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Sample records for gedeon lance chun

  1. Lancing: Quo Vadis?

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Boecker, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Today, lancing fingertips or alternative sites for obtaining a blood sample for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a standard procedure for most patients with diabetes. The need for frequent lancing and associated discomfort and pain can be seen as a key hurdle for patients to comply with SMBG regimens. This article provides an overview of the status quo and future of lancing, focusing on key areas for future developments driven by customer and market needs. We also review technical issues and provide a background for possible improvements. The act of puncturing the skin with a lancet to obtain a blood sample seems to remain the standard procedure for the foreseeable future, because alternate ways of providing a blood sample have not demonstrated overall superiority (e.g., with laser technology). Other methods, which avoid lancing entirely, have also not gained broad market acceptance (e.g., minimally invasive continuous glucose monitoring) or not shown technical viability (e.g., noninvasive glucose monitoring). In relation to blood glucose (BG) meters and test strips, lancing has been a “stepchild” with regards to commercial attention and development efforts. Nevertheless, significant technological improvements have been made in this field to address key customer needs, including better performance (regarding pain, wound healing, and long-term sensitivity), reduced cost, and higher integration with other components of BG monitoring (e.g., integration of the lancing device with the glucose monitor). From a technical perspective, it is apparent that highly comfortable lancing can be accomplished; however, this still requires fairly advanced and complex devices. New developments are necessary to achieve this level of sophistication and performance with less intricate and costly system designs. Manufacturers' motivation to pursue these developments is compromised by the fact that they might not recoup their development cost on commercial advanced lancing

  2. GEDEON: A joint venture between research (CEA and CNRS) and industry (EDF and FRAMATOME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schapira, J. P.

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear waste partitionning and transmutation (P & T) are considered in France as an official line of research, in accordance with the Law of December 30, 1991 concerning research in the field of long lived and highly active nuclear waste. A research group called GEDEON ( GEstion des DEchets par des Options Nouvelles) has been set up between CEA, CNRS, EDF and FRAMATOME with the aim to carry out basic research related to the use of accelerator driven subcritical systems (ADS) and of thorium as an option to reduce the waste long term impacts. In the partners agreement of GEDEON, the following subjects have been identified: spallation physics, nuclear data, subcritical neutronic studies, materials, thorium, system and scenario studies. The organization as well as the scientific program and activities of GEDEON are presented.

  3. [Mydeton: a centrally acting muscle relaxant drug from Gedeon Richter LTD].

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Pál; Tarnawa, István; Kovács, Gyula; Szombathelyi, Zsolt; Farkas, Sándor

    2002-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1959 tolperisone hydrochloride (Mydeton) is still one of the leading products of Gedeon Richter Ltd. It has been successfully applied for treating different painful muscle spasms. The compound is successfully marketed also by several foreign, mostly Japanese, pharmaceutical companies, as a central muscle relaxant agent. The present summary overviews the pharmacology of tolperisone, with special emphasize on its still partly understood way of action. Data from the scientific literature as well as our own experimental results strongly support the hypothesis that inhibition of voltage gated sodium channels is a major component of the mechanism of action of tolperisone. The paper also summarizes the clinical results with tolperisone and the perspectives of the therapeutic use of centrally acting muscle relaxants.

  4. Comment on Lance Wallace's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, A.L. )

    1993-04-01

    The author uses Lance Wallace's Perspective ( A Decade of Studies of Human Exposure: What Have We Learned', Risk Analysis, Vol 13, No. 2, 1993, pp. 135-142) as a good case for much greater national attention to indoor air pollution. This article describes the reasons why so little attention has been devoted to indoor air pollution despite convincing evidence of the threats posed to the public by this aspect of pollution.

  5. Social Security for Composers and Free Lances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossel-Majdan, Karl

    1982-01-01

    Internationally, cultural policies are tending toward increased socioeconomic and legal support for creative artists. Austrian cultural policies which encourage art and cultural professional organizations, increased copyright protection, and greater social security for free-lance artists are discussed. (AM)

  6. Permanent synchronization of camcorders via LANC protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrancic, Damir; Smith, Steven L.

    2006-02-01

    A device, which keeps two camcorders permanently in synchronization, has been developed. The mentioned device uses LANC (CONTROL-L) camcorder's inputs for synchronization. It enables controlling of two camcorders simultaneously via built-in buttons, by using external LANC remote controller and/or by the PC via serial (RS232) communication. Since device requires LANC inputs on camcorders or ACC inputs on still cameras, it can be used on some camcorders produced by manufacturers Sony and Canon or some still cameras produced by Sony. The device initially synchronizes camcorders or still cameras by applying arbitrarily delayed power-up pulses on LANC (ACC) inputs. Then, on user demand, the camcorders can be permanently synchronized (valid only for some camcorders produced by Sony). The effectiveness of the proposed device is demonstrated by several experiments on three types of camcorders (DCR-TRV900E, HDR-HC1, HVR-Z1U) and one type of still camera (DSC-V1). The electronic schemes, PCB layouts, firmware and communication programs are freely available (under GPL licence).

  7. A Chance to Be Like Lance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prouty, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The authors' seventh-grade science curriculum includes a study of nutrition, anatomy, and physiology. Over several years, the authors' teaching partner and herself reworked the nine-week unit to include the Tour de France and the exploits of Lance Armstrong. What makes this unit so engaging for middle school students is that it provides an…

  8. The effect of lance geometry and carbon coating of silicon lances on propidium iodide uptake in lance array nanoinjection of HeLa 229 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, John W.; Lindstrom, Dallin L.; Hanks, Brad W.; Hope, Sandra; Jensen, Brian D.

    2016-04-01

    Connecting technology to biologic discovery is a core focus of non-viral gene therapy biotechnologies. One approach that leverages both the physical and electrical function of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in cellular engineering is a technology previously described as lance array nanoinjection (LAN). In brief, LAN consists of a silicon chip measuring 2 cm by 2 cm that has been etched to contain an array of 10 μm tall, solid lances that are spaced every 10 μm in a grid pattern. This array of lances is used to physically penetrate hundreds of thousands of cells simultaneously and to then electrically deliver molecular loads into cells. In this present work, two variables related to the microfabrication of the silicon lances, namely lance geometry and coating, are investigated. The purpose of both experimental variables is to assess these parameters’ effect on propidium iodide (PI), a cell membrane impermeable dye, uptake to injected HeLa 229 cells. For the lance geometry experimentation, three different microfabricated lance geometries were used which include a flat/narrow (FN, 1 μm diameter), flat/wide (FW, 2-2.5 μm diameter), and pointed (P, 1 μm diameter) lance geometries. From these tests, it was shown that the FN lances had a slightly better cell viability rate of 91.73% and that the P lances had the best PI uptake rate of 75.08%. For the lance coating experimentation, two different lances were fabricated, both silicon etched lances with some being carbon coated (CC) in a  <100 nm layer of carbon and the other lances being non-coated (Si). Results from this experiment showed no significant difference between lance types at three different nanoinjection protocols (0V, +1.5V DC, and  +5V Pulsed) for both cell viability and PI uptake rates. One exception to this is the comparison of CC/5V Pul and Si/5V Pul samples, where the CC/5V Pul samples had a cell viability rate 5% higher. Both outcomes were unexpected and reveal how to better

  9. Straight talk with...Miyoung Chun. Interview by Virginia Hughes.

    PubMed

    Chun, Miyoung

    2013-04-01

    It was a single tweet. In February, after US President Barack Obama made a subtle nod to a new neuroscience project in his annual State of the Union address, Francis Collins, director of the country's National Institutes of Health (NIH), posted on the @NIHDirector Twitter feed: "Obama mentions the #NIH Brain Activity Map in #SOTU." Instantly, scientists were buzzing with rumors that the Brain Activity Map could be the next moon shot, with a budget and timeline similar to the Human Genome Project. The brain map began as a brief white paper and has grown into a large--and still largely undefined--collaboration of several government agencies, nonprofit foundations and private companies. As the stakeholders describe in a commentary published last month (339, 1284-1285, 2013), the goal of the initiative is to understand how thousands of neurons work in concert to control behavior and trigger disease. Miyoung Chun, vice president for science programs at The Kavli Foundation in Oxnard, California, has been developing the project since the beginning and is the self-described "glue" between its many diverse stakeholders. Chun spoke with Virginia Hughes about the evolution of the project and what it might mean for biomedicine.

  10. Heat transfer and lance clogging during submerged powder injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, G. A.

    1987-03-01

    Nitrogen and silica particles of 30, 130, and 450 μm average diameters were injected at solid-to-gas loadings up to 280 kg/m3 into liquid lead at 400°C through a steel lance equipped with four thermo-couples. The lance was positioned adjacent to a transparent wall in the lead retort so that the flow patterns could be photographed. It was found that 130 and 450 μm particle injection produced bubling in the lead and clogging at high loadings, while the 30 μm particles produced jetting with no clogging. Analysis of the thermocouple responses permitted the determination of the heat transfer coefficients at the inner and outer lance surfaces. The inner surface heat transfer coefficient increased with loading, whereas the one at the outer surface was independent of loading. A two-phase, unsteady-state, one-dimensional model was developed for momentum and heat transfer in the lance permitting the calculation of gas and particle velocities, volume fractions, and temperatures as well as the lance temperatures. Using the experimentally determined heat transfer coefficients, it is shown that the gas and particles are heated only 20 to 40 K in the lance. Nevertheless, this is a large heat demand which chills the lance so that clogging will occur in the bubbling regime.

  11. 3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON THE FLUX STORAGE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. Analysis of the comparison of lancing devices for self-monitoring of blood glucose regarding lancing pain.

    PubMed

    Lekarcyk, Joyce; Ghiloni, Suzanne

    2009-09-01

    Reducing barriers to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) remains an ongoing goal. One major reported barrier is lancing pain. This analysis was written in response to the article by Kocher and associates in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology in which 157 patients with diabetes experienced in the use of SMBG compared high market share blood glucose monitoring systems and lancing devices. Upon review of their findings, we found that their conclusions-Accu-check systems and lancing devices were preferred-were valid within the limitations of the study. However, we noted some factors that would warrant further study and possibly change the outcome. Information from this and other studies on the topic will be useful as a reference for patients and providers in working towards removing barriers to SMBG.

  13. Information Brokers/Free-Lance Librarians: An Alternative Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Matthew

    This paper examines the profession of information brokerage through a look at types of services provided, and through a discussion of major issues, including that of fee for service. The types of information broker and free-lance librarian services are identified: (1) non-profit reference and research services administered by public libraries and…

  14. An Integrated Approach for Accessing Multiple Datasets through LANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. J.; Teague, M.; Conover, H.; Regner, K.; Beaumont, B.; Masuoka, E.; Vollmer, B.; Theobald, M.; Durbin, P.; Michael, K.; Boller, R. A.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Davies, D.; Horricks, K.; Ilavajhala, S.; Thompson, C. K.; Bingham, A.

    2011-12-01

    The NASA/GSFC Land Atmospheres Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE) provides imagery for approximately 40 data products from MODIS, AIRS, AMSR-E and OMI to support the applications community in the study of a variety of phenomena. Thirty-six of these products are available within 2.5 hours of observation at the spacecraft. The data set includes the population density data provided by the EOSDIS Socio-Economic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). The purpose of this paper is to describe the variety of tools that have been developed by LANCE to support user access to the imagery. The long-standing Rapid Response system has been integrated into LANCE and is a major vehicle for the distribution of the imagery to end users. There are presently approximately 10,000 anonymous users per month accessing these imagery. The products are grouped into 14 applications categories such as Smoke Plumes, Pollution, Fires, Agriculture and the selection of any category will make relevant subsets of the 40 products available as possible overlays in an interactive Web Client utilizing Web Mapping Service (WMS) to support user investigations (http://lance2.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/wms/). For example, selecting Severe Storms will include 6 products for MODIS, OMI, AIRS, and AMSR-E plus the SEDAC population density data. The client and WMS were developed using open-source technologies such as OpenLayers and MapServer and provides a uniform, browser-based access to data products. All overlays are downloadable in PNG, JPEG, or GeoTiff form up to 200MB per request. The WMS was beta-tested with the user community and substantial performance improvements were made through the use of such techniques as tile-caching. LANCE established a partnership with Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO DAAC) to develop an alternative presentation for the 40 data products known as the State of the Earth (SOTE). This provides a Google Earth-based interface to the products grouped in

  15. LANCE Q-flex accelerometer qualification test program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, J. S.; Mitchell, J. N.; Hester, T.; Searcy, D.

    1982-03-01

    This report covers the performance obtained on six Sundstrand Q-Flex accelerometers during the qualification test program for the LANCE missile. The Qualification Test Program was divided into three parts: (1) Flight Assurance Tests (FAT), (2) Storage and Transportation Tests (SATT), and (3) Reliability Overstress Tests (ROT). All testing was performed in accordance with Vought accelerometer procurement specification 704-166C dated 8 June 1978.

  16. "Sea Lance" Littoral Warfare Small Combatant System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    system that uses biotreatment in conjunction with microfiltration to treat the liquid waste. The effluent will meet the following standards: iv...detailed description of the treatment system. SEA LANCE will process oily waste with a Combined Oily Waste Membrane System. The Navy Integrate... Membrane System (NIMS) will produce an effluent less than 15-PPM oil. All bilge water will be processed through the oily waste system. Appendix I

  17. Music modulates behaviour of premature infants following heel lance.

    PubMed

    Butt, M L; Kisilevsky, B S

    2000-03-01

    The physiological and behavioural effects of music during recovery from heel lance were examined in 14 preterm infants at 29 to 36 weeks post-conceptual age (PCA). Infants were tested on 2 occasions: during a music condition and during a no-music control condition. Each condition was videotaped during 3 periods: baseline, heel lance, and recovery. Infants were divided into 2 age groups for data analyses: less than and greater than 31 weeks PCA. Mixed model ANOVAs showed that heel lance elicited a stress response (i.e., increased heart rate, decreased oxygen saturation, increased state-of-arousal, and increased facial actions indicative of pain) in both age groups. The stress response was greater in the older group. During recovery, the older group had a more rapid return of heart rate, behavioural state, and facial expressions of pain to baseline levels in the presence of compared to the absence of music. It was concluded that music is an effective NICU intervention following a stress-provoking stimulus in infants older than 31 weeks PCA.

  18. First report of Lance Nematode (Hoplolaimus magnistylus) on corn, soybean and cotton in Tennessee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lance nematode, Hoplolaimus galeatus, has been reported in Tennessee on field crops, forage pastures, home gardens, woody ornamentals, turf, and commercial vegetables across the state. In May 2011, another lance nematodes, H. magnistylus, was recovered from corn, cotton and soybean fields in west Te...

  19. A feature study of innovative high-speed lancing device and safety lancet.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Yeh, Yao-Jen; Lee, Rahnfong; Shyu, Jenq-Huey

    2016-12-01

    The study developed two models of an innovative high-speed lancing device and safety lancet, where the specially designed structure causes high-speed motion of the lancet, resulting in only one puncture of the skin. The two experimental models and other lancing devices sold on market were compared in order to: (1) measure the forces of lancets piercing animal skin by a load cell; (2) observe the wound areas caused by lancing devices under a microscope. The experimental results showed that, after using this innovative high-speed lancing device, the maximum force of a lancet piercing skin is only 1/3 of the force of conventional lancing devices, and the duration of the former under the skin is 1/6 of the latter. In addition, the wound area caused by the innovative lancing device is 20 % smaller than those of the conventional lancing devices. Usage of this innovative high-speed safety lancet shows that its maximum skin-piercing force is only 2/3 of conventional safety lancets, its duration under the skin is 1/4 of conventional safety lancets, and the wound area is 12 % smaller. In conclusion, both the innovative high-speed lancing device and safety lancet are proved effective in alleviating pain for diabetics and shortening the recovering time for wounds, thus, providing a more comfortable process for the self-monitoring of blood glucose.

  20. Enhancements to NASA's Land Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Diane; Michael, Karen; Schmaltz, Jeffrey; Boller, Ryan A.; Masuoka, Ed; Ye, Gang; Roman, Miguel; Vermote, Eric; Harrison, Sherry; Rinsland, Pamela; Protack, Steve; Durbin, Phil; Ding, Feng; Justice, Chris

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) supports application users interested in monitoring a wide variety of natural and man-made phenomena. Near Real- Time (NRT) data and imagery from the AIRS, AMSR2, MISR, MLS, MODIS, OMPS, OMI and VIIRS instruments are available much quicker than routine processing allows. Most data products are available within 3 hours from satellite observation. NRT imagery are generally available 3-5 hours after observation. This article describes the LANCE and the enhancements made to the LANCE over the last year. These enhancements include the addition of NRT products from AMSR2, MISR, OMPS and VIIRS. In addition, the selection of LANCE NRT imagery that can be interactively viewed through Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) has been expanded. Next year, data from the MOPITT will be added to the LANCE.

  1. The dawn of the e-lance economy.

    PubMed

    Malone, T W; Laubacher, R J

    1998-01-01

    Will the large industrial corporation dominate the twenty-first century as it did the twentieth? Maybe not. Drawing on their research at MIT's Initiative on Inventing the Organizations of the 21st Century, Thomas Malone and Robert Laubacher postulate a world in which business is not controlled through a stable chain of management in a large, permanent company. Rather, it is carried out autonomously by independent contractors connected through personal computers and electronic networks. These electronically connected free-lancers-e-lancers-would join together into fluid and temporary networks to produce and sell goods and services. When the job is done--after a day, a month, a year--the network would dissolve and its members would again become independent agents. Far from being a wild hypothesis, the e-lance economy is, in many ways, already upon us. We see it in the rise of outsourcing and telecommuting, in the increasing importance within corporations of ad-hoc project teams, and in the evolution of the Internet. Most of the necessary building blocks of this type of business organization--efficient networks, data interchange standards, groupware, electronic currency, venture capital micromarkets--are either in place or under development. What is lagging behind is our imagination. But, the authors contend, it is important to consider sooner rather than later the profound implications of how such an e-lance economy might work. They examine the opportunities, and the problems, that may arise and anticipate how the role of managers may change fundamentally--or possibly even disappear altogether.

  2. Enhancements to NASA's Land Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for Eos (LANCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Mauoka, E.; Ye, G.; Conover, H.; Regner, K. J.; Harrison, S.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) provides data and imagery from Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites in less than 3 hours from satellite observation, to meet the needs of the near real-time (NRT) applications community. This article describes LANCE and enhancements made to LANCE over the last year. These enhancements include: 3 new NRT products, additional search and download data capability through Worldview, and a greater selection of NRT imagery that can be interactively viewed through Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). LANCE is also working to ingest and process AMSR2 data in NRT. This presentation describes the enhancements, and the potential uses for the new products, which include daily NRT 8-day rolling Vegetation Indices (VI) and Land Surface Reflectance (LSR) products and a 16-day rolling Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) product.

  3. Simulation of three-phase flow and lance height effect on the cavity shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Kai; Zhu, Rong; Gao, Wei; Liu, Fu-hai

    2014-06-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate a 150-t top-blown converter. The effect of different lance heights on the cavity shape was investigated using the volume of fluid (VOF) method. Numerical simulation results can reflect the actual molten bath surface waves impinged by the supersonic oxygen jets. With increasing lance height, the cavity depth decreases, and the cavity area, varying like a parabola, increases and then decreases. The cavity area maximizes at the lance height of 1.3 m. Under the three different lance heights simulated in this study, all of the largest impact velocities at the molten bath surface are between 50 m/s and 100 m/s.

  4. LANCE in ECHO - Merging Science and Near Real-Time Data Search and Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisler, S.; Murphy, K. J.; Vollmer, B.; Lighty, L.; Mitchell, A. E.; Devine, N.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) project provides expedited data products from the Terra, Aqua, and Aura satellites within three hours of observation. In order to satisfy latency requirements, LANCE data are produced with relaxed ancillary data resulting in a product that may have minor differences from its science quality counterpart. LANCE products are used by a number of different groups to support research and applications that require near real-time earth observations, such as disaster relief, hazard and air quality monitoring, and weather forecasting. LANCE elements process raw rate-buffered and/or session-based production datasets into higher-level products, which are freely available to registered users via LANCE FTP sites. The LANCE project also generates near real-time full resolution browse imagery from these products, which can be accessed through the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). In an effort to support applications and services that require timely access to these near real-time products, the project is currently implementing the publication of LANCE product metadata to the EOS ClearingHouse (ECHO), a centralized EOSDIS registry of EOS data. Metadata within ECHO is made available through an Application Program Interface (API), and applications can utilize the API to allow users to efficiently search and order LANCE data. Publishing near real-time data to ECHO will permit applications to access near real-time product metadata prior to the release of its science quality counterpart and to associate imagery from GIBS with its underlying data product.

  5. Flowrate testing of the bag filter LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC (LANCS Industries) at 1 psig

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.; Currie, Karissa Lyn; Berg, Charlotte Katherine

    2016-09-13

    The air flowrate through a flexible HEPA grade filter (Part LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC www.lancsindustries.com) was measured at 48 ALPM for a differential pressure drop of 1.0 psig (28 inWC, 7.0 kPa). These filters are rated by the manufacturer to have a flowrate of 3 ALPM at a differential pressure drop of 1 inWC (0.25 kPa). The Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerosol Engineering Facility used one of their test rigs (originally developed to measure the pressure drop in capsule HEPA filters) to measure the airflow through the LANCS bag filter.

  6. [Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth, heavy metal uptake and accumulation of Zenia insignis Chun seedlings].

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Peng, Xia-Wei; Wu, Song-Lin; Li, Zhi-Ru; Feng, Hong-Mei; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2014-08-01

    To solve the trace metal pollution of a Pd/Zn mine in Hunan province, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus mosseae (Gm) and Glomus intraradices (Gi), on the growth, heavy metal uptake and accumulation of Zenia insignis Chun, the pioneer plant there. The results showed that symbiotic associations were successfully established between the two isolates and Z. insignis in heavy metal contaminated soil. AM fungi improved P absorption, biomass and changed heavy metal uptake and distribution of Z. insignis. AM fungi-inoculated plants had significantly lower Fe, Cu, Zn, Pd concentrations and higher Fe, Cu, Zn, Pd accumulation than non-inoculated plants. However, Gm and Gi showed different mycorrhizal effects on the distribution of heavy metal in hosts, depending on the species of heavy metal. Gi-inoculated Z. insignis showed significantly lower TF values of Fe, Zn, Pd than Gm and non-inoculated plants, while both strains had no effect on TF value of Cu, which indicated that Gi enhanced trace metal accumulation in root system, playing a filtering/sequestering role in the presence of trace metals. The overall results demonstrated that AM fungi had positive effect on Z. insignis in enhancing the ability to adapt the heavy metal contaminated soil and played potential role in the revegetation of heavy metal contaminated soil. But in practical application, the combination of AM, hosts and heavy metal should be considered.

  7. Global Agricultural Monitoring (GLAM) using MODAPS and LANCE Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyamba, A.; Pak, E. E.; Majedi, A. H.; Small, J. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Reynolds, C. A.; Pinzon, J. E.; Smith, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies / Global Agricultural Monitoring (GIMMS GLAM) system is a web-based geographic application that offers Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and user interface tools to data query and plot MODIS NDVI time series. The system processes near real-time and science quality Terra and Aqua MODIS 8-day composited datasets. These datasets are derived from the MOD09 and MYD09 surface reflectance products which are generated and provided by NASA/GSFC Land and Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and NASA/GSFC MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS). The GIMMS GLAM system is developed and provided by the NASA/GSFC GIMMS group for the U.S. Department of Agriculture / Foreign Agricultural Service / International Production Assessment Division (USDA/FAS/IPAD) Global Agricultural Monitoring project (GLAM). The USDA/FAS/IPAD mission is to provide objective, timely, and regular assessment of the global agricultural production outlook and conditions affecting global food security. This system was developed to improve USDA/FAS/IPAD capabilities for making operational quantitative estimates for crop production and yield estimates based on satellite-derived data. The GIMMS GLAM system offers 1) web map imagery including Terra & Aqua MODIS 8-day composited NDVI, NDVI percent anomaly, and SWIR-NIR-Red band combinations, 2) web map overlays including administrative and 0.25 degree Land Information System (LIS) shape boundaries, and crop land cover masks, and 3) user interface tools to select features, data query, plot, and download MODIS NDVI time series.

  8. Maturation, fecundity, and intertidal spawning of Pacific sand lance in the northern Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Rose, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, showed no sexual dimorphism in length-to-weight (gonad-free) ratio or length-at-age relationship. Most matured in their second year, males earlier in the season than females, but females (31%) attained a higher gonadosomatic index than males (21%). Sand lance spawned intertidally once each year in late September and October on fine gravel or sandy beaches soon after the seasonal peak in water temperatures. Sand lance in Cook Inlet and Prince William Sound displayed similar maturation schedules. Schools were dominated 2: 1 by males as they approached the intertidal zone at a site where spawning has taken place for decades. Sand lance spawned vigorously in dense formations, leaving scoured pits in beach sediments. Fecundity of females (93–199 mm) was proportional to length, ranging from 1468 to 16 081 ova per female. About half of the overall spawning school fecundity was derived from age group 1 females (55% of the school by number). Spawned eggs were 1·02 mm in diameter, demersal, slightly adhesive, and deposited in the intertidal just below the waterline. Sand lance embryos developed over 67 days through periods of intertidal exposure and sub-freezing air temperatures.

  9. On-Site Oxy-Lance Size Reduction of South Texas Project Reactor Vessel Heads - 12324

    SciTech Connect

    Posivak, Edward; Keeney, Gilbert; Wheeler, Dean

    2012-07-01

    On-Site Oxy-Lance size reduction of mildly radioactive large components has been accomplished at other operating plants. On-Site Oxy-Lance size reduction of more radioactive components like Reactor Vessel Heads had previously been limited to decommissioning projects. Building on past decommissioning and site experience, subcontractors for South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) developed an innovative integrated system to control smoke, radioactive contamination, worker dose, and worker safety. STP's innovative, easy to use CEDM containment that provided oxy lance access, smoke control, and spatter/contamination control was the key to successful segmentation for cost-effective and ALARA packaging and transport for disposal. Relative to CEDM milling, STP oxy-lance segmentation saved approximately 40 person- REM accrued during 9,000 hours logged into the radiological controlled area (RCA) during more than 3,800 separate entries. Furthermore there were no personnel contamination events or respiratory uptakes of radioactive material during the course of the entire project. (authors)

  10. Learning from LANCE: Developing a Web Portal Infrastructure for NASA Earth Science Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    NASA developed the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) in response to a growing need for timely satellite observations by applications users, operational agencies and researchers. EOS capabilities originally intended for long-term Earth science research were modified to deliver satellite data products with sufficient latencies to meet the needs of the NRT user communities. LANCE products are primarily distributed as HDF data files for analysis, however novel capabilities for distribution of NRT imagery for visualization have been added which have expanded the user base. Additionally systems to convert data to information such as the MODIS hotspot/active fire data are also provided through the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS). LANCE services include: FTP/HTTP file distribution, Rapid Response (RR), Worldview, Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) and FIRMS. This paper discusses how NASA has developed services specifically for LANCE and is taking the lessons learned through these activities to develop an Earthdata Web Infrastructure. This infrastructure is being used as a platform to support development of data portals that address specific science issues for much of EOSDIS data.

  11. 5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON THE WEIGHING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. The Use of LANCE Imagery Products to Investigate Hazards and Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Teague, M.; Conover, H.; Regner, K.; Masuoka, E.; Vollmer, B. E.; Durbin, P.; Murphy, K. J.; Boller, R. A.; Davies, D.; Ilavajhala, S.; Thompson, C. K.; Bingham, A.; Rao, S.

    2011-12-01

    The NASA/GSFC Land Atmospheres Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE) has endeavored to integrate a variety of products from the Terra, Aqua, and Aura missions to assist in meeting the needs of the applications user community. This community has a need for imagery products to support the investigation of a wide variety of phenomena including hazards and disasters. The Evjafjallajokull eruption, the tsunamis/flood in Japan, and the Gulf of Mexico oil spill are recent examples of applications benefiting from the timely and synoptic view afforded by LANCE data. Working with the instrument science teams and the applications community, LANCE has identified 14 applications categories and the LANCE products that will support their investigation. The categories are: Smoke Plumes, Ash Plumes, Dust Storms, Pollution, Severe Storms, Shipping hazards, Fishery hazards, Land Transportation, Fires, Floods, Drought, Vegetation, Agriculture, and Oil Spills. Forty products from AMSR-E, MODIS, AIRS, and OMI have been identified to support analyses and investigations of these phenomena. In each case multiple products from two or more instruments are available which gives a more complete picture of the evolving hazard or disaster. All Level 2 (L2) products are available within 2.5 hours of observation at the spacecraft and the daily L3 products are updated incrementally as new data become available. LANCE provides user access to imagery using two systems: a Web Mapping Service (WMS) and a Google Earth-based interface known as the State of the Earth (SOTE). The latter has resulted from a partnership between LANCE and the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO DAAC). When the user selects one of the 14 categories, the relevant products are established within the WMS (http://lance2.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/wms/). For each application, population density data are available for densities in excess of 100 people/sqkm with user-defined opacity. These data are provided by

  13. Growth and abundance of Pacific Sand Lance, Ammodytes hexapterus, under differing oceanographic regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robards, Martin D.; Gray, Floyd; Piatt, John F.

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic changes in seabird and marine mammal stocks in the Gulf of Alaska have been linked to shifts in abundance and composition of forage fish stocks over the past 20 years. The relative value (e.g., size and condition of individual fish, abundance) of specific forage fish stocks to predators under temporally changing oceanographic regimes is also expected to vary. We inferred potential temporal responses in abundance, growth, and age structure of a key forage fish, sand lance, by studying across spatially different oceanographic regimes. Marked meso-scale differences in abundance, growth, and mortality existed in conjunction with these differing regimes. Growth rate within stocks (between years) was positively correlated with temperature. However, this relationship did not exist among stocks (locations) and differing growth rates were better correlated to marine productivity. Sand lance were least abundant and grew slowest at the warmest site (Chisik Island), an area of limited habitat and low food abundance. Abundance and growth of juvenile sand lance was highest at the coolest site (Barren Islands), an area of highly productive upwelled waters. Sand lance at two sites located oceanographically between the Barren Islands and Chisik Island (inner- and outer-Kachemak Bay) displayed correspondingly intermediate abundance and growth. Resident predators at these sites are presented with markedly different numbers and quality of this key prey species. Our results suggest that at the decadal scale, Gulf of Alaska forage fish such as sand lance are probably more profoundly affected by changes in abundance and quality of their planktonic food, than by temperature alone.

  14. Evaluating the OneTouch® Delica™: a low-pain lancing system for self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Barry H; Shemain, Ashley; Pines, Mary Kate; Wallace, Derek A; Pineau, Mitchel

    2011-07-01

    The pain associated with lancing can be a significant barrier to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The OneTouch® Delica™ lancing device contains features to reduce lancing pain, including improved lancet control and stability, reduced vibration, and a thinner, 33-gauge lancet. This 2-visit, randomized controlled trial assessed perceived pain of lancing with the OneTouch® Delica™ compared with 4 other common lancing devices: OneTouch® Comfort™, ACCU-CHEK® Softclix, ACCU-CHEK® Multiclix, and Ascensia® Microlet™2. Two hundred patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus were assigned to the OneTouch® Delica™ and also randomized to 1 of the 4 comparator devices (n=50 per device pair). At visit 1, we determined the minimum depth settings required to produce≥1 μL of fingertip blood for each patient with each device. At visit 2, patients lanced their fingertips with the devices at the predetermined depths and used a 150-mm visual analog scale (VAS) to rate lancing pain relative to their "usual pain" associated with SMBG. The VAS ranged from "much less painful" (0 mm) to "much more painful" (150 mm), with the midpoint (75 mm) labeled as "usual pain." Fingertip pain scores from patients using OneTouch® Delica™ were significantly lower than those obtained using OneTouch® Comfort™, ACCU-CHEK® Multiclix, and Ascensia® Microlet™2. Pain scores for OneTouch® Delica™ and ACCU-CHEK® Softclix were not significantly different. In conclusion, OneTouch® Delica™ was either less painful or no different than the comparator devices when used for fingertip lancing. Innovative lancing devices that cause less pain may improve compliance and persistence with prescribed SMBG.

  15. LANCE Usage and User Analysis: Creating a Better System that Meets User Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D.; Boller, R. A.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Murphy, K. J.; Ilavajhala, S.; Ullah, A.; Joshi, T.

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes known uses of NASA's Land Atmosphere Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE) data and imagery and summarizes findings from informal interviews with LANCE users, undertaken to better understand their needs. LANCE, the NRT component of EOSDIS, provides products from MODIS, AIRS, OMI and MLS within 3 hours of satellite observation. LANCE has in excess of 50,000 unique anonymous users per month using data and imagery for wildfire management, air quality measurements, shipping, agricultural forecasting as well as monitoring volcanic plumes, dust storms, smoke plumes and floods etc. Users can be categorized as end users or as brokers who may repackage the imagery and pass it on to their own end users. Interactions with a sample of end users found the following: users like MODIS Rapid Response imagery but do not want to be confined to pre-defined subsets; they want a broader selection of imagery and those with higher bandwidth want the capability to pull in imagery in to their own web-mapping or GIS applications. Users with lower bandwidth want the capability to define their own areas-of-interest for simple download of an image file. Users also expressed a desire to see historic as well as near-real time data, so they can compare the current situation to the recent past. Users want download capabilities to enable information to be shared quickly and easily. These and other findings are being fed back to EOSDIS developers who are creating tools and services to better meet user needs. The findings from users have been valuable in ensuring that developers are on track. The most recent offerings, available http://earthdata.nasa.gov/lance, are Worldview - a web-based client which provides capability to interactively browse full-resolution, global, near real-time satellite imagery from 50+ data products from LANCE, and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) which enables both users and brokers to pull the latest imagery in to their own web mapping

  16. Evaluation of the TORE(R)Lance for Radioactive Waste Mobilization and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Bates, Cameron J.; Bates, James M.; White, M.

    2002-09-25

    The TORE? Lance is a hand-held hydro transportation device with the ability to convey solids at pre-determined slurry concentrations over great distances. The TORE? Lance head generates a precessing vortex core to mobilize solids. Solids retrieval is accomplished using an eductor. The device contains no parts and requires pressurized fluid to operate the eductor and produce mobilization. Three configurations of TORE? Lance operation were evaluated for mobilization and eduction during these tests: compressed air, water, and an air and water mixture. These tests have shown that the TORE? Lance is a tool that can be used at Hanford for mobilization and retrieval of wastes. The system is versatile and can be configured for many types of applications. These studies showed that the diverse applications require unique solutions so care is recommended for TORE? Lance equipment selection for each application. The two components of the TORE? Lance are the precessing vortex for mobilizing and the eductor for retrieval. The precessing vortex is sensitive to fluid flow rate and pressure. In the hand-held unit these parameters are controlled both internally, by changing shim spacing, and externally by controlling the flow split between the eductor and the head. For in-tank applications out-of-tank control of both these parameters are recommended.

  17. Integrated reservoir description and analysis of the Lance formation at Jonah Field, Sublette County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.W.; Delozier, D.L.; Flinch, R.

    1996-06-01

    Log, core, and production data from the 16 wells in Jonah field have been used to characterize sandstone reservoirs in the Lance Formation (Cretaceous) in the northern Green River basin. The Lance Fm. is composed of 2500 feet of heterolithic fluvial strata that were deposited on a broad alluvial plain. Sandstones were deposited in east- flowing channels 10-20 feet deep and 150-4000 feet wide; some amalgamated sandstone intervals are >100 feet thick and over a mile wide. Fluvial architecture varies from isolated meandering river deposits to amalgamated braided river deposits. Sandstones are dominantly composed of detrital chert and quartz grains. The Lance Fm. has been divided into several informal pay intervals that have different reservoir character and performance. Wardell interval sandstones produce gas in eight wells and are poor reservoirs due to fine grain size, high clay and cement content, and greater depth. Yellow Point interval sandstones have shown average performance in five wells. The Jonah interval produces in 10 wells and is the most prolific pay zone with up to 150 net feet of sandstone having core porosity of 8-12% and permeability of .01-0.9 mD. Upper and middle Lance sandstones have better than average performance from five wells. All pay intervals require greater than 8% porosity and less than 35% water saturation. Pre-frac pressure build-up analysis indicates in situ permeabilities of 3-20 microdarcys and suggests that fractures are a significant contributor to deliverability. Estimated reserves of 0.4-4.0 BCFG/well are based on decline curve analysis. Liquid yields vary from 6-86 BO/MMCFG and increase with depth. Pressure gradients range from .55 to .59 psi/ft. Reservoir overpressure is a result of continuous migration of hydrocarbons into available pore space via microfracture seepage.

  18. Locomotory transition from water to sand and its effects on undulatory kinematics in sand lances (Ammodytidae).

    PubMed

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Strother, James A; Horton, Jaquan M; Summers, Adam P; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2011-02-15

    Sand lances, fishes in the genus Ammodytes, exhibit a peculiar burrowing behavior in which they appear to swim rapidly into the substrate. They use posteriorly propagated undulations of the body to move in both water, a Newtonian fluid, and in sand, a non-Newtonian, granular substrate. In typical aquatic limbless locomotion, undulations of the body push against water, which flows because it is incapable of supporting the static stresses exerted by the animal, thus the undulations move in world space (slipping wave locomotion). In typical terrestrial limbless locomotion, these undulations push against substrate irregularities and move relatively little in world space (non-slipping wave locomotion). We used standard and X-ray video to determine the roles of slipping wave and non-slipping wave locomotion during burrowing in sand lances. We find that sand lances in water use slipping wave locomotion, similar to most aquatic undulators, but switch to non-slipping waves once they burrow. We identify a progression of three stages in the burrowing process: first, aquatic undulations similar to typical anguilliform locomotion (but without head yaw) push the head into the sand; second, more pronounced undulations of the aquatic portion of the body push most of the animal below ground; third, the remaining above-ground portion of the body ceases undulation and the subterranean portion takes over, transitioning to non-slipping wave locomotion. We find no evidence that sand lances use their body motions to fluidize the sand. Instead, as soon as enough of the body is underground, they undergo a kinematic shift and locomote like terrestrial limbless vertebrates.

  19. Computational Investigation of Swirling Supersonic Jets Generated Through a Nozzle-Twisted Lance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingming; Li, Qiang; Zou, Zongshu; An, Xizhong

    2017-02-01

    The dynamic characteristics of supersonic swirling jets generated through a nozzle-twisted lance are numerically studied. The essential features of the swirling jets are identified by defining a deviation angle. The effects of nozzle twist angle (NTA) on swirling flow intensity, coalescence characteristics, and dynamic parameter distributions of the jets are discussed. The rotational flow characteristics are revealed. The results show that the jets from the nozzle-twisted lance are imparted to a circumferential rotating movement around the lance axis, and such swirling flow is enhanced by increasing NTA. The enhanced swirling flow causes weaker coalescence of the jets, faster attenuations of the axial velocity, and higher heat transfer rate between the jets and surroundings. The supersonic core length, however, is found to be less sensitive to the swirling flow intensity. The radial spreading of the jets, changing non-monotonically with NTA, arrives at its maximum at 5 deg of NTA. Furthermore, the swirling flow induces a considerable tangential velocity component, and as a result, a holistic and effective horizontal swirling flow field develops. The y-vorticity distribution range and the corresponding magnitude turn larger with increasing NTA, which promote the vortex motion of the local fluid element and thus intensify the local mixing.

  20. Kangaroo mother care diminishes pain from heel lance in very preterm neonates: A crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, C Celeste; Filion, Francoise; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Goulet, Celine; Bell, Linda; McNaughton, Kathryn; Byron, Jasmine; Aita, Marilyn; Finley, G Allen; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Background Skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been shown to be efficacious in diminishing pain response to heel lance in full term and moderately preterm neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine if KMC would also be efficacious in very preterm neonates. Methods Preterm neonates (n = 61) between 28 0/7 and 31 6/7 weeks gestational age in three Level III NICU's in Canada comprised the sample. A single-blind randomized crossover design was employed. In the experimental condition, the infant was held in KMC for 15 minutes prior to and throughout heel lance procedure. In the control condition, the infant was in prone position swaddled in a blanket in the incubator. The primary outcome was the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP), which is comprised of three facial actions, maximum heart rate, minimum oxygen saturation levels from baseline in 30-second blocks from heel lance. The secondary outcome was time to recover, defined as heart rate return to baseline. Continuous video, heart rate and oxygen saturation monitoring were recorded with event markers during the procedure and were subsequently analyzed. Repeated measures analysis-of-variance was employed to generate results. Results PIPP scores at 90 seconds post lance were significantly lower in the KMC condition (8.871 (95%CI 7.852–9.889) versus 10.677 (95%CI 9.563–11.792) p < .001) and non-significant mean differences ranging from 1.2 to1.8. favoring KMC condition at 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Time to recovery was significantly shorter, by a minute(123 seconds (95%CI 103–142) versus 193 seconds (95%CI 158–227). Facial actions were highly significantly lower across all points in time reaching a two-fold difference by 120 seconds post-lance and heart rate was significantly lower across the first 90 seconds in the KMC condition. Conclusion Very preterm neonates appear to have endogenous mechanisms elicited through skin-to-skin maternal contact that decrease pain response, but not as

  1. NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE): Changing patterns in the use of NRT satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D.; Michael, K.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Harrison, S.; Ding, F.; Durbin, P. B.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Rinsland, P. L.; Ye, G.; Mauoka, E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) provides data and imagery approximately 3 hours from satellite observation, to monitor natural events globally and to meet the needs of the near real-time (NRT) applications community. This article describes LANCE, and how the use of NRT data and imagery has evolved. Since 2010 there has been a four-fold increase in both the volume of data and the number of files downloaded. Over the last year there has been a marked shift in the way in which users are accessing NRT imagery; users are gravitating towards Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) and away from MODIS Rapid Response, in part due to the increased exposure through social media. In turn this is leading to a broader range of users viewing NASA NRT imagery. This article also describes new, and planned, product enhancements to LANCE. Over the last year, LANCE has expanded to support NRT products from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). LANCE elements are also planning to ingest and process NRT data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), and the advanced Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite in the near future.

  2. Identifying subtidal burying habitat of Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Clifford L. K.; Hrynyk, Doug; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Schweigert, Jake

    2013-08-01

    Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), an important prey species for many vertebrate predators in the northeast Pacific, lacks a swim bladder and relies on coarse sand substrates to bury in overnight and during the winter. Surprisingly little information is available describing the spatial distribution and extent of its burying habitat along the British Columbia coast. Thus, a habitat suitability model was developed for Pacific sand lance in the Strait of Georgia that considered information on shallow depths (<80 m), high bottom current speeds (25-63 cm s-1) and coarse sand (0.25-2.0 mm grain diameter). Overall, the model identified 6% of the study domain as suitable burying habitat, with the southern Strait containing the largest burying areas. By-catch data from mid-water trawl and purse seine sets was also used to map the location of pelagic schools of foraging sand lance. The persistent location of large Pacific sand lance by-catches over many years identified key foraging areas adjacent to several burying habitats. The median distance of 88 sand lance schools to coarse sand patches was 2 km; 75% of the schools were found within 4.9 km of coarse sand. The mapping of suitable burying and foraging areas in the Strait of Georgia will assist managers in guarding against anthropogenic activities that might impact the relatively uncommon and patchy habitats of a key coastal food-web species.

  3. In Situ Chemical Oxidation Through Lance Permeation at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.Z.

    2003-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation through lance permeation (ISCO-LP) is an emerging remediation technology in which chemical oxidants (such as potassium or sodium permanganate) are delivered to the subsurface using vertical lance-like injectors. It is applicable to sites with oxidizable contaminants such as chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons. Because vertical lance injections can be deployed at relatively close spacing, ISCO-LP potentially can be used to clean-up contamination in low-permeability media. This document provides information that can help potential users determine whether ISCO-LP would apply to a particular environmental management problem. It contains a general description of the technology (Section 2), performance data from a field demonstration (Section 3), an assessment of technology applicability (Section 4), a summary of cost elements (Section 5), and a list of regulatory, environmental safety and health issues (Section 6). It is patterned after the Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSR) published by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology under the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA). As in the previously published ITSRs, the technology described in this report was developed through funding from SCFA. Most of the information contained in this report was obtained from a field demonstration of ISCO-LP conducted in July-August 2000 at DOE's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The field test was not completed due to an accident that caused a field worker serious injuries. Although performance assessment data are very limited, the field test highlighted important health and safety issues that must be considered by site managers and technology vendors interested in implementing ISCO-LP.

  4. Phase I Field Test Results of an Innovative DNAPL Remediation Technology: The Hydrophobic Lance

    SciTech Connect

    Tuck, D.M.

    1999-01-28

    An innovative technology for recovery of pure phase DNAPL was deployed in the subsurface near the M-Area Settling Basin, continuing the support of the A/M Area Ground Water Corrective Action Program (per Part B requirements). This technology, the Hydrophobic Lance, operates by placing a neutral/hydrophobic surface (Teflon) in contact with the DNAPL. This changes the in situ conditions experienced by the DNAPL, allowing it to selectively drain into a sump from which it can be pumped. Collection of even small amounts of DNAPL can save years of pump-and-treat operation because of the generally low solubility of DNAPL components.

  5. The evolution of mode-2 nonlinear internal waves over the northern Heng-Chun Ridge south of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramp, S. R.; Yang, Y. J.; Reeder, D. B.; Buijsman, M. C.; Bahr, F. L.

    2015-07-01

    Two research cruises were conducted from the R/V OCEAN RESEARCHER 3 during 05-16 August 2011 to study the generation and propagation of high-frequency nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) over the northern Heng-Chun Ridge south of Taiwan. The primary study site was on top of a smaller ridge about 15 km wide by 400 m high atop the primary ridge, with a sill depth of approximately 600 m. A single mooring was used in conjunction with shipboard observations to sample the temperature, salinity and velocity structure over the ridge. All the sensors observed a profusion of mode-2 NLIWs. Some of the waves were solitary, while others had as many as seven evenly spaced waves per packet. The waves all exhibited classic mode-2 velocity structure with a core near 150-200 m and opposing velocities in the layers above and below. At least two and possibly three most common propagation directions emerged from the analysis, suggesting multiple generation sites near the eastern side of the ridge. The turbulent dissipation due to overturns in the wave cores was very high at order 10-4-10-3 W kg-1. The energy budget suggests that the waves cannot persist very far from the ridge and likely do not contribute to the South China Sea transbasin wave phenomenon.

  6. Using Open and Interoperable Ways to Publish and Access LANCE AIRS Near-Real Time Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Lynnes, C.; Vollmer, B.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Yang, W.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Near-Real Time (NRT) data from the Land Atmosphere Near real time Capability for EOS (LANCE) provide the information on the global and regional atmospheric state with very low latency. An open and interoperable platform is useful to facilitate access to and integration of LANCE AIRS NRT data. This paper discusses the use of open-source software components to build Web services for publishing and accessing AIRS NRT data in the context of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The AIRS NRT data have also been made available through an OPeNDAP server. OPeNDAP allows several open-source netCDF-based tools such as Integrated Data Viewer, Ferret and Panoply to directly display the Level 2 data over the network. To enable users to locate swath data files in the OPeNDAP server that lie within a certain geographical area, graphical "granule maps" are being added to show the outline of each file on a map of the Earth. The metadata of AIRS NRT data and services is then explored to implement information advertisement and discovery in catalogue systems. Datacasting, an RSS-based technology for accessing Earth Science data and information to facilitate the subscriptions to AIRS NRT data availability, filtering, downloading and viewing data, is also discussed. To provide an easy entry point to AIRS NRT data and services, a Web portal designed for customized data downloading and visualization is introduced.

  7. Using Open and Interoperable Ways to Publish and Access LANCE AIRS Near-Real Time Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Peisheng; Lynnes, Christopher; Vollmer, Bruce; Savtchenko, Andrey; Theobald, Michael; Yang, Wenli

    2011-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Near-Real Time (NRT) data from the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) element at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) provides information on the global and regional atmospheric state, with very low temporal latency, to support climate research and improve weather forecasting. An open and interoperable platform is useful to facilitate access to, and integration of, LANCE AIRS NRT data. As Web services technology has matured in recent years, a new scalable Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is emerging as the basic platform for distributed computing and large networks of interoperable applications. Following the provide-register-discover-consume SOA paradigm, this presentation discusses how to use open-source geospatial software components to build Web services for publishing and accessing AIRS NRT data, explore the metadata relevant to registering and discovering data and services in the catalogue systems, and implement a Web portal to facilitate users' consumption of the data and services.

  8. Management of pain from heel lance with lidocaine-prilocaine (EMLA) cream: is it safe and efficacious in preterm infants?

    PubMed

    Stevens, B; Johnston, C; Taddio, A; Jack, A; Narciso, J; Stremler, R; Koren, G; Aranda, J

    1999-08-01

    Hospitalized preterm infants undergo multiple painful heel lances. A two-phase, randomized, controlled trial was undertaken to determine the safety and efficacy of lidocaine-prilocaine 5% cream (EMLA, Astra Pharmaceuticals, L.P, Westborough, MA) for relieving pain from heel lance. One hundred twenty infants were randomly assigned to receive 0.5 g of EMLA or placebo cream for 30 minutes (Phase 1) or 60 minutes (Phase 2) before a routine heel lance. Efficacy was assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). Safety was determined by methemoglobin concentration 8 hours after EMLA application and by clinical signs of methemoglobinemia. No significant differences existed on PIPP scores between EMLA and placebo groups in Phase 1 (p < .480) or Phase 2 (p < .831). No infant had any clinical signs of methemoglobinemia. The mean methemoglobin concentration was 1.19% (.47). Approximately 10% of infants had minor skin reactions, and approximately 20% of EMLA-treated infants had blanching at the application site. The authors conclude that EMLA is safe but not efficacious for relieving pain from heel lance in preterm infants.

  9. Use of the Published Lance Armstrong Cancer Story to Teach Health Science Content to High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, E. Robert

    2008-01-01

    Lance Armstrong (2000) authored a book titled "It's Not About the Bike -- My Journey Back to Life," regarding his battle with testicular cancer. It became a "New York Times" Bestseller and was selected by the "School Library Journal" as one of the "Best Adult Books for High School Students for 2001." The goal of the project described in this…

  10. "Tras de un Amoroso Lance" como Estructura Expresiva (The Poem, "Behind the Amorous Cast" as an Expressive Structure).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratosevich, Nicolas

    1967-01-01

    An analysis of a poem by San Juan de la Cruz (St. John of the Cross), the sixteenth century Spanish mystic, identifies symbols and images, explains themes, and offers a synthesis of his structural patterns. The poem, "Tras de amoroso lance", deals with the theme of the search of the beloved (i.e., the soul) for the lover, and…

  11. Informing future NRT satellite distribution capabilities: Lessons learned from NASA's Land Atmosphere NRT capability for EOS (LANCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.; Michael, K.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) provides data and imagery from Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites in less than 3 hours from satellite observation, to meet the needs of the near real-time (NRT) applications community. This article describes the architecture of the LANCE and outlines the modifications made to achieve the 3-hour latency requirement with a view to informing future NRT satellite distribution capabilities. It also describes how latency is determined. LANCE is a distributed system that builds on the existing EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) capabilities. To achieve the NRT latency requirement, many components of the EOS satellite operations, ground and science processing systems have been made more efficient without compromising the quality of science data processing. The EOS Data and Operations System (EDOS) processes the NRT stream with higher priority than the science data stream in order to minimize latency. In addition to expediting transfer times, the key difference between the NRT Level 0 products and those for standard science processing is the data used to determine the precise location and tilt of the satellite. Standard products use definitive geo-location (attitude and ephemeris) data provided daily, whereas NRT products use predicted geo-location provided by the instrument Global Positioning System (GPS) or approximation of navigational data (depending on platform). Level 0 data are processed in to higher-level products at designated Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). The processes used by LANCE have been streamlined and adapted to work with datasets as soon as they are downlinked from satellites or transmitted from ground stations. Level 2 products that require ancillary data have modified production rules to relax the requirements for ancillary data so reducing processing times. Looking to the future, experience gained from LANCE can provide valuable lessons on

  12. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOEpatents

    Schlichting, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  13. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOEpatents

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-12-20

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Zinc Slag Fuming Process in Top-Submerged Lance Smelting Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, Nazmul; Naser, Jamal; Brooks, Geoffrey; Reuter, Markus A.; Matusewicz, Robert W.

    2012-02-01

    Slag fuming is a reductive treatment process for molten zinciferous slags for extracting zinc in the form of metal vapor by injecting or adding a reductant source such as pulverized coal or lump coal and natural gas. A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model was developed to study the zinc slag fuming process from imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slag in a top-submerged lance furnace and to investigate the details of fluid flow, reaction kinetics, and heat transfer in the furnace. The model integrates combustion phenomena and chemical reactions with the heat, mass, and momentum interfacial interaction between the phases present in the system. A commercial CFD package AVL Fire 2009.2 (AVL, Graz, Austria) coupled with a number of user-defined subroutines in FORTRAN programming language were used to develop the model. The model is based on three-dimensional (3-D) Eulerian multiphase flow approach, and it predicts the velocity and temperature field of the molten slag bath, generated turbulence, and vortex and plume shape at the lance tip. The model also predicts the mass fractions of slag and gaseous components inside the furnace. The model predicted that the percent of ZnO in the slag bath decreases linearly with time and is consistent broadly with the experimental data. The zinc fuming rate from the slag bath predicted by the model was validated through macrostep validation process against the experimental study of Waladan et al. The model results predicted that the rate of ZnO reduction is controlled by the mass transfer of ZnO from the bulk slag to slag-gas interface and rate of gas-carbon reaction for the specified simulation time studied. Although the model is based on zinc slag fuming, the basic approach could be expanded or applied for the CFD analysis of analogous systems.

  15. Hormonal correlates of social status and courtship display in the cooperatively lekking lance-tailed manakin.

    PubMed

    DuVal, Emily H; Goymann, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Though cooperative behavior has long been a focus of evolutionary biology, the proximate hormonal mechanisms underlying cooperative interactions remain poorly understood. Lance-tailed manakins (Chiroxiphia lanceolata) are tropical passerines that form long-term male-male partnerships and cooperate in paired male courtship displays. To elucidate patterns of natural hormonal variation in relation to cooperation and reproductive behavior, we examined circulating androgen levels of male lance-tailed manakins in relation to social status, display behavior, and time of year. We found significantly higher circulating androgen levels in alpha-ranked (breeding) males compared to non-alpha adult males in the population. Beta males, which participated in courtship displays but did not copulate, had androgen levels indistinguishable from those of unpaired adult males that never displayed for females, suggesting that an elevated concentration of plasma testosterone in tropical lekking birds may be associated primarily with copulatory behavior or other status-specific traits, and not the performance of courtship display. Androgens decreased throughout the breeding season for males of all status categories. Interestingly, alphas that displayed for females in the observation session prior to sampling had lower androgen levels than alphas that did not display for females. This pattern may result from female discrimination against alpha males at display areas with high levels of social conflict among males, as social disruption is linked to elevated testosterone in many species. However, recent change of a display partner was not related to alpha androgen levels. We discuss alternative explanations and the possible implications of these results, and generate several testable predictions for future investigations.

  16. The Politics of NATO Short-Range Nuclear Modernization 1983-1990: The Follow-On-to-Lance Missile Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    and their associated launchers suffer from the same mechanical and corrosive effects of aging and weather as do conventional weapons, with the...pp. 184-212; and Waltz, Theory of International Relations, pp. 165-66. 58Paul Buteux, Strategy. Doctrine. and the Politics of Alliance: Theatre ...in the 1987-1990 SNF debate concerned the replacement for the aging Lance missile. That program was terminated in May 1990, so the years ahead will

  17. Review of Matters Related to the Sexual Assault of Lance Corporal Maria Lauterbach, U.S. Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-18

    Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be...The PDUSD (P&R) requested we review command and other responses to the rape complaint of Lance Corporal (LCpl) Maria Lauterbach, assigned to...facts and circumstances involved in responses to the rape complaint and the Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) rape investigation, and

  18. High genetic diversity and geographic subdivision of three lance nematode species (Hoplolaimus spp.) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Holguin, Claudia M; Baeza, Juan A; Mueller, John D; Agudelo, Paula

    2015-07-01

    Lance nematodes (Hoplolaimus spp.) feed on the roots of a wide range of plants, some of which are agronomic crops. Morphometric values of amphimictic lance nematode species overlap considerably, and useful morphological characters for their discrimination require high magnification and significant diagnostic time. Given their morphological similarity, these Hoplolaimus species provide an interesting model to investigate hidden diversity in crop agroecosystems. In this scenario, H. galeatus may have been over-reported and the related species that are morphologically similar could be more widespread in the United States that has been recognized thus far. The main objectives of this study were to delimit Hoplolaimus galeatus and morphologically similar species using morphology, phylogeny, and a barcoding approach, and to estimate the genetic diversity and population structure of the species found. Molecular analyses were performed using sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) on 23 populations. Four morphospecies were identified: H. galeatus, H. magnistylus, H. concaudajuvencus, and H. stephanus, along with a currently undescribed species. Pronounced genetic structure correlated with geographic origin was found for all species, except for H. galeatus. Hoplolaimus galeatus also exhibited low genetic diversity and the shortest genetic distances among populations. In contrast, H. stephanus, the species with the fewest reports from agricultural soils, was the most common and diverse species found. Results of this project may lead to better delimitation of lance nematode species in the United States by contributing to the understanding the diversity within this group.

  19. High genetic diversity and geographic subdivision of three lance nematode species (Hoplolaimus spp.) in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Holguin, Claudia M; Baeza, Juan A; Mueller, John D; Agudelo, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Lance nematodes (Hoplolaimus spp.) feed on the roots of a wide range of plants, some of which are agronomic crops. Morphometric values of amphimictic lance nematode species overlap considerably, and useful morphological characters for their discrimination require high magnification and significant diagnostic time. Given their morphological similarity, these Hoplolaimus species provide an interesting model to investigate hidden diversity in crop agroecosystems. In this scenario, H. galeatus may have been over-reported and the related species that are morphologically similar could be more widespread in the United States that has been recognized thus far. The main objectives of this study were to delimit Hoplolaimus galeatus and morphologically similar species using morphology, phylogeny, and a barcoding approach, and to estimate the genetic diversity and population structure of the species found. Molecular analyses were performed using sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) on 23 populations. Four morphospecies were identified: H. galeatus, H. magnistylus, H. concaudajuvencus, and H. stephanus, along with a currently undescribed species. Pronounced genetic structure correlated with geographic origin was found for all species, except for H. galeatus. Hoplolaimus galeatus also exhibited low genetic diversity and the shortest genetic distances among populations. In contrast, H. stephanus, the species with the fewest reports from agricultural soils, was the most common and diverse species found. Results of this project may lead to better delimitation of lance nematode species in the United States by contributing to the understanding the diversity within this group. PMID:26306177

  20. [Effects of piracetam therapy in a case of Lance-Adams syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Ai; Kumada, Satoko; Yokochi, Fusako; Hachiya, Yasuo; Hanafusa, Yukiko; Tomita, Sunao; Okiyama, Ryoich; Kurihara, Eiji

    2009-09-01

    We report a 17-year-old female patient with Lance-Adams syndrome caused by anoxic encephalopathy during a severe attack of bronchial asthma. She had difficulty in writing because of action myoclonus in her arms. She also exhibited freezing gait and was unable to walk without cane. Although her gait disturbance resembled those seen in patients with parkinsonism secondary to anoxic encephalopathy, surface electromyography revealed that it was caused by action myoclonus in her legs. The presence of giant somatosensory evoked potentials and enhanced cortical reflexes in response to the electrical stimulation to her posterior tibial nerves supported our diagnosis. A combined therapy with valproate sodium, clonazepam and piracetam (15 g/day) was not effective. However, her freezing gait remarkably improved and she was able to walk without help, after the treatment with sufficient dose of piracetam (21 g/day). Cortical hyperexcitability as revealed by electrophysiological examination also improved. We concluded that the combined therapy with antiepileptic drugs and piracetam was effective in the treatment for action myoclonus. However, because the effects seemed dose-related, the dosage of piracetam needed to be increased until the optimum effects were obtained.

  1. Skin Conductance at Baseline and Post-Heel Lance Reflects Sympathetic Activation in Neonatal Opiate Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Oji-Mmuo, Christiana N.; Michael, Eric J.; McLatchy, Jacqueline; Lewis, Mary M.; Becker, Julie E.; Doheny, Kim Kopenhaver

    2015-01-01

    Aim Skin conductance (SC) provides an objective measure of autonomic system regulation through sympathetic-mediated filling of sweat glands. This study aimed to test the utility of SC to detect sympathetic activation in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Methods 14 term (mean, SE: 38.8 ± 0.35 weeks gestational age) neonates with chronic prenatal opiate exposure were enrolled. SC (peaks/sec and mean of peaks) were measured at baseline, during heel lance/squeeze (HLS) and recovery from HLS at 24-48 (mean 38) hours of life prior to treatment for NAS. Blinded coders with established reliability assessed neonates using the Modified Finnegan Neonatal Scoring System (MFNSS). Non-parametric tests were used to determine group differences, phase differences from baseline to HLS and HLS to recovery, and associations between MFNSS and SC measures. Results Neonates that would later require morphine treatment for NAS (n = 6) had higher baseline SC mean of peaks than those that did not require treatment (n = 8) (P<0.05). Moreover, there were unique phase differences between groups and SC positively correlated with MFNSS (P< 0.05). Conclusion SC provides early identification of NAS severity. However, a larger sample is needed to determine sensitivity and specificity of SC for early identification of NAS and treatment effectiveness. PMID:26613197

  2. Implementing Land and Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanvi, V.; Michael, K.; Murphy, K. J.; Masuoka, E.; Vollmer, B.; Tilmes, C.; Conover, H.; Teague, M.; Durbin, P.; Regner, K.

    2010-12-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in availability and usage of near real-time data from sensors on board the earth observing satellites. NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) provides a wealth of data and products supporting scientific research of the atmosphere, oceans, and land. The Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments onboard Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites make global measurements daily which are processed into higher-level “standard” products within 8 to 40 hours of observation and then made available to users, primarily earth science researchers. However applications users, operational agencies, and even researchers desire EOS products in near real-time to support research and applications, including numerical weather and climate prediction and forecasting, monitoring of natural hazards, ecological/invasive species, agriculture, air quality, disaster relief and homeland security. These users usually need data within 3 hours, and are willing to trade science product quality for timely access. In response to this need, NASA developed the Land, Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) that provides land and atmosphere data acquired by AIRS, AMSR-E, MLS, MODIS, and OMI instruments.

  3. Venepuncture is preferable to heel lance for blood sampling in term neonates

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, S; Ogihara, T; Fujiwara, E; Ito, K; Nakano, M; Nakayama, S; Hachiya, T; Fujimoto, N; Abe, H; Ban, S; Ikeda, E; Tamai, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: The analgesic effect of oral sucrose in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures is generally accepted. For blood sampling, some studies have shown that venepuncture (VP) is less painful than heel lance (HL). Objective: To determine the least painful and most effective method among blood sampling by VP or HL with or without sucrose. Design: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Subjects: A total of 100 healthy, full term newborn infants being screened for inborn errors of metabolism were randomly allocated to one of four experimental groups (25 infants in each). Intervention and outcome measure: Seven specially trained nurses took turns to carry out blood sampling two minutes after administration of oral sucrose or water. Neonatal pain was assessed by the neonatal facial coding system (NFCS), as well as by crying. Results: Without sucrose, the NFCS score was higher in the HL group than the VP group during blood sampling (median 58 v 23, p<0.001). Oral sucrose significantly reduced the score of the HL group (58 v 47, p<0.01) and also tended to reduce the score of the VP group (23 v 2, p<0.1). However, the HL with sucrose group still had a higher score than the VP without sucrose group (47 v 23, p<0.01). Crying and the total procedure time showed the same trends as the NFCS score. Conclusions: VP is less painful and more effective than HL for blood sampling in newborn infants. Although oral sucrose may have an additive analgesic effect, it is not necessarily required if VP is used for blood sampling. PMID:15871991

  4. Complete genome sequence of Fer-de-Lance Virus reveals a novel gene in reptilian Paramyxoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; Batts, W.N.; Ahne, W.; Winton, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The complete RNA genome sequence of the archetype reptilian paramyxovirus, Fer-de-Lance virus (FDLV), has been determined. The genome is 15,378 nucleotides in length and consists of seven nonoverlapping genes in the order 3??? N-U-P-M-F-HN-L 5???, coding for the nucleocapsid, unknown, phospho-, matrix, fusion, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase, and large polymerase proteins, respectively. The gene junctions contain highly conserved transcription start and stop signal sequences and tri-nucleotide intergenic regions similar to those of other Paramyxoviridae. The FDLV P gene expression strategy is like that of rubulaviruses, which express the accessory V protein from the primary transcript and edit a portion of the mRNA to encode P and I proteins. There is also an overlapping open reading frame potentially encoding a small basic protein in the P gene. The gene designated U (unknown), encodes a deduced protein of 19.4 kDa that has no counterpart in other paramyxoviruses and has no similarity with sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Active transcription of the U gene in infected cells was demonstrated by Northern blot analysis, and bicistronic N-U mRNA was also evident. The genomes of two other snake paramyxovirus genotypes were also found to have U genes, with 11 to 16% nucleotide divergence from the FDLV U gene. Pairwise comparisons of amino acid identities and phylogenetic analyses of all deduced FDLV protein sequences with homologous sequences from other Paramyxoviridae indicate that FDLV represents a new genus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. We suggest the name Ferlavirus for the new genus, with FDLV as the type species.

  5. Comparison of 2D and 3D Computational Multiphase Fluid Flow Models of Oxygen Lancing of Pyrometallurgical Furnace Tap-Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwee, M. W.; Reynolds, Q. G.; Zietsman, J. H.

    2016-06-01

    Furnace tap-holes vary in design depending on the type of furnace and process involved, but they share one common trait: The tap-hole must be opened and closed periodically. In general, tap-holes are plugged with refractory clay after tapping, thereby stopping the flow of molten material. Once a furnace is ready to be tapped, drilling and/or lancing with oxygen are typically used to remove tap-hole clay from the tap-hole. Lancing with oxygen is an energy-intensive, mostly manual process, which affects the performance and longevity of the tap-hole refractory material as well as the processes inside the furnace. Computational modeling offers an opportunity to gain insight into the possible effects of oxygen lancing on various aspects of furnace operation.

  6. Jonah field, sublette county, Wyoming: Gas production from overpressured Upper Cretaceous Lance sandstones of the Green River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, S.L.; Robinson, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Jonah field, located in the northwestern Green River basin, Wyoming, produces gas from overpressured fluvial channel sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation. Reservoirs exist in isolated and amalgamated channel facies 10-100 ft (3-30 m) thick and 150-4000 ft (45-1210 m) wide, deposited by meandering and braided streams. Compositional and paleocurrent studies indicate these streams flowed eastward and had their source area in highlands associated with the Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt to the west. Productive sandstones at Jonah have been divided into five pay intervals, only one of which (Jonah interval) displays continuity across most of the field. Porosities in clean, productive sandstones range from 8 to 12%, with core permeabilities of .01-0.9 md (millidarcys) and in-situ permeabilities as low as 3-20 ??d (microdarcys), as determined by pressure buildup analyses. Structurally, the field is bounded by faults that have partly controlled the level of overpressuring. This level is 2500 ft (758 m) higher at Jonah field than in surrounding parts of the basin, extending to the top part of the Lance Formation. The field was discovered in 1975, but only in the 1990s did the area become fully commercial, due to improvements in fracture stimulation techniques. Recent advances in this area have further increased recoverable reserves and serve as a potential example for future development of tight gas sands elsewhere in the Rocky Mountain region.

  7. Changes in proximate composition and somatic energy content for Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) from Kachemak Bay, Alaska relative to maturity and season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robards, Martin D.; Anthony, Jill A.; Rose, George A.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Mean dry-weight energy values of adult Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) peaked in spring and early summer (20.91 kJg−1 for males, 21.08 kJg−1 for females), then declined by about 25% during late summer and fall (15.91 kJg−1 for males, 15.74 kJg−1 for females). Late summer declines in energy density paralleled gonadal development. Gender differences in energy density (maleslance spawn in October, entering the winter with close to their minimum whole body energy content. Juvenile sand lance exhibited a relatively constant protein to lipid ratio until they reached 80 mm fork length. Thereafter, relative proportions of protein remained constant while lipid proportions increased significantly. Dry weight energy densities of juveniles increased from a minimum 16.67 kJg−1 to a maximum of 19.68 kJg−1, and (per g) are higher than adults in late summer. The seasonal food value of adult sand lance to predators varies markedly, but maximum energetic value coincides with important feeding periods for marine mammals, fish, and seabirds.

  8. Determining the Habitat Preference of Sand Lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) Using Multibeam Bathymetry in the San Juan Islands, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E.; Greene, H.; Harmsen, F. J.

    2010-12-01

    Ammodytes hexapterus (Pacific Sand Lance or PSL) is an important forage fish supporting many marine populations, ranging from salmon, harbor seals, and whales. Previous studies have shown PSL to be highly substrate specific (Robards et al., 1999). Sand lance spend time buried in the substrate and come out into the water column to feed. This is due to the lack of swim bladders. If the sand particles are too fine their gills can be clogged (Wright et al., 2000). Little is known about the species sub-tidal habitat and new information regarding habitat preferences in deep water would be beneficial in determining their distribution and abundance. Preliminary examination undertaken in this investigation was limited to three sand wave fields: one, the central San Juan Channel (a known PSL sub-tidal habitat), and two previously un-sampled fields west of Sucia Island and southwest of Lopez Island in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, Washington. Multibeam bathymetric data, subsea video, and sediment analysis show that PSL have occupied the San Juan Channel, which is composed of well-sorted medium grained (~500 μm size) siliciclastic sand. Several sediment samples from in and around the fields were collected and analyzed to determine a grain size distribution of the sediments. The two un-sampled fields examined have an average grain size higher and lower respectively than the San Juan Channel field. The expected results of this study are to determine whether or not the two newly sampled sediment wave fields are potential sub-tidal habitats of PSL.

  9. Nonlabens antarcticus sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from glacier ice, and emended descriptions of Nonlabens marinus Park et al. 2012 and Nonlabens agnitus Yi and Chun 2012.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Min; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Kim, Sang-Jin

    2014-02-01

    A Gram-negative, proteorhodopsin-containing, orange pigmented, rod-shaped and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain AKS622(T), was isolated from a glacier core collected from the coast of King George Island, Antarctica. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain AKS622(T) was affiliated to the genus Nonlabens of the family Flavobacteriaceae and showed highest similarity to Nonlabens marinus S1-08(T) (97.9%). The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain AKS622(T) and N. marinus S1-08(T) was 46%. Optimal growth of strain AKS622(T) was observed at pH 7.0, at 15 °C and with 2.0% NaCl. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH, C17:0 2-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or C(16 : 1)ω6c). The DNA G+C content was 37.9 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. Phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified glycolipids, three unidentified aminolipids and one unidentified lipid were detected as major polar lipids. On the basis of the data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, it was concluded that strain AKS622(T) represents a novel species within the genus Nonlabens, for which the name Nonlabens antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AKS622(T) ( = KCCM 43019(T) = JCM 14068(T)). Emended descriptions of N. marinus Park et al. 2012 and Nonlabens agnitus Yi and Chun 2012 are given.

  10. Groundwater well inventory and assessment in the area of the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project, Green River Basin, Wyoming, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    During May through September 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, inventoried and assessed existing water wells in southwestern Wyoming for inclusion in a possible groundwater-monitor network. Records were located for 3,282 wells in the upper Green River Basin, which includes the U.S. Geological Survey study area and the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project area. Records for 2,713 upper Green River Basin wells were determined to be unique (not duplicated) and to have a Wyoming State Engineers Office permit. Further, 376 of these wells were within the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area. Of the 376 wells in the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area, 141 well records had sufficient documentation, such as well depth, open interval, geologic log, and depth to water, to meet many, but not always all, established monitor well criteria. Efforts were made to locate each of the 141 wells and to document their current condition. Field crews were able to locate 121 of the wells, and the remaining 20 wells either were not located as described, or had been abandoned and the site reclaimed. Of the 121 wells located, 92 were found to meet established monitor well criteria. Results of the field efforts during May through September 2012, and specific physical characteristics of the 92 wells, are presented in this report.

  11. The influence of particle size of dietary prey on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of young-of-the-year sand lance, Ammodytes personatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Liu, Yong; Liu, Xinfu; Tang, Oisheng

    2010-06-01

    The Eggers model was used to study the influence of two particle sizes of dietary prey on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of young-of-the-year sand lance, Ammodytes personatus, in continuous flow-through seawater in 2.5-m 3 tanks in the laboratory. The sand lances (average body weight 0.85 ± 0.21 g) were fed larval (average body length 0.56 ± 0.08 mm) or adult (average body length 10.12 ± 1.61 mm) Artemia salina. The gastric evacuation rate of the fish feeding on larval Artemia was 0.214, higher than that of those feeding on adult Artemia (0.189). The daily food consumption of the fish feeding on larval Artemia was 60.14 kJ/100 g in terms of energy content, higher than that of the fish feeding on adult Artemia (51.69 kJ/100 g), but the daily growth rate of fish feeding on larval Artemia was 14.86 kJ/100 g, significantly lower than that of the fish feeding on adult Artemia (19.50 kJ/100 g), indicating that less energy was used for growth when the food particles were smaller. Slow growth of sand lances preying on larval Artemia was probably due to the high energy consumption during predation, consistent with the basic suppositions of optimal foraging theory.

  12. The politics of NATO short-range nuclear modernization, 1983-1990: The follow-on to Lance missile decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The follow-on to Lance (FOTL) missile was born in 1983 with a consensual decision by NATO, in the face of a worsening strategic situation, to pursue short-range nuclear force (SNF) modernization. The program continued despite increasing popular and political opposition in Europe. It ended with a May 1990 cancellation decision by the American bureaucracy that reflected converging pressures from the international system, from America's allies, and from the domestic arena. The study asks three questions concerning the FOTL case. Why did NATO decide to upgrade its SNF forces, particularly FOTL Why did NATO continue to support FOTL's development in the face of increasing public opposition as the decade wore on Why did the United States cancel FOTL when it did The thesis attempts to answer each question through the use of one of three analytical perspective: systemic theory, alliance politics, or domestic politics. It concludes that during this time of diminishing threat at the systemic level, domestic-level factors within the German and American milieu became more important.

  13. Occupational injuries with captive lance-headed vipers (Bothrops moojeni): experience from a snake farm in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, S A; Silveira, P V; Peixoto-Filho, F M; Jorge, M T; Sandoz, A

    2000-07-01

    We studied occupational injuries with captive lance-headed vipers (Bothrops moojeni) that occurred in a snake farm in south-eastern Brazil from February 1981 to May 1999. The risk of injury, taking into account 13 cases of snake-associated injuries (12 of them snake bites) was 2.73 per 10,000 person-days of work, and 3.51 per 100,000 venom extractions. Thirteen cases of injury occurred in seven workers, whereas 18 workers were never injured, suggesting that some individuals have a higher risk of injury than others perhaps due to lack of concentration or overconfidence. Eight episodes of occupational injuries occurring in four technicians, including a case of eye injury due to splashed venom during extraction, are reported. Assessment of whether envenoming occurred was facilitated by knowledge of the snake species and size, history of recent venom extraction and snake feeding, and examination of snake venom glands. Hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis and serum sickness) to antivenom are a risk particularly to those workers who were bitten more than once and medicated previously. Antivenom therefore should not be administered to these individuals unless there is clear evidence that envenoming occurred or is likely to have occurred. Hypersensitivity to the venom is also a health concern for workers from snake farms.

  14. Does cooperation increase helpers' later success as breeders? A test of the skills hypothesis in the cooperatively displaying lance-tailed manakin.

    PubMed

    DuVal, Emily H

    2013-07-01

    Experience improves individual performance in many tasks. Pre-breeding cooperation may provide important experience that improves later success as a breeder, offering one compelling explanation for why some individuals delay reproduction to help others breed (the 'skills hypothesis'). However, confounding effects of age, quality and alternative selective benefits have complicated rigorous tests of this hypothesis. Male lance-tailed manakins perform cooperative courtship displays involving partnerships between unrelated alpha and beta males, and alphas monopolize resulting copulations. Beta males therefore do not receive immediate direct or indirect fitness benefits, but may gain skills during cooperation that increase their later success as an alpha. To date, however, the effect of cooperative experience on later success as a breeder has never been tested in any cooperatively displaying taxon. The effects of prior cooperative experience on reproductive success of alpha lance-tailed manakins were analysed in a mixed model framework using 12 years of information on cooperative experience and annual and lifetime genetic reproductive success for 57 alpha males. Models included previously identified effects of age and alpha tenure. Individual-level random effects controlled for quality differences to test for an independent influence of beta experience on success. Males accumulated up to 5 years of beta experience before becoming alphas, but 42·1% of alphas had no prior beta experience. Betas became alphas later in life, and experienced significantly lower reproductive success in their final year as alpha than males that were never beta, but did not have higher lifetime success or longer alpha tenures. Differences in patterns of annual siring success were best explained by age-dependent patterns of reproductive improvement and senescence among alphas, not beta experience. Cooperative experience does not increase relative breeding success for male lance-tailed manakins

  15. The Lance Insertion Retardation meter (LIRmeter): an instrument for in situ determination of sea floor properties—technical description and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Sebastian; Kaul, Norbert; Villinger, Heinrich

    2012-09-01

    Within this paper we present the Lance Insertion Retardation meter (LIRmeter) as an instrument to determine the strength of marine sediments by a measurement of the deceleration of a probe during penetration into the seafloor. The instrument has been designed for the penetration of the upper 4 m of marine sediments and is therefore suitable for site investigation applications such as cable route surveys. The LIRmeter can be easily deployed from a floating platform in water depths of up to 4,500 m. The system is suitable for long lasting missions (more than 12 h) with pogo-style measurements due to a rugged design and a special selection of sensors and electronics. The LIRmeter provides a custom data acquisition software and a web interface for acquisition setup, data download and system administration. An adaptation of the instrument to specific problems (i.e. extremely soft sediments) is possible due to interchangeable tips and adjustable weights of the lance. The specifically developed user interface and the rugged design make the instrument very easy to handle and to maintain. The sensors and the data acquisition were tested in the laboratory as well as in the field. Field measurements took place in the North Sea, where numerous measurements were performed. This paper gives an extensive description of the design of the LIRmeter (mechanics, electronics and data acquisition) supplemented by a description of data analysis and results of field- and laboratory-tests.

  16. How reliably can northeast Atlantic sand lances of the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus be distinguished? A comparative application of morphological and molecular methods

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Ralf; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added. A combination of the following morphological characters is recommended to distinguish between the genera Hyperoplus and Ammodytes: the protrusibility of the premaxillae, the presence of hooked ends of the prevomer, the number of dermal plicae, and the pectoral-fin length as a percentage of the standard length. The discriminant function analysis revealed that morphometric data are not very useful to distinguish the species of each of the two genera. The following meristic characters improve the separation of Hyperoplus lanceolatus from Hyperoplus immaculatus: the number of lower arch gill rakers, total number of gill rakers, numbers of caudal vertebrae and total vertebrae, and numbers of dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays. It is confirmed that Ammodytes tobianus differs from Ammodytes marinus by its belly scales that are organised in tight chevrons, scales which are present over the musculature at the base of the caudal fin, as well as by the lower numbers of dermal plicae, dorsal-fin rays, and total vertebrae. In contrast to the morphological data, mitochondrial COI sequences (DNA barcodes) failed to separate unambiguously the four investigated species. Ammodytes tobianus and Hyperoplus lanceolatus showed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific K2P genetic distances and cannot be reliably distinguished using

  17. How reliably can northeast Atlantic sand lances of the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus be distinguished? A comparative application of morphological and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Ralf; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added. A combination of the following morphological characters is recommended to distinguish between the genera Hyperoplus and Ammodytes: the protrusibility of the premaxillae, the presence of hooked ends of the prevomer, the number of dermal plicae, and the pectoral-fin length as a percentage of the standard length. The discriminant function analysis revealed that morphometric data are not very useful to distinguish the species of each of the two genera. The following meristic characters improve the separation of Hyperoplus lanceolatus from Hyperoplus immaculatus: the number of lower arch gill rakers, total number of gill rakers, numbers of caudal vertebrae and total vertebrae, and numbers of dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays. It is confirmed that Ammodytes tobianus differs from Ammodytes marinus by its belly scales that are organised in tight chevrons, scales which are present over the musculature at the base of the caudal fin, as well as by the lower numbers of dermal plicae, dorsal-fin rays, and total vertebrae. In contrast to the morphological data, mitochondrial COI sequences (DNA barcodes) failed to separate unambiguously the four investigated species. Ammodytes tobianus and Hyperoplus lanceolatus showed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific K2P genetic distances and cannot be reliably distinguished using the common

  18. The control of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in sheep flocks: a mathematical model of the impact of vaccination, serological testing, clinical examination and lancing of abscesses.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, K M; Medley, G F; Green, L E

    2010-06-01

    A mathematical model of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in sheep flocks was used to evaluate strategies for control and elimination of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA). Control strategies tested were vaccination, serological testing and removal of seropositives, clinical examination and removal of sheep with abscesses, lancing abscesses, and appropriate combinations. Three different infection rates with and without replacement of culled ewes were used to evaluate the control options. Controls were either implemented immediately after infection was detected in a flock or once CLA was at endemic equilibrium, and with different frequencies of examination or testing. Elimination of infection was defined as 99% confidence that no sheep were infected with C. pseudotuberculosis. The control strategies were evaluated by estimating the reduction in infection or probability of elimination and the number of ewes culled from the flock. Lancing abscesses reduced the prevalence of infection when the initial prevalence was <0.60, but elimination was unlikely. A vaccine efficacy of 0.79 or more led to elimination of infection from the flock, provided that the endemic prevalence of infection was <0.60. A combination of vaccination and clinical examination reduced the prevalence of infection at a faster rate than using clinical examination or vaccination alone where five rounds of clinical examination were done. Serological testing led to elimination of infection after five tests, but was highly dependent upon the diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity and management options used: a test sensitivity of 0.90 always resulted in elimination. A test specificity greater than 0.90 prevented removal of many false positive ewes and consequently prevented a large reduction in lamb production. Elimination was most likely using a serological test with sensitivity and specificity >0.90, but vaccination combined with clinical examination reduced infection rapidly with little impact

  19. Anatomy and Taxonomic Status of the Chasmosaurine Ceratopsid Nedoceratops hatcheri from the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A

    PubMed Central

    Farke, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The validity of Nedoceratops hatcheri, a chasmosaurine ceratopsid dinosaur known from a single skull recovered in the Lance Formation of eastern Wyoming, U.S.A., has been debated for over a century. Some have argued that the taxon is an aberrant Triceratops, and most recently it was proposed that N. hatcheri represents an intermediate ontogenetic stage between “young adult” and “old adult” forms of a single taxon previously split into Triceratops and Torosaurus. Methodology/Principal Findings The holotype skull of Nedoceratops hatcheri was reexamined in order to map reconstructed areas and compare the specimen with other ceratopsids. Although squamosal fenestrae are almost certainly not of taxonomic significance, some other features are unique to N. hatcheri. These include a nasal lacking a recognizable horn, nearly vertical postorbital horncores, and relatively small parietal fenestrae. Thus, N. hatcheri is tentatively considered valid, and closely related to Triceratops spp. The holotype of N. hatcheri probably represents an “old adult,” based upon bone surface texture and the shape of the horns and epiossifications on the frill. In this study, Torosaurus is maintained as a genus distinct from Triceratops and Nedoceratops. Synonymy of the three genera as ontogenetic stages of a single taxon would require cranial changes otherwise unknown in ceratopsids, including additions of ossifications to the frill and repeated alternation of bone surface texture between juvenile and adult morphotypes. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops, Torosaurus, and likely Nedoceratops, are all distinct taxa, indicating that species richness for chasmosaurine ceratopsids in the Lance Formation just prior to the Cretaceous-Paleocene extinction was roughly equivalent to that earlier in the Cretaceous. PMID:21283763

  20. Politics of NATO short-range nuclear modernization 1983-1990: The follow-on-to-Lance missile decisions. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    The follow-on to Lance (FOTL) missile was born in 1983 with a consensual decision by NATO, in the face of a worsening strategic situation, to pursue short-range nuclear force (SNF) modernization. The program continued despite increasing popular and political opposition in Europe. It ended with a May 1990 cancellation decision by the American bureaucracy that reflected converging pressures from the international system, from America's allies, and from the domestic arena. The thesis attempts to answer each question through the use of one of three analytical perspectives: systemic theory, alliance politics, or domestic politics. It concludes that during this time of diminishing threat at the systemic level, domestic-level factors within the German and American milieu became more important. While certain perspectives are better at explaining particular aspects or temporal periods of modernization cases, analysts should not focus on one perspective to the exclusion of others. Unexplained residual variables fall through the filter of each perspective, calling for further study by other approaches.

  1. Leaching of the fine fraction of the argon oxygen decarburization with lance (AOD-L) sludge for the preferential removal of iron.

    PubMed

    Majuste, Daniel; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    2009-02-15

    The fine fraction of the argon oxygen decarburization with lance (AOD-L) sludge is a hazardous waste generated by the stainless steel industry which is normally disposed in landfills. Due to the relative high content of Fe, Cr and Ni as well as its low granulometry, a hydrometallurgical route based on sequential leaching steps is being investigated to treat it. In this paper, an attempt made to remove Fe from the sludge and concentrate Cr and Ni in the solid is highlighted. Leaching was carried out at atmospheric pressure using H(2)SO(4) and HCl at varying temperature (25, 40, 55 and 70 degrees C) and acid concentration (3, 6 and 12%, v/v). For both acids, leaching rate increased with temperature and acid concentration, and higher dissolutions of Fe and Ni were obtained in comparison with that of Cr. HCl was found more selective for Fe over Ni and Cr. The content of Fe was reduced nearly 50% (w/w) at 70 degrees C and HCl 12% (v/v), while Cr remained mostly in the solid; however, around 40% (w/w) of Ni was dissolved and it may hinder such leaching step in the studied route. The study points out that total metal leaching of sludge under high temperature and pressure conditions must be considered.

  2. Characterization of the fine fraction of the argon oxygen decarburization with lance (AOD-L) sludge generated by the stainless steelmaking industry.

    PubMed

    Majuste, Daniel; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    2008-05-01

    The argon oxygen decarburization with lance (AOD-L) sludge generated by the stainless steelmaking industry is a hazardous waste due to the presence of chromium. While its coarse fraction is usually recycled into the own industrial process, the fine fraction is normally disposed in landfills. Techniques such as briquetting or magnetic separation were found to be inadequate to treat it for reuse purposes. So, in this work, the fine fraction of the AOD-L sludge was characterized aiming to find alternative methods to treat it. This sludge consists of a fine powder (mean diameter of 1 microm) containing 34 +/- 2% (w/w) of iron, 10.2 +/- 0.9% (w/w) of chromium and 1.4 +/- 0.1% (w/w) of nickel. The main crystalline phases identified in this study were chromite (FeCr(2)O(4)), magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and calcite (CaCO(3)). In the digestion tests, the addition of HClO(4) has favored the dissolution of chromite which is a very stable oxide in aqueous media. Nickel was found in very fine particles, probably in the metallic form or associated with iron and oxygen. The sludge was classified as hazardous waste, so its disposal in landfills should be avoided.

  3. Geologic map of the Peach Orchard Flat quadrangle, Carbon County, Wyoming, and descriptions of new stratigraphic units in the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation and Paleocene Fort Union Formation, eastern Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming-Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honey, J.D.; Hettinger, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a geologic map of the Peach Orchard Flat 7.5-minute quadrangle, located along the eastern flank of the Washakie Basin, Wyo. Geologic formations and individual coal beds were mapped at a scale of 1:24,000; surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described; and well logs were examined to determine coal correlations and thicknesses in the subsurface. In addition, four lithostratigraphic units were named: the Red Rim Member of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation, and the China Butte, Blue Gap, and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation.

  4. Lance Handbook, Firing Team Leader’s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    storms, Aurora borealis (northern lights) and ionospheric disturbances, which are common to subarctic regions. Line of sight communication such as FM...of recovery) works best, especially at night. 7. FIRE MISSION FORMAT ................... YES NO Sufficient acetated copies available (2-3). 8. CEOI...from A&T to Firing Section. r. CEOI and operations code book. s. Fire mission format . " t. Launcher specialist tool bag (complete). u. Tow cable for

  5. Soviet Reactions to Follow-On-To-Lance (FOTL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-26

    Affairs. This book provides a broad review on an international scale of Soviet thinking (early 1970’ s ) on the subject of scientific Alanning...34What Does Moscow Think?" Foreign Policy (Summer, 1985). Rybkin, Y. and Karteenan, S . "Military Parity as a Factor of Security." International ...Technology International Vol. 2 No. 1 (1987 Yearbook and Buyers Guide). Shapiro, Leonard. "The International Department of the CPSU: Key to Soviet

  6. Applications of LANCE Data at SPoRT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Short term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center: Mission: Apply NASA and NOAA measurement systems and unique Earth science research to improve the accuracy of short term weather prediction at the regional/local scale. Goals: Evaluate and assess the utility of NASA and NOAA Earth science data and products and unique research capabilities to address operational weather forecast problems; Provide an environment which enables the development and testing of new capabilities to improve short term weather forecasts on a regional scale; Help ensure successful transition of new capabilities to operational weather entities for the benefit of society

  7. [Studies on the antiarrhythmic effects of leaves of Dendropanax chevalieri (Vig.) Merr. et Chun].

    PubMed

    Huang, J Y; Liu, C M; Qi, P L; Liu, K M

    1989-06-01

    Aqueous extract of the leaves of Dendropanax chevalieri (DC), administrated orally, showed prominent protective effect against arrhythmias induced by iv aconitine CaCl2 (120mg/kg) in mice and BaCl2 (4mg/kg) in rats. In anesthetized rabbits, the duration of arrhythmia elicited by ivAdr 75 micrograms/kg was markedly shortened by iv DC 0.4g/kg. It might also obviously delay the onset of arrhythmias and cardiac electricity disappearance evoked by ouabain perfusing consistently into isolated guinea-pig hearts.

  8. Violent Gas Venting on the Heng-Chun Mud Volcano, South China Sea Active Continental Margin offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S.; Cheng, W. Y.; Tseng, Y. T.; Chen, N. C.; Hsieh, I. C.; Yang, T. F.

    2014-12-01

    Accumulation of methane as gas hydrate under the sea floor has been considered a major trap for both thermal and biogenic gas in marine environment. Aided by rapid AOM process near the sea floor, fraction of methane escaping the sea floor has been considered at minuscule. However, most studies focused mainly on deepwater gas hydrate systems where gas hydrate remain relatively stable. We have studied methane seeps on the active margin offshore Taiwan, where rapid tectonic activities occur. Our intention is to evaluate the scale and condition of gas seeps in the tectonic active region. Towcam, coring, heat probe, chirp, multibeam bathymetric mapping and echo sounding were conducted at the study areas. Our results showed that gas is violently venting at the active margin, not only through sediments, but also through overlying sea water, directly into the atmosphere. Similar ventings, but, not in this scale, have also been identified previously in the nearby region. High concentrations of methane as well as traces of propane were found in sediments and in waters with flares. In conjunction, abundant chemosynthetic community, life mussel, clams, tube worms, bacterial mats together with high concentrations of dissolve sulfide, large authigenic carbonate buildups were also found. Our results indicate that methane could be another major green house gas in the shallow water active margin region.

  9. Family I. Pseudonocardiaceae Embley, Smida, and Stackebrandt 1989, 205vp emend. Labeda, Goodfellow, Chun, Zhi and Li 2010a

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The formal description of the actinobacterial higher taxon the family Pseudonocardiaceae is presented. The differential morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics and diagnostic signature nucleotides from the 16S rRNA gene for the genera in the family is discussed. A key to the identificatio...

  10. 14821AT LANCE, Missile Number 2419, Round Number 349APT, 12 May 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    WSTRUCTIONUREPOT DCUMNTAIONPAG EPORE COMPLEMON PORN REPORT NUMBER 2GOTACCESSION NO S. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER TDR 1148 __7 0_____T___ ~. *.~----...,S. TYPE OF...s W ,4 - CP 4) * Ou lJ0 .oi s p inoA44J4 L o rOnmi IIII Im m pm 0, r-t 4) . 1-A)C a I A m 0 a ’n 0 . W) a on a 0* P* S a in 0 ) a. N * W) % -02

  11. 14819AT LANCE. Missile Number 4246, Round Number 362-APT, 23 February 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    Ye l N 4) N 4..4Y 0u 0Z Z 0~I zjLL ; A. 0 0 - =- .- Ci CY .f 0 O* f 4. 0’, IA 0 z 0. m. J LAI WWU 1 C T1 1 :1 = O C ID n fnp -M.0 i 4 NfnFn91p-N c c...LU ( ,P lr - Lj~ cyc y yc m~J"NN(J La ’r oz w)c - c; t LJ i C. LI C Z N c C C r- C QC C F - . . .~ 0.ri . . . . . . 1.19 40 C C I.-- N U 4L2 In-1 evc

  12. Homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence quenching assay (LANCE) for caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Jarkko; Hurskainen, Pertti; Gopalakrishnan, Sujatha; Burns, David; Warrior, Usha; Hemmilä, Ilkka

    2002-06-01

    In addition to kinases and G protein-coupled receptors, proteases are one of the main targets in modern drug discovery. Caspases and viral proteases, for instance, are potential targets for new drugs. To satisfy the current need for fast and sensitive high-throughput screening for inhibitors, new homogeneous protease assays are needed. We used a caspase-3 assay as a model to develop a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence quenching assay technology. The assay utilizes a peptide labeled with both a luminescent europium chelate and a quencher. Cleavage of the peptide by caspase-3 separates the quencher from the chelate and thus recovers europium fluorescence. The sensitivity of the assay was 1 pg/microl for active caspase-3 and 200 pM for the substrate. We evaluated the assay for high-throughput usage by screening 9600 small-molecule compounds. We also evaluated this format for absorption/distribution/metabolism/excretion assays with cell lysates. Additionally, the assay was compared to a commercial fluorescence caspase-3 assay.

  13. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (North Atlantic). Sand Lance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    interstitial water light, via the pineal gland , to oxygenated is more critical in respond to changes in light intensity. . I P. .4 ..-.-* .. - . . ," - 7...occurs principally inshore although evidence exists of some Larvae are most abundant off the offshore spawning activity (Richards mouths of major estuaries...A. tobianus along the south coast of Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus (Scott England is active at temperatures as 1968, 1973b; Bowman et al. 1976; high

  14. Airfoil lance apparatus for homogeneous humidification and sorbent dispersion in a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Robert B.; Yagiela, Anthony S.

    1990-12-25

    An apparatus for spraying an atomized mixture into a gas stream comprises a stream line airfoil member having a large radius leading edge and a small radius trailing edge. A nozzle assembly pierces the trailing edge of the airfoil member and is concentrically surrounded by a nacelle which directs shielding gas from the interior of the airfoil member around the nozzle assembly. Flowable medium to be atomized and atomizing gas for atomizing the medium are supplied in concentric conduits to the nozzle. A plurality of nozzles each surrounded by a nacelle are spaced along the trailing edge of the airfoil member.

  15. Airfoil lance apparatus for homogeneous humidification and sorbent dispersion in a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Myers, R.B.; Yagiela, A.S.

    1990-12-25

    An apparatus for spraying an atomized mixture into a gas stream comprises a stream line airfoil member having a large radius leading edge and a small radius trailing edge. A nozzle assembly pierces the trailing edge of the airfoil member and is concentrically surrounded by a nacelle which directs shielding gas from the interior of the airfoil member around the nozzle assembly. Flowable medium to be atomized and atomizing gas for atomizing the medium are supplied in concentric conduits to the nozzle. A plurality of nozzles each surrounded by a nacelle are spaced along the trailing edge of the airfoil member. 3 figs.

  16. 12821A LANCE, Missile Number 4819, Round Number 335 NCL, 13 August 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    11IJ.p.bj" C1 J7 UI 2 ’. 3U -4 1114 V 3 j 10 ta %3( % m r nN004 ( ONI - a i 40 N4 110 m-a 0- Ole -I. ’C o .4 w~ I-. 4 I.- o - z Z "-- . * . ;. * r...J C -C -bC r(Vf I DW0 -30 r-.0i t~~0 -~~ O I PLi 1-fb.V) Xi 4D0 ’ .4 - .- 4 1 Iq -4 e t) E % 0 0 D nIf Ir ) U I- cl tv K)In W C,lI V, d, ’OCIf- N

  17. Fundamental nucleon-nucleon interaction: probing exotic nuclear structure using GEANIE at LANCE/WNR

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, L

    2000-02-25

    The initial goal of this project was to study the in-medium nucleon-nucleon interaction by testing the fundamental theory of nuclear structure, the shell model, for nuclei between {sup 8}Zr and {sup 100}Sn. The shell model predicts that nuclei with ''magic'' (2,8,20,28,40,50, and 82) numbers of protons or neutrons form closed shells in the same fashion as noble gas atoms [may49]. A ''doubly magic'' nucleus with a closed shell of both protons and neutrons has an extremely simple structure and is therefore ideal for studying the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The shell model predicts that doubly magic nuclei will be spherical and that they will have large first-excited-state energies ({approx} 1 to 3 MeV). Although the first four doubly-magic nuclei exhibit this behavior, the N = Z = 40 nucleus, {sup 80}Zr, has a very low first-excited-state energy (290 keV) and appears to be highly deformed. This breakdown is attributed to the small size of the shell gap at N = Z = 40. If this description is accurate, then the N = Z = 50 doubly magic nucleus, {sup 100}Sn, will exhibit ''normal'' closed-shell behavior. The unique insight provided by doubly-magic nuclei from {sup 80}Zr to {sup 100}Sn has made them the focus of tremendous interest in the nuclear structure community. However, doubly-magic nuclei heavier than {sup 56}Ni become increasingly difficult to form due to the coulomb repulsion between the protons which favors the formation of neutron-rich nuclei. The coulomb repulsion creates a ''proton drip-line'' beyond which the addition of any additional bound protons is energetically impossible. The drip line renders the traditional experimental technique used in their formation, the heavy-ion reaction, less than ideal as a method of forming doubly-magic nuclei beyond {sup 80}Zr. The result has been a lack of an new spectroscopic information on doubly magic nuclei in more than a decade [lis87]. Furthermore, uncertainties in reaction dynamics modeling made it difficult for the nuclear science community to predict the cross section or forming these highly-neutron deficient nuclei. Therefore, we decided to try a new approach to forming highly-neutron deficient nuclei with the hope of both gaining spectroscopic information for nuclei near {sup 100}Sn, and also gaining insight into reaction dynamics at high (E{sub x} > 200 MeV) incident nucleon energy.

  18. Winning the Race: Lance Armstrong Shares His Struggle To Survive Cancer... and Thrive!

    MedlinePlus

    ... I was diagnosed with Advanced testicular cancer on October 2, 1996. I had ignored the symptoms for ... keep hope alive. The goal of this new magazine, NIH MedlinePlus , is to give people access to ...

  19. Scientific and engineering services for the LANCE/ER accelerator production of tritium (APT) project

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-05

    The APT project office is conducting a preconceptual design study for an accelerator driven concept to produce tritium. The facility will require new technology in many areas, since the scale of this accelerator is significantly larger then any in operation to date. The facility is composed of four subsystems: accelerator, target & blanket, balance of plant, and tritium purification system (TPS). New physics realms will be entered in order for the concept to be feasible; for example, extremely high energy levels of the entering protons that induce (multiplicative) spallation of the neutrons from the high Z target will occur. These are complex and require advance codes (MCNP) to predict the physics interactions and as well as deleterious material effects in the surrounding structures. Other issues include component cooling and complex thermal-hydraulics effects within the blanket and the beam {open_quotes}window.{close_quotes} In order to support a DOE mandated fast ROD schedule, Los Alamos APT staff will be provided with senior, engineering technical support staff with direct APT technology experience and whom are {open_quotes}on site{close_quotes}. This report contains resumes of the staff.

  20. [The Lance-parfum (perfume-squirter), a medical equipment which became a carnival article].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile; Lefebvre, Thierry

    2008-05-01

    The perfume-squirter was a glass or metal tube. It contained parfumed ethyl chloride and was very famous as carnival article. Therefore, ethyl chloride in tubes existed before, and was used by surgeons for local anesthetics. The authors study patents to prove this relationship and analyse letters written before the First World War by the Swiss perfumer Givaudan and a French physician, Dr Besançon.

  1. 12828F Lance, Missile Number 2491, Round Number 339-DSL, 5 December 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    1411RI[AU OIf SIAN1)AROS [� A Af 44 Pt,4 00k t A~SA U zt~d Movm. *. np- I-.riti Sciotoi ~~ t-t- . Mtn it A- ~cI -$gW4W t~ -m -t I DISCLAIMER NOTICE...a. Surface (1) Standard surface observations to include pressure, temperature (°C), relative humidity, dew point (°C), density (gm/m3), Wind direction...Number 2491, Round Number 339-DSL. ELEVATION 3987 FT/MSL PRESSURE 872.6 tBS TEMPERATURE 17.4 ° C RELATIVE HUMIDITY 16 __ _ DEW POINT -8.8 °C DENSITY 1043

  2. Implementation of the Land, Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, Karen; Murphy, Kevin; Lowe, Dawn; Masuoka, Edward; Vollmer, Bruce; Tilmes, Curt; Teague, Michael; Ye, Gang; Maiden, Martha; Goodman, H. Michael; Justice, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in availability and usage of near real-time data from satellite sensors. Applications have demonstrated the utility of timely data in a number of areas ranging from numerical weather prediction and forecasting, to monitoring of natural hazards, disaster relief, agriculture and homeland security. As applications mature, the need to transition from prototypes to operational capabilities presents an opportunity to improve current near real-time systems and inform future capabilities. This paper presents NASA s effort to implement a near real-time capability for land and atmosphere data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) instruments on the Terra, Aqua, and Aura satellites. Index Terms- Real time systems, Satellite applications

  3. ZhiChi QingChunQi NuSheng De FaZhan (Supporting Girls in Early Adolescence). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne

    Results of national studies suggest that for girls, the middle grades can be a time of significant decline in self-esteem and academic achievement. Reasons for this decline are not clearly indicated by research, but it is likely that multiple factors are involved. One factor is the preferential treatment boys receive in the classroom.…

  4. Composition and repellency of the essential oils of Evodia calcicola Chun ex Huang and Evodia trichotoma (Lour.) Pierre against three stored product insects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Shan-Shan; Li, Yin-Ping; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan

    2014-01-01

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oils of Evodia calcicola and Evodia trichotoma leaves were found to possess strong repellency against the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum adults, the cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne adults and the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila. The two essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by GC-MS. The main components of E. calcicola essential oil were identified to be (-)-β-pinene (44.02%), β-phellandrene (20.93%), ocimene (16.49%), and D-limonene (9.87%). While the main components of the essential oil of E. trichotoma were D-limonene (69.55%), 1R-a-pinene (11.48%), caryophyllene (2.80%) and spathulenol (2.24%). Data showed that T. castaneum was the most sensitive than other two stored product insects. Compared with the positive control, DEET (N, N-diethyl-3- methylbenzamide), the two essential oils showed the same level repellency against the red flour beetle. However, the essential oil of E. trichotoma showed the same level repellency against the cigarette beetle, while E. calcicola essential oil possessed the less level repellency against L. serricorne, relative to the positive control, DEET. Moreover, the two crude oils also exhibited strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, but lesser level repellency than the positive control, DEET. Thus, the essential oils of E. calcicola and E. trichotoma may be potential to be developed as a new natural repellent in the control of stored product insects.

  5. Sabers, Lances, B-17s and F-105s: An Essay on the Human Element, Napoleonic Warfare, and Air Combat.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    the best in a series of examinations of the pyschology of the battlefield. More recently, Richard Holmes’ Acts of War focuses on combat experiences...an "organic" approach to war. This would require a focus on the pyschology of combatants and the role of friction in conflict. It implies a view of war

  6. 75 FR 36780 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2000 East Lancs Lolyne Double...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... braking system comply with the applicable FMVSS 121 requirements.'' Because it is aware that Volvo Buses... placards for the primary and secondary braking systems; and (c) the safety belt telltale lamp label to... Lever Sequence, Starter Interlock, and Transmission Braking Effect, 103 Windshield Defrosting...

  7. Molecular Analysis of the Lance Nematode, Hoplolaimus spp., Using the First Internal Transcribed Spacer and the D1-D3 Expansion Segments of 28S Ribosomal DNA1

    PubMed Central

    Bae, CH; Szalanski, AL; Robbins, RT

    2008-01-01

    DNA sequence analyses of the nuclear ribosomal ITS1 region of the ribosomal DNA and D1-D3 expansion segments of the 28S gene were conducted to characterize the genetic variation of six amphimictic Hoplolaimus species, including H. magnistylus, H. concaudajuvencus, H. galeatus, Hoplolaimus sp. 1, Hoplolaimus sp. 2 and Hoplolaimus sp. 3, and two closely related parthenogenetic species, H. columbus and H. seinhorsti. PCR amplifications of the combined D1-D3 expansion segments and the ITS1 region each yielded one distinct amplicon. In the D1-D3 region, there was no nucleotide sequence variation between populations of H. columbus, H. magnistylus, Hoplolaimus sp. 2 and Hoplolaimus sp. 3, whereas the ITS1 sequences had nucleotide variation among species. We detected conserved ITS1 regions located at the 3’ and 5’ end of ITS1 and also in the middle of the ITS1 among Hoplolaimus species. These regions were compared with sequences of distantly related Heterodera and Globedera. PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of ITS1 and 28S PCR products revealed that several haplotypes existed in the same genome of H. columbus, H. magnistylus, H. seinhorsti, H. concaudajuvencus and Hoplolaimus sp. 1. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analysis using the combined ITS1 and D1-D3 expansion segment sequences always produced trees with similar topology; H. columbus and H. seinhorsti grouped in one clade and the other six species (H. galeatus, H. concaudajuvencus, H. magnistylus, Hoplolaimus sp. 1, Hoplolaimus sp. 2, Hoplolaimus sp. 3) grouped in another. Molecular analysis supports morphological schemes for this genus to be divided into two groups based on several phenotypic traits derived from morphological evolution. PMID:19440260

  8. Randomized comparative trial of three antivenoms in the treatment of envenoming by lance-headed vipers (Bothrops jararaca) in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, J L; Fan, H W; França, F O; Jorge, M T; Leite, R P; Nishioka, S A; Avila, A; Sano-Martins, I S; Tomy, S C; Santoro, M L

    1993-05-01

    In São Paulo City, Brazil, 121 patients with moderately severe envenoming by Bothrops snakes (principally B. jararaca) were randomized for treatment with Brazilian polyspecific Bothrops antivenoms: Instituto Butantan (39 patients), Instituto Vital Brazil (41), Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED) (41). The initial dose was four ampoules (40 ml) in 89 patients with less severe envenoming and eight ampoules (80 ml) in 32 patients with more severe envenoming. A second dose of four ampoules was required in 20 patients. Patients receiving the three antivenoms were comparable in all respects before treatment. There were no deaths. The majority showed rapid clinical improvement, resolution of local envenoming, cessation of bleeding and restoration of blood coagulability. No differences in the efficacy of the three antivenoms were revealed by clinical or laboratory observations, including measures of haematological, haemostatic and biochemical abnormalities. Twelve patients developed abscesses (Butantan 1, Vital Brazil 6, FUNED 5) and seven developed local necrosis (3,1,3). Of 88 patients followed up 20-30 days after the bite 33 (37.5%) still had symptoms or signs of local envenoming, especially swelling. Early (anaphylactic) reactions were unexpectedly frequent after all three antivenoms but were significantly more frequent with Butantan (87%) than with Vital Brazil (37%) or FUNED (56%) antivenoms (p < 0.001). A possible explanation was the higher total protein content and percentage immunoglobulin of Butantan antivenom. The doses of antivenom recommended in Brazil and used in this study may be unnecessarily high, resulting in an unacceptably high incidence of reactions. Results of the study should prompt a critical re-evaluation of antivenom production techniques and dosage recommendations in Brazil.

  9. 76 FR 5562 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... questionnaire responses submitted by the sole respondent, Chang Chun Petrochemical Co., Ltd. (CCPC). We used... Alcohol from Taiwan: Sales Verification of Chang Chun Petrochemical Co., Ltd.,'' dated October 12, 2010... Value Data Submitted by Chang Chun Petrochemical Co., Ltd., in the Antidumping Duty Investigation...

  10. Study of design parameters affecting the motion of DNA for nanoinjection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Regis A.; Jensen, Brian D.; Black, Justin L.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Howell, Larry L.

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports the effects of various parameters on the attraction and repulsion of DNA to and from a silicon lance. An understanding of DNA motion is crucial for a new approach to insert DNA, or other foreign microscopic matter, into a living cell. The approach, called nanoinjection, uses electrical forces to attract and repel the desired substance to a micromachined lance designed to pierce the cell membranes. We have developed mathematical models to predict the trajectory of DNA. The mathematical model allows investigation of the attraction/repulsion process by varying specific parameters. We find that the ground electrode placement, lance orientation and lance penetration significantly affect attraction or repulsion efficiency, while the gap, lance direction, lance tip width, lance tip half-angle and lance tip height do not.

  11. Battlefield Air Interdiction: Airpower for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    factors for the Lance juzt as they are for cannon artillery. 36 The Lance is as survivable as cannon artillery, perhaps even more so, since it is...times, decreased m.’bility and limited j numbe.’s of mi~siles reduce the flexibility of the Lance. in addition, terrain and traveling speed are limiting

  12. A bill to redesignate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 162 Northeast Avenue in Tallmadge, Ohio, as the "Lance Corporal Daniel Nathan Deyarmin, Jr., Post Office Building".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Brown, Sherrod [D-OH

    2014-05-12

    05/12/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.1813, which became Public Law 113-140 on 7/25/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Final Technical Report Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER45653 Lance E. De Long, Principal Investigator, University of Kentucky Period of Performance: 09/01/97 to 05/14/15

    SciTech Connect

    De Long, Lance Eric

    2016-11-24

    Prior to 1997, the PI had studied the unusual upper critical magnetic field phase boundaries of several novel or exotic types of superconductors, including charge density wave materials such as NbSe2, organic superconductors such as κ-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br, high-temperature oxide superconductors such as (Ba,K)BiO3 and the cuprates, heavy fermion superconductors such as U6Fe, UBe13, URu2Si2 and UPt3, and re-entrant Kondo alloys such as (La,Ce)Al2 and ferromagnetic superconductors such as ErRh4B4. Most of these materials exhibited marked positive or negative curvature of HC2(T) which could not be explained by traditional pair-breaking models. It became clear that many of these materials had very short coherence lengths that made quantized vortices highly mobile (depinned) near the phase boundary, and the fundamental, equilibrium HC2(T) difficult to measure using finite field or current drives. These problems made the underlying physics obscure, and led to erroneous interpretations of experimental data in terms of models of exotic superconducting pairing mechanisms. Around 1995, these issues led the PI to take advantage of modern electron beam lithography techniques for patterning superconducting and ferromagnetic thin films on the nanoscale. Primarily due to strong magnetic shape anisotropy effects, EBL patterning has led to enhanced control of the spatial distribution and dynamics of topological defects such as domain walls and magnetic vortices, which can create serious energy dissipation and other limitations for modern devices. Moreover, finite size and interface effects also strongly alter phase transition temperatures and phase boundaries of superconducting and magnetic films, as well as introduce barriers to equilibration, enhanced fluctuations and alter magnetic relaxation. Geometrical frustration and spin ice behavior can also be systematically controlled in patterned film media. Film patterning thus provides an excellent tool for conducting highly-controlled, fundamental studies of cooperative phases and interactions in artificially structured condensed matter.

  14. A bill to designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 715 Shawan Falls Drive in Dublin, Ohio, as the "Lance Corporal Wesley G. Davids and Captain Nicholas J. Rozanski Memorial Post Office".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Brown, Sherrod [D-OH

    2014-11-12

    11/12/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4919, which became Public Law 113-222 on 12/16/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Assessment of the PAH contamination of populations of the forage fish, sand lance (`ammodytes hexapterus`) inhabiting clean and oil-impacted sediments. Restoration project 96163p. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.W.; Jones, J.M.

    1997-11-05

    Samples were collected from Prince William Sound and were extracted by EPA methods (3540, 3550) to produce dichloromethane (DCM) extracts, and small aliquots of these were applied to human liver cancer cells (101L), which produce a luminescent enzyme (luciferase) if dioxins, furans, coplanar PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present.

  16. To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 1100 Town and Country Commons in Chesterfield, Missouri, as the "Lance Corporal Matthew P. Pathenos Post Office Building".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Akin, W. Todd [R-MO-2

    2009-02-26

    04/23/2009 Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs referred to Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information, Federal Services, and International Security. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Le mentorat dans le milieu de la santé: un hôpital de réadaptation lance un programme novateur pour les leaders émergents.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Michelle; Wilson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Les médecins, la direction, le personnel et les bénévoles des entreprises veulent former de futurs leaders au sein de leur organisation. Le présent article décrit les efforts pour concevoir, mettre en œuvre et évaluer un programme de mentorat d'un an utilisé pour la première fois par le Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital des Alberta Health Services. Des sondages d'évaluation ont été analysés pour faire ressortir les facteurs de succès décisifs, qui intégraient un vaste processus de candidatures diversifié de mentorés et de mentors, des critères bien définis de sélection ou de jumelage de mentorés et de mentors et un programme visant à soutenir l'acquisition du savoir par des projets, des séances d'apprentissage et des présentations.

  18. To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 112 South 5th Street in Saint Charles, Missouri, as the "Lance Corporal Drew W. Weaver Post Office Building".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Akin, W. Todd [R-MO-2

    2009-02-26

    04/23/2009 Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs referred to Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information, Federal Services, and International Security. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. 77 FR 72322 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Kue Sang Chun... convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Chun was convicted of knowingly exporting and causing the export from the United States to...

  20. Broadband Inversion in Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    Philippe Roux, Michael Porter , Hee Chun Song, and W.A. Kuperman, “Application of phase conjugation to hyperthermia therapy”, Proceedings of 24th...Philippe Roux, Michael Porter , Hee Chun Song, and W.A. Kuperman, “Hyperthermia therapy using acoustic phase conjugation”, to appear Proceedings of the

  1. The Penetration Behavior of an Annular Gas-Solid Jet Impinging on a Liquid Bath: The Effects of the Density and Size of Solid Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J. S.; Sohn, H. Y.

    2012-08-01

    Top-blow injection of a gas-solid jet through a circular lance is used in the Mitsubishi Continuous Smelting Process. One problem associated with this injection is the severe erosion of the hearth refractory below the lances. A new configuration of the lance to form an annular gas-solid jet rather than the circular jet was designed in this laboratory. With this new configuration, the solid particles fed through the center tube leave the lance at a much lower velocity than the gas, and the penetration behavior of the jet is significantly different from that with a circular lance where the solid particles leave the lance at the same high velocity as the gas. In previous cold-model investigations in this laboratory, the effects of the gas velocity, particle feed rate, lance height of the annular lance, and the cross-sectional area of the gas jet were studied and compared with the circular lance. This study examined the effect of the density and size of the solid particles on the penetration behavior of the annular gas-solid jet, which yielded some unexpected results. The variation in the penetration depth with the density of the solid particles at the same mass feed rate was opposite for the circular lance and the annular lance. In the case of the circular lance, the penetration depth became shallower as the density of the solid particles increased; on the contrary, for the annular lance, the penetration depth became deeper with the increasing density of particles. However, at the same volumetric feed rate of the particles, the density effect was small for the circular lance, but for the annular lance, the jets with higher density particles penetrated more deeply. The variation in the penetration depth with the particle diameter was also different for the circular and the annular lances. With the circular lance, the penetration depth became deeper as the particle size decreased for all the feed rates, but with the annular lance, the effect of the particle size was

  2. Collaboration with academia in the development of post ovulatory methods.

    PubMed

    Thaler, G

    1999-12-01

    The 0.75-mg levonorgestrel-containing 'morning after' contraceptive tablet Postinor was developed by Gedeon Richter Ltd., Hungary. The product was first launched in 1979 and registered later in approximately 40 countries. In 1994, the World Health Organization offered the company participation in a multinational clinical trial to prove the superiority of the product over existing (Yuzpe-type) emergency contraceptive products. Based on these data the company was able to redesign the 'morning after' type Postinor into an 'emergency' pill, Postinor-2. During further clinical trials a close working relationship was formed between the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical University in Szeged, Hungary, and Gedeon Richter. The advantages and challenges of cooperation between public- and private-sector institutions are analyzed in the paper.

  3. Transitioning Results From Recent ONR WESTPAC Field Programs to Operational Use (IWISE Analysis Expansion)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    at the David Tang Memorial Session at the 2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting in Honolulu, HI. The data analysis from the IOP over the Heng-Chun Ridge is...Reeder, and F. L. Bahr) “Mode-2 Internal Wave Generation on the Northern Heng-Chun Ridge .” Presented at the 2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Honolulu, HI...Programs to Operational Use (IWISE Analysis Expansion) Steven R. Ramp Soliton Ocean Services, Inc. 691 Country Club Drive Monterey, CA 93924 phone

  4. Algorithms and Heuristics for Time-Window-Constrained Traveling Salesman Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    California G0 lI DTIC S-. E CTE 985 THESIS ALGORITHMS AND HEURISTICS FOR TIME-WI NDOW-CONSTRAINED TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEMS by Chun, Bock Jin and Lee...strained Traveling Salesman Problems September 1985 6. PERFORMING ORo. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR() 0. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) Chun, Bock Jin Lee...Penalty Cost, Traveling Salesman Problem, State-Space Relaxation 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side It necessary and Identify by block ns ber) This

  5. RETRACTION (G' / G)-expansion method equivalent to the extended tanh-function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Wakil, S. A.; Abdou, M. A.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Hendi, A.; Abdelwahed, H. G.

    2010-10-01

    This paper has been formally retracted on ethical grounds due to the similarity in content, presentation and style to another article published by Liu Chun-Ping in the journal Communications in Theoretical Physics (Chun-Ping 2009 Commun. Theor. Phys. 51 985). It is unfortunate that this was not detected before going to press. Our thanks go to the original author for bringing this fact to our attention. Corrections were made to this article on 22 October 2010.

  6. WIMP Searches at Canfranc with Germanium Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Angel

    2001-04-01

    An overview of the searches for Weak Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) through their scattering off Germanium nuclei carried out in the Canfranc Tunnel Astroparticle Laboratory (at 2450 metres of water equivalent (m.w.e.)) in a collaboration between the Universities of South Carolina and Zaragoza is given. The main experimental results are sketched both for natural abundance (COSME) and 76Ge enriched (IGEX) Germanium detector experiments are summarized and a briefing on the GEDEON project is also presented.

  7. Cystoisospora spp. from dogs in China and phylogenetic analysis of its 18S and ITS1 gene.

    PubMed

    He, Pengfei; Li, Jianhua; Gong, Pengtao; Huang, Jingui; Zhang, Xichen

    2012-11-23

    Cystoisospora spp. oocysts isolated from dog feces in Changchun, China were morphologically similar to those of Cystoisospora ohioensis and Cystoisospora sp. 1-MM recently isolated from dogs in Japanese. Sequencing results of the 18S subunit RNA gene from isolates in the present study were compared to other Cystoisospora spp. and the results suggested that Cystoisospora spp. from dogs in Changchun was homologous to C. ohioensis and Cystoisospora sp. 1-MM. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA sequences showed that the Cystoisospora sp. ChangChun 1 and Cystoisospora sp. ChangChun 2 were nested in a clade with other Cystoisospora spp., including C. ohioensis, Cystoisospora belli, Cystoisospora suis, Isospora sp. Harbin/01/08 and C. orlovi,. Cystoisospora sp. ChangChun 2 was confirmed as C. ohioensis, and the other isolate was in a separate clade but the genetic relationship was relatively close to C. suis after analysis of the ITS-1gene.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES, GEOPROBE INC, MECHANICAL BLADDER PUMP MODEL MP470

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) design efficient processes for conducting has created the Environmental Technology perfofl1lance tests of innovative technologies. Verification Program (E TV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental techn...

  9. Bone foreshafts from a clovis burial in southwestern montana.

    PubMed

    Lahren, L; Bonnichsen, R

    1974-10-11

    Formal and functional analyses of bone artifacts from a Clovis burial in southwestern Montana suggest that they were constructed to serve as (detachable or nondetachable) foreshafts for attaching fluted projectile points to lance shafts.

  10. A Description of Males of Hoplolaimus columbus

    PubMed Central

    Fassuliotis, G.

    1974-01-01

    The male of the Columbia lance nematode, Hoplolaimus columbus, is described and illustrated from a harvested soybean field in Holly Hill, South Carolina. It is morphologically similar to the female, except for reproductive structures. PMID:19308111

  11. Water model experiments of multiphase mixing in the top-blown smelting process of copper concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-liang; Yin, Pan; Zhang, Li-feng; Wang, Sen

    2016-12-01

    We constructed a 1:10 cold water experimental model by geometrically scaling down an Isa smelting furnace. The mixing processes at different liquid heights, lance diameters, lance submersion depths, and gas flow rates were subsequently measured using the conductivity method. A new criterion was proposed to determine the mixing time. On this basis, the quasi-equations of the mixing time as a function of different parameters were established. The parameters of the top-blown smelting process were optimized using high-speed photography. An excessively high gas flow rate or excessively low liquid height would enhance the fluctuation and splashing of liquid in the bath, which is unfavorable for material mixing. Simultaneously increasing the lance diameter and the lance submersion depth would promote the mixing in the bath, thereby improving the smelting efficiency.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES, GEOPROBE INC., PNEUMATIC BLADDER PUMP GW 1400 SERIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) design efficient processes for conducting has created the Environmental Technology perfofl1lance tests of innovative technologies. Verification Program (E TV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental techn...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, LEAD IN DUST WIPE MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY, NITON LLC, X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTRUM ANALYZER, XLT-700

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) design efficient processes for conducting has created the Environmental Technology perfofl1lance tests of innovative technologies. Verification Program (E TV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental techn...

  14. 9. LOOKING NORTH IN BOP SHOP ON SERVICE FLOOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING NORTH IN BOP SHOP ON SERVICE FLOOR OF FURNACE AISLE AT FUME HOOD SHOWING COLLAR AND ENTRANCE FOR OXYGEN LANCES. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 10. LOOKING SOUTH IN BOP SHOP AT FUME HOOD AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LOOKING SOUTH IN BOP SHOP AT FUME HOOD AND SPARE OXYGEN LANCES ON THE SERVICE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  17. Mentorship: The Strategic Cost of Growing the Brigade Combat Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    internal drive gained him the attention of superiors who mentored him throughout his career. His first company commander, Captain Francis C...Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress 5 May, 20068) 14. 49 Lance M. Bacon , “Army to Lose another 5 BCTs,” Army Times ( March 5, 2012) 29...Abilene to Berlin, New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1973. Bacon , Lance M. “Army to Lose another 5 BCTs,” Army Times (March 5, 2012) Bagnal

  18. Confined Tension and Triaxial Extension Tests on Eglin High-Strength Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-17

    AFRL-RW-EG-TR-2014-120 Confined Tension and Triaxial Extension Tests on Eglin High-Strength Concrete Lance...EXTENSION TESTS ON EGLIN HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE FA8651-12-D-0309, Task 005 N/A 2502 9210 W0DT (1) Lance Besaw, Applied Research Associates, Inc. (2...models. All concretes exhibit higher strength in compression than in tension, therefore it is critical to understand the tensile properties of such

  19. A Study on the Bionomics of Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belize, Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    Plantation (Figure 11). An observational census of terrestrial animals includes: coral and fer-de-lance snakes; iguana; koatomundi; deer; tapir ...terrestrial animals includes: coral and fer-de-lance snakes; iguana; koatomundi; deer; tapir ; porcupine; opossum; gibnut; yellow-headed parrots; toucans...each distance buffer zone, other wildlife (i.e., tapir , monkey, porcupine, gibnut, armadillos, koatamundi, etc.) abounded in this area and

  20. The Missing Soldier in the Drug War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-28

    further, Robert Maginnis of the Family Research Council states, “Giving heroin to addicts is unethical and can result in euthanasia . Instead of... Mexico governor-triathlete pushes for drug legalization”, The Free Lance-Star, 22 October 1999, Final Ed., A5. 34 Mathea Falco, The Making of a...Newsweek, 06 September 1999. Arrillaga, Pauline. “New Mexico governor-triathlete pushes for drug legalization”, The Free Lance-Star, 22 October

  1. Validation of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Hernandez, Antonio Hurtado-Coll, Kyle Kuchinsky, Janet Liew, Rosario Mendez-Meza, Elizabeth Smith, Imelda Tenggarra, Xiaotun Zhang, Peter R. Carroll ...Jamaspishvili T, Wei W, Feng Z, Good J, Hawley S, Fazli L, McKenney J, Simko J, Hurtado-Coll A, Carroll P, Gleave M, Lance R, Lin D, Nelson P, Thompson I...Boyer, Ladan Fazli, Jeff Simko, Antonio Hurtado-Coll, Dean A. Troyer, Peter R. Carroll , Martin Gleave, Raymond Lance, Daniel W. Lin, Peter S. Nelson

  2. Technological Areas to Improve Soldier Decisiveness: Insights From the Soldier-System Design Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Michael Barnes, Ivan Martinez, Michael LaFiandra, Mary Binseel, Angelique Scharine, Mark Ericson, Barry Vaughan, Brent Lance, and Kaleb McDowell...Hairston, Jesse Chen, Michael Barnes, Ivan Martinez, Michael LaFiandra, Mary Binseel, Angelique Scharine, Mark Ericson, Barry Vaughan, Brent Lance, and...W. David Hairston, Jesse Chen, Michael Barnes, Ivan Martinez, Michael LaFiandra, Mary Binseel, Angelique Scharine, Mark Ericson, Barry Vaughan

  3. Analysis of the market for a new frozen coal release device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taglio, S.

    1981-01-01

    Conditions that contribute to coal freezing and the costs of frozen coal handling are discussed. The various methods currently used to handle frozen coal are examined and assessed relative to costs, effectiveness, and advantages and disadvantages. A NASA designed gas detonation lance for breaking the ice bonds between frozen coal nuggets is described and illustrated. Market demand for the controlled gas detonation lance is estimated to be at least 10 units.

  4. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  5. Weldability of 2219-T851 and 2519-T87 Aluminum Armor Alloys for Use in Army Vehicle Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Thomas D. Wolfe and Steven A. Gedeon S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION N•AME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM FLEMENT PROJECT. TASK AREA ...the desired configur- ation and then impacting the welded area (direct hit on the weld for flat plates, and 2 inches from the weld for a corner joint...whereas in the 7XXX series the copper remains in a relatively uniform distribucion . Also, no discrete particles of Al-Zn-Mg are found in 7XXX series

  6. Bodies Capture Attention When Nothing Is Expected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Paul E.; Bray, David; Rogers, Jack; Childs, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging research has shown that certain classes of visual stimulus selectively activate focal regions of visual cortex. Specifically, cortical areas that generally and selectively respond to faces (Kanwisher, N., McDermott, J., & Chun, M. M. (1997). The fusiform face area: a module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face…

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Akron, OH, January 6-9, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; Keig, Patricia F., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.

    Papers from the proceedings of the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (AETS) include: (1) "A Quantitative Examination of Teacher Self Efficacy and Knowledge of the Anture of Science" (Chun, Sajin and Oliver, J. Steve); (2) "Investigating Preservice Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy Relative to Self…

  8. From Paper Chase to Cyberspace: Using a Low-Cost ASP to Win the War for Talent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Edna; Evans, Alvin

    2005-01-01

    Edna Chun and Alvin Evans explain how a low-cost application service provider model can benefit institutions looking to streamline and simplify the recruitment and hiring process, yet still attract top talent. They offer tips for selecting a vendor, examine the importance of collaboration between and among different campus constituents in…

  9. The Elephant in the Room: My Battle for Tenure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Kimberley A.

    2009-01-01

    Loo and Chun (2002) maintain, "Asian Americans have been taught to believe that academic achievement is the ticket to success...If you work hard, you will be duly rewarded" (pp. 96-97). This paper invites readers to consider two questions: (1) What are we to make of inconsistencies between institutional commitments "to diversity,…

  10. Modern Foreign Languages: A Refereed International Journal of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Du, Ed; Zidong, Huang, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These three issues contain the following articles written in Chinese: "On Conflated Theme in Systemic Functional Grammar" (Huang Guo-Wen); "A Cognitive Approach to the Conceptual Semantic Structures of Causation" (Cheng Qi-Long); "Falsifying the Internal Argument Hypothesis" (Zhao Yan-Chun); "Existential…

  11. Developing Intercultural Communicative Competence across the Americas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceo-DiFrancesco, Diane; Mora, Oscar; Collazos, Andrea Serna

    2016-01-01

    Foreign language telecollaboration offers innovations to enhance language instruction. Previous research has cited its use to develop linguistic skills and intercultural competence (Belz, 2003; Blake, 2013; Chun, 2015; O'Dowd, 2000; Schenker, 2014). This article reports preliminary outcomes of a pedagogical project which leveraged…

  12. Closing the Chasm of Subtle Second Generation Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Alvin; Chun, Edna

    2008-01-01

    This article draws upon insights from Edna Chun and Alvin Evans' forthcoming book "Bridging the Diversity Divide: Globalization and Reciprocal Empowerment in Higher Education." Despite apparent signs of progress in diversity within higher education, deeper cultural change must occur within academe to erode and eliminate subtle behavioral and…

  13. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase I. Tactical Air Command.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    Training-. ( ASPT ) located at Williams AFB (Faconti, Mortimer, & Simpson, 1970; Knoop, 1973; Faconti & Epps, 1975; Fuller, Waag, & Martin, 1980). The ASPT ...1tomated performance measurement system. Notwithstanding the apparent training potential of the ASPT , Gray, Chun, Warner, and Eubanks (1981) found

  14. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Mark Furth Mark Van Dyke Shay Soker Steve Hodges Weixin Zhao YuanYuan Zhang Aaron Goldstein Alan Farney Ann Gleeson Ann Immekus Ben Watts Callie Crider...Myers Robyn Shaffer Saami Yazdani Samira Neshat Sang Jin Lee Sergio Rodriguez Shirin Zare So-Young Chun Steve Schultz Tamer AbouShawreb Tao Xu Ted Kincaid

  15. Architecting Integrated System Health Management for Airworthiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems Engineering and Management Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology... Engineering Kerwin Chun Seong Teong, B.Eng (Hons) Major (Military Expert 5), Republic of Singapore Air Force September 2013 DISTRIBUTION...the engine , rotor and gearbox. The HUMS will also include software to handle data processing (diagnostics) and prognostics to enhance overall

  16. "Cool" English: Stylized Native-Speaker English in Japanese Television Shows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furukawa, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes stylized pronunciations of English by Japanese speakers on televised variety shows in Japan. Research on style and mocking has done much to reveal how linguistic forms are utilized in interaction as resources of identity construction that can oftentimes subvert hegemonic discourse (Chun 2004). Within this research area,…

  17. Fundamental Patterns Underlying Neurotoxicity Revealed by DNA Microarray Expression Profiling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    microarray analysis of the dopaminergic cell line, SN4741 , revealed induction of stress indices following MPP* treatment (Chun et al., 2001). To...response to a wide range of cellular stresses including oxidative insult of the nigral dopaminergic cell line SN4741 with hydrogen peroxide or MPP* (Salinas

  18. Vortex Whistle in Radial Intake

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    RTO-MP-AVT-110 22 - 1 Vortex Whistle in Radial Intake Dr. Man-Chun Tse Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. 1000 Marie-Victorin, Longueuil , Quebec...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. 1000 Marie-Victorin, Longueuil , Quebec, Canada, J4G 1A1 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  19. New Horizons in Education, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kwok Keung, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Articles in the May 2001 issue include the following: "Utilizing the Approach of Educational Evaluation on the Methodology of Research on Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature" (Chun Kwong Wong); "An Examination of the Binet Intelligence Test and Multiple Intelligence Constructs" (Kwok Cheung Cheung); "Developmental…

  20. JPRS Report China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-04

    JPRS-CAR-88-017 4 April 1988 INTERNATIONAL GENERAL CIR Journal Views U.S.-USSR Disarmament Talks 40050111b Beijing XIANDAI GUOJI GUANXI ...XIANDAI GUOJ1 GUANXI [CONTEMPORARYINTERNATIONAL RELATIONS] in Chinese No 4, 15 Nov 87 pp 3-6 [Article by Zhao Yuliang [6392 3768 5328], Zhao Xiao- chun

  1. Attentional Distractor Interference May Be Diminished by Concurrent Working Memory Load in Normal Participants and Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Liano, Beatriz Gil-Gomez; Umilta, Carlo; Stablum, Franca; Tebaldi, Francesca; Cantagallo, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A reduction in congruency effects under working memory (WM) load has been previously described using different attentional paradigms (e.g., Kim, Kim, & Chun, 2005; Smilek, Enns, Eastwood, & Merikle, 2006). One hypothesis is that different types of WM load have different effects on attentional selection, depending on whether a specific memory load…

  2. Counterspace Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-02

    Publications Chun, Clayton K.S., Lt Colonel, USAF, Shooting Down a "Star": Program 437, the US Nuclear ASAT System and Present-Day Copycat Killers (Air...particles ( asteroids and meteoroids), energetic charged particles (ions, protons, electrons, etc.), and electromagnetic and ionizing radiation (x-rays

  3. Semantic Contextual Cuing and Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goujon, Annabelle; Didierjean, Andre; Marmeche, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    Since M. M. Chun and Y. Jiang's (1998) original study, a large body of research based on the contextual cuing paradigm has shown that the visuocognitive system is capable of capturing certain regularities in the environment in an implicit way. The present study investigated whether regularities based on the semantic category membership of the…

  4. Meaning-Based Scoring: A Systemic Functional Linguistics Model for Automated Test Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Communicative approaches to language teaching that emphasize the importance of speaking (e.g., task-based language teaching) require innovative and evidence-based means of assessing oral language. Nonetheless, research has yet to produce an adequate assessment model for oral language (Chun 2006; Downey et al. 2008). Limited by automatic speech…

  5. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of…

  6. GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data-Centric Storage in Sensor Networks without Geographic Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Broch et. al. provide a survey of several ad hoc routing protocols[6], including DSDV[26], TORA[22], DSR[16][17], and AODV[27]. Data Dissemination... Broch , David A. Maltz, David B. Johnson, Yih-Chun Hu, and Jorjeta Jetcheva. A performance comparison of multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing

  7. The Generation of Near-Real Time Data Products for MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Ye, G.; Masuoka, E.; Murphy, K. J.; Michael, K.

    2010-12-01

    The GSFC Terrestrial Information Systems Branch (614.5) operate the Land and Atmospheres Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE-MODIS) system. Other LANCE elements include -AIRS, -MLS, -OMI, and -AMSR-E. LANCE-MODIS incorporates the former Rapid Response system and will, in early 2011, include the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS). The purpose of LANCE is to provide applications users with a variety of products on a near-real time basis. The LANCE-MODIS data products include Level 1 (L1), L2 fire, snow, sea ice, cloud mask/profiles, aerosols, clouds, land surface reflectance, land surface temperature, and L2G and L3 gridded, daily, land surface reflectance products. Data are available either by ftp access (pull) or by subscription (push) and the L1 and L2 data products are available within an average of 2.5 hours of the observation time. The use of ancillary data products input to the standard science algorithms has been modified in order to obtain these latencies. The resulting products have been approved for applications use by the MODIS Science Team. The http://lance.nasa.gov site provides registration information and extensive information concerning the MODIS data products and imagery including a comparison between the LANCE-MODIS and the standard science-quality products generated by the MODAPS system. The LANCE-MODIS system includes a variety of tools that enable users to manipulate the data products including: parameter, band, and geographic subsetting, re-projection, mosaicing, and generation of data in the GeoTIFF format. In most instances the data resulting from use of these tools has a latency of less than 3 hours. Access to these tools is available through a Web Coverage Service. A Google Earth/Web Mapping Service is available to access image products. LANCE-MODIS supports a wide variety of applications users in civilian, military, and foreign agencies as well as universities and the private sector. Examples of applications are

  8. Numerical analysis on fluid flow and heat transfer in the smelting furnace of mitsubishi process for Cu refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-ha; Park, Soo-sang; Han, Xue-feng; Yi, Kyung-woo

    2016-01-01

    To understand complex behavior in the smelting furnace of Mitsubishi continuous process for copper refining, comprehensive 3-D numerical simulation and field experiment were performed. The numerical simulation results showed that strong and complex velocity fields of gas, matte and slag were generated in the furnace and large amounts of matte and slag were splashed into the gas area. Temperature measurements at the lance during field operation revealed that wide range of temperature variation appeared depending on the injection condition of concentrates. Numerical simulation results provided good agreements with experiments results and showed that the chemical reaction induces temperature increase during gas injection period. On the other hand, lance temperature is decreasing because of cold concentrates during gas and particles injection period. From the FFT analysis results, the fluctuations of matte and slag volume fraction near the lance induce temperature fluctuations of the lance. Through these experimental and simulation results, it was revealed that the lances in the smelting furnace were exposed to severe conditions such as high temperature, repeated large temperature change and cyclic change of large temperature gradient across the thickness.

  9. Simulation of Flow Fluid in the BOF Steelmaking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Ming; Zhu, Rong; Guo, Ya-Guang; Wang, Yong-Wei

    2013-12-01

    The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) smelting process consists of different chemical reactions among oxygen, slag, and molten steel, which engenders a vigorous stirring process to promote slagging, dephosphorization, decarbonization, heating of molten steel, and homogenization of steel composition and temperature. Therefore, the oxygen flow rate, lance height, and slag thickness vary during the smelting process. This simulation demonstrated a three-dimensional mathematical model for a 100 t converter applying four-hole supersonic oxygen lance and simulated the effect of oxygen flow rate, lance height, and slag thickness on the flow of molten bath. It is found that as the oxygen flow rate increases, the impact area and depth increases, which increases the flow speed in the molten bath and decreases the area of dead zone. Low oxygen lance height benefits the increase of impact depth and accelerates the flow speed of liquid steel on the surface of the bath, while high oxygen lance height benefits the increase of impact area, thereafter enhances the uniform distribution of radial velocity in the molten steel and increases the flow velocity of molten steel at the bottom of furnace hearth. As the slag thickness increases, the diameter of impinging cavity on the slag and steel surface decreases. The radial velocity of liquid steel in the molten bath is well distributed when the jet flow impact on the slag layer increases.

  10. A self-reconfiguring metamorphic nanoinjector for injection into mouse zygotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aten, Quentin T.; Jensen, Brian D.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Howell, Larry L.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a surface-micromachined microelectromechanical system nanoinjector designed to inject DNA into mouse zygotes which are ≈90 μm in diameter. The proposed injection method requires that an electrically charged, DNA coated lance be inserted into the mouse zygote. The nanoinjector's principal design requirements are (1) it must penetrate the lance into the mouse zygote without tearing the cell membranes and (2) maintain electrical connectivity between the lance and a stationary bond pad. These requirements are satisfied through a two-phase, self-reconfiguring metamorphic mechanism. In the first motion subphase a change-point six-bar mechanism elevates the lance to ≈45 μm above the substrate. In the second motion subphase, a compliant folded-beam suspension allows the lance to translate in-plane at a constant height as it penetrates the cell membranes. The viability of embryos following nanoinjection is presented as a metric for quantifying how well the nanoinjector mechanism fulfills its design requirements of penetrating the zygote without causing membrane damage. Viability studies of nearly 3000 nanoinjections resulted in 71.9% of nanoinjected zygotes progressing to the two-cell stage compared to 79.6% of untreated embryos.

  11. Numerical analysis for the multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection inside blast furnace tuyere

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.

    2005-09-01

    The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system was modified from single lance injection into double lance injection at No. 3 Blast Furnace of CSC. It is beneficial to reduce the cost of coke. However, the injected coal was found very close to the inner wall of the tuyere during the operation, such as to cause the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. In this study a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed based on a computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS to simulate the fluid flow phenomena inside blast furnace tuyere. The model was capable of handling steady-state, three-dimensional multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection. The model was applied to simulate the flow patterns of the injection coal inside the tuyere with two kinds of lance design for the PCI system. The distribution of injection coal was simulated such as to estimate the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. The calculated results agreed with the operating experience of CSC plant and the optimum design of double lance was suggested. The model was also applied to simulate the oxygen concentration distribution with these different oxygen enrichments for the coal/oxygen lance system. The calculated results agreed with the experimental measurement. These test results demonstrate that the model is both reasonably reliable and efficient.

  12. A self-reconfiguring metamorphic nanoinjector for injection into mouse zygotes

    SciTech Connect

    Aten, Quentin T.; Jensen, Brian D.; Howell, Larry L.; Burnett, Sandra H.

    2014-05-15

    This paper presents a surface-micromachined microelectromechanical system nanoinjector designed to inject DNA into mouse zygotes which are ≈90 μm in diameter. The proposed injection method requires that an electrically charged, DNA coated lance be inserted into the mouse zygote. The nanoinjector's principal design requirements are (1) it must penetrate the lance into the mouse zygote without tearing the cell membranes and (2) maintain electrical connectivity between the lance and a stationary bond pad. These requirements are satisfied through a two-phase, self-reconfiguring metamorphic mechanism. In the first motion subphase a change-point six-bar mechanism elevates the lance to ≈45 μm above the substrate. In the second motion subphase, a compliant folded-beam suspension allows the lance to translate in-plane at a constant height as it penetrates the cell membranes. The viability of embryos following nanoinjection is presented as a metric for quantifying how well the nanoinjector mechanism fulfills its design requirements of penetrating the zygote without causing membrane damage. Viability studies of nearly 3000 nanoinjections resulted in 71.9% of nanoinjected zygotes progressing to the two-cell stage compared to 79.6% of untreated embryos.

  13. Method and device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Rossabi, Joseph; Riha, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    A device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system includes a generally cylindrical push-rod defining an internal recess therein. The push-rod includes first and second end portions and an external liquid collection surface. A liquid collection member is detachably connected to the push-rod at one of the first and second end portions thereof. The method of the present invention for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a contaminated groundwater system includes providing a lance including an external hydrophobic liquid collection surface, an internal recess, and a collection chamber at the bottom end thereof. The lance is extended into the groundwater system such that the top end thereof remains above the ground surface. The liquid is then allowed to collect on the liquid collection surface, and flow downwardly by gravity into the collection chamber to be pumped upwardly through the internal recess in the lance.

  14. Experimental and numerical study of PC combustion with oxygen enrichment in a blowpipe model of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Cang Daqiang; Yang Min; Ding Yulong; Yang Tianjun

    1994-12-31

    The method of pulverized coal injection (PCI), oxygen enrichment position, and PC size with oxygen enrichment have been studied to improve of the combustion efficiency of PC by using a theoretical model and experiment. The results showed: (1) by using double coal lance instead of single coal lance in a blowpipe, the combustion efficiency of anthracite can be increased significantly; (2) under the experimental conditions, pure oxygen directly mixed with hot blast is suitable for combustion efficiency when oxygen content is lower then 24%, and when oxygen content is higher, oxygen enrichment location at a proper position of blowpipe away from PC lance should be used; and (3) fine anthracite particle with high oxygen content is an effective way to improve the combustion efficiency of anthracite.

  15. Optical reflectance, optical refractive index and optical conductivity measurements of nonlinear optics for L-aspartic acid nickel chloride single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbazhagan, G.; Joseph, P. S.; Shankar, G.

    2013-03-01

    Single crystals of L-aspartic acid nickel chloride (LANC) were grown by the slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystals were subjected to Powder X-ray diffraction studies to confirm the crystal structure. The modes of vibration of different molecular groups present in LANC have been identified by FTIR spectral analysis. Optical transferency of the grown crystal was investigated by UV-Vis-NIR spectrum. The lower optical cut off wavelength for this crystal is observed at 240 nm and energy band gap 5.179 eV. The optical reflectance and optical refractive index studies have been carried out in this crystal. Finally, the optical conductivity and electrical conductivity studies have been carried out on LANC single crystal.

  16. Are there developmentally distinct motor indicators of pain in preterm infants?

    PubMed

    Morison, Sara J; Holsti, Liisa; Grunau, Ruth Eckstein; Whitfield, Michael F; Oberlander, Tim F; Chan, Herbert W P; Williams, Linda

    2003-06-01

    The aims of this study were to examine preterm infant reactions to pain in detail over prolonged time periods using multiple measures, and to assess the value of including specific body movements of the Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) system to evaluate pain. Ten preterm infants born at 31 weeks mean gestational age (GA) and mean birth weight 1676 g were studied during a routine blood collection in a Level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). At 32-week post-conceptional age, computerized physiologic and video recordings were obtained continuously for 60 min (prior to, during and after lance). Motor and facial behaviors were coded independently, using the NIDCAP and the NFCS (Neonatal Facial Coding System), respectively, and compared with heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation responses. Of the movements hypothesized to be stress cues in the NIDCAP model, extension of arms and legs (80%) and finger splay (70%) were the most common following lance. Contrary to the model, most infants (70%) had lower incidence of twitches and startles post-lance compared to baseline. Whereas all infants showed some NFCS response to lance, for three infants, the magnitude was low. HR increased and oxygen saturation decreased post-lance. Infants with more prior pain exposure, lower Apgar, and lower GA at birth, displayed more motor stress cues but less facial activity post-lance. Extension of extremities and finger splay, but not twitches and startles, from the NIDCAP, appear to be stress cues and show promise as clinical pain indicators to supplement facial and physiological pain measures in preterm infants.

  17. Proximate composition and energy density of some North Pacific forage fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Pelt, Thomas I.; Piatt, John F.; Lance, Brian K.; Roby, Daniel D.

    1997-01-01

    Mature pelagic forage fish species (capelin, sand lance, squid) had greater lipid concentrations than juvenile age-classes of large demersal and pelagic fish species (walleye pollock, Pacific cod, Atka mackerel, greenling, prowfish, rockfish, sablefish). Myctophids preyed on by puffins have at least twice as much lipid per gram compared to mature capelin, sand lance and squid, and an order of magnitude greater lipid concentrations than juvenile forage fish. Energy density of forage fishes was positively correlated with lipid content, and negatively correlated with water, ash-free lean dry mass (mostly protein), and ash contents.

  18. Footprint Geometry and Sessile Drop Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Ti; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H.

    2016-11-01

    How does a sessile drop resonate if its footprint is square (square drop)? In this talk, we discuss the two distinct families of observed modes in our experiments. One family (spherical modes) is identified with the natural modes of capillary spherical caps, and the other (grid modes) with Faraday waves on a square bath (square Faraday waves). A square drop exhibits grid or spherical modes depending on its volume, and the two families of modes arise depending on how wavenumber selection of footprint geometry and capillarity compete. For square drops, a dominant effect of footprint constraint leads to grid modes which are constrained response; otherwise the drops exhibit spherical modes, the characteristic of sessile drops on flat plates. Chun-Ti Chang takes his new position at National Taiwan University on Aug. 15th, 2016. Until then, Chun-Ti Chang is affiliated with Technical University Dortmund, Germany.

  19. Clinical perspectives of intravenous ketamine anaesthesia in peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    PubMed

    Athar, M; Shakoor, A; Muhammad, G; Sarwar, M N; Chaudhry, N I

    1996-01-01

    A total of 29 peafowl (Pavo cristatus), rectified surgically for infraorbital abscesses (n = 22), lacerated wounds (n = 4), and fractures of tibia (n = 2) and radius (n = 1), were anaesthetized by the intravenous administration of ketamine hydrochloride (Inj. Calypsol, Gedeon Richter, Hungary) in a dose of 15 20 mg/kg body weight. Divided doses (10 mg + 5 mg + 5 mg) were used with an interval of 1-2 min. No premedication was undertaken in any of the birds. Anaesthesia lasted for about 15 min and the birds gained their feet completely after 30 min to 3 hours. The respiration rate was markedly depressed (8-10/min) and the respiratory pattern was deep abdominal. Only a slight increase was observed in the heart rate. Analgesia was incomplete and muscle relaxation was not satisfactory. Mild salivation was also noticed in some of the birds (n = 3). Recovery, although not smooth, was uneventful.

  20. Overview 2003 of NASA Multi-D Stirling Convertor Code Development and DOE and NASA Stirling Regenerator R and D Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy; Ibrahim, Mounir; Simon, Terry; Mantell, Susan; Gedeon, David; Qiu, Songgang; Wood, Gary

    2004-01-01

    This paper win report on continuation through the third year of a NASA grant for multi-dimensional Stirling CFD code development and validation; continuation through the third and final year of a Department of Energy, Golden Field Office (DOE), regenerator research effort and a NASA grant for continuation of the effort through two additional years; and a new NASA Research Award for design, microfabrication and testing of a "Next Generation Stirling Engine Regenerator." Cleveland State University (CSU) is the lead organization for all three efforts, with the University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates as subcontractors. The Stirling Technology Company and Sun power, Inc. acted as unfunded consultants or participants through the third years of both the NASA multi-D code development and DOE regenerator research efforts; they win both be subcontractors on the new regenerator microfabrication contract.

  1. Overview 2004 of NASA-Stirling Convertor CFD Model Development and Regenerator R and D Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy C.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Demko, Rikako

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on accomplishments in 2004 in (1) development of Stirling-convertor CFD models at NASA Glenn and via a NASA grant, (2) a Stirling regenerator-research effort being conducted via a NASA grant (a follow-on effort to an earlier DOE contract), and (3) a regenerator-microfabrication contract for development of a "next-generation Stirling regenerator." Cleveland State University is the lead organization for all three grant/contractual efforts, with the University of Minnesota and Gedeon Associates as subcontractors. Also, the Stirling Technology Company and Sunpower, Inc. are both involved in all three efforts, either as funded or unfunded participants. International Mezzo Technologies of Baton Rouge, Louisiana is the regenerator fabricator for the regenerator-microfabrication contract. Results of the efforts in these three areas are summarized.

  2. The performance of a high-frequency thermoacoustic-Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastyr, Kevin J.; Keolian, Robert M.

    2003-10-01

    A thermoacoustic-Stirling engine that operates at 400 Hz with a working fluid of 1-MPa helium is constructed. For proper acoustic phasing in this engine's regenerator, an acoustic power feedback path exists in the form of an annulus surrounding the regenerator. This feedback path is obtained by suspending an insulated, stainless steel sleeve containing a wire mesh regenerator, which is flanked by two heat exchangers, a short distance from one end of the larger diameter resonator. The ambient heat exchanger is a shell and tube exchanger, while the hot heater consists of nichrome ribbon wound on an aluminum silicate frame. Gedeon streaming is prevented by a diaphragm covering the end of the stainless steel sleeve adjacent to the ambient heat exchanger. A variable acoustic load provides a convenient means of testing this engine at various hot heater temperatures, while operating at different acoustic pressure amplitudes effects the acoustic power generated by the engine. [Work supported by ONR.

  3. [Use of Bromocriptin tablets in physiologic and pathologic hyperprolactinemia].

    PubMed

    Farkas, M; Tárczy, C; Tasiné Tóth, E; Bérczy, J; Gyetvai, G

    1992-01-01

    The authors used Bromocriptine tablet, made by Chemical Works of Gedeon Richter Ltd. in 11 cases to alleriate a physiological milk secretion and in 15 cases as a treatment for extra-puerperal galactorrhea. Under treatment the serum prolactin level dropped exponentially while under Norcolut administration a linear regression was shown and the mammary activity abated after 14 days. The best method for treating the physiological hyperprolactinemia is to give the Bromocriptine before starting milk secretion. In cases of extra-puerperal galactorrhea. The patients become free from complaint after 8 weeks. In both cases the dose was 5-7.5 mg Bromocriptine. When galactorrhea and amenorrhoea occur together during the treatments second month menstruation begins and in two cases unwanted pregnancies happened. It has been found that the latent functional hyperprolactinemia can also be galactorrhea. The result were verified in ten cases by testing the metoclopramide-burden.

  4. Controlled Deposition and Collection of Electro-spun Poly(ethylene oxide) Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    261-272, 2001. 3. Reneker, D.H., and I. Chun, “Nanometer Diameter Fibres of Polymer, Produced by Electrospinning ,” Nanotechnology, Vol. 7, pp. 216...Bending Instability of Electrically Charged Liquid Jets of Polymer Solution in Electrospinning ,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 87, pp. 4531–4547...2000. 16 11. Doshi, J., and D.H. Reneker, “ Electrospinning Process and Applications of Electrospun Fibers,” Journal of Electrostatics, Vol. 35, pp. 151

  5. The U.S. Air Force Academy Falcon Telescope Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    3048 The U.S. Air Force Academy Falcon Telescope Network Francis K. Chun, Roger D. Tippets, Michael E. Dearborn Department of Physics, U.S. Air...The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness...provides the equipment (e.g. telescope , mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners

  6. [Contributions of medical practitioners of Xin'an area on acupuncture theory].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ling; Tang, Wei; Wu, Zi-Jian; Liu, Guang-Xia; Niu, Shu-Ping; Bai, Liang-Chuan; Chen, Wei-Hua; Xia, Xiao-Hong; Hu, Wu-Bin

    2012-08-01

    Contributions of Xin'an medical school and physicians to acupuncture theory were introduced in the article. Academic theories or characteristics of several physicians of Xin'an school such as YANG Xuan-cao, WU Kun, WANG Ji, WU Yi-ding, ZHENG Mei-jian and XU Chun-fu, et al were sorted out. Contributions of inheriting and illustrations on acupuncture theory were analyzed so as to expound its significance and value on modern acupucture clinic.

  7. Visual Scan Adaptation During Repeated Visual Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    repeated distractor –target configurations both require environmental stability. For stable distractor – target configurations, Chun and Jiang (1998) have...demon- strated search time savings from repeating distractor –target configurations, and Song and Jiang (2005) demonstrated that as little as 25% of the...search environment (i.e., two distractor locations and the target location out of 12 total locations per trial) repeated from trial to trial resulted

  8. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase 4. Summary Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    the automated instructional system on the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) at Williams AF8, Arizona (Faconti & Epps, 1975; Faconti...Nortimer, & Simpson, 1970; Fuller, Waag, & Martin, 1980; Knoop, 1973). The ASPT is a sophisticated research device that incorporates advanced visual and...potential of the ASPT , Gray, Chun, Warner, and Eubanks (1981) found that SIs tended to use the device in a fairly conventional manner. with few

  9. Attenuation and Detection Capability of Regional Phases Recorded at NORESS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-25

    The inversion also requires that we assume the geometric spread- -t ing function. Following Herrmann and Kijko [1983], we express the spreading...thickness. Measuring the decay rate of syn- thetic Lg phases computed for an elastic medium, Herrmann and Ki/ko [19831 verified that Lg frequency domain...s. The possibility that these spectra are contaminated by Sn coda at high frequency [Chun et al., 1987; Ringdal, 1986; Shin and Herrmann , 1987] is

  10. Propagation and Excitation of Lg, Sn, and P-Pn Waves from Eastern United States Earthquakes by Regression Analysis of RSTN Data. Seismic Attenuation Studies at United Kingdom Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    and Sn dominate. Seismo- grams of similar nature have also been observed in eastern Canada (Shin 1985, Shin and Herrmann 1987) and at NORESS over...Canada, Lg experiences significant contamination from Sn coda (Shin 1985, Chun et al 1987, Shin and Herrmann 1987). This is suggested by the way that...surface wave data (Mitchell 1981). Other set of numbers comes from coda Q studies (Singh and Herrmann 1983). Finally, a smaller set of results comes

  11. Economic Sanctions Targeting Yugoslavia - An Effective National Security Strategy Component

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Economic Sanctions Targeting Yugoslavia – An Effective National Security Strategy Component by COL Charles J. Kacsur...Jr. U.S. Army Dr. Clayton K. S. Chun Project Advisor The views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author and do not...National Security Strategy Component 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Charles Kacsur; 5d. PROJECT

  12. Quasi-Optical Power Combining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    and Related Materials Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, May 12-16. 47. Yun Wei, Krishnan Sundararajan, Miguel Urteaga, Zach Griffith, Dennis Scott, Vamsi...Devices, Newark, Delaware, August 6-8, 2002 48. Yun Wei, Miguel Urteaga, Zach Griffith, Dennis Scott, Shouxuan Xie, Vamsi Paidi, Navin...Amplifier,” Chun-Tung Cheung, Jonathan B. Hacker, Gabor Nagy, David Rutledge, International Microwave Symposium, Seattle, June 2002. 56. “V-band

  13. Modeling and Simulation of Texture Evolution During the Thermomechanical Processing of Titanium Alloys (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2008-4352 MODELING AND SIMULATION OF TEXTURE EVOLUTION DURING THE THERMOMECHANICAL PROCESSING OF TITANIUM ALLOYS (PREPRINT...the present article. 15. SUBJECT TERMS crystallographic texture, mechanical texturing, mechanical fibering, titanium alloy, thermomechanical...Thermomechanical Processing of Titanium Alloys S.L. Semiatin, S.V. Shevchenko*, O.M. Ivasishin*, M.G. Glavicic** Y.B. Chun***, and S.K. Hwang*** Air

  14. NF-KappaB2/p52 Activation and Androgen Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Sacramento, CA INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Benign prostatic hyperplasia and the initial stages of prostate cancer (CaP) exhibit androgen dependence... prostatic hyperplasia and the initial stages of prostate cancer (CaP) exhibit androgen dependence, but androgen ablation results only in temporary...Nagalakshmi Nadiminty, Ramakumar Tummala, Jae Yeon Chun, Christopher P. Evans, Allen C. Gao. UC Davis, Sacramento, CA Abstract Body: Introduction: Benign

  15. Extraordinary magnetoresistance in shunted chemical vapor deposition grown graphene devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    than 95% single-layer gra- phene using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper foils.12 These large-area films are transferable to any arbi- trary...graphene will reconcile with the need for higher mobility, as mobility coupled the cleanliness and defectiveness of the graphene. Nonetheless, such devices...Wiesendagner, Science 320, 82 (2008). 21A. L. Friedman, H. Chun, Y. J. Jung, D. Heiman, E. R. Glaser , and L. Menon, Phys. Rev. B 81, 115461 (2010). FIG. 3

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Chao, et al; BANDAOTI XUEBAO, Jul 92] 39 Super-Shallow Junction Formed by Electron - Beam Doping Boron During Glow Discharge [Li Xiuqiong, Wang Chun...The microstructure of wires is analyzed with scanning electron microscope. It is found that the improvement of the interface bond is the main...the theoretical calcu- lated results. Super-Shallow Junction Formed by Electron - Beam Doping Boron During Glow Discharge 40100078B Beijing

  17. Characterizing and Targeting Replication Stress Response Defects in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    collaboration with our colleague Dr. Chun Li, an outstanding leader in nanotechnology , we aimed to develop nanoparticles that can carry in vivo imaging...Pɘ.001. Task 4b. To develop nanoparticles to kill RSR-defective breast cancer cells through their binding to the RSR-defect-specific membrane...proteins on cancer cells. We have created the nanoparticles that can specifically bind to RSR-defect breast cells. We will continue to optimize

  18. Using NOGAPS Singular Vectors to Diagnose Large-Scale Influences on Tropical Cyclogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Chun-Chieh Wu Dept of Atmospheric Sciences National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4 Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10673, Taiwan Phone: +886-2-2363-2303...ADDRESS(ES) University of Miami,Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences ,4600 Rickenbacker Causeway,Miami,FL,33149 8. PERFORMING...with idealized vortices and initial conditions from the TCS-08 case of Typhoon Sinlaku. A highly configurable vortex initialization method based

  19. A Review of Australian and New Zealand Investigations on Aeronautical Fatigue During the Period April 2009 to March 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    resulting in an increased benefit in comparison to the D6AC steel example. In summary, although not shown, if a fully opened crack is assumed then...much larger initial plastic zone size is achieved in comparison to D6AC steel . Finally it has also been shown for overloads that once the crack ...2 2.1.1 Stable tearing in fatigue crack growth (Mohd Fairuz, Ab Rahman, Reza D. Mohammed, Chun Wang

  20. MATHEMATICS OF SENSING, EXPLOITATION, AND EXECUTION (MSEE) Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (SEE) on a Foundation for Representation, Inference, and Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Representation, Inference, and Learning Song-Chun Zhu University of California Los Angeles JULY 2016 Final Report Approved for public release...EXPLOITATION, AND EXECUTION (MSEE) Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (SEE) on a Foundation for Representation, Inference, and Learning 5a...mathematical foundation for unified representation, inference, and learning for ISR problems. The result of the project is an end-to-end system for scene and

  1. Compound 49b Reduces Inflammatory Markers and Apoptosis after Ocular Blast Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA 2 Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, The University of Tennessee Health...rat monoclonal antibodies. Cytometry 47, 107-110. Barres, B.A., Silverstein, B.E., Corey, D.P., and Chun, L.L. (1988). Immunological , morphological...doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2011.07.005. Kornguth, S., Auerbach, R., Grieves, J., and Kahan, L. (1981). Immunological reactivity of monoclonal antibodies

  2. Patent Retrieval in Chemistry based on Semantically Tagged Named Entities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    their corresponding synonyms. An ex- ample query for TS-15 is: (" Betaine " OR "Glycine betaine " OR "Glycocol betaine " OR "Glycylbetaine" OR ...) AND...task in an automatic way based on noun- phrase detection incorporating the OpenNLP chun- 3 Informative Term Synonyms Source Betaine Glycine betaine ...Glycocol betaine , Glycylbetaine etc. ATC Peripheral Artery Disease Peripheral Artery Disorder, Peripheral Arterial Disease etc. MeSH Diels-Alder reaction

  3. JPRS Report, China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-19

    generation of leaders in learning and vocation. (Footnote 3) (LIAOWANG 21 Jan 1991) Hou Hsiang -lin [0186 4382 0779], committee member of the Chinese...successors. At the same time, because a number of head, Li Ch’eng- hsiang [2621 2110 4385] cannot at leaders, and assistant leaders of various sound groups...istics: team selectee Keng Li- chuan [5105 7787 1227] repre- sented Canada in defeating Hopei member Kao Chun 1. Most are professionals, mainstays, lead

  4. Mammalian Toxicity of Munitions Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses Part II. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    II: Effects of Multiple Doses Part !I: 2,4-T)initrotoiuene I Progres Report No. 3 oNovember 1978 by 3I Cheng-Chun Lee U Hirty V. Ellis, III Jo.,n J...Sciences Division November 1978 vii :. •I~~~~AMMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITIONS COMPOUNDS ... ... PHASE IIz Effects of Multiple Doses m . ............... PART...161 xi MAMOMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITION COMPOUNDS PHASE II: Effects of Multiple Dones PART II: 2,4

  5. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    key extremist militant leaders detained, exiled, killed, or reverted to hiding, multiple intelligence reports indicate the remaining lower-level...the lead in counterinsurgency (COIN) operations has increased, and ISF leadership has improved its ability to command and control multiple brigade...logistics, fire support, close air support, communications, planning assistance, and intelligence , surveil- lance, and reconnaissance capabilities

  6. 40 CFR 147.2555 - Aquifer exemptions since January 1, 1999.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS... 1, 1999 Formation Approximate depth (feet belowground surface) Location Powder River Basin, only approximately 0.4 square miles of the Lance Formation which is less than 0.005% of the Basin at indicated...

  7. 40 CFR 147.2555 - Aquifer exemptions since January 1, 1999.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS... 1, 1999 Formation Approximate depth (feet belowground surface) Location Powder River Basin, only approximately 0.4 square miles of the Lance Formation which is less than 0.005% of the Basin at indicated...

  8. Focus on the USA. Varieties of English Around the World, Volume 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Edgar W., Ed.

    Essays on varieties of English in the United States include: "Research Trends in the Study of American English" (Edgar W. Schneider); "Piney Woods Southern" (Lee Pederson); "Foundations of American English" (William A. Kretzschmar, Jr.); "The Comparability of Linguistic Atlas Records: The Case of LANCS an…

  9. Brain Damage in School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, H. Carl, Ed.

    The product of a professional workshop, 10 papers discuss brain damage. An introduction to clinical neuropsychology is presented by H. Carl Haywood. A section on neurological foundations includes papers on the organization of the central nervous system by Jack T. Tapp and Lance L. Simpson, on epilepsy by Angela T. Folsom, and on organic language…

  10. Effect of repeated doses of sucrose during heel stick procedure in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C C; Stremler, R; Horton, L; Friedman, A

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to test the efficacy of repeated versus single dose sucrose to decrease pain from routine heel stick procedures in preterm neonates. Infants (n = 48) in the first week of life with a mean gestational age of 31 weeks received 0.05 ml of 24% sucrose solution or sterile water by mouth (1) 2 min prior to actual lancing of the heel; (2) just prior to lancing, and (3) 2 min after lancing. The single-dose group received sucrose for the first dose and water for the second and third dose; the repeated-dose group received sucrose three times, and the placebo group received only water. The Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores were obtained for five 30-second blocks from lancing. Both sucrose groups had lower PIPP scores (single sucrose pain scores, 6.8-8.2, p = 0.07; repeated sucrose pain scores, 5.3-6. 2, p < 0.01) than water (pain scores 7.9-9.1), and in the last block, the repeated dose had lower scores than the single dose (6.2 vs. 8. 2, p < 0.05).

  11. Wild Washerwomen, Hired Sportsmen, and Enormous Crocodiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Quentin

    1981-01-01

    A free-lance cartoonist and children's book illustrator describes his process of approaching a manuscript as a whole book, rather than as individual scenes to be illustrated. Suggests that pictures in children's books can be good on their own terms and with their own intrinsic values. (AEA)

  12. English 30, Part B: Reading. Readings Booklet [and] Questions Booklet. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, June 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    These booklets are intended for students in Alberta, Canada, taking the Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in English 30. The readings booklet presents 7 reading selections from fiction and nonfiction literature. After instructions for students, the booklet presents: (1) Lance Morrow's essay "Metaphors of the World, Unite!"; (2) Carl…

  13. The Role of the Air Force Environmental Health Nurse in Long-Term Health Problems in Natural Disasters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Since typhoid fever and cholera vaccines afford a low level of short-lived individual protection, these diseases can best be prevented by prompt...Press, Now York, 19-69. deVille do Goyet, C. Maladies Transmissibles et Survel- lance Epidemiologique lots de Disastres Naturels.,- .,i e’j of th World

  14. Obesity: A Strategic and Leadership Challenge for the Chilean Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    obesity-the- heavy-price-of-economic-development/ (accessed December 09, 2012). 16 Francis Delpeuch, others, Globesity a Planet Out of Control?, (London...Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Review Press, 1996), 30. 56 Ibid., 97. 57 Lance M. Bacon , “Getting fierce on body fat, Army ramps up

  15. Senior Officer Talent Management: Fostering Institutional Adaptability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    ample, Army Secretary Francis Harvey and Chief of Staff General Pete Schoomaker instituted the officer Career Satisfaction Program (CSP) in 2006. For...Lance Bacon , “General presents his vision for future war- riors,” October 4, 2011, available from www.army.mil/article/66696. 16. Charles D. Allen

  16. Making Assessment Easier with the Organizational Effectiveness Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Savannah C.; Kennedy-Phillips, Lance

    2011-01-01

    The Organizational Effectiveness Model was originally developed by Lance Kennedy-Phillips and Ellen Meents-DeCaigny at DePaul University and has been adapted to address the needs of The Ohio State University. The model's purpose is to help organizations measure progress toward mission fulfillment and goal achievement. It cascades, with each step…

  17. Asteroid Radar V18.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neese, C.; Benner, L. A. M.; Ostro, S. J.

    2012-06-01

    This data set is intended to include all published groundbased asteroid radar detections. The file is based on the collection of asteroid radar detections established by Steven J. Ostro and currently maintained by Lance A.M. Benner. The file includes disc-integrated radar properties extracted from the published papers.

  18. Novel approach to Zr powder production by smooth ZrCl4 bubbling through molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyun-Na; Choi, Mi-Seon; Lee, Go-Gi; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    A reduction process using ZrCl4 bubbles as a reactant was investigated to produce zirconium metals. ZrCl4 vapor was bubbled through the lance in the bath, in which Mg melt and MgCl2 salt were separated. Zr powder was formed by a reduction of ZrCl4 bubbles in magnesium layer. However, the lance was clogged by the aggregate of zirconium occurred during ZrCl4 vapor injecting leading to interruption of ZrCl4 supply into the bath. This phenomenon could be caused by the presence of magnesium at the lance tip, which passes through MgCl2 salt during bubbling, and then zirconium was formed in the forms of intermetallic compounds with aluminum. In this study, the effect of molten salt on the troubled phenomena was investigated and it was verified that CaCl2 with relatively low Weber number meaning relatively high surface tension as molten salt is effective in inhibiting the lance clogging phenomena. Then, a few micrometer-sized Zr powder with the high purity of 91.6 wt% was obtained smoothly without the formation of intermetallic compound.

  19. Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve, Sioux Author. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students describes the life and career of Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve (Sioux), a Native American free-lance writer, and includes her photograph and a map of South Dakota reservations. A story by Mrs. Sneve tells about a half-Sioux boy who confronts his heritage when his grandfather makes a long journey between his…

  20. 77 FR 26549 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... inspection at 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75202-2733. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before June... settlement are available for public inspection at 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75202-2733. A copy of the proposed settlement may be obtained from Lance Nixon at, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75202-2733 or...

  1. Estimating Driver Performance Using Multiple Electroencephalography (EEG)-Based Regression Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Estimating Driver Performance Using Multiple Electroencephalography (EEG)-Based Regression Algorithms by Gregory Apker, Brent Lance, Scott...Proving Ground, MD 21005-5425 ARL-TR-7074 September 2014 Estimating Driver Performance Using Multiple Electroencephalography (EEG)-Based... Electroencephalography (EEG)- Based Regression Algorithms 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory Apker

  2. America's Star Libraries, 2010: Top-Rated Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2010-01-01

    The "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2010, "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Ray Lyons and Keith Curry Lance, and based on 2008 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,407 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries, stars or…

  3. America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,…

  4. Effect of Breast-Feeding and Maternal Holding in Relieving Painful Responses in Full-Term Neonates: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Hala M; Shuriquie, Mona A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of breast-feeding with maternal holding as compared with maternal holding without breast-feeding in relieving painful responses during heel lance blood drawing in full-term neonates. A convenience sample of 128 full-term newborn infants, in their fourth to sixth days of life, undergoing heel lance blood drawing for screening of hypothyroidism were included in the study. The neonates were randomly assigned into 2 equivalent groups. During heel lance blood drawing for infants, they either breast-fed with maternal holding (group I) or were held in their mother's lap without breast-feeding (group II). The painful responses were assessed simultaneously by 2 neonatal nurses blinded to the purpose of the study. Outcome measures for painful responses of the full-term neonates were evaluated with the Premature Infant Pain Profile scale. Independent t test showed significant differences in Premature Infant Pain Profile scale scores among the 2 groups (t = -8.447, P = .000). Pain scores were significantly lower among infants who were breast-fed in addition to maternal holding. Evidence from this study indicates that the combination of breast-feeding with maternal holding reduces painful responses of full-term infants during heel lance blood drawing.

  5. Expendable Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth System (XCTD) development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-30

    States of America as represented Sby the Secretary of the Navy 3. Four electrode conductivity sensor for moored sensor chains. Robert 8. Sudar Edward...CHARACYCRIZAl ION 0N.$. Manning. 6. Dalton, and H.W. LanceStorr 2. APPARAIUS Solow is a diagram of the drop test apparatus at the MAVOCEANO facility (Fig. 1). The

  6. Behavioral Treatment of Chronic Skin-Picking in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Mulloy, Austin; Regester, April; Pierce, Nigel; Kang, Soyeon

    2010-01-01

    Skin-picking is a type of self-injurious behavior involving the pulling, scratching, lancing, digging, or gouging of one's own body. It is associated with social impairment, and increased medical and mental health concerns. While there are several reports showing that skin-picking is common in individuals with developmental disabilities, knowledge…

  7. Research that Resonates: Influencing Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachel, Debra E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Keith Curry Lance and his associates completed a second school library impact study in Pennsylvania. The research conducted in Pennsylvania was the result of an Institute of Museums and Library Services (IMLS) National Leadership grant that examined students' reading and writing scores with sub-groups of students (Hispanic, Black,…

  8. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 9, Number 1, Spring 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    I had to convince people of.� Young, a heavy equipment operator who has worked snow removal at Grand Forks Air Force Base, N.D.; Osan Air Base, Korea...storage tanks at Spangdahlem AB, Germany. Geer is a 2000 Lance P. Sijan Air Force Leadership Award recipient. (Photo by SrA Esperanza Berrios) 31 CE

  9. Genetic Algorithm Design And Testing of a Random Element 3-D 2.4 Ghz Phased Array Transmit Antenna Constructed of Commercial Rf Microchips

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    2003 Thesis Advisor: Michael Melich Co-Advisor: David Jenn Co-Advisor: Rodney Johnson ...Author: Lance C. Esswein Approved by: Michael Melich Thesis Advisor David Jenn Co-Advisor Rodney Johnson Co-Advisor...direction, and who showed me the true value of education. To my advisors, Michael Melich , David Jenn and Rodney Johnson , who served as my “three

  10. Effect of Non-Sphericity of Gravitational Field of the Asteroid on the its Satellites Orbits Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troianskyi, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    Lately it has become possible to sufficiently precise definition of the physical and geometric characteristics of asteroid systems using radar observations (http://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/˜lance/binary.neas.html), which allowed calculating the asymmetry of the massive component of double and multiple asteroids for studying the dynamics of motion of their satellites.

  11. 12 CFR 309.5 - Procedures for requesting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... processing. A requester may contact the FOIA/PA Group to learn whether a particular request has been assigned... a free-lance journalist who can demonstrate a reasonable expectation of having his or her work... Act/Privacy Act Group (“FOIA/PA Group”), Legal Division : (i) By completing the online request...

  12. Cutting Ice with High Pressure Water Jets (Decoupage de la Glace par de Puissants Jets D’eau).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    estimated ice temperature. - £Ase m Par ’ XMIS4" DTIC ?ASO uihmeimeed 0 Just itist e o DistrIbutieon/ Avallability Codes l /Avai o rndios Distj Specil...cutting lance, either with a long straight pipe or with a flow stabilizer followed by a shorter straight pipe . Interchangeable nozzles terminate the

  13. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, St. Croix River Pool.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-11-01

    8217.a lzceo iata Figwort Verbaocwen thapsus Mullein Veronica a’,eiccmia Speedwell Veronicastrwn virginicum Culver’s root Unidentified sp. P 5 A-39. I...Beard-Tongue) Penstemon grandiflorus (Large Flowered Beard-Tongue) Scrophularia lanceolata (Lance-Leaved Figwort ) Verbascum Thapsus (Great Mullein

  14. Specific Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program Movements Are Associated With Acute Pain in Preterm Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Grunau, Ruth E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Whitfield, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) is widely used in neonatal intensive care units and comprises 85 discrete infant behaviors, some of which may communicate infant distress. The objective of this study was to identify developmentally relevant movements indicative of pain in preterm infants. Methods. Forty-four preterm infants were assessed at 32 weeks' gestational age (GA) during 3 phases (baseline, lance/squeeze, and recovery) of routine blood collection in the neonatal intensive care unit. The NIDCAP and Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) were coded from separate continuous bedside video recordings; mean heart rate (mHR) was derived from digitally sampled continuous electrographic recordings. Analysis of variance (phase × gender) with Bonferroni corrections was used to compare differences in NIDCAP, NFCS, and mHR. Pearson correlations were used to examine relationships between the NIDCAP and infant background characteristics. Results. NFCS and mHR increased significantly to lance/squeeze. Eight NIDCAP behaviors also increased significantly to lance/squeeze. Another 5 NIDCAP behaviors decreased significantly to lance/squeeze. Infants who had lower GA at birth, had been sicker, had experienced more painful procedures, or had greater morphine exposure showed increased hand movements indicative of increased distress. Conclusions. Of the 85 NIDCAP behaviors, a subset of 8 NIDCAP movements were associated with pain. Particularly for infants who are born at early GAs, addition of these movements to commonly used measures may improve the accuracy of pain assessment. PMID:15231909

  15. Assessment Center Construct-Related Validity: Stepping beyond the MTMM Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Mark C.; Woehr, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent Monte Carlo research has illustrated that the traditional method for assessing the construct-related validity of assessment center (AC) post-exercise dimension ratings (PEDRs), an application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to a multitrait-multimethod matrix, produces inconsistent results [Lance, C. E., Woehr, D. J., & Meade, A. W.…

  16. Collage with Photoshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparkman, Russell

    The creative processes of 14 computer graphic artists are recorded in this book. Artists represented include: Joseph Kelter; Glenn Mitsui; Diane Fenster; Steve Lyons; Jeff Brice; Thirst; Pamela Hobbs; Lance Hidy; SKOLOS/WEDELL; Marcolina Design/Dan Marcolina; John Hersey; David Carson; Bert Monroy; and Jack Davis. The narrative provides insight…

  17. The Effect of Weaving on the Strength of Kevlar KM2 Single Fibers at Different Loading Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    mechanical properties of single fibers at different strain rates is important for high-fidelity simulation of fibrous bodies in composite laminates in...DIR USARL RDRL CIH C P CHUNG RDRL HRS C K MCDOWELL K OIE B LANCE W HAIRSTON J VETTEL RDRL SL R COATES RDRL SLB

  18. Sex, Drugs, and Kinesiology: A Useful Partnership for Sport's Most Pressing Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleaves, John; Llewellyn, Matthew; Wrynn, Alison

    2015-01-01

    From the gender controversy of South African runner Caster Semenya to the doping practices of disgraced American cyclist Lance Armstrong, recent sporting issues highlight kinesiology's important role and responsibility to sport. Increasingly, sport organizations, such as the International Olympic Committee, the World Anti-Doping Agency, and…

  19. Chemical Cleaning of Ship Tanks - Laboratory Investigation of Stripping Agents for Epoxy Coatings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    metal water pollution problems. For removal of alkyd paints with STABCHAPS, alkaline stripping agents could be used. For removal of epoxy coatings or...can also be sprayed by hand lance at 2,000 psi. The STABCHAPS was developed as an alternate to sandblasting and its attendant air pollution and heavy

  20. Cost Estimating Relationships for U.S. Navy Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    SHARK 317 SSN-592 SNOOK 307 SSN-593 THRESHER 874 SSN-594 PERMIT 526 SSN-595 PLUNGER 441 SSN-596 BARB 444 SSN-597 TULLIBEE 440 SSN-503 POLLACK 554...PUFFER RAY SAND LANCE LAPON GURNARD HAMMERHEAD SEA DEVIL GUITARRO HAWKBILL BERGALL SPADEFISH SEAHORSE FINBACK NARWHAL PINTADO FLYING FISH

  1. A Clinical Evaluation of Routine Blood Sampling Practices in Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pineau, Mitchel; Pynes, Mary Kate; Katz, Laurence B.; Ginsberg, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a perception that patients with diabetes struggle to produce sufficient blood to fill glucose test strips, including strips with 1-µL fill requirements. The purpose of this study was to determine the volume of blood expressed when these patients perform routine fingersticks using their own lancing device and sampling technique and to evaluate the relationship between blood volume and pain. Methods: Sixty-four patients (type 1 or type 2 diabetes) performed 8 fingersticks using their own lancing device and preferred depth setting and lancing technique. Eight different commercially available lancing systems were used (8 patients/system). Blood volume and perceived pain were recorded after each fingerstick. Results: The mean blood volume across all patients was 3.1 µL (512 fingersticks), with 97% of patients expressing a mean of ≥1.0 µL of blood. There was no correlation between pain response and the volume of blood expressed. Nearly all patients agreed that they could easily and comfortably obtain a 1-µL blood sample, and most patients actually preferred a larger drop size to ease sampling and avoid wasting strips. Conclusion: These results provide evidence across 8 lancing systems that challenge the current perceptions that patients with diabetes struggle to produce sufficient blood samples to fill most test strips, including those with 1-µL fill requirements, and that obtaining larger volumes of blood is more painful. These results are consistent with the previous literature suggesting that patients derive no real benefits from very low strip volumes and generally prefer a blood drop size that enables them to confidently fill their test strip. PMID:24876439

  2. Response of pigeon guillemots to variable abundance of high-lipid and low-lipid prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, J.F.; Prichard, A.K.; Roby, D.D.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of the pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) and other piscivores have been in decline for several decades in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea, and a decline in abundance of lipid-rich schooling fishes is hypothesized as the major cause. We tested this hypothesis by studying the breeding biology of pigeon guillemots during 1995-1999 while simultaneously measuring prey abundance with beach seines and bottom trawls. Our study area (Kachemak Bay, Alaska) comprises two oceanographically distinct areas. Populations of a lipid-rich schooling fish, Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), were higher in the warmer Inner Bay than in the colder Outer Bay, and sand lance abundance was higher during warm years. Populations of low-lipid content demersal fishes were similar between areas. Chick survival to age 15 days was 47% higher in the Inner Bay (high-lipid diet) than in the Outer Bay (low-lipid diet), and estimated reproductive success (chicks fledged nest-1) was 62% higher in the Inner Bay than in the Outer Bay. Chick provisioning rate (kJ chick-1 h-1) increased with the proportion of sand lance in the diet (r2=0.21), as did growth rate (g day-1) of younger (beta) chicks in two-chick broods (r2=0.14). Pigeon guillemots in the Inner Bay switched to demersal prey during years of below-average sand lance abundance, and these birds reacted to 38-fold interannual changes in sand lance abundance with reductions in beta chick growth rates, with no decline in beta chick survival. In contrast, the proportion of nests experiencing brood reduction in the Outer Bay (demersal diet) increased >300% during years of below-average demersal abundance, although demersal fish abundance varied only 4-fold among years. Our results support the hypothesis that recovery of pigeon guillemot populations from the effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill is limited by availability of lipid-rich prey.

  3. Transcript profile of the response of two soybean genotypes to potassium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Chen, HaiFeng; Hao, QingNan; Sha, AiHua; Shan, ZhiHui; Chen, LiMiao; Zhou, Rong; Zhi, HaiJian; Zhou, XinAn

    2012-01-01

    The macronutrient potassium (K) is essential to plant growth and development. Crop yield potential is often affected by lack of soluble K. The molecular regulation mechanism of physiological and biochemical responses to K starvation in soybean roots and shoots is not fully understood. In the present study, two soybean varieties were subjected to low-K stress conditions: a low-K-tolerant variety (You06-71) and a low-K-sensitive variety (HengChun04-11). Eight libraries were generated for analysis: 2 genotypes ×2 tissues (roots and shoots) ×2 time periods [short term (0.5 to 12 h) and long term (3 to 12 d)]. RNA derived from the roots and shoots of these two varieties across two periods (short term and long term) were sequenced and the transcriptomes were compared using high-throughput tag-sequencing. To this end, a large number of clean tags (tags used for analysis after removal of dirty tags) corresponding to distinct tags (all types of clean tags) were identified in eight libraries (L1, You06-71-root short term; L2, HengChun04-11-root short term; L3, You06-71-shoot short term; L4, HengChun04-11-shoot short term; L5, You06-71-root long term; L6, HengChun04-11-root long term; L7, You06-71-shoot long term; L8, HengChun04-11-shoot long term). All clean tags were mapped to the available soybean (Glycine max) transcript database (http://www.soybase.org). Many genes showed substantial differences in expression across the libraries. In total, 5,440 transcripts involved in 118 KEGG pathways were either up- or down-regulated. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. Our results provide preliminary information on the molecular mechanism of potassium absorption and transport under low-K stress conditions in different soybean tissues.

  4. Land and Atmosphere Near-Real-Time Capability for Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    LANCE (Land, Atmosphere Near-Real-Time Capability for EOS) in 2009. LANCE consists of special processing elements, co-located with selected EOSDIS data centers and processing facilities. A primary goal of LANCE is to bring multiple near-real-time systems under one umbrella, offering commonality in data access, quality control, and latency. LANCE now processes and distributes data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) instruments within 3 hours of satellite observation. The Rapid Response System and the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) capabilities will be incorporated into LANCE in 2011. LANCE maintains a central website to facilitate easy access to data and user services. LANCE products are extensively tested and compared with science products before being made available to users. Each element also plans to implement redundant network, power and server infrastructure to ensure high availability of data and services. Through the user registration system, users are informed of any data outages and when new products or services will be available for access. Building on a significant investment by NASA in developing science algorithms and products, LANCE creates products that have a demonstrated utility for applications requiring near-real-time data. From lower level data products such as calibrated geolocated radiances to higher-level products such as sea ice extent, snow cover, and cloud cover, users have integrated LANCE data into forecast models and decision support systems. The table above shows the current near-real-time product categories by instrument. The ESDIS Project continues to improve the LANCE system and use the experience gained through practice to seek adjustments to improve the quality and performance of the system. For example, an

  5. Soot blower using fuel gas as blowing medium

    DOEpatents

    Tanca, Michael C.

    1982-01-01

    A soot blower assembly (10) for use in combination with a coal gasifier (14). The soot blower assembly is adapted for use in the hot combustible product gas generated in the gasifier as the blowing medium. The soot blower lance (20) and the drive means (30) by which it is moved into and out of the gasifier is housed in a gas tight enclosure (40) which completely surrounds the combination. The interior of the enclosure (40) is pressurized by an inert gas to a pressure level higher than that present in the gasifier so that any combustible product gas leaking from the soot blower lance (20) is forced into the gasifier rather than accumulating within the enclosure.

  6. NMR determination of carbon aromatization during hydrous pyrolysis of coals from the Mesaverde group, Greater Green river basin

    SciTech Connect

    Miknis, F.P.; Netzel, D.A.; Surdam, R.C.

    1995-12-01

    Solid-state {sup 13}C NMR measurements have been made on the residues from hydrous pyrolysis experiments conducted on Almond and Lance Formation coals from the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group in the Green River Basin. Only a small percentage of the total carbon (13%) was converted to volatile products for both coals during hydrous pyrolysis. An accounting of the aliphatic carbon was obtained by comparing the aliphatic carbon in the gas, oil and residue products with that of the starting coals. The amount of aliphatic carbon in the volatile products and residue was not sufficient to account for the total amount of aliphatic carbon that disappeared. From this it was inferred that a substantial portion of the aliphatic carbon aromatized during hydrous pyrolysis, (48 and 56% for the Almond and Lance coal, respectively). These and additional results on coal maturation in the natural environment will be discussed.

  7. Suckling- and sucrose-induced analgesia in human newborns.

    PubMed

    Blass, E M; Watt, L B

    1999-12-01

    This experiment had three goals: 1. To identify the basis of sucking-induced analgesia in healthy, term, newborn humans undergoing the painful, routine, procedure of heel lance and blood collection. 2. To evaluate how taste-induced and sucking-induced analgesias combine to combat pain. 3. To determine whether facial grimacing was an accurate index of diminished pain, or whether it was linked to tissue trauma. We report that: 1. Sucking an unflavored pacifier was analgesic when and only when suck rate exceeded 30 sucks/min. 2. The combination of sucrose and nonnutritive sucking was remarkably analgesic; we saw no behavioral indication in nine of the ten infants that the heel lance had even occurred. 3. Grimacing was reduced to almost naught by procedures that essentially eliminated crying and markedly reduced heart rate during the blood harvesting procedure.

  8. Pulverized coal injection operation on CSC No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.M.; Hsu, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The pulverized coal injection system was introduced for the first time in No. 1 and No. 2 blast furnace at China Steel Corporation (CSC) in 1988. Currently the coal injection rate for both blast furnaces has steadily risen to 70--89 kg/thm (designed value). No 3 blast furnace (with an inner volume of 3400 m3) was also equipped with a PCI system of Armco type and started coal injection on November 17, 1993. During the early period, some problems such as injection lance blocking, lance-tip melting down, flexible hose wear, grind mill tripping occasionally interrupted the stable operation of blast furnace. After a series of efforts offered on equipment improvement and operation adjustment, the PC rate currently reaches to 90--110 kg/thm and furnace stable operation is still being maintained with productivity more than 2.20.

  9. Capillary blood sampling from the ear of dogs and cats and use of portable meters to measure glucose concentration.

    PubMed

    Wess, G; Reusch, C

    2000-02-01

    Two new methods for collection of capillary blood from the ear of dogs and cats for the measurement of blood glucose concentration using portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) are described. The first method uses a lancing device after pre-warming the ear, while the second employs a vacuum lancing device. Both methods generated blood drops of adequate size, although the latter method was faster and easier to perform. Accuracy of the two PBGMs was evaluated clinically and statistically. Although assessment of statistical accuracy revealed differences between the PBGMs and the reference method, all of the PBGM readings were within clinically acceptable ranges. Measurement of capillary blood glucose concentration is easy to perform, inexpensive and fast. It may be used by owners to determine blood glucose concentrations at home, and could serve as a new tool for monitoring diabetic dogs and cats.

  10. Easing the Discovery of NASA and International Near-Real-Time Data Using the Global Change Master Directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola; Morahan, Michael; Aleman, Alicia; Cepero, Laurel; Stevens, Tyler; Ritz, Scott; Holland, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) provides an extensive directory of descriptive and spatial information about data sets and data-related services, which are relevant to Earth science research. The directory's data discovery components include controlled keywords, free-text searches, and map/date searches. The GCMD portal for NASA's Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) data products leverages these discovery features by providing users a direct route to NASA's Near-Real-Time (NRT) collections. This portal offers direct access to collection entries by instrument name, informing users of the availability of data. After a relevant collection entry is found through the GCMD's search components, the "Get Data" URL within the entry directs the user to the desired data. http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/p/gcmd_lance_nrt.

  11. Pierce - University of Georgia | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Principal Investigator: J. Michael Pierce, PhDInstitution: University of Georgia, Athens, GA Our project, Discovery and Development of Cancer Glycomarkers, is a joint collaboration between our laboratories at the CCRC, which include Karen Abbott, Lance Wells, Kevin Dobbin, and Mike Tiemeyer, those at TGen, in Phoenix, AZ, Daniel Von Hoff, Haiyong Han, and Mike Demeure, and Caerus Discovery in Manassas, VA, which includes Cohava Gelber and S?ren Mogelsvang. |

  12. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    SciTech Connect

    Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

  13. A Preliminary Inquiry into the Successful and Unsuccessful Listening Strategies of Beginning College Japanese Students.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Takeo Morikuni; my wife, Gail; and my children , Lori Ann, Lea Ann, and Lance. They all provided me with the motivation and inspiration to complete...proficiency has long been taken for granted and virtually overlooked. Taylor (1973) declares that listening is "an act accepted by children and adults...34is not generally accepted as part of the standard school curriculum" (p. 300). It is no small wonder why children who are not taught how or what to

  14. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs No. 1402.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    lance. One of the elders fearlessly branded the bandits, with his patience having apparently broken, "Are we really supposed to believe that...indoctrin- ation of the masses is the concrete deeds and communist ideological loyalty is an alloy of knowledge, convictions and practical action...of a theater, states the decree, there should be more theatri- cal works which on the basis of Lenin’s principles of party loyalty and dedica- tion

  15. Enhanced Airport Surface Detection Equipment Applications,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    instal- lation and includes only the time required for corrective diagnosis , repair, realignment, and proper reinitiatlon of system operation. Thus, 13...for corrective diagnosis , repair, realignment and reinitiating proper operation of the radar system . Availability predictions shall be provided as...do not warrant extensive non- surveil lance-related system developments E-3Ui such as automation of the Control or Commu- nications functions. ASDE

  16. Enabling Early Sustainment Decisions: Application to F-35 Depot-Level Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    are indebted to Robert Tripp and James Masters, whose insights on transaction cost accounting and deep knowledge of Air Force logistics led them to...Finally, we benefited from the thoughtful reviews provided by Marc Robbins and Raymond Franck , which helped us improve the presentation of the...McGarvey, James H. Bigelow, Gary Briggs, Peter Buryk, Raymond E. Conley, John G. Drew, Perry Shameem Firoz, Julie Kim, Lance Menthe, S. Craig Moore

  17. Sharing Power? Prospects for a U.S. Concert-Balance Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    power presiding over a world system it, in large part, designed. Thanks to a range of interlocking prob- lems, a growing number of observers now argue...alliances and client states; and a pervasive spying and surveil- lance system —all underwritten by the Bretton-Woods 8 financial order and the dollar as...balance-of-power system , with burdens shifted to allies and regional clients (like the Shah’s Iran). But Primacy eventually reasserted itself.8 The Pax

  18. The Costs of Not Using Green Design in the USAF: Would Using Green Building Design Have Resulted in Life Cycle Cost

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    lowest life cycle cost trump any higher cost premiums? This will be discussed later. Lance Davis, a GSA LEED Accredited Professional and architect...Architecture Design.” London: James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd; 1999. 47 EPA . 2005\\. “ENERGY STAR Overview of 2005 Achievements.” Document...available on EPAs website at http://www.energystar.gov/ia/news/downloads/2005_achievements.pdf. EPA . 2003. “ENERGY STAR—The Power to Protect the

  19. Army Logistician. Volume 39, Issue 3, May-June 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    con- ducted. The information gathered includes cargo type, model , serial number, bumper number, container size , container number, and RFID tag...Graphic arts and layout by RCW Communication Design Inc. This medium is approved for the official dissemi- nation of material designed to keep...organic brigade support battalion (except for the battlefield surveil- lance brigade, whose size and structure do not warrant a full-up support

  20. Family Practice History: Bloodletting

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Peter

    1981-01-01

    For 2000 years bloodletting was an accepted form of treatment. During this time, the indications and philosophical basis for lancing, cupping, and the application of leeches evolved in conjunction with advances in anatomy and physiology. In the late 19th century discoveries by tissue pathologists using new diagnostic techniques undermined earlier dogma and bloodletting quickly became a highly suspect form of treatment. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21289758

  1. Defense Transportation Regulation. Part I: Passenger Movement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    DSN 576-4901/COML 1-800-851-3144 Hours of operation: M-F, 0700-1530 L ALASKA/HAWAII/PACIFIC ISLANDS Hickam AFB DSN 449- 9973 /COML 808-449- 9973 Hours...CPS First Sergeant 1SG Chief Petty Officer CPO Petty Officer First Class POl F-l A PPENDIX F (Conf) Sergeant SGT GS -07...07 Corporal CPL GS -06 06 Lance Corporal LCP GS -05

  2. Army Sustainment Capabilities in FOrced Entry Operations: The Impact of Private Contracting on Army Sustainment’s Capabilities to Sustain Forces in Forced Entry Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    century-defense/ (accessed March 17, 2012), 2. 2Lance M. Bacon , “Army to Lose another 5 BCTs,” Army Times, 5 March 2012. 3 This study relies on...Logistics and Distribution (New York: Taylor and Francis , 2001), 253. 15 sustainment system for the user in a garrison environment. However, this concept...and Distribution. New York: Taylor and Francis , 2001. Walker, Martin. The Iraq War. Dulles VA: Brassy’s Inc., 2004. 71 Wang, Mark D. Accelerated

  3. Developing Adaptive Junior Leaders in the Army Nurse Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    senior AMEDD officers and the resignation of then-Secretary of the Army Francis 28 Harvey (Abramowitz and Vogel 2007; White 2007). Perhaps a symptom...to excellence in this profession. If you don’t have a mentor, look at yourself in the mirror” ( Bacon 2011). This senior Army officer placed...December 2011). Bacon , Lance. 2011. A call for mentorship. Army Times. 3 October. Bolton, Karl C., Soraya Turner, William Ritter, and Hank Sebastian

  4. Adaptive Bureaucracy and Creative Destruction Creating Maneuver Space in the DOD Bureaucracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    branches. In his article, Bureaucracy in the American Constitutional Order, Francis E. Rourke, indicates that “judges have now become major actors in...intellectual top cover that you need. 26 Endnotes 1 Lance M. Bacon , “Cutting Half an Army” Army Times, March 11, 2013 taken from daily...What Government Agencies Do and Why they Do It, 259. 27 Francis E. Rourke, “Bureaucracy in the American Constitutional Order,” Political Science

  5. Future ATC System Description ATC Facilities and Interfaces (1980-1990).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Surveil lance Sdr e / S . Se,’c (High [F r tab SL e", L -J ,E (High IFR Acti ity Airpor Digitized Digitized Flighn Plans, "Coordination,C Aircraft...ABDI To A SWTH1Ic ---- ---- ---- H -4 NS ’EMS.9IA SURVEILLANCE CENIER AOMER BA AFTN AIT WINN IGNTIDNA FORFRIG AER~~~UTICL IFS AIRLNE OIPATCA N ITAR

  6. The Correlation between Leadership Style and Leader Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-22

    Marketing Research, 18, 62-77. Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship- based approach to leadership: Development of leader... Marketing , 14, 180-191. Lance, C. E., Butts, M. M., & Michels, L. C. (2006). The sources of four commonly reported cutoff...Brown, J. R. (1982). A modified model of power in the marketing channel. Journal of Marketing Research, 19, 312-323. Muenjohn, N

  7. Oxidation Processes in Blowing Steel With Inert Gas into the Ladle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Valuev, D. V.; Trifonov, V. A.; Valueva, A. V.; Serikbol, A.

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the possible development of oxidative processes in a metal when treating the melt in the ladle under intensive stirring with an inert gas. The industrial data have been received, confirming the possibility of reducing the concentration of silicon and aluminum in the metal, as well as changing the slag chemical composition with the bath blowing with the inert gas through the top submerged lance.

  8. Development of a self-sterilizing lancet coated with a titanium dioxide photocatalytic nano-layer for self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideaki; Tanaka, Masanori; Shinohara, Shouji; Gotoh, Masao; Karube, Isao

    2007-04-15

    A photocatalyst was applied to a lancet for pricking the finger to obtain an antibacterial property. A photocatalytic and uniform nano-layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on the surface of the lancet (0.36 mm x 24.5 mm) was formed by sputtering and annealed for crystallization of the TiO2 layer. By elementary analysis of the TiO2 layer, titanium and oxygen were detected. Next, for the estimation of the antibacterial properties resulting from the photocatalytic effect, the lancet was packed into a capillary tube filled with a suspension of Escherichia coli K-12 (non-spore-forming bacterium), and was continuously rolled in a continuous UV-irradiation system under black-light irradiation. Distinct antibacterial effects after irradiation at 0.5 mW cm(-2) for 45 min were observed in the crystallized TiO2 layer on the lancet. Finally, lancing resistances obtained by pricking an artificial skin sheet were examined using control lancets, and lancets with an unannealed TiO2 layer or an annealed TiO2 layer. The results showed almost the same lancing resistances for the control (0.53+/-0 N, n=3) and the lancet with an annealed TiO2 layer (0.51+/-0.018 N), while the lancet with an unannealed TiO2 layer showed a high lancing resistance compared with the other lancets (0.62+/-0.05 N). In conclusion, the lancet coated with a crystallized, velvety nano-layer of TiO2 obtained by annealing had antibacterial properties and a similar lancing resistance compared with the bare lancet, and showed potential for application in monitoring blood glucose in diabetes.

  9. Relations between Suicide and Traumatic Brain Injury, Psychiatric Diagnoses, and Relationship Problems, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    the Defense Medical Surveil- lance System (DMSS).23 Th e study population consisted of indi- viduals who had served in the active com- ponent of the...categories and V-codes 1, 2001 and December 31, 2009. Cases (n=1,764) were suicides that were identifi ed through the Department of Defense (DoD...associations, if any, with suicide risk are indicated. Author affi liations: National Center for Tele- health and Technology, Defense Center of

  10. Cyberpower as a Coercive Instrument

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    was knocking off major 23 Jay Beale, Brian Caswell, James C. Foster, Jeffrey Posluns, Ryan Russell...Snort 2.0 Intrusion Detection, (Rockland, MA, Syngress 2003), 24. 24 Jay Beale, et al., Snort 2.0 Intrusion Detection, 11. 25 Lance Spitzner...news.com, 13 August 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7557457.stm, (accessed: 21 April 2009). 55 The G7 (also known as the G-7 G-8, or HALEY

  11. Fine-scale Survey of Right and Humpback Whale Prey Abundance and Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    critical information, we will: (1) Identify the prey type (e.g. copepod, krill , fish) and numerical abundance of zooplankton and nekton in the... krill in this area) and nekton (small fish such as sand lance). The general approach is to conduct a regular grid-like survey while our...of any marine mammals near the vessel. These data are collected to supplement the observations made by our collaborators and will provide us with a

  12. Individual-based energetic model suggests bottom up mechanisms for the impact of coastal hypoxia on Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardii) foraging behavior.

    PubMed

    Steingass, Sheanna; Horning, Markus

    2017-03-07

    Wind-driven coastal hypoxia represents an environmental stressor that has the potential to drive redistribution of gilled marine organisms, and thereby indirectly affect the foraging characteristics of air-breathing upper trophic-level predators. We used a conceptual individual-based model to simulate effects of coastal hypoxia on the spatial foraging behavior and efficiency of a marine mammal, the Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardii) on the Oregon coast. Habitat compression of fish was simulated at varying intensities of hypoxia. Modeled hypoxia affected up to 80% of the water column and half of prey species' horizontal habitat. Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), and English sole (Parophrys vetulus) were selected as representative harbor seal prey species. Model outputs most affected by coastal hypoxia were seal travel distance to foraging sites, time spent at depth during foraging dives, and daily energy balance. For larger seals, English sole was the most optimal prey during normoxia, however during moderate to severe hypoxia Pacific sand lance was the most beneficial prey. For smaller seals, Pacific herring was the most efficient prey species during normoxia, but sand lance became more efficient as hypoxia increased. Sand lance represented the highest increase in foraging efficiency during severe hypoxic events for all seals. Results suggest that during increasing hypoxia, smaller adult harbor seals could benefit by shifting from foraging on larger neritic schooling fishes to foraging closer inshore on less energetically-dense forage fish. Larger adult seals may benefit by shifting from foraging on groundfish to smaller, schooling neritic fishes as hypoxia increases. The model suggests a mechanism by which hypoxia may result in increased foraging efficiency of Pacific harbor seals, and therefore increased rates of predation on coastal fishes on the continental shelf during hypoxic events.

  13. Air-Land Battle Interdiction Model Corps Communications Module.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    collection and fusion capabilities within the Intelligence ccmmunity enhance target acquisition; increased ranges and accuracy of LANCE and PERSHING...Command, Control, Communication, Intelligence (C31), and logistics. A poten- tial Achilles’ heel, the common thread weaving each system to its ccntroller...In Figure 3.1, the BF Common User Communications Network cverlayed on a portion of the EAD Communications Zone is depicted. If Soviet Intelligence

  14. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 3, Number 1, January 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    R. Towle, MPH, PA-C Prepared by the Medical Surveil- lance Activity, Directorate of Epidemiology and Disease Surveillance, United States Army Center...towels, and soap. Results of the epidemiologic investigation sug- gested that the outbreak was foodborne, food items prepared and served in the... Epidemiology Technician, Preventive Medicine Service, USAMEDDAC, Fort Knox, Kentucky MSMRVol. 03 / No. 01 11 Tetanus, Fort Bragg, North Carolina Report

  15. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 14, Number 3, 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Daniels Lance C. Hafeli Jeffrey A . Jackson Richard S. Jarvis Raymond A . Sable Terry Watkins Jerry K. Weldon II Calvin Williams Selected for Promotion...Engineer Maj Gen Del Eulberg AFCESA Commander Col Richard A . Fryer, Jr. Chief, Professional Communications Dr. Ronald Hartzer Chief, Public Affairs...We’ve been doing it twice a year, every year, for approximately 16 years,” said Mr. Richard Grueschow, Horizontal Superintendent for the 28th CES

  16. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research, and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    TELETEXT SERVICE—From 1 October, the Mass Communications Authority will transmit information via teletext to your homes 4 hours every day free of...radio programs "Horizon", "Khristo Botev", " Orpheus " and "Knowledge" are concerned, these will be emitted on ultrashort waves in stereo in the...union agreement will be eligi- ble for free -lance con- tractual work with the JBC where possible." 40 New JBC Chairman Kingston THE DAILY

  17. Defense Science Study Group IV: Study Reports 1994-1995. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    Institute of Technology, and S. Lance Cooper, Department of Physics, University of Illinois v H. From Chips to Ships: Applying VLSI CAD Techniques to...ambient optical radiation to produce an image that can be seen with the unaided eye. This technique is called image intensification and the devices...that are used to perform this function are called image intensifiers. The second method relies on thermal imaging. In this technique the heat emitted by

  18. Revision of the genus Gryposmylus Krüger, 1913 (Neuroptera, Osmylidae) with a remarkable example of convergence in wing disruptive patterning

    PubMed Central

    Winterton, Shaun L.; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The charismatic lance lacewing genus Gryposmylus Krüger, 1913 (Osmylidae: Protosmylinae) from South East Asia is revised with a new species (Gryposmylus pennyi sp. n.) described from Malaysia. The genus is diagnosed and both species in the genus redescribed and figured. An extraordinary example of morphological convergence is presented, with disruptive camouflaging wing markings in Gryposmylus pennyi sp. n. being remarkably similar to the South American green lacewing Vieira leschenaulti Navás (Chrysopidae). PMID:27667953

  19. National Dam Safety Program. Penn Nursery Dam (NDI I.D. Number PA-00470, Penn DER I.D. Number 14-117), Susquehanna River Basin, Potter Run, Centre County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    surveillance of the facility during periods of unusually heavy precipitation. GAI Consultants, Inc. Approved by: Bernard M. mih Ixin, . tMW.FC \\JColonel...essentially self-regulating with excess inflows being automatically discharged over the emergency spillway. During periods of low flow in the dry summer...emergency warning system that provides for around-the-clock surveil- lance of the facility during periods of unusually heavy precipitation. 10j SECTION

  20. A Question of Balance: Political Context and Military Aspects of the China-Taiwan Dispute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    scholars working on issues relating to the Taiwan Strait situation, C hinese military modernization, and U.S. military force planning and strategy in... Markets or Information Networks .. . . .. .. III . . . .. IX . .. Xl . .. . XIII . .. . XXI .. XXIII . .. .. . I . .. .. . 3 . .. .. . 5...by employing a "four rings" strategy : xviii A Question of Ba lance • "Thinning the herd " of approaching ships using what amounts to unordered

  1. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Aquatic Plant Identification and Herbicide Use Guide. Volume 2. Aquatic Plants and Susceptibility to Herbicides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    sedges , and rushes are the most common herbaceous components of the freshwater marsh. FS - Freshwater Swamp. This habitat consists of those areas where... sedges , rushes) heart-shaped monoeclous - having staminate and corolla - the inner, usually colored pistillate flowers on the same plant whorl of the...grasses, sedges , and rushes oblanceolate - reverse lance-shaped; cuticle - a waxy, protective layer on broadest at apex, gradually tapering the surfaces

  2. European Scientific Notes. Volume 33, Number 5,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-31

    of storage tests as well reserve batteries such as Pb/PbO 2 with as fundamental studies of passivation fluoboric acid electrolyte, lithium , phenomena...the lithium anode has lance, or are simply being stored until prompted RARDE to carry out comparative the opportune time for examination, abuse...ing in accordance with a UK Standard. AgCl 3-V batteries. The simple conclu- Various lithium cells have been studied, sion after painstaking

  3. Body Movements: An Important Additional Factor in Discriminating Pain From Stress in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Holsti, Liisa; Grunau, Ruth E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Whitfield, Michael F.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To describe developmentally appropriate, specific body movements and other biobehavioral responses of preterm infants to a group of routine care giving tasks (Clustered Care), and to compare responses to acute pain with those of Clustered Care. Methods In a randomized design, 54 preterm infants were assessed at 32 weeks gestational age during 3 phases of blood collection (Baseline, Lance/squeeze, Recovery) and of diaper changing, measuring abdominal girth and axillary temperature, and mouth care (Baseline, Clustered Care, Recovery) in a neonatal intensive care unit. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program and 1 facial action from the Neonatal Facial Coding System, Brow Bulge, were coded from separate continuous bedside video recordings. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were also acquired continuously. Results Brow Bulge, heart rate, and a subset of 9 Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program movements increased and oxygen saturation decreased significantly to Lance/squeeze compared to Baseline. Similar facial and physiological changes occurred during Clustered Care, but with less intensity. However, infants showed greater frequencies and variety of Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program stress cues during Clustered Care than during Lance/squeeze. Stress cues persisted after Clustered Care, whereas the infants returned to Baseline following Lance/squeeze. Discussion Changes in facial activity and heart rate remain the most sensitive markers of pain in preterm infants. Tactile procedures, such as diaper changing, produce lower intensity facial and physiological responses than pain procedures, but greater body reactions. Also, the effects from tactile procedures appear to last longer. Adding observations of a small number of specific body movements to the assessment of pain and stress provides complementary information particularly for those infants who may show dampened facial

  4. Discovery of indazoles as inhibitors of Tpl2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yonghan; Cole, Derek; Denny, Rajiah Aldrin; Anderson, David R; Ipek, Manus; Ni, Yike; Wang, Xiaolun; Thaisrivongs, Suvit; Chamberlain, Timothy; Hall, J Perry; Liu, Julie; Luong, Michael; Lin, Lih-Ling; Telliez, Jean-Baptiste; Gopalsamy, Ariamala

    2011-08-15

    Synthesis, modeling and structure-activity relationship of indazoles as inhibitors of Tpl2 kinase are described. From a high throughput screening effort, we identified an indazole hit compound 5 that has a single digit micromolar Tpl2 activity. Through SAR modifications at the C3 and C5 positions of the indazole, we discovered compound 31 with good potency in LANCE assay and cell-based p-Erk assay.

  5. Demonstration of the Energy Component of the Installation Master Plan Using the Net Zero Energy Planner Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis report, which helps rank alternative solutions. This report was related to the energy goals described in the Study...Affiliation: PNSY Name: Mr. Steve Dakin, Utilities Energy Manager Affiliation: PNSY Name: Mr. Lance Mahar, Mechanical Engineer Affiliation: PNSY Name: Mr...buildings and individual buildings as well. To describe baseline end uses, computer simulation whole building energy models are usually developed for

  6. Fluorescence and Elastic Scattering from Laser Dye-Filled Capillaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-23

    learning. I also thank John Pattison f *s electronic expertise; Tom Wentzel and Dave Abromson for their assistance with the computer; Ka Chun Yu and Jim...34 M.S. Thesis. University of Arizona, 1981. 4. H. C. Van De Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles ( John Wiley & Sons. Inc., N.Y., 1957). 5. R. E...Scattering by Molecules Embedded in Concentric Spheres." Journal of the Optical Society of America, 66, 440 (1976). 12. H. Chew, M. Sculley , M. Kerker, P. J

  7. Harnessing the Heavens: National Defense through Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    EDWARD A. SCOTT, Ph.D. Director, McDermott L,ibrary U. S . Air Force Academy October 2006 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE IE MCDERMOTT LOARY USAF ACADEMY...ADA 329 282) Chun. Clayton K. S . Aerospace Power in the Twenty-First Century: A Basic Primer. Honolulu: UP of the Pacific, 2002. (UGK 21 .C55 2002...Lambeth, Benjamin S . Mastering the Ultimate High Ground: Next Steps in the Military Uses of Space. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2003. (Report Lit MF ADA 416 396

  8. Porcine Skin ED50 Damage Thresholds for 2,000 nm Laser Irradiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    orthopedics for arthroscopy [1—3], urology for lithotripsy (removal of kidney stones ) [4-6], otolaryngology for endoscopic sinus surgery [7-9], and...PL, Yiu TF, Chan AYT. Clinical experience with holmiumYAG laser lithotripsy of ureteral calculi. Lasers SurgMed 1996;19:103-106. 5. Ra2vi HA...Denstedt JD, Chun SS, Sales JL. Intracorporeal lithotripsy with the holmium:YAG laser. J Urol 1996; 156:9- 12. 6. Das A, Erhard MJ, Bagley DH

  9. North Korea: Chronology of Provocations, 1950-2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-18

    assassinations of President Park Chung Hee in 1968 and 1974; a 1983 attempt on President Chun Doo Hwan’s life in a bombing incident in Rangoon, Burma...disclosure by a former North Korean ambassador to the Soviet Union that Kim Il Sung initiated the invasion of the South after consultations with Stalin...see “Former Official Finally Confesses North’s Ruse Started Korean War,” Washington Times, July 5, 1990, A9. For a scholarly presentation on Kim Il

  10. Radiation-Induce Immune Modulation in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Pei Liao,* Chun-Chieh Wang,*Il Lisa H. Butterfield,* James S. Economou,t Antoni Ribas ,t Wilson S. Meng,4 Keisuke S. Iwamoto,* and William H. McBride2...prostate cancer model. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.. 59:579- 583, 2004. Liao, Y-P., C-C. Wang, L.H. Butterfield, J.S. Economou, A. Ribas , W.S. Meng...A. Ribas and W.H. McBride: Radiation modulates tumor antigen presentation by dendritic cells. In: Abstracts of Papers for the 95 "h Annual Meeting of

  11. Chinese-English Automation and Computer Technology Dictionary, Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    chfian juan ch’ uang chuang chang zhang chtleh jue di’ui chui chao zhao chn jun ch’un chun che he ch’a cha ch ’ung chung chen zhen ch’ai chai ch’tl qu...cheng zheng ch’an chan ch’tan quan chi ji chlang chang ch’deh que ddia jia ch’ao chao rd-’fn qun chiang jiang ch’e che E chiao jiao ch’en chen e (o) e...cidai Mylar tape 06 .fun N. od alcohol; methyl 07 aloohol ( chen .) ,3 inu , wood alcohol; wood sririt; 08 7Lethy] alcohol (chem.) mxubiac target

  12. A Method to Measure the Amount of Battlefield Situation Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    log)( 20 atS  3.2 Measurement of trends information Kierkegaard once said “Life can only be understood backwards, but it must be lived forwards” [8...Towards a theory of s 10 11 , “The Journals of Soren Kierkegaard ”, A selection and translated by Alexander chun, “Formal Description of Command...and 37(2), pp32-64, 1995. [8] Kierkegaard , Soren – Dru , Oxford: Oxford University Press (1938). pp465 [9] ZHOU Dao-an, ZHANG Dong-ge, CHANG Shu

  13. Studies in Estimation Theory, Applications and Implementations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-22

    Gohberg "Shift Invariant Subspaces, Factorization, and Interpolation for Matrices. I. The canonical Case," Lin. Aig. Appl ., Vol. 74, pp. 87-150...Inverse Scattering," SIAM J. Appl . Math., Vol. 45, pp. 312-335, Apr. 1985. [9] J. Chun, T. Kailath and H. Lev-Ari, "Fast Parallel Algorithm for QR...Distance form Toeplitz Matrices," Lin. Alg. Appl ., Vol. 27, pp. 31-60, 1979. [191 F.R. Gantmakher, The Theory of Matrices, Vol. 2, Chelsea, New York

  14. Once a physicist: Zhengrong Shi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhengrong

    2009-02-01

    Why did you choose to study physics? I was born on an island called Yangzhong on the Yangtze River in Jiangsu province, China. Though mainly agricultural, Yangzhong was blessed with a good school system and I dedicated myself to my studies. I followed my instincts and interests in science and built a strong foundation in physics. My family always encouraged me to pursue my studies, so I went on to obtain a Bachelor°s degree in optical science from Chang Chun University of Science and Technology in 1983 and a Master°s degree in laser physics from the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics in 1986.

  15. Growth of GaN- and ZnO-Based Nanorod Compound Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-16

    growth region. 33 Part III: Related Journal Publication List (acknowledging AOARD) 1. Chih-Yen Chen, Wen-Ming Chang , Wei-Lun Chung, Chieh Hsieh ...Che-Hao Liao, Wen-Ming Chang , Yu-Feng Yao, Hao-Tsung Chen, Chia-Ying Su, Chih-Yen Chen, Chieh Hsieh , Horng-Shyang Chen, Charng-Gan Tu, Yean-Woei...p. 28418~28430, 17 December 2012. (SCI) 10. Chieh Hsieh , Horng-Shyang Chen, Che-Hao Liao, Chih-Yen Chen, Chun-Han Lin, Cheng- Hung Lin, Shao-Ying

  16. Ferroelectric switching induced magnetic anisotropy in Fe/BaTiO3 bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Chun-Gang; Jaswal, S. S.; Tsymbal, E. Y.

    2007-03-01

    Ferromagnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures have recently attracted significantly interest due to their potential applications in multifunctional electronic devices. We have recently predicted a magnetoelectric effect at the Fe/BaTiO3 interface induced by ferroelectric polarization reversal [1]. In this report, calculations are being carried out on the magnetic anisotropy of Fe/BaTiO3 films. Preliminary results show that the ferroelectric switching of the BaTiO3 has appreciable effect on the magnetic anisotropy of magnetic Fe films. This should be of interest in multiferroic device applications. [1] Chun-gang Duan, S. S. Jaswal, E. Y. Tsymbal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 047201 (2006).

  17. Mixing Phenomena in a Bottom Blown Copper Smelter: A Water Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shui, Lang; Cui, Zhixiang; Ma, Xiaodong; Akbar Rhamdhani, M.; Nguyen, Anh; Zhao, Baojun

    2015-03-01

    The first commercial bottom blown oxygen copper smelting furnace has been installed and operated at Dongying Fangyuan Nonferrous Metals since 2008. Significant advantages have been demonstrated in this technology mainly due to its bottom blown oxygen-enriched gas. In this study, a scaled-down 1:12 model was set up to simulate the flow behavior for understanding the mixing phenomena in the furnace. A single lance was used in the present study for gas blowing to establish a reliable research technique and quantitative characterisation of the mixing behavior. Operating parameters such as horizontal distance from the blowing lance, detector depth, bath height, and gas flow rate were adjusted to investigate the mixing time under different conditions. It was found that when the horizontal distance between the lance and detector is within an effective stirring range, the mixing time decreases slightly with increasing the horizontal distance. Outside this range, the mixing time was found to increase with increasing the horizontal distance and it is more significant on the surface. The mixing time always decreases with increasing gas flow rate and bath height. An empirical relationship of mixing time as functions of gas flow rate and bath height has been established first time for the horizontal bottom blowing furnace.

  18. Comparative Studies of Silicon Dissolution in Molten Aluminum Under Different Flow Conditions Part II: Two-Phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed Ahmadi, Mehran; Argyropoulos, Stavros A.; Bussmann, Markus; Doutre, Don

    2015-03-01

    Following on a study of Si dissolution in molten Al, the effect of gas agitation is examined. The effects of gas flow rate, liquid bulk velocity, the position of a top injection lance, and bath temperature on the dissolution rate are quantified. A higher gas flow rate produced larger bubbles while bubble frequency remained relatively unchanged. This resulted in larger bubble-induced fluctuating velocities which in turn increased the dissolution rate. At lower bulk velocities, the effect of gas agitation is localized around the lance. By increasing the velocity, the effect of gas agitation is transported further into the bath. The dissolution rate enhancement varies with increasing bulk velocity, and explanations are provided. When combined with a bulk flow, gas agitation increases the dissolution rate regardless of lance position. Also, the enhancement of dissolution rate due to gas injection decreases at higher superheats, as the higher bath temperature increases the mass boundary thickness. In addition, the dissolution rate without gas agitation (single-phase flow) and with gas agitation (two-phase flow) is compared in terms of mean mass transfer coefficients. It was found that for the same liquid bulk velocities, the mean mass transfer coefficients are higher in two-phase flow than in single-phase flow. Finally, an increment to the single-phase flow bulk velocity that would be required to gain parity with the two-phase flow dissolution rate rise is demonstrated.

  19. Hydrology of the uppermost Cretaceous and the lowermost Paleocene rocks in the Hilight oil field, Campbell County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowry, Marlin E.

    1973-01-01

    The lithologic equivalents of the Fox Hills Sandstone, Lance Formation, and the Tullock member of the Fort Union Formation, as mapped on the east side of the Powder River Basin, can be recognized throughout the basin; however, the formations are in hydraulic connection and cannot be treated as separate aquifers. Recharge to the Lance-Fox Hills aquifer in the Hilight oil field is largely by vertical movement; there is no recharge from the Lance and Fox Hills outcrops on the east side of the basin to the formations in the Hilight area. At the and of the central Hilight water-flood project, the maximum possible drawdown resulting from the pumping of any one well at a distance of l0 miles from the pumped well, would be about 15 feet, if the projected pumping were evenly distributed among the project wells. Within a few years after pumping has ceased, water in the project wells will approach the levels present before pumping began. The only irreversible effect of pumping will be the compaction of shale, with attendant subsidence, because the water derived from the shale probably will not be replaced.

  20. The Use of OMPS Near Real Time Products in Volcanic Cloud Risk Mitigation and Smoke/Dust Air Quality Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seftor, C. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McPeters, R. D.; Li, J. Y.; Durbin, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Near real time (NRT) SO2 and aerosol index (AI) imagery from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has proven invaluable in mitigating the risk posed to air traffic by SO2 and ash clouds from volcanic eruptions. The OMI products, generated as part of NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) NRT system and available through LANCE and both NOAA's NESDIS and ESA's Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS) portals, are used to monitor the current location of volcanic clouds and to provide input into Volcanic Ash (VA) advisory forecasts. NRT products have recently been developed using data from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite onboard the Suomi NPP platform; they are currently being made available through the SACS portal and will shortly be incorporated into the LANCE NRT system. We will show examples of the use of OMPS NRT SO2 and AI imagery to monitor recent volcanic eruption events. We will also demonstrate the usefulness of OMPS AI imagery to detect and track dust storms and smoke from fires, and how this information can be used to forecast their impact on air quality in areas far removed from their source. Finally, we will show SO2 and AI imagery generated from our OMPS Direct Broadcast data to highlight the capability of our real time system.

  1. Lightweight Bulldozer Attachment for Construction and Excavation on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nick, Andrew J.; Schuler, Jason M.; King, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight bulldozer blade prototype has been designed and built to be used as an excavation implement in conjunction with the NASA Chariot lunar mobility platform prototype. The combined system was then used in a variety of field tests in order to characterize structural loads, excavation performance and learn about the operational behavior of lunar excavation in geotechnical lunar simulants. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the feasibility of lunar excavation for site preparation at a planned NASA lunar outpost. Once the feasibility has been determined then the technology will become available as a candidate element in the NASA Lunar Surface Systems Architecture. In addition to NASA experimental testing of the LANCE blade, NASA engineers completed analytical work on the expected draft forces using classical soil mechanics methods. The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) team utilized finite element analysis (FEA) to study the interaction between the cutting edge of the LANCE blade and the surface of soil. FEA was also used to examine various load cases and their effect on the lightweight structure of the LANCE blade. Overall it has been determined that a lunar bulldozer blade is a viable technology for lunar outpost site preparation, but further work is required to characterize the behavior in 1/6th G and actual lunar regolith in a vacuum lunar environment.

  2. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Riley

    2002-10-21

    Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and

  3. The Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dwight J; Berryhill, Marian E

    2013-12-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is essential for many cognitive processes, yet it is notably limited in capacity. Visual perception processing is facilitated by Gestalt principles of grouping, such as connectedness, similarity, and proximity. This introduces the question, do these perceptual benefits extend to VWM? If so, can this be an approach to enhance VWM function by optimizing the processing of information? Previous findings have demonstrated that several Gestalt principles (connectedness, common region, and spatial proximity) do facilitate VWM performance in change detection tasks (Jiang, Olson, & Chun, 2000; Woodman, Vecera, & Luck, 2003; Xu, 2002, 2006; Xu & Chun, 2007). However, one prevalent Gestalt principle, similarity, has not been examined with regard to facilitating VWM. Here, we investigated whether grouping by similarity benefits VWM. Experiment 1 established the basic finding that VWM performance could benefit from grouping. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding by showing that similarity was only effective when the similar stimuli were proximal. In short, the VWM performance benefit derived from similarity was constrained by spatial proximity, such that similar items need to be near each other. Thus, the Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual perception, but it can provide benefits to VWM as well.

  4. Positive or Negative Ulnar Variance after Ulnar Shortening for Ulnar Impaction Syndrome: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Soo-Min; Kim, Kyung-Cheon

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to compare simple radiographic findings and clinical results according to residual ulnar variance following ulnar shortening for ulnar impaction syndrome. Methods Forty-five cases of ulnar impaction syndrome, which were treated with ulnar shortening from 2005 to 2008, were studied retrospectively. Group I included 13 cases with positive residual variance after ulnar shortening and group II included 32 cases with negative variance after shortening. The presence of a lunate cystic lesion both preoperatively and at final follow-up and assessments of wrist function based on the modified Mayo wrist score, the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score, as well as the Chun and Palmer score were evaluated. Results A cystic lesion of the lunate was present in 4 cases preoperatively and the size decreased in 2 cases at final follow-up in group I, and in 10 and 5 cases, respectively, in group II. No statistical difference was observed between the groups. The modified Mayo wrist score, DASH score, as well as the Chun and Palmer score improved significantly in both groups. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of the proportion of positive cystic lesions at final follow-up or the functional scores. Conclusions After ulnar shortening, the degree of radiological change in the cystic lunate lesions and clinical improvement did not differ significantly between the groups with unintended residual positive and negative variance after shortening. PMID:22949953

  5. The Gestalt Principle of Similarity Benefits Visual Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Dwight J.; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2013-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is essential for many cognitive processes yet it is notably limited in capacity. Visual perception processing is facilitated by Gestalt principles of grouping, such as connectedness, similarity, and proximity. This introduces the question: do these perceptual benefits extend to VWM? If so, can this be an approach to enhance VWM function by optimizing the processing of information? Previous findings demonstrate that several Gestalt principles (connectedness, common region, and spatial proximity) do facilitate VWM performance in change detection tasks (Woodman, Vecera, & Luck, 2003; Xu, 2002a, 2006; Xu & Chun, 2007; Jiang, Olson & Chun, 2000). One prevalent Gestalt principle, similarity, has not been examined with regard to facilitating VWM. Here, we investigated whether grouping by similarity benefits VWM. Experiment 1 established the basic finding that VWM performance could benefit from grouping. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding by showing that similarity was only effective when the similar stimuli were proximal. In short, the VWM performance benefit derived from similarity was constrained by spatial proximity such that similar items need to be near each other. Thus, the Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual perception, but it can provide benefits to VWM as well. PMID:23702981

  6. CORRIGENDUM: Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Shui; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; He, Hong-Jian; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Li, Zu-Hao; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiang-Wei; Qi, Yong-Hui; Tang, Zhi-Cheng; Tao, Jun-Quan; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Min; Zang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhen-Xia

    2009-12-01

    The author list originally given in the above article (Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Hong-Jian He, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Yong-Hui Qi, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen- Xia Zhang) is incorrect. The correct author list is: Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen-Xia Zhang. Hong-Jian He and Yong-Hui Qi did not take part in the writing of this text and do not bear any responsibility for its contents. Also, reference [4] in the paper should be corrected to: [4] Hong-Jian He et al 2008 Phys. Rev. D 78 031701(R)

  7. [Antihypertensive efficacy of a low-dose combination of amlodipine and lisinopril in the treatment of arterial hypertension in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Gabieva, N N; Bakhshaliev, A B

    2012-01-01

    The present study had the objective to estimate the antihypertensive efficacy of a low-dose combination of amlodipine (5 mg) and lisinopril (equator, Gedeon Richter, Hungary; 10 mg) as well as its influence on the diastolic left ventricular function in the women presenting with arterial hypertension in the postmenopausal period A total of 60 postmenopausal women with grade II arterial hypertension available for the examination were allocated to two groups to be maintained on different therapeutic regimens. The study group was comprised of 40 patients treated with equator, and the control group included 20 patients receiving metoprolol and enalapril (12.5 mg and 10 mg respectively). In the beginning and the end of the study (total duration 6 months), all the patients underwent a comprehensive clinical and instrumental examination that included evaluation of their general clinical condition, 24-hour arterial blood pressure monitoring (BPM), electrocardiography (ECG), and doppleroechocardiography. It was shown that therapy with equator significantly decreased systolic and diastolic arterial pressure (SAP and DAP). Comparative analysis of the results of repeated doppleroechocardiography revealed the improvement of left ventricular diastolic function in the majority of the patients of group 1 (83%). It is concluded that systematic treatment with equator produces a stable hypotensive effect and normalizes circadian rhythms of arterial pressure. Moreover, adequate antihypertensive therapy improves diastolic left ventricular function. Treatment with equator is well tolerated by the patients and causes no serious adverse effects.

  8. The influence of Reynolds numbers on resistance properties of jet pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Q.; Zhou, G.; Li, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Jet pumps are widely used in thermoacoustic Stirling heat engines and pulse tube cryocoolers to eliminate the effect of Gedeon streaming. The resistance properties of jet pumps are principally influenced by their structures and flow regimes which are always characterized by Reynolds numbers. In this paper, the jet pump of which cross section contracts abruptly is selected as our research subject. Based on linear thermoacoustic theory, a CFD model is built and the oscillating flow of the working gas is simulated and analyzed with different Reynolds numbers in the jet pump. According to the calculations, the influence of different structures and Reynolds numbers on the resistance properties of the jet pump are analyzed and presented. The results show that Reynolds numbers have a great influence on the resistance properties of jet pumps and some empirical formulas which are widely used are unsuitable for oscillating flow with small Reynolds numbers. This paper provides a more comprehensive understanding on resistance properties of jet pumps with oscillating flow and is significant for the design of jet pumps in practical thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators.

  9. A Microfabricated Segmented-Involute-Foil Regenerator for Enhancing Reliability and Performance of Stirling Engines. Phase III Final Report for the Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, Mounir B.; Gedeon, David; Wood, Gary; McLean, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Under Phase III of NASA Research Announcement contract NAS3-03124, a prototype nickel segmented-involute-foil regenerator was microfabricated and tested in a Sunpower Frequency-Test-Bed (FTB) Stirling convertor. The team for this effort consisted of Cleveland State University, Gedeon Associates, Sunpower Inc. and International Mezzo Technologies. Testing in the FTB convertor produced about the same efficiency as testing with the original random-fiber regenerator. But the high thermal conductivity of the prototype nickel regenerator was responsible for a significant performance degradation. An efficiency improvement (by a 1.04 factor, according to computer predictions) could have been achieved if the regenerator was made from a low-conductivity material. Also, the FTB convertor was not reoptimized to take full advantage of the microfabricated regenerator s low flow resistance; thus, the efficiency would likely have been even higher had the FTB been completely reoptimized. This report discusses the regenerator microfabrication process, testing of the regenerator in the Stirling FTB convertor, and the supporting analysis. Results of the pre-test computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of the effects of the regenerator-test-configuration diffusers (located at each end of the regenerator) are included. The report also includes recommendations for further development of involute-foil regenerators from a higher-temperature material than nickel.

  10. AGU elects 1989 Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twenty-two distinguished scientists have been elected Fellows of the Union. Fellows are scientists who are judged by their peers as having attained ackowledged eminence in a branch of geophysics. The number of Fellows elected each year is limited to 0.1 % of the total membership at the time of election. The newly elected Fellows are Walter Alvarez, University of California, Berkeley; John R. Booker, University of Washington, Seattle; Peter G. Brewer, Woods Hole Oceanographie Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.; Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.; Gedeon Dagan, Tel Aviv University, Israel; James H. Dieterich, USGS, Menlo Park; Thomas Dunne, University of Washington, Seattle; Jack Fooed Evernden, USGS, Menlo Park; Edward A. Flinn, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; Arnold L. Gordon, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.; Gerhard Haerendel, Max Planck Institut, Garching, Federal Republic of Germany; David L. Kohlstedt, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Robert A. Langel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; James G. Moore, USGS, Menlo Park; Marcia Neugebauer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Robert C. Newton, University of Chicago, Illinois; John A. Orcutt, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; Robert B. Smith, University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Bengt U. Sonnerup, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.; Martin A. Uman, University of Florida, Gainesville; Joe Veverka, Cornell University; and James C.G. Walker, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

  11. Development of a Stirling System Dynamic Model With Enhanced Thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    The Stirling Convertor System Dynamic Model developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is a software model developed from first principles that includes the mechanical and mounting dynamics, the thermodynamics, the linear alternator, and the controller of a free-piston Stirling power convertor, along with the end user load. As such it represents the first detailed modeling tool for fully integrated Stirling convertor-based power systems. The thermodynamics of the model were originally a form of the isothermal Stirling cycle. In some situations it may be desirable to improve the accuracy of the Stirling cycle portion of the model. An option under consideration is to enhance the SDM thermodynamics by coupling the model with Gedeon Associates Sage simulation code. The result will be a model that gives a more accurate prediction of the performance and dynamics of the free-piston Stirling convertor. A method of integrating the Sage simulation code with the System Dynamic Model is described. Results of SDM and Sage simulation are compared to test data. Model parameter estimation and model validation are discussed.

  12. On the performance and flow characteristics of jet pumps with multiple orifices.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Joris P; Timmer, Michael A G; Bühler, Simon; van der Meer, Theo H; Wilcox, Douglas

    2016-05-01

    The design of compact thermoacoustic devices requires compact jet pump geometries, which can be realized by employing jet pumps with multiple orifices. The oscillatory flow through the orifice(s) of a jet pump generates asymmetric hydrodynamic end effects, which result in a time-averaged pressure drop that can counteract Gedeon streaming in traveling wave thermoacoustic devices. In this study, the performance of jet pumps having 1-16 orifices is characterized experimentally in terms of the time-averaged pressure drop and acoustic power dissipation. Upon increasing the number of orifices, a significant decay in the jet pump performance is observed. Further analysis shows a relation between this performance decay and the diameter of the individual holes. Possible causes of this phenomenon are discussed. Flow visualization is used to study the differences in vortex ring interaction from adjacent jet pump orifices. The mutual orifice spacing is varied and the corresponding jet pump performance is measured. The orifice spacing is shown to have less effect on the jet pump performance compared to increasing the number of orifices.

  13. A numerical investigation on the vortex formation and flow separation of the oscillatory flow in jet pumps.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Joris P; Bühler, Simon; van der Meer, Theo H; Wilcox, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is used to predict the oscillatory flow through a tapered cylindrical tube section (jet pump) placed in a larger outer tube. Due to the shape of the jet pump, an asymmetry in the hydrodynamic end effects will exist which will cause a time-averaged pressure drop to occur that can be used to cancel Gedeon streaming in a closed-loop thermoacoustic device. The performance of two jet pump geometries with different taper angles is investigated. A specific time-domain impedance boundary condition is implemented in order to simulate traveling acoustic wave conditions. It is shown that by scaling the acoustic displacement amplitude to the jet pump dimensions, similar minor losses are observed independent of the jet pump geometry. Four different flow regimes are distinguished and the observed flow phenomena are related to the jet pump performance. The simulated jet pump performance is compared to an existing quasi-steady approximation which is shown to only be valid for small displacement amplitudes compared to the jet pump length.

  14. A de novo deletion in X 27-28 spans at least 3 megabases and results in fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Lachiewicz, A.; Rao, K.; Aylsworth, A.; Richie, R.; Schwartz, C.; Tarleton, J. ||

    1994-07-15

    A 2-year-old boy with Martin-Bell syndrome was referred for molecular testing and found to have a large deletion of FMRI. His mother was found to have two FMR-1 alleles in the normal range for CGG repeats. DNA probes located both proximal and distal to FRAXA were used to delineate the approximation location of the deletion endpoints. Proximal to the fragile site, DXS312 (pX135) was absent but DXS98 (4D8) was present. Distal to the fragile site, DXS296 (VK21) was absent but DXS304 (U6.2) was present. Our patient does not appear to have clinical findings other than those typically associated with fragile X syndrome suggesting that the deletion does not remove other contiguous genes, e.g., IDS. The deletion in this patient is larger than the patient reported by Gedeon et al., in whom approximately 2.5 megabases were estimated to be deleted. Using the physical map of Schlessinger et al., the physical extent of the deletion can be estimated to be at least 3 megabases. This patient may be useful in physical mapping of the chromosomal region near FMR-1. Continued long-term evaluation of this patient may uncover clinical findings suggestive that the deletion removes other genes near to FMR-1 or, alternatively, no findings atypical of the fragile X syndrome suggesting that no other genes lie in the deletion interval.

  15. Development of a Phasor Diagram Creator to Visualize the Piston and Displacer Forces in an Advanced Stirling Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Dipanjan; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The steady-state, nearly sinusoidal behavior of the components in a free-piston Stirling engine allows for visualization of the forces in the system using phasor diagrams. Based on Newton's second law, F = ma, any phasor diagrams modeling a given component in a system should close if all of the acting forces have been considered. Since the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), currently being developed for future NASA deep space missions, is made up of such nearly sinusoidally oscillating components, its phasor diagrams would also be expected to close. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been written in MATLAB (MathWorks), which takes user input data, passes it to Sage (Gedeon Associates), a one-dimensional thermodynamic modeling program used to model the Stirling convertor, runs Sage, and then automatically plots the phasor diagrams. Using this software tool, the effect of varying different Sage inputs on the phasor diagrams was determined. The parameters varied were piston amplitude, hot-end temperature, cold-end temperature, operating frequency, and displacer spring constant. These phasor diagrams offer useful insight into convertor operation and performance.

  16. Fabrication of a polyvinylidene difluoride fiber with a metal core and its application as directional air flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Yixiang; Liu, Rongrong; Hui, Shen

    2016-09-01

    We fabricated a sensitive air flow detector that mimic the sensing mechanism found at the tail of some insects. [see Y. Yang, A. Klein, H. Bleckmann and C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2) (2011); J. J. Heys, T. Gedeon, B. C. Knott and Y. Kim, J. Biomech. 41(5), 977 (2008); J. Tao and X. Yu, Smart Mat. Struct. 21(11) (2012)]. Our bionic airflow sensor uses a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) microfiber with a molybdenum core which we produced with the hot extrusion tensile method. The surface of the fiber is partially coated with conductive silver adhesive that serve as surface electrodes. A third electrode, the metal core is used to polarize polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) under the surface electrodes. The cantilever beam structure of the prepared symmetric electrodes of metal core piezoelectric fiber (SMPF) is used as the artificial hair airflow sensor. The surface electrodes are used to measure output voltage. Our theoretical and experimental results show that the SMPF responds fast to air flow changes, the output charge has an exponential correlation with airflow velocity and a cosine relation with the direction of airflow. Our bionic airflow sensor with directional sensing ability can also measure air flow amplitude. [see H. Droogendijk, R. G. P. Sanders and G. J. M. Krijnen, New J. Phys. 15 (2013)]. By using two surface electrodes, our sensing circuit further improves sensitivity.

  17. Performance of a small, low-lift regenerator-based thermoacoustic refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poese, Matthew E.; Garrett, Steven L.

    2002-11-01

    A regenerator-based thermoacoustic refrigerator [Swift, Gardner, and Backhaus, ''Acoustic recovery of lost power in pulse tube refrigerators,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105(2), 711 (1999)] has been constructed. It is capable of moving about 5 W across a 40degC temperature span. The machine operates with air at atmospheric pressure and is driven by an off-the-shelf electro-dynamic loudspeaker capable of producing peak-to-mean pressure ratios up to 12%. The thermal core of this research device contains an exhaust-side shell and tube heat exchanger (with water as the secondary heat transfer fluid), a regenerator made of 88 annular stainless-steel screens, and a constantan wire electrical heater that applies a measurable heat load to the cold side of the regenerator. An annular latex diaphragm is placed over the cold side of the regenerator to stop time-averaged mass flow through the regenerator and insulate the cold side [Gedeon, ''DC Gas Flows in Stirling and Pulse Tube Cryocoolers,'' in Cryocoolers 9, edited by R. G. Ross (Plenum, New York, 1997)]. Detailed measurements of heat load, temperature span, and exhaust heat flux will be presented and compared to DeltaE. [Work supported by ONR.

  18. Characterization and reduction of flow separation in jet pumps for laminar oscillatory flows.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Michael A G; Oosterhuis, Joris P; Bühler, Simon; Wilcox, Douglas; van der Meer, Theo H

    2016-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics model is used to predict the oscillatory flow through tapered cylindrical tube sections (jet pumps). The asymmetric shape of jet pumps results in a time-averaged pressure drop that can be used to suppress Gedeon streaming in closed-loop thermoacoustic devices. However, previous work has shown that flow separation in the diverging flow direction counteracts the time-averaged pressure drop. In this work, the characteristics of flow separation in jet pumps are identified and coupled with the observed jet pump performance. Furthermore, it is shown that the onset of flow separation can be shifted to larger displacement amplitudes by designs that have a smoother transition between the small opening and the tapered surface of the jet pump. These design alterations also reduce the duration of separated flow, resulting in more effective and robust jet pumps. To make the proposed jet pump designs more compact without reducing their performance, the minimum big opening radius that can be implemented before the local minor losses have an influence on the jet pump performance is investigated. To validate the numerical results, they are compared with experimental results for one of the proposed jet pump designs.

  19. The influence of Reynolds numbers on resistance properties of jet pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Q.; Zhou, G.; Li, Q.

    2014-01-29

    Jet pumps are widely used in thermoacoustic Stirling heat engines and pulse tube cryocoolers to eliminate the effect of Gedeon streaming. The resistance properties of jet pumps are principally influenced by their structures and flow regimes which are always characterized by Reynolds numbers. In this paper, the jet pump of which cross section contracts abruptly is selected as our research subject. Based on linear thermoacoustic theory, a CFD model is built and the oscillating flow of the working gas is simulated and analyzed with different Reynolds numbers in the jet pump. According to the calculations, the influence of different structures and Reynolds numbers on the resistance properties of the jet pump are analyzed and presented. The results show that Reynolds numbers have a great influence on the resistance properties of jet pumps and some empirical formulas which are widely used are unsuitable for oscillating flow with small Reynolds numbers. This paper provides a more comprehensive understanding on resistance properties of jet pumps with oscillating flow and is significant for the design of jet pumps in practical thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators.

  20. The Development of the CryoTel™ LT and GT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Reuven

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the considerations, design modifications and test results for the recently-developed Sunpower CryoTel™ LT and GT. After successful market introduction of the CryoTel™ CT, it became evident that some basic design modifications would render the unit available to a wider range of application. The CryoTel™ LT is a low-temperature variant of the original design. The LT's cooling capacity is 0.5W @ 23 K. The CryoTel™ GT is the enhanced performance variant. The GT's cooling capacity is 15 W @ 77 K. Both LT and GT largely retain the original structure and components and therefore benefit from the low-cost manufacturing profile of the original. Sunpower's main analysis and simulation tools were in-house codes and Gedeon Associates' SAGE Stirling cycle simulation. The CryoTel™ is a Linear Free Piston Integral Stirling cryocooler that makes use of Gas Bearing technology for non-contact operation and a microprocessor based driver/controller with a closed-loop temperature control.

  1. Metamorphism of CO3 Chondrites: A Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, J.; Arden, J. W.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1992-07-01

    Our previous work involving carbon and nitrogen abundance and isotopic composition of Ornans group chondrites (1) has shown that these measurements have the potential for investigating parent body metamorphism, and we now expand this study. The HF/HCl residues of Colony, Kainsaz, Ornans, Lance and Acfer 094 show unimodal carbon yield profiles. The peak yields are seen to increase as a function of temperature according to known petrologic subtype (2), revealing a concordant increase in the crystallinity of the amorphous carbon with progressive metamorphism. Only the least metamorphosed Colony and Acfer 094 residues display any evidence of presolar silicon carbide. The inference here is that silicon carbide is destroyed during only mild metamorphism. Chromic and perchloric acid residues have revealed that CO3 diamonds are characterized by delta^13C minima of between -34.3o/oo and -40.3o/oo and delta^15N minima of -342+-9.2o/oo, consistent with similar work on other chondrites (3). C/N ratios of diamonds have been used as indicators of relative metamorphic grade (3,4), as nitrogen-rich diamonds are presumed to be lost progressively during metamorphism (5). On this basis, Colony has undergone a much lesser degree of metamorphism than Kainsaz or Lance which are less distinguishable on a C/N plot. An experiment on Ornans which provided only incomplete data suggests that its C/N plateau lies slightly above that of Colony, in agreement with its subtype. The diamond contents of these meteorites are 135 ppm (Colony), 61 ppm (Kainsaz) and 59 ppm (Lance), showing that diamond is present to moderate grades of metamorphism. Carbon data for silicon carbide has been acquired for Colony, Kainsaz and Lance from high temperature experiments on the diamond residues. The amount of SiC in Colony is now established as about 1 ppm of the whole-rock. Neither Kainsaz nor Lance show evidence of silicon carbide, although both show a heavy carbon component combusting around 800 degrees C

  2. Environmental drivers and reproductive consequences of variation in the diet of a marine predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladics, Amanda J.; Suryan, Robert M.; Parrish, Julia K.; Horton, Cheryl A.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, William T.

    2015-06-01

    Ocean conditions can greatly impact lower trophic level prey assemblages in marine ecosystems, with effects of ocean state propagating to higher trophic levels. In many regions throughout their range, common murre (Uria aalge) exhibit narrow dietary breadth in feeding chicks and therefore are vulnerable to recruitment failures of dominant prey species during the breeding season. Contrastingly, common murres nesting in the northern California Current off Oregon, exhibit high species diversity and variability in dominant prey consumed. We studied the diets of common murres over 10 years between 1998 and 2011, a period in which the northern California Current experienced dramatic interannual variability in ocean conditions. Likewise, murre diets off Oregon varied considerably. Interannual variation in murre chick diets was influenced by environmental drivers occurring before and during the breeding season, and at both basin and local scales. While clupeids (likely Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii) were an important diet component throughout the study period, in some years murre diets were dominated by Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) and in other years by osmerids (likely whitebait smelt, Allosmerus elongatus and surf smelt, Hypomesus pretiosus). Years in which the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and local sea surface temperatures were higher during summer also showed elevated levels of clupeids in murre diets, while years with higher North Pacific Gyre Oscillation index values and greater local winter ichthyoplankton biomass had fewer clupeids and more sand lance or smelts. Years with higher values of the Northern Oscillation Index during summer and an earlier spring transition showed higher proportion of smelts in the diets. Nesting phenology and reproductive success were negatively correlated with gradients in sand lance and clupeids, respectively, reflecting demographic consequences of environmental variability mediated through bottom-up food web dynamics.

  3. In-Situ Remediation of Mixed Radioactive Tank Waste, Via Air Sparging and Poly-Acrylate Solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Edgett, S.M.; Eaton, D.L.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes remediation activities performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) on an underground storage tank (UST) from the Idaho National Laboratory's Test Area North (TAN) complex. The UST had been used to collect radioactive liquid wastes from and for the TAN evaporator. Recent analyses had found that the residual waste in Tank V-14 had contained quantities of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in excess of F001 treatment standards. In addition, the residual waste in Tank V-14 was not completely solidified. As a result, further remediation and solidification of the waste was required before the tank could be properly disposed of at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF). Remediation of the PCE-contaminated waste in Tank V-14 was performed by first adding sufficient water to fluidize the residual waste in the tank. This was followed by high-volume, in-situ air sparging of the fluidized waste, using air lances that were inserted to the bottom of V-14. The high-volume air sparging removed residual PCE from the fluidized waste, collecting it on granular activated carbon filters within the off-gas system. The sparged waste was then solidified by educting large-diameter crystals of an acrylic acrylate resin manufactured by WaterWorks America{sup TM} into the fluidized waste, via the air-sparging lances. To improve solidification, the air-sparging lances were rotated during the eduction step, while continuing to provide high-volume air flow into the waste. Eduction was continued until the waste had solidified sufficiently to not allow for further eduction of WaterWorks{sup TM} crystals into the waste. The tank was then disposed of at the ICDF, with the residual void volume in the tank filled with cement. (authors)

  4. A blinded randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the efficacy of morphine analgesia for procedural pain in infants: Trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Infant pain has both immediate and long-term negative consequences, yet in clinical practice it is often undertreated. To date, few pain-relieving drugs have been tested in infants. Morphine is a potent analgesic that provides effective pain relief in adults, but there is inconclusive evidence for its effectiveness in infants. The purpose of this study is to establish whether oral morphine provides effective analgesia for procedural pain in infants. A blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized, phase II, clinical trial will be undertaken to determine whether morphine sulphate administered orally prior to clinically-required retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and heel lancing provides effective analgesia. 
156 infants between 34 and 42 weeks’ gestational age who require a clinical heel lance and ROP screening on the same test occasion will be included in the trial. Infants will be randomised to receive either a single dose of morphine sulphate (100 μg/kg) or placebo. Each infant will be monitored for 48 hours and safety data will be collected during the 24 hours following drug administration. The primary outcome will be the Premature Infant Pain Profile–revised (PIPP-R) score 30 seconds after ROP screening. The co-primary outcome will be the magnitude of nociceptive-specific brain activity evoked by a clinically-required heel lance. Infant clinical stability will be assessed by comparing the number of episodes of bradycardia, tachycardia, desaturation and apnoea, and changes in respiratory support requirements in the 24-hour periods before and after the clinical intervention. In addition, drug safety will be assessed by considering the occurrence of apnoeic and hypotensive episodes requiring intervention in the 24-hour period following drug administration. This study has been published as an Accepted Protocol Summary by The Lancet. PMID:28066825

  5. Postnatal temporal, spatial and modality tuning of nociceptive cutaneous flexion reflexes in human infants.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Laura; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Patten, Deborah; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Slater, Rebeccah; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous flexion reflexes are amongst the first behavioural responses to develop and are essential for the protection and survival of the newborn organism. Despite this, there has been no detailed, quantitative study of their maturation in human neonates. Here we use surface electromyographic (EMG) recording of biceps femoris activity in preterm (<37 weeks gestation, GA) and term (≥ 37 weeks GA) human infants, less than 14 days old, in response to tactile, punctate and clinically required skin-breaking lance stimulation of the heel. We show that all infants display a robust and long duration flexion reflex (>4 seconds) to a single noxious skin lance which decreases significantly with gestational age. This reflex is not restricted to the stimulated limb: heel lance evokes equal ipsilateral and contralateral reflexes in preterm and term infants. We further show that infant flexion withdrawal reflexes are not always nociceptive specific: in 29% of preterm infants, tactile stimulation evokes EMG activity that is indistinguishable from noxious stimulation. In 40% of term infants, tactile responses are also present but significantly smaller than nociceptive reflexes. Infant flexion reflexes are also evoked by application of calibrated punctate von Frey hairs (vFh), 0.8-17.2 g, to the heel. Von Frey hair thresholds increase significantly with gestational age and the magnitude of vFh evoked reflexes are significantly greater in preterm than term infants. Furthermore flexion reflexes in both groups are sensitized by repeated vFh stimulation. Thus human infant flexion reflexes differ in temporal, modality and spatial characteristics from those in adults. Reflex magnitude and tactile sensitivity decreases and nociceptive specificity and spatial organisation increases with gestational age. Strong, relatively non-specific, reflex sensitivity in early life may be important for driving postnatal activity dependent maturation of targeted spinal cord sensory circuits.

  6. 15 Years of Terra, 14 Years of Application Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Davies, D.; Fu, G.; Gunnoe, T.; Hall, J. R.; Huang, T.; Ilavajhala, S.; Jackson, M.; King, J.; McGann, M.; Murphy, K. J.; Roberts, J. T.; Thompson, C. K.; Ye, G.

    2014-12-01

    The instruments onboard the Terra spacecraft were designed for long-term Earth science research but not long after launch it became apparent that this data and imagery could be made available in near real-time for applications users. During the year 2000 fire season in the western United States, the US Forest Service approached NASA with a request to expedite MODIS fire detections. The Rapid Response system was created to generate fire detections as well as true color imagery in both swath and geo-referenced formats. This imagery was used by a wide variety of applications, such as NASA's AERONET program, the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Antarctic resupply shipping, flood mapping for relief agencies, Deepwater Horizon monitoring, volcanic ash monitoring, as well as print, televised, and Internet media. From 2004, the University of Maryland's Web Fire Mapper helped distribute fire detection information in a variety of formats. However, the applications community expressed the need for near-real time access to the underlying data. This requirement led to the development of the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) in 2009. To achieve the latency requirements, many components of the EOS satellite operations, ground and science processing systems had to be made more efficient. In addition, products that require ancillary data were modified to use alternate inputs. Forty Terra MODIS data products are currently available from LANCE. LANCE also includes data from other instruments including AIRS, AMSR-E, MLS, and OMI. To help near-real time users navigate this large data offering, a new imagery service was begun in 2011 - Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). This service provides very responsive viewing using the Web Map Tile Service protocol. These programs will continue to support and expand the use of Terra data for near-real time applications well into the future.

  7. Summary Report of the Summer Conference of the Defense Sciences Research Council Held in La Jolla, California on 6-30 July 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    Francis W. Patten DSO Dr. Jon De Vault DSO Dr. Ira D. Skurnick DSO Dr. Benjamin A Wilcox DSO Dr. Stewart Wolf DSO Dr. Lance Glasser ESTO Dr. James D...M. Whitesides July 6,1993 8:00 am Introduction to the Workshop, George Whitesides (DSRC/ Harvard University), Ken Gabriel (ARPA), Frank Patten (ARPA... PATTEN , FRANK ARPA/DSO 703/696-2285 RAPP, ROBERT OHIO STATE UNIV/DSRC 614/292-6178 SKURNICK, IRA ARPA 703/696-2280 WESTERVELT, BOB HARVARD/JASON 619/459

  8. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO): 2013 Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Lightcurves for three asteroids selected from the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL; Warner, 2011) were obtained at the Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO) from 2013 January 16 - July 7: 3138 Ciney, 10502 Armagahobs, and 11441 Anadiego. In addition a lightcurve for (285263) 1998 QE2 was obtained following a request for data from Lance Benner posted on the Minor Planet Mailing List (MPML) Yahoo Group on the basis that it was a radar imaging target at Arecibo and Goldstone in late 2013 May and early June.

  9. Evaluation of organic matter, subsurface temperature and pressure with regard to gas generation in low-permeability Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary sandstones in Pacific Creek area, Sublette and Sweetwater Counties, Wyoming.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.; Bostick, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    The onset of overpressuring occurs at c.3,500 m, near the base of the U. Cretaceous Lance Formation. The development of overpressuring may involve several processes; however, interpretation of the available information indicates that active generation of large amounts of wet gas is one of the more important processes. The present minimum temperature at the top of overpressuring is at least 88oC. The preservation of abnormally high pressures is due to presently active generation of gas in a thick interval of discontinuous, very low-permeability shales, siltstones, and sandstones. - from Authors

  10. [Lateralization phenomena and headache].

    PubMed

    Nattero, G; Savi, L

    1984-09-08

    Ipsilateral carotid and vertebral vasomotor phenomena are marked components of a unilateral cluster headache crisis. Investigation of lateralisation at the height of a crisis has shown that Doppler findings supplement Heick's observation of the reversible opening of both intra and extracranial arteriovenous shunts. This observation is in line with personal thermographic evidence and that of Lance indicating local hypothermia, and with Wolff's demonstration of dilatation and congestion associated with the superficial temporal artery. Personal dynamographic findings now point to a local extra-intracranial artery pressure gradient as the cause of the peripheral component of lateralisation in cluster headache.

  11. Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Barton; Schultz, Richard

    2015-10-19

    The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.

  12. Gluons for (almost) nothing, gravitons for free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M.

    2013-07-01

    In this talk I describe a new method for organizing Yang-Mills scattering amplitudes that allow the definition of an entire multi-loop scattering amplitude in terms of a small number of "master" graphs. A small amount of information is required from the theory, and constraints propagate this information to the full amplitude. When organized in such away corresponding gravitational amplitudes are trivially found. This talk is based on work[1- 4] done in collaboration with Zvi Bern, Lance Dixon, Henrik Johansson, and Radu Roiban, and follows closely the presentation given in ref. [5].

  13. Determination of potential dermal and inhalation operator exposure to malathion in greenhouses with the whole body dosimetry method.

    PubMed

    Machera, K; Goumenou, M; Kapetanakis, E; Kalamarakis, A; Glass, C R

    2003-01-01

    One of the steps during the authorization process of plant protection products (PPP) in the European Union is to evaluate the safety of the operator. For this purpose, information on the probable levels of operator exposure during the proposed uses of the PPP is required. These levels can be estimated by using existing mathematical models or from field study data. However, the existing models have several shortcomings, including the lack of data for operator exposure levels during spray applications by hand lance, especially in greenhouses. The present study monitored the potential dermal and inhalation operator exposure from hand-held lance applications of malathion on greenhouse tomatoes at low and high spraying pressures. The methodology for monitoring potential exposure was based on the whole body dosimetry method. Inhalation exposure was monitored using personal air pumps and XAD-2 sampling tubes. For the monitoring of hand exposure, cotton gloves were used in two trials and rubber gloves in another three. The total volumes of spray solution contaminating the body of the operator were 25.37 and 35.83 ml/h, corresponding to 0.05 and 0.07% of the applied spray solution, respectively, in the case of low pressure knapsack applications and from 160.76 to 283.45 ml/h, corresponding to 0.09-0.19% of the spray solution applied, in the case of hand lance applications with tractor-generated high pressure. Counts on gloves depended on the absorbance/repellency of the glove material. The potential inhalation exposures were estimated at 0.07 and 0.09 ml/h in the case of low pressure knapsack applications, based on a ventilation rate of 25 l/min. Both potential dermal operator exposure (excluding hands) and potential inhalation exposure were increased by a factor of approximately 7 when the application pressure was increased from 3 to 18 bar in greenhouse trials with a tractor-assisted hand lance, the rest of the application conditions being very similar.

  14. System and process for biomass treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

    2013-08-20

    A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

  15. Korean Affairs Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of policy measures for hitting the pro- jected targets, which will be announced late this week or early next week. Projections for economic...of Lance missiles capable of launching nuclear warheads to be used in actual com- bat. This is a measure taken according to the agreement at the...build- foriirf J 5 yantf Tnner- Early l3St SePtemb". the U.S. imeprialists newly formed and deployed the U.S. Seventh Air Force in South Korea

  16. UMass at TREC 2002: Cross Language and Novelty Tracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    stripping 10 suffixes from word ends (ها، ان، ات، ون، ين، يه، ية، ه، ة، ي ). Stopwords were removed using a list of 168 words from Shereen Khoja ...traditional retrieval models. University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, CTIT Technical Report TR-CTIT-00-09, May 2000 2000. [8] Khoja , S. and...Garside, R. Stemming Arabic text. Computing Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, U.K. http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/computing/users/ khoja

  17. USACE Sets the Rappahannock River Free

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    holes into which some 650 pounds of explosives would be placed. The operation was named “Noah Shiva ” after the biblical account of Noah and the great...flood and the Hindu god for destruction and rebirth. Although only ten percent of the charges ignited the first time, a second blast occurred shortly...public affairs specialist. He holds a bachelor’s in mass communications from Towson University. The removal of Embrey Dam was dubbed Operation Noah Shiva . Photo courtesy D avis Turner, The Free Lance-Star

  18. Melt Cleanliness Comparison of Chlorine Fluxing and Ar Degassing of Secondary Al-4Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çolak, Murat; Kayikci, Ramazan; Dispinar, Derya

    2016-10-01

    The treatment of liquid aluminum prior to casting typically consists of purging gas and/or fluxes through the melt. By the use of several chemicals during these operations, several environmental problems can occur. Therefore, in this study, the melt cleanliness of Al-4Cu secondary alloy was investigated by comparing the use of argon degassing with or without chlorine fluxing. Reduced pressure test was used to assess the melt quality. Highest quality melt was obtained by Ar degassing with preheated graphite lance without the need to use any chemicals.

  19. A Psychophysiological Mapping of Cognitive Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-26

    PROCESSES I A’rovP’A fnrwis le rslease;d it:’ t Prepared Byt John A. Stern, Ph.D. Robert Goldstein, Ph.D. and Lance 0. Bauer, Ph.D. Washington University...rcsSION NO. 11. TITLE (InChid SecuwMY O140111bOfn) Unclassified A Psychophysiological Mapping of Cognitive Processes. 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Stern, John ...Bradshaw & Nettleton , 1983; Bryden, 1982; Hellige, 1983) related to the specialized processing abilities of the left and right cerebral hemispheres

  20. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Tomales Point, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Potential marine benthic habitats in the Offshore of Tomales Point map area range from unconsolidated continental-shelf sediment, to rocky continental-shelf substrate, to unconsolidated estuary sediments. Rocky-shelf outcrops and rubble are considered to be promising potential habitats for rockfish and lingcod, both of which are recreationally and commercially important species. Dynamic bedforms, such as the sand waves at the mouth of Tomales Bay, are considered potential foraging habitat for juvenile lingcod and possibly migratory fishes, as well as for forage fish such as Pacific sand lance.

  1. A Small-Unit Amphibious Operation Combat Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    ASIC LANC COMBAT ALGC--ITHYM C REAL*8 CSEEOl p EIL T S LF~TTS tP15J C0OMMON IGFPI/ IP9CIR(6W IEC %C(61,.𔃾VTOIR(16I,X(6I Y(61,SPD(61COMMCON /C.RP2/ TA...EVIST.GE.ZT) CO~ IC 2C IF( EVIST.LE.Z,- SIZE7) :ETURN VIS= CZT -EVIST I/SUET IF(VIS.LTAIlSFk7I, VS F!T=VIS RE! UP ,i 10 IF(PTS.L7.ZOI FETURN 20 VI!FRT=C.C

  2. Where Sustainment Meets Deployed Forces: Do You Really Know Who’s Going to Maintain Your Aircraft and Where It’s Going to be Maintained?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 29 Defense AT&L: November–December 2013 U.S. Marine Corps photo by Lance Cpl. Sean D . Ross Nieto is the commanding officer...Where It’s Going to be Maintained? Cmdr. Mark Nieto n Ann Wood Mike Kotzian n Duane Mallicoat Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...In the end product, all the 12 product support elements come together, and maintenance actually is performed at the O, I, & D levels. Measures

  3. New distribution records of two bamboo species in Yunnan, China with description of the inflorescence for Melocalamus yunnanensis (Poaceae, Bambusoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Ye, Xia-Ying; Yang, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Xian-Zhi; Wang, Ping-Yuan; Li, De-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ampelocalamus actinotrichus (Merrill & Chun) S. L. Chen, T. H. Wen & G. Y. Sheng and Neomicrocalamus prainii (Gamble) P. C. Keng are reported with new distribution records in southern and southeastern Yunnan, China, respectively. Ampelocalamus actinotrichus was previously recorded to be endemic to Hainan, China, and Neomicrocalamus prainii to be distributed in southern Tibet and western Yunnan in China, northeastern India, and Burma. The identities of individuals collected in southern and southeastern Yunnan of these two species are confirmed by molecular evidence. The new distribution record of Ampelocalamus actinotrichus provides a case at the species level for confirming floristic affinities of southern Yunnan and Hainan Island in south China. The disjunct distribution of Neomicrocalamus prainii in Yunnan is concordant with the ecogeographical diagonal line from northwestern Yunnan to southeastern Yunnan and this may imply a tropical origin of this species. In addition, the inflorescence of Melocalamus yunnanensis (T. H. Wen) T. P. Yi is described. PMID:27212881

  4. Doctoral surplus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Universities in the United States are producing about 25% more doctorates in science and engineering than the U.S. economy can absorb, according to a new study by the Rand Corporation and Stanford University's Institute for Higher Education Research. The study looked at 13 science and engineering fields, covering 210 doctorate-granting institutions and more than 1,000 educational institutions that employ people with doctorates. The study was done by Stanford Professor William Massy and Charles Goldman of Rand, with graduate students Marc Chun and Beryle Hsiao.The researchers found that supply and demand do not work in the usual way to regulate the employment market for doctoral candidates. In labor markets, when job opportunities decrease, fewer people usually seek to enter the field. In the case of Ph.D.s, however, the researchers found that neither departments nor prospective doctoral students take close accounting of the doctorate employment gap.

  5. External validation and comparison of two nomograms predicting the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology in two patient populations: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takanobu; Oka, Ryo; Endo, Takumi; Yano, Masashi; Kamijima, Shuichi; Kamiya, Naoto; Fujimura, Masaaki; Sekita, Nobuyuki; Mikami, Kazuo; Hiruta, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to validate and compare the predictive accuracy of two nomograms predicting the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology among representative patients with prostate cancer. We previously developed a nomogram, as did Chun et al. In this validation study, patients originated from two centers: Toho University Sakura Medical Center (n = 214) and Chibaken Saiseikai Narashino Hospital (n = 216). We assessed predictive accuracy using area under the curve values and constructed calibration plots to grasp the tendency for each institution. Both nomograms showed a high predictive accuracy in each institution, although the constructed calibration plots of the two nomograms underestimated the actual probability in Toho University Sakura Medical Center. Clinicians need to use calibration plots for each institution to correctly understand the tendency of each nomogram for their patients, even if each nomogram has a good predictive accuracy.

  6. A taxonomic synopsis of Altingiaceae with nine new combinations

    PubMed Central

    Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M.; Wen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic synopsis of the Altingiaceae is presented, including the taxonomic enumeration and distribution of 15 recognized species based on studies of 1,500 specimens from 24 herbaria throughout the distributional range of the taxa. Previous phylogenetic analyses based on several molecular markers have shown that Altingia and Semiliquidambar are nested within Liquidambar. All Altingia and Semiliquidambar species are now formally transferred to Liquidambar, which has the nomenclatural priority. The following nine new combinations are herein made: Liquidambar cambodiana(Lecomte) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar caudata (H. T. Chang) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar chingii (Metcalf) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar gracilipes (Hemsl.) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar multinervis(Cheng) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar obovata (Merrill & Chun) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar poilanei (Tardieu) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar siamensis (Craib) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, and Liquidambar yunnanensis (Rehder & Wilson) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen. PMID:24399902

  7. Availability and Distribution of Base Flow in Lower Honokohau Stream, Island of Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Honokohau Stream is one of the few perennial streams in the Lahaina District of West Maui. Current Honokohau water-use practices often lead to conflicts among water users, which are most evident during periods of base flow. To better manage the resource, data are needed that describe the availability and distribution of base flow in lower Honokohau Stream and how base flow is affected by streamflow diversion and return-flow practices. Flow-duration discharges for percentiles ranging from 50 to 95 percent were estimated at 13 locations on lower Honokohau Stream using data from a variety of sources. These sources included (1) available U.S. Geological Survey discharge data, (2) published summaries of Maui Land & Pineapple Company, Inc. diversion and water development-tunnel data, (3) seepage run and low-flow partial-record discharge measurements made for this study, and (4) current (2003) water diversion and return-flow practices. These flow-duration estimates provide a detailed characterization of the distribution and availability of base flow in lower Honokohau Stream. Estimates of base-flow statistics indicate the significant effect of Honokohau Ditch diversions on flow in the stream. Eighty-six percent of the total flow upstream from the ditch is diverted from the stream. Immediately downstream from the diversion dam there is no flow in the stream 91.2 percent of the time, except for minor leakage through the dam. Flow releases at the Taro Gate, from Honokohau Ditch back into the stream, are inconsistent and were found to be less than the target release of 1.55 cubic feet per second on 9 of the 10 days on which measurements were made. Previous estimates of base-flow availability downstream from the Taro Gate release range from 2.32 to 4.6 cubic feet per second (1.5 to 3.0 million gallons per day). At the two principal sites where water is currently being diverted for agricultural use in the valley (MacDonald's and Chun's Dams), base flows of 2.32 cubic feet per

  8. Retracted: Long-term copper toxicity in apple trees (Malus pumila Mill) and bioaccumulation in fruits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Wu, Jun; Deng, Shi-Huai; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Gang

    2010-01-15

    The following article from Environmental Toxicology, 'Long-term Copper Toxicity in Apple Trees (Malus pumila Mill) and Bioaccumulation in Fruits' by Bai-Ye Sun, Shi- Hong Kan, Yan-Zong Zhang, Jun Wu, Shi-Huai Deng, Chun-Sheng Liu and Gang Yang, published online on January 15, 2010 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com; DOI: 10.1002/tox.20565), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr. Paul Tchounwou, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed at the request of the authors due to overlap with 'Copper Toxicity and Bioaccumulation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.)' by Zhi-Ting Xiong and Hai Wang, published in Environmental Toxicology, Volume 20, pages 188-194, 2005.

  9. Support vector machine for multi-classification of mineral prospectivity areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, Maysam; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain; Bahroudi, Abbas

    2012-09-01

    In this paper on mineral prospectivity mapping, a supervised classification method called Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to explore porphyry-Cu deposits. Different data layers of geological, geophysical and geochemical themes are integrated to evaluate the Now Chun porphyry-Cu deposit, located in the Kerman province of Iran, and to prepare a prospectivity map for mineral exploration. The SVM method, a data-driven approach to pattern recognition, had a correct-classification rate of 52.38% for twenty-one boreholes divided into five classes. The results of the study indicated the capability of SVM as a supervised learning algorithm tool for the predictive mapping of mineral prospects. Multi-classification of the prospect for detailed study could increase the resolution of the prospectivity map and decrease the drilling risk.

  10. Modelling groundwater seepage zones in an unconfined aquifer with MODFLOW: different approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Gedeon, Matej

    2014-05-01

    In areas where groundwater level occurs close to surface topography, the discharge of groundwater flow to the ground surface (or seepage) can be an important aspect of catchment hydrological cycle. It is also associated with valuable zones from an ecological point of view, often having a permanent shallow water table and constant lithotrophic water quality (Batelaan et al., 2003). In the present study, we try to implement a correct representation of this seepage process in a MODFLOW-HYDRUS coupled model for a small catchment (18.6 km²) of north-east Belgium. We started from an exisiting transient groundwater model of the unconfined aquifer in the study area (Gedeon and Mallants, 2009) discretized in 50x50 m cells. As the model did not account for seepage, hydraulic heads were simulated above the surface topography in certain zones. In the coupled MODFLOW-HYDRUS setup, transient boundary conditions (potential evapotranspiration and precipitation) are used to calculate the recharge with the HYDRUS package (Seo et al., 2007) for MODFLOW-2000 (Harbaugh et al., 2000). Coupling HYDRUS to MODFLOW involves the definition of a number of zones based on similarity in estimated groundwater depth, soil type and land cover. Concerning simulation of seepage, several existing packages are tested, including the DRAIN package (as in Reeve et al., 2006), the SPF package (from VSF Process; Thoms et al., 2006) and the PBC package (Post, 2011). Alternatively to the HYDRUS package for MODFLOW, the UZF package (Niswonger et al., 2006) for the simulation of recharge (and seepage) is also tested. When applicable, the parameterization of drain conductance in the top layer is critical and is investigated in relation to the soil hydraulic conductivity values used for the unsaturated zone (HYDRUS). Furthermore, stability issues are discussed, and where successful model runs are obtained, simulation results are compared with observed groundwater levels from a piezometric network. Spatial and

  11. An Initial Non-Equilibrium Porous-Media Model for CFD Simulation of Stirling Regenerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy; Simon, Terry; Gedeon, David; Ibrahim, Mounir; Rong, Wei

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to define empirical parameters (or closwre models) for an initial thermai non-equilibrium porous-media model for use in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes for simulation of Stirling regenerators. The two CFD codes currently being used at Glenn Research Center (GRC) for Stirling engine modeling are Fluent and CFD-ACE. The porous-media models available in each of these codes are equilibrium models, which assmne that the solid matrix and the fluid are in thermal equilibrium at each spatial location within the porous medium. This is believed to be a poor assumption for the oscillating-flow environment within Stirling regenerators; Stirling 1-D regenerator models, used in Stirling design, we non-equilibrium regenerator models and suggest regenerator matrix and gas average temperatures can differ by several degrees at a given axial location end time during the cycle. A NASA regenerator research grant has been providing experimental and computational results to support definition of various empirical coefficients needed in defining a noa-equilibrium, macroscopic, porous-media model (i.e., to define "closure" relations). The grant effort is being led by Cleveland State University, with subcontractor assistance from the University of Minnesota, Gedeon Associates, and Sunpower, Inc. Friction-factor and heat-transfer correlations based on data taken with the NASAlSunpower oscillating-flow test rig also provide experimentally based correlations that are useful in defining parameters for the porous-media model; these correlations are documented in Gedeon Associates' Sage Stirling-Code Manuals. These sources of experimentally based information were used to define the following terms and parameters needed in the non-equilibrium porous-media model: hydrodynamic dispersion, permeability, inertial coefficient, fluid effective thermal conductivity (including themal dispersion and estimate of tortuosity effects}, and fluid-solid heat transfer

  12. Overview of NASA Multi-Dimensional Stirling Convertor Code Development and Validation Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tew, Roy C.; Cairelli, James E.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.; Simon, Terrence W.; Gedeon, David

    2003-01-01

    A NASA grant has been awarded to Cleveland State University (CSU) to develop a multi-dimensional (multi-D) Stirling computer code with the goals of improving loss predictions and identifying component areas for improvements. The University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates are teamed with CSU. Development of test rigs at UMN and CSU and validation of the code against test data are part of the effort. The one-dimensional (1-D) Stirling codes used for design and performance prediction do not rigorously model regions of the working space where abrupt changes in flow area occur (such as manifolds and other transitions between components). Certain hardware experiences have demonstrated large performance gains by varying manifolds and heat exchanger designs to improve flow distributions in the heat exchangers. 1-D codes were not able to predict these performance gains. An accurate multi-D code should improve understanding of the effects of area changes along the main flow axis, sensitivity of performance to slight changes in internal geometry, and, in general, the understanding of various internal thermodynamic losses. The commercial CFD-ACE code has been chosen for development of the multi-D code. This 2-D/3-D code has highly developed pre- and post-processors, and moving boundary capability. Preliminary attempts at validation of CFD-ACE models of MIT gas spring and ``two space'' test rigs were encouraging. Also, CSU's simulations of the UMN oscillating-flow rig compare well with flow visualization results from UMN. A complementary Department of Energy (DOE) Regenerator Research effort is aiding in development of regenerator matrix models that will be used in the multi-D Stirling code. This paper reports on the progress and challenges of this multi-D code development effort.

  13. Overview of NASA Multi-Dimensional Stirling Convertor Code Development and Validation Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tew, Roy C.; Cairelli, James E.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.; Simon, Terrence W.; Gedeon, David

    2002-12-01

    A NASA grant has been awarded to Cleveland State University (CSU) to develop a multi-dimensional (multi-D) Stirling computer code with the goals of improving loss predictions and identifying component areas for improvements. The University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates are teamed with CSU. Development of test rigs at UMN and CSU and validation of the code against test data are part of the effort. The one-dimensional (1-D) Stirling codes used for design and performance prediction do not rigorously model regions of the working space where abrupt changes in flow area occur (such as manifolds and other transitions between components). Certain hardware experiences have demonstrated large performance gains by varying manifolds and heat exchanger designs to improve flow distributions in the heat exchangers. 1-D codes were not able to predict these performance gains. An accurate multi-D code should improve understanding of the effects of area changes along the main flow axis, sensitivity of performance to slight changes in internal geometry, and, in general, the understanding of various internal thermodynamic losses. The commercial CFD-ACE code has been chosen for development of the multi-D code. This 2-D/3-D code has highly developed pre- and post-processors, and moving boundary capability. Preliminary attempts at validation of CFD-ACE models of MIT gas spring and "two space" test rigs were encouraging. Also, CSU's simulations of the UMN oscillating-flow fig compare well with flow visualization results from UMN. A complementary Department of Energy (DOE) Regenerator Research effort is aiding in development of regenerator matrix models that will be used in the multi-D Stirling code. This paper reports on the progress and challenges of this

  14. Overview of NASA Multi-dimensional Stirling Convertor Code Development and Validation Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy C.; Cairelli, James E.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.; Simon, Terrence W.; Gedeon, David

    2002-01-01

    A NASA grant has been awarded to Cleveland State University (CSU) to develop a multi-dimensional (multi-D) Stirling computer code with the goals of improving loss predictions and identifying component areas for improvements. The University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates are teamed with CSU. Development of test rigs at UMN and CSU and validation of the code against test data are part of the effort. The one-dimensional (1-D) Stirling codes used for design and performance prediction do not rigorously model regions of the working space where abrupt changes in flow area occur (such as manifolds and other transitions between components). Certain hardware experiences have demonstrated large performance gains by varying manifolds and heat exchanger designs to improve flow distributions in the heat exchangers. 1-D codes were not able to predict these performance gains. An accurate multi-D code should improve understanding of the effects of area changes along the main flow axis, sensitivity of performance to slight changes in internal geometry, and, in general, the understanding of various internal thermodynamic losses. The commercial CFD-ACE code has been chosen for development of the multi-D code. This 2-D/3-D code has highly developed pre- and post-processors, and moving boundary capability. Preliminary attempts at validation of CFD-ACE models of MIT gas spring and "two space" test rigs were encouraging. Also, CSU's simulations of the UMN oscillating-flow fig compare well with flow visualization results from UMN. A complementary Department of Energy (DOE) Regenerator Research effort is aiding in development of regenerator matrix models that will be used in the multi-D Stirling code. This paper reports on the progress and challenges of this

  15. LanCL proteins are not Involved in Lanthionine Synthesis in Mammals.

    PubMed

    He, Chang; Zeng, Min; Dutta, Debapriya; Koh, Tong Hee; Chen, Jie; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2017-01-20

    LanC-like (LanCL) proteins are mammalian homologs of bacterial LanC enzymes, which catalyze the addition of the thiol of Cys to dehydrated Ser residues during the biosynthesis of lanthipeptides, a class of natural products formed by post-translational modification of precursor peptides. The functions of LanCL proteins are currently unclear. A recent proposal suggested that LanCL1 catalyzes the addition of the Cys of glutathione to protein- or peptide-bound dehydroalanine (Dha) to form lanthionine, analogous to the reaction catalyzed by LanC in bacteria. Lanthionine has been detected in human brain as the downstream metabolite lanthionine ketimine (LK), which has been shown to have neuroprotective effects. In this study, we tested the proposal that LanCL1 is involved in lanthionine biosynthesis by constructing LanCL1 knock-out mice and measuring LK concentrations in their brains using a mass spectrometric detection method developed for this purpose. To investigate whether other LanCL proteins (LanCL2/3) may confer a compensatory effect, triple knock-out (TKO) mice were also generated and tested. Very similar concentrations of LK (0.5-2.5 nmol/g tissue) were found in LanCL1 knock-out, TKO and wild type (WT) mouse brains, suggesting that LanCL proteins are not involved in lanthionine biosynthesis.

  16. Cardiomyopathies and the Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, D A; Cox, A T; Boos, C; Hardman, R; Sharma, S

    2015-09-01

    Cardiomyopathies are a group of heterogeneous myocardial diseases that are frequently inherited and are a recognised cause of premature sudden cardiac death in young individuals. Incomplete expressions of disease and the overlap with the physiological cardiac manifestations of regular intensive exercise create diagnostic challenges in young athletes and military recruits. Early identification is important because sudden death in the absence of prodromal symptoms is a common presentation, and there are several therapeutic strategies to minimise this risk. This paper examines the classification and clinical features of cardiomyopathies with specific reference to a military population and provides a detailed account of the optimum strategy for diagnosis, indications for specialist referral and specific guidance on the occupational significance of cardiomyopathy. A 27-year-old Lance Corporal Signaller presents to his Regimental medical officer (RMO) after feeling 'light-headed' following an 8 mile unloaded run. While waiting to see the RMO, the medical sergeant records a 12-lead ECG. The ECG is reviewed by the RMO immediately prior to the consultation and shows voltage criteria for left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and inverted T-waves in II, III, aVF and V1-V3 (Figure 1). This Lance Corporal is a unit physical training instructor and engages in >10 h of aerobic exercise per week. He is a non-smoker and does not have any significant medical history.

  17. Improved recovery demonstration for Williston Basin carbonates. Quarterly report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Carrell, L.A.; Nautiyal, C.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate targeted infill and extension drilling opportunities, better determinations of oil-in-place, methods for improved completion efficiency and the suitability of waterflooding in certain shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Williston Basin, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. Cores from five Red River wells in the Bowman-Harding study area have been examined and described in detail; contracts have been awarded for a 3-D survey in Bowman Co., ND and a 2D, multi-component survey in Richland Co.; extended-time pressure buildup data have been analyzed from two wells which are candidates for jetting-lance completion workovers; a 20-day injectivity test has been completed in the Red River (upper member); a jetting-lance completion program has commenced with one job completed and three more scheduled during April; and reservoir data from three key Red River fields in the Bowman-Harding study area has been researched and accumulated for inclusion in the TORIS database and technology transfer activities.

  18. Perceptions of student nurses regarding the use of a popular autobiography as a teaching tool.

    PubMed

    Mathibe, Lehlohonolo J

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies encourage educators in nursing to use innovative and non-traditional teaching methods, such as using popular movies, posters, portfolios and surfing the internet, to stimulate students' interest, participation and interaction to enhance academic performance as well as knowledge retention. In this, descriptive cross-sectional study, we used self-administered questionnaires with statements graded on 5-points Likert scale (quantitative measures) and open-ended questions (qualitative measures), to assess the feasibility and students' perceptions regarding the use of Lance Armstrong's autobiography of surviving against cancer as a teaching tool. At the beginning of the lecture copies of selected chapters from: "It's Not About the Bike; My Journey Back to Life" [Armstrong, L., Jenkins, S. 2001. It's Not About The Bike: My Journey Back To Life. Yellow Jersey Press, Random House (Pty) Limited, Great Britain], were given to students. Willing students were requested to read for the whole class while the lecturer interjected periodically to explain and expound on certain pharmacological concepts. Eighty percent (80%) of participants felt that the use of an autobiography stimulated their interesting in cancer drugs and 84% agreed/strongly agreed that it contributed to their knowledge of pharmacology. Using Lance Armstrong's autobiography of survival to teach cytotoxic drugs is a worthwhile and rewarding exercise from the student nurses' perspective.

  19. Measurement of some Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids in Different Organs of Persian Poppy during Ontogenetical Stages.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mahdi; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Abdol Hadi; Abbasi, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    Papaver bracteatum, a perennial species, has been known as a rich source of thebaine and a potential alternative to Papaver somniferum for the production of codeine and some semisynthetic antagonist drugs. In this study, ion mobility spectrum (IMS) of the root, leaf, bottom part of stem, upper part of stem, capsule wall, petal, and capsule content during developmental stages of P. bracteatum including annual rosette, perennial rosette, bud initiation, pendulous bud, preflowering, and lancing were investigated. The IMS revealed thebaine, papaverine, and noscapine as the major components of the extracted alkaloids. Based on the results of the study it appears that, at least in part, there is a competition among the biosynthesis pathways of papaverine, noscapine, and morphinan alkaloids from a common source. Root and capsule wall were the most potent organs for extraction of thebaine, while lancing stage was the best developmental stage for thebaine exploitation. However, it seems that total biomass of root and capsule wall plays a key role in the final selection of favorite organ. Although papaverine and noscapine in the stem at preflowering stage had the most quantity, significant amounts were found in the capsule wall. In general, total alkaloid content of leaf was lower than the other plant parts.

  20. Gas Blowing: Mass Transfer in Gas and Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sortland, Øyvind Sunde; Tangstad, Merete

    2014-09-01

    Metallurgical routes for solar grade silicon production are being developed as alternatives to chemical processes for their potential to achieve cost reductions, increased production volume, and reduced environmental and safety concerns. An important challenge in the development of metallurgical routes relates to the higher impurity concentrations in the silicon product, particularly for boron and other elements that are not efficiently segregated in solidification techniques. The reactive gas refining process is studied for its potential to remove boron below the solar grade silicon target concentration in a single step by blowing steam and hydrogen gas jets onto the melt surface. Boron in a silicon melt is extracted to HBO gas in parallel to active oxidation of silicon. The literature is not unified regarding the rate determining step in this process. Relevant theories and equations for gas blowing in induction furnaces are combined and used to explain mass transfer in experiments. Mass transfer in the melt and gas is investigated by comparing resistance and induction heating of the melt, and varying gas flow rate, crucible diameter, diameter of the gas lance, and the position of the gas lance above the melt surface. The rate of boron removal is found to increase with increasing gas flow rate and crucible diameter. A relatively high fraction of the reactive gas is utilized in the process, and supply of steam in the bulk gas is the only identified rate determining step.

  1. Determination of Cavity Dimensions Induced by Impingement of Gas Jets onto a Liquid Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingming; Li, Qiang; Kuang, Shibo; Zou, Zongshu

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study on the cavity profile induced by the impingement of top-blown multiple gas jets onto a water or oil/water bath. The depth and diameter of the cavity were measured with respect to the lance height, gas flow rate, jets inclination angle, and oil volume. The experimental results show that the cavity depth increases with the increase of gas flow rate or oil thickness but the decrease of lance height or jets inclination angle. The cavity diameter is much less affected by gas flow rate compared to other variables. Then, the importance of the surface tension in the modeling of the cavity was theoretically identified. It was found that in the cratering process, the effect of the liquid surface tension on the cavity depth could be remarkably significant for a basic oxygen furnace (BOF) cold model but negligible for a real BOF steelmaking system. An improved theoretical model was hence proposed and validated using the experimental data obtained from both the single- or two-layer liquid baths. The new model includes not only the explicit consideration of the liquid surface tension but also that of the energy utilization efficiency of the jets impinging kinetic energy contributed to the cratering process.

  2. Energy Balance Around Gas Injection into Oxygen Steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabah, Shabnam; Brooks, Geoffrey

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, a simplified approach of energy balance around gas injection into oxygen steelmaking has been carried out in a cold model. The aim is to provide an estimation of the amount of energy consumed by the different parts of the injection process such as dissipation, stirring of the bath, cavity formation, and splashing. Calculation of jet power used by different processes has been carried for various operating conditions and cavity modes ( i.e., splashing and penetrating). Calculations showed that dissipation and splashing are the dominant processes where most of the power of the jet is used, whereas cavity formation consumes the least amount. In the splashing mode, the percentage of total input power going into dissipation was about 59 to 63 pct, whereas it was found to be 2.6 to 50 pct in the penetrating mode. In splashing mode, about 30 pct power from the nozzle was used to create splash which is proved to be an efficient mode for droplet generation as less power is required to create droplets. At a certain lance height, the percentages of total input power used for splashing and dissipation were found equal. Below this lance height, all the cavities were found to be in penetrating mode. This simplified approach provides an improved understanding of the gas injection process and may be used for developing models of the injection process of steelmaking.

  3. Seismic exploration for oil and gas traps in Wind River Basin: a Laramide example

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.R.; Keefer, W.R.

    1985-05-01

    The Wind River Basin in central Wyoming is typical of the large sedimentary and structural basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain region during the Laramide deformation in latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary times. Northeast-southwest-oriented seismic profiles across the Wind River basin and flanking Owl Creek and Bighorn Mountains illustrate the structural configuration and correspondent stratigraphic development of a typical Laramide intermontane basin. Understanding the geometry of the basin margin and the timing of structural movement aids in prospecting for mountain-front subthrust structures, like Tepee Flats field, and stratigraphic traps, like Haybarn field, in fluvial and lacustrine basin-fill sequences. The Wind River basin is structurally asymmetric with the basin axis close to the Owl Creek Mountains and Casper Arch thrusts, which form the north and east basin boundaries. Major Laramide deformation began in latest Cretaceous time (beginning of Lance Formation deposition) with pronounced downwarping of the basin trough and broad doming of parts of the peripheral areas. The intensity of movement increased through the Paleocene and culminated in early Eocene time as high mountains were uplifted along thrust faults. Clastic debris, stripped from the surrounding rising mountain arches, was shed basinward, resulting in a pronounced wedge-shaped accumulation of fluvial and lacustrine sediments now representing the Lance, Fort Union, Indian Meadows, and Wind River Formations.

  4. Testing the junk-food hypothesis on marine birds: Effects of prey type on growth and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, J.F.; Roby, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    The junk-food hypothesis attributes declines in productivity of marine birds and mammals to changes in the species of prey they consume and corresponding differences in nutritional quality of those prey. To test this hypothesis nestling Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) were raised in captivity under controlled conditions to determine whether the type and quality of fish consumed by young seabirds constrains their growth and development. Some nestlings were fed rations of Capelin (Mallotus villosus), Herring (Clupea pallasi) or Sand Lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) and their growth was compared with nestlings raised on equal biomass rations of Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcograma). Nestlings fed rations of herring, sand lance, or capelin experienced higher growth increments than nestlings fed pollock. The energy density of forage fish fed to nestlings had a marked effect on growth increments and could be expected to have an effect on pre- and post-fledging survival of nestlings in the wild. These results provide empirical support for the junk-food hypothesis.

  5. Sex differences in pain responses at maturity following neonatal repeated minor pain exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Page, Gayle G; Hayat, Matthew J; Kozachik, Sharon L

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence of long-lasting changes in pain sensitivity in school-age children who were cared for in a neonatal intensive care unit. Such care involves multiple pain exposures, 70% of which are accounted for by heel lance to monitor physiological well-being. The authors sought to model the repeated brief pain resulting from heel lance by administering repeated paw needle stick to neonatal rat pups. Repeated needle stick during the first 8 days of life was sex-specific in altering responses to mechanical and inflammatory stimuli, but not to a thermal stimulus, at maturity. Specifically, neonatal paw needle stick males exhibited significantly greater mechanical sensitivity in response to von Frey hair testing, whereas neonatal paw needle stick females exhibited significantly greater pain behavior scores following hindpaw formalin injection. This is the first study to show such sex-dependent changes in pain responsiveness at maturity in animals having experienced repeated neonatal needle stick pain. These findings support existing evidence that there are long-term sensory sequelae following neonatal pain experiences in rats and further suggest that there are sex-linked differences in the nature of the consequences. If these relationships hold in humans, these findings suggest that even mild painful insults early in life are not without sensory consequences.

  6. Comparison of operator exposure for five different greenhouse spraying applications.

    PubMed

    Nuyttens, D; Windey, S; Sonck, B

    2004-08-01

    The European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) and the Agricultural Research Center (CLO-DVL) joined forces in a project to stimulate the safe use of pesticides in southern European countries. CLO-DVL optimized a method using mineral chelates as tracers on collectors. This quantitative method to evaluate spray deposits was used to compare operator exposure from several greenhouse spraying techniques. Operator exposure measurements were of a comparative nature. Five application methods were investigated: a standard spray gun with an operator walking forwards, a spray lance with an operator walking forwards and backwards, a trolley, and a vehicle, both with vertical spray booms. The exposure was measured with patches at 15 places on operators' coveralls and gloves, using mineral chelates as tracer elements. The difference in exposure of the patches between the different techniques was very high. Walking backwards reduced exposure by a factor of 7. The exposures with the trolley and the vehicle, two innovative spraying techniques, were respectively 25 and 100 times lower compared to exposure with the standard spray gun. Operator exposure while walking forward with the spray lance was about two times higher than with the spray gun. Besides very large differences in exposure among the five techniques, there were also large differences in exposure among various parts of the body. All of this is important in consideration of operator safety and for the parts of the body that need to be protected most.

  7. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Gillette Quadrangle, Wyoming, South Dakota, and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, H.W. Jr.; Robinson, K.; Stanton, M.R.; Geer, K.A.

    1982-09-01

    Uranium resources of the Gillette 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Wyoming, and a very small part of South Dakota, were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m (5000 ft) using available surface and subsurface information. Most of the uranium occurrences reported in the literature were searched for and many were found, sampled, and described. Some reported occurrences, however, were never located. As time permitted, ground radiometric surveys were made over areas showing Hydrochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) or aerial radiometric anomalies. In general, ground radiometric surveys did not confirm either HSSR or aerial radiometric anomalies in the Powder River Basin portion of the quadrangle. Surface and subsurface studies outlined three areas favorable for uranium deposits. These areas are limited to certain rock units and depositional environments. The eastern- most area consists of the Lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara Group which contains marine, marginal-marine, and fluvial paleoenvironments. The second favorable area occurs to the west and up-section in the Upper Cretaceous marginal-marine Fox Hills Sandstone and the overlying fluvial Lance Formation. The third and westernmost favorable area is a small area of the Eocene Wasatch Formation. Unfavorable areas include areas underlain by Tertiary rocks, with the exception of the small area of the Wasatch Formation mentioned above; all Mesozoic rocks above the Lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara Group and below the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Lance Formation. All Paleozoic and older rocks and Tertiary intrusives are considered unfavorable.

  8. LanCL proteins are not Involved in Lanthionine Synthesis in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    He, Chang; Zeng, Min; Dutta, Debapriya; Koh, Tong Hee; Chen, Jie; van der Donk, Wilfred A.

    2017-01-01

    LanC-like (LanCL) proteins are mammalian homologs of bacterial LanC enzymes, which catalyze the addition of the thiol of Cys to dehydrated Ser residues during the biosynthesis of lanthipeptides, a class of natural products formed by post-translational modification of precursor peptides. The functions of LanCL proteins are currently unclear. A recent proposal suggested that LanCL1 catalyzes the addition of the Cys of glutathione to protein- or peptide-bound dehydroalanine (Dha) to form lanthionine, analogous to the reaction catalyzed by LanC in bacteria. Lanthionine has been detected in human brain as the downstream metabolite lanthionine ketimine (LK), which has been shown to have neuroprotective effects. In this study, we tested the proposal that LanCL1 is involved in lanthionine biosynthesis by constructing LanCL1 knock-out mice and measuring LK concentrations in their brains using a mass spectrometric detection method developed for this purpose. To investigate whether other LanCL proteins (LanCL2/3) may confer a compensatory effect, triple knock-out (TKO) mice were also generated and tested. Very similar concentrations of LK (0.5–2.5 nmol/g tissue) were found in LanCL1 knock-out, TKO and wild type (WT) mouse brains, suggesting that LanCL proteins are not involved in lanthionine biosynthesis. PMID:28106097

  9. Impact of Cotton Production Systems on Management of Hoplolaimus columbus

    PubMed Central

    Koenning, S. R.; Edmisten, K. L.; Barker, K. R.; Morrison, D. E.

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of selected cultural practices in managing the Columbia lance nematode, Hoplolaimus columbus, on cotton was evaluated in experiments in growers' infested fields. The effects of planting date, cotton cultivar, treatment with the growth regulator mepiquat chloride, and destruction of cotton-root systems after harvest on cotton-lint yield and population densities of H. columbus were studied. The yield of cotton cultivar Deltapine 50 was negatively related (P = 0.054) to initial population density of H. columbus whereas the yield of Deltapine 90 was not affected by preplant density of this nematode, indicating tolerance in Deltapine 90. Reproduction of this nematode did not differ on the two cultivars. Planting date and treatment with the growth regulator mepiquat chloride did not influence cotton yield in a consistent manner. Application of mepiquat chloride suppressed (P ≤ 0.05) numbers of Columbia lance nematode, although there was an interaction (P ≤ 0.05) with cultivar and year. Early vs. late destruction of cotton-root systems did not impact population densities of this nematode either year, and had no impact on the subsequent cotton crop. The nematicide fenamiphos increased (P ≤ 0.03) cotton yield when H. columbus numbers exceeded the damage threshold. PMID:19265977

  10. Impact of radiosonde data over the Arctic ice on forecasting winter extreme weather over mid latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Kim, Joo-hong; Maturilli, Marion; Dethloff, Klaus; Hudson, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    In February 2015, the Arctic air outbreak caused extreme cold events and heavy snowfall over the mid latitude, in particular over the North America. During the winter, special radiosonde observations were made on the Norwegian RV Lance around the north of Svalbard under the N-ICE2015 project. We investigated the impact of the radiosonde data on forecasting of a cold extreme event over the eastern North America using the AFES-LETKF experimental ensemble reanalysis version2 (ALERA2) data set. ALERA2 was used as the reference reanalysis (CTL) while the observing-system experiment (OSE) assimilated the same observational data set, except for the radiosonde data obtained by the RV Lance. Using these two reanalysis data as initial values, ensemble forecasting experiments were conducted. Comparing these ensemble forecasts, there were large differences in the position and depth of a predicted tropopause polar vortex. The CTL forecast well predicted the southward intrusion of the polar vortex which pushed a cold air over the eastern North America from the Canadian Archipelago. In the OSE forecast, in contrast, the trough associated with southward intrusion of the polar vortex was weak, which prevented a cold outbreak from Arctic. This result suggested that the radiosonde observations over the central Arctic would improve the skill of weather forecasts during winter.

  11. The fatal wound of Hector, according to a drawing by Peter Paul Rubens designed for tapestry weaving.

    PubMed

    Rubino, M; Viale, G L

    2001-02-01

    According to the Iliad(Chapter XXII, Verses 322-329), Hector, while fighting his last duel, was almost entirely protected by bronze armor, with only a small area "where the clavicle marks the boundary between neck and thorax" exposed. It was precisely into this area, "the shorter way to death," that Achilles thrust his lance. This fatal wound, although covering Hector with blood, allowed the victim to pronounce a few words. In designing the Story of Achilles, his fourth and last series of drawings especially designed for tapestry weaving, Rubens depicted Achilles stabbing Hector near the midline of his neck. There is evidence that Rubens was always well acquainted with the literary sources of his pictures. It is also likely that he became familiar with contemporary editions of the Iliad that were enhanced with commentaries. Realizing that the wound depicted in his original drawing should have prevented Hector from speaking, Rubens altered the scene, then showing the lance piercing the cervical vascular bundle. The careful scrutiny for literary accuracy that was typical of Rubens' artistic behavior did not prevent an additional minor imprecision in the final tapestry. Nevertheless, his outstanding expressive power enabled him to give form to a gigantic baroque representation of the death of Hector in masterly fashion.

  12. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B.

    2009-03-15

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. A marine dynamic penetrometer for the determination of sea floor geotechnical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, S.; Kaul, N. E.; Villinger, H. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present a seafloor lance penetration monitoring system: the Lance Insertion Retardation Meter (LIRmeter). The device can be used to infer geotechnical seafloor properties, such as bearing capacity by monitoring the deceleration of a free-fall penetrating lance. The deceleration record can be furthermore used to estimate mean grain size and mud content of the sea floor as well as total penetration depth. The LIRmeter is contained in a pressure vessel (440 x 110 mm) and equipped with accelerometers of different sensitivities to (i) determine sea floor resistance during penetration and (ii) to generate a depth axis. Typically, measurements are carried out in a pogo style fashion to allow a rapid measurement progress during field campaigns. The LIRmeter is intended to determine sea floor properties on the sole basis of deceleration measurements in order to achieve a mechanically and electronically robust system. Data is sampled at a resolution of 16 bit and at a rate of typically 500 Hz for each channel. The device can either be installed in any type of lance i.e. marine heat flow probes, gravity corers, piston corers or can be used in combination with a purpose built lance as a standalone instrument. It has a usable length of four meters, a total weight of 280 kg in air and can be operated up to full ocean depth (6000m). The bearing capacity of the sea floor is a critical factor for marine engineering projects such as burial of marine cables, pipeline laying and foundations. Knowledge of the mud content can provide constraints for the estimation of hydraulic conductivity. The identification of weak zones along a slope can moreover provide vital information for risk assessment studies. Traditionally, frame based, quasi static Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) or sampling methods like gravity coring are used to conduct these types of investigation. In comparison to established but time consuming and rather costly methods, the LIRmeter is intended (i) for near surface

  14. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorse, D.; Boutard, J.-L.

    2002-09-01

    The Symposium on “Structural materials for Hybrid systems: A challenge in metallurgy" was held during the “Journées d'Automne 2001" of the “Société Française de Métallurgie et de Matériaux", Paris from October 29 through 31, 2001. The editors of this volume, D. Gorse and J.-L. Boutard, would like to acknowledge GDR GEDEON, CEA - Direction de l'énergie Nucléaire, CNRS - Département des Sciences Chimiques, et Centre d'études de Chimie Métallurgique for sponsoring this symposium. This symposium was divided into three sessions dealing with i) thermodynamics, intergranular penetration and liquid metal embrittlement, ii) irradiation effects in structural materials and iii) compatibility of structural materials with lead alloys in relation with R& D studies for MEGAPIE. The intent of this symposium was to provide a forum for discussing the most recent results obtained in the frame of the materials research program of the “Groupement De Recherche (GDR) GEDEON". Special emphasis was given to all factors susceptible to affect the durability of structural materials for spallation targets, like irradiation effects under proton and neutron mixed spectrum, Liquid Metal Corrosion (LMC) and Embrittlement (LME). The material research program of GEDEON is a joint CEA-CNRS venture. In 1997, the GDR GEDEON gave opportunity to metallurgists and nuclear physicists of both organizations to collaborate for validating the concept of Pb-Bi spallation targets as a key component for Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS). Historically, since 1995, GDR GEDEON has promoted ADS, also called Hybrid System, as an option for waste management. The starting point of the material program was the 1st GEDEON Workshop on “Materials For Hybrid Systems" held in Paris in 1997, where reference materials of the 9-12 Cr martensitic steels series were selected: EM10 (9Cr-1Mo) and the modified 9Cr-1Mo, T91 (9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb). However, besides their specific concern for ADS, our studies are also of

  15. Global Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M.

    2012-12-01

    Flooding is among the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disasters faced by modern society, with several major events occurring each year. In the past few years, major floods have devastated parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, Australia, and the Philippines, among others. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we have developed, and are now operating, a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours after flooding events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard. The LANCE system typically processes imagery in less than 3 hours after satellite overpass, and our flood mapping system can output flood products within ½ hour of acquiring the LANCE products. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, every day, and more robust assessments after accumulating imagery over a longer period; the MODIS sensors are optical, so cloud cover remains an issue, which is partly overcome by using multiple looks over one or more days. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on some of these issues

  16. Applications of Near Real-Time Image and Fire Products from MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Teague, M.; Ye, G.; Masuoka, E.; Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.; Michael, K.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s MODIS Rapid Response Project (http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/) has been providing MODIS fire detections and imagery in near real-time since 2001. The Rapid Response system is part of the Land and Atmospheres Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE-MODIS) system. Current capabilities include providing MODIS imagery in true color and false color band combinations, a vegetation index, and temperature - in both uncorrected swath format and geographically corrected subset regions. The geographically-corrected subsets images cover the world's land areas and adjoining waters, as well as the entire Arctic and Antarctic. These data are available within a few hours of data acquisition. The images are accessed by large number of user communities to obtain a rapid, 250 meter-resolution overview of ground conditions for fire management, crop and famine monitoring and forecasting, disaster response (fires, oil spills, floods, storms), dust and aerosol monitoring, aviation (tracking volcanic ash), monitoring sea ice conditions, environmental monitoring, and more. In addition, the scientific community uses imagery to locate phenomena of interest prior to ordering and processing data and to support the day-to-day planning of field campaigns. The MODIS Rapid Response project has also been providing a near real-time data feed on fire locations and MODIS imagery subsets to the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) project (http://maps.geog.umd.edu/firms). FIRMS provides timely availability of fire location information, which is essential in preventing and fighting large forest/wild fires. Products are available through a WebGIS for visualizing MODIS hotspots and MCD45 Burned Area images, an email alerting tool to deliver fire data on daily/weekly/near real-time basis, active data downloads in formats such as shape, KML, CSV, WMS, etc., along with MODIS imagery subsets. FIRMS’ user base covers more than 100 countries and territories. A recent user

  17. The Jasons

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Ann Finkbeiner

    2006-04-10

    I'm a free-lance science writer, and have written a history/profile of the group, called Jason, of academic scientists who advise the government. The book starts where the Manhattan Project ends -- with physicists trying to decide, having let the genie out of the bottle, how to get it back in again. One result of their attempts was Jason. Jason is 30 to 50 scientists who meet for six weeks every summer to answer questions for the government -- usually for the defense department or the intelligence community -- about national security issues. They specialize in studies for the Department of Energy on the technical backing for treaties to ban the bomb. Jason is unique, not only in this country, but in the world. The book is about the group's attempts to hold onto their scientific souls, remain independent, and still stay in business.

  18. Lesions associated with a novel Mycoplasma sp. in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Haulena, Martin; Gulland, Frances M D; Lawrence, Judith A; Fauquier, Deborah A; Jang, Spencer; Aldridge, Brian; Spraker, Terry; Thomas, Linda C; Brown, Daniel R; Wendland, Lori; Davidson, Maureen K

    2006-01-01

    From July 1999 to November 2001, Mycoplasma sp. was cultured from lesions in 16 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation. The Mycoplasma sp. was the likely cause of death of four animals in which it was associated with either pneumonia or polyarthritis. The most common lesion associated with this bacterium was subdermal abscessation, found in 12 animals. Other lesions included intramuscular abscesses, septic arthritis, and lymphadenopathy. Infection was associated with a leukocytosis and left shift in 12 animals. Animals with abscesses improved clinically after surgical lancing, irrigation, and systemic antibiotic therapy. The mycoplasma isolates had a consistent 16S rRNA sequence dissimilar from other Mycoplasma spp. and represent a novel species, Mycoplasma zalophi proposed sp. nov.

  19. ISACONVERT™—Continuous converting of nickel/PGM matte with calcium ferrite slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, M. L.; Nikolic, S.; Alvear, G. R. F.

    2011-05-01

    The ISASMELT™ process is a top submerged lance (TSL) bath smelting technology which has been developed and optimized over the last 25 years. By the end of 2011, the total installed capacity of the ISASMELT technology will exceed 9,000,000 tonnes per year of feed materials in copper and lead smelters around the world. Commercial plants, operating in Belgium and Germany, are also batch converting copper materials in ISASMELT furnaces. This TSL technology is equally effective for continuous converting processes, whereupon it is called ISACONVERT™. Xstrata Technology (XT) has recently patented a new ISACONVERT process for the continuous converting of nickel/platinum group metal (PGM) mattes using the calcium ferrite slag system. This paper outlines the development of this new process and presents a conceptual flowsheet for how it can be integrated into an existing nickel/PGM smelter.

  20. Groundwater quality of southeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Blain, Liberty

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater is an important resource for domestic, municipal, stock, and irrigation uses in southeastern Wyoming. Thirty-seven percent of water used in the tri-County area, which includes Laramie, Platte, and Goshen Counties, is from groundwater. Most groundwater use in the tri-County area is withdrawn from three primary aquifer groups: Quaternary-age unconsolidated-deposit aquifers, Tertiary-age units of the High Plains aquifer system, and Upper Cretaceous bedrock aquifers (Lance Formation and Fox Hills Sandstone). Authors include selected physical properties and chemicals found in water samples, describe sources and importance, and report maximum levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. They also show concentration ranges for selected physical properties and chemicals in samples collected from the three primary aquifer groups in the tri-County area.

  1. Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

    1982-04-30

    A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

  2. Geologic map and coal stratigraphy of the Doty Mountain quadrangle, eastern Washakie basin, Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hettinger, R.D.; Honey, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This report provides a geologic map of the Doty Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle, located along the eastern flank of the Washakie Basin, Wyo. Geologic formations and individual coal beds were mapped at a scale of 1:24,000; surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described; and well logs were examined to determine coal correlations and thicknesses in the subsurface. Detailed measured sections are provided for the type sections of the Red Rim Member of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation and China Butte and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. The data set was collected as part of a larger effort to acquire data on Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in the eastern Washakie Basin and southeastern Great Divide Basin. Regions in the eastern Washakie Basin and southeastern Great Divide Basin have potential for coal development and were considered previously for coal leasing by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.

  3. Geology and energy resources of the Sand Butte Rim NW Quadrangle, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roehler, Henry W.

    1979-01-01

    The Sand Butte Rim NW 71-minute quadrangle occupies 56 square miles of an arid, windy, sparsely vegetated area of ridges and valleys on the east flank of the Rock Springs uplift in southwest Wyoming. The area is underlain by a succession of sedimentary rocks, about 20,000 feet thick, that includes 28 formations ranging in age from Cambrian to Tertiary. Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary formations crop out and dip 3?-6? southeast. They are unfaulted and generally homoclinal, but a minor anticlinal nose is present. Older rocks in the subsurface are faulted and folded. Coal resources are estimated to be nearly I billion short tons of subbituminous coal, in beds more than 2.5 feet thick, under less than 3,000 feet of overburden, in the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age and the Lance and Almond Formations of Cretaceous age.

  4. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The technologies being tested for concrete decontamination are targeted for alpha contamination. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  5. Investigation of abiogenic stress-induced alterations in the level of secondary metabolites in poppy plants (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Szabó, Beáta; Lakatos, A; Koszegi, T; Botz, L

    2008-12-01

    We aimed to understand the effects of water stress on the alkaloid production in various developmental stages of poppy plants and the effect of stress on the alkaloids content in the capsules. Three stages of the life cycle of Papaver somniferum L. were selected in our studies: Rosette, Flowering and Lancing developmental stages. Four types of water conditions were examined: Control, Withdrawal of Water, 50% Water Supply and Inundation. The morphological monitoring, results of Relative Water Content and proline content were used as indicators of stress. The result of the measurements in poppy leaves show that the secondary metabolites dramatically respond to these stress conditions. The constant water supply was beneficial for the accumulation of alkaloids in the capsules.

  6. Network-based diffusion analysis reveals cultural transmission of lobtail feeding in humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jenny; Weinrich, Mason; Hoppitt, Will; Rendell, Luke

    2013-04-26

    We used network-based diffusion analysis to reveal the cultural spread of a naturally occurring foraging innovation, lobtail feeding, through a population of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) over a period of 27 years. Support for models with a social transmission component was 6 to 23 orders of magnitude greater than for models without. The spatial and temporal distribution of sand lance, a prey species, was also important in predicting the rate of acquisition. Our results, coupled with existing knowledge about song traditions, show that this species can maintain multiple independently evolving traditions in its populations. These insights strengthen the case that cetaceans represent a peak in the evolution of nonhuman culture, independent of the primate lineage.

  7. Why are mini-implants lost: the value of the implantation technique!

    PubMed

    Romano, Fabio Lourenço; Consolaro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of mini-implants have made a major contribution to orthodontic treatment. Demand has aroused scientific curiosity about implant placement procedures and techniques. However, the reasons for instability have not yet been made totally clear. The aim of this article is to establish a relationship between implant placement technique and mini-implant success rates by means of examining the following hypotheses: 1) Sites of poor alveolar bone and little space between roots lead to inadequate implant placement; 2) Different sites require mini-implants of different sizes! Implant size should respect alveolar bone diameter; 3) Properly determining mini-implant placement site provides ease for implant placement and contributes to stability; 4) The more precise the lancing procedures, the better the implant placement technique; 5) Self-drilling does not mean higher pressures; 6) Knowing where implant placement should end decreases the risk of complications and mini-implant loss.

  8. Strain behavior of a granite and a Graywacke sandstone in tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schock, R. N.; Louis, H.

    1982-09-01

    Westerly granite and Lance graywacke sandstone were deformed with one of the principal stresses tensile at the same time that the principal strains were monitored. Both rocks exhibited inelastic behavior prior to failure. Pronounced dilatancy and softening in shear took place in the granite. When Young's modulus varied, it did so continuously between compression and tensile stress states with no apparent discontinuity at zero axial stress, implying that cracks played the same role in tension as in compression. Failure was observed whenever the tensile stress exceeded a critical value, in agreement with predictions from Griffiths' failure criterion. The sandstone exhibited approximately twice as much strain per unit stress change as the granite and showed evidence of grain-to-grain movement as well as crack closure, results consistent with comparisons determined earlier when all stresses are compressive.

  9. Strain behavior of a granite and a graywacke sandstone in tension

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R.N.; Louis, H.

    1982-09-10

    Westerly granite and Lance graywacke sandstone were deformed with one of the principal stresses tensile at the same time that the principal strains were monitored. Both rocks exhibited inelastic behavior prior to failure. Pronounced dilatancy and softening in shear took place in the granite. When Young's modulus varied, it did so continuously between compression and tensile stress states with no apparent discontinuity at zero axial stress, implying that cracks played the same role in tension as in compression. Failure was observed whenever the tensile stress exceeded a critical value, in agreement with predictions from Griffiths' failfure criterion. The sandstone exhibited approximately twice as much strain per unit stress change as the granite and showed evidence of grain-to-grain movement as well as crack closure, results consistent with comparisons determined earlier when all stresses are compressive.

  10. Functional outcomes associated with expiratory muscle strength training: narrative review.

    PubMed

    Laciuga, Helena; Rosenbek, John C; Davenport, Paul W; Sapienza, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    This review presents the available evidence for the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) with the use of a pressure threshold device. The investigators used computerized database searches for studies reporting the outcomes of pressure threshold EMST published after 1994. A total of 24 selected articles presented outcomes related but not limited to respiratory function, such as speech, swallow, voice, and cough function in persons with neurologic conditions such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, and Lance-Adams syndrome; in persons with respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and in healthy young adults and sedentary and active elderly. Several studies demonstrated promising outcomes of EMST as a non-task-specific training for airway protection in persons with dysphagia secondary to neuromuscular impairments; however, further research is needed to confirm and generalize the reported findings.

  11. Numerical Simulation of SNCR Technology with Simplified Chemical Kinetics Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blejchař, T.; Dolníčková, D.

    2013-04-01

    The paper deals with numerical simulation of SNCR method. For numerical modelling was used CFD code Ansys/CFX. SNCR method was described by dominant chemical reaction, which were look up NIST Chemical database. The reactions including reduction of NOx and concentration change of pollutants, like N2O and CO in flue gas too. Proposed chemical kinetics and CFD model was applied to two boilers. Both simulations were compared with experimental measurements. First simulation was used to validation of chemical mechanism. Second simulation was based on first simulation and it was used to verification of compiled SNCR chemical mechanism. Next the new variant of the reagent penetration lance was proposed and compared with the original variants.

  12. Material engineering of GexTe100-x compounds to improve phase-change memory performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, G.; Sousa, V.; Persico, A.; Pashkov, N.; Toffoli, A.; Bastien, J.-C.; Perniola, L.; Maitrejean, S.; Roule, A.; Zuliani, P.; Annunziata, R.; De Salvo, B.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we provide a detailed physical and electrical characterization of Germanium Telluride compounds (GexTe100-x) targeting phase-change memory applications. Thin films of Germanium-rich as well as Tellurium-rich phase-change materials are deposited for material analysis (XRD, resistivity and optical characterization). GexTe100-x compounds are then integrated in lance-type analytical phase-change memory devices allowing for a thorough analysis of the switching characteristics, data retention and endurance performances. Tellurium-rich GeTe alloys exhibit stable programming characteristics and can sustain endurance up to 107 cycles, while Germanium-rich compounds show an unstable RESET state during repeated write/erase cycles, probably affected by Ge segregation. Finally we demonstrate that data retention is strongly improved departing from Ge50Te50 stoichiometric composition.

  13. Improvement of the decarburization rate in austenitic stainless steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Youngjo; Kim, Yong Hwan; Sohn, Ho-Sang

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the decarburization rate at low carbon content region during the decarburization of molten stainless steel in argan oxygen decarburization, inert gas was blown into top slag and molten steel through a top lance. The carbon content at the end point of the decarburization process was found to reach lower values than conventional levels without the inert gas top blowing. The decarburization rate might be improved, probably due to the disturbance of the slag/metal interface and the dilution of CO gas. The influence of slag in decarburization step on the decarburization and the reduction reactions of chrome oxides in the slag were also experimentally and theoretically investigated by establishing a kinetic model of the decarburization of molten stainless steel under the existence of slag containing chrome oxide. The liquid fraction of the slag appears to be essential for a more effective decarburization reaction. Countermeasures were also proposed to prevent carbon pickup from burnt lime for better slag control.

  14. Ion irradiation of carbonaceous chondrites as a simulation of space weathering on C-complex asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, C.; Brunetto, R.; Barucci, M. A.; Bachelet, C.; Baklouti, D.; Bourçois, J.; Dartois, E.; Duprat, J.; Duret, P.; Engrand, C.; Godard, M.; Ledu, D.; Mivumbi, O.; Fornasier, S.

    2015-10-01

    We are investigating the effects of space weathering on primitive asteroids using ion irradiation on their meteoritic analogs. To do so, we exposed several carbonaceous chondrites (CV Allende, COs Lancé and Frontier Mountain 95002, CM Mighei, CI Alais, and ungrouped Tagish Lake) to 40 keV He+ ions as a simulation of solar wind irradiation using fluences up to 6.1016 ions/cm2 (implantation platform IRMA at CSNSM Orsay). As a test for our new experimental setup, we also studied samples of olivine and diopside. We confirm the reddening and darkening trends on S-type objects, but carbonaceous chondrites present a continuum of behaviors after ion irradiation as a function of the initial albedo and carbon content: from red to blue and from dark to bright.

  15. In situ measurements of an energetic wave event in the Arctic marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Clarence O.; Rogers, W. Erick; Marchenko, Aleksey; Babanin, Alexander V.

    2015-03-01

    R/V Lance serendipitously encountered an energetic wave event around 77°N, 26°E on 2 May 2010. Onboard GPS records, interpreted as the surface wave signal, show the largest waves recorded in the Arctic region with ice cover. Comparing the measurements with a spectral wave model indicated three phases of interaction: (1) wave blocking by ice, (2) strong attenuation of wave energy and fracturing of ice by wave forcing, and (3) uninhibited propagation of the peak waves and an extension of allowed waves to higher frequencies (above the peak). Wave properties during fracturing of ice cover indicated increased groupiness. Wave-ice interaction presented binary behavior: there was zero transmission in unbroken ice and total transmission in fractured ice. The fractured ice front traveled at some fraction of the wave group speed. Findings do not motivate new dissipation schemes for wave models, though they do indicate the need for two-way, wave-ice coupling.

  16. Splash Distribution in Oxygen Steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabah, Shabnam; Brooks, Geoffrey

    2015-04-01

    The study of splashing is important in understanding oxygen steelmaking. Splashing creates large interfacial area between reacting surfaces and thereby directly affects the kinetics of steelmaking reactions. In the present cold modeling work, a study of splashing has been carried out for various lance heights and gas flow rates. Sampling of droplets has been done in both radial positions and vertical positions across the bath to investigate the effect of sampling positions in estimation of the droplet generation rate. A novel approach has been developed to estimate the droplet generation rate. The results of the study have been compared with previous investigations. Results show that positioning of sampling is a critical issue and can affect the estimation of droplets present in the emulsion. This study also demonstrates quantitatively how much the droplet generation rate is reduced when the cavity mode changes from splashing to penetrating for different Blowing numbers.

  17. Measurement Invariance of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Bunnell, Brian E.; Joseph, Dana L.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2012-01-01

    The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) is a commonly used self-report measure of social phobia that has demonstrated adequate reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity. However, research has yet to address whether this measure functions equivalently in (a) individuals with and without a diagnosis of social phobia and (b) males and females. Evaluating measurement equivalence is necessary in order to determine that the construct of social anxiety is conceptually understood invariantly across these populations. The results of the current investigation, using a series of nested factorial models proposed by Vandenberg and Lance (2000), provide evidence for strong equivalence across 420 individuals with and without diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and across male and female samples. Accordingly, these results provide psychometric justification for comparison of SPAI scores across the symptom continuum and sexes. PMID:23247204

  18. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-12-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  19. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  20. High temperature structural silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1997-03-01

    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi{sub 2} single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi{sub 2} possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing.

  1. Good functional outcome after prolonged postanoxic comatose myoclonic status epilepticus in a patient who had undergone bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Accardo, Jennifer; De Lisi, Domenico; Lazzerini, Paola; Primavera, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In anoxic coma, myoclonic status epilepticus and other nonreactive epileptiform patterns are considered as signs of poor prognosis. We report the case of a good recovery in a prolonged comatose myoclonic status epilepticus (MSE) after a cardiac arrest (CA) treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in a patient who had undergone a bone marrow transplantation for Hodgkin's lymphoma. This case emphasizes the opportunity of performing an electroencephalogram (EEG) in the acute period after an hypoxic-ischemic insult and underlines the diagnostic difficulties between MSE and Lance-Adams syndrome, which classically occurs after the patient has regained consciousness, but can also begin while the patient is still comatose or sedated. Major problems in prognostication for postarrest comatose patients will also be pointed out.

  2. Improved recovery demonstration for Williston basin carbonates. Annual report, June 10, 1994--June 9, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.; Zinke, S.; Magruder, G.; Eby, D.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate targeted infill and extension drilling opportunities, better determinations of oil-in-place, methods for improved completion efficiency and the suitability of waterflooding in Red River and Ratcliffe shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Williston Basin, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing three-dimensional and multi-component seismic are being investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Improved completion efficiency is being tested with extended-reach jetting lance and other ultra-short-radius lateral technologies. Improved completion efficiency, additional wells at closer spacing and better estimates of oil in place will result in additional oil recovery by primary and enhanced recovery processes.

  3. Improved recovery demonstration for Williston Basin carbonates. Annual report, June 10, 1995--June 9, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Carrell, L.A.; Sippel, M.A.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate targeted infill and extension drilling opportunities, better determinations of oil-in-place, methods for improved completion efficiency and the suitability of waterflooding in Red River and Ratcliffe shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Williston Basin, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing three-dimensional and multi-component seismic are being investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Improved completion efficiency is being tested with extended-reach jetting lance and other ultra-short-radius lateral technologies. Improved completion efficiency, additional wells at closer spacing and better estimates of oil in place will result in additional oil recovery by primary and enhanced recovery processes.

  4. The Role of Filtration in Maintaining Clean Heat Exchanger Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yang; James E. Braun; Eckhard A. Groll

    2004-06-30

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the role of filtration in maintaining clean heat exchanger coils and overall performance. Combinations of 6 different levels of filtration (MERV 14, 11, 8, 6, 4, and no filter) and 4 different coils (an eight-row lanced-fin coil, HX8L), (an eight-row wavy-fin coil, HX8W), (a four-row lanced-fin coil, HX4L) and (a two-row lanced-fin coil, HX2L) were tested at 4 different air velocities (1.52, 2.03, 2.54,3.05 m/s (300, 400, 500, 600 ft/min)). The fouled conditions were obtained after injection of 600 grams of ASHRAE standard dust upstream of the filter/coil combination. This magnitude of dust is representative of a year of normal operation for an air conditioning system. The air-side pressure drops of the coils and filters and air-side heat transfer coefficients of the coils were determined from the measurements under the clean and fouled conditions. Depending upon the filter and coil test, the coil pressure drops increased in the range of 6%-30% for an air velocity at 2.54 m/s (500 ft/min). The impact was significantly greater for tests performed without a filter. The largest relative effect of fouling on pressure drop occurs for coils with fewer rows and having lanced fins. Coils with a greater number of rows can hold more dust so that a fixed amount of dust has a relatively smaller impact. The impact of fouling on air-side heat transfer coefficients was found to be relatively small. In some cases, heat transfer was actually enhanced due to additional turbulence caused by the presence of dust. The experimental results for pressure drops and heat transfer coefficients were correlated and the correlations were implemented within computer models of prototypical rooftop air conditioners and used to evaluate the impact of fouling on cooling capacity and EER. The equipment cooling capacity is reduced with fouling primarily because of a decrease in air flow due to the increase pressure drop rather than due to changes in h

  5. Research on Hazardous States of Awareness and Physiological Factors in Aerospace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2002-01-01

    The technical memorandum describes research conducted to examine the etiologies and nature of hazardous states of awareness and the psychophysiological factors involved in their onset in aerospace operations. A considerable amount of research has been conducted at NASA that examines psychological and human factors issues that may play a role in aviation safety. The technical memorandum describes some of the research that was conducted between 1998 and 2001, both in-house and as cooperative agreements, which addressed some of these issues. The research was sponsored as part of the physiological factors subelement of the Aviation Operation Systems (AOS) program and Physiological / Psychological Stressors and Factors project. Dr. Lance Prinzel is the Level III subelement lead and can be contacted at l.j.prinzel@larc.nasa.gov.

  6. Why are mini-implants lost: The value of the implantation technique!

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Fabio Lourenço; Consolaro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of mini-implants have made a major contribution to orthodontic treatment. Demand has aroused scientific curiosity about implant placement procedures and techniques. However, the reasons for instability have not yet been made totally clear. The aim of this article is to establish a relationship between implant placement technique and mini-implant success rates by means of examining the following hypotheses: 1) Sites of poor alveolar bone and little space between roots lead to inadequate implant placement; 2) Different sites require mini-implants of different sizes! Implant size should respect alveolar bone diameter; 3) Properly determining mini-implant placement site provides ease for implant placement and contributes to stability; 4) The more precise the lancing procedures, the better the implant placement technique; 5) Self-drilling does not mean higher pressures; 6) Knowing where implant placement should end decreases the risk of complications and mini-implant loss. PMID:25741821

  7. Robot arm apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1990-12-31

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in ``x,`` ``y,`` and ``z`` directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  8. Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

  9. Hibonite-bearing microspherules - A new type of refractory inclusions with large isotopic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ireland, T. R.; Fahey, A. J.; Zinner, E. K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents petrographic description as well as results on the major- and trace-element chemistry and on Mg, Ca, and Ti isotopic compositions of three refractory inclusions, including 3413-1/31 inclusion from Lance and Murchison 7-228 and 7-753, the mineralogy of which is dominated by the oxide minerals spinel, hibonite, and perovskite. The microspherules examined seem to constitute a separate class of refractory inclusions, characterized by a distinct morphology and mineralogy; large excesses of Ca-48 and Ti-50, and Mg-26 depletions. It is suggested that this type of inclusions must have formed early, prior to the dilution of isotopic anomalies by mixing processes, and in an area characterized by excesses of Ca-48 and Ti-50, depletions of Mg-26, and a lack of Al-26.

  10. Pollutant sensitivity of the endangered Tar River Spinymussel as assessed by single chemical and effluent toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, Thomas P.; Wang, Ning; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    The federally endangered Tar River spinymussel (Elliptio steinstansana) is endemic to the Tar River and Neuse River systems in North Carolina. The extent to which water quality limits Tar River spinymussels’ recovery is important to establish, and one aspect of that is understanding the species’ pollutant sensitivity. The primary objectives of this study were to 1) develop captive propagation and culture methods for Tar River spinymussels; 2) determine the pollutant sensitivity of captively propagated Tar River spinymussels; 3) examine the utility of the non-endangered yellow lance (Elliptio lanceolata), yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa) and notched rainbow (Villosa constricta) as surrogates for the Tar River spinymussels’ chemical sensitivity; 4) develop a 7-d method for conducting effluent toxicity tests starting with newly transformed mussels; 5) assess the toxicity of municipal wastewater effluents discharged into the Tar River spinymussels’ current and historic habitat; and, 6) evaluate the protection afforded by existing effluent toxicity test requirements.

  11. Social comparison processes, narrative mapping and their shaping of the cancer experience: a case study of an elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, Andrew C; Pérez-Samaniego, Víctor; Smith, Brett

    2012-09-01

    Drawing on data generated by life history interviews and fieldwork observations we illuminate the ways in which a young elite athlete named David (a pseudonym) gave meaning to his experiences of cancer that eventually led to his death. Central to this process were the ways in which David utilized both social comparisons and a narrative map provided by the published autobiography of Lance Armstrong (2000). Our analysis reveals the selective manner in which social comparison processes operated around the following key dimensions: mental attitude to treatment; the sporting body; the ageing body; and physical appearance. The manner in which different comparison targets were chosen, the ways in which these were framed by Armstrong's autobiography, and the work that the restitution narrative as an actor did in this process are also examined. Some reflections are offered regarding the experiential consequences of the social comparison processes utilized by David when these are shaped by specific forms of embodiment and selective narrative maps of cancer survival.

  12. A review and update of the NASA aircraft noise prediction program propeller analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A.; Nguyen, L. Cathy

    1989-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) Propeller Analysis System (PAS) is a set of computational modules for predicting the aerodynamics, performance, and noise of propellers. The ANOPP PAS has the capability to predict noise levels for propeller aircraft certification and produce parametric scaling laws for the adjustment of measured data to reference conditions. A technical overview of the prediction techniques incorporated into the system is presented. The prediction system has been applied to predict the noise signature of a variety of propeller configurations including the effects of propeller angle of attack. A summary of these validation studies is discussed with emphasis being placed on the wind tunnel and flight test programs sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the Piper Cherokee Lance aircraft. A number of modifications and improvements have been made to the system and both DEC VAX and IBM-PC versions of the system have been added to the original CDC NOS version.

  13. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOEpatents

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  14. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOEpatents

    Schlichting, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  15. KSC-03PD-2024

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut John H. Glenn (at podium) presents former astronaut Robert 'Hoot' Gibson (standing right) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen (left), and former astronauts Sally K. Ride and Daniel Brandenstein (right), both inducted into the Hall of Fame today. Also being inducted is Space Shuttle astronaut Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  16. KSC-03PD-2025

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert 'Hoot' Gibson (at podium) addresses the audience at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen and former astronaut John H. Glenn. Also being inducted with Gibson are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  17. KSC-03PD-2026

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen (at podium) introduces four newly inducted Space Shuttle astronauts to the audience at their induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. From left center, they are Story Musgrave, Sally K. Ride, Daniel Brandenstein, and Robert 'Hoot' Gibson. Also standing, left, is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  18. KSC-03PD-2027

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen (at podium) introduces four newly inducted Space Shuttle astronauts to the audience at their induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. From left center, they are Story Musgrave, Sally K. Ride, Daniel Brandenstein, and Robert 'Hoot' Gibson. Also standing, left, is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  19. The evolving paradigm of adult cancer survivor care.

    PubMed

    Grant, Marcia; Economou, Denice

    2008-04-01

    As a result of earlier diagnosis and improved treatment, the number of cancer survivors is steadily increasing, with over 11 million in the US today. These survivors face a multitude of long-term and late effects as a result of their cancer and its treatment. It is increasingly recognized that this group has complex and ongoing needs for medical care education, surveillance, screening, and support. Many organizations have helped to advance survivorship care; key among them are the National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship, the Institute of Medicine, the Lance Armstrong Foundation, and the Office of Cancer Survivorship of the National Cancer Institute. Important reports have defined goals of care; identified interventions to improve outcomes among survivors; and recognized the need for posttreatment surveillance, healthy lifestyle behaviors, and continued research in all of these areas. With these advances, survivorship care is emerging as a distinct component of the continuum of care in oncology.

  20. Near Real-Time Capabilities for Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, C.; Durbin, P.; Duggan, B.; Das, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a Dutch instrument launched on NASA's Aura spacecraft in 2004. It measures various atmospheric constituents including ozone (column and profile), aerosols, clouds, surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance, and a number of other trace gases. The Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and NASA have developed a Near Real-time (NRT) capability for the processing system. That system has subsequently been integrated into NASA's Land Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) system. The NRT system uses slightly modified algorithms that reduce latency while still maintaining acceptable quality. The data are already being used by a number of operational users for applications such as weather models and volcanic ash warnings for aircraft. This paper will describe some characteristics of the system and highlight differences from the standard science products.

  1. Theoretical Advanced Study Institute: 2014

    SciTech Connect

    DeGrand, Thomas

    2016-08-17

    The Theoretical Advanced Study Institute (TASI) was held at the University of Colorado, Boulder, during June 2-27, 2014. The topic was "Journeys through the Precision Frontier: Amplitudes for Colliders." The organizers were Professors Lance Dixon (SLAC) and Frank Petriello (Northwestern and Argonne). There were fifty-one students. Nineteen lecturers gave sixty seventy-five minute lectures. A Proceedings was published. This TASI was unique for its large emphasis on methods for calculating amplitudes. This was embedded in a program describing recent theoretical and phenomenological developments in particle physics. Topics included introductions to the Standard Model, to QCD (both in a collider context and on the lattice), effective field theories, Higgs physics, neutrino interactions, an introduction to experimental techniques, and cosmology.

  2. Improvements and Additions to NASA Near Real-Time Earth Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cechini, Matthew; Boller, Ryan; Baynes, Kathleen; Schmaltz, Jeffrey; DeLuca, Alexandar; King, Jerome; Thompson, Charles; Roberts, Joe; Rodriguez, Joshua; Gunnoe, Taylor; Wong, Minnie; Alarcon, Christian; DeCesare, Cristina; Pressley, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    For many years, the NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) has worked closely with the Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) system to provide near real-time imagery visualizations of AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), and recently VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) science parameters. These visualizations are readily available through standard web services and the NASA Worldview client. Access to near real-time imagery provides a critical capability to GIBS and Worldview users. GIBS continues to focus on improving its commitment to providing near real-time imagery for end-user applications. The focus of this presentation will be the following completed or planned GIBS system and imagery enhancements relating to near real-time imagery visualization.

  3. Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic aquatic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Phase II studies of the R4D Program on stream and watershed ecology reflect the accomplishments and accumulation of baseline information obtained during the past studies. Although our rough estimates indicate that nitrogen inputs to the watershed ba lance losses, the carbon fluxes suggest that they are not in equilibrium and that there is a net loss of carbon from the tundra ecosystem through respiration and transport out of the watershed via the stream system. Radiocarbon profiles of soil sections coupled with mass transport calculations revealed that peat accumulation has essentially ceased in the R4D watershed and appears to be in ablative loss. Thus the carbon flux measurements provide validation tests for the PLANTGRO and GAS-HYDRO models of the PHASE II studies. These findings are also important in the context of global CO[sub 2] increases from positive feedback mechanisms in peatlands associated with climatic warming in the subarctic regions.

  4. Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic aquatic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1989-12-31

    The Phase II studies of the R4D Program on stream and watershed ecology reflect the accomplishments and accumulation of baseline information obtained during the past studies. Although our rough estimates indicate that nitrogen inputs to the watershed ba lance losses, the carbon fluxes suggest that they are not in equilibrium and that there is a net loss of carbon from the tundra ecosystem through respiration and transport out of the watershed via the stream system. Radiocarbon profiles of soil sections coupled with mass transport calculations revealed that peat accumulation has essentially ceased in the R4D watershed and appears to be in ablative loss. Thus the carbon flux measurements provide validation tests for the PLANTGRO and GAS-HYDRO models of the PHASE II studies. These findings are also important in the context of global CO{sub 2} increases from positive feedback mechanisms in peatlands associated with climatic warming in the subarctic regions.

  5. Understanding Characteristic of Abrasion of Refractory Lining Caused by Bath Oscillation in BOF Steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Li, Mingming; Kuang, S. B.; Zou, Zongshu

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the refractory abrasion occurring widely inside basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. The mechanism of refractory abrasion is examined numerically referring to the bath oscillation with regard to flows, turbulence and wall shear stress inside a BOF. The simulation results reveal that the refractory abrasion tends to occur on the wall region between the slag/atmosphere and slag/metal interfaces due to the oscillation of the bath in the blowing process, which generally promotes slag-line erosion. The decreased nozzle angle, and either increased lance height or operation pressure can lead to more serious refractory erosion that occurs more likely during the slag-making period in the operation of BOF.

  6. Quercetin promotes neurite growth through enhancing intracellular cAMP level and GAP-43 expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Ming; Yin, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Liao, Hong

    2015-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of quercetin on neurite growth in N1E-115 cells and the underlying mechanisms. Quercetin was evaluated for its effects on cell numbers of neurites, neurite length, intracellular cAMP content, and Gap-43 expression in N1E-115 cells in vitro by use of microscopy, LANCE(tm) cAMP 384 kit, and Western blot analysis, respectively. Our results showed that quercetin could increase the neurite length in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on the numbers of cells. Quercetin significantly increased the expression of cellular cAMP in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The Gap-43 expression was up-regulated in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, quercetin could promote neurite growth through increasing the intracellular cAMP level and Gap-43 expression.

  7. Bulk materials handling equipment roundup

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-07-15

    The article reports recent product developments in belt conveyors. Flexco Steel Lancing Co. (Flexco) has a range of light, portable maintenance tools and offers training modules on procedures for belt conveyor maintenance on its website www.flexcosafe.com. Siemens recently fitted a 19 km long conveyor belt drive system at a Texan aluminium plant with five 556-kW Simovent Masterdrive VC drives. Voith recently launched the TPKL-T turbo coupling for users who want an alignment-free drive solution. Belt cleaners newly on the market include the RemaClean SGB brush and ASGCO Manufacturing's Razor-Back with Spray bar. Continental Conveyor has introduced a new line of dead-shaft pulleys offering increased bearing protection. 6 photos.

  8. Isolation and characterization of histamine-producing bacteria from fermented fish products.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jin Seok; Kim, So-Young; Cho, Kyung-Ju; Yang, Seung-Joon; Yoon, Gun-Mook; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Han, Nam Soo

    2013-12-01

    Histamine is mainly produced by microorganisms that are found in fermented foods, and is frequently involved in food poisoning. Two histamine-producing bacteria were isolated from fermented fish products, anchovy sauce, and sand lance sauce by using a histidine decarboxylating medium. The species were identified as Bacillus licheniformis A7 and B. coagulans SL5. Multiplex PCR analysis showed the presence of the conserved histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene in the chromosome of these bacteria. B. licheniformis A7 and B. coagulans SL5 produced the maximum amount of histamine (22.3±3.5 and 15.1±1.5 mg/L, respectively). As such, they were determined to be potential histamine-producing bacteria among the tested cultures.

  9. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - EOSDIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research. The Earth Science Data Systems provide end-to-end capabilities to deliver data and information products to users in support of understanding the Earth system. The presentation contains photographs from space of recent events, (i.e., the effects of the tsunami in Japan, and the wildfires in Australia.) It also includes details of the Data Centers that provide the data to EOSDIS and Science Investigator-led Processing Systems. Information about the Land, Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and some of the uses that the system has made possible are reviewed. Also included is information about how to access the data, and evolutionary plans for the future of the system.

  10. Experimental study of ELF signatures developed by ballistic missile launch

    SciTech Connect

    Peglow, S.G.; Rynne, T.M.

    1993-04-08

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA) and SARA, Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. These tests involved the launch of Lance missiles with a subsequent direction of F-15Es into the launch area for subsequent detection and simulated destruction of redeployed missile launchers, LLNL and SARA deployed SARN`s ELF sensors and various data acquisition systems for monitoring of basic phenomena. On 25 January 1993, a single missile launch allowed initial measurements of the phenomena and an assessment of appropriate sensor sensitivity settings as well as the appropriateness of the sensor deployment sites (e.g., with respect to man-made ELF sources such as power distributions and communication lines). On 27 January 1993, a measurement of a double launch of Lance missiles was performed. This technical report covers the results of the analysis of latter measurements. An attempt was made to measure low frequency electromagnetic signatures that may be produced during a missile launch. Hypothetical signature production mechanisms include: (1) Perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of the missile. This signature may arise from the interaction of the ambient electric field with the conducting body of the missile as well as the partially ionized exhaust plume. (2) Production of spatial, charge sources from triboelectric-like mechanisms. Such effects may occur during the initial interaction of the missile plume with the ground material and lead to an initial {open_quotes}spike{close_quotes} output, Additionally, there may exist charge transfer mechanisms produced during the exhausting of the burnt fuel oxidizer.

  11. Quick Attach Docking Interface for Lunar Electric Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, Jason M.; Nick, Andrew J.; Immer, Christopher; Mueller, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Lunar Electric Rover (LER) has been developed at Johnson Space Center as a next generation mobility platform. Based upon a twelve wheel omni-directional chassis with active suspension the LER introduces a number of novel capabilities for lunar exploration in both manned and unmanned scenarios. Besides being the primary vehicle for astronauts on the lunar surface, LER will perform tasks such as lunar regolith handling (to include dozing, grading, and excavation), equipment transport, and science operations. In an effort to support these additional tasks a team at the Kennedy Space Center has produced a universal attachment interface for LER known as the Quick Attach. The Quick Attach is a compact system that has been retro-fitted to the rear of the LER giving it the ability to dock and undock on the fly with various implements. The Quick Attach utilizes a two stage docking approach; the first is a mechanical mate which aligns and latches a passive set of hooks on an implement with an actuated cam surface on LER. The mechanical stage is tolerant to misalignment between the implement and the LER during docking and once the implement is captured a preload is applied to ensure a positive lock. The second stage is an umbilical connection which consists of a dust resistant enclosure housing a compliant mechanism that is optionally actuated to mate electrical and fluid connections for suitable implements. The Quick Attach system was designed with the largest foreseen input loads considered including excavation operations and large mass utility attachments. The Quick Attach system was demonstrated at the Desert Research And Technology Studies (D-RA TS) field test in Flagstaff, AZ along with the lightweight dozer blade LANCE. The LANCE blade is the first implement to utilize the Quick Attach interface and demonstrated the tolerance, speed, and strength of the system in a lunar analog environment.

  12. Geology of the Cooper Ridge NE Quadrangle, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roehler, Henry W.

    1979-01-01

    The Cooper Ridge NE 7?-minute quadrangle is 18 miles southeast of Rock Springs, Wyo., on the east flank of the Rock Springs uplift. Upper Cretaceous rocks composing the Rock Springs Formation, Ericson Sandstone, Almond Formation, Lewis Shale, Fox Hills Sandstone, and Lance Formation, Paleocene rocks composing the Fort Union Formation, and Eocene rocks composing the Wasatch Formation are exposed and dip 5?-8? southeast. Outcrops are unfaulted and generally homoclinal, but a minor cross-trending fold, the Jackknife Spring anticline, plunges southeastward and interrupts the northeast strike of beds. Older rocks in the subsurface are faulted and folded, especially near the Brady oil and gas field. Coal beds are present in the Almond, Lance, and Fort Union Formations. Coal resources are estimated to be more than 762 million short tons in 16 beds more than 2.5 feet thick, under less than 3,000 ft of overburden. Nearly 166 million tons are under less than 200 ft of overburden and are recoverable by strip mining. Unknown quantities of oil and gas are present in the Cretaceous Rock Springs, Blair, and Dakota Formations, Jurassic sandstone (Entrada Sandstone of drillers), Jurassic(?) and Triassic(?) Nugget Sandstone, Permian Park City Formation, and Pennsylvanian and Permian Weber Sandstone at the Brady field, part of which is in the southeast corner of the quadrangle, and in the Dakota Sandstone at the Prenalta Corp. Bluewater 33-32 well near the northern edge of the quadrangle. Other minerals include uranium in the Almond Formation and titanium in the Rock Springs Formation.

  13. Solid state 13C NMR analysis of shales and coals from Laramide Basins. Final report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Miknis, F.P.; Jiao, Z.S.; Zhao, Hanqing; Surdam, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    This Western Research Institute (WRI) jointly sponsored research (JSR) project augmented and complemented research conducted by the University of Wyoming Institute For Energy Research for the Gas Research Institute. The project, {open_quotes}A New Innovative Exploitation Strategy for Gas Accumulations Within Pressure Compartments,{close_quotes} was a continuation of a project funded by the GRI Pressure Compartmentalization Program that began in 1990. That project, {open_quotes}Analysis of Pressure Chambers and Seals in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana,{close_quotes} characterized a new class of hydrocarbon traps, the discovery of which can provide an impetus to revitalize the domestic petroleum industry. In support of the UW Institute For Energy Research`s program on pressure compartmentalization, solid-state {sup 13}C NMR measurements were made on sets of shales and coals from different Laramide basins in North America. NMR measurements were made on samples taken from different formations and depths of burial in the Alberta, Bighorn, Denver, San Juan, Washakie, and Wind River basins. The carbon aromaticity determined by NMR was shown to increase with depth of burial and increased maturation. In general, the NMR data were in agreement with other maturational indicators, such as vitrinite reflectance, illite/smectite ratio, and production indices. NMR measurements were also obtained on residues from hydrous pyrolysis experiments on Almond and Lance Formation coals from the Washakie Basin. These data were used in conjunction with mass and elemental balance data to obtain information about the extent of carbon aromatization that occurs during artificial maturation. The data indicated that 41 and 50% of the original aliphatic carbon in the Almond and Lance coals, respectively, aromatized during hydrous pyrolysis.

  14. Post-hypoxic Myoclonus: Current Concepts, Neurophysiology, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Harsh V.; Caviness, John N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Myoclonus may occur after hypoxia. In 1963, Lance and Adams described persistent myoclonus with other features after hypoxia. However, myoclonus occurring immediately after hypoxia may demonstrate different syndromic features from classic Lance–Adams syndrome (LAS). The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date information about the spectrum of myoclonus occurring after hypoxia with emphasis on neurophysiological features. Methods A literature search was performed on PubMed database from 1960 to 2015. The following search terms were used: “myoclonus,” “post anoxic myoclonus,” “post hypoxic myoclonus,” and “Lance Adams syndrome.” The articles describing clinical features, neurophysiology, management, and prognosis of post-hypoxic myoclonus cases were included for review. Results Several reports in the literature were separated clinically into “acute post-hypoxic myoclonus,” which occurred within hours of severe hypoxia, and “chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus,” which occurred with some recovery of mental status as the LAS. Acute post-hypoxic myoclonus was generalized in the setting of coma. Chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus presented as multifocal cortical action myoclonus that was significantly disabling. There was overlap of neurophysiological findings for these two syndromes but also different features. Treatment options for these two distinct clinical–neurophysiologic post-hypoxic myoclonus syndromes were approached differently. Discussion The review of clinical and neurophysiological findings suggests that myoclonus after hypoxia manifests in one or a combination of distinct syndromes: acute and/or chronic myoclonus. The mechanism of post-hypoxic myoclonus may arise either from cortical and/or subcortical structures. More research is needed to clarify mechanisms and treatment of post-hypoxic myoclonus. PMID:27708982

  15. Does breastfeeding reduce acute procedural pain in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit? A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Holsti, Liisa; Oberlander, Timothy F; Brant, Rollin

    2011-11-01

    Managing acute procedural pain effectively in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit remains a significant problem. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of breastfeeding for reducing pain and to determine if breastfeeding skills were altered after this treatment. Fifty-seven infants born at 30-36 weeks gestational age were randomized to be breastfed (BF) or to be given a soother during blood collection. Changes in the Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain (BIIP) and in mean heart rate (HR) across 3 phases of blood collection were measured. In the BF group, the Premature Infant Breastfeeding Behaviors (PIBBS) scale was scored before and 24 hours after blood collection. Longitudinal regression analysis was used to compare changes in Lance/squeeze and Recovery phases of blood collection between groups, with gestational age at birth, baseline BIIP scores, and mean HR included as covariates. Differences in PIBBS scores were assessed using a paired t-test. Relationships between PIBBS scores, BIIP scores, and HR were evaluated with Pearson correlations. No differences between treatment groups were found: BIIP (P=0.44, confidence interval [CI] -1.60-0.69); HR (P=0.73, CI -7.0-10.0). Infants in the BF group showed improved PIBBS scores after the treatment (P<0.01, CI -2.7 to -0.2). Lower BIIP scores during the Lance/squeeze were associated significantly with more mature sucking patterns (r=-0.39, P<0.05). Breastfeeding during blood collection did not reduce pain indices or interfere with the acquisition of breastfeeding skills. Exploratory analyses indicate there may be benefit for infants with mature breastfeeding abilities.

  16. A design study for the isolation of the 281-3H retention basin at the Savannah River Site using the viscous liquid barrier technology

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, G.J.; Persoff, P.; Apps, J.; James, A.; Oldenburg, C.; McGrath, A.; Myer, L.; Pellerin, L.; Pruess, K.

    1996-11-01

    This report is a description of the design study for a pilot-scale field demonstration of the Viscous Liquid Barrier (VLB) technology, a new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The demonstration site was Retention Basin 281-3H, a shallow catchment basin at the Savannah River Site, which is contaminated mainly by radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 238}Pu). The goals of the field demonstration were (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier in order to isolate the contaminants, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier. The site was characterized, and preliminary hydraulic conductivity data were obtained from core samples. Based on the site characteristics and the functional requirements, a conceptual model was developed, the barrier specifications were defined, and lance injection was selected as the emplacement method. The injection strategy for the subsurface conditions at the site was determined using numerical simulations. An appropriate variant of Colloidal Silica (CS) was selected as the barrier liquid based on its relative insensitivity to interactions with the site soils, and the formulation for optimum site performance was determined. A barrier verification strategy, including hydraulic, pneumatic, tracer, and geophysical methods, was developed. A lance water injection test was conducted in order to obtain representative estimates of the hydraulic conductivity and its distribution for the design of the barrier emplacement. The water injection test demonstrated the lack of permeable zones for CS injection, and a decision not to proceed with the barrier emplacement was reached.

  17. Mechanisms and Kinetics of Boron Removal from Silicon by Humidified Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarian, Jafar; Tang, Kai; Olsen, Jan Erik; Andersson, Stefan; Tranell, Gabriella; Hildal, Kjetil

    2016-04-01

    The removal of boron from silicon by top blowing of humidified hydrogen has been studied in the present work through experimental work, thermodynamic calculations, computational fluid dynamic modeling, and quantum chemistry calculations. The effect of process parameters; temperature, lance diameter, lance distance from the melt surface, gas flow rate, and crucible material on the kinetics of boron removal were studied. It has been shown that the rate of boron removal is decreased with increasing temperature due to the competitive reactions between silicon and oxygen as well as boron and oxygen, which can be confirmed with the increases of p SiO/ p HBO in the system. The rate of boron removal is increased with increasing the gas flow rate due mainly to the better supply and transport of the gas over the melt surface, as confirmed by the CFD modeling. Moreover, the rate of boron removal in alumina crucible is the highest followed by that in quartz and graphite crucibles, respectively. Faster B removal in quartz crucible than that in graphite crucible can be attributed to more oxygen dissolves in silicon melts. The fastest boron removal in alumina crucible is attributed to the additional boron gasification through aluminum borate (AlBO2) formation on the melt surface. Thermodynamic properties of the AlBO2 species have thus been revised by quantum chemistry calculations, which were more accurate to describe the formation of gaseous AlBO2 than those in the JANAF Thermochemical Tables. The main chemical reactions for boron gasification from silicon melts are proposed as In graphite, quartz and alumina crucible:quad \\underline{{B}} + \\underline{{H}} + \\underline{{O}} = {{ HBO}}( {{g}} ) {{In alumina crucible}}:\\underline{{Al}} + \\underline{{B}} + \\underline{{O}} = {{ AlBO}}2 ( {{g}} ) Based on the obtained results, it has been proposed that boron removal from silicon melt by humidified hydrogen is controlled both by the chemical reaction for boron gasification and

  18. Turbulence and heat flux observations in the Arctic north of Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Amelie; Sundfjord, Arild; Fer, Ilker; Smedsrud, Lars Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Heat fluxes and mixing between the ocean and the sea ice in the Arctic is fundamental to understanding the new first year sea ice regime and consequences for regional and global ocean circulation. Here we present observations collected between January and June 2015 during the Norwegian Young sea Ice (N-ICE2015) campaign in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard. In January 2015, the Norwegian research vessel Lance was frozen into the ice at 83o.3N 21.5oE. Oceanographic, atmospheric, sea ice, snow and biological data were collected above, on, and below the ice using R/V Lance as the base for the ice camp that was drifting south towards the Fram Strait. Over the following six months, four different drifts took place in the same area, from the Nansen Basin, through the Marginal Ice Zone, to the open ocean. Throughout the drifts, the oceanography team collected turbulence measurements to estimate mixing, heat, salt, and momentum fluxes in the ice-ocean boundary layer and between the sub-surface warm Atlantic Water layer and the ice-ocean boundary layer close to freezing point. Water tracer data was collected to map water mass properties, and the distribution of the Atlantic Water inflow. Here we present 600 under-ice microstructure profiles spanning five months, from the deep Nansen Basin to the Yermak Plateau. During this period, several large atmospheric storms took place, forcing a fast drift of the ice camp. Tides were weak in the Nansen Basin and strong on the Yermak Plateau. We investigate vertical heat fluxes between the Atlantic Water layer and the surface mixed layer. Variations in mixing and heat fluxes are interpreted in terms of atmospheric forcing and regional topography.

  19. Validation of impact penetrometer data by cone penetration testing and shallow seismic data within the regional geology of the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Sebastian; Kaul, Norbert; Villinger, Heinrich

    2015-06-01

    This study presents the assessment of total cone resistance from in situ deceleration measurements using the Lance Insertion Retardation meter (LIRmeter) in the Southern North Sea. The penetrometer is equipped with a measurement lance that is up to 6 m in length. The aim was to validate LIRmeter data interpretation within the regional geological context by comparison with static velocity cone penetration testing (CPT) and sub-bottom profiles. In total, 13 datasets were taken, in addition to preexisting hydroacoustical and static velocity CPT datasets. The dynamically acquired data were processed and compared to the reference static velocity data. The validation encourages the use of acceleration-based dynamic penetration tests, since a high degree of agreement was demonstrated between independently acquired dynamic and static cone resistance data. Moreover, the results reveal evidence of two successive formations with different geotechnical properties, consistent with existing knowledge on the regional setting. Additionally, there is novel indication of an incised glacial valley with muddy low-permeability sediments extending much further than reported to date, which would necessitate updating of older maps. The main advantage of penetrometer-based deceleration measurements lies in the robustness of the method, and the reliability of the sensors. However, penetration depth is, for dimensioning reasons, limited to the order of a few meters. Additionally, data processing includes the dependency of knowledge about the soil type to correct the dynamic data. These limitations can be satisfactorily outweighed by combination with reference data from static velocity tests, as demonstrated by integrating these data into a soil classification scheme.

  20. Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

    1986-05-01

    Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected and each water sample was analyzed for U, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including U and Th. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 1.14 to 220.70 ppM and have a median of 3.37 ppM and a mean of 4.03 ppM. Throughout the major uranium mining districts of the Powder River Basin, sediment samples with high uranium concentrations were collected from dry streams located near wells producing water samples with high uranium concentrations. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek oil field where uranium mineralization is known in the White River formation. High uranium concentrations were also found in sediment samples in areas where uranium mineralization is not known. These samples are from dry streams in areas underlain by the White River formation, the Niobrara formation, and the Pierre, Carlisle, Belle Fourche, and Mowry shales.

  2. N-ICE2015: Multi-disciplinary study of the young sea ice system north of Svalbard from winter to summer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, Harald; Granskog, Mats; Assmy, Philipp; Duarte, Pedro; Hudson, Stephen; Gerland, Sebastian; Spreen, Gunnar; Smedsrud, Lars H.

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is shifting to a new regime with a thinner and smaller sea-ice area cover. Until now, winter sea ice extent has changed less than during summer, as the heat loss to the atmosphere during autumn and winter is large enough form an ice cover in most regions. The insulating snow cover also heavily influences the winter ice growth. Consequently, the older, thicker multi-year sea ice has been replace by a younger and thinner sea. These large changes in the sea ice cover may have dramatic consequences for ecosystems, energy fluxes and ultimately atmospheric circulation and the Northern Hemisphere climate. To study the effects of the changing Arctic the Norwegian Polar Institute, together with national and international partners, launched from January 11 to June 24, 2015 the Norwegian Young Sea ICE cruise 2015 (N-ICE2015). N-ICE2015 was a multi-disciplinary cruise aimed at simultaneously studying the effect of the Arctic Ocean changes in the sea ice, the atmosphere, in radiation, in ecosystems. as well as water chemistry. R/V Lance was frozen into the drift ice north of Svalbard at about N83 E25 and drifted passively southwards with the ice until she was broken loose. When she was loose, R/V Lance was brought back north to a similar starting position. While fast in the ice, she served as a living and working platform for 100 scientist and engineers from 11 countries. One aim of N-ICE2015 is to present a comprehensive data-set on the first year ice dominated system available for the scientific community describing the state and changes of the Arctic sea ice system from freezing to melt. Analyzing the data is progressing and some first results will be presented.

  3. Curability of cancer by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, including in neuraxial neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Rakesh; Munshi, Anusheel; Arora, Brijesh

    2009-01-01

    In the October of 1996, Lance Armstrong, celebrated cyclist and one of the greatest athletes the world has ever seen, at the age of 24, was diagnosed with metastatic testicular cancer with disease having already spread to his abdomen, lungs and brain. Lance underwent four cycles of chemotherapy, actually the pretty standard one, pioneered at the Indiana University and not only did he get completely cured of his cancer, he remains extremely well till date, 12 years later. He sure did have a few adverse effects during those cycles of chemotherapy in the form of nausea, vomiting, weakness and fall in blood count but he knew and experienced them only for a short transient time and emerged triumphant and strong. In fact, he went on to win six awe-inspiring and incredible successive Tours de France victories from 1999-2005, one of the most grueling sporting events testing the endurance of the very fittest. After his retirement, he has been so inspired that he has completely devoted himself to educate people about the common myths about cancer, and promised to raise awareness and generate money for furthering research into surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy for cancer through his foundation. He says "I am indebted to the doctors, nurses and medicine and would want to pay them back for all their energy and caring." In his successful journey of overcoming cancer, he captures the essence of its treatment so well by declaring "Pain is temporary, it may last a minute, or an hour, or a day, or a year, but eventually, it will subside and something else will take its place. If I quit, however, it will last forever".

  4. Miniaturized Temperature Data Loggers for Deep Sea Sediment Temperature Gradient Measurements: Examples From TICOFLUX I and Cruises on R/V 'SONNE'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfender, M.; Villinger, H.; Fisher, A. T.; Silver, E.; Stein, C.; Harris, R. N.; Wheat, G.; Wang, K.; Cherkaoui, A.; Hutnak, M.; Friedmann, P.; Bodzin, R.; Cleary, R.

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the expedition 'TICOFLUX I' off Costa Rica margin was to determine the hydrothermal circulation pattern and the thermal state of the subducting plate seaward of the trench. The University of Bremen contributed to these investigations with a new probe for autonomous high precision temperature measurements which has been extensively tested during preceding expeditions. Our main application for these miniaturized temperature data loggers (MTLs) is the measurement of temperature gradients in deep sea by attaching the loggers on the outside walls of long lances, gravity or piston corers. The MTLs are extremely robust, small (17.3 cm long) and easy to operate in waterdepths up to 6000 m. The temperature range extends from -5 to +60 oC with a resolution of 1 mK. The absolute accuracy is +/-0.1 K and can be improved to several mK by a calibration with a high precision thermometer. Sampling rate and logging duration can be set independently from each other. With the non volatile memory of 64800 measurements and the highest sample rate of 1 s up to 18 hours of recording can be stored. To program the logger and download the data, the instrument is mounted into a read-out unit without opening the pressure case. During the cruise 'EW0104' we used the loggers as outriggers on a routine basis on 10 gravity and 6 piston corers. We derived reliable temperature gradients on all locations and will present the examples of records and processing in this poster. In addition, we will show pogo-style measurements where outriggers were mounted on a 6 m long lance. Our experience with these instruments is very positive so that the loggers can be recommended for a wide variety of marine science applications wherever a high precision temperature measurement is required.

  5. NMR and mass spectrometric characterization of vinblastine, vincristine and some new related impurities--part II.

    PubMed

    Háda, Viktor; Dubrovay, Zsófia; Lakó-Futó, Agnes; Galambos, János; Gulyás, Zoltán; Aranyi, Antal; Szántay, Csaba

    2013-10-01

    In the course of developing a new, improved process at Gedeon Richter for the production of the "bisindole" alkaloids vinblastine (VLB) and vincristine (VCR), some novel VLB/VCR-related trace impurities were detected by analytical HPLC at the production site. Repeated attempts to isolate and purify these unknown impurities by preparative liquid chromatography yielded small amounts of materials whose main components were the unknown impurities, but were still contaminated with other VLB/VCR-related compounds. In spite of these difficulties, by using a combination of high-resolution (LC-)MS/MS and off-line 1D and 2D ultra high-field NMR techniques and leaning on the relevant spectroscopic data for VLB and VCR as discussed in Part 1 [1], we could unambiguously solve the structures of, and could give a complete spectral characterization for, the trace impurities. Among these, although "cyclo-VCR" (impurity-2), "[VCR]-C(16)-COOEt" (impurity-4) and "[VLB]-C(16)-COOEt" (impurity-5) are known synthetic VLB/VCR-derivatives, and "[VLB]-C(14')-OH(α)" is a known natural alkaloid (leurocolombine), they are new VLB/VCR impurities, and "[VCR]-N(4')-C(21')-iminium-salt" (impurity-3) is also a new chemical structure which provides direct proof of a hypothetic metabolic pathway of VLB/VCR. The structure determination of impurity-4 and impurity-5, and the rationalization of their origin was a particularly challenging task: since VCR is produced by the oxidation of VLB, it may be assumed that [VCR]-C(16)-COOEt (impurity-4) originates from the oxidization of [VLB]-C(16)-COOEt (impurity-5). This is consistent with the finding that [VLB]-C(16)-COOEt (impurity-5) could be detected by LC-MS/MS in the raw VLB samples in similar amounts as [VCR]-C(16)-COOEt (impurity-4) in the final VCR product. Our investigations indicate that [VLB]-C(16)-COOEt (impurity-5) does not form directly from VLB during extraction or chromatographic separation, suggesting that it may be a new natural product.

  6. Helical Majorana fermions in d+id'-wave topological superconductivity of doped correlated quantum spin Hall insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chung-Hou; Sun, Shih-Jye; Chang, Yung-Yeh; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Fuchun

    Large Hubbard U limit of the Kane-Mele model on a zigzag ribbon of honeycomb lattice near half-filling is studied via a renormalized mean-field theory. The ground state exhibits time-reversal symmetry (TRS) breaking dx2 -y2 + idxy -wave superconductivity. At large spin-orbit coupling, the Z2 topological phase with non-trivial spin Chern number in the pure Kane-Mele model is persistent into the TRS broken state (called ``spin-Chern phase''), and has two pairs of counter-propagating helical Majorana modes at the edges. As the spin-orbit coupling is reduced, the system undergoes a topological quantum phase transition from the spin-Chern to chiral superconducting states. Possible relevance of our results to adatom-doped graphene and irridate compounds is discussed.Ref.:Shih-Jye Sun, Chung-Hou Chung, Yung-Yeh Chang, Wei-Feng Tsai, and Fu-Chun Zhang, arXiv:1506.02584. CHC acknowledges support from NSC Grant No. 98-2918-I-009-06, No. 98-2112-M-009-010-MY3, the NCTU-CTS, the MOE-ATU program, the NCTS of Taiwan, R.O.C.

  7. [Dr. Choi Myung-Hak, the first modern Korean anatomist].

    PubMed

    Park, H W; Yeo, I S

    1992-01-01

    Though it is known that the concept of anatomy was introduced in the age of Three Kingdoms, anatomy in modern sense meaning was introduced in late Chosun Dynasty by western missionary doctors. From that time on the lecture of anatomy was not given by anatomists until early 1910s. The first Korean anatomist of medical school graduates was Choi Myung Hak, graduated from Severance Union Medical College (SUMC) in 1926. He was born in 1898 at Ham Heung (Ham Gyung Nam Do Province), and entered SUMC in 1922 and graduated in 1926. He was in charge of anatomy for two years after graduation, and then he went to Kyoto Imperial University Medical College (KIUMC) and reserched under the direction of Dr. Ogawa in the field of experimental embryology and histology. He returned to Korea in 1930 and then became a lecturer in January 1931. His Doctorial thesis was recepted by KIUMC on April 18th 1932. So he became the first Korean Doctor of anatomy. He promoted to professor in February 1922. His publications can be seen in Folia anatomica Japonica. In 1934 he became a councillor of the Japanese Association of Anatomist. He resigned SUMC because of some kind of problem of the school. From that time on Chung, Il-Chun who was appointed as a lecturer in 1934 was in charge of department of anatomy.

  8. Mass to Luminosity Ratios of Some Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Young-Jong; Chun, Mun-Suk

    1990-12-01

    Luminosity profiles and dynamical parameters of 12 globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud(SB(s)m) are obtained from the concentric aperture photoelectric photometry of 3 different aged clusters and the collected photometric data of 9 clusters. The total masses of the globular clusters are the calculated using the equation M = Mrt3(4¥Ø2-k2), which is derived from the theoretical rotation curve for the exponential disk(Chun 1987). These masses lie between 0.3 x 104 and 15.8 x 104 M . From the determined total mass and luminosity ratios are also derived. The M/L ratio of a cluster increases with the cluster age; about 0.03 for the youngest clusters(SWB ¥°) and about 0.24 for the oldest clusters(SUB ¥¶). There is a difference in M/L by a factor of 10 between the galactic globular clusters and the old globular clusters in the LCM.

  9. The emissions of major aromatic VOC as landfill gas from urban landfill sites in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Baek, Sung Ok; Choi, Ye-Jin; Sunwoo, Young; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Hong, J H

    2006-07-01

    In this study, concentrations of major aromatic VOCs were determined from landfill gas (LFG) at a total of five municipal landfill sites in Korea including Nan Ji (NJ), Woon Jung (WJ), Sam Poong (SP), Hoei Chun (HC), and No Hyung (NH). The concentration levels of those VOC were found to be significantly different, mainly as a function of such a parameter as landfill aging. The VOC concentrations measured from the unclosed landfill sites (e.g., WJ) were characterized by exceedingly high values above a few tens of ppm. However, the results of the abandoned site (e.g., SP) were about three orders of magnitude lower than the others so as to merely exceed the typical ambient concentration levels. It was most striking to find a systematic dominance of toluene over other aromatic VOC under most circumstances. The LFG flux values of all aromatic VOC and the four specific major ones (termed as BTEX: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) were also computed for each vent pipe from all study sites using their concentrations and the concurrently determined environmental parameters. The results, if calculated in terms of the average BTEX quantity emitted per vent pipe, showed that the magnitude of their emissions can vary substantially, with the values ranging from 0.05 (SP) to 49.2 kg yr(-1) (WJ in wintertime). The LFG flux values of aromatic VOC, when compared to the contribution of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), were able to explain a constant, but minor, proportion of the LFG carbon budget.

  10. A new traffic model with a lane-changing viscosity term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Hung-Tang; Liu, Xiao-He; Guo, Ming-Min; Wu, Zheng

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a new continuum traffic flow model is proposed, with a lane-changing source term in the continuity equation and a lane-changing viscosity term in the acceleration equation. Based on previous literature, the source term addresses the impact of speed difference and density difference between adjacent lanes, which provides better precision for free lane-changing simulation; the viscosity term turns lane-changing behavior to a “force” that may influence speed distribution. Using a flux-splitting scheme for the model discretization, two cases are investigated numerically. The case under a homogeneous initial condition shows that the numerical results by our model agree well with the analytical ones; the case with a small initial disturbance shows that our model can simulate the evolution of perturbation, including propagation, dissipation, cluster effect and stop-and-go phenomenon. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11002035 and 11372147) and Hui-Chun Chin and Tsung-Dao Lee Chinese Undergraduate Research Endowment (Grant No. CURE 14024).

  11. Occurrence and HAT-RAPD analysis of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Butboonchoo, Preeyaporn; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2017-01-01

    The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results revealed that the total prevalence of infection was 99.2%. Cestode and nematode infections showed the highest prevalence in rainy season, while trematode infections were low and only found in hot season. The species and their prevalence were: Ascaridia galli (50.8%), Heterakis gallinarum (86.7%), Prosthogonimus macrorchis (1.7%), Echinostoma revolutum (0.8%), Raillietina echinobothrida (48.3%), Raillietina tetragona (57.5%), Raillietina cesticillus (12.5%), Raillietina sp. (35.8%), Cotugnia chiangmaii (14.2%) and Cotugnia sp. (32.5%). The prevalence of helminth infections did not differ significantly between male and female chickens. HAT-RAPD analysis, the specific fragment of 400 and 250 bp indicated that Raillietina sp. and Cotugnia sp. found, respectively, differ from other closely related species. This study has confirmed that HAT-RAPD technique can be used to differentiate among related species combined with morphological observations.

  12. Time-bin-encoding-based remote states generation of nitrogen-vacancy centers through noisy channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shi-Lei; Chen, Li; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

    2015-02-01

    We design proposals to generate a remote Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and a W state of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers coupled to microtoroidal resonators (MTRs) through noisy channels by utilizing time-bin encoding processes and fast-optical-switch-based polarization rotation operations. The polarization and phase noise induced by noisy channels generally affect the time of state generation but not its success probability and fidelity. Besides, the above proposals can be generalized to n-qubit between two or among n remote nodes with success probability unity under ideal conditions. Furthermore, the proposals are robust for regular noise-changeable channels for the n-node case. This method is also useful in other remote quantum information processing tasks through noisy channels. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11264042, 61465013, 11465020, and 11165015), the Program for Chun Miao Excellent Talents of Jilin Provincial Department of Education (Grant No. 201316), and the Talent Program of Yanbian University of China (Grant No. 950010001).

  13. Some recent work on the curvaton paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyth, David H.

    2005-11-01

    I review the simplest curvaton scenario. Using a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson as curvaton avoids the η-problem of inflation which plagues most curvaton candidates. Then I report on a collaboration with E. J. Chun and K. Dimopoulos, describing a concrete realization of the curvaton mechanism. It uses a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson can be found in the supersymmetric Peccei-Quinn mechanism resolving the strong CP problem. In the flaton models of Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking, the angular degree of freedom associated with the QCD axion can naturally be a flat direction during inflation and provides successful curvature perturbations. In this scheme, the preferred values of the axion scale and the Hubble parameter during inflation turn out to be about 10 10 GeV and 10 12 GeV, respectively. Moreover, it is found that a significant isocurvature component, (anti)correlated to the overall curvature perturbation, can be generated, which is a smoking-gun for the curvaton scenario. Finally, non-Gaussianity in the perturbation spectrum at potentially observable level is also possible.

  14. Modern observations of the effect of earthquakes on the Chandler wobble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smylie, D. E.; Henderson, Gary A.; Zuberi, Midhat

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes have long been postulated as the source of excitation of the Chandler wobble (Mansinha and Smylie, 1967). More recently, the classical astronometric observations of the polar motion have been replaced by very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations with an improvement in accuracy by a factor of several thousand. We analyze the record of nearly 29 years of VLBI polar motion observations from the Goddard Space Flight Center. In addition to the Chandler wobble, the polar motion has annual components making the analysis more difficult. The present study extends the polar motion sequence in both directions by the maximum entropy method (MEM). This allows the annual components, both the prograde motion and a weaker retrograde motion, to be identified and removed, leaving a pure Chandler wobble and secular polar shift. In the absence of excitation, the free Chandler wobble is closely a prograde circular motion. Circular arcs are fitted to the pole path, free of the annual components, to determine breaks corresponding to sudden excitations. The event times of earthquakes of magnitude greater than or equal to 7.5 are shown on the plotted pole paths. Often, the effects on the pole path precede the earthquake by many days, confirming the establishment of the far-field displacements in advance of the earthquake. The precursory rise in P-wave attenuation before the 2004 Parkfield earthquake, as discovered by Chun et al. (2010), may indicate a similar effect from local deformations.

  15. The mediating role of cultural coping behaviours on the relationships between academic stress and positive psychosocial well-being outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ben C H; Soucie, Kendall M; Huang, Siqi; Laith, Refa

    2017-03-10

    While culture's effect on the coping process has long been acknowledged in the stress-coping literature conceptually, empirical evidence and attempts to discern the specific relationship between culture and coping remain very scarce. Against this backdrop, the present study applied the Cultural Transactional Theory (Chun, Moos, & Cronkite, 2006) to examine the mediating role of cultural coping behaviours (Collective, Engagement and Avoidance Coping) on the relationship between academic stress (AS) and two positive psychosocial well-being outcome measures: Collective Self-esteem (CSE) and Subjective Well-being (SWB). Responses from a sample of undergraduate students in Canada (N = 328) were analysed to test a theory-driven, hypothesised model of coping using structural equation modelling (SEM). As hypothesised, the SEM results showed that: (a) the proposed cultural coping model fit the data well; (b) Engagement Coping and Collective Coping partially mediated the association between AS and the outcomes and (c) the path relationships among the constructs were in the hypothesised directions. A set of preliminary exploratory analyses indicated that Collective Coping was most strongly endorsed by the African/Black and the Middle Eastern cultural groups as compared to other ethnic groups. Implications of the study's findings for future research and practice concerning culture, stress, and coping are discussed.

  16. Route-to-route extrapolation of the toxic potency of MTBE.

    PubMed

    Dourson, M L; Felter, S P

    1997-12-01

    MTBE is a volatile organic compound used as an oxygenating agent in gasoline. Inhalation from fumes while refueling automobiles is the principle route of exposure for humans, and toxicity by this route has been well studied. Oral exposures to MTBE exist as well, primarily due to groundwater contamination from leaking stationary sources, such as underground storage tanks. Assessing the potential public health impacts of oral exposures to MTBE is problematic because drinking water studies do not exist for MTBE, and the few oil-gavage studies from which a risk assessment could be derived are limited. This paper evaluates the suitability of the MTBE database for conducting an inhalation route-to-oral route extrapolation of toxicity. This includes evaluating the similarity of critical effect between these two routes, quantifiable differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, and sufficiency of toxicity data by the inhalation route. We conclude that such an extrapolation is appropriate and have validated the extrapolation by finding comparable toxicity between a subchronic gavage oral bioassay and oral doses we extrapolate from a subchronic inhalation bioassay. Our results are extended to the 2-year inhalation toxicity study by Chun et al. (1992) in which rats were exposed to 0, 400, 3000, or 8000 ppm MTBE for 6 hr/d, 5 d/wk. We have estimated the equivalent oral doses to be 0, 130, 940, or 2700 mg/kg/d. These equivalent doses may be useful in conducting noncancer and cancer risk assessments.

  17. Conformation and translational diffusion of a xanthan polyelectrolyte chain: Brownian dynamics simulation and single molecule tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Myung-Suk; Kim, Chongyoup; Lee, Duck E.

    2009-05-01

    In our recent Brownian dynamics (BD) simulation study, the structure and dynamics of anionic polyelectrolyte xanthan in bulk solution as well as confined spaces of slitlike channel were examined by applying a coarse-grained model with nonlinear bead-spring discretization of a whole chain [J. Jeon and M.-S. Chun, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 154904 (2007)]. This model goes beyond other simulations as they did not consider both long-range electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions between pairs of beads. Simulation parameters are obtained from the viscometric method of rheology data on the native and sonicated xanthan polysaccharides, which have a contour length less than 1μm . The size of the semiflexible polyelectrolyte can be well described by the wormlike chain model once the electrostatic effects are taken into account by the persistence length measured at a long length scale. For experimental verifications, single molecule visualization was performed on fluorescein-labeled xanthan using an inverted fluorescence microscope, and the motion of an individual molecule was quantified. Experimental results on the conformational changes in xanthan chain in the electrolyte solution have a reasonable trend to agree with the prediction by BD simulations. In the translational diffusion induced by the Debye screening effect, the simulation prediction reveals slightly higher values compared to those of our measurements, although it agrees with the literature data. Considering the experimental restrictions, our BD simulations are verified to model the single polyelectrolyte well.

  18. Inequality and ethics in paediatric HIV remission research: From Mississippi to South Africa and back.

    PubMed

    Crane, Johanna T; Rossouw, Theresa M

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, physician-researchers announced that a baby in Mississippi had been 'functionally cured' of HIV [Persaud, D., Gay, H., Ziemniak, C. F., Chen, Y. H., Piatak, M., Chun, T.-W., … Luzuriaga, K. (2013b, March). Functional HIV cure after very early ART of an infected infant. Paper presented at the 20th conference on retroviruses and opportunistic infections, Atlanta, GA]. Though the child later developed a detectable viral load, the case remains unprecedented, and trials to build on the findings are planned [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (2014). 'Mississippi baby' now has detectable HIV, researchers find. Retrieved from http://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2014/pages/mississippibabyhiv.aspx ]. Whether addressing HIV 'cure' or 'remission', scrutiny of this case has focused largely on scientific questions, with only introductory attention to ethics. The social inequalities and gaps in care that made the discovery possible - and their ethical implications for paediatric HIV remission - have gone largely unexamined. This paper describes structural inequalities surrounding the 'Mississippi baby' case and a parallel case in South Africa, where proof-of-concept studies are in the early stages. We argue that an ethical programme of research into infant HIV remission ought to be 'structurally competent', and recommend that paediatric remission studies consider including a research component focused on social protection and barriers to care.

  19. Retraction RETRACTION of "Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant", by L.-H. Cao, P.-L. Zhao, Z.-M. Liu, S.-C. Sun, D.-B. Xu, J.-D. Zhang and Z.-H. Shao - Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (4): 15539-15546 (2015).

    PubMed

    Cao, L-H; Zhao, P-L; Liu, Z-M; Sun, S-C; Xu, D-B; Zhang, J-D; Shao, Z-H

    2016-10-07

    The retracted article is: Cao L-H, Zhao P-L, Liu Z-M, Sun S-C, et al. (2015). Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant. Genet. Mol. Res. 14: 15539-15546. The article published in Genetics and Molecular Research 14 (4): 15539-15546 (2015) is a very good paper, but it appears that the authors' group submitted this manuscript to multiple journals, which is ethical misconduct. This manuscript (similar language and identical data) was published in the Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine Journal prior to being submitted to GMR. There are parts copied from "Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogs on blocking father-to-infant vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus", by Li-Hau Cao, Pei-Li Zhao, Zhi-Min Liu, Shao-Chun Sun, et al. Exp. Ther. Med. 9 (6): 2251-2256 (2015) - DOI: 10.3892/etm.2015.2379. The GMR editorial staff was alerted and after a thorough investigation, there is strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure. Also, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract this article in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics.

  20. Erratum: ``On the Evolution of Star-forming Galaxies'' (ApJ, 615, 209 [2004])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    The star formation rate (SFR) density values reported in my 2004 paper for the data taken from D. W. Hogg et al. (ApJ, 615, 209 [2004]) are in error. The original cosmology conversion factor used was incorrect, and the values listed in Table 2 for both C1 and ρ˙*com are in error. Moreover, the (incorrect) value reported for C1 was not that used in calculating the (incorrect) values of ρ˙*com. The correct cosmology conversion leads to SFR density values that are smaller than those given in the original paper by amounts decreasing monotonically from ~43% for the z=0.2 bin to ~30% for the z=1.2 bin, as indicated by A. M. Hopkins & J. F. Beacom (ApJ, 615, 209 [2004]), who show an updated version of the star formation history diagram (compare their Fig. 1 with my original Fig. 1). The correct SFR density values are given here in a new Table 1, which has the same format as Table 2 of my original paper, although the table notes are omitted here. Apart from the location of the corresponding data points in Figure 1, this error does not significantly alter any of the results or conclusions of the original paper. I thank Chun Ly for bringing this error to my attention.

  1. Visual search and contextual cueing: differential effects in 10-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Couperus, Jane W; Hunt, Ruskin H; Nelson, Charles A; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2011-02-01

    The development of contextual cueing specifically in relation to attention was examined in two experiments. Adult and 10-year-old participants completed a context cueing visual search task (Jiang & Chun, The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A(4), 1105-1124, 2001) containing stimuli presented in an attended (e.g., red) and unattended (e.g., green) color. When the spatial configuration of stimuli in the attended and unattended color was invariant and consistently paired with the target location, adult reaction times improved, demonstrating learning. Learning also occurred if only the attended stimuli's configuration remained fixed. In contrast, while 10 year olds, like adults, showed incrementally slower reaction times as the number of attended stimuli increased, they did not show learning in the standard paradigm. However, they did show learning when the ratio of attended to unattended stimuli was high, irrespective of the total number of attended stimuli. Findings suggest children show efficient attentional guidance by color in visual search but differences in contextual cueing.

  2. Semantic contextual cuing and visual attention.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Annabelle; Didierjean, André; Marmèche, Evelyne

    2009-02-01

    Since M. M. Chun and Y. Jiang's (1998) original study, a large body of research based on the contextual cuing paradigm has shown that the visuocognitive system is capable of capturing certain regularities in the environment in an implicit way. The present study investigated whether regularities based on the semantic category membership of the context can be learned implicitly and whether that learning depends on attention. The contextual cuing paradigm was used with lexical displays in which the semantic category of the contextual words either did or did not predict the target location. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that implicit contextual cuing effects can be extended to semantic category regularities. Experiments 3 and 4 indicated an implicit contextual cuing effect when the predictive context appeared in an attended color but not when the predictive context appeared in an ignored color. However, when the previously ignored context suddenly became attended, it immediately facilitated performance. In contrast, when the previously attended context suddenly became ignored, no benefit was observed. Results suggest that the expression of implicit semantic knowledge depends on attention but that latent learning can nevertheless take place outside the attentional field.

  3. Programming a massively parallel, computation universal system: Static behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapedes, Alan; Farber, Robert

    1986-08-01

    Massively parallel systems are presently the focus of intense interest for a variety of reasons. A key problem is how to control, or ``program'' these systems. In previous work by the authors, the ``optimum finding'' properties of Hopfield neural nets were applied to the nets themselves to create a ``neural compiler.'' This was done in such a way that the problem of programming the attractors of one neural net (called the Slave net) was expressed as an optimization problem that was in turn solved by a second neural net (the Master net). The procedure is effective and efficient. In this series of papers we extend that approach to programming nets that contain interneurons (sometimes called ``hidden neurons''), and thus we deal with nets capable of universal computation. Our work is closely related to recent work of Rummelhart et al. (also Parker, and LeChun), which may be viewed as a special case of this formalism and therefore of ``computing with attractors.'' In later papers in this series, we present the theory for programming time dependent behavior, and consider practical implementations. One may expect numerous applications in view of the computation universality of these networks.

  4. Pressure-induced Polarization Reversal in Z-type Hexaferrite Single Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Byung-Gu; Chun, Sae Hwan; Kim, Kee Hoon

    2012-02-01

    Multiferroic materials with a gigantic magnetoelectric (ME) coupling at room temperature have been searched for applications to novel devices. Recently, large direct and converse ME effects were realized at room temperature in the so-called Z-type hexaferrite (Ba,Sr)3Co2Fe24O41 single crystals [1,2]. To obtain a new control parameter for realizing a sensitive ME tuning, we studied ME properties of the crystals under uniaxial pressure. Upon applying a tiny uniaxial pressure of about 0.6 GPa, magnetic field-driven electric polarization reversal and anomaly in a M-H loop start to appear at 10 K and gradually disappear at higher temperature above 130 K. By comparing those results with longitudinal magnetostriction at ambient pressure, we propose the pressure-dependent variations of transverse conical spin configuration as well as its domain structure under small magnetic field bias, and point out the possibility of having two different physical origins of the ME coupling in this system. [1] Y. Kitagawa et al., Nat. Mater. 9, 797 (2010) [2] S. H. Chun et al., submitted.

  5. A hyperspectral index sensitive to subtle changes in the canopy chlorophyll content under arsenic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuqing; Liu, Xiangnan; Liu, Meiling; Wang, Cuicui; Xia, Xiaopeng

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic stress induces in subtle changes in the canopy chlorophyll content (CCC). Therefore, the establishment of a spectral index that is sensitive to subtle changes in the CCC is important for monitoring crop arsenic contamination in large areas by remote sensing. Experimental sites with three contamination levels were selected and were located in Chang Chun City, Jilin City, Jilin Province, China. Arsenic stress can induce small changes in the CCC, reflecting in the crop spectrum. This study created a new index to monitor the CCC. Then, the results from the index were compared with these from other indices and the random forest model, respectively. The final purpose of this study is to find an optimal index, which is sensitive to small changes in the CCC under arsenic stress for monitoring regional CCC in rice. The results indicate that the distribution of the CCC is aligned with the distribution of the arsenic stress level and that NVI (R640, R732, and R752) is the best index for monitoring CCC. The correlation coefficient R2 between the predicated values using NVI and the measured values of canopy chlorophyll content is 0.898, which performs better than the random forest model and other indices.

  6. Molecular-Level Thermodynamic Switch Controls Chemical Equilibrium in Sequence-Specific Hydrophobic Interaction of 35 Dipeptide Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Paul W.

    2003-01-01

    Applying the Planck-Benzinger methodology, the sequence-specific hydrophobic interactions of 35 dipeptide pairs were examined over a temperature range of 273–333 K, based on data reported by Nemethy and Scheraga in 1962. The hydrophobic interaction in these sequence-specific dipeptide pairs is highly similar in its thermodynamic behavior to that of other biological systems. The results imply that the negative Gibbs free energy change minimum at a well-defined stable temperature, 〈Ts〉, where the bound unavailable energy, TΔSo = 0, has its origin in the sequence-specific hydrophobic interactions, are highly dependent on details of molecular structure. Each case confirms the existence of a thermodynamic molecular switch wherein a change of sign in ΔCpo(T)reaction (change in specific heat capacity of reaction at constant pressure) leads to true negative minimum in the Gibbs free energy change of reaction, ΔGo(T)reaction, and hence a maximum in the related equilibrium constant, Keq. Indeed, all interacting biological systems examined to date by Chun using the Planck-Benzinger methodology have shown such a thermodynamic switch at the molecular level, suggesting its existence may be universal. PMID:12547816

  7. Influence of ferroelectric polarization on magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardana, A.; Ducharme, S.; Adenwalla, S.

    2010-03-01

    Thin film heterostructures of transition metal ferromagnets (FM) and polymer ferroelectrics (FE) are investigated to look for changes in the magnetic anisotropy of the FM layer that occur on switching the FE polarization (with an ensuing change in the electric field direction).[1] Samples of [Glass/ Pd (50 nm)/Co wedge (0.9-2.6nm)/ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) (53 nm)/Al (30nm)] are deposited via sputtering or evaporation for the metallic layers and via Langmuir-Schaefer deposition for the polymer ferroelectric. [2] Magnetic and FE properties have been characterized using the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) and the pyroelectric effect. Polar and longitudinal MOKE loops are measured across the Co wedge for both positive and negative FE polarization and the difference in the two MOKE loops is ascribed to the changes in the magnetic anisotropy of the FM layer. [3] These changes are most apparent in the region where the Co undergoes a transition from in-plane to out-of-plane anisotropy. This research is supported by the NSF MRSEC through Grant No. DMR- 0820521 1. Chun-Gang Duan et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 122905 (2008) 2. A. V. Bune, et al, Nature (London) 391, 874 (1998) 3. P. F. Carcia, J.Appl. Phys. 63, 5066 (1988)

  8. Burial history, thermal maturity, and oil and gas generation history of petroleum systems in the Wind River Basin Province, central Wyoming: Chapter 6 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Laura N.R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Lewan, Michael D.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of oil and gas generation were modeled for eight key source rock units at nine well locations throughout the Wind River Basin Province. Petroleum source rocks include the Permian Phosphoria Formation, the Cretaceous Mowry Shale, Cody Shale, and Mesaverde, Meeteetse, and Lance Formations, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation, including the Waltman Shale Member. Within the province boundary, the Phosphoria is thin and only locally rich in organic carbon. Phosphoria oil produced from reservoirs in the province is thought to have migrated from the Wyoming and Idaho thrust belt. Locations (wells) selected for burial history reconstructions include three in the deepest parts of the province (Adams OAB-17, Bighorn 1-5, and Coastal Owl Creek); three at intermediate depths (Hells Half Acre, Shell 33X-10, and West Poison Spider); and three at relatively shallow locations (Young Ranch, Amoco Unit 100, and Conoco-Coal Bank). The thermal maturity of source rocks is greatest in the deep northern and central parts of the province and decreases to the south and east toward the basin margins. The results of the modeling indicate that, in the deepest areas, (1) peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred from Late Cretaceous through middle Eocene time, and (2) onset of oil generation from the Waltman Shale Member occurred from late Eocene to early Miocene time. Based on modeling results, gas generation from the cracking of Phosphoria oil reservoired in the Park City Formation reached a peak in the late Paleocene/early Eocene (58 to 55 Ma) only in the deepest parts of the province. The Mowry Shale and Cody Shale (in the eastern half of the basin) contain a mix of Type-II and Type-III kerogens. Oil generation from predominantly Type-II source rocks of these units in the deepest parts of the province reached peak rates during the latest Cretaceous to early Eocene (65 to 55 Ma). Only in these areas of the basin did

  9. Detailed measured sections, cross sections, and paleogeographic reconstructions of the upper cretaceous and lower tertiary nonmarine interval, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: Chapter 10 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed measured sections and regional stratigraphic cross sections are used to reconstruct facies maps and interpret paleogeographic settings for the interval from the base of Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation to top of lower member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. The Mesaverde Formation spans the time during which the Upper Cretaceous seaway retreated eastward out of central Wyoming in Campanian time and the initial stages of the Lewis transgression in earliest Maastrichtian time. This retreat stalled for a considerable period of time during deposition of the lower part of the Mesaverde, creating a thick buildup of marginal marine sandstones and coaly coastal plain deposits across the western part of the basin. The Lewis sea transgressed into the northeast part of Wind River Basin, beginning in early Maastrichtian time during deposition of the Teapot Sandstone Member of the Mesaverde Formation. The Meeteetse Formation, which overlies the Teapot, was deposited in a poorly-drained coastal plain setting southwest of the Lewis seaway. The Lewis seaway, at maximum transgression, covered much of the northeast half of the Wind River Basin area but was clearly deflected around the present site of the Wind River Range, southwest of the basin, providing the first direct evidence of Laramide uplift on that range. Uplift of the Wind River Range continued during deposition of the overlying Maastrichtian Lance Formation. The Granite Mountains south of the basin also became a positive feature during this time. A rapidly subsiding trough during the Maastrichtian time formed near the presentday trough of the Wind River Basin in which more than 6,000 feet of Lance was deposited. The development of this trough appears to have begun before the adjacent Owl Creek Mountains to the north started to rise; however, a muddy facies in the upper part of Lance in the deep subsurface, just to the south, might be interpreted to indicate that the

  10. Timing of oil and gas generation of petroleum systems in the Southwestern Wyoming Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, L.N.R.; Lewan, M.D.; Finn, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of petroleum generation were modeled for eight key source-rock horizons at seven locations throughout the Southwestern Wyoming Province. The horizons are the bases of the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation, the Upper Cretaceous Mowry Shale, Niobrara Formation, Baxter Shale (and equivalents), upper part of the Mesaverde Group, Lewis Shale, Lance Formation, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation. Burial history locations include three in the deepest parts of the province (Adobe Town in the Washakie Basin, Eagles Nest in the Great Divide Basin, and Wagon Wheel in the northern Green River Basin); two at intermediate basin depths (Federal 31-1 and Currant, Creek in the central and southern parts of the Green River Basin, respectively); and two relatively shallow locations (Bear 1 on the southeastern margin of the Sand Wash Basin and Bruff 2 on the Moxa arch). An overall ranking of the burial history locations in order of decreasing thermal maturity is Adobe Town > Eagles Nest > Wagon Wheel > Currant Creek > Federal 31-1 > Bear-1 > Bruff 2. The results of the models indicate that peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous oil- and gas-prone source rocks in the deepest parts of the province occurred from Late Cretaceous through middle Eocene. At the modeled locations, peak oil generation from source rocks of the Phosphoria Formation, which contain type-IIS kerogen, occurred in the Late Cretaceous (80 to 73 million years ago (Ma)). Gas generation from the cracking of Phosphoria oil reached a peak in the late Paleocene (57 Ma) only in the deepest parts of the province. The Mowry Shale, Niobrara Formation, and Baxter Shale (and equivalents) contain type-IIS or a mix of type-II and type-III kerogens. Oil generation from these units, in the deepest parts of the province, reached peak rates during the latest Cretaceous to early Paleocene (66 to 61 Ma). Only at these deepest locations did these units reach peak gas

  11. In Search for Diffuse Hydrothermal Venting at North Pond, Western Flank of the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villinger, H. W.; Becker, K.; Hulme, S.; Kaul, N. E.; Müller, P.; Wheat, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    We present results from temperature measurements made with a ROV temperature lance in sediments deposited on the slopes of abyssal hills and small basins surrounding North Pond. North Pond is a ~8x15 km large sediment basin located on ~7 Ma year old crust west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 23°N. Data were collected with the ROV Jason II during cruise MSM37 on the German RV Maria S. Merian in April 2014. The temperature lance consists of a 60 cm long stainless steel tube (o.d. 12 mm) housing 8 thermistors with a spacing of 80 mm, resulting in an active length of 56 cm. Data are logged with an 8-channel data logger (XR-420-T8, RBR, Ottawa) and transmitted online to the control van of the ROV. Data reduction and temperature gradient calculation is done according to the HFRED algorithm (Villinger & Davis, 1987). 90 sites in total were visited, 88 gave good data for temperature gradient calculation. Calculated gradients are usually of good to very good quality. The gradients vary between less than 20 to more than 1000 mK/m reflecting the very heterogeneous distribution of geothermal heat flow. The expected conductive lithospheric heat flow for North Pond is ~190 mW/m2 (geothermal gradient of ~190 mK/m with a thermal conductivity of 1 W/Km). The highest temperature gradients are measured in places where temperature ~50 cm below the sediment-water boundary exceeds bottom water temperature by ~0.5 K . These high temperature gradients may reflect local hydrothermal circulation within the pillow lavas, however no focused discharge was detected. The analysis of temperature measurements made with the ROV-mounted CTD shows clearly detectable bottom water temperature anomalies. We infer that they are either caused by hydrothermal discharge through the thin sediment cover or through unsedimented pillow basalts nearby. Hydrothermal circulation in a North-Pond-like environment appears to be diffuse in nature, hence very difficult if not impossible to detect and to quantify.

  12. Chapter 4: The Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.C.; Finn, Thomas M.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Roberts, Stephen B.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Cook, Troy; Taylor, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the Wind River Basin Province includes all strata from the base of the Lower Cretaceous Cloverly Formation to the base of the Waltman Shale Member of the Paleocene age Fort Union Formation and, where the Waltman is absent, includes strata as young as the Eocene Wind River Formation. Locally, Cretaceous-sourced gas migrated into strata as old as the Mississippian Madison Limestone, and in these areas the TPS extends stratigraphically downward to include these reservoirs. The extensive vertical migration of gases in highly fractured areas of the Wind River Basin led to the commingling of gases from several Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sources, thus only two petroleum systems are recognized in these rocks, the Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite TPS, the subject of this report, and the Waltman Shale TPS described by Roberts and others (Chapter 5, this CD-ROM). The Cretaceous-lower Tertiary Composite TPS was subdivided into (1) seven continuous gas assessment units (AU): (a) Frontier-Muddy Continuous Gas AU, (b) Cody Sandstone Continuous Gas AU, (c) Mesaverde--Meeteetse Sandstone Gas AU, (d) Lance-Fort Union Sandstone Gas AU, (e) Mesaverde Coalbed Gas AU, (f) Meeteetse Coalbed Gas AU, and (g) Fort Union Coalbed Gas AU; (2) one continuous oil assessement unit--- Cody Fractured Shale Continuous Oil AU; and (3) one conventional assessment Unit--- Cretaceous-Tertiary Conventional Oil and Gas AU. Estimates of undiscovered resources having the potential for additions to reserves were made for all but the Cody Fractured Shale Continuous Oil AU, which is considered hypothetical and was not quantitively assessed. The mean estimate of the total oil is 41.99 million barrels, mean estimate of gas is 2.39 trillion cubic feet, and mean estimate of natural gas liquids is 20.55 million barrels. For gas, 480.66 billion cubic feet (BCFG) is estimated for the Frontier-Muddy Continuous Gas AU, 115.34 BCFG for

  13. In situ measurement of thermal diffusivity in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feseker, Tomas; Treude, Tina; Krastel, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    The temperature of marine sediments depends on the interplay between heat flow from below and bottom water temperature above. The heat flow is controlled by the regional geological history and stable over long periods of time, whereas the bottom water temperature is subject to both seasonal and long-term climatic changes. The thermal inertia of the sediment determines how rapidly and to what depth temperature changes propagate from the bottom water into the seabed. The influence of seasonal changes is usually limited to shallow depths, while long-term trends may also affect deeper sediment layers. The thermal diffusivity of sediment is its ability to conduct thermal energy relative to its ability to store thermal energy. It is a measure of thermal inertia. While the thermal conductivity can be measured using regular heat flow probes, it is difficult to measure the diffusivity in situ. Hence, empirical relationships that link conductivity to diffusivity are widely used to characterize the thermal inertia of sediments. Here, we present a new method for measuring the thermal diffusivity of marine sediments in situ, which is based on monitoring the changes in sediment temperature profiles over short periods of time. We report on a successful measurement from 400 m water depth on the western Svalbard margin, where we deployed a temperature probe by submersible. The "T-Stick" consists of a lance with 8 temperature sensors distributed equally over a length of 0.6 m and a data logger, which is attached to the upper part of the lance. Temperature profiles were recorded at a sampling interval of 10 seconds for a period of 10 days. The observations show that variations in the temperature profile were driven by changes in bottom water temperature. Inverse modeling of the recorded temperature profiles allowed us to determine the thermal diffusivity of the sediment. The new method will help to better characterize the heat exchange across the sediment-water interface and

  14. In-situ geophysical measurements in marine sediments: Applications in seafloor acoustics and paleoceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgas, Thomas Joerg

    Acoustic in-situ sound speeds and attenuation were measured on the Eel River shelf, CA, with the Acoustic Lance between 5 and 15 kHz to 2.0 meters below seafloor (mbsf). A comparison with laboratory ultrasonic geoacoustic data obtained at 400 kHz on cored sediments showed faster in-situ and ultrasonic sound speeds in coarse-grained deposits in water depths to 60 m than in fine-grained deposits below that contour line. Ultrasonic attenuation was often greater than in-situ values and remained almost constant below 0.4 mbsf in these heterogeneous deposits. In-situ attenuation decreased with depth. These observations partly agree with results from other field studies, and with theoretical models that incorporate intergranular friction and dispersion from viscosity as main controls on acoustic wave propagation in marine sediments. Deviations among in-situ and laboratory acoustic data from the Eel Margin with theoretical studies were linked to scattering effects. Acoustic Lance was also deployed in homogeneous, fine-grained sediments on the inner shelf of SE Korea, where free gas was identified in late-September, but not in mid-September 1999. Free gas was evidenced by an abrupt decrease of in-situ sound speed and by characteristic changes in acoustic waveforms. These results suggest the presence of a gassy sediment layer as shallow as 2 mbsf along the 70 m bathymetry line, and was attributed to a variable abundance of free gas on short-term and/or small-regional scales on the SE Korea shelf. Bulk density variations in marine sediments obtained along the Walvis Ridge/Basin, SW Africa, at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1081 to 1084 were spectral-analyzed to compute high-resolution sedimentation rates (SRs) in both the time- and age domains by correctly identifying Milankovitch cycles (MCs). SRs for the ODP sites yielded age-depth models that often correlate positively with biostratigraphic data and with organic mass accumulation rates (MAR Corg), a proxy for

  15. Role of Assay Type in Determining Free 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Diverse Populations

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Carrie M.; Jones, Kerry S.; Chun, Rene F.; Jacobs, Jon; Wang, Ying; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S.; Swanson, Christine M.; Lee, Christine G.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Pauwels, Steven; Prentice, Ann; Smith, Richard D.; Shi, Tujin; Gao, Yuqian; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Lapidus, Jodi; Cauley, Jane A.; Bouillon, Roger; Schoenmakers, Inez; Orwoll, Eric S.

    2016-04-28

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is the most frequently used marker of vitamin D status. Low 25OHD is associated with bone loss, fractures {Cauley, 2010 #1516;Ensrud, 2009 #1517}, and other adverse health outcomes {Theodoratou, 2014 #1518}. Most extra renal tissues only have access to free 25OHD, and free 25OHD concentration is thus a plausible biomarker of 25OHD availability and function {Johnsen, 2014 #1443;Chun, 2014 #1343}. Stronger associations with free or bioavailable 25OHD than with total 25OHD were reported for serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) {Bhan, 2012 #1124} and bone mineral density (BMD) {Powe, 2011 #1129}. These findings have led to the suggestion that free or bioavailable 25OHD may provide a more clinically relevant measure of tissue 25OHD availability and vitamin D status {Powe, 2013 #1369; Holick NEJM 2013 editorial}. The US Preventive Services Task Force (LeFevre 2015) recently pointed to the gap in research regarding bioavailable and free 25OHD and noted the possibility that these may be better markers of tissue 25OHD availability. Free 25OHD is conventionally calculated from the concentrations of total 25OHD, vitamin D binding protein (DBP) and albumin, with or without a factor accounting for DBP genotype-specific binding affinities {Bouillon, 1981 #1207;Chun, 2012 #1143; Powe, 2011 #1129;Johnsen, 2014 #1443}. DBP—or Group specific component (GC) {Hirschfeld, 1959 #1468}—polymorphisms (rs4588 and rs7041) give rise to three major polymorphic isoforms of DBP, GC-1F, GC-1S and GC-2, the frequencies of which differ globally, with GC-1F alleles more common in populations of African descent {Kambou, 1986 #1122}. Although DBP is a primary component of free and bioavailable 25OHD calculations, substantial variation in DBP between assays has been noted (Powe suggest to cite here previous publications as in previous version of this Ms). Using DBP measured by a monoclonal antibody Powe et al. {Powe, 2013 #1369} concluded that calculated free

  16. NASA Multidimensional Stirling Convertor Code Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy C.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2004-01-01

    A high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for use on potential NASA Space Science missions is being developed by the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company, and the NASA Glenn Research Center. These missions may include providing spacecraft onboard electric power for deep space missions or power for unmanned Mars rovers. Glenn is also developing advanced technology for Stirling convertors, aimed at substantially improving the specific power and efficiency of the convertor and the overall power system. Performance and mass improvement goals have been established for second- and third-generation Stirling radioisotope power systems. Multiple efforts are underway to achieve these goals, both in house at Glenn and under various grants and contracts. These efforts include the development of a multidimensional Stirling computational fluid dynamics code, high-temperature materials, advanced controllers, an end-to-end system dynamics model, low-vibration techniques, advanced regenerators, and a lightweight convertor. Under a NASA grant, Cleveland State University (CSU) and its subcontractors, the University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates, have developed a twodimensional computer simulation of a CSUmod Stirling convertor. The CFD-ACE commercial software developed by CFD Research Corp. of Huntsville, Alabama, is being used. The CSUmod is a scaled version of the Stirling Technology Demonstrator Convertor (TDC), which was designed and fabricated by the Stirling Technology Company and is being tested by NASA. The schematic illustrates the structure of this model. Modeled are the fluid-flow and heat-transfer phenomena that occur in the expansion space, the heater, the regenerator, the cooler, the compression space, the surrounding walls, and the moving piston and displacer. In addition, the overall heat transfer, the indicated power, and the efficiency can be calculated. The CSUmod model is being converted to a two

  17. Flow and Transport in Highly Heterogeneous Porous Formations: Numerical Experiments Performed Using the Analytic Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankovic, I.

    2002-05-01

    Flow and transport in porous formations are analyzed using numerical simulations. Hydraulic conductivity is treated as a spatial random function characterized by a probability density function and a two-point covariance function. Simulations are performed for a multi-indicator conductivity structure developed by Gedeon Dagan (personal communication). This conductivity structure contains inhomogeneities (inclusions) of elliptical and ellipsoidal geometry that are embedded in a homogeneous background. By varying the distribution of sizes and conductivities of inclusions, any probability density function and two-point covariance may be reproduced. The multi-indicator structure is selected since it yields simple approximate transport solutions (Aldo Fiori, personal communication) and accurate numerical solutions (based on the Analytic Element Method). The dispersion is examined for two conceptual models. Both models are based on the multi-indicator conductivity structure. The first model is designed to examine dispersion in aquifers with continuously varying conductivity. The inclusions in this model cover as much area/volume of the porous formation as possible. The second model is designed for aquifers that contain clay/sand/gravel lenses embedded in otherwise homogeneous background. The dispersion in both aquifer types is simulated numerically. Simulation results are compared to those obtained using simple approximate solutions. In order to infer transport statistics that are representative of an infinite domain using the numerical experiments, the inclusions are placed in a domain that was shaped as a large ellipse (2D) and a large spheroid (3D) that were submerged in an unbounded homogeneous medium. On a large scale, the large body of inclusions behaves like a single large inhomogeneity. The analytic solution for a uniform flow past the single inhomogeneity of such geometry yields uniform velocity inside the domain. The velocity differs from that at infinity and

  18. Energy transfer ultraviolet photodetector with 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative-metal complexes as acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuang-Hong; Li, Wen-Lian; Chen, Zhi; Li, Shi-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Wei, Xiong-Bang

    2015-02-01

    We choose 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative-metal complexes (Beq, Mgq, and Znq) as the acceptors (A) and 4,4',4”-tri-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylaine (m-MTDATA) as the donor (D) respectively to study the existing energy transfer process in the organic ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD), which has an important influence on the sensitivity of PDs. The energy transfer process from D to A without exciplex formation is discussed, differing from the working mechanism of previous PDs with Gaq [Zisheng Su, Wenlian Li, Bei Chu, Tianle Li, Jianzhuo Zhu, Guang Zhang, Fei Yan, Xiao Li, Yiren Chen and Chun-Sing Lee 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 103309)] and REq [J. B. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, L. L. Chen, G. Zhang, Z. S. Su, Y. R. Chen, D. F. Yang, J. Z. Zhu, S. H. Wu, F. Yan, H. H. Liu, C. S. Lee 2010 Org. Electron. 11 1301] used as an A material. Under 365-nm UV irradiation with an intensity of 1.2 mW/cm2, the m-MTDATA:Beq blend device with a weight ratio of 1:1 shows a response of 192 mA/W with a detectivity of 6.5× 1011 Jones, which exceeds those of PDs based on Mgq (146 mA/W) and Znq (182 mA/W) due to better energy level alignment between m-MTDATA/Beq and lower radiative decay. More photophysics processes of the PDs involved are discussed in detail. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61371046, 61405026, 61474016, and 61421002) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M552330).

  19. The prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP2, regulates survivin expression via an EGFR/STAT3 pathway in UVB-exposed mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kyung-Soo; Langenbach, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We previously reported that cycloogenase (COX)-2-generated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) had anti-apoptotic effects in UVB-exposed mouse skin that involved EP2-mediated signaling (Chun et al., Cancer Res. 2007; 67: 2015). Because survivin is a regulator of cell survival, the possible involvement of COX-2 and EP2 in survivin expression following UVB exposure of mouse skin was investigated. In wild type mice, UVB exposure time-dependently increased the levels of survivin and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), a transcription factor that regulates survivin expression; and COX-2- or EP2-deficiency significantly reduced their induction. Topical application of the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, also reduced UVB-induced survivin levels. To further investigate the roles of PGE2 and EP2 in the regulation of survivin, indomethacin was used to inhibit UVB-induced endogenous PG production. UVB-induced survivin levels were reduced by indomethacin, and PGE2 and the EP2 agonist, butaprost, partially restored survivin levels. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a downstream effector of EP2 and EGFR inhibition (AG1478) significantly reduced UVB activation of STAT3 and survivin levels. UVB-induced epidermal apoptosis in COX-2-/- mice was reduced by butaprost and EGFR inhibition blocked butaprost’s protective effects. Furthermore, butaprost in the absence of UVB exposure time-dependently increased p-EGFR, p-STAT3, and survivin levels in naïve mouse skin, whereas the EP4 agonist, PGE1 alcohol, did not significantly increase p-STAT3 or survivin levels. These data suggest that COX-2-generated PGE2 regulates survivin expression in mouse skin, in part, via an EP2-mediated EGFR/STAT3 pathway. Therefore, targeting the EP2/survivin pathway may provide a strategy for the chemoprevention/chemotherapy of skin cancer.

  20. How should doctors approach patients? A Confucian reflection on personhood

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The modern doctor-patient relationship displays a patient-centred, mutual-participation characteristic rather than the former active-passive or guidance-cooperation models in terms of medical decision making. Respecting the wishes of patients, amounting to more than mere concern for their welfare, has become the feature central to certain modern bioethics theories. A group of ethical principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice has been proposed by bioethicists and widely adopted by many medical societies as an ethical guide to how doctors, in their daily practice, should treat their patients. However, seeing patients as persons who are rational, self-conscious beings capable of valuing their own lives, and who are consequently entitled to the liberty and rights to choose for themselves, is in general the backbone of Western bioethical principles. Since Confucian philosophy has long been a representative of the East-Asia cultural tradition and Confucian bioethics has recently been developed as a theory of applied ethics, examining Confucius's idea of "persons" may shed some light on the current bioethical debates. Confucius's concept of persons, which is best interpreted via his theories of "chun-tze", (the morally ideal person) encapsulating a two-dimensional approach, (the "autonomous person" and the "relational person"), provides a more comprehensive model regarding what a person is and how he/she should be treated. This two-dimensional approach sees a person not only as a rational, autonomous agent but also as a relational, altruistic identity whose self actualisation involves incessant participating in and promoting of the welfare of his fellow persons. Hence this may balance the current bioethical trend whereby "respect for autonomy" often triumphs. Key Words: Personhood • autonomy • Confucian ethics • physician-patient relationship • principle-oriented bioethics PMID:11233378

  1. Hubble Reveals Structure Of Supernova 1987a Explosion Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Hubble Space Telescope picture shows Supernova 1987A and its neighborhood. The series of four panels shows the evolution of the SN 1987A debris from February 1994 to February 1996. Material from the stellar interior was ejected into space during the supernova explosion in February 1987. The explosion debris is expanding at nearly 6 million miles per hour. Ten years now after the explosion, this cosmic fireball is large enough --- about one-sixth of a light-year in diameter --- to be resolved from the Earth's orbit with the Hubble Space Telescope. The debris is resolved into two opposing blobs and is dim in the center. The apparent direction of ejection is the same as the short axis of the bright inner ring that surrounds the supernova. This suggests that the explosion is directed out of the plane of the ring. The ring is probably composed of materials lost by the pre-supernova star in the last stages of its evolution. Supernova 1987A is located 167,000 light-years away from Earth in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The telescope captured the images with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The central image of the supernova and the ring system was taken in light emitted by nitrogen gas (658 nanometers) on Sept. 24, 1994. The series of debris images were taken using a visible light filter of wavelength around 550 nanometers taken (from left to right) on Feb. 4, 1994, Sept. 24, 1994, March 5, 1995, and Feb. 6, 1996. Credit: Chun Shing Jason Pun (NASA/GSFC), Robert P. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), and NASA

  2. Estimation of Stand Height and Forest Volume Using High Resolution Stereo Photography and Forest Type Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. M.

    2016-06-01

    Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha) using normalized digital surface model (nDSM) from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution) and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM) was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching). Then, digital terrain model (DTM) was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.). Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (%) and stand height (m). First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri's ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service's FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s-present) will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  3. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium 'AA. Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Machida, Ken-ichi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2009-02-01

    Rare-earth related materials have been widely used in various advanced technologies and devices because of their novel functions such as excellent magnetic and optical properties. For the fabrication of the next generation of new rare-earth related materials with novel functions, it is necessary to design a wide range of materials from nano-scale to macro-scale and to develop novel techniques realizing such designs. Indeed, there has been great progress in the preparation, processing and characterization of new rare-earth materials covering magnetic alloys, inorganic and organic fluorescence materials. In the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008) (9-13 December, Nagoya, Japan), the symposium on 'AA: Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions' was organized to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in fabrication processing and applications of rare-earth related materials with various scaled and unique morphologies. Many papers were presented in the symposium, and some papers were accepted to be published in this proceeding after review. Editors: Takayuki KOMATSU (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Tsugio SATO (Tohoku University, Japan) Ken-ichi MACHIDA (Osaka University, Japan) Hirotoshi FUKUNAGA (Nagasaki University, Japan) Jiro YAMASAKI (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan) Honjie ZHANG (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) Chun Hua YAN (Peking University, China) Jianrong QIU (Zhejiang University, China) Jong HEO (Pohang University, Korea) Setsuhisa TANABE (Kyoto University, Japan) Hiroshi TATEWAKI (Nagoya City University, Japan) Tomokatsu HAYAKAWA (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) Yasufumi FUJIWARA (Osaka University, Japan)

  4. The Presence of a Functionally Tripartite Through-Gut in Ctenophora Has Implications for Metazoan Character Trait Evolution.

    PubMed

    Presnell, Jason S; Vandepas, Lauren E; Warren, Kaitlyn J; Swalla, Billie J; Amemiya, Chris T; Browne, William E

    2016-10-24

    The current paradigm of gut evolution assumes that non-bilaterian metazoan lineages either lack a gut (Porifera and Placozoa) or have a sac-like gut (Ctenophora and Cnidaria) and that a through-gut originated within Bilateria [1-8]. An important group for understanding early metazoan evolution is Ctenophora (comb jellies), which diverged very early from the animal stem lineage [9-13]. The perception that ctenophores possess a sac-like blind gut with only one major opening remains a commonly held misconception [4, 5, 7, 14, 15]. Despite descriptions of the ctenophore digestive system dating to Agassiz [16] that identify two openings of the digestive system opposite of the mouth-called "excretory pores" by Chun [17], referred to as an "anus" by Main [18], and coined "anal pores" by Hyman [19]-contradictory reports, particularly prominent in recent literature, posit that waste products are primarily expelled via the mouth [4, 5, 7, 14, 19-23]. Here we demonstrate that ctenophores possess a unidirectional, functionally tripartite through-gut and provide an updated interpretation for the evolution of the metazoan through-gut. Our results resolve lingering questions regarding the functional anatomy of the ctenophore gut and long-standing misconceptions about waste removal in ctenophores. Moreover, our results present an intriguing evolutionary quandary that stands in stark contrast to the current paradigm of gut evolution: either (1) the through-gut has its origins very early in the metazoan stem lineage or (2) the ctenophore lineage has converged on an arrangement of organs functionally similar to the bilaterian through-gut.

  5. Expression of apoplast-targeted plant defensin MtDef4.2 confers resistance to leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina but does not affect mycorrhizal symbiosis in transgenic wheat.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Fellers, John; Adholeya, Alok; Velivelli, Siva L S; El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Nersesian, Natalya; Clemente, Thomas; Shah, Dilip

    2017-02-01

    Rust fungi of the order Pucciniales are destructive pathogens of wheat worldwide. Leaf rust caused by the obligate, biotrophic basidiomycete fungus Puccinia triticina (Pt) is an economically important disease capable of causing up to 50 % yield losses. Historically, resistant wheat cultivars have been used to control leaf rust, but genetic resistance is ephemeral and breaks down with the emergence of new virulent Pt races. There is a need to develop alternative measures for control of leaf rust in wheat. Development of transgenic wheat expressing an antifungal defensin offers a promising approach to complement the endogenous resistance genes within the wheat germplasm for durable resistance to Pt. To that end, two different wheat genotypes, Bobwhite and Xin Chun 9 were transformed with a chimeric gene encoding an apoplast-targeted antifungal plant defensin MtDEF4.2 from Medicago truncatula. Transgenic lines from four independent events were further characterized. Homozygous transgenic wheat lines expressing MtDEF4.2 displayed resistance to Pt race MCPSS relative to the non-transgenic controls in growth chamber bioassays. Histopathological analysis suggested the presence of both pre- and posthaustorial resistance to leaf rust in these transgenic lines. MtDEF4.2 did not, however, affect the root colonization of a beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. This study demonstrates that the expression of apoplast-targeted plant defensin MtDEF4.2 can provide substantial resistance to an economically important leaf rust disease in transgenic wheat without negatively impacting its symbiotic relationship with the beneficial mycorrhizal fungus.

  6. Chemical Abundances in NGC 5053: A Very Metal Poor and Dynamically Complex Globular Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boberg, Owen; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    NGC 5053 provides a rich environment to test our understanding of the complex evolution of globular clusters (GCs). Recent studies have found that this cluster has interesting morphological features beyond the spherical distribution expected from GCs. These features include a ˜6° tidal stream (Lauchner et al. 2006), and a possible, but still debated, bridge-like structure between it and its nearby neighbor NGC 5024 (Chun et al. 2010). These features suggest that the evolution of these clusters has not only been greatly affected by their gravitational interaction with the Galaxy, but possibly each other. Additionally, simulations have shown that NGC 5053 could be a likely candidate to belong to the Sgr dSph stream (Law & Majewski 2010). Using the WIYN-Hydra multi-object spectrograph, we have collected high quality (S/N ˜75-90), medium-resolution spectra for red giant branch (RGB) stars in NGC 5053. Using these spectra we have measured the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances in the cluster. We measure an average cluster [Fe/H] abundance of -2.46 with a standard deviation of 0.05 dex, making NGC 5053 one of the most metal poor GCs in the Milky Way. The [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [Ba/Fe] we measure are consistent with the abundances of Milky Way halo stars at a similar metallicity, with high alpha values and slightly depleted [Ba/Fe]. The Na and O abundances show the Na-O anti-correlation found in most GCs. From our abundance analysis it appears that NGC 5053 is at least chemically similar to other GCs found in the Milky Way. This does not, however, rule out NGC 5053 being a member of the Sgr dSph stream.

  7. Problem of mixtures with known compositions and IRONFLEA method for multivariate curve resolution.

    PubMed

    Zyrianov, Yegor

    2007-10-17

    A special case of gray spectral data systems [(a) F.-T. Chau, Y.-Z. Liang, J. Gao, X.-G. Shao (Eds.), Chemometrics: From Basics to Wavelet Transform, Chemical Analysis Series, vol. 164, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004; (b) Y.Z. Liang, O.M. Kvalheim, R. Manne, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 18 (1993) 235-250] is discussed here and the least-squares method for the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) named IRONFLEA is proposed. The system under consideration is the bilinear spectral data of the samples with known chemical compositions and unknown concentration matrix. If the spectra of samples (A(i)) and (Q+A(i)) (i = 1, ..., n, n > or = 2) are available, then the spectrum and the concentrations of Q could be found and the solution is unique. A practical chemical model for this problem could be mixtures, polymers, peptides, oligosaccharides, or supramolecular formations made of a limited number of monomeric components. In the cases of polymeric or oligomeric samples the spectral contributions and the concentrations of the particular monomeric units are extracted. The method is capable of extracting chemically meaningful spectra of components. The method is implemented in SAS IML code and tested for the deconvolution of spectra of polymers made of styrene derivatives with known monomeric compositions [(a) H. Fenniri, L. Ding, A.E. Ribbe, Y. Zyrianov, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123 (2001) 8151-8152; (b) H. Fenniri, S. Chun, L. Ding, Y. Zyrianov, K. Hallenga, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125 (2003) 10546-10560]. The method performs calculations fast enough to allow the incorporation of leave-one-out outlier removal procedure.

  8. Sustained diurnal photosynthetic depression in uppermost-canopy leaves of four dipterocarp species in the rainy and dry seasons: does photorespiration play a role in photoprotection?

    PubMed

    Zhang, J-L; Meng, L-Z; Cao, K-F

    2009-02-01

    Diurnal and seasonal changes in gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of the uppermost-canopy leaves of four evergreen dipterocarp species were measured on clear days. The trees, that were growing in a plantation stand in southern Yunnan, China, had canopy heights ranging from 17 to 22 m. In the rainy season, Dipterocarpus retusus Bl. had higher photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) than Hopea hainanensis Merr. et Chun, Parashorea chinensis Wang Hsie and Vatica xishuangbannaensis G.D. Tao et J.H. Zhang (17.7 versus 13.9, 11.8 and 7.7 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). In the dry season, A(max) in all species decreased by 52-64%, apparent quantum yield and dark respiration rate decreased in three species, and light saturation point decreased in two species. During the diurnal courses, all species exhibited sustained photosynthetic depression from midmorning onward in both seasons. The trees were able to regulate light energy allocation dynamically between photochemistry and heat dissipation during the day, with reduced actual photochemistry and increased heat dissipation in the dry season. Photorespiration played an important role in photoprotection in all species in both seasons, as indicated by a continuous increase in photorespiration rate in the morning toward midday and a high proportion of electron flow (about 30-65% of total electron flow) allocated to oxygenation for most of the day. None of the species suffered irreversible photoinhibition, even in the dry season. The sustained photosynthetic depression in the uppermost-canopy leaves of these species could be a protective response to prevent excessive water loss and consequent catastrophic leaf hydraulic dysfunction.

  9. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF SUSTAINED VECTOR SURVEILLANCE FOLLOWING COMMUNITY-WIDE INSECTICIDE APPLICATION ON TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI INFECTION OF DOGS AND CATS IN RURAL NORTHWESTERN ARGENTINA

    PubMed Central

    CARDINAL, MARTA V.; CASTAÑERA, MÓNICA B.; LAURICELLA, MARTA A.; CECERE, MARÍA C.; CEBALLOS, LEONARDO A.; VAZQUEZ-PROKOPEC, GONZALO M.; KITRON, URIEL; GÜRTLER, RICARDO E.

    2007-01-01

    Domestic dogs were used as natural sentinels to assess prospectively the long-term impact of selective, community-based spraying with pyrethroid insecticides after community-wide spraying on transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in rural villages under surveillance between 1992 and 2002. In 2000 and 2002 light infestations by Triatoma infestans were recorded, and 523 dogs and cats were examined serologically or by xenodiagnosis. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection in dogs decreased from 65% at baseline to 8.9% and 4.7% at 7.5 and 10 years after sustained vector surveil-lance, respectively. The average annual force of infection dropped 260-fold from 72.7 per 100 dog-years at baseline to <0.3% in 2002, as determined prospectively and retrospectively from the age-prevalence curve of native dogs born during surveillance. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that prevalent cases in dogs in 2000 and 2002 were associated positively and significantly with the peak number of T. infestans caught in domestic areas at the dog's compound during its lifetime. The sustained decline in T. cruzi infections in dogs and cats is the result of selective, community-based insecticide spraying that kept the abundance of infected T. infestans at marginal levels, fast host population turnover, and low immigration rates from areas with active transmission. PMID:17038707

  10. Spectroscopy-based photonic instrumentation for the manufacturing industry: contactless measurements of distances, temperatures, and chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noharet, B.; Zetterlund, E.; Tarasenko, O.; Lindblom, M.; Gurell, J.; Bengtson, A.; Lundin, P.

    2014-03-01

    The steady progress in photonic components in terms of cost-to-performance ratio, maturity and robustness opens new avenues for the commercial deployment of photonic sensor systems in a wide range of industrial applications. Advanced sensing can be used to optimize complex processes and thereby enable significant savings in energy consumption. Three cases of robust photonic instrumentation for process optimization and quality control in manufacturing industries are presented: improved metal recycling with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, quality control in precision machining by white-light interferometry with optical fiber probes embedded in machining tools, and process optimization in steel foundries by stand-off temperature measurements in blast furnaces with optical fiber lances and spectral analysis techniques. Each of these methods utilizes a low-cost spectrometer, and requires dedicated calibration and signal processing methods to guarantee robust operation in industrial environments with varying conditions. Experimental results are presented, including on-line steel alloy analysis with correct classification rates in excess of 95%, distance measurements with axial resolution of +/- 2nm over a 75μm range, and continuous temperature monitoring of molten steel in oxygen blast furnaces with temperature measurement accuracy better than 1%.

  11. State of the Oceans: A Satellite Data Processing System for Visualizing Near Real-Time Imagery on Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, C. K.; Bingham, A. W.; Hall, J. R.; Alarcon, C.; Plesea, L.; Henderson, M. L.; Levoe, S.

    2011-12-01

    The State of the Oceans (SOTO) web tool was developed at NASA's Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as an interactive means for users to visually explore and assess ocean-based geophysical parameters extracted from the latest archived data products. The SOTO system consists of four extensible modules, a data polling tool, a preparation and imaging package, image server software, and the graphical user interface. Together, these components support multi-resolution visualization of swath (Level 2) and gridded Level 3/4) data products as either raster- or vector- based KML layers on Google Earth. These layers are automatically updated periodically throughout the day. Current parameters available include sea surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration, ocean winds, sea surface height anomaly, and sea surface temperature anomaly. SOTO also supports mash-ups, allowing KML feeds from other sources to be overlaid directly onto Google Earth such as hurricane tracks and buoy data. A version of the SOTO software has also been installed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to support the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE). The State of the Earth (SOTE) has similar functionality to SOTO but supports different data sets, among them the MODIS 250m data product.

  12. Air Assisted Sprayer for Improved Spray Penetration in Greenhouse Floriculture Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandkar, Sachin V.; Mathur, Shailendra M.; Dhande, Kishor G.; Jadhav, Pravin P.; Gholap, Babasaheb S.

    2015-03-01

    Air assisted spraying is considered as one of the better pesticide application technique. Incorporation of air assistance in the spraying system improves the deposition uniformity in the entire plant canopy structure and spray deposition on the lower part of the plant leaves. In the view of this, an air assisted sleeve boom sprayer was developed for greenhouse floricultural crops. The developed sprayer consisted of air delivery system and spray delivery system. Air delivery system consisted of blower, lance assembly and a tapered air sleeve. Spray delivery system consisted of a pesticide tank, horizontal triplex pump, pressure hose and nozzles. Blower and pump were operated by 5 HP electric motor. Air sleeve and nozzles were supported on horizontal boom. The whole assembly of the sprayer was mounted on the trolley. The developed sprayer was tested in the laboratory to study the effect of different air velocity (9, 12, 16 and 20 m/s) and pump discharge (2.5, 4.5, 7 and 9 L/min) levels on droplet size (VMD), droplet density and uniformity coefficient at six different positions of the artificial plant canopy. Test results revealed that an increase in air velocity resulted in better spray penetration and uniform spray coverage. The optimum results of droplet size (100-150 µm), droplet density (25-35 droplets per cm2) and uniformity coefficient at all plant positions were observed for air velocity of 20 m/s and pump discharge of 2.5 L/min.

  13. Missile launch detection electric field perturbation experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.J.; Rynne, T.M.

    1993-04-28

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and SARA Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. LLNL and SARA deployed sensors for monitoring of basic phenomena. An attempt was made to measure perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of a Lance missile. The occurrence of the perturbation is expected from the conducting body of the missile and the exhaust plume. A set of voltage-probe antennas were used to monitor the local electric field perturbation from the launch at ranges of approximately 1 km. Examination of the data acquired during the launch period failed to show identifiable correlation of the field variations with the launch event. Three reasons are ascribed to this lack of event data: (1) The electric field potential variations have a limited spatial correlation length - the fields measured in one region have little correlation to measurements made at distances of a kilometer away. The potential variations are related to localized atmospheric disturbances and are generally unpredictable. A value for the spatial correlation length is also not known. (2) The conductivity of the plume and missile body are not adequate to produce a field perturbation of adequate magnitude. Phenomena related to the exhaust plume and missile may exist and be outside of the collection range of the equipment employed for these measurements. (3) The presence of 60 Hz power line noise was of sufficient magnitude to irreversibly contaminate measurements.

  14. Behavioral treatment of chronic skin-picking in individuals with developmental disabilities: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Mulloy, Austin; Regester, April; Pierce, Nigel; Kang, Soyeon

    2010-01-01

    Skin-picking is a type of self-injurious behavior involving the pulling, scratching, lancing, digging, or gouging of one's own body. It is associated with social impairment, and increased medical and mental health concerns. While there are several reports showing that skin-picking is common in individuals with developmental disabilities, knowledge about effective treatment approaches is sparse. We therefore reviewed studies involving the treatment of chronic skin-picking in individuals with developmental disabilities. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 16 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participants, (b) functional assessment procedures and results, (c) intervention procedures, (d) results of the intervention, and (e) certainty of evidence. Across the 16 studies, intervention was provided to a total of 19 participants aged 6-42 years. Functional assessment procedures included direct observations, analog functional analyses, and functional assessment interviews. The most commonly identified function was automatic reinforcement. Treatment approaches included combinations of differential reinforcement, providing preferred items and activities stimuli (e.g., toys), wearing protective clothing (e.g., helmets or gloves), response interruption and redirection, punishment, and extinction. Improvements in behavior were reported in all of the reviewed studies. Suggestions for future intervention research are offered.

  15. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Johannes H G M; Supandi, Farahaniza; Gavai, Anand K; de Graaf, Albert A; Binsl, Thomas W; Hettling, Hannes

    2011-11-13

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events. We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We calculated heat transfer by conduction and blood flow inside the body, and heat transfer from the skin by radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, resulting in temperature changes in 25 body compartments. We simulated a mountain time trial to Alpe d'Huez during the Tour de France. To approach the time realized by Lance Armstrong in 2004, very high oxygen uptake must be sustained by the simulated cyclist. Temperature was predicted to reach 39°C in the brain, and 39.7°C in leg muscle. In addition to the macroscopic simulation, we analysed the buffering of bursts of high adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by creatine kinase during cyclical muscle activity at the biochemical pathway level. To investigate the low oxygen to carbohydrate ratio for the brain, which takes up lactate during exercise, we calculated the flux distribution in cerebral energy metabolism. Computational modelling of the human body, describing heat exchange and energy metabolism, makes simulation of endurance sports events feasible.

  16. eMODIS Expedited: Overview of a Near Real Time MODIS Production System for Operational Vegetation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkerson, C.; Meyer, D. J.; Werpy, J.; Evenson, K.; Merritt, M.

    2010-12-01

    The expedited MODIS, or eMODIS production system derives near-real time Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance provided by the Land and Atmosphere Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE). There are currently three regions covered by this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) capability, including the continental U.S., Africa, and the Central America/Caribbean regions. Each of the eMODIS production streams is configured to output its data in map projections, compositing intervals, spatial resolutions, and file formats specific to its region and user community. The challenges of processing 1,000-meter, 500-m, and especially 250-m products by midnight on the last day of a product interval have been met with increasingly effective software and system architecture. An anonymous file transfer protocol (FTP) distribution site (ftp://emodisftp.cr.usgs.gov/eMODIS) allows users direct access to eMODIS NDVI products for operational (near-real time) monitoring of vegetation conditions like drought, crop failure, insect infestation, and other threats, thus supporting subsequent early warning of famine and the targeting of vulnerable populations for insecure food situations.

  17. A new pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchidae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Unwin, David M; Martill, David M; Baidder, Lahssen; Zouhri, Samir

    2010-05-26

    The Kem Kem beds in South Eastern Morocco contain a rich early Upper (or possibly late Lower) Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage. Fragmentary remains, predominantly teeth and jaw tips, represent several kinds of pterosaur although only one species, the ornithocheirid Coloborhynchus moroccensis, has been named. Here, we describe a new azhdarchid pterosaur, Alanqa saharica nov. gen. nov. sp., based on an almost complete well preserved mandibular symphysis from Aferdou N'Chaft. We assign additional fragmentary jaw remains, some of which have been tentatively identified as azhdarchid and pteranodontid, to this new taxon which is distinguished from other azhdarchids by a remarkably straight, elongate, lance-shaped mandibular symphysis that bears a pronounced dorsal eminence near the posterior end of its dorsal (occlusal) surface. Most remains, including the holotype, represent individuals of approximately three to four meters in wingspan, but a fragment of a large cervical vertebra, that probably also belongs to A. saharica, suggests that wingspans of six meters were achieved in this species. The Kem Kem beds have yielded the most diverse pterosaur assemblage yet reported from Africa and provide the first clear evidence for the presence of azhdarchids in Gondwana at the start of the Late Cretaceous. This, the relatively large size achieved by Alanqa, and the additional evidence of variable jaw morphology in azhdarchids provided by this taxon, indicates a longer and more complex history for this clade than previously suspected.

  18. Comparison of the performance between a spray gun and a spray boom in ornamentals.

    PubMed

    Foqué, D; Nuyttens, D

    2011-01-01

    Flemish greenhouse growers predominantly use handheld spray guns and spray lances for their crop protection purposes although these techniques are known for their heavy workload and their high operator exposure risks. Moreover, when these techniques are compared with spray boom equipment, they are often found to be less effective. On the other hand, handheld spraying techniques are less expensive and more flexible to use. Additionally, many Flemish growers are convinced that a high spray volume and spray pressure is needed to assure a good plant protection. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the spray deposition, penetration and uniformity between a manually pulled horizontal spray boom and a spray gun under controlled laboratory conditions. In total, six different spray application techniques were evaluated. In general, the total deposition results were comparable between the spray boom and the spray gun applications but the boom applications resulted in a more uniform spray distribution over the crop. On a plant level, the spray distribution was not uniform for the different techniques with highest deposits on the upper side of the top leaves. Using spray guns at a higher spray pressure did not improve spray penetration and deposition on the bottom side of the leaves. From the different nozzle types, the XR 80 03 gave the best results. Plant density clearly affected crop penetration and deposition on the bottom side of the leaves.

  19. Unique characteristics of adolescent and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia, breast cancer, and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Tricoli, James V; Seibel, Nita L; Blair, Donald G; Albritton, Karen; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon

    2011-04-20

    Each year in the United States, nearly 70 000 individuals between the ages of 15 and 40 years are diagnosed with cancer. Although overall cancer survival rates among pediatric and older adult patients have increased in recent decades, there has been little improvement in survival of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients since 1975 when collected data became adequate to evaluate this issue. In 2006, the AYA Oncology Progress Review Group made recommendations for addressing the needs of this population that were later implemented by the LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance. One of their overriding questions was whether the cancers seen in AYA patients were biologically different than the same cancers in adult and/or pediatric patients. On June 9-10, 2009, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Lance Armstrong Foundation (LAF) convened a workshop in Bethesda, MD, entitled "Unique Characteristics of AYA Cancers: Focus on Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), Breast Cancer and Colon Cancer" that aimed to examine the current state of basic and translational research on these cancers and to discuss the next steps to improve their prognosis and treatment.

  20. Differential allocation in a lekking bird: females lay larger eggs and are more likely to have male chicks when they mate with less related males

    PubMed Central

    Sardell, Rebecca J.; DuVal, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts increased investment in offspring when females mate with high-quality males. Few studies have tested whether investment varies with mate relatedness, despite evidence that non-additive gene action influences mate and offspring genetic quality. We tested whether female lekking lance-tailed manakins (Chiroxiphia lanceolata) adjust offspring sex and egg volume in response to mate attractiveness (annual reproductive success, ARS), heterozygosity and relatedness. Across 968 offspring, the probability of being male decreased with increasing parental relatedness but not father ARS or heterozygosity. This correlation tended to diminish with increasing lay-date. Across 162 offspring, egg volume correlated negatively with parental relatedness and varied with lay-date, but was unrelated to father ARS or heterozygosity. Offspring sex and egg size were unrelated to maternal age. Comparisons of maternal half-siblings in broods with no mortality produced similar results, indicating differential allocation rather than covariation between female quality and relatedness or sex-specific inbreeding depression in survival. As males suffer greater inbreeding depression, overproducing females after mating with related males may reduce fitness costs of inbreeding in a system with no inbreeding avoidance, while biasing the sex of outbred offspring towards males may maximize fitness via increased mating success of outbred sons. PMID:24225457