojunction device has a better interface quality due to the AZO layer with a low electrical resistance due to the ITO layer (Yun et al., 2015) [2]. The electrical and interfacial benefitted ITO/AZO/Ge heterojunction shows the quality Schottky junction. In order to investigate the device, the ITO/AZO/Ge heterojunction was analyzed by R-C circuit model using the impedance spectroscopy.

  19. Ferroelectric switching in epitaxial GeTe films

    SciTech Connect

    Kolobov, A. V. Fons, P.; Tominaga, J.; Kim, D. J.; Gruverman, A.; Giussani, A.; Calarco, R.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, using a resonance-enhanced piezoresponse force microscopy approach supported by density functional theory computer simulations, we have demonstrated the ferroelectric switching in epitaxial GeTe films. It has been shown that in films with thickness on the order of several nanometers reversible reorientation of polarization occurs due to swapping of the shorter and longer Ge-Te bonds in the interior of the material. It is also hinted that for ultra thin films consisting of just several atomic layers weakly bonded to the substrate, ferroelectric switching may proceed through exchange of Ge and Te planes within individual GeTe layers.

  20. Determination of Near-surface Ge and Si Site Occupation in Ge/Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskovar, M.; Meng, S.; Hessinger, Uwe; Olmstead, Marjorie A.

    1996-03-01

    When Ge is deposited on Si(001), the larger size and lower surface energy of the Ge should impede intermixing. However, the strain induced by the surface reconstruction has been predicted to result in a preference for Si in some near-surface sites. The specifics of the predicted site segregation depend on whether an empirical or ab-initio potential is used. We have investigated the near-surface site occupation of well-annealed <= 2 ML Ge films on single-domain Si(100)4 deg 2x1 surfaces using X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Sub-monolayer Ge deposition at 500 degC results in the Ge residing in the top layer (no forward scattering in Ge XPD) while the LEED pattern remains mostly 2x1. This implies Ge exchange with the surface Si layer, followed by transport of the displaced Si to preserve the dimer row orientation relative to that of the steps. At higher temperatures and/or coverages some Si-Ge intermixing may be observed.

  1. Properties of slow traps of ALD Al2O3/GeOx/Ge nMOSFETs with plasma post oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, M.; Yu, X.; Chang, C.; Takenaka, M.; Takagi, S.

    2016-07-01

    The realization of Ge gate stacks with a small amount of slow trap density as well as thin equivalent oxide thickness and low interface state density (Dit) is a crucial issue for Ge CMOS. In this study, we examine the properties of slow traps, particularly the location of slow traps, of Al2O3/GeOx/n-Ge and HfO2/Al2O3/GeOx/n-Ge MOS interfaces with changing the process and structural parameters, formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 and HfO2/Al2O3 combined with plasma post oxidation. It is found that the slow traps can locate in the GeOx interfacial layer, not in the ALD Al2O3 layer. Furthermore, we study the time dependence of channel currents in the Ge n-MOSFETs with 5-nm-thick Al2O3/GeOx/Ge gate stacks, with changing the thickness of GeOx, in order to further clarify the position of slow traps. The time dependence of the current drift and the effective time constant of slow traps do not change among the MOSFETs with the different thickness GeOx, demonstrating that the slow traps mainly exist near the interfaces between Ge and GeOx.

  2. Lateral Ge Diffusion During Oxidation of Si/SiGe Fins.

    PubMed

    Brewer, William M; Xin, Yan; Hatem, C; Diercks, D; Truong, V Q; Jones, K S

    2017-04-12

    This Letter reports on the unusual diffusion behavior of Ge during oxidation of a multilayer Si/SiGe fin. It is observed that oxidation surprisingly results in the formation of vertically stacked Si nanowires encapsulated in defect free epitaxial strained SixGe1-x. High angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) shows that extremely enhanced diffusion of Ge occurs along the vertical Si/SiO2 oxidizing interface and is responsible for the encapsulation process. Further oxidation fully encapsulates the Si layers in defect free single crystal SixGe1-x (x up to 0.53), which results in Si nanowires with up to -2% strain. Atom probe tomography reconstructions demonstrate that the resultant nanowires run the length of the fin. We found that the oxidation temperature plays a significant role in the formation of the Si nanowires. In the process range of 800-900 °C, pure strained and rounded Si nanowires down to 2 nm in diameter can be fabricated. At lower temperatures, the Ge diffusion along the oxidizing Si/SiO2 interface is slow, and rounding of the nanowire does not occur, while at higher temperatures, the diffusivity of Ge into Si is sufficient to result in dilution of the pure Si nanowire with Ge. The use of highly selective etchants to remove the SiGe could provide a new pathway for the creation of highly controlled vertically stacked nanowires for gate all around transistors.

  3. Tensile strain in Ge membranes induced by SiGe nanostressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barget, Michael R.; Lodari, Mario; Borriello, Mauro; Mondiali, Valeria; Chrastina, Daniel; Bollani, Monica; Bonera, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    The monolithic integration of photonic functionality into silicon microtechnology is widely advanced. Yet, there is no final solution for the realization of a light source compatible with the prevailing complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. A lot of research effort focuses on germanium (Ge) on silicon (Si) heterostructures and tensile strain application to Ge is accepted as one feasible route to make Ge an efficient light emitter. Prior work has documented the special suitability of Ge membranes to reach the high tensile strain. We present a top-down approach for the creation of SiGe stressors on Ge micro-bridges and compare the obtained strain to the case of an attached bulk-like Ge layer. We could show that the Ge influenced by a SiGe stressor is under tensile strain; absolute strain values are of the order of 0.7% for both micro-bridge and bulk. The relative strain induced by the nanostructures in the micro-bridge is 1.3% due to the high sharing of elastic energy between nanostructures and bridges.

  4. S and O adsorption on pure and Ge doped Ag(1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomqvist, J.; Salo, P.; Alatalo, M.

    2004-09-01

    We have studied the possibility of preventing the sulphur poisoning of silver surfaces by doping them with Ge. Our first principles calculations show that the presence of Ge at the topmost surface layer does not affect the adsorption characteristics of S much, yet Ge helps to bind oxygen much more strongly. We thus predict that Ge doping induces a protective O layer which helps to prevent the poisoning caused by sulphur.

  5. Growth mechanism of Ge-doped CZTSSe thin film by sputtering method and solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinze; Shen, Honglie; Chen, Jieyi; Li, Yufang; Yang, Jiale

    2016-10-19

    Ge-doped CZTSSe thin films were obtained by covering a thin Ge layer on CZTS precursors, followed by a selenization process. The effect of the Ge layer thickness on the morphologies and structural properties of Ge-doped CZTSSe thin films were studied. It was found that Ge doping could promote grain growth to form a compact thin film. The lattice shrank in the top-half of the film due to the smaller atomic radius of Ge, leading to the formation of tensile stress. According to thermodynamic analysis, Sn was easier to be selenized than Ge. Thus, Ge preferred to remain on the surface and increased the surface roughness when the Ge layer was thin. CZTSe was easier to form than Ge-doped CZTSe, which caused difficulty in Ge doping. These results offered a theoretical and experimental guide for preparing Ge-doped CZTSSe thin films for the potential applications in low-cost solar cells. With a 10 nm Ge layer on the top of the precursor, the conversion efficiency of the solar cell improved to 5.38% with an open-circuit voltage of 403 mV, a short-circuit current density of 28.51 mA cm(-2) and a fill factor of 46.83% after Ge doping.

  6. Fabrication of GeSn-multiple quantum wells by overgrowth of Sn on Ge by using molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, F.; Fischer, I. A.; Schulze, J.; Benedetti, A.; Zaumseil, P.; Cerqueira, M. F.; Vasilevskiy, M. I.; Stefanov, S.; Chiussi, S.

    2015-12-28

    We report on the fabrication and structural characterization of epitaxially grown ultra-thin layers of Sn on Ge virtual substrates (Si buffer layer overgrown by a 50 nm thick Ge epilayer followed by an annealing step). Samples with 1 to 5 monolayers of Sn on Ge virtual substrates were grown using solid source molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by atomic force microscopy. We determined the critical thickness at which the transition from two-dimensional to three-dimensional growth occurs. This transition is due to the large lattice mismatch between Ge and Sn (≈14.7%). By depositing Ge on top of Sn layers, which have thicknesses at or just below the critical thickness, we were able to fabricate ultra-narrow GeSn multi-quantum-well structures that are fully embedded in Ge. We report results on samples with one and ten GeSn wells separated by 5 and 10 nm thick Ge spacer layers that were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. We discuss the structure and material intermixing observed in the samples.

  7. Syntheses, structural variants and characterization of AInM′S{sub 4} (A=alkali metals, Tl; M′ = Ge, Sn) compounds; facile ion-exchange reactions of layered NaInSnS{sub 4} and KInSnS{sub 4} compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Yohannan, Jinu P.; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2016-06-15

    Ten AInM′S{sub 4} (A=alkali metals, Tl; M′= Ge, Sn) compounds with diverse structure types have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction and a variety of spectroscopic methods. They are wide band gap semiconductors. KInGeS{sub 4}(1-β), RbInGeS{sub 4}(2), CsInGeS{sub 4}(3-β), TlInGeS{sub 4}(4-β), RbInSnS{sub 4}(8-β) and CsInSnS{sub 4}(9) compounds with three-dimensional BaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} structure and CsInGeS{sub 4}(3-α) and TlInGeS{sub 4}(4-α) compounds with a layered TlInSiS{sub 4} structure have tetrahedral [InM′S{sub 4}]{sup −} frameworks. On the other hand, LiInSnS{sub 4}(5) with spinel structure and NaInSnS{sub 4}(6), KInSnS{sub 4}(7), RbInSnS{sub 4}(8-α) and TlInSnS{sub 4}(10) compounds with layered structure have octahedral [InM′S{sub 4}]{sup −} frameworks. NaInSnS{sub 4}(6) and KInSnS{sub 4}(7) compounds undergo facile topotactic ion-exchange, at room temperature, with various mono-, di- and tri-valent cations in aqueous medium to give rise to metastable layered phases. - Graphical abstract: NaInSnS{sub 4} and KInSnS{sub 4} compounds undergo, in aqueous medium at room temperature, facile topotactic ion-exchange with mono, di and trivalent cations. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Ten AInM′S{sub 4} compounds with diverse structure types were synthesized. • They are wide band gap semiconductors. • NaInSnS{sub 4} and KInSnS{sub 4} compounds undergo facile topotactic ion-exchange at room temperature.

  8. Dysprosium-induced nanowires on Ge(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochner, M.; Bienert, R.; Kürpick, U.; Matzdorf, R.

    2015-07-01

    Dysprosium-induced, self-assembled nanowires on Ge(001) were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). For this, submonolayers of dysprosium were deposited on Ge(001). After subsequent annealing, the surface shows a variety of structures as different kinds of wires with varying thickness, larger islands and surface defects like missing dimers and vacancy rows perpendicular to the Ge(001)-dimer rows. The structures are forming on all intact Ge(001)-terraces. In contrast to dysprosium on Si(001), on Ge(001) no wetting layer is found. In this work we focus on the thinnest nanowires, which have a width of four times the Ge(001)-lattice constant. STM topographies of the unoccupied states show a twofold superstructure on the wires. In contrast, topographies of the occupied states show that the structure of the wires is less regular. They exhibit elevations with distances, which are multiples higher than two of the Ge(001)-surface lattice constant. Density of states mapping reveals a cell structure of the nanowires. Possible explanations for this behaviour are discussed.

  9. Electrical characterization of SiGeSn grown on Ge substrate using ultra high vacuum chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahoujja, Mo; Kang, S.; Hamilton, M.; Yeo, Y. K.; Kouvetakis, J.; Menendez, J.

    2012-02-01

    There has been recently considerable interest in growing SiyGe1-x-ySnx alloys for the fabrication of photonic devices that could be integrated with Si technologies. We report temperature dependent Hall (TDH) measurements of the hole concentration and mobility from high quality p-type doped Si0.08Ge0.90Sn0.02 layers grown on p-type doped Ge substrates using ultra high vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The TDH measurements show the hole sheet density remains constant at low temperatures before slightly decreasing and dipping at ˜ 125 K. It then exponentially increases with temperature due to the activation of shallow acceptors. At temperatures above ˜ 450 K, the hole sheet density increases sharply indicating the onset of intrinsic conduction in the SiGeSn and/or Ge layers. To extract the electrical properties of the SiGeSn layer alone, a parametric fit using a multi layer conducting model is applied to the measured hole concentration and mobility data. The analysis yields boron and gallium doping concentrations of 3x10^17 cm-3 and 1x10^18 cm-3 with activation energies of 10 meV and 11 meV for the SiGeSn layer and Ge substrate, respectively. Furthermore, a temperature independent hole sheet concentration of ˜5x10^15 cm-2 with a mobility of ˜250 cm^2/Vs, which is believed to be due to an interfacial layer between the SiGeSn layer and the Ge substrate, is also determined.

  10. Collectivity of light Ge and As isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, A.; Delaroche, J.-P.; Obertelli, A.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Boissinot, S.; Flavigny, F.; Gade, A.; Girod, M.; Glasmacher, T.; Grinyer, G. F.; Korten, W.; Libert, J.; Ljungvall, J.; McDaniel, S.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Signoracci, A.; Stroberg, R.; Sulignano, B.; Weisshaar, D.

    2013-10-01

    Background: The self-conjugate nuclei of the A˜70 mass region display rapid shape evolution over isotopic or isotonic chains. Shape coexistence has been observed in Se and Kr isotopes reflecting the existence of deformed subshell gaps corresponding to different shell configurations. As and Ge isotopes are located halfway between such deformed nuclei and the Z=28 shell closure.Purpose: The present work aims at clarifying the low-lying spectroscopy of 66Ge and 67As, and providing a better insight into the evolution of collectivity in light even-even Ge and even-odd As isotopes.Methods: We investigate the low-lying levels and collectivity of the neutron deficient 67As and 66Ge through intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation, inelastic scattering, and proton knockout measurements. The experiment was performed using a cocktail beam of 68Se, 67As, and 66Ge nuclei at an energy of 70-80 MeV/nucleon. Spectroscopic properties of the low-lying states are compared to those calculated via shell model with the JUN45 interaction and beyond-mean-field calculations with the five-dimensional collective Hamiltonian method implemented using the Gogny D1S interaction. The structure evolution of the lower-mass Ge and As isotopes is discussed.Results: Reduced electric quadrupole transition probabilities B(E2) have been extracted from the Coulomb-excitation cross sections measured in 66Ge and 67As. The value obtained for the B(E2;01+→21+) in 66Ge is in agreement with a recent measurement, ruling out the existence of a minimum at N=34 in the B(E2) systematics as previously observed. New transitions have been found in 67As and were assigned to the decay of low-lying negative-parity states.

  11. Ge interactions on HfO{sub 2} surfaces and kinetically driven patterning of Ge nanocrystals on HfO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, Scott K.; Joshi, Sachin V.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2006-01-15

    Germanium interactions are studied on HfO{sub 2} surfaces, which are prepared through physical vapor deposition (PVD) and by atomic layer deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programed desorption are used to follow the reactions of germanium on HfO{sub 2}. Germanium chemical vapor deposition at 870 K on HfO{sub 2} produces a GeO{sub x} adhesion layer, followed by growth of semiconducting Ge{sup 0}. PVD of 0.7 ML Ge (accomplished by thermally cracking GeH{sub 4} over a hot filament) also produces an initial GeO{sub x} layer, which is stable up to 800 K. PVD above 2.0 ML deposits semiconducting Ge{sup 0}. Temperature programed desorption experiments of {approx}1.0 ML Ge from HfO{sub 2} at 400-1100 K show GeH{sub 4} desorption below 600 K and GeO desorption above 850 K. These results are compared to Ge on SiO{sub 2} where GeO desorption is seen at 550 K. Exploiting the different reactivity of Ge on HfO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} allows a kinetically driven patterning scheme for high-density Ge nanoparticle growth on HfO{sub 2} surfaces that is demonstrated.

  12. Interface and nanostructure evolution of cobalt germanides on Ge(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Grzela, T. Schubert, M. A.; Koczorowski, W.; Capellini, G.; Czajka, R.; Radny, M. W.; Curson, N.; Schofield, S. R.; Schroeder, T.

    2014-02-21

    Cobalt germanide (Co{sub x}Ge{sub y}) is a candidate system for low resistance contact modules in future Ge devices in Si-based micro and nanoelectronics. In this paper, we present a detailed structural, morphological, and compositional study on Co{sub x}Ge{sub y} formation on Ge(001) at room temperature metal deposition and subsequent annealing. Scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction clearly demonstrate that room temperature deposition of approximately four monolayers of Co on Ge(001) results in the Volmer Weber growth mode, while subsequent thermal annealing leads to the formation of a Co-germanide continuous wetting layer which evolves gradually towards the growth of elongated Co{sub x}Ge{sub y} nanostructures. Two types of Co{sub x}Ge{sub y} nanostructures, namely, flattop- and ridge-type, were observed and a systematic study on their evolution as a function of temperature is presented. Additional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements allowed us to monitor the reaction between Co and Ge in the formation process of the Co{sub x}Ge{sub y} continuous wetting layer as well as the Co{sub x}Ge{sub y} nanostructures.

  13. Dynamics of vitreous Ag-Ge-Se

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejus, R. J.; Lepoire, D. J.; Susman, S.; Volin, K. J.; Price, D. L.

    1991-12-01

    The dynamic scattering function S(Q,E) for vitreous g-Ag4Ge3Se9 at T=15 K has been measured by time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering using an incident energy of ~60 meV. The neutron measurements have been complemented by room-temperature Raman-scattering measurements. The data are presented and discussed in terms of the elastic structure factor Sel(Q), the total structure factor S(Q), the neutron-weighted generalized one-phonon vibrational density of states (GVDOS), and the Q dependence of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,E) at selected energy excitations. Comparisons are made with experimental results for pure GeSe2 glass, and with calculations based on the method of normal-mode analysis to interpret the data. The introduction of Ag into the Ge-Se glassy network has a profound effect on the vibrational spectrum and the intermediate-range order. The GeSe4/2 tetrahedron, however, generally accepted as the local structural element of pure GeSe2 glass, remains a valid structural component also in the heavily Ag-doped glass. We find that the so-called companion line in the Raman spectrum for g-GeSe2 disappears upon doping with Ag, indicating a change of the intermediate-range order. Moreover, there is a large increase in the population of vibrational modes below ~200 cm-1 in both the GVDOS and the Raman spectrum. These modes can be associated with vibrational modes of Ag atoms interacting with three Se in a nearly planar pyramidal arrangement. We derive 30 kdyn/cm for the Ag-Se stretching constant.

  14. Unexpected Ge-Ge Contacts in the Two-Dimensional Ge4 Se3 Te Phase and Analysis of Their Chemical Cause with the Density of Energy (DOE) Function.

    PubMed

    Küpers, Michael; Konze, Philipp M; Maintz, Stefan; Steinberg, Simon; Mio, Antonio M; Cojocaru-Mirédin, Oana; Zhu, Min; Müller, Merlin; Luysberg, Martina; Mayer, Joachim; Wuttig, Matthias; Dronskowski, Richard

    2017-08-14

    A hexagonal phase in the ternary Ge-Se-Te system with an approximate composition of GeSe0.75 Te0.25 has been known since the 1960s but its structure has remained unknown. We have succeeded in growing single crystals by chemical transport as a prerequisite to solve and refine the Ge4 Se3 Te structure. It consists of layers that are held together by van der Waals type weak chalcogenide-chalcogenide interactions but also display unexpected Ge-Ge contacts, as confirmed by electron microscopy analysis. The nature of the electronic structure of Ge4 Se3 Te was characterized by chemical bonding analysis, in particular by the newly introduced density of energy (DOE) function. The Ge-Ge bonding interactions serve to hold electrons that would otherwise go into antibonding Ge-Te contacts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Impact of post deposition annealing in the electrically active traps at the interface between Ge(001) substrates and LaGeOx films grown by molecular beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molle, Alessandro; Baldovino, Silvia; Fanciulli, Marco; Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Golias, Evangelos; Dimoulas, Athanasios

    2011-10-01

    Changes in the electron trapping at the interface between Ge substrates and LaGeOx films grown by atomic O assisted molecular beam deposition are inferred upon post deposition annealing treatment on the as-deposited films from electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) spectroscopy and from the electrical response of Pt/LaGeOx/Ge metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. The improved electrical performance of the MOS capacitors upon annealing is consistent with the EDMR detected reduction of oxide defects which are associated with GeO species in the LaGeOx layer as evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  16. Material gain engineering in GeSn/Ge quantum wells integrated with an Si platform.

    PubMed

    Mączko, H S; Kudrawiec, R; Gladysiewicz, M

    2016-09-30

    It is shown that compressively strained Ge1-xSnx/Ge quantum wells (QWs) grown on a Ge substrate with 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 and width of 8 nm ≤ d ≤ 14 nm are a very promising gain medium for lasers integrated with an Si platform. Such QWs are type-I QWs with a direct bandgap and positive transverse electric mode of material gain, i.e. the modal gain. The electronic band structure near the center of Brillouin zone has been calculated for various Ge1-xSnx/Ge QWs with use of the 8-band kp Hamiltonian. To calculate the material gain for these QWs, occupation of the L valley in Ge barriers has been taken into account. It is clearly shown that this occupation has a lot of influence on the material gain in the QWs with low Sn concentrations (Sn < 15%) and is less important for QWs with larger Sn concentration (Sn > 15%). However, for QWs with Sn > 20% the critical thickness of a GeSn layer deposited on a Ge substrate starts to play an important role. Reduction in the QW width shifts up the ground electron subband in the QW and increases occupation of the L valley in the barriers instead of the Γ valley in the QW region.

  17. Material gain engineering in GeSn/Ge quantum wells integrated with an Si platform

    PubMed Central

    Mączko, H. S.; Kudrawiec, R.; Gladysiewicz, M.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that compressively strained Ge1−xSnx/Ge quantum wells (QWs) grown on a Ge substrate with 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 and width of 8 nm ≤ d ≤ 14 nm are a very promising gain medium for lasers integrated with an Si platform. Such QWs are type-I QWs with a direct bandgap and positive transverse electric mode of material gain, i.e. the modal gain. The electronic band structure near the center of Brillouin zone has been calculated for various Ge1−xSnx/Ge QWs with use of the 8-band kp Hamiltonian. To calculate the material gain for these QWs, occupation of the L valley in Ge barriers has been taken into account. It is clearly shown that this occupation has a lot of influence on the material gain in the QWs with low Sn concentrations (Sn < 15%) and is less important for QWs with larger Sn concentration (Sn > 15%). However, for QWs with Sn > 20% the critical thickness of a GeSn layer deposited on a Ge substrate starts to play an important role. Reduction in the QW width shifts up the ground electron subband in the QW and increases occupation of the L valley in the barriers instead of the Γ valley in the QW region. PMID:27686056

  18. 70 °C synthesis of high-Sn content (25%) GeSn on insulator by Sn-induced crystallization of amorphous Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Toko, K. Oya, N.; Suemasu, T.; Saitoh, N.; Yoshizawa, N.

    2015-02-23

    Polycrystalline GeSn thin films are fabricated on insulating substrates at low temperatures by using Sn-induced crystallization of amorphous Ge (a-Ge). The Sn layer stacked on the a-Ge layer (100-nm thickness each) had two roles: lowering the crystallization temperature of a-Ge and composing GeSn. Slow annealing at an extremely low temperature of 70 °C allowed for a large-grained (350 nm) GeSn layer with a lattice constant of 0.590 nm, corresponding to a Sn composition exceeding 25%. The present investigation paves the way for advanced electronic optical devices integrated on a flexible plastic substrate as well as on a Si platform.

  19. Intermediate-range order in binary and ternary glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.; Dejus, R.J.

    1988-07-01

    Intermediate-range order in binary and ternary chalcogenide glasses is discussed, with special reference to GeSe/sub 2/ and Ag/sub 4/Ge/sub 3/Se/sub 9/. A signature of this order is provided by the first sharp diffraction peak, which occurs in these glasses at Q /approximately/ 1 /sup /angstrom/A//sup /minus/1/ and shows anomalous behavior in several ways. It is strongly depressed by the addition of Ag to the GeSe/sub 2/ glass. The addition of Ag also leads to a softening of the vibrational spectrum. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Reactive dc magnetron sputtering of (GeO{sub x}-SiO{sub 2}) superlattices for Ge nanocrystal formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zschintzsch, M.; Jeutter, N. M.; Borany, J. von; Krause, M.; Muecklich, A.

    2010-02-15

    The motivation of this work is the tailored growth of Ge nanocrystals for photovoltaic applications. The use of superlattices provides a reliable method to control the Ge nanocrystal size after phase separation. In this paper, we report on the deposition of (GeO{sub x}-SiO{sub 2}) superlattices via reactive dc magnetron sputtering and the self-ordered Ge nanocrystal formation during subsequent annealing. Attention is directed mainly to define proper deposition conditions for tuning the GeO{sub x} composition between elemental Ge (x=0) and GeO{sub 2} (x=2) by the variation in the deposition temperature and the oxygen partial pressure. A convenient process window has been found which allows sequential GeO{sub x}-SiO{sub 2} deposition without changing the oxygen partial pressure during deposition. The phase separation and Ge nanocrystal formation after subsequent annealing were investigated with in situ x-ray scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. By these methods the existence of 2-5 nm Ge nanocrystals at annealing temperatures of 600-750 deg. C has been confirmed which is within the superlattice stability range. The technique used allows the fabrication of superlattice stacks with very smooth interfaces (roughness<1 nm); thus the Ge nanocrystal layers could be separated by very thin SiO{sub 2} films (d<3 nm) which offers interesting possibilities for charge transport via direct tunneling.

  1. Structure of glassy GeO2.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Philip S; Barnes, Adrian C; Martin, Richard A; Cuello, Gabriel J

    2007-10-17

    The full set of partial structure factors for glassy germania, or GeO2, were accurately measured by using the method of isotopic substitution in neutron diffraction in order to elucidate the nature of the pair correlations for this archetypal strong glass former. The results show that the basic tetrahedral Ge(O1/2)4 building blocks share corners with a mean inter-tetrahedral Ge-Ô-Ge bond angle of 132(2)°. The topological and chemical ordering in the resultant network displays two characteristic length scales at distances greater than the nearest neighbour. One of these describes the intermediate range order, and manifests itself by the appearance of a first sharp diffraction peak in the measured diffraction patterns at a scattering vector kFSDP≈1.53 Å(-1), while the other describes so-called extended range order, and is associated with the principal peak at kPP = 2.66(1) Å(-1). We find that there is an interplay between the relative importance of the ordering on these length scales for tetrahedral network forming glasses that is dominated by the extended range ordering with increasing glass fragility. The measured partial structure factors for glassy GeO2 are used to reproduce the total structure factor measured by using high energy x-ray diffraction and the experimental results are also compared to those obtained by using classical and first principles molecular dynamics simulations.

  2. TiO2/GeOxNy stacked gate dielectrics for Ge-MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, M. K.; Mahata, C.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Nandi, S. K.; Tiwari, Jitendra N.; Hung, Jui-Yi; Maiti, C. K.

    2007-12-01

    In this work, we present the results of physical and electrical characterization of Ti-based high-k gate dielectrics on Ge substrates. Titanium tetrakis iso- propoxide (TTIP) was used as the organometallic source for the deposition of ultra-thin TiO2 films on p-Ge (1 0 0) at low temperature (<200 °C) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique in a microwave (700 W, 2.45 GHz) plasma cavity discharge system at a pressure of ~65 Pa. The presence of an ultra-thin lossy GeO2 interfacial layer between the deposited high-k film and the substrate, results in frequency-dependent capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics in strong accumulation and a high interface state density (~1013 cm-2 eV-1). To improve the electrical properties, nitrogen engineering has been employed to convert the lossy GeO2 interfacial layer to its oxynitride, thus forming TiO2/GeOxNy/Ge stacked-gate structure with improved interface/electrical properties. Different N sources, such as NO, NH3 and NO/NH3, have been used for nitrogen engineering. XPS and Raman spectroscopy analyses have been used for surface morphological study. Electrical properties, such as gate leakage current density, interface state density, charge trapping, flatband voltage shift, etc, have been studied in detail for TiO2/GeOxNy/Ge MIS capacitors using the current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V), conductance-voltage (G-V) and stress (both constant voltage and current) measurements. Although a significant improvement in electrical characteristics has been observed after nitridation in general, the formation of the interfacial GeOxNy layer, obtained from NO-plasma nitridation, is found to provide the maximum improvement among all the nitridation techniques used in this study. It is shown that the insertion of an ultra-thin oxynitride (GeOxNy) interfacial layer is advantageous for producing gate-quality TiO2 high-k dielectric stacks on Ge substrates.

  3. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  4. Spontaneous Growth and Chemical Reduction Ability of Ge Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Liang, Changhao; Tian, Zhenfei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Shao, Guosheng

    2013-01-01

    Forming colloidal solutions containing semiconductor quantum-sized nanoparticles (NPs) with clean surface has been a long-standing scientific challenge. In this contribution, we report a “top-down” method for the fabrication of Ge NPs by laser ablation of a Ge target in deionized water without adding any stabilizing reagents. The initial Ge NPs in amorphous structure showed spontaneous growth behavior by aging Ge colloids in deionized water under ambient temperature, which gradually evolved into a metastable tetragonal structure as an intermediate phase and then transformed into the stable cubic structure, being consistent with the Ostwald's rule of stages for the growth in a metastable system. The laser-induced initial Ge NPs demonstrate a unique and prominent size-dependent chemical reductive ability, which is evidenced by the rapid degradation of organic molecules such as chlorinated aromatic compounds, organic dyes, and reduction of heavy metal Cr(VI) ions.

  5. Development of a Ge/GaAs HMT Technology Based on Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-21

    channel and p-channel structures. Experiments have verified that the Si interlayer is in place and is not completely consumed by oxidation during...layer con- finement in the Ge portion of a Ge/Si-SiO,2 heterostructure/MIS device. The Ge MIS device utilizes an ultra-thin, crystalline Si interlayer ...layer, then the difference in these capacitances can be used to estimate 12 Si interlayer electrical behaviorI on p-type Ge ISMC-Si-0589-1-Ge 127.1

  6. TEM studies of Ge nanocrystal formation in PECVD grown SiO2:Ge/SiO2 multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agan, S.; Dana, A.; Aydinli, A.

    2006-06-01

    We investigate the effect of annealing on the Ge nanocrystal formation in multilayered germanosilicate-oxide films grown on Si substrates by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The multilayered samples were annealed at temperatures ranging from 750 to 900 °C for 5 min under nitrogen atmosphere. The onset of formation of Ge nanocrystals, at 750 °C, can be observed via high resolution TEM micrographs. The diameters of Ge nanocrystals were observed to be between 5 and 14 nm. As the annealing temperature is raised to 850 °C, a second layer of Ge nanocrystals forms next to the original precipitation band, positioning itself closer to the substrate SiO2 interface. High resolution cross section TEM images, electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy as well as energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) data all indicate that Ge nanocrystals are present in each layer.

  7. Structural and Compositional Properties of Strain-Symmetrized SiGe/Si Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, I. M.; Gass, M.; Walther, T.; Bleloch, A.; Cullis, A. G.; Lever, L.; Ikonic, Z.; Califano, M.; Kelsall, R. W.; Zhang, J.; Paul, D. J.

    In this study, we have utilised conventional and aberration corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscopy to examine the Ge concentration across a series of technologically significant SiGe/Si prototype heterostructures. Electron energy loss line profiles show that the Ge concentration within the SiGe quantum wells approaches the nominal values. However, the Ge concentration profile shows that the interfaces are not abrupt and that the narrow 0.8nm barrier layer does not reach the nominal pure Si composition. Speculation as to the presence of Ge interdiffusion, surface segregation or interface roughness is discussed.

  8. Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si(111): Growth, structural, and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gatti, E. Pezzoli, F.; Grilli, E.; Isa, F.; Chrastina, D.; Isella, G.; Müller Gubler, E.

    2014-07-28

    The epitaxial growth of Ge